These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Preclinical Toxicology and Biodistribution Studies of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus 1 Human Acid ?-Glucosidase  

PubMed Central

Abstract A biodistribution and toxicology study was performed to test the acute toxicities of intradiaphragmatic injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) 2/1-human acid alpha-Glucosidase (hGAA) driven by a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (rAAV1-CMV-hGAA) in New Zealand white rabbits and in the rodent Pompe disease model by injecting at the right quadriceps. Studies performed using fluoroscopy and AAV2-GFP demonstrated spread upon intradiaphragmatic injection, and the ability of AAV to infect and express acid ?-glucosidase (GAA) throughout the diaphragm. For the preclinical study, 10 rabbits (5 male, 5 female) were divided into two groups, vehicle control (Lactated Ringer's) and test article (1.5×1012 vector genomes [vg] rAAV1-CMV-hGAA), and euthanized on day 21. After direct visualization, the left hemidiaphragm was injected at three locations. There was up to a 2,500-fold increase in circulating anti-AAV1 antibodies directed to the vector capsids. In addition, up to an 18-fold increase in antibodies against the GAA protein was generated. Injection sites maintained up to 1.0×105 vg/?g genomic DNA (gDNA), while uninjected sites had up to 1.0×104 vg/?g gDNA. Vector DNA was present in blood at 24?hr postinjection at up to 1.0×106 vg/?g gDNA, followed by a decrease to 1.0×103 vg/?g gDNA at euthanization on day 21. Nominal amounts of vector DNA were present in peripheral organs, including the brain, spinal cord, gonads, and skeletal muscle. Upon histopathological examination, fibroplasias of the serosal surface were noted at diaphragm injections sites of both groups. In addition, an increase in mononuclear cell infiltration in the diaphragm and esophagus in vector-dosed animals was found. Elevated creatine phosphokinase levels, an indicator of muscle repair, was observed in all animals postprocedure but persisted in vector-injected rabbits until euthanization. A follow-up study suggested that this was directed against the human transgene expression in a foreign species. Overall, this study demonstrates diffusion of vector throughout the diaphragm after localized injections. PMID:24021025

Erger, Kirsten; Porvasnik, Stacy; Cossette, Travis; Roberts, Cheryl; Combee, Lynn; Islam, Saleem; Kelley, Jeffry; Cloutier, Denise; Clément, Nathalie; Abernathy, Corinne R.; Byrne, Barry J.

2013-01-01

2

In situ mass spectrometry imaging and ex vivo characterization of renal crystalline deposits induced in multiple preclinical drug toxicology studies.  

PubMed

Drug toxicity observed in animal studies during drug development accounts for the discontinuation of many drug candidates, with the kidney being a major site of tissue damage. Extensive investigations are often required to reveal the mechanisms underlying such toxicological events and in the case of crystalline deposits the chemical composition can be problematic to determine. In the present study, we have used mass spectrometry imaging combined with a set of advanced analytical techniques to characterize such crystalline deposits in situ. Two potential microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 inhibitors, with similar chemical structure, were administered to rats over a seven day period. This resulted in kidney damage with marked tubular degeneration/regeneration and crystal deposits within the tissue that was detected by histopathology. Results from direct tissue section analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging were combined with data obtained following manual crystal dissection analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the crystal deposits was successfully identified as a common metabolite, bisulphonamide, of the two drug candidates. In addition, an un-targeted analysis revealed molecular changes in the kidney that were specifically associated with the area of the tissue defined as pathologically damaged. In the presented study, we show the usefulness of combining mass spectrometry imaging with an array of powerful analytical tools to solve complex toxicological problems occurring during drug development. PMID:23110069

Nilsson, Anna; Forngren, Benita; Bjurström, Sivert; Goodwin, Richard J A; Basmaci, Elisa; Gustafsson, Ingela; Annas, Anita; Hellgren, Dennis; Svanhagen, Alexander; Andrén, Per E; Lindberg, Johan

2012-01-01

3

Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology.  

PubMed

In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater world wide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520. PMID:15982689

Finch, John M

2005-09-01

4

Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology  

SciTech Connect

In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520.

Finch, John M. [Charles River Laboratories, Preclinical Services, Edinburgh, EH33 2NE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: john.finch@eur.crl

2005-09-01

5

Preclinical pharmacology and toxicology study of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, a novel dual cancer-specific oncolytic adenovirus.  

PubMed

Clinical studies have demonstrated that conditionally replicating adenovirus is safe. We constructed an oncolytic adenovirus, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin, using a cancer-specific promoter (human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter, hTERTp) and a cancer cell-selective apoptosis-inducing gene (Apoptin). Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin was proven effective both in vitro and in vivo in our previous study. In this study, the preclinical safety profiles of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in animal models were investigated. At doses of 5.0×10(8), 2.5×10(9), and 1.25×10(10) viral particles (VP)/kg, Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin had no adverse effects on mouse behavior, muscle cooperation, sedative effect, digestive system, and nervous systems, or on beagle cardiovascular and respiratory systems at 5.0×10(8), 2.5×10(9), and 1.25×10(10) VP/kg doses. In acute toxicity tests in mice, the maximum tolerated dose>5×10(10) VP/kg. There was no inflammation or ulceration at the injection sites within two weeks. In repeat-dose toxicological studies, the no observable adverse effect levels of Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin in rats (1.25×10(10) VP/kg) and beagles (2.5×10(9) VP/kg) were 62.5- and 12.5-fold of the proposed clinical dose, respectively. The anti-virus antibody was produced in animal sera. Bone marrow examination revealed no histopathological changes. Guinea pigs sensitized by three repeated intraperitoneal injections of 1.35×10(10) VP/mL Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin each and challenged by one intravenous injection of 1.67×10(8) VP/kg Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin did not exhibit any sign of systemic anaphylaxis. Our data from different animal models suggest that Ad-hTERT-E1a-Apoptin is a safe anti-tumor therapeutic agent. PMID:25151223

Qi, Yanxin; Guo, Huanhuan; Hu, Ningning; He, Dongyun; Zhang, Shi; Chu, Yunjie; Huang, Yubin; Li, Xiao; Sun, LiLi; Jin, Ningyi

2014-10-15

6

Writing Successful Grant Applications for Preclinical Studies*  

E-print Network

Writing Successful Grant Applications for Preclinical Studies* David Kessel, PhD (CHEST 2006; 130:296­298) Key words: applications; grants; medical writing Abbreviations: ERA Electronic Research Administration

Berdichevsky, Victor

7

Preclinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and toxicology of lisdexamfetamine: a novel d-amphetamine pro-drug.  

PubMed

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a novel pro-drug of d-amphetamine that is currently used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children aged ? 6 years and adults. LDX is enzymatically cleaved to form d-amphetamine following contact with red blood cells, which reduces the rate of appearance and magnitude of d-amphetamine concentration in the blood and hence the brain when compared with immediate-release d-amphetamine at equimolar doses. Thus, the increase of striatal dopamine efflux and subsequent increase of locomotor activity following d-amphetamine is less prominent and slower to attain maximal effect following an equimolar dose of LDX. Furthermore, unlike d-amphetamine, the pharmacodynamic effects of LDX are independent of the route of administration underlining the requirement to be hydrolyzed by contact with red blood cells. It is conceivable that these pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences may impact the psychostimulant properties of LDX in the clinic. This article reviews the preclinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, and toxicology of LDX. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24594478

Hutson, Peter H; Pennick, Michael; Secker, Roger

2014-12-01

8

Preclinical studies of low back pain  

PubMed Central

Chronic low back pain is a major cause of disability and health care costs. Current treatments are inadequate for many patients. A number of preclinical models have been developed that attempt to mimic aspects of clinical conditions that contribute to low back pain. These involve application of nucleus pulposus material near the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG), chronic compression of the DRG, or localized inflammation of the DRG. These models, which are primarily implemented in rats, have many common features including behavioral hypersensitivity of the hindpaw, enhanced excitability and spontaneous activity of sensory neurons, and locally elevated levels of inflammatory mediators including cytokines. Clinically, epidural injection of steroids (glucocorticoids) is commonly used when more conservative treatments fail, but clinical trials evaluating these treatments have yielded mixed results. There are relatively few preclinical studies of steroid effects in low back pain models. One preclinical study suggests that the mineralocorticoid receptor, also present in the DRG, may have pro-inflammatory effects that oppose the activation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Although the glucocorticoid receptor is the target of anti-inflammatory steroids, many clinically used steroids activate both receptors. This could be one explanation for the limited effects of epidural steroids in some patients. Additional preclinical research is needed to address other possible reasons for limited efficacy of steroids, such as central sensitization or presence of an ongoing inflammatory stimulus in some forms of low back pain. PMID:23537369

2013-01-01

9

Preclinical antileukemic activity, toxicology, toxicokinetics and formulation development of triptolide derivative MRx102  

PubMed Central

Purpose Triptolide induces cancer cell apoptosis by inhibiting RNA synthesis and signaling pathways like NF-?B. We compared triptolide prodrug MRx102 to triptolide to determine if it displayed comparable efficacy and improved toxicology and toxicokinetic profiles. Methods MV4–11 AML cells and cells from AML patients were analyzed for MRx102? and triptolide-induced cytotoxicity/apoptosis. MRx102 and triptolide were compared in toxicology/toxicokinetics studies in rat and dog using a new emulsion formulation. Results MRx102 induced cytotoxicity in MV4–11 cells (IC50 = 15.2 nM, 7.29 nM for triptolide) and apoptosis in cells from AML patients (EC50 = 40.6 nM and 2.13 nM for triptolide). MRx102 and triptolide induced apoptosis in CD34+CD38? AML stem/progenitor cells with a similar difference in activity (EC50, MRx102 = 40.8 nM, triptolide = 2.14 nM). In a rat toxicology comparison using a new intravenous emulsion formulation, the MRx102 MTD was 4.5 mg/kg for males, 3 mg/kg for females; the triptolide MTD was 0.63 mg/kg for males, 0.317 mg/kg for females. The MRx102 NOAEL was 1.5–3.0 mg/kg, and the triptolide NOAEL was 0.05–0.15 mg/kg. Mean plasma concentrations for both MRx102 and triptolide decreased rapidly from a high Cmax following i.v. injection. Plasma triptolide levels stabilized at a consistent level through 2 hours after MRx102 injection. Triptolide T1/2,e values for MRx102-injected rats (~0.85 to ~3.7 hours) were markedly greater than triptolide injected rats (~0.15 to ~0.39 hours), indicating more extended triptolide exposure with MRx102. MRx102 dog toxicology and toxicokinetics results are presented. Conclusions MRx102 was 20? to 60-fold safer than triptolide comparing rat NOAELs. This may be due to the improved toxicokinetic profile of MRx102 compared to triptolide using the emulsion formulation, with no high Cmax and more consistent early exposure to triptolide. PMID:24619497

Fidler, John M.; An, Jinhua; Cater, Bing Z.; Andreeff, Michael

2014-01-01

10

Respiratory Toxicology Group: Inhalation Studies  

MedlinePLUS

... NTP Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. in Pharmacology and Toxicology from the University of Kansas in ... completed his postdoctoral work in the Department of Pharmacology and Medicine at Duke University Medical Center. He ...

11

The antitumor efficacy of calcitriol: preclinical studies.  

PubMed

Studies in our laboratory demonstrate that vitamin D (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol) has significant antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in murine and human squamous cell, prostate, lung, pancreatic and myeloma model systems. Calcitriol induces G0/G1 arrest, modulates p27 and p21, the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors implicated in G1 arrest, and induces cleavage of caspase 3, PARP and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) in a caspase-dependent manner. Calcitriol also decreases phospho-Erk (P-Erk) and phospho-Akt (P-Akt), kinases that regulate cell survival pathways and up-regulate the pro-apoptotic signaling molecule, MEKK-1. Glucocorticoids enhance calcitriol-mediated activities pre-clinically in vitro and in vivo. Dexamethasone (dex) significantly potentiated the antitumor effect of calcitriol and decreased calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia. Both in vitro and in vivo, dex increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand binding in the tumor while decreasing binding in intestinal mucosa, the site of calcium absorption. These studies demonstrated that calcitriol has significant antiproliferative activity in a number of pre-clinical model systems and form the groundwork for on-going clinical studies investigating calcitriol as an anticancer agent. PMID:16886662

Johnson, Candace S; Muindi, Josephia R; Hershberger, Pamela A; Trump, Donald L

2006-01-01

12

An Indexing Coverage Study of Toxicological Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was an appraisal of indexing coverage for the interdisciplinary field of toxicology. Information of research significance was limited to primary literature, defined as published documents containing original data from experimental work or case studies. (6 references) (Author/NH)

Montgomery, Ruth Reinke

1973-01-01

13

Concordance of preclinical and clinical pharmacology and toxicology of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins: cell surface targets  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and fusion proteins directed towards cell surface targets make an important contribution to the treatment of disease. The purpose of this review was to correlate the clinical and preclinical data on the 15 currently approved mAbs and fusion proteins targeted to the cell surface. The principal sources used to gather data were: the peer reviewed Literature; European Medicines Agency ‘Scientific Discussions’; and the US Food and Drug Administration ‘Pharmacology/Toxicology Reviews’ and package inserts (United States Prescribing Information). Data on the 15 approved biopharmaceuticals were included: abatacept; abciximab; alefacept; alemtuzumab; basiliximab; cetuximab; daclizumab; efalizumab; ipilimumab; muromonab; natalizumab; panitumumab; rituximab; tocilizumab; and trastuzumab. For statistical analysis of concordance, data from these 15 were combined with data on the approved mAbs and fusion proteins directed towards soluble targets. Good concordance with human pharmacodynamics was found for mice receiving surrogates or non-human primates (NHPs) receiving the human pharmaceutical. In contrast, there was poor concordance for human pharmacodynamics in genetically deficient mice and for human adverse effects in all three test systems. No evidence that NHPs have superior predictive value was found. PMID:22168282

Bugelski, Peter J; Martin, Pauline L

2012-01-01

14

Love Canal: environmental and toxicological studies  

SciTech Connect

The New York State Department of Health has been involved at the Love Canal since 1978. The State has carried out numerous environmental and toxicological studies. The major purposes for these studies were to define how Love Canal contaminants might be escaping into the environment at large, what paths contaminant migration might take, and what toxicological effects Love Canal chemicals might have individually and together. Although underground contaminant migration was hypothesized along swales and underground utility bedding, these mechanisms have been proven not to be operative except for some migration along the utility bedding under Frontier Avenue. In general no underground migration has occurred outside the confines of the three city blocks that contain the Love Canal referred to as the ''first ring''. Studies have been confused by apparent burial of waste materials in areas proximate but not directly connected to the Love Canal. Migration of Love Canal leachate has occurred through storm sewers. Love Canal contaminants have reached creeks to the north and the Niagara River to the south through storm sewer transport. In spite of finding 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin (TCDD), toxicological studies in situ and through exposure to volatile components in Love Canal soils do not indicate unusual toxicity. Animal studies continue in an attempt to determine the teratogenic and fetotoxic potential of Love Canal chemicals under different routes of exposure.

Kim, C.S.

1981-01-01

15

PRECLINICAL STUDIES Cluvenone induces apoptosis via a direct target  

E-print Network

PRECLINICAL STUDIES Cluvenone induces apoptosis via a direct target in mitochondria: a possible Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093, USA e-mail: abatova@ucsd.edu A. L. Yu The Genomics Research Center

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

16

TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SMOKE OBSCURANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

An exposure facility was designed and constructed to support health effect studies of inhaled smoke obscurants generated from light lubricating oils. Concentrations are monitored using gravimetric filter sample analysis and continuous RAM-1 aerosol monitors. Chemical consistency ...

17

Human Engineered Heart Tissue as a Versatile Tool in Basic Research and Preclinical Toxicology  

PubMed Central

Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) progenies hold great promise as surrogates for human primary cells, particularly if the latter are not available as in the case of cardiomyocytes. However, high content experimental platforms are lacking that allow the function of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to be studied under relatively physiological and standardized conditions. Here we describe a simple and robust protocol for the generation of fibrin-based human engineered heart tissue (hEHT) in a 24-well format using an unselected population of differentiated human embryonic stem cells containing 30–40% ?-actinin-positive cardiac myocytes. Human EHTs started to show coherent contractions 5–10 days after casting, reached regular (mean 0.5 Hz) and strong (mean 100 µN) contractions for up to 8 weeks. They displayed a dense network of longitudinally oriented, interconnected and cross-striated cardiomyocytes. Spontaneous hEHT contractions were analyzed by automated video-optical recording and showed chronotropic responses to calcium and the ?-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. The proarrhythmic compounds E-4031, quinidine, procainamide, cisapride, and sertindole exerted robust, concentration-dependent and reversible decreases in relaxation velocity and irregular beating at concentrations that recapitulate findings in hERG channel assays. In conclusion this study establishes hEHT as a simple in vitro model for heart research. PMID:22028871

Schaaf, Sebastian; Shibamiya, Aya; Mewe, Marco; Eder, Alexandra; Stöhr, Andrea; Hirt, Marc N.; Rau, Thomas; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Conradi, Lenard

2011-01-01

18

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer  

E-print Network

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prediction of lymph node involvement in breast cancer from primary tumor tissue- ther lymph node involvement in breast cancer is influenced by gene or miRNA expression of the primary tissue from a group of 96 breast cancer patients balanced for lymph node involvement using Affymetrix

19

Forensic Toxicology Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Toxicology Certificate What is Forensic Toxicology? Forensic toxicology is a discipline of forensic science that is concerned with the study of toxic substances or poisons. Toxicology encompasses. Students of forensic toxicology obtain knowledge about the absorption, distribution, and elimination

Saldin, Dilano

20

Confidentiality in preclinical Alzheimer disease studies  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials to advance the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) may expose research subjects to discrimination risks. An individual enrolled in a research study that uses positive test results from amyloid PET imaging or CSF measures of ?-amyloid 42 as inclusion criteria has biomarkers indicative of AD pathology. If insurers and employers learn this information, it could expose subjects to discrimination. Unfortunately, current legal and regulatory mechanisms are not sufficient to protect against harms that have significant consequences for subjects. Existing law that prohibits employment and insurance discrimination based on genetic status does not apply to amyloid biomarkers or any other biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases. Gaps in legal protections fail to protect research subjects from discrimination by long-term care and disability insurers. This risk is particularly concerning because individuals with AD dementia ultimately need long-term care services. To maximize subject protections and advance valuable research, policymakers, investigators, and research institutions must address shortcomings in the design of the electronic medical record, revise laws to limit discrimination, and develop practices that inform research participants of risks associated with loss of confidentiality. PMID:24477112

Arias, Jalayne J.

2014-01-01

21

Preclinical toxicity evaluation of AAV for pain: evidence from human AAV studies and from the pharmacology of analgesic drugs  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy with adeno-associated virus (AAV) has advanced in the last few years from promising results in animal models to >100 clinical trials (reported or under way). While vector availability was a substantial hurdle a decade ago, innovative new production methods now routinely match the scale of AAV doses required for clinical testing. These advances may become relevant to translational research in the chronic pain field. AAV for pain targeting the peripheral nervous system was proven to be efficacious in rodent models several years ago, but has not yet been tested in humans. The present review addresses the steps needed for translation of AAV for pain from the bench to the bedside focusing on pre-clinical toxicology. We break the potential toxicities into three conceptual categories of risk: First, risks related to the delivery procedure used to administer the vector. Second, risks related to AAV biology, i.e., effects of the vector itself that may occur independently of the transgene. Third, risks related to the effects of the therapeutic transgene. To identify potential toxicities, we consulted the existing evidence from AAV gene therapy for other nervous system disorders (animal toxicology and human studies) and from the clinical pharmacology of conventional analgesic drugs. Thereby, we identified required preclinical studies and charted a hypothetical path towards a future phase I/II clinical trial in the oncology-palliative care setting. PMID:25183392

2014-01-01

22

[Preclinical study of anxiolytic activity and safety of Racium phytomedicine].  

PubMed

Results of a preclinical study of the anxiolytic activity and safety of original Racium phytomedicine are presented. The preparation possessed high anxiolytic activity, exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects, produces no lethality in male and female rats and mice upon single intragastric and intraperitoneal introduction in doses up to 5 g/kg (VI class of toxicity according to OECD), induces no pathologic effects upon prolonged (120 days) administration in these rodents, and has no local irritant and/or allergen action. PMID:23012991

Kravchenko, E V; Nasek, V M; Ponteleeva, I V; Mazhar, M V; Sholomitskaia, E Iu; Zhukova, I A; San'ko, E V; Veselukha, O V; Nekhai, A S; Shafranovskaia, E V; Zhebrakova, I V

2012-01-01

23

Oral immunotherapy for food allergy: clinical and preclinical studies.  

PubMed

Food allergies affect approximately 5% of the U.S. population and have increased in the last decade. In recent years, oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been tested in clinical trials for peanut, milk, and egg allergies in young children. OIT appears to be fairly well tolerated by most subjects and leads to desensitization with a greatly increased threshold of allergen required to induce reactions. Further approaches being investigated in preclinical studies in mouse models indicate the potential for using adjuvants, such as TLR9 agonists in combination with OIT; peptide OIT; and non-allergen specific applications such as herbal formulations. Further questions about OIT remain, including the optimal dosing and length of treatment; whether tolerance can be developed; and the exact cellular mechanisms resulting in protection following OIT. With many clinical trials underway across the United States and other countries, and a growing pipeline of preclinical research with translational potential, there is great hope for a widely applicable food allergy treatment. PMID:23099276

Kulis, Mike; Wesley Burks, A

2013-06-15

24

Resveratrol: A review of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention  

SciTech Connect

The search for novel and effective cancer chemopreventive agents has led to the identification of various naturally occurring compounds one of which is resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin derived from the skin of grapes and other fruits. Resveratrol is known to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and to inhibit platelet aggregation and the growth of a variety of cancer cells. Its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities have been demonstrated in all three stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression), in both chemically and UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice, as well as in various murine models of human cancers. Evidence from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies has confirmed its ability to modulate various targets and signaling pathways. This review discusses the current preclinical and mechanistic data available and assesses resveratrol's anticancer effects to support its potential as an anticancer agent in human populations.

Athar, Mohammad; Back, Jung Ho; Tang Xiuwei [Department of Dermatology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street VC15-204, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Kim, Kwang Ho [Department of Dermatology, Hallym University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street VC15-204, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Kim, Arianna L. [Department of Dermatology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street VC15-204, New York, NY 10032 (United States)], E-mail: ak309@columbia.edu

2007-11-01

25

DTP | Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch (TPB)  

Cancer.gov

Hendriks, H.R., J. Plowman, D.P. Berger, K.D. Paull, H.H. Fiebig, Ø. Fodstat, H.C. Dreef-van der Meulen, R.E.C. Henrar, H.M. Pinedo and G. Schwartsmann, 1992. Preclinical Antitumor Activity and Animal Toxicology Studies of Rhizoxin, a Novel Tubulin-interacting Agent, Annals of Oncol., 3, 755-763.

26

The Preclinical Research Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The preclinical research process extends from early assessments of feasibility of pharmaceutical development to providing\\u000a regulatory authorities and clinical trial units with information necessary for administering the product to human subjects.\\u000a Chief concerns include safety, which is evaluated in well-defined preclinical toxicology programs, and efficacy, which must\\u000a be defined in appropriate in vitro systems and animal models prior to entering

James S. Hutchison

27

Progressive Impairment on Neuropsychological Tasks in a Longitudinal Study of Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

lobes. Prior research on the progression of preclinical AD yields a mixed picture. In recent reviewsProgressive Impairment on Neuropsychological Tasks in a Longitudinal Study of Preclinical Alzheimer P. Salmon University of California, San Diego School of Medicine Previous research suggests

Wixted, John T.

28

Pre-clinical and Clinical Safety Studies of CMX-2043: A Cytoprotective Lipoic Acid Analogue for Ischaemia–Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

CMX-2043 is an ?-lipoic acid analogue targeted to reduction of cellular injury and organ damage due to ischaemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). It has been shown to be effective in a rat model of cardiac IRI. The studies here reported evaluate its safety and pharmacokinetic profile in preparation for human clinical studies in procedures associated with IRI. Safety and tolerability were tested in standard pre-clinical in vitro and animal models and in a Phase 1 human clinical trial. CMX-2043 did not bind to a wide range of receptors and specific targets at approximately 4 ?g/mL (10 ?M). It was not mutagenic by Ames assay, did not produce chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and was negative for clastogenic potential. Toxicological studies in rats including both single and 14-day repeat intravenous doses and in dogs (single intravenous dose) with a 2-week recovery period were conducted. The NOAEL in rats and dogs was 30 and >10 mg/kg, respectively. No serious adverse events were reported in a placebo-controlled, sequential dose escalation Phase 1 clinical trial. The low toxicity in the pre-clinical studies and the absence of adverse events in the Phase 1 trial have supported investigation of CMX-2043 in a human efficacy trial. PMID:24751172

Kates, Steven A; Lader, Alan S; Casale, Ralph; Beeuwkes, Reinier

2014-01-01

29

Advancing Novel Molecular Imaging Agents from Preclinical Studies to First-in-Humans Phase I Clinical Trials in Academia-A Roadmap for Overcoming Perceived Barriers.  

PubMed

There is a critical need to advance promising novel molecular imaging (MI) agents for cancer from preclinical studies to first-in-humans Phase I clinical trials in order to realize their full potential for cancer detection and for predicting or monitoring response to targeted ("personalized") cancer therapies. Steps to clinical translation include radiopharmaceutical formulation, preclinical pharmacology and toxicology studies, clinical trial design and human ethics approval, and regulatory agency submission. In this Topical Review, we provide a "roadmap" to advancing one class of novel MI agents to Phase I trials in academia and illustrate the processes that we have successfully applied for (111)In-labeled pertuzumab, a MI probe for monitoring response of HER2-positive breast cancer to treatment with trastuzumab (Herceptin). We hope that our experience will encourage other academic radiopharmaceutical scientists to embrace this challenge. PMID:25781873

Reilly, Raymond M; Lam, Karen; Chan, Conrad; Levine, Mark

2015-04-15

30

Novel technology to prepare oral formulations for preclinical safety studies.  

PubMed

A novel method to prepare oral formulations, normally suspended dosage form, for preclinical safety studies in animals has been developed using a rotation/revolution mixer. Small hard balls made of zirconia were added to the mixing process to evaluate effectiveness in making a high quality suspension. The driving with balls loaded in the cylindrical container (vessel) of the mixer was quite efficient in dispersing and milling the particles of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in an aqueous medium. The API powder and a small amount of oral aqueous medium (vehicle) were successfully mixed by the spinning motion of the balls in the vessel as though the paste-like suspension was kneaded with a mortar and pestle. It was found that the milled suspension with the mean size of 10-20microm could be prepared, in addition finer milling of less than 10microm could be achieved by selecting the material of vessel. Optimum driving conditions including mixing time, size and quantity of balls, and the standard operational procedure was established using compounds varying in physicochemical properties. The particle size and quantitative analysis by HPLC showed that the resultant suspension was well-milled and highly homogeneous with the nearly intended concentration of API. The proposed method established by this experiment could be applied to the actual safety studies in the real preparation scale of oral suspension. PMID:17942253

Niwa, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Naofumi

2008-02-28

31

Cannabinoids and prefrontal cortical function: Insights from preclinical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana use has been associated with disordered cognition across several domains influenced by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we review the contribution of preclinical research to understanding the effects of cannabinoids on cognitive ability, and the mechanisms by which cannabinoids may affect the neurochemical processes in the PFC that are associated with these impairments. In rodents, acute administration of cannabinoid

Alice Egerton; Claire Allison; Ros R. Brett; Judith A. Pratt

2006-01-01

32

A toxicological study of gadolinium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show gadolinium nitrate to have potential sensitizing properties. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated that it was cutaneously a severe irritant. This material was considered an irritant in the rabbit eye application studies. 3 refs., 1 tab.

London, J.E.

1988-05-01

33

Pharmaco-toxicological study of diterpenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azorella compacta, Azorella yareta and Laretia acaulis (Apiaceae) are native species from the high Andes Mountains, northeastern Chile, and they have being traditionally used to treat asthma, colds and bronchitis, illnesses with inflammation and pain as the main symptoms. Interestingly, there are no scientific reports available on their benefits or toxicity. This study was carried out with the purpose of

Carla Delporte; Nadine Backhouse; Pedro Salinas; Aurelio San-Mart??n; Jorge Bórquez; Alberto Loyola

2003-01-01

34

Mouse Model for the Preclinical Study of Metastatic Disease  

Cancer.gov

The successful development of new cancer therapeutics requires reliable preclinical data that are obtained from mouse models for cancer. Human tumor xenografts, which require transplantation of human tumor cells into an immune compromised mouse, represent the current standard mouse model for cancer. Since the immune system plays an important role in tumor growth, progression and metastasis, the current standard mouse model is not ideal for accurate prediction of therapeutic effectiveness in patients.

35

Use of aggregating cell cultures for toxicological studies.  

PubMed

Relatively simple techniques are now available which allow the preparation of large quantities of highly reproducible aggregate cultures from fetal rat brain or liver cells, and to grow them in a chemically defined medium. Since these cultures exhibit extensive histotypic cellular reorganization and maturation, they offer unique possibilities for developmental studies. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of these cultures in developmental toxicology. Aggregating brain cell cultures were exposed at different developmental stages to model drugs (i.e., antimitotic, neurotoxic, and teratogenic agents) and assayed for their responsiveness by measuring a set of biochemical parameters (i.e., total protein and DNA content, cell type-specific enzyme activities) which permit a monitoring of cellular growth and maturation. It was found that each test compound elicited a distinct, dose-dependent response pattern, which may ultimately serve to screen and classify toxic drugs by using mechanistic criteria. In addition, it could be shown that aggregating liver cell cultures are capable of toxic drug activation, and that they can be used in co-culture with brain cell aggregates, providing a potential model for complementary toxicological and metabolic studies. PMID:3141206

Honegger, P; Werffeli, P

1988-10-15

36

Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and toxicological studies of Xanthium strumarium L.  

PubMed

The present study describes the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and toxicological evaluations of Xanthium strumarium L. growing in Bangladesh. In toxicity evaluation on rats, the methanol extract of seedlings showed mortality, while both seedling and mature plant extracts raised the serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase values and produced significant abnormalities in the histopathology of liver and kidney of rats. On the other hand, the aqueous soluble fraction of methanol extract of mature plant (LC50 = 0.352 microg/mL) and methanol crude extract of seedlings (LC50 = 0.656 microg/mL) demonstrated significant toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A total of four compounds were purified and characterized as stigmasterol (1), 11-hydroxy-11-carboxy-4-oxo-1(5),2(Z)-xanthadien-12,8-olide (2), daucosterol (3) and lasidiol-10-anisate (4). The present study suggests that X. strumarium is toxic to animal. PMID:20922910

Islam, Mohammad Rashedul; Uddin, Mohammad Zashim; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Tutul, Ershad; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Hassan, Md Abul; Faiz, M A; Hossain, Moazzem; Hussain, Maleeha; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

2009-12-01

37

Zebrafish as a model system to study toxicology.  

PubMed

Monitoring and assessing the effects of contaminants in the aquatic eco-environment is critical in protecting human health and the environment. The zebrafish has been widely used as a prominent model organism in different fields because of its small size, low cost, diverse adaptability, short breeding cycle, high fecundity, and transparent embryos. Recent studies have demonstrated that zebrafish sensitivity can aid in monitoring environmental contaminants, especially with the application of transgenic technology in this area. The present review provides a brief overview of recent studies on wild-type and transgenic zebrafish as a model system to monitor toxic heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, and organic pollutants for toxicology. The authors address the new direction of developing high-throughput detection of genetically modified transparent zebrafish to open a new window for monitoring environmental pollutants. PMID:24307630

Dai, Yu-Jie; Jia, Yong-Fang; Chen, Na; Bian, Wan-Ping; Li, Qin-Kai; Ma, Yan-Bo; Chen, Yan-Ling; Pei, De-Sheng

2014-01-01

38

CHARACTERIZATION OF REFERENCE ARTEMIA III FOR MARINE TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

ASTM Practice for Using Brine Shrimp Nauplii as Food for Test Animals in Aquatic Toxicology Tests (E 1203) suggests use of Reference Artemis as a reference standard for evaluating other batches of brine shrimp as food for organisms used in toxicology. in 1988, the U.S. EPA was ab...

39

Stem cell models for drug discovery and toxicology studies.  

PubMed

Human stem cells and their derivatives could provide virtually unlimited sources of tissue for a wide range of toxicity models that could complement conventional animal models with more relevant, humanized versions. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have already been proven valuable for drug/toxicity screens and mechanistic studies including analysis of disease pathway and developmental toxicity. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are generated by reprogramming somatic cells back to become hESC-like cells, allow assays to be designed where the contribution of an individual's genetic background or environmental exposure history to toxicity response can be determined. Comprehensive profiling of hESC/iPSCs via genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics could be used to elucidate pathway perturbations that underlie toxicity and disease, enabling the development of predictive assays for toxicity. While technological hurdles still exist for widespread use and implementation, incorporation of human stem cell based assays into drug discovery and toxicity testing offers the potential for safer, more customized medicines and more accurate risk assessment for environmental toxicants, as well as reduced costs and decreased use of animal models. We examine limitations and deficiencies of current toxicology approaches and how human stem cell based in vitro assays may overcome them. We describe how human stem cells are used for predictive toxicology. We also identify technological limitations that prevent stem cells from being integrated into standard practice, as well as new tools and technologies that may overcome them. We discuss research priorities that are most useful for transforming cell-based toxicology models into reality, and research areas in which stem cell technology could make substantial contributions to the development and implementation of stem cell based models for toxicity testing. Increased use of human in vitro models of toxicity could reduce the use of animals in safety and risk assessment studies and offers the potential to dramatically enhance our understanding of the molecular basis of toxicity, leading to improved human models and assays for predicting biological response to drugs and environmental hazards. PMID:23293059

Liu, Wenwei; Deng, Yaguang; Liu, Ying; Gong, Wenrong; Deng, Wenbin

2013-01-01

40

A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and  

E-print Network

of genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved to enter human food and animal feed since 1996, includingA long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation, uterus weight. Introduction Genetically modified (GM

Porter, Warren P.

41

THE USE OF STEM CELLS FOR TOXICOLOGY STUDIES AND RISK ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In general terms, toxicology studies are used in support of risk assessments of adverse health outcomes as a result of exposures to chemical and physical agents. In particular, toxicological data are used to provide information that aids in the assessment of disease outcomes at e...

42

Cassava starch fermentation wastewater: characterization and preliminary toxicological studies.  

PubMed

Cassava starch fermentation wastewater is an industrial residue composed mainly of lactic acid bacteria with predominance of the genera Lactobacillus, and organic acids. To evaluate the safety of this residue for possible production of probiotic beverages, acute in mice and sub-chronic (28-day repeated dose) toxicity studies in rats were carried. The administration of a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight did not produce mortality in mice. Rats treated with water containing 0 (control), 25%, 50%, and 100% of the residue for 28 days, did not present alterations in behaviour or in food and water consumption. There were no treatment-related changes of toxicological significance in the relative weight of the organs neither in the haematological nor in the biochemical parameters. Histopathologic alterations observed in the small intestine did not seem to be associated with the treatment. PMID:17637494

Avancini, S R P; Faccin, G L; Vieira, M A; Rovaris, A A; Podestá, R; Tramonte, R; de Souza, N M A; Amante, E R

2007-11-01

43

Novel therapies for FSGS: preclinical and clinical studies.  

PubMed

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a rare but important cause of end-stage kidney disease in children and adults. Current therapy, consisting of corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, fails to achieve a sustained remission in most patients. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop new treatments for this glomerulopathy. Traditional approaches have focused on agents that modulate the immune system. In this review, we summarize preclinical and clinical data with newer agents that may ameliorate FSGS. We focus on drugs that inhibit immune injury or inflammation, such as abatacept, rituximab, adalimumab, and stem cells. The potential of agents that block the glomerular action of circulating permeability factors such as soluble urokinase receptor is reviewed. Finally, because fibrosis represents the final common pathway of glomerular damage in FSGS, the experience with a wide range of antifibrotic agents is presented. Despite extensive research on the podocyte dysfunction in the pathogenesis of FSGS, there are few agents that directly target podocyte structure or viability. We conclude that FSGS is a heterogeneous disorder and that intensified translational research is vital to improve our understanding of distinct subtypes that have a defined prognosis and predictable response to targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:25704355

Malaga-Dieguez, Laura; Bouhassira, Diana; Gipson, Debbie; Trachtman, Howard

2015-03-01

44

Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia for Bladder Cancer: A Preclinical Dosimetry Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose This paper describes a preclinical investigation of the feasibility of thermotherapy treatment of bladder cancer with Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH), performed by analyzing the thermal dosimetry of nanoparticle heating in a rat bladder model. Materials and Methods The bladders of twenty-five female rats were instilled with magnetite-based nanoparticles, and hyperthermia was induced using a novel small animal magnetic field applicator (Actium Biosystems, Boulder, CO). We aimed to increase the bladder lumen temperature to 42°C in <10 min and maintain that temperature for 60 min. Temperatures were measured within the bladder lumen and throughout the rat with seven fiberoptic probes (OpSens Technologies, Quebec, Canada). An MRI analysis was used to confirm the effectiveness of the catheterization method to deliver and maintain various nanoparticle volumes within the bladder. Thermal dosimetry measurements recorded the temperature rise of rat tissues for a variety of nanoparticle exposure conditions. Results Thermal dosimetry data demonstrated our ability to raise and control the temperature of rat bladder lumen ?1°C/min to a steady-state of 42°C with minimal heating of surrounding normal tissues. MRI scans confirmed the homogenous nanoparticle distribution throughout the bladder. Conclusion These data demonstrate that our MFH system with magnetite-based nanoparticles provide well-localized heating of rat bladder lumen with effective control of temperature in the bladder and minimal heating of surrounding tissues. PMID:24050253

Oliveira, Tiago R.; Stauffer, Paul R.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Landon, Chelsea D.; Etienne, Wiguins; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; McNerny, Katie L.; Mashal, Alireza; Nouls, John; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Beyer, Wayne F.; Inman, Brant; Dewhirst, Mark W.

2014-01-01

45

Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Outperforms Traditional Biomarkers of Kidney Injury in Multi-site Preclinical Biomarker Qualification Studies  

PubMed Central

Kidney toxicity accounts for a significant percentage of morbidity and drug candidate failure. Serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) have been used to monitor kidney dysfunction for over a century but these markers are insensitive and non-specific. In multi-site preclinical rat toxicology studies the diagnostic performance of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was compared to traditional biomarkers as predictors of kidney tubular histopathologic changes, currently considered the “gold standard” of nephrotoxicity. In multiple models of kidney injury, urinary Kim-1 significantly outperformed SCr and BUN. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for Kim-1 was between 0.91 and 0.99 as compared to 0.79 to 0.9 for BUN and 0.73 to 0.85 for SCr. Thus urinary Kim-1 is the first injury biomarker of kidney toxicity qualified by the FDA and EMEA and is expected to significantly improve kidney safety monitoring. PMID:20458318

Vaidya, Vishal S.; Ozer, Josef S.; Frank, Dieterle; Collings, Fitz B.; Ramirez, Victoria; Troth, Sean; Muniappa, Nagaraja; Thudium, Douglas; Gerhold, David; Holder, Daniel J.; Bobadilla, Norma A.; Marrer, Estelle; Perentes, Elias; Cordier, André; Vonderscher, Jacky; Maurer, Gérard; Goering, Peter L.; Sistare, Frank D.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

2010-01-01

46

Novel Epigenetic Target Therapy for Prostate Cancer: A Preclinical Study  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic events are critical contributors to the pathogenesis of cancer, and targeting epigenetic mechanisms represents a novel strategy in anticancer therapy. Classic demethylating agents, such as 5-Aza-2?-deoxycytidine (Decitabine), hold the potential for reprograming somatic cancer cells demonstrating high therapeutic efficacy in haematological malignancies. On the other hand, epigenetic treatment of solid tumours often gives rise to undesired cytotoxic side effects. Appropriate delivery systems able to enrich Decitabine at the site of action and improve its bioavailability would reduce the incidence of toxicity on healthy tissues. In this work we provide preclinical evidences of a safe, versatile and efficient targeted epigenetic therapy to treat hormone sensitive (LNCap) and hormone refractory (DU145) prostate cancers. A novel Decitabine formulation, based on the use of engineered erythrocyte (Erythro-Magneto-Hemagglutinin Virosomes, EMHVs) drug delivery system (DDS) carrying this drug, has been refined. Inside the EMHVs, the drug was shielded from the environment and phosphorylated in its active form. The novel magnetic EMHV DDS, endowed with fusogenic protein, improved the stability of the carried drug and exhibited a high efficiency in confining its delivery at the site of action in vivo by applying an external static magnetic field. Here we show that Decitabine loaded into EMHVs induces a significant tumour mass reduction in prostate cancer xenograft models at a concentration, which is seven hundred times lower than the therapeutic dose, suggesting an improved pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of drug. These results are relevant for and discussed in light of developing personalised autologous therapies and innovative clinical approach for the treatment of solid tumours. PMID:24851905

Gherardini, Lisa; Pelosi, Gualtiero; Viglione, Federica; Grimaldi, Settimio; Pani, Luca; Cinti, Caterina

2014-01-01

47

Developmental Toxicology##  

EPA Science Inventory

Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

48

PRECLINICAL STUDY Prolonged mammosphere culture of MCF-7 cells induces an EMT  

E-print Network

transcription factors, including members of the Snail, Twist, and Zeb families. EMT results in diminishedPRECLINICAL STUDY Prolonged mammosphere culture of MCF-7 cells induces an EMT and repression transition (EMT) also induces stem cell features in normal and transformed mammary cells. We examined whether

Terasaki, Mark

49

Ultra-high-resolution imaging of small animals: Implications for preclinical and research studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher spatial resolution is continuously sought in nuclear medicine to improve the spatial detail and image quality that can be used for preclinical and cfinical imaging studies. The greater tissue specificity and highly selective uptake of many of the new labeled monoclonal antibodies, receptor-specific molecules, peptides, and other new radiopharmaceuticals investigated for use in imaging and therapy often require higher

David A. Weber; Marijana Ivanovic

1999-01-01

50

PRECLINICAL STUDY GRB7 is required for triple-negative breast cancer cell invasion  

E-print Network

prognosis, and frequently associated with the basal-like breast cancer gene expression profile) and members of the ERBB family [4]. Other prominent domains with clear relevance to cancer include the RasPRECLINICAL STUDY GRB7 is required for triple-negative breast cancer cell invasion and survival

Kenny, Paraic

51

PRECLINICAL STUDY GRB7 is required for triple-negative breast cancer cell invasion  

E-print Network

that is usually associated with poor prognosis, and frequently associated with the basal-like breast cancer genePRECLINICAL STUDY GRB7 is required for triple-negative breast cancer cell invasion and survival+Business Media, LLC. 2011 Abstract Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease

Kenny, Paraic

52

Preclinical studies of carbohydrate mimetic peptide vaccines for breast cancer and melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited immune responses to tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) are due in part to their being self-antigens. Immunization with xenoantigens of TACA provides an approach to break tolerance and augment responses to TACA. Carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) as xenoantigens can induce serum antibodies that target shared carbohydrate residues on differing carbohydrate structures. In preclinical studies, we observe that CMP immunization in

Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi; Leah J. Hennings; Cecile Artaud; Tianmin Liu; Fariba Jousheghany; Anastas Pashov; Ramachandran Murali; Laura F. Hutchins; Thomas Kieber-Emmons

2007-01-01

53

Exploratory Study of Factors Related to Educational Scores of First Preclinical Year Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationships among the scores of major subjects taught in the first preclinical year of a Thai medical school, previous academic achievements, and daily life activities are rarely explored. We therefore performed an exploratory study identifying various factors possibly related to the educational scores of these medical students.…

Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Srisuma, Sorachai; Kanavitoon, Sawita; Summachiwakij, Sarawut

2014-01-01

54

Spinal Cord Tolerance in the Age of Spinal Radiosurgery: Lessons From Preclinical Studies  

SciTech Connect

Clinical implementation of spinal radiosurgery has increased rapidly in recent years, but little is known regarding human spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction irradiation. In contrast, preclinical studies in single-fraction spinal cord tolerance have been ongoing since the 1970s. The influences of field length, dose rate, inhomogeneous dose distributions, and reirradiation have all been investigated. This review summarizes literature regarding single-fraction spinal cord tolerance in preclinical models with an emphasis on practical clinical significance. The outcomes of studies that incorporate uniform irradiation are surprisingly consistent among multiple small- and large-animal models. Extensive investigation of inhomogeneous dose distributions in the rat has demonstrated a significant dose-volume effect while preliminary results from one pig study are contradictory. Preclinical spinal cord dose-volume studies indicate that dose distribution is more critical than the volume irradiated suggesting that neither dose-volume histogram analysis nor absolute volume constraints are effective in predicting complications. Reirradiation data are sparse, but results from guinea pig, rat, and pig studies are consistent with the hypothesis that the spinal cord possesses a large capacity for repair. The mechanisms behind the phenomena observed in spinal cord studies are not readily explained and the ability of dose response models to predict outcomes is variable underscoring the need for further investigation. Animal studies provide insight into the phenomena and mechanisms of radiosensitivity but the true significance of animal studies can only be discovered through clinical trials.

Medin, Paul M., E-mail: Paul.medin@utsouthwestern.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Boike, Thomas P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

2011-04-01

55

From Bench to Bedside: Lessons Learned in Translating Preclinical Studies in Cancer Drug Development  

PubMed Central

The development of targeted agents in oncology has rapidly expanded over the past 2 decades and has led to clinically significant improvements in the treatment of numerous cancers. Unfortunately, not all success at the bench in preclinical experiments has translated to success at the bedside. As preclinical studies shift toward defining proof of mechanism, patient selection, and rational drug combinations, it is critical to understand the lessons learned from prior translational studies to gain an understanding of prior drug development successes and failures. By learning from prior drug development, future translational studies will provide more clinically relevant data, and the underlying hope is that the clinical success rate will improve and the treatment of patients with ineffective targeted therapy will be limited. PMID:24052618

2013-01-01

56

Manpower Development in Toxicology. EURO Reports and Studies, No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses the widely held view that currently available literature in toxicology is inadequate in that there is a need to identify manpower deficiencies in this field and to suggest means to correct these deficiencies. It contains a list of specific recommendations including the organization of a working group, sponsored by the World…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

57

JAK2 inhibitor therapy in myeloproliferative disorders: rationale, preclinical studies and ongoing clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent identification of somatic mutations such as JAK2V617F that deregulate Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling has spurred development of orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitors that selectively target JAK2 kinase as an approach to pathogenesis-directed therapy of myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). In pre-clinical studies, these compounds inhibit JAK2V617F-mediated cell growth at nanomolar concentrations, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy

A Pardanani

2008-01-01

58

Therapeutic Applications of Incretin Mimetics for Metabolic Diseases: Preclinical Studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exenatide (exendin-4) is an incretin mimetic peptide that shares several glucoregulatory actions with the endogenous incretin GLP-1. In addition to its actions on glucose control, exenatide produces effects to reduce food intake and body weight in all species studied. GLP-1 and exenatide have also b...

59

Intradermal inactivated poliovirus vaccine: a preclinical dose-finding study.  

PubMed

Intradermal delivery of vaccines has been shown to result in dose sparing. We tested the ability of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) delivered intradermally to induce levels of serum poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies similar to immunization through the intramuscular route. Immunogenicity of fractional doses of IPV was studied by comparing intramuscular and intradermal immunization of Wistar rats using NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedles. Intradermal delivery of partial vaccine doses induced antibodies at titers comparable to those after immunization with full human dose delivered intramuscularly. The results suggest that intradermal delivery of IPV may lead to dose-sparing effect and reduction of the vaccination cost. PMID:25391313

Kouiavskaia, Diana; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Troy, Stephanie; Chumakov, Konstantin

2015-05-01

60

Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin: preparation and preclinical studies  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ((Tc) NGA), a labeled analog ligand to the hepatocyte-specific receptor, hepatic binding protein (HBP), was prepared and tested for labeling yield, stability, biodistribution, toxicity, and dosimetry. The ligand was synthesized by the covalent coupling of a carbohydrate bifunctional reagent, 2-imino-2-ethyloxymethyl-1-thiogalactose, to human serum albumin. Testing in mice and rabbits revealed the product to be nontoxic and apyrogenic. Biodistribution studies in rabbits demonstrated the liver as the single focus of tracer uptake. Dosimetry was based on kinetic studies in three baboons. Absorbed doses to liver, small intestine, urinary bladder wall, and uterus were 0.089, 0.28, 0.56, and 0.88 rad/mCi, respectively. Total body, lens of the eye, red marrow, ovaries, and testes were less than 0.06 rad/mCi. High liver specificity imparted by receptor binding combined with high labeling yield, stability, acceptable dosimetry, and safety provide (Tc)NGA with the attributes required for routine clinical assessment of hepatocyte function.

Vera, D.R.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Krohn, K.A.

1985-10-01

61

Luciferase fragment complementation imaging in preclinical cancer studies  

PubMed Central

The luciferase fragment complementation assay (LFCA) enables molecular events to be non-invasively imaged in live cells in vitro and in vivo in a comparatively cheap and safe manner. It is a development of previous enzyme complementation assays in which reporter genes are split into two, individually enzymatically inactive, fragments that are able to complement one another upon interaction. This complementation can be used to externally visualize cellular activities. In recent years, the number of studies which have used LFCAs to probe questions relevant to cancer have increased, and this review summarizes the most significant and interesting of these. In particular, it focuses on work conducted on the epidermal growth factor, nuclear and chemokine receptor families, and intracellular signaling pathways, including IP3, cAMP, Akt, cMyc, NRF2 and Rho GTPases. LFCAs which have been developed to image DNA methylation and detect RNA transcripts are also discussed. PMID:25594026

Lake, Madryn C.; Aboagye, Eric O.

2014-01-01

62

Luciferase fragment complementation imaging in preclinical cancer studies.  

PubMed

The luciferase fragment complementation assay (LFCA) enables molecular events to be non-invasively imaged in live cells in vitro and in vivo in a comparatively cheap and safe manner. It is a development of previous enzyme complementation assays in which reporter genes are split into two, individually enzymatically inactive, fragments that are able to complement one another upon interaction. This complementation can be used to externally visualize cellular activities. In recent years, the number of studies which have used LFCAs to probe questions relevant to cancer have increased, and this review summarizes the most significant and interesting of these. In particular, it focuses on work conducted on the epidermal growth factor, nuclear and chemokine receptor families, and intracellular signaling pathways, including IP3, cAMP, Akt, cMyc, NRF2 and Rho GTPases. LFCAs which have been developed to image DNA methylation and detect RNA transcripts are also discussed. PMID:25594026

Lake, Madryn C; Aboagye, Eric O

2014-01-01

63

A Tumor-mimic Model for Evaluating the Accuracy of HIFU Preclinical Studies: An In Vivo Study  

E-print Network

A Tumor-mimic Model for Evaluating the Accuracy of HIFU Preclinical Studies: An In Vivo Study W. A of ablative technologies such as HIFU for the treatment of liver tumors in humans has been studied in animal models without tumors or in small animals like rats and rabbits with established tumors. Because

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

Toxicology Enrichment Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The series contains fact sheets on toxicology, introductory exercises to familiarize students with the study of toxicology and student assignments addressing specific issues in toxicology. The assignments are designed to enrich typical course curricula and give students practice using information from both library and internet sources.

Suzanne Conklin (Rhode Island College; )

2000-01-01

65

Toxicological screening  

PubMed Central

Toxicity testing of new compounds is essential for drug development process. The preclinical toxicity testing on various biological systems reveals the species-, organ- and dose- specific toxic effects of an investigational product. The toxicity of substances can be observed by (a) studying the accidental exposures to a substance (b) in vitro studies using cells/ cell lines (c) in vivo exposure on experimental animals. This review mainly focuses on the various experimental animal models and methods used for toxicity testing of substances. The pre-clinical toxicity testing helps to calculate “No Observed Adverse Effect Level” which is needed to initiate the clinical evaluation of investigational products. PMID:21772764

Parasuraman, S.

2011-01-01

66

Nanomaterial synthesis and characterization for toxicological studies: TiO2 case study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent years it has become apparent that the novel properties of nanomaterials may predispose them to a hitherto unknown potential for toxicity. A number of recent toxicological studies of nanomaterials exist, but these appear to be fragmented and often contradictory. Such discrepancies may be, at least in part, due to poor description of the nanomaterial or incomplete characterization, including failure to recognise impurities, surface modifications or other important physicochemical aspects of the nanomaterial. Here we make a case for the importance of good quality, well-characterized nanomaterials for future toxicological studies, combined with reliable synthesis protocols, and we present our efforts to generate such materials. The model system for which we present results is TiO2 nanoparticles, currently used in a variety of commercial products. ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

Valsami-Jones, E.; Berhanu, D.; Dybowska, A.; Misra, S.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Tetley, T.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Plant, J.A.

2008-01-01

67

SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGY POSITION PAPER: BEST PRACTICES FOR REPORTING PATHOLOGY INTERPRETATIONS WITHIN GLP TOXICOLOGY STUDIES.  

EPA Science Inventory

The study pathologist provides specialized expertise to the interpretation of the toxicity and safety of pharmaceuticals, biological agents, human and animal food additives, environmental and industrial chemicals, and medical devices in animal studies. The study pathologist's fin...

68

Accelerating drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease: best practices for preclinical animal studies  

PubMed Central

Animal models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a result, over 300 interventions have been investigated and reported to mitigate pathological phenotypes or improve behavior in AD animal models or both. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in target validation in humans or successful translation to disease-modifying therapies. Challenges in translating preclinical studies to clinical trials include the inability of animal models to recapitulate the human disease, variations in breeding and colony maintenance, lack of standards in design, conduct and analysis of animal trials, and publication bias due to under-reporting of negative results in the scientific literature. The quality of animal model research on novel therapeutics can be improved by bringing the rigor of human clinical trials to animal studies. Research communities in several disease areas have developed recommendations for the conduct and reporting of preclinical studies in order to increase their validity, reproducibility, and predictive value. To address these issues in the AD community, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation partnered with Charles River Discovery Services (Morrisville, NC, USA) and Cerebricon Ltd. (Kuopio, Finland) to convene an expert advisory panel of academic, industry, and government scientists to make recommendations on best practices for animal studies testing investigational AD therapies. The panel produced recommendations regarding the measurement, analysis, and reporting of relevant AD targets, th choice of animal model, quality control measures for breeding and colony maintenance, and preclinical animal study design. Major considerations to incorporate into preclinical study design include a priori hypotheses, pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics studies prior to proof-of-concept testing, biomarker measurements, sample size determination, and power analysis. The panel also recommended distinguishing between pilot 'exploratory' animal studies and more extensive 'therapeutic' studies to guide interpretation. Finally, the panel proposed infrastructure and resource development, such as the establishment of a public data repository in which both positive animal studies and negative ones could be reported. By promoting best practices, these recommendations can improve the methodological quality and predictive value of AD animal studies and make the translation to human clinical trials more efficient and reliable. PMID:21943025

2011-01-01

69

Why Toxicology?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the reasons for studying toxicology at the high school level is its relevance to everyday life. On a daily basis we are confronted with news reports about toxic chemicals in our food, water, and environment. How do we decide which of these are worth worrying about? Too often these decisions are based on misconceptions about what is "safe" and what involves too great a risk. In learning about the basic concepts of toxicology, students will become better prepared to make reasoned decisions about issues such as these. This free selection also includes the Table of Contents and Introduction.

Nancy M. Trautmann

2001-01-01

70

Attempted and successful compensation in preclinical and early manifest neurodegeneration - a review of task FMRI studies.  

PubMed

Several models of neural compensation in healthy aging have been suggested to explain brain activity that aids to sustain cognitive function. Applying recently suggested criteria of "attempted" and "successful" compensation, we reviewed existing literature on compensatory mechanisms in preclinical Huntington's disease (HD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Both disorders constitute early stages of neurodegeneration ideal for examining compensatory mechanisms and developing targeted interventions. We strived to clarify whether compensation criteria derived from healthy aging populations can be applied to early neurodegeneration. To concentrate on the close coupling of cognitive performance and brain activity, we exclusively addressed task fMRI studies. First, we found evidence for parallels in compensatory mechanisms between healthy aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies fulfilled criteria of attempted compensation, while reports of successful compensation were largely absent, which made it difficult to conclude on. Second, comparing working memory studies in preclinical HD and aMCI, we identified similar compensatory patterns across neurodegenerative disorders in lateral and medial prefrontal cortex. Such patterns included an inverted U-shaped relationship of neurodegeneration and compensatory activity spanning from preclinical to manifest disease. Due to the lack of studies systematically targeting all criteria of compensation, we propose an exemplary study design, including the manipulation of compensating brain areas by brain stimulation. Furthermore, we delineate the benefits of targeted interventions by non-invasive brain stimulation, as well as of unspecific interventions such as physical activity or cognitive training. Unambiguously detecting compensation in early neurodegenerative disease will help tailor interventions aiming at sustained overall functioning and delayed clinical disease onset. PMID:25324786

Scheller, Elisa; Minkova, Lora; Leitner, Mathias; Klöppel, Stefan

2014-01-01

71

Effect of soy isoflavones on the growth of human breast tumors: findings from preclinical studies.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, and many women with breast cancer live more than 5 years after their diagnosis. Breast cancer patients and survivors have a greater interest in taking soy foods and isoflavone supplements. However, the effect of isoflavones on breast cancer remains controversial. Thus, it is critical to determine if and when isoflavones are beneficial or detrimental to breast cancer patients. According to the available preclinical data, high concentrations of isoflavones inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells, regardless of their estrogen receptor (ER) status. In comparison, genistein, a major isoflavone, has stimulated tumor growth at low concentrations and mitigated tamoxifen efficacy in ER-positive breast cancer. Studies have indicated that the relative levels of genistein and estrogen at the target site are important to determine the genistein effect on the ER-positive tumor growth. However, studies using ovariectomized mice and subcutaneous xenograft models might not truly reflect estrogen concentrations in human breast tumors. Moreover, it may be an oversimplification that isoflavones stimulate hormone-dependent tumor growth due to their potential estrogenic effect since studies also suggest nonestrogenic anticancer effects of isoflavones and ER-independent anticancer activity of tamoxifen. Therefore, the concentrations of isoflavones and estrogen in human breast tumors should be considered better in future preclinical studies and the parameters that can estimate those levels in breast tumors are required in human clinical/epidemiological investigation. In addition, it will be important to identify the molecular mechanisms that either inhibit or promote the growth of breast cancer cells by soy isoflavones, and use those molecules to evaluate the relevance of the preclinical findings to the human disease and to predict the health effects of isoflavones in human breast tumors. PMID:25493176

Kwon, Youngjoo

2014-11-01

72

Preclinical studies at UNC use specialized ultrasound to detect presence of cancer  

Cancer.gov

In the body, tracing the twists and turns of blood vessels is difficult, but important. Vessel “bendiness” can indicate the presence and progression of cancer. This principle led UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center scientists to a new method of using a high-resolution ultrasound to identify early tumors in preclinical studies. The method, based on vessel bendiness or “tortuosity,” potentially offers an inexpensive, non-invasive and fast method to detect cancer that could someday help doctors identify cancers when tumors are less than a centimeter in size. Their findings were published in the July 6, 2012 online issue of the journal Radiology.

73

Exploratory study of factors related to educational scores of first preclinical year medical students.  

PubMed

The relationships among the scores of major subjects taught in the first preclinical year of a Thai medical school, previous academic achievements, and daily life activities are rarely explored. We therefore performed an exploratory study identifying various factors possibly related to the educational scores of these medical students. Questionnaires were sent out to all first preclinical year medical students, with 79.8% being returned (245/307 questionnaires). Positive correlations were revealed between the premedical year grade point average (pre-MD GPA) and anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry scores (R = 0.664, 0.521, and 0.653, respectively, P < 0.001 for all) by Pearson's method. Using multiple linear regression analysis, anatomy scores could be predicted by pre-MD GPA, student satisfaction with anatomy, the percentage of expected reading, monthly earnings, reading after class and near exam time, and duration of sleeping periods near exam time (R = 0.773, R(2) = 0.598, P < 0.001). Physiology scores could be estimated by pre-MD GPA, the percentage of expected reading, monthly earnings, and percentage of those who fell asleep during class and near exam time (R = 0.722, R(2) = 0.521, P < 0.001). Biochemistry scores could be calculated by pre-MD GPA, the percentage of expected reading, motivation to study medicine, student satisfaction with biochemistry, and exam performance expectations (R = 0.794, R(2) = 0.630, P < 0.001). In conclusion, pre-MD GPA and the percentage of expected reading are factors involved in producing good academic results in the first preclinical year. Anatomy and biochemistry, but not physiology, scores are influenced by satisfaction. PMID:24585466

Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Srisuma, Sorachai; Kanavitoon, Sawita; Summachiwakij, Sarayut

2014-03-01

74

Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.  

PubMed

Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase or glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition; a range of monoaminergic effects; and potential cannabinoid receptor modulation. Future research should focus on conducting human clinical trials on the plants reviewed with promising anxiolytic activity. PMID:23436255

Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

2013-03-01

75

Food for Thought Look Back in Anger – What Clinical Studies Tell Us About Preclinical Work  

PubMed Central

Summary Misled by animal studies and basic research? Whenever we take a closer look at the outcome of clinical trials in a field such as, most recently, stroke or septic shock, we see how limited the value of our preclinical models was. For all indications, 95% of drugs that enter clinical trials do not make it to the market, despite all promise of the (animal) models used to develop them. Drug development has started already to decrease its reliance on animal models: In Europe, for example, despite increasing R&D expenditure, animal use by pharmaceutical companies dropped by more than 25% from 2005 to 2008. In vitro studies are likewise limited: questionable cell authenticity, over-passaging, mycoplasma infections, and lack of differentiation as well as non-homeostatic and non-physiologic culture conditions endanger the relevance of these models. The standards of statistics and reporting often are poor, further impairing reliability. Alarming studies from industry show miserable reproducibility of landmark studies. This paper discusses factors contributing to the lack of reproducibility and relevance of pre-clinical research. The conclusion: Publish less but of better quality and do not rely on the face value of animal studies. PMID:23861075

Hartung, Thomas

2013-01-01

76

DTP | Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch (TPB)  

Cancer.gov

Preclinical toxicology and pharmacology are required for decision making throughout drug discovery and development and for IND filing for clinical trials. Toxicological and pharmacological data can inform clinical trial design, such as determination of maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and starting dose. With appropriate characterization, in most cases, safe operating parameters can be established for human clinical trials.

77

Chemical and toxicological studies of coal gasification wastewater circulated through a cooling tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argonne National Laboratory is studying health and environmental issues related to coal gasification, using data and samples from the oxygen-blown slagging fixed-bed gasifier at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC). The pilot study reported here developed preliminary chemical and toxicological data needed to evaluate the health and environmental, as well as the process, implications of using partially

J. R. Stetter; V. C. Stamoudis; R. D. Flotard; Reilly C. A. Jr; K. E. Wilzbach

1984-01-01

78

Issues in pharmaceutical development of thymosin alpha1 from preclinical studies through marketing.  

PubMed

SciClone Pharmaceuticals licensed the commercial and patent rights to thymosin alpha1, for geographical regions of the world excluding the United States and Europe, in the early 1990s. With this license, SciClone embarked on global drug development, and the issues encountered for thymosin alpha1 are reflective of the roller coaster of modern approval of pharmaceuticals. Most of the required toxicology studies had been completed prior to licensure, but some newer studies had to be conducted to obtain approvals in certain countries. The recent development of the "International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use" (ICH) guidelines allows for a clearer definition of the required battery of toxicology studies, although some countries still have not adopted these guidelines, and the local regulations have had to be understood and followed. Other hurdles include the complications that manufacturing requirements can differ between countries, and certain countries require local clinical experience trials in addition to SciClone's cumulative clinical data. A further obstacle was the pleiotropic nature of the mechanism of action of thymosin alpha1, with the resulting difficulty in the unraveling of its pharmacologic effects. With close attention to these regulatory details, SciClone has obtained approvals in more than 30 countries and has successfully begun commercial sales. PMID:17947591

Tuthill, Cynthia

2007-09-01

79

SIMPLE, INEXPENSIVE HEART RATE MONITOR AND ARRHYTHMIA DETECTOR FOR USE IN TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Many toxic agents have been reported to produce acute, adverse effects on cardiac function. Often these data are neglected in toxicological studies because of the difficulty and expense of monitoring cardiac parameters. We have developed a simple, inexpensive heart rate monitor (...

80

Size Distributions and Characterization of Native and Ground Samples for Toxicology Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation shows charts and graphs that review the particle size distribution and characterization of natural and ground samples for toxicology studies. There are graphs which show the volume distribution versus the number distribution for natural occurring dust, jet mill ground dust, and ball mill ground dust.

McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; Taylor, Larry A.

2010-01-01

81

Electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle in pre-clinical studies of psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Modulating neuronal activity by electrical stimulation has expanded from the realm of motor indications into the field of psychiatric disorders in the past 10 years. The medial forebrain bundle (MFB), with a seminal role in motor, reward orientated and affect regulation behaviors, and its afferent and efferent loci, have been targeted in several DBS trials in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the consequences of modulating the MFB in affective disorders. The paper reviews the relevant pre-clinical literature investigating electrical stimulation of regions associated with the MFB in the context of several models of psychiatric disorders, in particular depression. The clinical data is promising but limited, and pre-clinical studies are essential for improved understanding of the anatomy, the connectivity, and the consequences of stimulation of the MFB and regions associated with the neurocircuitry of psychiatric disorders. Current data suggests that the MFB is at a "privileged" position on this circuitry and its stimulation can simultaneously modulate activity at other key sites, such as the nucleus accumbens, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex or the ventral tegmental area. Future experimental work will need to shed light on the anti-depressive mechanisms of MFB stimulation in order to optimize clinical interventions. PMID:25498857

Döbrössy, Máté D; Furlanetti, Luciano L; Coenen, Volker A

2015-02-01

82

In vitro preclinical evaluation studies with the echinocandin antifungal MK-0991 (L-743,872).  

PubMed Central

The echinocandin MK-0991, formerly L-743,872, is a water-soluble lipopeptide that has been demonstrated in preclinical studies to have potent activity against Candida spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, and Pneumocystis carinii. An extensive in vitro biological evaluation of MK-0991 was performed to better define the potential activities of this novel compound. Susceptibility testing with MK-0991 against approximately 200 clinical isolates of Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus isolates was conducted to determine MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations MF(s). The MFC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited for 40 C. albicans clinical isolates was 0.5 microg/ml. Susceptibility testing with panels of antifungal agent-resistant species of Candida and C. neoformans isolates indicated that the MK-0991 MFCs for these isolates are comparable to those obtained for susceptible isolates. Growth kinetic studies of MK-0991 against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis isolates showed that the compound exhibited fungicidal activity (i.e., a 99% reduction in viability) within 3 to 7 h at concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 1 microg/ml (0.25 to 4 times the MIC). Drug combination studies with MK-0991 plus amphotericin B found that this combination was not antagonistic against C. albicans, C. neoformans, or A. fumigatus in vitro. Studies with 0 to 50% pooled human or mouse serum established that fungal susceptibility to MK-0991 was not significantly influenced by the presence of human or mouse serum. Results from resistance induction studies suggested that the susceptibility of C. albicans was not altered by repeated exposure (40 passages) to MK-0991. Erythrocyte hemolysis studies with MK-0991 with washed and unwashed human or mouse erythrocytes indicated minimal hemolytic potential with this compound. These favorable results of preclinical studies support further studies with MK-0991 with humans. PMID:9371328

Bartizal, K; Gill, C J; Abruzzo, G K; Flattery, A M; Kong, L; Scott, P M; Smith, J G; Leighton, C E; Bouffard, A; Dropinski, J F; Balkovec, J

1997-01-01

83

Behavioral and toxicological studies of cyclopentanoid monoterpenes from Nepeta cataria.  

PubMed

Two samples of catnip oil were analyzed by tic, gc, and hplc; the results indicated the presence of 23 components. Fractionation of the commercial sample of catnip oil by either distillation or gc yielded 40% nepetalactone and 43% nepetalic acid. Catnip oil, nepetalic acid, and a nepetalactone-enriched fraction were evaluated for toxicological and behavioral effects in mice and rats. The LD50 of catnip oil, the nepetalactone-enriched fraction, and nepetalic acid were found in mice to be: 1300 mg/kg, 1550 mg/kg and 1050 mg/kg, respectively. Catnip oil (500 mg/kg) and nepetalic acid (62.5 mg/kg) were found to significantly increase hexobarbital sleeping time in mice. Rats trained on a Sidman avoidance schedule showed a significant decrease in performance following intraperitoneal injections of catnip oil (500--750 mg/kg), nepetalic acid (125--250 mg/kg), and the nepetalactone-enriched fraction (500--750 mg/kg). Rats trained on the same avoidance schedule developed behavioral tolerance after daily injections of 750 mg/kg catnip oil. PMID:672466

Harney, J W; Barofsky, I M; Leary, J D

1978-01-01

84

Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of preclinical studies: why perform them and how to appraise them critically  

PubMed Central

The use of systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies has become more common, including those of studies describing the modeling of cerebrovascular diseases. Empirical evidence suggests that too many preclinical experiments lack methodological rigor, and this leads to inflated treatment effects. The aim of this review is to describe the concepts of systematic review and meta-analysis and consider how these tools may be used to provide empirical evidence to spur the field to improve the rigor of the conduct and reporting of preclinical research akin to their use in improving the conduct and reporting of randomized controlled trials in clinical research. As with other research domains, systematic reviews are subject to bias. Therefore, we have also suggested guidance for their conduct, reporting, and critical appraisal. PMID:24549183

Sena, Emily S; Currie, Gillian L; McCann, Sarah K; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W

2014-01-01

85

Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant  

PubMed Central

Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), ?-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and ?-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

2014-01-01

86

Genetic toxicology: web resources.  

PubMed

Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also available online in the field of genetic toxicology. As molecular biology and computational tools improve, new areas within genetic toxicology such as structural activity relationship analysis, mutational spectra databases and toxicogenomics, now have resources online as well. PMID:11955688

Young, Robert R

2002-04-25

87

Exploring Polymeric Micelles for Improved Delivery of Anticancer Agents: Recent Developments in Preclinical Studies  

PubMed Central

As versatile drug delivery systems, polymeric micelles have demonstrated particular strength in solubilizing hydrophobic anticancer drugs while eliminating the use of toxic organic solvents and surfactants. However, the true promise of polymeric micelles as drug carriers for cancer therapy resides in their potential ability to preferentially elevate drug exposure in the tumor and achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy, which still remains to be fully exploited. Here, we review various micellar constructs that exhibit the enhanced permeation and retention effect in the tumor, the targeting ligands that potentiate the anticancer efficacy of micellar drugs, and the polyplex micelle systems suitable for the delivery of plasmid DNA and small interference RNA. Together, these preclinical studies in animal models help us further explore polymeric micelles as emerging drug carriers for targeted cancer therapy. PMID:24300405

Tan, Chalet; Wang, Yingzhe; Fan, Wei

2013-01-01

88

Resveratrol: A Review of Pre-clinical Studies for Human Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

The search for novel and effective cancer chemopreventive agents has led to the identification of various naturally occurring compounds one of which is resveratrol (trans-3, 4?, 5-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin derived from the skin of grapes and other fruits. Resveratrol is known to have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects and to inhibit platelet aggregation and the growth of a variety of cancer cells. Its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities have been demonstrated in all three stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression), in both chemically and UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice, as well as in various murine models of human cancers. Evidence from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies has confirmed its ability to modulate various targets and signaling pathways. This review discusses the current preclinical and mechanistic data available and assesses resveratrol’s anti-cancer effects to support its potential as an anticancer agent in human populations. PMID:17306316

Athar, Mohammad; Back, Jung Ho; Tang, Xiuwei; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kopelovich, Levy; Bickers, David R.; Kim, Arianna L.

2007-01-01

89

Phase I\\/II Clinical Study of Pulsed Paclitaxel Radiosensitization for Thoracic Malignancy: A Therapeutic Approach on the Basis of Preclinical Research of Human Cancer Cell Lines1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: A Phase I\\/II clinical study using pulsed low- dose paclitaxel and radiation for thoracic malignancy was conducted. The study was based on preclinical research of the effects of paclitaxel on apoptosis and the cell cycle in human cancer cell lines. Experimental Design: Three human epithelial cancer cell lines were investigated for preclinical study. Cells were analyzed for apoptosis and

Yuhchyau Chen; Kishan Pandya; Peter C. Keng; David Johnstone; Jigang Li; Yi-Jang Lee; Therese Smudzin; Paul Okunieff

2003-01-01

90

Immune Competency of a Hairless Mouse Strain for Improved Preclinical Studies in Genetically-Engineered Mice  

PubMed Central

Genetically-engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are of increasing value to preclinical therapeutics. Optical imaging is a cost-effective method of assessing deep-seated tumor growth in GEMMs whose tumors can be encoded to express luminescent or fluorescent reporters, although reporter signal attenuation would be improved if animals were fur-free. In this study, we sought to determine whether hereditable furlessness resulting from a hypomorphic mutation in the Hairless gene would or would not also affect immune competence. By assessment of humoral and cellular immunity of the SKH1 mouse line bearing the hypomorphic Hairless mutation, we determined that blood counts, immunoglobulin levels, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were comparable between SKH1 and the C57Bl/6 strain. On examination of T cell subsets, statistically significant differences in naïve T cells (1.7 vs. 3.4 × 105 cells/spleen in SKH1 vs. C57Bl/6, p=0.008) and memory T cells (1.4 vs. 0.13 × 106 cells/spleen in SKH1 vs. C57Bl/6, p=0.008) were detected. However, the numerical differences did not result in altered T cell functional response to antigen re-challenge (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) in a lymph node cell in vitro proliferative assay. Furthermore, interbreeding the SKH1 mouse line to a rhabdomyosarcoma GEMM demonstrated preserved anti-tumor responses of CD56+ Natural Killer cells and CD163+ macrophages, without any differences in tumor pathology. The fur-free GEMM was also especially amenable to multiplex optical imaging. Thus, SKH1 represents an immune competent, fur-free mouse strain which may be of use for interbreeding to other genetically-engineered mouse models of cancer for improved preclinical studies. PMID:20663932

Schaffer, Beverly S.; Grayson, Marcia H.; Wortham, Joy M.; Kubicek, Courtney B.; McCleish, Amanda T.; Prajapati, Suresh I.; Nelon, Laura D.; Brady, Michelle M.; Jung, Inkyung; Hosoyama, Tohru; Sarro, Leslea M.; Hanes, Martha A.; Rubin, Brian P.; Michalek, Joel E.; Clifford, Charles B.; Infante, Anthony J.; Keller, Charles

2010-01-01

91

Nonindustry-Sponsored Preclinical Studies on Statins Yield Greater Efficacy Estimates Than Industry-Sponsored Studies: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Industry-sponsored clinical drug studies are associated with publication of outcomes that favor the sponsor, even when controlling for potential bias in the methods used. However, the influence of sponsorship bias has not been examined in preclinical animal studies. We performed a meta-analysis of preclinical statin studies to determine whether industry sponsorship is associated with either increased effect sizes of efficacy outcomes and/or risks of bias in a cohort of published preclinical statin studies. We searched Medline (January 1966–April 2012) and identified 63 studies evaluating the effects of statins on atherosclerosis outcomes in animals. Two coders independently extracted study design criteria aimed at reducing bias, results for all relevant outcomes, sponsorship source, and investigator financial ties. The I2 statistic was used to examine heterogeneity. We calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) for each outcome and pooled data across studies to estimate the pooled average SMD using random effects models. In a priori subgroup analyses, we assessed statin efficacy by outcome measured, sponsorship source, presence or absence of financial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. The effect of statins was significantly larger for studies sponsored by nonindustry sources (?1.99; 95% CI ?2.68, ?1.31) versus studies sponsored by industry (?0.73; 95% CI ?1.00, ?0.47) (p value<0.001). Statin efficacy did not differ by disclosure of financial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. Possible reasons for the differences between nonindustry- and industry-sponsored studies, such as selective reporting of outcomes, require further study. PMID:24465178

Krauth, David; Anglemyer, Andrew; Philipps, Rose; Bero, Lisa

2014-01-01

92

Executive Function Changes before Memory in Preclinical Alzheimer’s Pathology: A Prospective, Cross-Sectional, Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Early treatment of Alzheimer’s disease may reduce its devastating effects. By focusing research on asymptomatic individuals with Alzheimer’s disease pathology (the preclinical stage), earlier indicators of disease may be discovered. Decreasing cerebrospinal fluid beta-amyloid42 is the first indicator of preclinical disorder, but it is not known which pathology causes the first clinical effects. Our hypothesis is that neuropsychological changes within the normal range will help to predict preclinical disease and locate early pathology. Methods and Findings We recruited adults with probable Alzheimer’s disease or asymptomatic cognitively healthy adults, classified after medical and neuropsychological examination. By logistic regression, we derived a cutoff for the cerebrospinal fluid beta amyloid42/tau ratios that correctly classified 85% of those with Alzheimer’s disease. We separated the asymptomatic group into those with (n?=?34; preclinical Alzheimer’s disease) and without (n?=?36; controls) abnormal beta amyloid42/tau ratios; these subgroups had similar distributions of age, gender, education, medications, apolipoprotein-? genotype, vascular risk factors, and magnetic resonance imaging features of small vessel disease. Multivariable analysis of neuropsychological data revealed that only Stroop Interference (response inhibition) independently predicted preclinical pathology (OR?=?0.13, 95% CI?=?0.04–0.42). Lack of longitudinal and post-mortem data, older age, and small population size are limitations of this study. Conclusions Our data suggest that clinical effects from early amyloid pathophysiology precede those from hippocampal intraneuronal neurofibrillary pathology. Altered cerebrospinal fluid beta amyloid42 with decreased executive performance before memory impairment matches the deposits of extracellular amyloid that appear in the basal isocortex first, and only later involve the hippocampus. We propose that Stroop Interference may be an additional important screen for early pathology and useful to monitor treatment of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease; measures of executive and memory functions in a longitudinal design will be necessary to more fully evaluate this approach. PMID:24260210

Harrington, Michael G.; Chiang, Jiarong; Pogoda, Janice M.; Gomez, Megan; Thomas, Kris; Marion, Sarah DeBoard; Miller, Karen J.; Siddarth, Prabha; Yi, Xinyao; Zhou, Feimeng; Lee, Sherri; Arakaki, Xianghong; Cowan, Robert P.; Tran, Thao; Charleswell, Cherise; Ross, Brian D.; Fonteh, Alfred N.

2013-01-01

93

EFFECTS OF A BICARBONATE-ALKALINE MINERAL WATER ON GASTRIC FUNCTIONS AND FUNCTIONAL DYSPEPSIA: A PRECLINICAL AND CLINICAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was performed in order to evaluate: (1) the influence of a bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water (Uliveto®) on digestive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia; (2) the effects of Uliveto® on preclinical models of gastric functions. Selected patients complained of dyspeptic symptoms in the absence of digestive lesions or Helicobacter pylori infection within the previous 3 months. They were

MICHELE BERTONI; FILIPPO OLIVERI; MARTA MANGHETTI; ELENA BOCCOLINI; MARIA GRAZIA BELLOMINI; CORRADO BLANDIZZI; FERRUCCIO BONINO; MARIO DEL TACCA

2002-01-01

94

Educational Challenges in Toxicology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues and topics related to educational challenges in toxicology at all levels are discussed. They include public awareness and understanding, general approach to toxicology, quality structure-activity relationships, epidemiological studies, quantification of risk, and the types of toxicants studied. (JN)

Dixon, Robert L.

1984-01-01

95

Handling of the cotton rat in studies for the pre-clinical evaluation of oncolytic viruses.  

PubMed

Oncolytic viruses are a novel anticancer therapy with the ability to target tumor cells, while leaving healthy cells intact. For this strategy to be successful, recent studies have shown that involvement of the host immune system is essential. Therefore, oncolytic virotherapy should be evaluated within the context of an immunocompetent model. Furthermore, the study of antitumor therapies in tolerized animal models may better recapitulate results seen in clinical trials. Cotton rats, commonly used to study respiratory viruses, are an attractive model to study oncolytic virotherapy as syngeneic models of mammary carcinoma and osteosarcoma are well established. However, there is a lack of published information on the proper handling procedure for these highly excitable rodents. The handling and capture approach outlined minimizes animal stress to facilitate experimentation. This technique hinges upon the ability of the researcher to keep calm during handling and perform procedures in a timely fashion. Finally, we describe how to prepare cotton rat mammary tumor cells for consistent subcutaneous tumor formation, and how to perform intratumoral and intraperitoneal injections. These methods can be applied to a wide range of studies furthering the development of the cotton rat as a relevant pre-clinical model to study antitumor therapy. PMID:25490047

Cuddington, Breanne; Verschoor, Meghan; Mossman, Karen

2014-01-01

96

Toxicology screen  

MedlinePLUS

A toxicology screen refers to various tests to determine the type and approximate amount of legal and illegal drugs ... Toxicology screening is most often done using a blood or urine sample. However, it may be done ...

97

Computational Toxicology  

EPA Science Inventory

?Computational toxicology? is a broad term that encompasses all manner of computer-facilitated informatics, data-mining, and modeling endeavors in relation to toxicology, including exposure modeling, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, dose-response modeling, ...

98

Natural substances and Alzheimer's disease: from preclinical studies to evidence based medicine.  

PubMed

Over the last 10 years, the potential therapeutic effects of nutraceuticals to prevent or delay Alzheimer's disease were proposed. Among dietary antioxidants curcumin, Ginkgo biloba and carnitines were extensively studied for their neuroprotective effects. The rationale for this alternative therapeutic approach was based on several preclinical studies which suggested the neuroprotective effects for curcumin, Ginkgo biloba and acetyl-l-carnitine due to either a free radical scavenging activity or the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways or the potentiation of the cell stress response. However, although these are interesting premises, clinical studies were not able to demonstrate significant beneficial effects of curcumin, Ginkgo biloba and acetyl-l-carnitine in improving cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the main pharmacologic features of curcumin, Ginkgo biloba and carnitines as well as to underlie the main outcomes reached by clinical studies designed to demonstrate the efficacy of these natural substances in Alzheimer's disease patients. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease. PMID:21939756

Mancuso, Cesare; Siciliano, Raffaella; Barone, Eugenio; Preziosi, Paolo

2012-05-01

99

Development of a specific tracer for metabolic imaging of alveolar echinococcosis: A preclinical study.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable method for initial staging and follow up of patients with alveolar echinococcosis (AE). However, the cells responsible for FDG uptake have not been clearly identified. The main goal of our study was to evaluate the uptake of PET tracers by the cells involved in the host-parasite reaction around AE lesions as the first step to develop a specific PET tracer that would allow direct assessment of parasite viability in AE. Candidate molecules ([18F]-fluorotyrosine (FET), [18F]-fluorothymidine (FLT), and [18F]-fluorometylcholine (FMC), were compared to FDG by in vitro studies on human leukocytes and parasite vesicles. Our results confirmed that FDG was mainly consumed by immune cells and showed that FLT was the best candidate tracer for parasite metabolism. Indeed, parasite cells exhibited high uptake of FLT. We also performed PET/CT scans in mice infected intraperitoneally with E. multilocularis metacestodes. PET images showed no FDG or FLT uptake in parasitic lesions. This preliminary study assessed the metabolic activity of human leukocytes and AE cells using radiolabeling. Future studies could develop a specific PET tracer for AE lesions to improve lesion detection and echinococcosis treatment in patients. Our results demonstrated that a new animal model is needed for preclinical PET imaging to better mimic human hepatic and/or periparasitic metabolism. PMID:25571261

Porot, Clémence; Knapp, Jenny; Wang, Junhua; Germain, Stéphane; Camporese, Davide; Seimbille, Yann; Boulahdour, Hatem; Vuitton, Dominique A; Gottstein, Bruno; Blagosklonov, Oleg

2014-01-01

100

Preclinical endodontic teaching  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To provide an overview of the general curricula in preclinical endodontic training from 6 established dental schools in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted in January 2014 including only schools that had more than 2 groups of student graduates prior to the study. We included 2 dental schools from the Central region, one from Qassim region, one from the Makkah region (west), one from Abha region (south west), and one from the eastern region. An internet-based questionnaire was sent to the course directors of preclinical endodontics department of the 6 schools. The survey comprised 20 questions that examined various aspects of preclinical endodontics. Results: It was demonstrated that a significant number of faculty members had Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees (n=21), Master’s degrees (n=15), and Saudi board certifications (n=8). We determined that the faculty to student ratio varied from 2:1 to 8: 1 among the colleges. The participating dental schools were found to teach the Step Back, as well as the Step Down techniques for root canal preparation. Five of the 6 schools implemented the use of nickel titanium rotary instruments. All dental schools predominantly used radiographs as the means of the working length determination. Conclusion: The curriculum for preclinical endodontics in Saudi Arabia is comparable to that followed in most European countries. A more comprehensive survey is needed that would involve more schools to formulate generalized guidelines for preclinical endodontic training in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25630011

Narayanaraopeta, Udaya; AlShwaimi, Emad

2015-01-01

101

High-density lipoprotein and atherosclerosis regression: evidence from preclinical and clinical studies.  

PubMed

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles transport (among other molecules) cholesterol (HDL-C). In epidemiological studies, plasma HDL-C levels have an inverse relationship to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It has been assumed that this reflects the protective functions of HDL, which include their ability to promote cholesterol efflux. Yet, several recent pharmacological and genetic studies have failed to demonstrate that increased plasma levels of HDL-C resulted in decreased cardiovascular disease risk, giving rise to a controversy regarding whether plasma levels of HDL-C reflect HDL function, or that HDL is even as protective as assumed. The evidence from preclinical and (limited) clinical studies shows that HDL can promote the regression of atherosclerosis when the levels of functional particles are increased from endogenous or exogenous sources. The data show that regression results from a combination of reduced plaque lipid and macrophage contents, as well as from a reduction in its inflammatory state. Although more research will be needed regarding basic mechanisms and to establish that these changes translate clinically to reduced cardiovascular disease events, that HDL can regress plaques suggests that the recent trial failures do not eliminate HDL from consideration as an atheroprotective agent but rather emphasizes the important distinction between HDL function and plasma levels of HDL-C. PMID:24385513

Feig, Jonathan E; Hewing, Bernd; Smith, Jonathan D; Hazen, Stanley L; Fisher, Edward A

2014-01-01

102

[Development and preclinical study of new generation virosomal split influenza vaccine "Grifor"].  

PubMed

New Russian virosomal split vaccine against influenza "Grifor" was developed. The vaccine is represented by mix of highly purified protective external and internal antigens of influenza A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B viruses. Developed technology of manufacture allowed to provide presentation of external antigens of influenza virus in the form of virosomes, and presentation of internal antigens in the form of micelles with maximal preservation of their antigenic activity. Using electron microscopy, electrophoresis in 10% polyacrilamide gel with sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polymerase chain reaction, morphologic and biochemical properties of the vaccine were studied. Preclinical study, including assessment of antigenic characteristics of "Grifor" vaccine compared to vaccine "Vaxigrip" (France), was performed. It was established that administration of the vaccine did not result in death of experimental animals, decrease of body mass, development of pathologic (including inflammatory, dystrophic and necrobiotic) changes in viscera or render adverse effects on blood hematologic and biochemical parameters and on the immune system. The vaccine was not pyrogenic and allergenic, did not have local irritating effects. Obtained results supported the appropriateness of conducting the clinical trials of "Grifor" vaccine on limited number of volunteers. PMID:19338232

Mel'nikov, S Ia; Zverev, V V; Korovkin, S A; Mironov, A N; Dyldina, N V; Mikha?lova, N A; Fa?zuloev, E B; Lotte, V D

2009-01-01

103

Coil optimization for low-field MRI: a dedicated process for small animal preclinical studies.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a method for the fast in vivo quantification of small volumes, down to 25?µL, using low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coils. The coils were designed so as to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the images. For this we developed an analytical model for describing the variations of the SNR with coil design and with size/shape suited to the object under observation. Based on the conclusions drawn from the model, the coil parameters were chosen in order to reach an SNR close to the maximum. For the validation of the model, coils were finally characterized in terms of quality factor using saline phantoms. The coil design procedure is illustrated here with two examples: first, the quantification of about 200?µL of intradermal injected gel on rabbits with a single loop surface coil and second, the imaging of the intervertebral disks in rat tails using a small volume coil to detect possible lesions. Such studies would not have been feasible for the clinical low-field MRI system at our disposal using any of the commercially available medium-sized manufactured coils. As a result of this simple optimization procedure, a wide range of applications is accessible even at low magnetic fields, leading to new opportunities for low-cost, though efficient, preclinical studies. PMID:25359877

Feuillet, T; Seurin, M-J; Leveneur, O; Viguier, E; Beuf, O

2015-04-01

104

Proteomics for systems toxicology  

PubMed Central

Current toxicology studies frequently lack measurements at molecular resolution to enable a more mechanism-based and predictive toxicological assessment. Recently, a systems toxicology assessment framework has been proposed, which combines conventional toxicological assessment strategies with system-wide measurement methods and computational analysis approaches from the field of systems biology. Proteomic measurements are an integral component of this integrative strategy because protein alterations closely mirror biological effects, such as biological stress responses or global tissue alterations. Here, we provide an overview of the technical foundations and highlight select applications of proteomics for systems toxicology studies. With a focus on mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we summarize the experimental methods for quantitative proteomics and describe the computational approaches used to derive biological/mechanistic insights from these datasets. To illustrate how proteomics has been successfully employed to address mechanistic questions in toxicology, we summarized several case studies. Overall, we provide the technical and conceptual foundation for the integration of proteomic measurements in a more comprehensive systems toxicology assessment framework. We conclude that, owing to the critical importance of protein-level measurements and recent technological advances, proteomics will be an integral part of integrative systems toxicology approaches in the future. PMID:25379146

Titz, Bjoern; Elamin, Ashraf; Martin, Florian; Schneider, Thomas; Dijon, Sophie; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

2014-01-01

105

TISSUE SLICES IN THE STUDY OF LUNG METABOLISM AND TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Lung tissue slices are model systems for the study of pulmonary metabolism. Because of the speed and simplicity of slice preparation, lung slices have been used in studies of oxygen, amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid utilization and adenine nucleotide metabolism. Dose-response c...

106

IN VITRO STUDIES: WHAT IS THEIR ROLE IN TOXICOLOGY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Many epidemiology studies have reported associations between inhaled environmental pollutants, especially particles, and mortality or morbidity. Despite these impressive associations, fundamental uncertainties exist as to the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms responsible f...

107

Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol in mice: Toxicological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the postnatal development of male and female genital tract function was studied. The placental transfer of radiolabeled (H or C) DES was studied in pregnant mice. DES?associated radioactivity in the fetal plasma approximated that in maternal plasma #fr1\\/2> hr after intravenous administration of [H]DES; H activity corresponding to DES in the

J. A. McLachlan

1977-01-01

108

Pharmacological intervention studies using mouse models of the inflammatory bowel diseases: translating preclinical data into new drug therapies.  

PubMed

Most therapeutic agents used in clinical practice today were originally developed and tested in animal models so that drug toxicity and safety, dose-responses, and efficacy could be determined. Retrospective analyses of preclinical intervention studies using animal models of different diseases demonstrate that only a small percentage of the interventions reporting promising effects translate to clinical efficacy. The failure to translate therapeutic efficacy from bench to bedside may be due, in part, to shortcomings in the design of the clinical studies; however, it is becoming clear that much of the problem resides within the preclinical studies. One potential strategy for improving our ability to identify new therapeutics that may have a reasonable chance of success in clinical trials is to identify the most immunologically-relevant mouse models of IBD and pharmacologic strategies that most closely mimic the clinical situation. This review presents a critical evaluation of the different mouse models and pharmacological approaches that may be used in intervention studies as well as discuss emerging issues related to study design and data interpretation of preclinical studies. PMID:21312318

Koboziev, Iurii; Karlsson, Fridrik; Zhang, Songlin; Grisham, Matthew B

2011-05-01

109

Pharmacological Intervention Studies Using Mouse Models of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Translating Preclinical Data into New Drug Therapies  

PubMed Central

Most therapeutic agents used in clinical practice today were originally developed and tested in animal models so that drug toxicity and safety, dose-responses and efficacy could be determined. Retrospective analyses of preclinical intervention studies using animal models of different diseases demonstrate that only a small percentage of the interventions reporting promising effects translate to clinical efficacy. The failure to translate therapeutic efficacy from bench to bedside may be due, in part, to shortcomings in the design of the clinical studies; however, it is becoming clear that much of the problem resides within the preclinical studies. One potential strategy for improving our ability to identify new therapeutics that may have a reasonable chance of success in well-controlled clinical trials is to identify the most relevant mouse models IBD and pharmacologic strategies that most closely mimic the clinical situation. To begin this process, we present a critical evaluation of the different mouse models and pharmacological approaches that may be used in intervention studies as well as discuss emerging issues related to study design and data interpretation of preclinical studies. PMID:21312318

Koboziev, Iurii; Karlsson, Fridrik; Zhang, Songlin; Grisham, Matthew B.

2010-01-01

110

Toxicological study of ''Aralhex Brush'' and its two components  

SciTech Connect

The acute oral LD/sub 50/ values for the adhesive ''Aralhex Brush'' for mice and rats are greater than 5g/kg. According to classified guidelines, the mixture would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit with the adhesive demonstrated that it was cutaneously mildly irritating; however, based on the primary irritation index, the adhesive's two precursor components were nonirritating. The adhesive and components I were mildly irritating in the rabbit eye application studies and component II was non-irritating. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show ''Aralhex Brush'' or its two components to be sensitizers. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.

1985-09-01

111

ISOTOPIC STUDY OF THE INHALATION TOXICOLOGY OF OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of these studies was to develop novel methods to investigate the biological fate of inhaled ozone and other oxygen-containing pollutants in animal and human tissues using the heavy isotope of oxygen, oxygen-18 (18O). Methods were developed which facilitated the conver...

112

Cassava starch fermentation wastewater: Characterization and preliminary toxicological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava starch fermentation wastewater is an industrial residue composed mainly of lactic acid bacteria with predominance of the genera Lactobacillus, and organic acids. To evaluate the safety of this residue for possible production of probiotic beverages, acute in mice and sub-chronic (28-day repeated dose) toxicity studies in rats were carried. The administration of a single dose of 5g\\/kg\\/body weight did

S. R. P. Avancini; G. L. Faccin; M. A. Vieira; A. A. Rovaris; R. Podestá; R. Tramonte; N. M. A. de Souza; E. R. Amante

2007-01-01

113

Environmental fate and aquatic toxicology studies on phthalate esters.  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive environmental fate and effects testing program, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) Phthalate Esters Program Panel, has been completed. Based on the results, a preliminary safety assessment has shown that all of the 14 commercially important phthalates tested have sufficiently high safety factors to demonstrate low potential for adverse environmental effects. This program comprised acute toxicity studies on nine representative species of aquatic life, chronic reproduction studies on Daphnia magna, biodegradation (fate) testing, and physicochemical property (mobility) determinations on 14 phthalate esters. The objectives of this program were to determine for each test compound: The concentration at which effects on aquatic life might occur, the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic life, and the relative persistence in the environment. These data would provide the basis for an environmental safety assessment and would identify potential effects that might require further investigation. A total of 195 individual studies were carried out. Tests on a wide variety of aquatic organisms representing different food chain levels in both fresh and salt water environments showed that no single test species was unusually sensitive to the test materials. The higher molecular weight (longer side-chain) phthalates exhibited no toxic effects up to their limits of water solubility in the test systems. Even though the lower molecular weight, more water-soluble phthalates produced toxic effects below their limits of water solubility, no product exhibited unusually severe effects of concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3709460

Group, E F

1986-01-01

114

Toxicological investigations on silicon carbide. 1. Inhalation studies.  

PubMed Central

The question of lung damage as a result of exposure to silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated by inhalation experiments to obtain information on the qualitative response of lung tissue to the test substance (SiC). For comparison, quartz, kaolinite, and tempered clay dusts were used. The indices for the effects of the dusts studied were organ weights, numbers of bronchoalveolar cells, lung surfactant phospholipid concentrations including subfractions, and lung clearance. Exposure to the test samples was carried out according to the Essen inhalation model in two independent series. The results of the two series were similar: Compared with sham controls, exposure to SiC did not affect the indices studied. Even at a low dose (a quarter of the SiC dose) quartz gave pronounced deviations in all indices. In particular, an increase in granulocytes indicated toxic properties of the dust. The long term elimination of quartz from the lung was worse than that of SiC. The kaolinite and tempered clay dusts were intermediate between SiC and quartz based on several of the indices studied. It is concluded that SiC is deposited practically inert in the lung. PMID:8398873

Bruch, J; Rehn, B; Song, H; Gono, E; Malkusch, W

1993-01-01

115

Streams of Coal or Streams of Death? A Toxicology Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mary Beth was raised in Western Pennsylvania, an area where thousands of abandoned coal mines have led to extensive contamination of streams and associated ground waters. Aquatic life has clearly suffered, but the health effects on people living along the waterways have not been so clear. In working through this interrupted case study, students consider the biological consequences for Mary Beth’s family by analyzing selected research articles. Originally developed for an upper level toxicology course, it would also be appropriate for a cancer biology course and could easily be adapted for a course in science and society or environmental studies.

Linda Niedziela

2007-01-01

116

Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39?g/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319. PMID:25176360

Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

2014-09-01

117

Nutritional toxicological studies with Lannate: interactions with caffeine and ethanol.  

PubMed

Effects of the ingestion of Lannate (200 mg/kg diet), caffeine (30 mg% aqueous solution) and ethanol (10% aqueous solution) both separately as well as the ingestion of Lannate with caffeine or ethanol were studied in R/Amsterdam rats. Response to the combined administration of Lannate and caffeine produced evidence of interactions only in female rats. The combined ingestion of Lannate and ethanol resulted in some interactions both in female and male rats, however, sex differences were apparent regarding certain parameters. PMID:6933958

Selmeci-Antal, M; Barta-Bedo, M; Constantinovits, G; Nagy, K; Szépvólgyi, J

1980-01-01

118

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

1988-08-01

119

Subchronic Toxicological Study of Two Artemisinin Derivatives in Dogs  

PubMed Central

The objective of our study was to profile and compare the systematic changes between orally administered artesunate and intramuscularly injected artemether at a low dose over a 3-month period (92 consecutive days) in dogs. Intramuscular administration of 6 mg kg-1 artemether induced a decreased red blood cell (RBC) count (anemia), concurrent extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and inhibition of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. We also observed a prolonged QT interval and neuropathic changes in the central nervous system, which demonstrated the cortex and motor neuron vulnerability, but no behavioral changes. Following treatment with artesunate, we observed a decreased heart rate, which was most likely due to cardiac conduction system damage, as well as a deceased RBC count, extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and inhibition of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. However, in contrast to treatment with artemether, neurotoxicity was not observed following treatment with artesunate. In addition, ultra-structural examination by transmission electron microscopy showed mitochondrial damage following treatment with artesunate. These findings demonstrated the spectrum of toxic changes that result upon treatment with artesunate and artemether and show that the prolonged administration of low doses of these derivatives result in diverse toxicity profiles. PMID:24739881

Yin, Ji-ye; Wang, He-mei; Wang, Quan-jun; Dong, Yan-sheng; Han, Gang; Guan, Yong-biao; Zhao, Ke-yong; Qu, Wen-sheng; Yuan, Ye; Gao, Xiao-xin; Jing, Shu-fang; Ding, Ri-gao

2014-01-01

120

Subchronic toxicological study of two artemisinin derivatives in dogs.  

PubMed

The objective of our study was to profile and compare the systematic changes between orally administered artesunate and intramuscularly injected artemether at a low dose over a 3-month period (92 consecutive days) in dogs. Intramuscular administration of 6 mg kg-1 artemether induced a decreased red blood cell (RBC) count (anemia), concurrent extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and inhibition of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. We also observed a prolonged QT interval and neuropathic changes in the central nervous system, which demonstrated the cortex and motor neuron vulnerability, but no behavioral changes. Following treatment with artesunate, we observed a decreased heart rate, which was most likely due to cardiac conduction system damage, as well as a deceased RBC count, extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and inhibition of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. However, in contrast to treatment with artemether, neurotoxicity was not observed following treatment with artesunate. In addition, ultra-structural examination by transmission electron microscopy showed mitochondrial damage following treatment with artesunate. These findings demonstrated the spectrum of toxic changes that result upon treatment with artesunate and artemether and show that the prolonged administration of low doses of these derivatives result in diverse toxicity profiles. PMID:24739881

Yin, Ji-ye; Wang, He-mei; Wang, Quan-jun; Dong, Yan-sheng; Han, Gang; Guan, Yong-biao; Zhao, Ke-yong; Qu, Wen-sheng; Yuan, Ye; Gao, Xiao-xin; Jing, Shu-fang; Ding, Ri-gao

2014-01-01

121

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats  

SciTech Connect

Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

1990-12-01

122

Preclinical Potency and Safety Studies of an AAV2-Mediated Gene Therapy Vector for the Treatment of MERTK Associated Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Abstract Proof of concept for MERTK gene replacement therapy has been demonstrated using different viral vectors in the Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rat, a well characterized model of recessive retinitis pigmentosa that contains a mutation in the Mertk gene. MERTK plays a key role in renewal of photoreceptor outer segments (OS) by phagocytosis of shed OS tips. Mutations in MERTK cause impaired phagocytic activity and accumulation of OS debris in the interphotoreceptor space that ultimately leads to photoreceptor cell death. In the present study, we conducted a series of preclinical potency and GLP-compliant safety evaluations of an adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) vector expressing human MERTK cDNA driven by the retinal pigment epithelium–specific, VMD2 promoter. We demonstrate the potency of the vector in RCS rats by improved electroretinogram (ERG) responses in treated eyes compared with contralateral untreated controls. Toxicology and biodistribution studies were performed in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats injected with two different doses of AAV vectors and buffer control. Delivery of vector in SD rats did not result in a change in ERG amplitudes of rod and cone responses relative to balanced salt solution control–injected eyes, indicating that administration of AAV vector did not adversely affect normal retinal function. In vivo fundoscopic analysis and postmortem retinal morphology of the vector-injected eyes were normal compared with controls. Evaluation of blood smears showed the lack of transformed cells in the treated eyes. All injected eyes and day 1 blood samples were positive for vector genomes, and all peripheral tissues were negative. Our results demonstrate the potency and safety of the AAV2-VMD2-hMERTK vector in animal models tested. A GMP vector has been manufactured and is presently in clinical trial. PMID:23692380

Deng, Wen-Tao; Erger, Kirsten; Cossette, Travis; Pang, Ji-jing; Ryals, Renee; Clément, Nathalie; Cleaver, Brian; McDoom, Issam; Boye, Shannon E.; Peden, Marc C.; Sherwood, Mark B.; Abernathy, Corinne R.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Boye, Sanford L.; Hauswirth, William W.

2013-01-01

123

Molecular Toxicology Undergraduate Student Learning Goals  

E-print Network

advanced topics in toxicology including computational biology, pesticide chemistry, practical toxicologyMolecular Toxicology Undergraduate Student Learning Goals Brief Overview of the Intent of the Major Program Molecular toxicology is the mechanism based study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living

Wildermuth, Mary C

124

Preclinical studies identify novel targeted pharmacological strategies for treatment of human malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

The incidence of human malignant pleural mesothelioma (hMPM) is still increasing worldwide. hMPM prognosis is poor even if the median survival time has been slightly improved after the introduction of the up-to-date chemotherapy. Nevertheless, large phase II/III trials support the combination of platinum derivatives and pemetrexed or raltitrexed, as preferred first-line schedule. Better understanding of the molecular machinery of hMPM will lead to the design and synthesis of novel compounds targeted against pathways identified as crucial for hMPM cell proliferation and spreading. Among them, several receptors tyrosine kinase show altered activity in subsets of hMPM. This observation suggests that these kinases might represent novel therapeutic targets in this chemotherapy-resistant disease. Over these foundations, several promising studies are ongoing at preclinical level and novel molecules are currently under evaluation as well. Yet, established tumour cell lines, used for decades to investigate the efficacy of anticancer agents, although still the main source of drug efficacy studies, after long-term cultures tend to biologically diverge from the original tumour, limiting the predictive potential of in vivo efficacy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of malignant cells capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are believed to play an essential role in cancer initiation, growth, metastasization and relapse, being responsible of chemo- and radiotherapy refractoriness. According to the current carcinogenesis theory, CSCs represent the tumour-initiating cell (TIC) fraction, the only clonogenic subpopulation able to originate a tumour mass. Consequently, the recently described isolation of TICs from hMPM, the proposed main pharmacological target for novel antitumoural drugs, may contribute to better dissect the biology and multidrug resistance pathways controlling hMPM growth. PMID:22289125

Favoni, Roberto E; Daga, Antonio; Malatesta, Paolo; Florio, Tullio

2012-01-01

125

Preclinical studies identify novel targeted pharmacological strategies for treatment of human malignant pleural mesothelioma.  

PubMed

The incidence of human malignant pleural mesothelioma (hMPM) is still increasing worldwide. hMPM prognosis is poor even if the median survival time has been slightly improved after the introduction of the up-to-date chemotherapy. Nevertheless, large phase II/III trials support the combination of platinum derivatives and pemetrexed or raltitrexed, as preferred first-line schedule. Better understanding of the molecular machinery of hMPM will lead to the design and synthesis of novel compounds targeted against pathways identified as crucial for hMPM cell proliferation and spreading. Among them, several receptors tyrosine kinase show altered activity in subsets of hMPM. This observation suggests that these kinases might represent novel therapeutic targets in this chemotherapy-resistant disease. Over these foundations, several promising studies are ongoing at preclinical level and novel molecules are currently under evaluation as well. Yet, established tumour cell lines, used for decades to investigate the efficacy of anticancer agents, although still the main source of drug efficacy studies, after long-term cultures tend to biologically diverge from the original tumour, limiting the predictive potential of in vivo efficacy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of malignant cells capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are believed to play an essential role in cancer initiation, growth, metastasization and relapse, being responsible of chemo- and radiotherapy refractoriness. According to the current carcinogenesis theory, CSCs represent the tumour-initiating cell (TIC) fraction, the only clonogenic subpopulation able to originate a tumour mass. Consequently, the recently described isolation of TICs from hMPM, the proposed main pharmacological target for novel antitumoural drugs, may contribute to better dissect the biology and multidrug resistance pathways controlling hMPM growth. PMID:22289125

Favoni, Roberto E; Daga, Antonio; Malatesta, Paolo; Florio, Tullio

2012-05-01

126

TOXICOLOGY OF PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report includes the results of five toxicological studies of pesticide compounds conducted by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In the first study, the reactions of two groups of esterases (cholinesterases and arylesterases) with...

127

Trajectories of memory decline in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing.  

PubMed

Memory changes in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often characterized by heterogenous trajectories. However, data regarding the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of memory changes in preclinical AD are lacking. We analyzed data from 333 cognitively healthy older adults who participated in a multicenter prospective cohort study with baseline and 18-, 36-, and 54-month follow-up assessments. Latent growth mixture modeling revealed 3 predominant trajectories of memory change: a below average, subtly declining memory trajectory (30.9%); a below average, rapidly declining memory trajectory (3.6%); and an above average, stable memory trajectory (65.5%). Compared with the stable memory trajectory, high ?? (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.1), and lower Mini-Mental State Examination (RRR = 0.6) and full-scale IQ (RRR = 0.9) scores were independently associated with the subtly declining memory trajectory; and high ?? (RRR = 8.3), APOE ?4 carriage (RRR = 6.1), and greater subjective memory impairment (RRR = 1.2) were independently associated with the rapidly declining memory trajectory. Compared with the subtly declining memory trajectory group, APOE ?4 carriage (RRR = 8.4), and subjective memory complaints (RRR = 1.2) were associated with a rapidly declining memory trajectory. These results suggest that the preclinical phase of AD may be characterized by 2 predominant trajectories of memory decline that have common (e.g., high ??) and unique (e.g., APOE ?4 genotype) determinants. PMID:25585532

Pietrzak, Robert H; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Harrington, Karra; Restrepo, Carolina; Martins, Ralph N; Rembach, Alan; Laws, Simon M; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

2015-03-01

128

Nubac Disc Arthroplasty: Preclinical Studies and Preliminary Safety and Efficacy Evaluations  

PubMed Central

Background Disc arthroplasty is gaining popularity for treatment of low-back pain caused by degenerative disc disease (DDD). It can involve total disc replacement or partial disc or nucleus replacement (or augmentation). Compared with total disc replacement, nucleus replacement is less invasive, has less surgical risk, has faster postoperative recovery, and doesn't “burn bridges” should further surgery be required. However, nucleus replacement has a high risk of implant expulsion because the device is not fixed to the vertebrae. Nubac is the first polyetheretherketone (PEEK)-on-PEEK articulated disc arthroplasty device designed to optimally restore the lumbar anatomy and biomechanics. Methods ISO 10993 standards were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the PEEK material. Chemical and thermal–mechanical tests and in vivo study assessed PEEK's biostability after exposure to high g irradiation and harsh oxidative conditions. Biomechanical tests to evaluate kinematic properties and anatomical restoration of the implanted lumbar motion segments and implant expulsion risk assessments were performed with a human cadaveric model. Because of the novelty of PEEK-on-PEEK as a self-mating articulating material, extensive wear tests were conducted with unidirectional and coupled motions. Static and fatigue strength also were tested. Animal study with a baboon model was conducted with gross, radiographic, biomechanical, and histological evaluations at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Preliminary clinical data were collected through a prospective multicenter cohort study. Results PEEK demonstrated exceptional biocompatibility and biodurability. Nubac restored disc height and motion segment range of motion. The unique articulating design of the Nubac demonstrated low risk of implant expulsion in a human cadaveric model. Wear tests showed that the Nubac has minimal wear and compares favorably to other disc arthroplasty materials. The Nubac also had excellent static and fatigue properties for the intended application. The animal study showed that the Nubac caused no adverse local or systematic tissue reaction and there was no detectable wear debris. The preliminary clinical data showed no major intraoperative vascular and neurological complications. There was significant Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index score improvement. Conclusions The preclinical data supported the design rationale, and the preliminary clinical data (level II evidence) on safety and efficacy were encouraging. Clinical Relevance The Nubac could be a viable first surgical option for patients with back pain caused by DDD.

Songer, Matthew; Pimenta, Luis; Werner, Dieter; Reyes-Sanchez, Alejandro; Balsano, Massimo; Agrillo, Umberto; Coric, Domagoj; Davenport, Kenneth; Yuan, Hansen

2007-01-01

129

Green toxicology.  

PubMed

Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops, the Green Toxicology concept is currently spreading internationally and is being refined via an iterative process. PMID:25061898

Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

2014-01-01

130

A comparative toxicological study of Rasamanikya prepared with three different methods  

PubMed Central

Rasamanikya a familiar drug, frequently used by Ayurvedic physicians. It also has a high demand in current pharmaceutical industry. Rasamanikya possesses different pharmaceutical methods with many a proved clinical studies. But it is of utmost importance to understand the safety profile of drug based on assurance which could be done by carrying out animal experimentation. In the present study, Rasamanikya was prepared with three methods. The toxicological study was carried out on acute and sub-acute toxicity of the drug. The three samples when compared together showed that Rasamanikya prepared out of classical Abhraka Patra method and modified Sharava Samputa method showed minimal histopathological changes proving its non-toxicity, whereas Rasamanikya prepared out of electric bulb method showed mild toxicity, but with chances of recovery. Acute toxicity study showed no immediate and evident toxic signs and mortality in histopathology reports and liver function test. However, sub-acute toxicity study showed mild to moderate fatty changes in liver. PMID:24501530

Sud, Sushant; Reddy, P. Sekhar; Sujatha, K.; Honwad, Sudheendra

2013-01-01

131

Metabonomics and toxicology.  

PubMed

Being an emerging field of "omics" research, metabonomics has been increasingly used in toxicological studies mostly because this technology has the ability to provide more detailed information to elucidate mechanism of toxicity. As an interdisciplinary field of science, metabonomics combines analytical chemistry, bioinformatics, statistics, and biochemistry. When applied to toxicology, metabonomics also includes aspects of patho-biochemistry, systems biology, and molecular diagnostics. During a toxicological study, the metabolic changes over time and dose after chemical treatment can be monitored. Therefore, the most important use of this emerging technology is the identification of signatures of toxicity-patterns of metabolic changes predictive of a hazard manifestation. This chapter summarizes the current state of metabonomics technology and its applications in various areas of toxicological studies. PMID:25677156

Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

2015-01-01

132

Cell-Seeded Tubularized Scaffolds for Reconstruction of Long Urethral Defects: A Preclinical Study  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment options for patients requiring repair of a long segment of the urethra are limited by the availability of autologous tissues. We previously reported that acellular collagen-based tubularized constructs seeded with cells are able to repair small urethral defects in a rabbit model. Objective We explored the feasibility of engineering clinically relevant long urethras for surgical reconstruction in a canine preclinical model. Design, setting, and participants Autologous bladder epithelial and smooth muscle cells from 15 male dogs were grown and seeded onto preconfigured collagen-based tubular matrices (6 cm in length). The perineal urethral segment was removed in 21 male dogs. Urethroplasties were performed with tubularized collagen scaffolds seeded with cells in 15 animals. Tubularized constructs without cells were implanted in six animals. Serial urethrography and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scans were performed pre- and postoperatively at 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. The animals were euthanized at their predetermined time points (three animals at 1 mo, and four at 3, 6, and 12 mo) for analyses. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Statistical analysis of CT imaging and histology was not needed. Results and limitations CT urethrograms showed wide-caliber urethras without strictures in animals implanted with cell-seeded matrices. The urethral segments replaced with acellular scaffolds collapsed. Gross examination of the urethral implants seeded with cells showed normal-appearing tissue without evidence of fibrosis. Histologically, an epithelial cell layer surrounded by muscle fiber bundles was observed on the cell-seeded constructs, and cellular organization increased over time. The epithelial and smooth muscle phenotypes were confirmed using antibodies to pancytokeratins AE1/AE3 and smooth muscle–specific desmin. Formation of an epithelial cell layer occurred in the unseeded constructs, but few muscle fibers formed. Conclusions Cell-seeded tubularized collagen scaffolds can be used to repair long urethral defects, whereas scaffolds without cells lead to poor tissue development and strictures. This study demonstrates that long tissue-engineered tubularized urethral segments may be used for urethroplasty in patients. PMID:22877501

Orabi, Hazem; AbouShwareb, Tamer; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yoo, James J.; Atala, Anthony

2012-01-01

133

Uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology.  

PubMed

The uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology are described with reference to New York State. The available record systems (and relevant reproductive end points) described include: a newborn screening program for metabolic diseases and hemoglobinopathies (relevant to point mutations); chromosome registries and prenatal cytogenetics (for chromosome anomalies); live birth certificates (for birth defects, birthweight, sex ratio, etc); fetal death certificates (for spontaneous fetal deaths); and a statewide cancer registry (for childhood cancers and transplacental carcinogenesis). The uses and limitations of these record systems are discussed, along with examples of their use in descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies. Descriptive studies outlined include investigations of temporal and geographic trends in birth defects, birth weight, and fetal deaths, with reference to environmental questions (eg, Love Canal, nuclear power plants). Analytic studies described concern parental occupation in relation to specific birth defects (neural tube defects and Down syndrome) and maternal use of contraceptive drugs. PMID:6220602

Polednak, A P; Janerich, D T

1983-01-01

134

Uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology  

SciTech Connect

The uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology are described with reference to New York State. The available record systems (and relevant reproductive end points) described include: a newborn screening program for metabolic diseases and hemoglobinopathies (relevant to point mutations); chromosome registries and prenatal cytogenetics (for chromosome anomalies); live birth certificates (for birth defects, birthweight, sex ratio, etc); fetal death certificates (for spontaneous fetal deaths); and a statewide cancer registry (for childhood cancers and transplacental carcinogenesis). The uses and limitations of these record systems are discussed, along with examples of their use in descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies. Descriptive studies outlined include investigations of temporal and geographic trends in birth defects, birth weight, and fetal deaths, with reference to environmental questions (eg, Love Canal, nuclear power plants). Analytic studies described concern parental occupation in relation to specific birth defects (neural tube defects and Down syndrome) and maternal use of contraceptive drugs.

Polednak, A.P.; Janerich, D.T.

1983-01-01

135

Validation of immunoassay for protein biomarkers: bioanalytical study plan implementation to support pre-clinical and clinical studies.  

PubMed

Biomarkers have emerged as an important tool to optimize the benefit/risk ratio of therapeutics. The scientific impact of biomarker studies is directly related to the quality of the underlying data. It is therefore important that guidance be established for validation of assays used to support drug development. This paper specifically focuses on validation of immunoassay for protein biomarker to support pre-clinical and clinical studies. Therapeutics (small- and macro-molecules) and their respective target/ligand are out of scope. This paper describes the implementation of a bioanalytical study plan for the validation of immunoassays to support decision-making biomarkers and biomarker selection during preclinical and clinical studies. It establishes the complete operating procedure as well as the parameters and their respective acceptance criteria and defines milestones and decision points to be followed during the assay validation that should result in high quality bioanalytical data in a limited timeframe and with reduced costs. The bioanalytical study plan can be applied to the validation of a wild range of immunoassay technology such as monoplex ELISA, automated analyzer, multiplex assays or cutting edge technology. Before any validation, a feasibility study is performed to assess the performance of the immunoassay using biological samples which should mimic the clinical population. The feasibility study addresses the likelihood that an assay will be able to achieve its intended purpose with parallelism being the most critical element (milestone 1). At the end of the feasibility study, a decision is taken to either continue with the validation or change the assay (milestone 2). The milestone 3 consists of the establishment of the nominal value of quality control to be used during the validation. The quality controls used to validate an assay should preferentially be prepared using neat (non-spiked) biological matrix (ideally derived from the specific trial population). The last milestone (milestone 4), the formal validation, includes demonstration of the assay performance meeting accuracy and precision acceptance criteria within (intra-run) and between (inter-run) validation runs for each QC sample. Validation also includes the assessment of stability of the protein biomarker in the biological matrix. It is recognized that the extent of the validation should be correlated to the intended use of the data and the assay acceptance criteria should take into consideration the study objective(s), nature of the methodology and the biological variability of the biomarker. PMID:21530130

Valentin, Marie-Anne; Ma, Shenglin; Zhao, An; Legay, François; Avrameas, Alexandre

2011-07-15

136

Attempted and Successful Compensation in Preclinical and Early Manifest Neurodegeneration – A Review of Task fMRI Studies  

PubMed Central

Several models of neural compensation in healthy aging have been suggested to explain brain activity that aids to sustain cognitive function. Applying recently suggested criteria of “attempted” and “successful” compensation, we reviewed existing literature on compensatory mechanisms in preclinical Huntington’s disease (HD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Both disorders constitute early stages of neurodegeneration ideal for examining compensatory mechanisms and developing targeted interventions. We strived to clarify whether compensation criteria derived from healthy aging populations can be applied to early neurodegeneration. To concentrate on the close coupling of cognitive performance and brain activity, we exclusively addressed task fMRI studies. First, we found evidence for parallels in compensatory mechanisms between healthy aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies fulfilled criteria of attempted compensation, while reports of successful compensation were largely absent, which made it difficult to conclude on. Second, comparing working memory studies in preclinical HD and aMCI, we identified similar compensatory patterns across neurodegenerative disorders in lateral and medial prefrontal cortex. Such patterns included an inverted U-shaped relationship of neurodegeneration and compensatory activity spanning from preclinical to manifest disease. Due to the lack of studies systematically targeting all criteria of compensation, we propose an exemplary study design, including the manipulation of compensating brain areas by brain stimulation. Furthermore, we delineate the benefits of targeted interventions by non-invasive brain stimulation, as well as of unspecific interventions such as physical activity or cognitive training. Unambiguously detecting compensation in early neurodegenerative disease will help tailor interventions aiming at sustained overall functioning and delayed clinical disease onset. PMID:25324786

Scheller, Elisa; Minkova, Lora; Leitner, Mathias; Klöppel, Stefan

2014-01-01

137

DTP | Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch (TPB)  

Cancer.gov

As a member of a Drug Development team, the individual serves as a primary resource for pharmacology and toxicity information by providing preclinical pharmacology and toxicology data to other NCI staff investigators and managers as well as to toxicologists, pharmacologists, clinicians and other investigators from drug companies, Cancer Centers, universities, etc.

138

Implications of the stability behavior of zinc oxide nanoparticles for toxicological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in sunscreens and other cosmetic products demands a risk assessment that has to be done in toxicological studies. Such investigations require profound knowledge of the behavior of ZnO in cell culture media. The current study was performed to get well-dispersed suspensions of a hydrophilic (ZnO-hydro) and a lipophilic coated (ZnO-lipo) ZnO nanomaterial for use in in vitro tests. Therefore, systematic tests were carried out with common dispersants (phosphate, lecithin, proteins) to elucidate chemical and physical changes of ZnO nanoparticles in water and physiological solutions (PBS, DMEM). Non-physiological stock suspensions were prepared using ultrasonication. Time-dependent changes of pH, conductivity, zeta potential, particle size and dissolution were recorded. Secondly, the stock suspensions were added to physiological media with or without albumin (BSA) or serum (FBS), to examine characteristics such as agglomeration and dissolution. Stable stock suspensions were obtained using phosphate as natural and physiological electrostatic stabilizing agent. Lecithin proved to be an effective wetting agent for ZnO-lipo. Although the particle size remained constant, the suspension changed over time. The pH increased as a result of ZnO dissolution and formation of zinc phosphate complexes. The behavior of ZnO in physiological media was found to depend strongly on the additives used. Applying only phosphate as additive, ZnO-hydro agglomerated within minutes. In the presence of lecithin or BSA/serum, agglomeration was inhibited. ZnO dissolution was higher under physiological conditions than in the stock suspension. Serum especially promoted this process. Using body-related dispersants (phosphate, lecithin) non-agglomerating stock suspensions of hydrophilic and lipophilic ZnO were prepared as a prerequisite to perform meaningful toxicological investigation. Both nanomaterials showed a non-negligible dissolution behavior that strongly depended on the surrounding conditions. Agglomeration of ZnO particles in physiological media is a complex function of particle coating, used dispersants and serum proteins if supplemented. The present study gives a clear guideline how to prepare and handle suspensions with ZnO for in vitro testing and allows the correlation between the chemical-physical particles behavior with findings from toxicological tests.

Meißner, Tobias; Oelschlägel, Kathrin; Potthoff, Annegret

2014-08-01

139

Aminochrome as a preclinical experimental model to study degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four decades after L-dopa introduction to PD therapy, the cause of Parkinson’s disease (PD) remains unknown despite the intensive\\u000a research and the discovery of a number of gene mutations and delections in the pathogenesis of familial PD. Different model\\u000a neurotoxins have been used as preclinical experimental models to study the neurodegenerative process in PD, such as 6-hydroxydopamine\\u000a (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP),

Irmgard Paris; Sergio Cardenas; Jorge Lozano; Carolina Perez-Pastene; Rebecca Graumann; Alejandra Riveros; Pablo Caviedes; Juan Segura-Aguilar

2007-01-01

140

Physicochemical and toxicological studies on 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid in aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Physicochemical characterization of hazardous compounds often is required for the development of structure-reactivity correlations. Physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of target pollutants require determination for an efficient application of wastewater treatments. In the present work, we chose a chloro-nitro-aromatic derivative (4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid [CDNBA]), as a model compound on which to perform physicochemical and toxicological studies. Several properties of CDNBA are not available in the literature, although many aromatic nitro-compounds are considered hazardous materials. Measurements of solubility in water, acid dissociation constant, and kinetic parameters for the nucleophilic substitution of chlorine atom in alkaline media are reported. We also performed cytotoxicity studies of CDNBA and ultraviolet-irradiated CDNBA solutions. From the analysis of CDNBA solubility in water at different temperatures, an enthalpy of solution of 23.2 +/- 2.5 kJ/mol was found. The study of the acid dissociation constant Kc by using conductivity measurements and the modified Gran's method yielded values for the equilibrium constant Ka of 2.36 x 10(-3) and 2.26 x 10(-3), respectively. The bimolecular rate constant for the reaction of CDNB- and hydroxyl ion (HO) measured at room temperature and 0.1 M of ionic strength was 5.92/M x s, and the activation energy for this process was 70.7 +/- 3.4 kJ/mol. Cytotoxicity assays with aqueous suspensions of Tetrahymena pyriformis showed lethal effects due to the pH change induced by CDNBA. On the other hand, in buffered solutions, a value of 104.47 microM was observed for the median effective concentration, that is, the concentration of CDNBA at which the proliferation was restricted to one half of the blank. Irradiation of CDNBA solutions increased the toxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate products with higher cytotoxicity effects. PMID:15180363

Lopez, Jorge L; García Einschlag, Fernando S; Rives, Carina V; Villata, Laura S; Capparelli, Alberto L

2004-05-01

141

Toxicological and epidemiological studies on effects of airborne fibers: coherence and public [corrected] health implications.  

PubMed

Airborne fibers, when sufficiently biopersistent, can cause chronic pleural diseases, as well as excess pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancers. Mesothelioma and pleural plaques are caused by biopersistent fibers thinner than ?0.1 ?m and longer than ?5 ?m. Excess lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis are caused by biopersistent fibers that are longer than ?20 ?m. While biopersistence varies with fiber type, all amphibole and erionite fibers are sufficiently biopersistent to cause pathogenic effects, while the greater in vivo solubility of chrysotile fibers makes them somewhat less causal for the lung diseases, and much less causal for the pleural diseases. Most synthetic vitreous fibers are more soluble in vivo than chrysotile, and pose little, if any, health pulmonary or pleural health risk, but some specialty SVFs were sufficiently biopersistent to cause pathogenic effects in animal studies. My conclusions are based on the following: 1) epidemiologic studies that specified the origin of the fibers by type, and especially those that identified their fiber length and diameter distributions; 2) laboratory-based toxicologic studies involving fiber size characterization and/or dissolution rates and long-term observation of biological responses; and 3) the largely coherent findings of the epidemiology and the toxicology. The strong dependence of effects on fiber diameter, length, and biopersistence makes reliable routine quantitative exposure and risk assessment impractical in some cases, since it would require transmission electronic microscopic examination, of representative membrane filter samples, for determining statistically sufficient numbers of fibers longer than 5 and 20 ?m, and those thinner than 0.1 ?m, based on the fiber types. PMID:25168068

Lippmann, Morton

2014-09-01

142

Pre-Clinical Studies of Epigenetic Therapies Targeting Histone Modifiers in Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Treatment options for lung cancer patients have been generally limited to standard therapies or targeted interventions which involve a small number of known mutations. Although the targeted therapies are initially successful, they most often result in drug resistance, relapse, and mortality. We now know that the complexity of lung cancer comes not only from genomic changes, but also from aberrant epigenetic regulatory events. Epigenetic therapies have shown promise as single agents in the treatment of hematological malignancies but have yet to meet this expectation in solid tumors thus fostering researchers to pursue new approaches in the development and use of epigenetic interventions. Here, we review some recent pre-clinical findings involving the use of drugs targeting histone modifying enzymes both as single agents and as co-therapies against lung cancer. A greater understanding of the impact of these epigenetic compounds in lung cancer signaling is needed and further evaluation in vivo is warranted in several cases based on the pre-clinical activity of a subset of compounds discussed in this review, including drugs co-targeting HDACs and EGF receptor, targeting Brd4 and targeting Jumonji histone demethylases. PMID:24058902

Huffman, Kenneth; Martinez, Elisabeth D.

2013-01-01

143

OPTIMIZATION OF THE HAMILTON-THORN COMPUTERIZED SPERM MOTILITY ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR USE WITH RAT SPERMATOZOA IN TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To optimize the Hamilton-Thorn Motility Analyzer (HIM, Hamilton-Thorn Research, Beverly, MA) for use in reproductive toxicology studies with rat spermatozoa, the accuracy and precision of the instrument were assessed under a variety of instrument settings. ideotapes of both fast ...

144

UNUSUAL FINDINGS IN ZEBRAFISH, DANIO RERIO, FROM TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES AND THE ZEBRAFISH INTERNATIONAL RESOURCE CENTER DIAGNOSTIC SERVICE  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of interesting and unusual lesions have been diagnosed in zebrafish that have been evaluated from toxicological studies or submitted as cases to the Diagnostic Service at Oregon State University. Lesions were observed in various wild-type and mutant lines of zebrafish an...

145

THE ROLE OF TOXICOLOGY AND RELATED STUDIES IN EVALUATING THE RISK OF MYCOTOXINS: FUMONISIN B1 AS AN EXAMPLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonisins are mycotoxins that are found worldwide in corn and in corn-based foods. They are suspected human carcinogens and are the subject of ongoing risk assessments. Rodent feeding studies of fumonisin B1 (FB1) have been important for characterizing the toxicological effects of these mycotoxins...

146

THE ROLE OF TOXICOLOGY AND RELATED STUDIES IN EVALUATING THE RISK OF MYCOTOXINS: FUMONISIN B1 AS AN EXAMPLE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonisins are mycotoxins that are found worldwide in corn and in corn-based foods. They are suspected human carcinogens and are the subject of ongoing risk assessments. Rodent feeding studies of fumonisin B1 (FB1) have been important for characterizing the toxicological effects of these mycotoxins...

147

Toxicological Profiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) produces "toxicological profiles" for hazardous substances found at National Priorities List (NPL) sites. These hazardous substances are ranked based on frequency of occurrence at NPL sites, toxicity, and potential for human exposure. Toxicological profiles are developed from a priority list of 275 substances. This site contains a wealth of information, including analytical methods, regarding these very important substances.

148

Spaceflight Toxicology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides a review of NASA Johnson Space Center's Toxicology program. The mission of this program is to protect crews from toxic exposures during spaceflight. The presentation reviews some of the health hazards. A toxicological hazard level chart is presented that reviews the rating of hazard level, irritancy, systemic effects and containability. The program also participates in the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group.

Meyers, Valerie

2008-01-01

149

Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.  

PubMed

Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium amoenum. For several of the plants studied, conclusions need to be tempered due to methodological issues such as small sample sizes, brief intervention durations and non-replication. Current evidence does not support Hypericum perforatum or Valeriana spp. for any anxiety disorder. Acute anxiolytic activity was found for Centella asiatica, Salvia spp., Melissa officinalis, Passiflora incarnata and Citrus aurantium. Bacopa monnieri has shown anxiolytic effects in people with cognitive decline. The therapeutic application of psychotropic plant-based treatments for anxiety disorders is also discussed, specifically Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caarti (ayahuasca), Psilocybe spp. and cannabidiol-enriched (low tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC)) Cannabis spp. PMID:23653088

Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

2013-04-01

150

Quantitative approaches for assessing dose-response relationships in genetic toxicology studies.  

PubMed

Genetic toxicology studies are required for the safety assessment of chemicals. Data from these studies have historically been interpreted in a qualitative, dichotomous "yes" or "no" manner without analysis of dose-response relationships. This article is based upon the work of an international multi-sector group that examined how quantitative dose-response relationships for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology data might be used to improve human risk assessment. The group examined three quantitative approaches for analyzing dose-response curves and deriving point-of-departure (POD) metrics (i.e., the no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level (NOGEL), the threshold effect level (Td), and the benchmark dose (BMD)), using data for the induction of micronuclei and gene mutations by methyl methanesulfonate or ethyl methanesulfonate in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the POD descriptors obtained using the different approaches are within the same order of magnitude, with more variability observed for the in vivo assays. The different approaches were found to be complementary as each has advantages and limitations. The results further indicate that the lower confidence limit of a benchmark response rate of 10% (BMDL(10) ) could be considered a satisfactory POD when analyzing genotoxicity data using the BMD approach. The models described permit the identification of POD values that could be combined with mode of action analysis to determine whether exposure(s) below a particular level constitutes a significant human risk. Subsequent analyses will expand the number of substances and endpoints investigated, and continue to evaluate the utility of quantitative approaches for analysis of genetic toxicity dose-response data. PMID:22987251

Gollapudi, B B; Johnson, G E; Hernandez, L G; Pottenger, L H; Dearfield, K L; Jeffrey, A M; Julien, E; Kim, J H; Lovell, D P; Macgregor, J T; Moore, M M; van Benthem, J; White, P A; Zeiger, E; Thybaud, V

2013-01-01

151

Oral toxicological studies of pueraria flower extract: acute toxicity study in mice and subchronic toxicity study in rats.  

PubMed

Kudzu has been widely used as an herbal medicine in China. The root of the kudzu is also well known as an antipyretic and analgesic in treatment of the common cold, while its flower has been used to treat alcohol intoxication, alcohol abuse, and dysentery. Pueraria flower extract (PFE) is a hot water extract derived from the flower of the kudzu, Pueraria thomsonii Benth. (Fabaceae), oral intake of which exhibits anti-obesity properties in mice and humans. In this study, we conducted acute and subchronic toxicity studies for an evaluation of safety. In the acute study, PFE (5 g/kg body weight) was orally administered to ddY mice. For 14 d after administration, no deaths or abnormal changes were observed in general signs, body weight (BW), or food consumption, and no abnormal findings were observed in the major organs and tissues of either males or females at necropsy. The oral LD50 of PFE was therefore estimated to be higher than 5 g/kg BW. In the subchronic study, PFE was mixed into the diet in place of powdered CRF-1 and administered at concentrations of 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.5%, and 5.0% to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 d. No mortality or toxicological changes were observed during the experimental period. Blood biochemical, hematological, and urinary parameters revealed no toxicologically significant changes. Furthermore, no anatomical or histopathological changes due to PFE were observed. The no-observed adverse-effect-level of PFE was thus estimated to be 5.0% in the diet (male: 3.0 g/kg BW/d; female: 3.5 g/kg BW/d). PMID:24245900

Takano, Akira; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kinjo, Junei

2013-11-01

152

Preclinical and phase I studies of monoclonal antibodies in melanoma: Application to boron neutron capture therapy of melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) provide an attractive method of selectively localizing sufficient boron atoms around tumour cells to capture neutrons. Assuming that 10(8)-10(10) 10B atoms are needed for one capture event and that 10(3)-10(4) atoms can be coupled to each antibody molecule, then 10(5)-10(6) antibody molecules gathered on an individual cell will destroy that cell. Binding to normal tissues, on the other hand, would need to be at least 20-fold less than that to tumour tissues to avoid toxic effects of neutrons on surrounding tissues. Preclinical studies in animals show that several MAbs may bind to melanoma cells in sufficient quantities in vitro to localize the required amount of boron per cell. Whether this will occur in vivo, however, may depend not only on antigen density but a variety of other properties of the tumour cells and MAbs. These include the Ig class and affinity of the antibody and whether the antibody is internalized into the tumour cell. The ratio of uptake between tumour and normal tissue is governed by such factors as the percentage of tumour cells within a tumour expressing the antigen and whether the MAb react with normal tissues. Use of Fab or F(ab)2 preparations of the MAb may increase the uptake ratio by preventing uptake of MAb by cells with Fc receptors. In contrast to preclinical animal studies, tumour/normal tissue uptake ratios in phase I studies in humans have been disappointingly low.80 references.

Hersey, P. (Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Royal Newcastle Hospital (Australia))

1989-07-01

153

Preclinical Evaluation of the Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Candidate Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality from Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and neurological complications, particularly in young children in the Asia-Pacific region. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies currently available for prevention or treatment of HFMD caused by EV71. Therefore, the development of therapeutic and preventive strategies against HFMD is of growing importance. We report the immunogenic and safety profile of inactivated, purified EV71 preparations formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in preclinical studies in mice and rabbits. In mice, the candidate vaccine formulations elicited high neutralizing antibody responses. A toxicology study of the vaccine formulations planned for human use performed in rabbits showed no vaccine-related pathological changes and all animals remained healthy. Based on these preclinical studies, Phase 1 clinical testing of the EV71 inactivated vaccine was initiated. PMID:24244774

Hwa, Shi-Hsia; Lee, Yock Ann; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Santangelo, Joseph D.

2013-01-01

154

GRADUATE GROUP MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY  

E-print Network

toxicology § Environmental toxicology § Food/Nutritional toxicology § Genetic toxicology § Immunological will be fostered further by participation in the required seminar courses (NST 290), which will focus on selected

155

Phytochemical and Toxicological Evaluations of the Essential Oil From the Bark of Aniba canellila (H.B.K.) Mez  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its therapeutic action, the phytochemical study of the essential oil of Aniba canelilla H.B.K Mez. (Lauraceae) and its toxicological preclinical trial were evaluated. The essential oil extracted from the bark (OEAC) yielded 1.0% and the major constituents were 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (52.9%) and methyl eugenol (38.7%), both identified by GC\\/MS and GC-FID. The observed LD50 (oral) was 720 ± 66.4

P. J. C. Sousa; J. S. Araujo; L. L. S. Pereira; M. N. R. Modro; J. G. S. Maia; M. T. F. Araujo; J. C. T. Carvalho; F. F. Perazzo

2009-01-01

156

Therapeutic Vaccination in Chronic Hepatitis B: Preclinical Studies in the Woodchuck  

PubMed Central

Recommended treatment of chronic hepatitis B with interferon-? and/or nucleos(t)ide analogues does not lead to a satisfactory result. Induction of HBV-specific T cells by therapeutic vaccination or immunotherapies may be an innovative strategy to overcome virus persistence. Vaccination with commercially available HBV vaccines in patients did not result in effective control of HBV infection, suggesting that new formulations of therapeutic vaccines are needed. The woodchuck (Marmota monax) is a useful preclinical model for developing the new therapeutic approaches in chronic hepadnaviral infections. Several innovative approaches combining antiviral treatments with nucleos(t)ide analogues, DNA vaccines, and protein vaccines were tested in the woodchuck model. In this paper we summarize the available data concerning therapeutic immunization and gene therapy using recombinant viral vectors approaches in woodchucks, which show encouraging results. In addition, we present potential innovations in immunomodulatory strategies to be evaluated in this animal model. PMID:21188201

Kosinska, Anna D.; Zhang, Ejuan; Lu, Mengji; Roggendorf, Michael

2010-01-01

157

Advanced toxicology for health compliance officers (instructor manual)  

SciTech Connect

The course includes an overview of the Toxic Substances Control Act; the biologic transformation mechanisms; some of the chemical hazards encountered in the workplace; an overview of human biochemistry; the kinetics of toxication; and finally the toxicology of metal dust. The general classification of pesticides is also discussed. The course is divided into 16 lessons. The specific titles of the course are as follows: Legislation, Organ physiology (overview), Organ physiology blood, Liver, Kidney, Organ system physiology, Nervous system, Biochemistry (overview), Dose response relationship, Toxification and biotransformation, Experimental studies, Special toxicology problems, Biological monitoring, Toxicology of gases, Toxicology of dusts, Toxicology of solvents, Toxicology of metals, Toxicology of pesticides, Toxicology of miscellaneous substances.

Brown, E.M.

1980-03-15

158

Production, composition and toxicology studies of Enzogenol® Pinus radiata bark extract.  

PubMed

Enzogenol® pine bark extract is a dietary supplement and food ingredient produced by water extraction of Pinus radiata. We present production method, composition, and safety data from rat and dog toxicological and human clinical studies. The dry powder contains proanthocyanidins (>80%), taxifolin (1-2%), other flavonoids and phenolic acids (up to 8%), and carbohydrates (5-10%). Reverse mutation assays showed lack of mutagenic activity. Single and 14-day repeat dosing in rats and dogs had no influence on body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, and haematology at any dose level. There were no treatment related findings on gross and detailed necroscopy, organ weights, organ weight ratios and histology. The only adverse events were emesis and diarrhoea in dogs occurring mainly in un-fed condition and at the highest dose level in a total of 18% of applications. The MTD and NOAEL in the present rat and dog studies were 2500 and 750 mg/kg/day, respectively. Consumption of 480 mg/day for 6 months and 960 mg/day for 5 weeks in two human studies showed Enzogenol® had no adverse influence on liver and kidney function, haematology, and did not cause any adverse events. Our studies indicate lack of toxicity of Enzogenol® and support safe use as a food ingredient. PMID:22982471

Frevel, Mathias A E; Pipingas, Andrew; Grigsby, Warren J; Frampton, Chris M; Gilchrist, Nigel L

2012-12-01

159

Taking Journal Clubs off Autopilot: A Case Study of Teaching Literature Evaluation Skills to Preclinical MD/PhD Students  

PubMed Central

Researchers designed learner-directed journal clubs to develop literature evaluation skills in preclinical students. Sessions balanced student-led discussion with structured objectives and faculty support. During the pilot with preclinical MD/PhD students, self-rated mastery improved over all 17 measured objectives. Six exercises have since been incorporated into the full medical school curriculum. PMID:24634798

Currier, Rebecca L.; Schneider, Marguerite Reid; Heubi, James E.

2014-01-01

160

Advances in reproductive toxicology  

SciTech Connect

Research in reproductive toxicology has relied on several animal models as well as on the more difficult-to-perform human studies. In animals, ovarian toxicity is being investigated in more detail, with investigation of characteristics of reversibility. Epidemiology studies using time-to-pregnancy techniques have been useful in identifying potential at-risk populations for further study. Male toxicology research has concentrated on defining normal sperm parameters in experimental animals and in men, particularly when those parameters are evaluated by computer-assisted techniques.37 references.

Scialli, A.R. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-06-01

161

The Optimal Partnership of Radiation and Immunotherapy: from Preclinical Studies to Clinical Translation  

PubMed Central

The main role of the immune system is to restore tissue homeostasis when altered by pathogenic processes, including neoplastic transformation. Immune-mediated tumor rejection has been recognized as an extrinsic tumor suppressor mechanism that tumors need to overcome to progress. By the time a tumor becomes clinically apparent it has successfully escaped immune control by establishing an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Ionizing radiation applied locally to a tumor alters these tumor-host interactions. Accumulating evidence indicates that standard therapeutic doses of radiation have the potential to recover tumor immunogenicity and convert the tumor into an in situ personalized vaccine. Radiotherapy induces an immunogenic tumor cell death promoting cross-presentation of tumor-derived antigens by dendritic cells to T cells. In addition, radiotherapy stimulates chemokine-mediated recruitment of effector T cells to the tumor, and cellular recognition and killing by T cells that is facilitated by upregulation of major histocompatibility antigens, NKG2D ligands, adhesion molecules and death receptors. Despite these effects, radiotherapy alone is only rarely capable of generating enough proinflammatory signals to sufficiently overcome suppression, as it can also activate immunosuppressive factors. However, our group and others have shown that when combined with targeted immunotherapy agents radiotherapy significantly contributes to a therapeutically effective anti-tumor immune response. To illustrate this partnership between radiation and immunotherapy we will discuss as an example our experience in preclinical models and the molecular mechanisms identified. Additionally, the clinical translation of these combinations will be discussed. PMID:24937779

Demaria, Sandra; Pilones, Karsten A.; Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Golden, Encouse B.; Formenti, Silvia C.

2014-01-01

162

Toward better research practice--shortcomings decreasing the significance of epidemiological studies in the toxicological field.  

PubMed

Neurobehavioral studies do not always gain the impact they should have, neither in the scientific nor in the regulatory field of neurotoxicology. Among others, shortcomings and inconsistencies across epidemiological studies may contribute to this situation. Examples were compiled to increase awareness of obstacles for conclusions. Meta-analyses were exploited since they sometimes allow the detection of deficits that are not obvious from individual studies. Exposure assessment, performance measures, and confounding were scrutinized among 98 primary studies included in meta-analyses on mercury, solvents, manganese and pesticides. Inconsistent and hardly comparable markers of exposure were found; figures, units or sampling periods were not always provided. The contribution of test materials to differences in test outcomes across studies could sometimes not be evaluated due to the insufficient description of the employed tests. Hypotheses for the selection of performance variables often remained undisclosed. Matching procedures prevailed with respect to the confounder age; the comparability of groups with respect to intelligence and gender remained more elusive. 8% and 16% of the studies did not even mention confounding from intelligence and gender, respectively. Only one third of the studies provided adjusted means for group comparisons; the proportion was slightly larger for studies published 2000-2010. While 50% of the studies considered confounders for their dose-response assessment, only 29% reported results for the total of test variables. The outlined deficits impede, among others, the assessment of exposure-effect relationships and confounding across studies; thereby they limit the use of the studies for toxicological risk assessment and future prevention. Some shortcomings also impede a deeper insight into the mechanisms of toxicity: tests like the Digit Symbol show that something is affected, but not what is affected. Thorough description of measures employed is among the first consequences from the data. The consideration of mechanistic insights from research on animals and neurobiology may further help to increase the significance of epidemiological studies. PMID:24657405

Meyer-Baron, Monika; Schäper, Michael; van Thriel, Christoph

2014-12-01

163

Reducing attrition in drug development: smart loading preclinical safety assessment.  

PubMed

Entry into the crucial preclinical good laboratory practice (GLP) stage of toxicology testing triggers significant R&D investment yet >20% of AstraZeneca's potential new medicines have been stopped for safety reasons in this GLP phase alone. How could we avoid at least some of these costly failures? An analysis of historical toxicities that caused stopping ('stopping toxicities') showed that >50% were attributable to target organ toxicities emerging within 2 weeks of repeat dosing or to acute cardiovascular risks. By frontloading 2-week repeat-dose toxicity studies and a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular safety, we anticipate a potential 50% reduction in attrition in the GLP phase. This will reduce animal use overall, save significant R&D costs and improve drug pipeline quality. PMID:24269835

Roberts, Ruth A; Kavanagh, Stefan L; Mellor, Howard R; Pollard, Christopher E; Robinson, Sally; Platz, Stefan J

2014-03-01

164

NIH initiative to balance sex of animals in preclinical studies: generative questions to guide policy, implementation, and metrics  

PubMed Central

In May of 2014, the NIH Director together with the Director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health announced plans to take a multi-dimensional approach to address the over reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. The NIH is engaging the scientific community in the development of policies to improve the sex balance in research. The present, past, and future presidents of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, in order to encourage thoughtful discussion among scientists, pose a series of questions to generate ideas in three areas: 1. research strategies, 2. educational strategies, and 3. strategies to monitor effectiveness of policies to improve the sex balance in research. By promoting discussion within the scientific community, a consensus will evolve that will move science forward in a productive and effective manner.

2014-01-01

165

Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

2007-01-01

166

Incorporation of a micronucleus study into a developmental toxicology and pharmacokinetic study of L-selenomethionine in nonhuman primates  

SciTech Connect

Concomitant to a developmental toxicology study of selenium in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), a transplacental bone marrow micronucleus assay was conducted in the fetuses of treated animals. Selenium was administered as L-selenomethionine by nasogastric intubation at 0, 150 or 300 [mu]g/kg-day to pregnant macaques daily throughout organogenesis (gestation days 20-50). Pregnancy was terminated on gestation day 100 [+-] 2 and fetuses were obtained by hysterotomy. Selenium concentrations in maternal blood were monitored throughout pregnancy and selenium concentrations in fetal blood were measured at hysterotomy. Maternal circulating selenium did not exceed 4 ppm in plasma or 3.7 ppm in erthrocytes. Selenium in cord blood was [<=] 0.1 ppm in plasma and [<=] 1.1 ppm in erthrocytes at 300 [mu]g/kg-day. Fetal bone marrow smears were prepared from the humerus and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were scored. No increase of micronucleus frequency was detected in any dose group, although signs of maternal selenosis were obvious. This finding is compared to the previous observation that micronuclei were induced in the bone marrow of adult nonpregnant macaques treated at 600 [mu]g/kg-day, a lethal dose yielding blood selenium levels to 7.3 ppm in plasma and 5.7 ppm in erthyrocytes after 15 days of daily treatment, when death occurred. These data demonstrate that measurement of circulating xenobiotics can be useful for the interpretation of genetic toxicology results. 32 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Choy, Wai Nang; Henika, P.R.; Willhite, C.C.; Tarantal, A.F. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States))

1993-01-01

167

Studies on the Toxicological Effects of PFOA and PFOS on Rats Using Histological Observation and Chemical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an emerging class of environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), especially\\u000a perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), have been ubiquitously found in the environment. Increasing\\u000a evidence shows that the accumulated levels of PFCs in animals and the human body might cause potential impairment to their\\u000a health. In the present study, toxicological effects of PFOA and PFOS

Lin Cui; Qun-fang Zhou; Chun-yang Liao; Jian-jie Fu; Gui-bin Jiang

2009-01-01

168

Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive sweetener. PMID:17828671

Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

2007-01-01

169

A review of inhalation toxicology studies with para-aramid fibrils.  

PubMed

The paper summarizes the results of inhalation toxicology studies associated with para-aramid (p-aramid) fibrils. The review is subdivided into two categories: the results of inhalation toxicity studies and mechanistic inhalation studies. Keratin-associated lesions were observed in the lungs of female rats following chronic exposure to high concentrations of p-aramid. These lesions were originally interpreted as cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (CKSCC). In recent years, this keratinizing lesion has been observed in the lungs of rats with greater regularity in numerous chronic inhalation studies following exposures to a variety of dusts. In an attempt to reach a consensus on an appropriate diagnosis for this lesion, an international panel of pathologists was convened to evaluate the morphological aspects of this lesion. The panel considered that the most appropriate diagnosis for this lesion was 'proliferative keratin cyst' (PKC), the biological potential of the PKC remains controversial, but it appears to be unique to the rat species and has little relevance for humans. Mechanistic studies with p-aramid have demonstrated that acute inhalation of high concentrations of fibrils produces a potent but transient pulmonary inflammatory and cell labelling response. The inhaled fibrils have low durability in the lungs of rats as evidenced by a progressive decrease in median fibre lengths with increasing residence time in the lung. In contrast, in a comparative study, size-separated chrysotile asbestos produced a sustained increase over controls in cellular proliferation responses of terminal airways, parenchyma, subpleural and mesothelial regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8526399

Warheit, D B

1995-10-01

170

Postmortem toxicology of carbamazepine.  

PubMed

The study focuses on a series of 16 fatal cases in which carbamazepine and its two major metabolites (10,11-epoxide and 10,11-dihydroxycarbamazepine) were detected in body fluids and tissues collected at autopsy. The drug may be implicated in a number of deaths; however, most of these are multiple-drug intoxications with a particular contribution of ethanol. The investigations concerning toxicological findings are a source of toxicological postmortem data and show the differences in metabolism rate as depending on the concentration level of carbamazepine and xenobiotics found in the autopsy specimen during the postmortem investigation of a body. PMID:12820747

Klys, Malgorzata; Bystrowska, Beata; Bujak-Gizycka, Beata

2003-01-01

171

Transcriptional profiling of reactive metabolites for elucidating toxicological mechanisms: a case study of quinoneimine-forming agents.  

PubMed

Abstract Toxicogenomics can be broadly defined as the study of how the genetic material responds to toxicant exposure. This sub-discipline of toxicology utilizes numerous genomic technologies to relate adverse toxicologic effects with their associated changes in gene expression. The scope of this review will focus on microarray technology and its use in identifying key biomarkers at both the single gene and pathway levels to elucidate toxicologic mechanisms in the liver. Microarrays have been used to study global transcriptomic changes associated with toxicants for years; however, limited emphasis has been placed on what role their reactive metabolites play in this process. Reactive metabolites, which can be generated by normal oxidative metabolism, have the potential to react with endogenous biomolecules, alter their function, and elicit a toxicogenomic response. Quinoneimines are an example of such a species, eliciting toxicity through the generation of oxidative and electrophilic stress. Five compounds with differing toxicity profiles are evaluated herein that are capable of forming quinoneimine intermediates by cytochrome P450 enzymes. They include acetaminophen (APAP), amodiaquine, atorvastatin, carvedilol, and diclofenac. Perspectives on the consistency between the hepatic gene expression profiles of these quinoneimine-forming agents as well as the untapped value of structure-based transcriptome profiling are discussed in this review. PMID:25351209

Stamper, Brendan D

2014-10-29

172

Assessment of blood substitutes: II. In-vitro complement activation of human plasma and blood for safety studies in research, development, industrial production and preclinical analysis.  

PubMed

Animal safety study cannot predict the effects of blood substitutes in human response. Response of human, especially in immunology and complement activation, need not be the same as those in animals. We have earlier reported an in-vitro preclinical screening test based on testing the effects of modified hemoglobin on complement activation of human plasma or blood in vitro. In this test, modified hemoglobin is added to human plasma in a test tube. Complement activation is followed by the C3a levels. Since this directly measures the effect of modified hemoglobin on human plasma, it would be the closest response in human next to injecting this into human. Thus, this could be an important bridge before clinical use in patients. However, why wait for the completion of research, industrial production and preclinical animal studies? Why don't we do this test right at the beginning during the research stage? If a new system is found to cause complement activation at this stage, one can avoid tremendous waste of time and money in further development, industrial production and preclinical animal study. This paper analyzes this approach in research, development, industrial production and preclinical analysis. PMID:8087240

Chang, T M; Lister, C W

1994-01-01

173

Forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations,\\u000a in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine,\\u000a in road and work-place safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly\\u000a targeted

Olaf H. Drummer

174

INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY-BASED TOXICOLOGY STUDIES ON DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS (DBPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

DBPs are formed by reactions of chemical disinfectants with natural organic matter in the source water. Although more than 300 DBPs are known, many remain unidentified; for chlorination, known DBPs account for ~50% of the mass of total organic halide. Toxicological evaluation o...

175

[Reproduction toxicologic studies on rats following oral administration of benzopyrone preparations].  

PubMed

The influence of the benzopyrone preparation Venalot (active substances: coumarin and troxerutin; in the following briefly called CT) on the fertility and teratogenicity as well as on the perinatal and postnatal development of a total of 3 generations was evaluated in a combined study. The 1-, 8-, 64-, and 128fold of the daily therapeutical doses for humans was suspended in tap water and administered orally by gavage to 95 male and 190 female SPF rats (Wistar) (test groups 2 to 5). 23 male and 46 female rats (test group 1) served as controls and were given tap water alone. The male animals were subjected to a pretreatment of 10, the female animals to one of 3 weeks. The treatment was continued during the phase of mating. The animals scheduled for cesarian section received the test substance until the day of the laparatomy (gestation day 20), those selected for littering throughout lactation (day 24 post partum). With the aid of a stepwise histological technique, the teratological examination could also disclose non lethal malformations of the organs. The treatment resulted in a decreased food consumption in the animals of group 5 and in a reduced gain of body weight as well as pathologic-anatomically and histologically demonstrable, definitely dose related hepatic lesions. The test substance had no effect on either the treated P generation nor the untreated F1 generation. As teratogenic effects could also not be demonstrated and the peri- and postnatal development of the filial generations 1 and 2 was undisturbed, the present study does not indicate a reproduction toxicological risk.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6542792

Preuss-Ueberschär, C; Ueberschär, S; Grote, W

1984-01-01

176

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of 1,3-butadiene in mice: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in CD-1 mice following whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200 and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female mice, which had mated with unexposed males were exposed to the chemical for 6 hours/day on 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 18 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11 and 18 dg; the mice were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. Significant concentration-related decreases were detected in a number of maternal body weight measures. There was a significant concentration-related depression of fetal body weights and placental weights. Body weights of male fetuses of all exposed groups were significantly lower than values for control fetuses; weights of female fetuses were significantly depressed in the mice exposed to 200 and 1000 ppM. In the 200- and 1000-ppM exposure groups, weights of placentas of male fetuses were significantly decreased, but placental weights of female fetuses were significantly affected only in litters exposed to the highest 1,3-butadiene concentration. This exposure regimen produced significant signs of maternal toxicity at concentrations of 200 and 1000 ppM 1,3-butadiene.

Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

1987-11-01

177

Contamination is a frequent confounding factor in toxicology studies with anthraquinone and related compounds.  

PubMed

Anthraquinone (AQ) (9,10-anthracenedione) is an important compound in commerce. Many structurally related AQ derivatives are medicinal natural plant products. Examples include 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (1-OH-AQ) and 2-hydroxyanthraquinone (2-OH-AQ), which are also metabolites of AQ. Some commercial AQ is produced by the oxidation of anthracene (AQ-OX). In the recent past, the anthracene used was distilled from coal tar and different lots of derived AQ often contained polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants, particularly 9-nitroanthracene (9-NA). Many toxicology studies on AQ used contaminated anthracene-derived AQ-OX, including a National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-year cancer bioassay that reported a weak to modest increase in tumors in the kidney and bladder of male and female F344/N rats and in the livers of male and female B6C3F1 mice. The AQ-OX used in that bioassay was mutagenic and contained 9-NA and other contaminants. In contrast, purified AQ is not genotoxic. The purpose of this paper is to provide additional information to help iterpret the NTP cancer bioassay. This paper describes a quantitative analytical study of the NTP anthracene-derived AQ-OX test material, and presents the results of mutagenicity studies with the 1-OH-AQ and 2-OH-AQ metabolites and the primary contaminant 9-NA. Purified 1-OH-AQ and 2-OH-AQ exhibited only weak mutagenic activity in selected strains of tester bacteria and required S9. Literature reports of potent mutagenic activity for 1-OH-AQ and 2-OH-AQ in bacteria minus S9 are, once again, very likely the result of the presence of contaminants in the test samples. Weak activity and limited production of the 1-OH-AQ and 2-OH-AQ metabolites are possible reasons that AQ fails to exhibit activity in numerous genotoxicity assays. 9-NA was mutagenic in tester strains TA98 and TA100 minus S9. This pattern of activity is consistent with that seen with the contaminated AQ-OX used in the NTP bioassay. Analysis of all the mutagenicity and analytical data, however, indicates that the mutagenic contamination in the NTP bioassay probably resides with compounds in addition to 9-NA. 9-NA exhibited potent mutagenic activity in the L5178Y mammalian cell mutagenicity assay in the presence of S9. The positive response was primarily associated with an increase in small colony mutants suggesting a predominance of a clastogenic mechanism. Quantitative mutagenicity and carcinogenicity potency estimates indicate that it is plausible that the contaminants alone in the NTP AQ-OX bioassay could have been responsible for all of the observed carcinogenic activity. Although AQ-OX is no longer commercially used in the United States, many of the reported genotoxicity and carcinogenicity results in the literature for AQ and AQ derivative compounds must be viewed with caution. PMID:15513832

Butterworth, Byron E; Mathre, Owen B; Ballinger, Kenneth E; Adalsteinsson, Orn

2004-01-01

178

Toxicology 1: Toxicology and Living Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first lesson, Toxicology 1: Toxicology and Living Systems, students are introduced to the basic concepts and terminology of the science. Toxicology 2: Finding the Toxic Dose allows students the opportunity to conduct a toxicology experiment on a plant. Specifically, students determine the toxic dose of a chemical that will inhibit seed germination in Brassica rapa, a relative to cabbages and mustards. In the third lesson, Toxicology 3: Toxicology and Human Health, students investigate the effect of environmental tobacco smoke on human lung development. These lessons can be done in a series or they can stand alone.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2005-06-13

179

Preclinical study of using multiphoton microscopy to diagnose liver cancer and differentiate benign and malignant liver lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the miniaturized multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and multiphoton probe allow the clinical use of multiphoton endoscopy for diagnosing cancer via ``optical biopsy''. The purpose of this study was to establish MPM optical diagnostic features for liver cancer and evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPM optical diagnosis. Firstly, we performed a pilot study to establish the MPM diagnostic features by investigating 60 surgical specimens, and found that high-resolution MPM images clearly demonstrated apparent differences between benign and malignant liver lesions in terms of their tissue architecture and cell morphology. Cancer cells, characterized by irregular size and shape, enlarged nuclei, and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, were identified by MPM images, which were comparable to hematoxylin-eosin staining images. Secondly, we performed a blinded study to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPM optical diagnosis by investigating another 164 specimens, and found that the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPM diagnosis was 96.32%, 96.43%, and 96.34%, respectively. In conclusion, it is feasible to use MPM to diagnose liver cancer and differentiate benign and malignant liver lesions. This preclinical study provides the groundwork for further using multiphoton endoscopy to perform real-time noninvasive ``optical biopsy'' for liver lesions in the near future.

Yan, Jun; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Gang; Wu, Xiufeng; Zhou, Dong; Xie, Shusen; Jiang, Jiahao; Ying, Mingang; Jia, Fan; Chen, Jianxin; Zhou, Jian

2012-02-01

180

Preclinical development and first-in-human study of ATX-MS-1467 for immunotherapy of MS  

PubMed Central

Objective: The study was designed to test the efficacy of ATX-MS-1467 in a relevant preclinical model and to assess its safety for the treatment of patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Methods: ATX-MS-1467 was tested for its ability to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the (Ob x DR2)F1 mouse both before and after disease onset. Safety was assessed by clinical assessment, MRI analysis, and the measurement of immune responses to self- and nonself-antigens in patients with SPMS. Results: ATX-MS-1467 displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of EAE and was more effective than glatiramer acetate in the treatment of ongoing disease in humanized mice. A phase 1 open-label dose-escalating study demonstrated that ATX-MS-1467 was safe and well-tolerated in a group of 6 patients with SPMS, up to a dose of 800 µg. Conclusions: The results of this study support further development of ATX-MS-1467 in a clinical trial powered to investigate the immunologic and clinical benefits of treatment in relapsing-remitting MS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that ATX-MS-1467 is safe and tolerated in a group of 6 patients with SPMS. PMID:25798453

Streeter, Heather B.; Rigden, Rachel; Martin, Keith F.; Scolding, Neil J.

2015-01-01

181

The contribution of regional gray/white matter volume in preclinical depression assessed by the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire: a voxel-based morphometry study.  

PubMed

Negative automatic thought is a characteristic of depression that contributes toward the risk for episodes of depression. Evidence suggests that gray and white matter abnormalities are linked with depression, but little is known about the association between the negative cognitive experience and brain structure in preclinical depression. We examined the correlation between negative thought and gray (GMV)/white matter volume (WMV) in healthy individuals with preclinical depression. The participants were 309 university students with preclinical depression, as measured by their Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) scores. We collected brain MRIs and used voxel-based morphometry to analyze the correlation of regional GMV/WMV with the ATQ scores. The voxel-based morphometry results showed that the GMV of the right parahippocampal gyrus and fusiform gyrus and the WMV of the right superior temporal pole increased with the severity of depression. Furthermore, the corpus callosum volume decreased with the ATQ scores. This study implied that GMV increase and corpus callosum volume reduction may be associated with negative thought in nonclinical individuals, even at a preclinical depressed level. PMID:24999908

Cun, Lingli; Wang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Songyan; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang

2014-09-10

182

Preclinical Studies in the mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Givinostat  

PubMed Central

Previous work has established the existence of dystrophin–nitric oxide (NO) signaling to histone deacetylases (HDACs) that is deregulated in dystrophic muscles. As such, pharmacological interventions that target HDACs (that is, HDAC inhibitors) are of potential therapeutic interest for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. In this study, we explored the effectiveness of long-term treatment with different doses of the HDAC inhibitor givinostat in mdx mice—the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This study identified an efficacy for recovering functional and histological parameters within a window between 5 and 10 mg/kg/d of givinostat, with evident reduction of the beneficial effects with 1 mg/kg/d dosage. The long-term (3.5 months) exposure of 1.5-month-old mdx mice to optimal concentrations of givinostat promoted the formation of muscles with increased cross-sectional area and reduced fibrotic scars and fatty infiltration, leading to an overall improvement of endurance performance in treadmill tests and increased membrane stability. Interestingly, a reduced inflammatory infiltrate was observed in muscles of mdx mice exposed to 5 and 10 mg/kg/d of givinostat. A parallel pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis confirmed the relationship between the effective doses of givinostat and the drug distribution in muscles and blood of treated mice. These findings provide the preclinical basis for an immediate translation of givinostat into clinical studies with DMD patients. PMID:23552722

Consalvi, Silvia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Bettica, Paolo; Germani, Massimiliano; Fiorentini, Francesco; Del Bene, Francesca; Rocchetti, Maurizio; Leoni, Flavio; Monzani, Valmen; Mascagni, Paolo; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Saccone, Valentina

2013-01-01

183

Photodynamic therapy with the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4: The case experience with preclinical mechanistic and early clinical-translational studies  

SciTech Connect

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a promising non-invasive treatment for cancers. PDT involves either local or systemic administration of a photosensitizing drug, which preferentially localizes within the tumor, followed by illumination of the involved organ with light, usually from a laser source. Here, we provide a selective overview of our experience with PDT at Case Western Reserve University, specifically with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4. We first review our in vitro studies evaluating the mechanism of cell killing by Pc 4-PDT. Then we briefly describe our clinical experience in a Phase I trial of Pc 4-PDT and our preliminary translational studies evaluating the mechanisms behind tumor responses. Preclinical work identified (a) cardiolipin and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as targets of Pc 4-PDT, (b) the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, with the key participation of caspase-3, as a central response of many human cancer cells to Pc 4-PDT, (c) signaling pathways that could modify apoptosis, and (d) a formulation by which Pc 4 could be applied topically to human skin and penetrate at least through the basal layer of the epidermis. Clinical-translational studies enabled us to develop an immunohistochemical assay for caspase-3 activation, using biopsies from patients treated with topical Pc 4 in a Phase I PDT trial for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Results suggest that this assay may be used as an early biomarker of clinical response.

Miller, Janine D. [Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Case Skin Diseases Research Center, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Baron, Elma D. [Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Case Skin Diseases Research Center, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Louis-Stokes VA Medical Center, 10701 East Boulevard, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Scull, Heather [Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Case Skin Diseases Research Center, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hsia, Andrew [Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Berlin, Jeffrey C. [Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)] (and others)

2007-11-01

184

Preclinical studies of N3-O-toluyl-fluorouracil-loaded lipid-based nanosuspensions in H22-bearing mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose N3-O-toluyl-fluorouracil (TFU) is a potential antitumor prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but its poor solubility has limited its use in clinic. This study aimed to improve the bioavailability of TFU by preparing TFU-loaded lipid-based nanosuspensions (TFU-LNS) and perform a preclinical evaluation. Methods TFU-LNS were prepared through high-pressure homogenization and were lyophilized afterwards. For in vitro test, the physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity against HegG2 cells were conducted. For in vivo evaluation, the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and antitumor efficacy were investigated in H22-bearing Kunming mice. Results TFU showed different degradability in four media; in particular, nearly all of it converted to an equimolar amount of 5-FU in blank plasma of Wistar rats. The lyophilized TFU-LNS had a mean particle size of 180.03±3.11 nm and zeta potential of ?8.02±1.43 mV and showed no discernible changes after storage at 4°C for 3 months. In the in vivo antitumor study, the antitumor efficacy of TFU-LNS was consistent with that of 5-FU injection. Furthermore, TFU-LNS released a lower concentration of 5-FU in heart and kidney throughout the tissue distribution studies. Conclusion TFU-LNS exhibited convincing antitumor activity and easy scale-up opportunity, which suggests that TFU-LNS might be a promising drug delivery system for cancer therapy. PMID:24920908

Zhang, Juan; Li, Min; Liu, Zhihong; Wang, Lili; Liu, Yongjun; Zhang, Na

2014-01-01

185

Chimeric rodents with humanized liver: bridging the preclinical/clinical trial gap in ADME/toxicity studies.  

PubMed

1. Immunocompromised mice with humanized livers were developed in the mid-1990s to allow the study of human hepatotropic viruses, which normally replicate only in higher primates. The production of the uPA/SCID mouse was the vanguard of these models and remains the most widely worked upon model for an ever increasing range of applications. 2. Since toxicology is conducted in laboratory animal species with the implicit intent of predicting the outcome of accidental, or intentional, human exposure, the potential for using an in vivo model with a humanised metabolism opens up the possibility of better predicting the human response following exposure to drugs and industrial chemicals. Chimeric humanised mice provide the tool for bridging between the non-clinical laboratory safety and metabolism studies, carried out in rodent and non-rodent species, and the first in man clinical trials. 3. Chimeric mice carrying a human liver have now been validated against a wide range of different drugs and chemical classes, and have been shown to clearly differentiate metabolically from the recipient mouse, and to show metabolic pathways more similar to those expected from human liver. 4. This review critically appraises the available animal models carrying human livers and where future developments would improve the existing systems. PMID:24320885

Foster, John R; Lund, Garry; Sapelnikova, Svetlana; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Kneteman, Norman M

2014-01-01

186

[Preclinical study of AV0012 early stage inhibitor of hepatitis C virus infection: I. In vitro ADME and pharmacokinetics].  

PubMed

In vitro immunohistochemical investigations on the human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) strain JFH-1 showed that AV0012 compound blocks the early stages of viral infection. AV0012 also blocked viral infection spread in tissue culture through the secreted virus and through tight cell-to-cell contact. AV0012 is a specific inhibitor of HCV but not of related pestivirus, flaviviruses and other RNA-containing viruses such as bovine diarrhea (BVDV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis (strain TC-83), dengue type 2 (New Guinea), yellow fever (strain 17D), west Nile fever, parainfluenza (type 3) virus, RSV (strain A2), and Rhinovirus (type 2 strain HGP). It is established that human serum does not significantly affect the antiviral activity of AV0012 in vitro. The drug combination studies with AV0012 and interferon alpha 2a in vitro showed that the two inhibitors act additively, which makes possible the use of this combination in clinical tests. AV0012 is highly soluble and stable in aqueous solutions and murine blood plasma, has limited metabolic stability, low binding to human plasma proteins, high permeability through biological membranes, and only interacts with isoenzymes 2D6 and 3A4 of human cytochrome P450. In animal pharmacokinetic studies, AV0012 was rapidly absorbed into the blood stream upon oral administration, showed sufficiently long half-elimination times, and had high oral bioavailability that reached 92% in monkeys. Further preclinical development of AV0012 is in progress. PMID:25076758

Ivashchenko, A V; Iamanushkin, P M; Mit'kin, O D; Ezhova, E V; Korzinov, O M; Shevkun, N A; Koriakova, A G; Karapetian, R N; Bychko, V V; Ivashchenko, A A; Agrba, V Z; Lapin, B A; Orlov, S V

2014-01-01

187

Common Handling Procedures Conducted in Preclinical Safety Studies Result in Minimal Hepatic Gene Expression Changes in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Gene expression profiling is a tool to gain mechanistic understanding of adverse effects in response to compound exposure. However, little is known about how the common handling procedures of experimental animals during a preclinical study alter baseline gene expression. We report gene expression changes in the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats following common handling procedures. Baseline gene expression changes identified in this study provide insight on how these changes may affect interpretation of gene expression profiles following compound exposure. Rats were divided into three groups. One group was not subjected to handling procedures and served as controls for both handled groups. Animals in the other two groups were weighed, subjected to restraint in Broome restrainers, and administered water via oral gavage daily for 1 or 4 days with tail vein blood collections at 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours postdose on days 1 and 4. Significantly altered genes were identified in livers of animals following 1 or 4 days of handling when compared to the unhandled animals. Gene changes in animals handled for 4 days were similar to those handled for 1 day, suggesting a lack of habituation. The altered genes were primarily immune function related genes. These findings, along with a correlating increase in corticosterone levels suggest that common handling procedures may cause a minor immune system perturbance. PMID:24551150

Werner, Jon; Everds, Nancy; Di Palma, Chris; Chen, Yuan; Higgins-Garn, Marnie; Tran, Sandra; Afshari, Cynthia A.; Hamadeh, Hisham K.

2014-01-01

188

Pre-clinical toxicokinetics and safety study of M2ES, a PEGylated recombinant human endostatin, in rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

PEGylated recombinant human endostatin (M2ES) exhibited prolonged serum half-life and enhanced antitumor activity when compared with endostatin. A non-clinical study was performed to evaluate the toxicokinetics and safety of M2ES in rhesus monkeys. After intravenous (IV) infusions of M2ES at a dose level of 3, 10, and 30mg/kg in rhesus monkeys, the concentration-time curves of M2ES were best fitted to a non-compartment model, and area under the curve (AUC) was positively correlated with the dosage. M2ES had a tendency to accumulate in vivo following successive IV infusions. Serum anti-M2ES IgG antibodies were generated quickly during IV administration, and the antibody level in serum did not significantly decrease after four-week recovery period. Animals administered IV infusions twice weekly (M2ES at 10 or 30mg/kg body weight per day) for 3months developed mild or moderate vacuolation of proximal tubule epithelial cell in proximal convoluted tubule of kidney, but this adverse-effect was reversible. In summary, M2ES was well tolerated and did not cause any serious toxicity. These pre-clinical safety data contribute to the initiation of the ongoing clinical study. PMID:24878240

Guo, Lifang; Geng, Xingchao; Chen, Yang; Qi, Feifei; Liu, Li; Miao, Yufa; Lin, Zhi; Yu, Min; Li, Zuogang; Fu, Yan; Li, Bo; Luo, Yongzhang

2014-08-01

189

What are Pharmacology and Toxicology? Pharmacology and toxicology are biomedical sciences often referred to as sister  

E-print Network

What are Pharmacology and Toxicology? Pharmacology and toxicology are biomedical sciences often referred to as sister disciplines. Pharmacology is the study of the sites, properties, effects and toxicant action at the molecular level. About the Program The Bachelor of Science Pharmacology & Toxicology

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

190

PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY GRADUATE GROUP BY-LAWS Administrative Home: Department of Environmental Toxicology  

E-print Network

PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY GRADUATE GROUP BY-LAWS Administrative Home: Department of Environmental in Pharmacology and Toxicology (hereafter referred to as the Group) is organized primarily to establish in Pharmacology and Toxicology, in conformance with the rules of the Office of Graduate Studies of the Davis

Ullrich, Paul

191

Biomarkers in preclinical cancer imaging.  

PubMed

In view of the trend towards personalized treatment strategies for (cancer) patients, there is an increasing need to noninvasively determine individual patient characteristics. Such information enables physicians to administer to patients accurate therapy with appropriate timing. For the noninvasive visualization of disease-related features, imaging biomarkers are expected to play a crucial role. Next to the chemical development of imaging probes, this requires preclinical studies in animal tumour models. These studies provide proof-of-concept of imaging biomarkers and help determine the pharmacokinetics and target specificity of relevant imaging probes, features that provide the fundamentals for translation to the clinic. In this review we describe biological processes derived from the "hallmarks of cancer" that may serve as imaging biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and treatment response monitoring that are currently being studied in the preclinical setting. A number of these biomarkers are also being used for the initial preclinical assessment of new intervention strategies. Uniquely, noninvasive imaging approaches allow longitudinal assessment of changes in biological processes, providing information on the safety, pharmacokinetic profiles and target specificity of new drugs, and on the antitumour effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Preclinical biomarker imaging can help guide translation to optimize clinical biomarker imaging and personalize (combination) therapies. PMID:25673052

Bernsen, Monique R; Kooiman, Klazina; Segbers, Marcel; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; de Jong, Marion

2015-04-01

192

Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products  

EPA Science Inventory

1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

193

Re-Evaluate the Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Cancer - A Preclinical Therapeutic Small Animal Model Study  

PubMed Central

Tumor hypoxia is a known driver of angiogenesis that also facilitates tumor growth. Moreover, poorly oxygenated central tumor area remains relatively radio or chemo resistant. HBO therapy is known to elevate the levels of dissolved oxygen and eliminates tumor hypoxia. It has been one of the modalities in cancer treatment; therefore its optimization is important. In this experimental study, no cancer enhancing effect was seen during the course of HBO therapy; however, post therapy there was an accelerated growth and progression of tumor. HBO treated mice lived shorter and the response to therapy was dose & tumor volume dependent. HBO therapy probably exert its effect on the cancer proliferating cells through multiple pathways such as increased DNA damage, apoptosis & geno-toxicity leading to slow cancer progression while post therapy tumorigenic effect could be due to impaired DNA repair mechanism, mutagenic effect & aneuploidy as well as altered blood supply & nutrients. Tumor growth reached plateau with time and this finding validated theoretical model predicting tumor reaching an asymptotic limit. While, marked asymmetry observed in tumor volume progression or cancer cell proliferation rate in each of the experimental C3H mouse suggested a need for an alternate small animal pre-clinical cancer therapeutic model. PMID:23144880

Pande, Sneha; Sengupta, Amit; Srivastava, Anurag; Gude, Rajiv P.; Ingle, Arvind

2012-01-01

194

A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies.  

PubMed

Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly. PMID:24629309

Verhaegen, Frank; van Hoof, Stefan; Granton, Patrick V; Trani, Daniela

2014-12-01

195

The Relationship between Risk of Bias Criteria, Research Outcomes, and Study Sponsorship in a Cohort of Preclinical Thiazolidinedione Animal Studies: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is little evidence regarding the influence of conflicts of interest on preclinical research. This study examines whether industry sponsorship is associated with increased risks of bias and/or effect sizes of outcomes in published preclinical thiazolidinedione (TZD) studies. Methods We identified preclinical TZD studies published between January 1, 1965 and November 14, 2012. Coders independently extracted information on study design criteria aimed at reducing bias, results for all relevant outcomes, sponsorship source, and investigator financial ties from the 112 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The average standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies was calculated for plasma glucose (efficacy outcome) and weight gain (harm outcome). In subgroup analyses, TZD outcomes were assessed by sponsorship source and risk of bias criteria. Results Seven studies were funded by industry alone, 17 studies funded by both industry and non-industry, 49 studies funded by non-industry alone, and 39 studies had no disclosures. None of the studies used sample size calculations, intention-to-treat analyses, blinding of investigators, or concealment of allocation. Most studies reported favorable results (88 of 112) and conclusions (95 of 112) supporting TZD use. Efficacy estimates were significantly larger in 6 studies sponsored by industry alone (?3.41; 95% CI ?5.21, ?1.53; I2 = 93%) versus 42 studies sponsored by non-industry sources (?0.97; 95% CI ?1.37, ?0.56; I2 = 81%) (p value = 0.01). Harms estimates were significantly larger in 4 studies sponsored by industry alone (5.00; 95% CI 1.22, 8.77; I2 = 93%) versus 38 studies sponsored by non-industry sources (0.30; 95% CI ?0.08, 0.68; I2 = 79%) (p value = 0.02). TZD efficacy and harms did not differ by disclosure of financial COIs or risks of bias. Conclusions Industry-sponsored TZD animal studies have exaggerated efficacy and harms outcomes compared to studies funded by non-industry sources. There was poor reporting of COIs. PMID:25642330

Abdel-Sattar, Maher; Krauth, David; Anglemyer, Andrew; Bero, Lisa

2015-01-01

196

Derivation of point of departure (PoD) estimates in genetic toxicology studies and their potential applications in risk assessment.  

PubMed

Genetic toxicology data have traditionally been employed for qualitative, rather than quantitative evaluations of hazard. As a continuation of our earlier report that analyzed ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) dose-response data (Gollapudi et al., 2013), here we present analyses of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) and 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) dose-response data and additional approaches for the determination of genetic toxicity point-of-departure (PoD) metrics. We previously described methods to determine the no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level (NOGEL), the breakpoint-dose (BPD; previously named Td), and the benchmark dose (BMD10 ) for genetic toxicity endpoints. In this study we employed those methods, along with a new approach, to determine the non-linear slope-transition-dose (STD), and alternative methods to determine the BPD and BMD, for the analyses of nine ENU and 22 MNU datasets across a range of in vitro and in vivo endpoints. The NOGEL, BMDL10 and BMDL1SD PoD metrics could be readily calculated for most gene mutation and chromosomal damage studies; however, BPDs and STDs could not always be derived due to data limitations and constraints of the underlying statistical methods. The BMDL10 values were often lower than the other PoDs, and the distribution of BMDL10 values produced the lowest median PoD. Our observations indicate that, among the methods investigated in this study, the BMD approach is the preferred PoD for quantitatively describing genetic toxicology data. Once genetic toxicology PoDs are calculated via this approach, they can be used to derive reference doses and margin of exposure values that may be useful for evaluating human risk and regulatory decision making. PMID:24801602

Johnson, G E; Soeteman-Hernández, L G; Gollapudi, B B; Bodger, O G; Dearfield, K L; Heflich, R H; Hixon, J G; Lovell, D P; MacGregor, J T; Pottenger, L H; Thompson, C M; Abraham, L; Thybaud, V; Tanir, J Y; Zeiger, E; van Benthem, J; White, P A

2014-10-01

197

Pasteurization of bone for tumour eradication prior to reimplantation – An in vitro & pre-clinical efficacy study  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In current era of limb-salvage therapy, pasteurization of bone sarcomas is receiving growing attention as a potential extracorporeal treatment and cost-effective alternative to allografts and radiation before surgical reimplantation. Detailed in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical study to evaluate efficacy of pasteurization to eradicate malignant cells has not been reported yet. The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy of pasteurization to kill tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Surgically resected specimens of osteosarcomas (n=4) were cut into equal halves and one section was pasteurized by heating at 60°C to 65°C for 40 min. Paired samples before and after pasteurization were studied in vitro for DNA ploidy, evaluation of histological change and elimination of mitotic activity. These tissues were transplanted in immune-deficient NOD-SCID mice to evaluate effect on tumour-generating ability, presence of human nuclei, osteopontin and cytokine/chemokines released in tumour-transplanted mice. Results: Non-pasteurized tumour samples had viable tumour cells which exhibited significant growth in culture, increased proliferative ability and clonogenic potential while respective pasteurized tumour tissues did not grow in culture and did not exhibit clonogenicity. Flow cytometry revealed that propidium iodide positive dead cells increased significantly (P< 0.01) post pasteurization. Seven of 12 non-pasteurized tumour transplanted mice demonstrated tumour-forming ability as against 0 of 12 in pasteurized tumour transplanted mice. Solid tumour xenografts exhibited strong expression of anti-human nuclei and osteopontin by immunohistochemistry as well as secretary human interluekin-6 (IL-6) while pasteurized mice failed to express these markers. Interpretation & conclusions: This study has provided a basis to establish pasteurization as being efficacious in ensuring tumour eradication from resected bone tumour specimens. Pasteurized tumour bearing bone can thus safely be used to reconstruct large defects after tumour resection. PMID:24927346

Kode, Jyoti; Taur, Prasad; Gulia, Ashish; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Agarwal, Manish; Puri, Ajay

2014-01-01

198

Intraoperative fluorescence imaging of peritoneal dissemination of ovarian carcinomas. A preclinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveImprovement of the management and outcome of ovarian cancers may require intraoperative detection and therapeutic intervention to treat minimal residual disease after complete surgery. The aim of this study was to validate the importance of fluorescence in the peroperative detection of human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells and to determine its efficiency in detecting infra millimetric tumor metastases.

Eliane Mery; Eva Jouve; Stephanie Guillermet; Maxime Bourgognon; Magali Castells; Muriel Golzio; Philippe Rizo; Jean Pierre Delord; Denis Querleu; Bettina Couderc

2011-01-01

199

Choosing preclinical study models of diabetic retinopathy: key problems for consideration  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus in the eye. Although the clinical treatment for DR has already developed to a relative high level, there are still many urgent problems that need to be investigated in clinical and basic science. Currently, many in vivo animal models and in vitro culture systems have been applied to solve these problems. Many approaches have also been used to establish different DR models. However, till now, there has not been a single study model that can clearly and exactly mimic the developmental process of the human DR. Choosing the suitable model is important, not only for achieving our research goals smoothly, but also, to better match with different experimental proposals in the study. In this review, key problems for consideration in choosing study models of DR are discussed. These problems relate to clinical relevance, different approaches for establishing models, and choice of different species of animals as well as of the specific in vitro culture systems. Attending to these considerations will deepen the understanding on current study models and optimize the experimental design for the final goal of preventing DR. PMID:25429204

Mi, Xue-Song; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Ding, Yong; Zhong, Jing-Xiang; So, Kwok-Fai

2014-01-01

200

Virtual reality, augmented reality, and robotics applied to digestive operative procedures: from in vivo animal preclinical studies to clinical use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological innovations of the 20 th century provided medicine and surgery with new tools, among which virtual reality and robotics belong to the most revolutionary ones. Our work aims at setting up new techniques for detection, 3D delineation and 4D time follow-up of small abdominal lesions from standard mecial images (CT scsan, MRI). It also aims at developing innovative systems making tumor resection or treatment easier with the use of augmented reality and robotized systems, increasing gesture precision. It also permits a realtime great distance connection between practitioners so they can share a same 3D reconstructed patient and interact on a same patient, virtually before the intervention and for real during the surgical procedure thanks to a telesurgical robot. In preclinical studies, our first results obtained from a micro-CT scanner show that these technologies provide an efficient and precise 3D modeling of anatomical and pathological structures of rats and mice. In clinical studies, our first results show the possibility to improve the therapeutic choice thanks to a better detection and and representation of the patient before performing the surgical gesture. They also show the efficiency of augmented reality that provides virtual transparency of the patient in real time during the operative procedure. In the near future, through the exploitation of these systems, surgeons will program and check on the virtual patient clone an optimal procedure without errors, which will be replayed on the real patient by the robot under surgeon control. This medical dream is today about to become reality.

Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques

2006-04-01

201

A Preclinical Study Combining the DNA Repair Inhibitor Dbait with Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Melanoma1  

PubMed Central

Melanomas are highly radioresistant tumors, mainly due to efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Dbait (which stands for DNA strand break bait) molecules mimic DSBs and trap DNA repair proteins, thereby inhibiting repair of DNA damage induced by radiation therapy (RT). First, the cytotoxic efficacy of Dbait in combination with RT was evaluated in vitro in SK28 and 501mel human melanoma cell lines. Though the extent of RT-induced damage was not increased by Dbait, it persisted for longer revealing a repair defect. Dbait enhanced RT efficacy independently of RT doses. We further assayed the capacity of DT01 (clinical form of Dbait) to enhance efficacy of “palliative” RT (10 × 3 Gy) or “radical” RT (20 × 3 Gy), in an SK28 xenografted model. Inhibition of repair of RT-induced DSB by DT01 was revealed by the significant increase of micronuclei in tumors treated with combined treatment. Mice treated with DT01 and RT combination had significantly better tumor growth control and longer survival compared to RT alone with the “palliative” protocol [tumor growth delay (TGD) by 5.7-fold; median survival: 119 vs 67 days] or the “radical” protocol (TGD by 3.2-fold; median survival: 221 vs 109 days). Only animals that received the combined treatment showed complete responses. No additional toxicity was observed in any DT01-treated groups. This preclinical study provides encouraging results for a combination of a new DNA repair inhibitor, DT01, with RT, in the absence of toxicity. A first-in-human phase I study is currently under way in the palliative management of melanoma in-transit metastases (DRIIM trial). PMID:25379020

Biau, Julian; Devun, Flavien; Jdey, Wael; Kotula, Ewa; Quanz, Maria; Chautard, Emmanuel; Sayarath, Mano; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Verrelle, Pierre; Dutreix, Marie

2014-01-01

202

Preclinical Studies of YK-4-272, an Inhibitor of Class II Histone Deacetylases by Disruption of Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling  

PubMed Central

Purpose The HDAC shuttling inhibitor, YK-4-272 functions by restricting nuclear shuttling of Class II HDACs. Pre-clinical investigations of YK-4-272 bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, in vivo toxicity and tumor growth inhibition were performed to determine its potential as an HDAC shuttling disruptor for use in clinical applications. Methods The solubility, lipophilicity, in vitro metabolic stability, in vitro intestinal permeability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics of YK-4-272 were determined by HPLC methods. The anti-tumor activity of YK-4-272 was determined by monitoring athymic Balb/c nude mice bearing PC-3 xenografts. Results Oral bioavailability of YK-4-272 is supported by its solubility (0.537 mg/mL) and apparent partition coefficient of 2.0. The compound was chemically and metabolically stable and not a substrate for CYP450. In Caco-2 cell transport studies, YK-4-272 was highly permeable. The time-concentration profile of YK- 4-272 in plasma resulted in a Cmax of 2.47 µg/mL at 0.25 h with a AUC of 3.304 µg×h/mL. Treatment of PC-3 tumor xenografts with YK-4-272 showed significant growth delay. Conclusions YK-4-272 is stable and bio-available following oral administration. Growth inhibition of cancer cells and tumors was observed. These studies support advancing YK-4-272 for further evaluation as a novel HDAC shuttling inhibitor for use in cancer treatment. PMID:22836184

Kong, Hye-Sik; Tian, Shuo; Kong, Yali; Du, Guanhua; Zhang, Li; Jung, Mira; Dritschilo, Anatoly

2013-01-01

203

Preclinical Studies Identify Non-Apoptotic Low-Level Caspase-3 as Therapeutic Target in Pemphigus Vulgaris  

PubMed Central

The majority of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) patients suffer from a live-threatening loss of intercellular adhesion between keratinocytes (acantholysis). The disease is caused by auto-antibodies that bind to desmosomal cadherins desmoglein (Dsg) 3 or Dsg3 and Dsg1 in mucous membranes and skin. A currently unresolved controversy in PV is whether apoptosis is involved in the pathogenic process. The objective of this study was to perform preclinical studies to investigate apoptotic pathway activation in PV pathogenesis with the goal to assess its potential for clinical therapy. For this purpose, we investigated mouse and human skin keratinocyte cultures treated with PV antibodies (the experimental Dsg3 monospecific antibody AK23 or PV patients IgG), PV mouse models (passive transfer of AK23 or PVIgG into adult and neonatal mice) as well as PV patients’ biopsies (n=6). A combination of TUNEL assay, analyses of membrane integrity, early apoptotic markers such as cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the collapse of actin cytoskeleton failed to provide evidence for apoptosis in PV pathogenesis. However, the in vitro and in vivo PV models, allowing to monitor progression of lesion formation, revealed an early, transient and low-level caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition confirmed the functional implication of caspase-3 in major events in PV such as shedding of Dsg3, keratin retraction, proliferation including c-Myc induction, p38MAPK activation and acantholysis. Together, these data identify low-level caspase-3 activation downstream of disrupted Dsg3 trans- or cis-adhesion as a major event in PV pathogenesis that is non-synonymous with apoptosis and represents, unlike apoptotic components, a promising target for clinical therapy. At a broader level, these results posit that an impairment of adhesive functions in concert with low-level, non-lethal caspase-3 activation can evoke profound cellular changes which may be of relevance for other diseases including cancer. PMID:25748204

Luyet, Camille; Schulze, Katja; Sayar, Beyza S.; Howald, Denise; Müller, Eliane J.; Galichet, Arnaud

2015-01-01

204

Space Toxicology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

James, John T.

2011-01-01

205

AAV-Mediated Gene Therapy for Choroideremia: Preclinical Studies in Personalized Models  

PubMed Central

Choroideremia (CHM) is an X- linked retinal degeneration that is symptomatic in the 1st or 2nd decade of life causing nyctalopia and loss of peripheral vision. The disease progresses through mid-life, when most patients become blind. CHM is a favorable target for gene augmentation therapy, as the disease is due to loss of function of a protein necessary for retinal cell health, Rab Escort Protein 1 (REP1).The CHM cDNA can be packaged in recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV), which has an established track record in human gene therapy studies, and, in addition, there are sensitive and quantitative assays to document REP1 activity. An animal model that accurately reflects the human condition is not available. In this study, we tested the ability to restore REP1 function in personalized in vitro models of CHM: lymphoblasts and induced pluripotent stems cells (iPSCs) from human patients. The initial step of evaluating safety of the treatment was carried out by evaluating for acute retinal histopathologic effects in normal-sighted mice and no obvious toxicity was identified. Delivery of the CHM cDNA to affected cells restores REP1 enzymatic activity and also restores proper protein trafficking. The gene transfer is efficient and the preliminary safety data are encouraging. These studies pave the way for a human clinical trial of gene therapy for CHM. PMID:23667438

Vasireddy, Vidyullatha; Kohnke, Monika; Black, Aaron D.; Alexandrov, Krill; Zhou, Shangzhen; Maguire, Albert M.; Chung, Daniel C.; Mac, Helen; Sullivan, Lisa; Gadue, Paul; Bennicelli, Jeannette L.; French, Deborah L.; Bennett, Jean

2013-01-01

206

Mentalizing in preclinical Huntington's disease: an fMRI study using cartoon picture stories.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant degenerative brain disorder that is characterized by motor, cognitive and affective symptoms. Previous research has shown that patients with HD, similar to patients with schizophrenia, are impaired in their ability to appreciate the mental states of others. Functional brain imaging studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia underactivate the neural network involved in mentalizing, and that deviant patterns of brain activation are also present in individuals at high risk of developing a psychotic disorder. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the brain activation in premanifest mutation carriers for HD. Thirty premanifest mutation carriers (13 males) defined by a positive gene test and absence of unequivocal HD symptoms ("pre-HD") performed a cartoon mentalizing task during functional brain imaging. For comparison, a group of 26 healthy controls took part in the study. BOLD responses revealed that pre-HD subjects activated the mentalizing network comprising prefrontal, temporoparietal and parietal brain regions during task performance. A comparison between pre-HD patients and healthy controls revealed no significant activation differences. Premanifest mutation carriers of HD activated the neural network involved in mentalizing similar to healthy control subjects. This suggests that impaired mentalizing emerges with the clinical manifestation of the disease, but is not necessarily part of the pre-manifest stage. PMID:23179063

Saft, Carsten; Lissek, Silke; Hoffmann, Rainer; Nicolas, Volkmar; Tegenthoff, Martin; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

2013-06-01

207

Neural Stem Cell-Mediated Enzyme-Prodrug Therapy for Glioma: Preclinical Studies  

PubMed Central

High-grade gliomas are extremely difficult to treat because they are invasive and therefore are not curable by surgical resection; the toxicity of currently chemo- and radiation therapies limits the doses that can be used. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have inherent tumor-tropic properties that enable their use as delivery vehicles that can target enzyme/prodrug therapy selectively to tumors. We have used a cytosine deaminase (CD)-expressing clonal human NSC line, HB1.F3.CD, to home to gliomas in mice and locally convert the tumor-localized prodrug 5-fluorocytosine to the active chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil. In vitro studies confirmed that the NSCs have normal karyotype, tumor tropism, and CD expression, indicating that these cells are genetically and functionally stable. In vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated that these NSCs retained tumor tropism, even in mice pre-treated with radiation or dexamethasone to mimic clinically relevant adjuvant therapies. We evaluated safety and toxicity after intracerebral administration of the NSCs in non-tumor bearing, and in orthotopic glioma-bearing, immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. We detected no difference in toxicity associated with conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil, no NSCs outside the brain, and no histological evidence of pathology or tumorigenesis attributable to the NSCs. The average tumor volume in mice that received HB1.F3.CD NSCs and 5-fluorocytosine was approximately one-third that of the average volume in control mice. On the basis of these results, we conclude that combination therapy with HB1.F3.CD NSCs and 5-fluorocytosine is safe, non-toxic and effective in mice. These data have led to approval of a first-inhuman study of an allogeneic NSC-mediated enzyme/prodrug targeted cancer therapy in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. PMID:23658244

Aboody, Karen S.; Najbauer, Joseph; Metz, Marianne Z.; D’Apuzzo, Massimo; Gutova, Margarita; Annala, Alexander J.; Synold, Timothy W.; Couture, Larry A.; Blanchard, Suzette; Moats, Rex A.; Garcia, Elizabeth; Aramburo, Soraya; Valenzuela, Valerie V.; Frank, Richard T.; Barish, Michael E.; Brown, Christine E.; Kim, Seung U.; Badie, Behnam; Portnow, Jana

2013-01-01

208

Neural stem cell-mediated enzyme/prodrug therapy for glioma: preclinical studies.  

PubMed

High-grade gliomas are extremely difficult to treat because they are invasive and therefore not curable by surgical resection; the toxicity of current chemo- and radiation therapies limits the doses that can be used. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have inherent tumor-tropic properties that enable their use as delivery vehicles to target enzyme/prodrug therapy selectively to tumors. We used a cytosine deaminase (CD)-expressing clonal human NSC line, HB1.F3.CD, to home to gliomas in mice and locally convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine to the active chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil. In vitro studies confirmed that the NSCs have normal karyotype, tumor tropism, and CD expression, and are genetically and functionally stable. In vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated NSC retention of tumor tropism, even in mice pretreated with radiation or dexamethasone to mimic clinically relevant adjuvant therapies. We evaluated safety and toxicity after intracerebral administration of the NSCs in non-tumor-bearing and orthotopic glioma-bearing immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. We detected no difference in toxicity associated with conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil, no NSCs outside the brain, and no histological evidence of pathology or tumorigenesis attributable to the NSCs. The average tumor volume in mice that received HB1.F3.CD NSCs and 5-fluorocytosine was about one-third that of the average volume in control mice. On the basis of these results, we conclude that combination therapy with HB1.F3.CD NSCs and 5-fluorocytosine is safe, nontoxic, and effective in mice. These data have led to approval of a first-in-human study of an allogeneic NSC-mediated enzyme/prodrug-targeted cancer therapy in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. PMID:23658244

Aboody, Karen S; Najbauer, Joseph; Metz, Marianne Z; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Gutova, Margarita; Annala, Alexander J; Synold, Timothy W; Couture, Larry A; Blanchard, Suzette; Moats, Rex A; Garcia, Elizabeth; Aramburo, Soraya; Valenzuela, Valerie V; Frank, Richard T; Barish, Michael E; Brown, Christine E; Kim, Seung U; Badie, Behnam; Portnow, Jana

2013-05-01

209

Hydration with Saline Decreases Toxicity of Mice Injected With Calcitriol in Preclinical Studies  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of saline injection in reducing the toxicity profile of calcitriol when coadministered in mice was evaluated. Mortality was used as an end point to study the toxic effects of calcitriol; the relative risk of mortality in mice injected with saline was evaluated from our previously published animal experiments. We discovered that coadministration with 0.25 mL normal saline solution injected intraperitoneally is associated with a lower mortality rate than calcitriol given alone. The estimated relative risk of mortality was 0.0789 (95% confidence interval, 0.0051–1.22; z = 1.82; P = 0.070) when saline is administered with calcitriol compared to calcitriol alone. There was a reduction in serum calcium levels in mice that received saline (11.4 ± 0.15 mg/dL) compared to mice that did not receive saline (12.42 ± 1.61 mg/dL). Hydration with saline seems to reduce mortality and toxicity in mice receiving calcitriol. Given the decrease in mortality rates, intraperitoneal injections of saline should be considered in studies involving mice receiving injections of calcitriol. PMID:24266410

Azari, Amir A; Kanavi, Mozhgan R.; Darjatmoko, Soesiawati R.; Lee, Vivian; Kim, KyungMann; Potter, Heather D.; Albert, Daniel M.

2014-01-01

210

Hydration with saline decreases toxicity of mice injected with calcitriol in preclinical studies.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of saline injection in reducing the toxicity profile of calcitriol when coadministered in mice was evaluated. Mortality was used as an end point to study the toxic effects of calcitriol; the relative risk of mortality in mice injected with saline was evaluated from our previously published animal experiments. We discovered that coadministration with 0.25 mL normal saline solution injected intraperitoneally is associated with a lower mortality rate than calcitriol given alone. The estimated relative risk of mortality was 0.0789 (95% confidence interval, 0.0051-1.22; z = 1.82; P = 0.070) when saline is administered with calcitriol compared to calcitriol alone. There was a reduction in serum calcium levels in mice that received saline (11.4 ± 0.15 mg/dL) compared to mice that did not receive saline (12.42 ± 1.61 mg/dL). Hydration with saline seems to reduce mortality and toxicity in mice receiving calcitriol. Given the decrease in mortality rates, intraperitoneal injections of saline should be considered in studies involving mice receiving injections of calcitriol. PMID:24266410

Azari, Amir A; Kanavi, Mozhgan R; Darjatmoko, Soesiawati R; Lee, Vivian; Kim, Kyungmann; Potter, Heather D; Albert, Daniel M

2013-01-01

211

Preclinical evaluation of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor. Pharmacokinetics and safety studies.  

PubMed

To assess the pharmacodynamics and safety of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (human) (A1PI) isolated from pooled human plasma, a series of animal studies was conducted. Using both unlabeled and 125I-labeled A1PI (highly purified), plasma residence time and tissue distribution were determined in rabbits. A catabolic half-life of 48.5 hours was obtained for the labeled material, which agreed well with the antigenic decay (35.5 hours), measured with a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the functional activity decay (38.1 hours), measured antigenically by the ability of resident human A1PI to complex with human neutrophil elastase. No unusual tissue distribution was observed at the first, 24th, or 168th hour of sacrifice. Cynomolgous monkeys received infusions of labeled A1PI and a catabolic half-life of 55.45 hours was obtained; infusion of unlabeled material yielded anticipated plasma recovery and a significant increment in A1PI in bronchial-alveolar lavage fluid, both antigenically and functionally determined. Safety studies assessing acute physiologic response and both acute and subacute toxicity presented no significant adverse effects. We conclude that A1PI (human) presents normal pharmacodynamics and safety and is therefore associated with a wide margin of safety for the intended clinical applications. PMID:3260072

Fournel, M A; Newgren, J O; Betancourt, C M; Irwin, R G

1988-06-24

212

Masitinib antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 10-mediated paclitaxel resistance: a preclinical study.  

PubMed

Paclitaxel displays clinical activity against a wide variety of solid tumors. However, resistance to paclitaxel significantly attenuates the response to chemotherapy. The ABC transporter subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10), also known as multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7) efflux transporter, is a major mediator of paclitaxel resistance. In this study, we show that masitinib, a small molecule stem-cell growth factor receptor (c-Kit) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, at nontoxic concentrations, significantly attenuates paclitaxel resistance in HEK293 cells transfected with ABCC10. Our in vitro studies indicated that masitinib (2.5 ?mol/L) enhanced the intracellular accumulation and decreased the efflux of paclitaxel by inhibiting the ABCC10 transport activity without altering the expression level of ABCC10 protein. Furthermore, masitinib, in combination with paclitaxel, significantly inhibited the growth of ABCC10-expressing tumors in nude athymic mice in vivo. Masitinib administration also resulted in a significant increase in the levels of paclitaxel in the plasma, tumors, and lungs compared with paclitaxel alone. In conclusion, the combination of paclitaxel and masitinib could serve as a novel and useful therapeutic strategy to reverse paclitaxel resistance mediated by ABCC10. PMID:24431074

Kathawala, Rishil J; Sodani, Kamlesh; Chen, Kang; Patel, Atish; Abuznait, Alaa H; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Sun, Yue-Li; Kaddoumi, Amal; Ashby, Charles R; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2014-03-01

213

Evaluation of wound healing activity of Lantana camara L. - a preclinical study.  

PubMed

Lantana camara is used in herbal medicine for the treatment of skin itches, as an antiseptic for wounds, and externally for leprosy and scabies. The objective of our study was to investigate excision wound healing activity of the leaf extract of L. camara in rats. The animals were divided into two groups of 12 each in both the models. The test group animals were treated with the aqueous extract of L. camara (100 mg/kg/day) topically and the control group animals were left untreated. Wound healing efficacy was measured by determining the morphological and biochemical parameters. Wound healing time, wound contraction and synthesis of collagen were monitored periodically. Antimicrobial activities of the extract against the microorganisms were also assessed. Treatment of the wounds with extract enhanced significantly the rate of wound contraction (98%), synthesis of collagen and decreased mean wound healing time. These studies demonstrate that L. camara is effective in healing excision wounds in the experimental animal and could be evaluated as a therapeutic agent in tissue repair processes associated with skin injuries. PMID:18844241

Nayak, B Shivananda; Raju, S Sivachandra; Eversley, Mathew; Ramsubhag, Adash

2009-02-01

214

Systematic Approach to Remediation in Basic Science Knowledge for Preclinical Students: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remediation of pre-clerkship students for deficits in basic science knowledge should help them overcome their learning deficiencies prior to clerkship. However, very little is known about remediation in basic science knowledge during pre-clerkship. This study utilized the program theory framework to collect and organize mixed methods data of the remediation plan for pre-clerkship students who failed their basic science cognitive examinations in a Canadian medical school. This plan was analyzed using a logic model narrative approach and compared to literature on the learning theories. The analysis showed a remediation plan that was strong on governance and verification of scores, but lacked: clarity and transparency of communication, qualified remedial tutors, individualized diagnosis of learner's deficits, and student centered learning. Participants admitted uncertainty about the efficacy of the remediation process. A remediation framework is proposed that includes student-centered participation, individualized learning plan and activities, deliberate practice, feedback, reflection, and rigorous reassessment.

Amara, Francis

215

Irinotecan delivery by microbubble-assisted ultrasound - A pilot preclinical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irinotecan is conventionally used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, its administration is associated with severe side effects. Targeted drug delivery using ultrasound (US) combined with microbubbles offers new opportunities to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of antitumor treatment and to reduce toxic exposure to healthy tissues. The objective of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of in-vivo delivery of irinotecan by microbubble-assisted US in human glioblastoma model (U-87 MG). In order to validate the potential of this new method in-vivo, subcutaneous tumors were implanted in the flank of nude mouse and treated when they reached a volume of 100 mm3. In the first study, the measured volumes with caliper and anatomic ultrasound imaging were compared for the monitoring and the quantification of tumor growth during 27 days. Ultrasound imaging measurements were positively correlated to caliper measurements. The tumor treatment consisted of an i.v. injection of irinotecan (20 mg/kg) followed one hour later by i.v. administration of MM1 microbubble and an US insonation using a single-element transducer operating at 1MHz (400 kPa, 10 kHz PRF 40% DC, 3 min). The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated for 39 days by measuring the tumor volume before and after treatment using a caliper and based on ultrasound images using an 18 MHz probe (Vevo 2100). Our results showed that anatomical ultrasound imaging was as efficient as caliper for the monitoring and the quantification of tumor growth. Moreover, irinotecan delivery by sonoporation induced a significant decrease of glioblastoma tumor volume and an increase of tumor-doubling time compared to the tumor treated by irinotecan alone. In conclusion, this novel therapeutic approach has promising features since it can be used to reduce the injected drug dose and to achieve a better therapeutic efficacy.

Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Novell, Anthony; Serrière, Sophie; Bouakaz, Ayache

2012-11-01

216

Synthesis, characterization and preclinical studies of two-photon-activated targeted PDT therapeutic triads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) continues to evolve into a mature clinical treatment of a variety of cancer types as well as age-related macular degeneration of the eye. However, there are still aspects of PDT that need to be improved in order for greater clinical acceptance. While a number of new PDT photo-sensitizers, sometimes referred to as second- or third- generation therapeutic agents, are currently under clinical investigation, the direct treatment through the skin of subcutaneous tumors deeper than 5 mm remains problematic. Currently approved PDT porphyrin photo-sensitizers, as well as several modified porphyrins (e.g. chlorins, bacteriochlorins, etc.) that are under clinical investigation can be activated at 630-730 nm, but none above 800 nm. It would be highly desirable if new PDT paradigms could be developed that would allow photo-activation deep in the tissue transparency window in the Near-infrared (NIR) above 800 nm to reduce scattering and absorption phenomena that reduce deep tissue PDT efficacy. Rasiris and MPA Technologies have developed new porphyrins that have greatly enhanced two-photon absorption ( P A ) cross-sections and can be activated deep in the NIR (ca. 780-850 nm). These porphyrins can be incorporated into a therapeutic triad that also employs an small molecule targeting agent that directs the triad to over-expressed tumor receptor sites, and a NIR onephoton imaging agent that allows tracking the delivery of the triad to the tumor site, as well as clearance of excess triad from healthy tissue prior to the start of PDT treatment. We are currently using these new triads in efficacy studies with a breast cancer cell line that has been transfected with luciferase genes that allow implanted tumor growth and post- PDT treatment efficacy studies in SCID mouse models by following the rise and decay of the bioluminescence signal. We have also designed highly absorbing and scattering collagen breast cancer phantoms in which we have demonstrated dramatic cell kill to a depth of at least 4 cm. We have also demonstrated that at the wavelength and laser fluences used in the treatment of implanted tumors in the mouse mammary fat pads, there is little, if any, damage to the skin or internal mouse organs. In addition, we have also demonstrated that the implanted tumors can be treated to a depth of more than 1 cm by direct radiation through the dorsal side of the mouse.

Spangler, C. W.; Starkey, J. R.; Rebane, A.; Meng, F.; Gong, A.; Drobizhev, M.

2006-02-01

217

Comparative toxicology of borates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic borates, including boric acid, Na, ammonium, K, and Zn borates generally display low acute toxicity orally, dermally,\\u000a and by inhalation. They are either not irritant or mild skin and eye irritants. Exceptions owing to physiochemical properties\\u000a do occur.\\u000a \\u000a Longer-term toxicological studies have been reported mainly on boric acid or borax where the properties are generally similar\\u000a on an equivalent

Susan A. Hubbard

1998-01-01

218

HD047703, a New Promising Anti-Diabetic Drug Candidate: In Vivo Preclinical Studies  

PubMed Central

G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has emerged as a novel target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GPR119 is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic ?-cells and intestinal cells. In this study, we identified a novel small-molecule GPR119 agonist, HD047703, which raises intracellular cAMP concentrations in pancreatic ?-cells and can be expected to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from human GPR119 receptor stably expressing cells (CHO cells). We evaluated the acute efficacy of HD047703 by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal C57BL/6J mice. Then, chronic administrations of HD047703 were performed to determine its efficacy in various diabetic rodent models. Single administration of HD047703 caused improved glycemic control during OGTT in a dose-dependent manner in normal mice, and the plasma GLP-1 level was also increased. With respect to chronic efficacy, we observed a decline in blood glucose levels in db/db, ob/ob and DIO mice. These results suggest that HD047703 may be a potentially promising anti-diabetic agent. PMID:25414769

Kim, SoRa; Kim, Dae Hoon; Kim, Young-Seok; Ha, Tae-Young; Yang, Jin; Park, Soo Hyun; Jeong, Kwang Won; Rhee, Jae-Keol

2014-01-01

219

Silver nanoparticle/chitosan oligosaccharide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers as wound dressings: a preclinical study  

PubMed Central

In this study, a mixture of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) was electrospun with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to produce fibrous mats for use in wound healing. The AgNPs were reduced by COS prior to electrospinning or Ag+ was reduced via ultraviolet irradiation in nanofibers. The morphologies of the PVA/COS/AgNO3 and PVA/COS-AgNP nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Formation of the AgNPs was investigated by field emission transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. We also evaluated the biocompatibility of the nanofibers, particularly their cytotoxicity to human skin fibroblasts and potential to cause primary skin irritation. The in vitro antibacterial activity and in vivo wound healing capacity of the nanofibers were also investigated. The nanofibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of 130–192 nm. The diameters of the AgNPs were in the range of 15–22 nm. The nanofibers significantly inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. PVA/COS-AgNP nanofibers accelerated the rate of wound healing over that of the control (gauze). The results of our in vitro and in vivo animal experiments suggest that PVA/COS-AgNP nanofibers should be of greater interest than PVA/COS/AgNO3 nanofibers for clinical use as a bioactive wound dressing. PMID:24204142

Li, Chenwen; Fu, Ruoqiu; Yu, Caiping; Li, Zhuoheng; Guan, Haiyan; Hu, Daqiang; Zhao, Dehua; Lu, Laichun

2013-01-01

220

A 3-week pre-clinical study of 2?-fucosyllactose in farm piglets.  

PubMed

One of the most abundant oligosaccharides found in human milk is 2?-fucosyllactose, a trisaccharide composed of fucose and lactose, and multiple studies have demonstrated a health benefit to this compound. Recent advances have allowed for the large-scale production of oligosaccharides via fermentation, including 2?-fucosyllactose. A neonatal piglet model was used to evaluate the tolerability of 2?-fucosyllactose, produced through this process, in order to demonstrate the suitability of this compound for human infants under 12 weeks of age. Crossbred farm piglets, at lactation day 2, were assigned to one of four treatment groups receiving a liquid diet containing 0, 200, 500 or 2000?mg/L of 2?-fucosyllactose. The calculated consumption of 2?-fucosyllactose corresponded to dose levels of 29.37, 72.22 and 291.74?mg/kg/day, respectively, in males and 29.30, 74.31, and 298.99?mg/kg/day, respectively in females. Piglets were administered diet for 3 weeks; and there were no test article-related effects on growth and development (clinical observations, body weight and food consumption), clinical pathology parameters (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation and urinalysis), or any histopathologic changes. Therefore, dietary exposure to 2?-fucosyllactose at concentrations up to 2000?mg/L was well tolerated by neonatal farm piglets and did not result in adverse health effects or impact piglet growth. PMID:25445760

Hanlon, Paul R; Thorsrud, Bjorn A

2014-12-01

221

Chronic Electrical Stimulation with a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis: A Preclinical Safety and Efficacy Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the safety and efficacy of chronic electrical stimulation of the retina with a suprachoroidal visual prosthesis. Methods Seven normally-sighted feline subjects were implanted for 96–143 days with a suprachoroidal electrode array and six were chronically stimulated for 70–105 days at levels that activated the visual cortex. Charge balanced, biphasic, current pulses were delivered to platinum electrodes in a monopolar stimulation mode. Retinal integrity/function and the mechanical stability of the implant were assessed monthly using electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus photography. Electrode impedances were measured weekly and electrically-evoked visual cortex potentials (eEVCPs) were measured monthly to verify that chronic stimuli were suprathreshold. At the end of the chronic stimulation period, thresholds were confirmed with multi-unit recordings from the visual cortex. Randomized, blinded histological assessments were performed by two pathologists to compare the stimulated and non-stimulated retina and adjacent tissue. Results All subjects tolerated the surgical and stimulation procedure with no evidence of discomfort or unexpected adverse outcomes. After an initial post-operative settling period, electrode arrays were mechanically stable. Mean electrode impedances were stable between 11–15 k? during the implantation period. Visually-evoked ERGs & OCT were normal, and mean eEVCP thresholds did not substantially differ over time. In 81 of 84 electrode-adjacent tissue samples examined, there were no discernible histopathological differences between stimulated and unstimulated tissue. In the remaining three tissue samples there were minor focal fibroblastic and acute inflammatory responses. Conclusions Chronic suprathreshold electrical stimulation of the retina using a suprachoroidal electrode array evoked a minimal tissue response and no adverse clinical or histological findings. Moreover, thresholds and electrode impedance remained stable for stimulation durations of up to 15 weeks. This study has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of suprachoroidal stimulation with charge balanced stimulus currents. PMID:24853376

Nayagam, David A. X.; Williams, Richard A.; Allen, Penelope J.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Luu, Chi D.; Salinas-LaRosa, Cesar M.; Finch, Sue; Ayton, Lauren N.; Saunders, Alexia L.; McPhedran, Michelle; McGowan, Ceara; Villalobos, Joel; Fallon, James B.; Wise, Andrew K.; Yeoh, Jonathan; Xu, Jin; Feng, Helen; Millard, Rodney; McWade, Melanie; Thien, Patrick C.; Williams, Chris E.; Shepherd, Robert K.

2014-01-01

222

Photoacoustic spectroscopy in the monitoring of breast tumor development: a pre-clinical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer type and its detection at an early stage can reduce the mortality rate substantially. With the aim to detect breast cancer early, by studying tumor progression in nude mice, a pulsed laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy set up has been designed and developed. MCF-7 cells xenografts were developed using six to eight weeks old female nude mice and tumor tissues were extracted on different days (10th, 15th and 20th Day) post injection and the corresponding photoacoustic spectra were recorded at 281nm excitation. A total of 144 time domain spectra were recorded from 36 animals belonging to the three time points (10th, 15th and 20th day post injection) and converted into frequency domains by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) tools of the MATLAB algorithms and analyzed. The frequency patterns of the tumor masses on 10th, 15th and 20th day of tumor development showed a gradual increase in intensity at certain frequencies, 5.93 x103 Hz, 15.9 x103 Hz, 29.69 x103 Hz and 32.5 x103 Hz in the FFT patterns indicating that these frequencies were more sensitive towards tumor development. Further analysis of the data yielded a clear variation in the spectral parameters with progression of the disease suggesting that the technique may be suitable for early detection of the disease. Thus, we expect that the developed setup may be useful in assessing the different phases of tumor development which may have clinical implications.

Priya, Mallika; Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish; Ray, Satadru; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

2014-03-01

223

Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders  

PubMed Central

Lithium has been used clinically to treat bipolar disorder for over half a century, and remains a fundamental pharmacological therapy for patients with this illness. Although lithium’s therapeutic mechanisms are not fully understood, substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that it has neuroprotective/neurotrophic properties against various insults, and considerable clinical potential for the treatment of several neurodegenerative conditions. Evidence from pharmacological and gene manipulation studies support the notion that glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling are lithium’s main mechanisms of action, leading to enhanced cell survival pathways and alteration of a wide variety of downstream effectors. By inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium influx, lithium also contributes to calcium homeostasis and suppresses calcium-dependent activation of pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. In addition, lithium decreases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate by inhibiting phosphoinositol phosphatases, a process recently identified as a novel mechanism for inducing autophagy. Through these mechanisms, therapeutic doses of lithium have been demonstrated to defend neuronal cells against diverse forms of death insults and to improve behavioral as well as cognitive deficits in various animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, as well as Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s diseases, among others. Several clinical trials are also underway to assess the therapeutic effects of lithium for treating these disorders. This article reviews the most recent findings regarding the potential targets involved in lithium’s neuroprotective effects, and the implication of these findings for the treatment of a variety of diseases. PMID:20705090

Chiu, Chi-Tso; Chuang, De-Maw

2011-01-01

224

Efficient vitreolysis by combining plasmin and sulfur hexafluoride injection in a preclinical study in rabbit eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the efficacy of plasmin and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) on the vitreoretinal junction, as well as the long-term safety in the eye and effect on the recipient’s general health after application in the eye. Methods The study design included four groups of rabbits with three animals in each group. Group 1 received an intravitreal injection (IVI) of plasmin and SF6 in the right eye; group 2 received an IVI of plasmin in the right eye; group 3 received an IVI of SF6 in the right eye; and group 4 received an IVI of balanced salt solution in the right eye, which served as a normal control. Long-term safety (up to approximately three months) after plasmin and/or SF6 injection was evaluated morphologically by clinical examination, histology, and immunohistochemistry, and functionally by electroretinograms (ERGs). General health evaluations after intravitreal injection included the assessment of weight gain, food intake, body temperature, and complete blood count analysis. Results Plasmin plus SF6 injection resulted in complete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), whereas plasmin or SF6 injection alone resulted in only partial PVD. Balanced salt solution did not induce PVD. Eighty days after intravitreal injection, there were no major differences among the eyes of the three groups of animals compared with the normal control animals upon clinical evaluation, or regarding retinal morphology and ERGs. The lenses examined remained clear for up to 80 days following the intravitreal injection of plasmin plus SF6, except one eye in the plasmin-treated group. ERGs decreased transiently one week after intravitreal injection in groups 1 through 3, but animals recovered fully to normal status afterward. General health was not affected after the injection of plasmin plus SF6. Conclusions Efficient vitreoretinal separation could be achieved, and an acceptable long-term safety profile was noted after plasmin plus SF6 injection in the eye. No major ocular toxicity or systemic toxicity was found after the injection of plasmin plus SF6. These results provide good support for the future clinical use of plasmin plus SF6 for treatment of a variety of vitreoretinopathies. PMID:23049236

Wu, Wei-Chi; Liu, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Chun; Wang, Nan-Kai; Chen, Kwan-Jen; Chen, Tun-Lu; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Li, Lien-Min

2012-01-01

225

Bone metastasis imaging with SPECT/CT/MRI: A preclinical toolbox for therapy studies.  

PubMed

Bone is one of the most common metastatic target sites in breast cancer, with more than 200 thousand new cases of invasive cancer diagnosed in the US alone in 2011. We set out to establish a multimodality imaging platform for bone metastases in small animals as a tool to non-invasively quantify metastasis growth, imaging the ensuing bone lesions and possibly the response to treatment. To this end, a mouse model of osteolytic metastatic bone tumors was characterized with SPECT/CT and MRI over time. A cell line capable of forming bone metastases, MDA-MB-231, was genetically modified to stably express the reporter gene herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (hsv-1 tk). The intracellular accumulation of the radiolabeled tracer [(123)I]FIAU promoted by HSV-1 TK specifically pinpoints the location of tumor cells which can be imaged in vivo by SPECT. First, a study using tumors implanted subcutaneously was performed. The SPECT/MRI overlays and the ex vivo ?-counting showed a linear correlation in terms of %ID/cm(3) (R(2)=0.93) and %ID/g (R(2)=0.77), respectively. Then, bone metastasis growth was imaged weekly by SPECT/CT and T2-weighted MRI over a maximum of 40days post-intracardiac injection of tumor cells. The first activity spots detectable with SPECT, around day 20 post-cell injection, were smaller than 2mm(3) and not yet visible by MRI and increased in volume and in %ID over the weeks. Osteolytic bone lesions were visible by CT (in vivo) and ?CT (ex vivo). The SPECT/MRI overlays also showed a linear correlation in terms of %ID/cm(3) (R(2)=0.86). In conclusion, a new multimodality imaging platform has been established that non-invasively combines images of active tumor areas (SPECT), tumor volume (MRI) and the corresponding bone lesions (CT and ?CT). To our knowledge this is the first report where the combination of soft tissue information from MRI, bone lesions by CT, and reporter gene imaging by SPECT is used to non-invasively follow metastatic bone lesions. PMID:25680341

Sanches, Pedro Gomes; Peters, Steffie; Rossin, Raffaella; Kaijzel, Eric L; Que, Ivo; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Grüll, Holger

2015-06-01

226

Fiber optic fluorescence detection of low-level porphyrin concentrations in preclinical and clinical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant clinical problem in the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer (by any modality--surgery, radiation therapy or photodynainic therapy) is the fact that the disease almost always extends beyond the boundary of visible lesions in the form of microscopic deposits. These deposits may be distant from the site of visible disease but are often in close proximity to it and are manifested sooner or later by the development of recurrent lesions at the border of the treated area, thus the "marginal miss" in radiation therapy, the "rim recurrence" in photodynamic therapy, and the "incisional recurrence" following surgical excision. More intelligent use of these treatment modalities demands the ability to detect microscopic deposits of tumor cells using non-invasive methodology. In vivo fluorescence measurements have been made possible by the development of an extremely sensitive fiber optic in vivo fluorescence photometer. The instrument has been used to verify that fluorescence correlated with injected porphyrin levels in various tissues. The delivery of light to excite and detect background fluorescence as well as photosensitizer fluorescence in tissues has been accomplished using two HeNe lasers emitting at 632.8 nm and 612 nm delivered through a single quartz fiber optic. Chopping at different frequencies, contributions of fluorescence may be separated. Fluorescence is picked up via a 400 micron quartz fiber optic positioned appropriately near the target tissue. Validation of these levels was made by extraction of the drug from the tissues with resultant quantitation. Recently, an extensive study was undertaken to determine if fluorescence could be used for the detection of occult, clinically non-palpable metastases in the lymph node of rats. This unique model allowed for the detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes using very low injected doses of the photosensitizer Photofrin II. Data obtained revealed the ability to detect on the order of 50-100 cells using 0.25 mg/kg of sensitizer, a level 20 times lower than normally used for treatment of animal tumors. These results indicate that Photofrin II could be used for fluorescence detection of small metastatic tumors, while substantially reducing the major side effect of PDT; namely, prolonged photosensitivity. Results to be presented demonstrate the ability of this technique to detect microscopic deposits of malignant tumor cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer. These deposits were found in clinically negative areas of the chest wall.

Mang, Thomas S.; McGinnis, Carolyn; Khan, S.

1990-07-01

227

Occupational toxicology in Mexico: current status and the potential use of molecular studies to evaluate chemical exposure.  

PubMed

Occupational toxicology is of considerable concern for several world organizations including the International Labour Organization, the World Health Organization and the International Commission for Occupational Health and, in Latin America, the Pan American Health Organization. The countries of this Region, including Mexico, own manufacturing, chemical, and petrochemical industries that employ thousands workers who are continually exposed to hazardous chemicals such as solvents, particles and exhaust fumes, many of which are very complex mixtures. Traditionally, physicians have used biochemical analyses to assess the damage caused by chronic chemical exposure. Presently, recent advances in molecular biology may offer tools to perform more thorough and precise evaluations on worker health damage, risk and current health status. In this review, we present a perspective of occupational toxicology in Mexico, as an example for Latin America and developing countries. Moreover, we summarize current reports about occupational disease associated with chemical exposure, and we present an array of molecular studies proposed for the analysis and diagnosis of workers related with industry and the relevance of including molecular biology testing to complement traditional occupational medical assays in order to improve occupational health. We conclude that developing countries, e.g., Mexico, should improve work environment standards by using new technical approaches that will result in more reliable and precise data to design better health policy strategies. PMID:22003922

Muñoz, Balam; Albores, Arnulfo

2011-11-01

228

Toxicological approaches to complex mixtures.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the role of toxicological studies in understanding the health effects of environmental exposures to mixtures. The approach taken is to review mixtures that have received the greatest emphasis from toxicology; major mixtures research programs; the toxicologist's view of mixtures and approaches to their study; and the complementary roles of toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Studies of tobacco smoke, engine exhaust, combustion products, and air pollutants comprise most of the past research on mixtures. Because of their great experimental control over subjects, exposures, and endpoints, toxicologists tend to consider a wider range of toxic interactions among mixture components and sequential exposures than is practical for human studies. The three fundamental experimental approaches used by toxicologists are integrative (studying the mixture as a whole), dissective (dissecting a mixture to determine causative constituents), and synthetic (studying interactions between agents in simple combinations). Toxicology provides information on potential hazards, mechanisms by which mixture constituents interact to cause effects, and exposure dose-effect relationships; but extrapolation from laboratory data to quantitative human health risks is problematic. Toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological approaches are complementary but are seldom coordinated. Fostering synergistic interactions among the disciplines in studying the risks from mixtures could be advantageous. PMID:7515806

Mauderly, J L

1993-01-01

229

A new medium for Caenorhabditis elegans toxicology and nanotoxicology studies designed to better reflect natural soil solution conditions.  

PubMed

A new toxicity test medium for Caenorhabditis elegans is presented. The test solution is designed to provide a better representation of natural soil pore water conditions than currently available test media. The medium has a composition that can readily be modified to allow for studies of the influences of a range of environmentally relevant parameters on nematode biology and toxicology. Tests conducted in the new medium confirmed that nematodes' reproduction was possible at a range of solution pH levels, offering the potential to conduct toxicity studies under a variety of conditions. A test to establish silver nanoparticle and dissolved silver nitrate toxicity, a study type not feasible in M9 or agar media due to precipitation and nanoparticle agglomeration, indicated lower silver nanoparticle (median effective concentration [EC50] of 6.5?mg Ag/L) than silver nitrate (EC50 0.28?mg Ag/L) toxicity. Characterization identified stable nanoparticle behavior in the new test medium. PMID:23595813

Tyne, William; Lofts, Stephen; Spurgeon, David J; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Svendsen, Claus

2013-08-01

230

Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic drug fipexide in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the nootropic fipexide (FIP) in rat urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). FIP was extensively metabolized to 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine (MDBP), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]piperazine, N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)piperazine, piperazine, N-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)ethylenediamine, and N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)acetyl]ethylenediamine. The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC–MS after acid hydrolysis of one urine aliquot, liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation

Roland F. Staack; Hans H. Maurer

2004-01-01

231

Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

2014-01-01

232

TOXLINE (TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION ONLINE)  

EPA Science Inventory

TOXLINE? (TOXicology information onLINE) are the National Library of Medicines extensive collection of online bibliographic information covering the pharmacological, biochemical, physiological, and toxicological effects of drugs and other chemicals. TOXLINE and TOXLINE65 together...

233

TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network  

MedlinePLUS

... Your resource for searching databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health, and toxic releases SEARCH TOXNET Search ... Databases References from Biomedical Literature TOXLINE DART Factual Chemical, Toxicological, and Environmental Health Data HSDB CCRIS GENETOX ...

234

National Toxicology Program  

MedlinePLUS

... is to develop and apply tools of modern toxicology and molecular biology to identify substances in the ... may be of concern given human exposure levels. Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) The Tox21 Program ...

235

THE BENEFITS OF A QUALITY ASSURANCE REVIEW OF A RESEARCH STUDY ON THE PHYSICOCHEMISTRY AND PULMONARY TOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ORIMULSION FLY ASH  

EPA Science Inventory

THE BENEFITS OF A QUALITY ASSURANCE REVIEW OF A RESEARCH STUDY ON THE PHYSICOCHEMISTRY AND PULMONARY TOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ORIMULSION FLY ASH. K Dreher', J. Richards', J. McGee', J. Lehmann', T. Hughes', A. Miller, W. Linak2, and A. Mallett3.'National Health and Environment...

236

Toxicological effects and recovery of the corneal epithelium in Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. exposed to monocrotophos: an scanning electron microscope study.  

PubMed

This study was conducted based on the evidence of fish habitats in North India being affected by organophosphate pesticides draining from agricultural fields into bodies of water, especially during the rainy season. Various tissues of fish such as scales, gills ovaries, kidney, and liver have been studied from the toxicological point of view, but the toxicological effects of aquatic pollutants on fish cornea have not been investigated to date. We conducted comparative toxicological studies on the cornea of Cyprinus carpio communis using two sublethal (0.038 and 0.126 ppm) concentrations of monocrotophos pesticide for 30 days. Corneas from all the groups were evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. The fish exposed to the monocrotophos pesticide developed corneal necrosis due to the formation of crystalloid-like structures, thinning and shrinkage of microridges on the corneal epithelium. After 30 days, fish from the monocrotophos-treated tank were transferred to normal environmental conditions. After 60 days under natural condition, epithelial cells did not fully recover. In conclusion, exposure to monocrotophos induces irreversible changes in the cornea of C. carpio communis. As fish and mammalian visual systems share many similarities, the reported finding may offer useful insights for further toxicological and ophthalmological studies in humans. PMID:24373492

Uppal, Ravneet Kaur; Johal, Mohinder Singh; Sharma, Madan Lal

2013-12-30

237

Recommended Tissue List for Histopathologic Examination in Repeat-Dose Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies: A Proposal of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Executive Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) appointed an ad hoc task force to devise and recommend a standard list of tissues to be evaluated histopathologically in repeat-dose toxicity and carcinogenicity studies that are used to support the registration o fn ew pharmaceutical products. The recommended tissue list is intended to be a minimum core list that

Carla L. Bregman; Rick R. Adler; Daniel G. Morton; Karen S. Regan; Barry L. Yano

2003-01-01

238

CAVEATS REGARDING THE USE OF THE LABORATORY RATS AS A MODEL FOR ACUTE TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES: MODULATION OF THE TOXIC RESPONSE VIA PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The rodent, specifically the inbred laboratory rat, is the primary experimental animal used in toxicology testing. Despite its popularity, recent studies from our laboratory and others raise a number of questions concerning the rat's appropriateness as an animal model for toxicol...

239

Toxicological studies on bestatin. II. Subacute toxicity test and recovery study in beagle dogs.  

PubMed

Subacute toxicity and its recovery of bestatin (NK421) was studied on both sexes of 34 Beagle dogs. At dose levels of 600, 240, 96 and 38.4 mg/kg, NK421 was administered orally to dogs for 90 successive days. The control group was treated orally with 2 g/dog of corn starch. Each group was constituted of 3 males and 3 females, and 2 males and 2 females were added to the 240 mg/kg group for the recovery test for 35 days. As general symptoms, loss of appetite, vomiting, abnormal feces (loose stool, diarrhea, mucous stool), eye mucus, decoloration of the visible mucous membrance and unkempt fur were observed slightly and almost dose-dependently in the group dosed with more than 96 mg/kg. Body weight decreased with the passage of time in the 600 and 240 mg/kg groups, but no death appeared in any group. In correlation with general signs, slight anemia was seen hematologically, and the increased alkaline phosphatase activity and the decreased albumin ratio in serum protein fraction were observed biochemically. The slight abnormal findings of bone marrow, spleen and liver were also demonstrated histopathologically. All the above findings disappeared during the recovery period. The maximum non-toxic dose of NK421 in this study is estimated to be 38.4 mg/kg in dogs. PMID:6674529

Ito, K; Irie, Y; Hagiwara, T; Sakai, Y; Hayashi, M; Sakakibara, T; Kishi, H; Okada, M; Sakamoto, M; Suzuki, M

1983-11-01

240

Preclinical development strategies for novel gene therapeutic products.  

PubMed

With over 220 investigational new drug applications currently active, gene therapy represents one of the fastest growing areas in biotherapeutic research. Initially conceived for replacing defective genes in diseases such as cystic fibrosis or inborn errors of metabolism with genes encoding the normal, or wild-type, gene product, gene therapy has expanded into other novel applications such as treatment of cancer or cardiovascular disease, where the risk:benefit profiles may be more acceptable in relation to the severity of the disease. Different types of vectors, including modified retroviruses, adenoviruses, adenovirus-associated viruses, and herpesviruses and plasmid DNA, are used to transfer foreign genetic material into patients' cells or tissues. Developing a toxicology program to determine the safety of these agents, therefore, requires a modified approach that encompasses the pharmacology and toxicity of both the gene product itself and the vector system used for delivery in the context of the application for the clinical trial. In general, the issues involved in designing and developing appropriate preclinical testing to determine the safety of these products are similar to those encountered for other recombinant molecules, including protein biotherapeutics. Limitations to some of the typical toxicology studies conducted for a traditional drug development program may exist for these agents, and nontraditional approaches may be required to demonstrate their safety. Many factors may affect the safety and clinical activity of these agents, including the route, frequency, and duration of exposure and the type of vector employed. Other safety considerations include quantitation of the duration and degree of expression of the vector in target and other tissues, the effects of gene expression on organ pathology and/or histology, evaluation of trafficking of gene-transduced cells or vector after injection, and interactions of the host immune system with the transduced cell population. Because of the unique concerns regarding each of these therapies, the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research encourages sponsors to obtain toxicity data whenever possible while evaluating the pharmacologic activity of the vector in a species or animal model relevant to their clinical indication. Sponsors are encouraged to discuss preclinical study design and results with the Center during product development to facilitate early identification of safety concerns prior to entry of these novel agents into the clinical setting and to ensure an uninterrupted course of development while addressing issues required for licensure. PMID:10367665

Pilaro, A M; Serabian, M A

1999-01-01

241

Recent Advances in Particulate Matter and Nanoparticle Toxicology: A Review of the In Vivo and In Vitro Studies  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological and clinical studies have linked exposure to particulate matter (PM) to adverse health effects, which may be registered as increased mortality and morbidity from various cardiopulmonary diseases. Despite the evidence relating PM to health effects, the physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms causing such effects are still not fully characterized. Two main approaches are used to elucidate the mechanisms of toxicity. One is the use of in vivo experimental models, where various effects of PM on respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems can be evaluated. To more closely examine the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind the different physiological effects, the use of various in vitro models has proven to be valuable. In the present review, we discuss the current advances on the toxicology of particulate matter and nanoparticles based on these techniques. PMID:23865044

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Holme, Jørn A.; Rosas, Irma; Schwarze, Per E.

2013-01-01

242

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1989-02-01

243

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

1989-01-01

244

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1988-11-01

245

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of n-hexane in rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The straight chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent used in industrial, academic, and smaller commercial environments. The significant opportunity for women of child-bearing age to be exposed to this chemical prompted the undertaking of a study to assess the developmental toxicity of n-hexane in an animal model. Timed-pregnant (30 animals per group) and virgin (10 animals per group) Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0 (filtered air), 200, 1000, and 5000 ppM n-hexane (99.9% purity) vapor in inhalation chambers for 20 h/day for a period of 14 consecutive days. Sperm-positive females were exposed for 6 to 19 days of gestation (dg) and virgins were exposed concurrently for 14 consecutive days. The day of sperm detection was designated as 0 dg for mated females. Adult female body weights were monitored prior to, throughout the exposure period, and at sacrifice. Uterine, placental, and fetal body weights were obtained for gravid females at sacrifice. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded as live fetus, early or late resorption, or dead. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 16 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Mast, T.J.

1987-12-01

246

TOXNET (TOXICOLOGY DATA NETWORK)  

EPA Science Inventory

TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) is a computerized system of files oriented to toxicology and related areas. It is managed by the National Library of Medicines Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) and runs on a series of microcomputers in a networked cl...

247

Graduate Program Environmental Toxicology  

E-print Network

1 Graduate Program in Environmental Toxicology Graduate Student Guidelines Updated December 7, 2011 for Ph.D. Students 3. ENTOX Form 2 ­ Graduate Research Proposal #12;3 PROGRAM OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY GRADUATE STUDENT GUIDELINES A. Introduction The Faculty of Environmental Toxicology welcomes you

Duchowski, Andrew T.

248

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Hexachloroethane (CAS No. 67-72-1) in F344/N Rats (Gavage Studies).  

PubMed

Hexachloroethane is used in organic synthesis as a retarding agent in fermentation, as a camphor substitute in nitrocellulose, in pyrotechnics and smoke devices, in explosives, and as a solvent. In previous long-term gavage studies with B6C3F1 mice and Osbourne-Mendel rats (78 weeks of exposure followed by 12-34 weeks of observation), hexachloroethane caused increased incidences of hepatocellular carcinomas in mice. However, survival of low and high dose rats was reduced compared with that of vehicle controls, and the effects on rats were inconclusive. Therefore, additional toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted in F344/N rats by administering hexachloroethane (approximately 99% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of males and females for 16 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Urinalysis was performed in conjunction with the 13-week studies. Sixteen-Day Studies: In the 16-day studies (dose range, 187-3,000 mg/kg), all rats that received 1,500 or 3,000 mg/kg and 1/5 males and 2/5 females that received 750 mg/kg died before the end of the studies. Final mean body weights of rats that received 750 mg/kg were 25% lower than that of vehicle controls for males and 37% lower for females. Compound-related clinical signs seen at 750 mg/kg or more included dyspnea, ataxia, prostration, and excessive lacrimation. Other compound-related effects included hyaline droplet formation in the tubular epithelial cells in all dosed males and tubular cell regeneration and granular casts in the tubules at the corticomedullary junction in the kidney in males receiving 187 and 375 mg/kg. Thirteen-Week Studies: In the 13-week studies (dose range, 47-750 mg/kg), 5/10 male rats and 2/10 female rats that received 750 mg/kg died before the end of the studies. The final mean body weight of male rats that received 750 mg/kg was 19% lower than that of vehicle controls. Compound-related clinical signs for both sexes included hyperactivity at doses of 94 mg/kg or higher and convulsions at doses of 375 or 750 mg/kg. The relative weights of liver, heart, and kidney were increased for exposed males and females. Kidney lesions were seen in all dosed male groups, and the severity increased with dose. Papillary necrosis and tubular cell necrosis and degeneration in the kidney and hemorrhagic necrosis in the urinary bladder were observed in the five male rats that received 750 mg/kg and died before the end of the studies; at all lower doses, hyaline droplets, tubular regeneration, and granular casts were present in the kidney. No chemical-related kidney lesions were observed in females. Foci of hepatocellular necrosis were observed in several male and female rats at doses of 188 mg/kg or higher. Dose selection for the 2-year studies was based primarily on the lesions of the kidney in males and of the liver in females. Studies were conducted by administering hexachloroethane in corn oil by gavage at 0, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight, 5 days per week, to groups of 50 male rats. Groups of 50 female rats were administered 0, 80, or 160 mg/kg on the same schedule. Body Weight and Survival in the Two-Year Studies: Mean body weights of high dose rats were slightly (5%-9%) lower than those of vehicle controls toward the end of the studies. No significant differences in survival were observed between any groups of rats (male: vehicle control, 31/50; 10 mg/kg, 29/50; 20 mg/kg, 26/50; female: vehicle control, 32/50; 80 mg/kg, 27/50; 160 mg/kg, 32/50). Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Effects in the Two-Year Studies: Incidences of kidney mineralization (vehicle control, 2/50; low dose, 15/50; high dose, 32/50) and hyperplasia of the pelvic transitional epithelium (0/50; 7/50; 7/50) were increased in dosed male rats. Renal tubule hyperplasia was observed at an increased incidence in high dose male rats (2/50; 4/50; 11/50). These lesions have been described as characteristic of the hyaline droplet nephropathy that is associated with an accumulation of liver-generatet

1989-08-01

249

An Independent Study of the Preclinical Efficacy of C2-8 in the R6/2 Transgenic Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background C2-8 is a small molecule inhibitor of polyglutamine aggregation and can reduce photoreceptor neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of Huntington's disease (HD). Further preclinical studies have shown that oral administration of C2-8 in R6/2 HD transgenic mice can penetrate into the brain, reduce mHTT-exon1 aggregation, improve motor performance and diminish striatal neuron atrophy. Objective In this independent preclinical study, we aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy of C2-8 intraperitoneal (IP) delivery in the R6/2 HD mouse. Methods R6/2 mice were IP injected with low dose C2-8 (10 mg/kg), high dose C2-8 (20 mg/kg), or vehicle twice daily from 3 weeks to 3 months old. Longitudinal behavioral tests (accelerating Rotarod and wire-hang) were performed to evaluate the motor deficits, and neuropathology was measured by unbiased stereology. Results We confirmed that the compound has good blood-brain-barrier penetration after acute or sub-chronic intraperitoneal delivery. Chronic treatment with C2-8 in R6/2 mice results in a significant reduction of nuclear mHTT aggregate volume in the brains, replicating a key finding of C2-8 as a polyglutamine aggregation inhibitor in vivo. However, by comparing HD mice with C2-8 treatment to those with vehicle treatment, we were unable to demonstrate significant amelioration of motor deficits using Rotarod and wire-hang tests. Moreover, we did not observe improvement in the striatal neurodegenerative pathology, as measured by brain weight, striatal volume, and striatal neuron volume in the C2-8 treated R6/2 mice. Conclusions Our study supports the practice of independent preclinical studies for novel molecules in HD therapeutic development and suggests that the use of alternative delivery strategies and full-length HD mouse models are likely needed to further assess whether the aggregate-inhibiting properties of C2-8 can be consistently translated into a preclinical benefit in HD mice. PMID:25062731

Wang, Nan; Lu, Xiao-Hong; Sandoval, Susana V.; Yang, X. William

2014-01-01

250

Identification of Prenatal Amphetamines Exposure by Maternal Interview and Meconium Toxicology in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study  

PubMed Central

The Infant Development Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study is investigating the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MAMP) exposure on infant and child development; potential concurrent exposure to cannabis and tobacco also are evaluated. Maternal self-reported drug use and/or meconium toxicology results defined drug exposure status. It is unclear how the frequency, duration and magnitude of maternal MAMP exposure affect qualitative and quantitative meconium results. Materials and Methods Interviews regarding maternal drug use were collected shortly after birth; meconium specimens were screened for amphetamines, cannabis and cotinine by immunoassay and confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Results The majority of MAMP- and cannabis-exposed infants were identified by maternal interview alone. Meconium tests were more likely to be positive if the mother reported MAMP and cannabis use, particularly in the third trimester. Less than half of immunoassay-positive amphetamines (31.0%) and cannabis (17.9%) meconium results were confirmed by GCMS. Tobacco exposure was equally detected by immunoassay cotinine screen and maternal report. Meconium concentrations did not correlate with maternal self-report status or trimester of use, frequency or route of MAMP use. Discussion Maternal self-report was more sensitive than meconium testing for identifying MAMP and cannabis-exposed neonates; however, the timing of drug exposure may influence meconium toxicology results. Most women ceased MAMP and cannabis use before the third trimester. In the first trimester, meconium has not yet formed, and based on our recent results for opiates and cocaine, drug use in the second trimester appears to be poorly reflected in meconium. Conclusion Low confirmation rates in meconium reinforce the need for confirmatory testing following positive screening results and additional research to identify alternative biomarkers. PMID:19935364

Gray, Teresa R.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Smith, Lynne M.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia M.; Della Grotta, Sheri A.; Strauss, Arthur; Haning, William F.; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2009-01-01

251

Toxicological studies on Laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila expressed in Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

The bioindustrially produced enzyme laccase can be used in different technical and food applications to facilitate processes. It can be added to different oral care products such as mouthwash, toothpaste, mints, and gums to prevent halitosis. Laccase, produced by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus oryzae, containing a gene originating from Myceliophthora thermophila, was subject to a series of toxicological tests to document its safety in use. It was not found to be mutagenic in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, nor did it cause chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes. No evidence of inhalation toxicity or skin and eye irritation was found. There was no evidence of possible skin sensitization in a human skin sensitization test when Laccase was tested at 10% (w/v): thus Laccase would appear to have a low skin sensitization potential. Oral administration to rats of up to 10.0 mL/kg body wt/day (equivalent to a total organic solids dosage of 1.72 g/kg body wt/day) for 13 weeks did not cause any adverse effect. PMID:12202045

Brinch, D S; Pedersen, P B

2002-06-01

252

Applications of Proteomic Technologies to Toxicology  

EPA Science Inventory

Proteomics is the large-scale study of gene expression at the protein level. This cutting edge technology has been extensively applied to toxicology research recently. The up-to-date development of proteomics has presented the toxicology community with an unprecedented opportunit...

253

Physiological evaluation of men wearing three different toxicological protective systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the physiological responses of seven volunteers exercising in the heat while wearing three different toxicological protective systems. The Toxicological Agent Protective (TAP) suit has been available for use for more than 30 years while the other two protective systems are developmental efforts. The Self-Contained Toxicological Environmental Protection Outfit (STEPO) includes either a backpack-rebreather (with COâ scrubber) and

L. Levine; B. S. Cadarette; M. N. Sawka; K. B. Pandolf

1989-01-01

254

Optimization of Preclinical Animal Models  

E-print Network

Optimization of Preclinical Animal Models Steven Perrin, PhD CEO, CSO ALS Therapy Development Institute #12;Historical Issue with Pre-clinical Animal Model Development and Validation Optimized Experimental Design for Preclinical Drug Screening in the ALS Mouse Model, 2007 10 Years To Validate the Model

255

Welfare of the minipig with special reference to use in regulatory toxicology studies.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the animal welfare challenges associated with the use of minipigs in toxicology testing, and compares these to published knowledge on the other widely used non-rodent species (dogs and non-human primates). Welfare challenges arise from housing and management of populations under laboratory conditions, and from the procedures carried out for product evaluation. Welfare assessment requires a multidisciplinary approach: cardiovascular parameters, adrenocortical hormones and behaviour are well known parameters. However, reliable non-invasive methods to assess welfare and species-specific benchmarks need further development in minipigs. Husbandry of minipigs (housing, diet, and socialisation needs) to promote good welfare is described in the revised Appendix A of the European Convention (ETS 123). This has been supplemented by knowledge of species biology and expert opinion from experienced minipig users. Challenges when using minipigs in toxicity testing have been reviewed in detail. Although deeper location of the peripheral blood vessels makes blood sampling more challenging, samples can be taken with minimal distress when staff members are well trained. Temporary and chronic vascular catheters can also be used for frequent sampling, and are likely to improve the welfare of the animals. Available training courses with a focus on stress free handling and dosing, as well as surgical placement of temporary and chronic vascular catheters, should be utilised to improve welfare during these procedures. Humane endpoints have been described, mainly based on current industry practices, but further scientific investigations are required. From an animal welfare perspective there are no basic restrictions to using minipigs in toxicity testing that are unique to this species. We conclude that it is easier to keep minipigs to a good standard of welfare under laboratory conditions than it is for dogs or non-human primates, since minipigs are not athletic (like dogs) or arboreal (like non-human primates). PMID:20621655

Ellegaard, Lars; Cunningham, Andrew; Edwards, Sandra; Grand, Nanna; Nevalainen, Timo; Prescott, Mark; Schuurman, Teun

2010-01-01

256

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies of 1,3-butadiene in the rat: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats during and following 6 hours/day, whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200, and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female rats (Ns = 24 to 28), which had mated with unexposed males, were exposed to the chemical from 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 20 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11, 16 and 20 dg; the rats were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. There were no significant differences among treatment groups in maternal body weights or extragestational weights of rats exposed to 1,3-butadiene concentrations of 40 or 200 ppM, but, in animals exposed to 1000 ppM, significantly depressed body weight gains were observed during the first 5 days of exposure and extragestational weight gains tended to be lower than control values. These results, and the absence of clinical signs of toxicity, were considered to indicate that there was no maternal toxicity at exposure levels of 200 ppM or lower. The percentage of pregnant animals and the number of litters with live fetuses were unaffected by treatment. Under the conditions of this exposure regimen, there was no evidence for a teratogenic response to 1,3-butadiene exposure.

Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

1987-11-01

257

Reproductive Toxicology Testing with EDCS  

EPA Science Inventory

An introduction to reproductive toxicology: the basic approaches to testing chemicals for adverse effects using multigenerational studies with rats and how the regulatory agencies used the data in risk assessments. Case studies were presented of how endocrine or genomic data were...

258

Nanomedicines for cancer therapy: state-of-the-art and limitations to pre-clinical studies that hinder future developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to efficiently deliver a drug or gene to a tumor site is dependent on a wide range of factors including circulation time, interactions with the mononuclear phagocyte system, extravasation from circulation at the tumor site, targeting strategy, release from the delivery vehicle, and uptake in cancer cells. Nanotechnology provides the possibility of creating delivery systems where the design constraints are decoupled, allowing new approaches for reducing the unwanted side effects of systemic delivery, increasing tumor accumulation, and improving efficacy. The physico-chemical properties of nanoparticle-based delivery platforms introduce additional complexity associated with pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation. To assess the impact of nanoparticle-based delivery systems, we first review the design strategies and pharmacokinetics of FDA-approved nanomedicines. Next we review nanomedicines under development, summarizing the range of nanoparticle platforms, strategies for targeting, and pharmacokinetics. We show how the lack of uniformity in preclinical trials prevents systematic comparison and hence limits advances in the field.

Dawidczyk, Charlene; Russell, Luisa; Searson, Peter

2014-08-01

259

Exploring the tumors of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in mouse models for basic and preclinical studies  

PubMed Central

Most patients (70–90%) with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome possess germline heterozygous mutations in MEN1 that predisposes to tumors of multiple endocrine and nonendocrine tissues. Some endocrine tumors of the kinds seen in MEN1 that occur sporadically in the general population also possess somatic mutations in MEN1. Interestingly, the endocrine tumors of MEN1 are recapitulated in mouse models of Men1 loss that serve as a valuable resource to understand the pathophysiology and molecular basis of tumorigenesis. Exploring these endocrine tumors in mouse models using in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro methods can help to follow the process of tumorigenesis, and can be useful for preclinical testing of therapeutics and understanding their mechanisms of action. PMID:25685317

Agarwal, Sunita K

2015-01-01

260

Adaptation of the ToxRTool to assess the reliability of toxicology studies conducted with genetically modified crops and implications for future safety testing.  

PubMed

Abstract To determine the reliability of food safety studies carried out in rodents with genetically modified (GM) crops, a Food Safety Study Reliability Tool (FSSRTool) was adapted from the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods' ToxRTool. Reliability was defined as the inherent quality of the study with regard to use of standardized testing methodology, full documentation of experimental procedures and results, and the plausibility of the findings. Codex guidelines for GM crop safety evaluations indicate toxicology studies are not needed when comparability of the GM crop to its conventional counterpart has been demonstrated. This guidance notwithstanding, animal feeding studies have routinely been conducted with GM crops, but their conclusions on safety are not always consistent. To accurately evaluate potential risks from GM crops, risk assessors need clearly interpretable results from reliable studies. The development of the FSSRTool, which provides the user with a means of assessing the reliability of a toxicology study to inform risk assessment, is discussed. Its application to the body of literature on GM crop food safety studies demonstrates that reliable studies report no toxicologically relevant differences between rodents fed GM crops or their non-GM comparators. PMID:25208336

Koch, Michael S; DeSesso, John M; Williams, Amy Lavin; Michalek, Suzanne; Hammond, Bruce

2014-09-10

261

White matter changes in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: a magnetic resonance imaging-diffusion tensor imaging study on cognitively normal older people with positive amyloid ? protein 42 levels.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging measures to determine the existence of white matter microstructural differences in the preclinical phases of Alzheimer's disease, assessing cognitively normal older individuals with positive amyloid ? protein (A?42) levels (CN_A?42+) on the basis of normal cognition and cerebrospinal fluid A?42 levels below 500 pg/mL. Nineteen CN_A?42+ and 19 subjects with A?42 levels above 500 pg/mL (CN_A?42-) were included. We encountered increases in axial diffusivity (AxD) in CN_A?42+ relative to CN_A?42- in the corpus callosum, corona radiata, internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus bilaterally, and also in the left fornix, left uncinate fasciculus, and left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. However, no differences were found in other diffusion tensor imaging indexes. Cognitive reserve scores were positively associated with AxD exclusively in the CN_A?42+ group. The finding of AxD alteration together with preserved fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity indexes in the CN_A?42+ group may indicate that, subtle axonal changes may be happening in the preclinical phases of Alzheimer's disease, whereas white matter integrity is still widely preserved. PMID:25002037

Molinuevo, José Luis; Ripolles, Pablo; Simó, Marta; Lladó, Albert; Olives, Jaume; Balasa, Mircea; Antonell, Anna; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Rami, Lorena

2014-12-01

262

Human B-cell cancer cell lines as a preclinical model for studies of drug effect in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Drug resistance in cancer refers to recurrent or primary refractory disease following drug therapy. At the cellular level, it is a consequence of molecular functions that ultimately enable the cell to resist cell death-one of the classical hallmarks of cancer. Thus, drug resistance is a fundamental aspect of the cancer cell phenotype, in parallel with sustained proliferation, immortality, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Here we present a preclinical model of human B-cell cancer cell lines used to identify genes involved in specific drug resistance. This process includes a standardized technical setup for specific drug screening, analysis of global gene expression, and the statistical considerations required to develop resistance gene signatures. The state of the art is illustrated by the first-step classical drug screen (including the CD20 antibody rituximab, the DNA intercalating topoisomerase II inhibitor doxorubicin, the mitotic inhibitor vincristine, and the alkylating agents cyclophosphamide and melphalan) along with the generation of gene lists predicting the chemotherapeutic outcome as validated retrospectively in clinical trial datasets. This B-cell lineage-specific preclinical model will allow us to initiate a range of laboratory studies, with focus on specific gene functions involved in molecular resistance mechanisms. PMID:25072621

Laursen, Maria Bach; Falgreen, Steffen; Bødker, Julie Støve; Schmitz, Alexander; Kjeldsen, Malene Krag; Sørensen, Suzette; Madsen, Jakob; El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Bøgsted, Martin; Dybkær, Karen; Johnsen, Hans Erik

2014-11-01

263

Toxicological Assessment of Inhaled Nanoparticles: Role of in Vivo, ex Vivo, in Vitro, and in Silico Studies  

PubMed Central

The alveolar epithelium of the lung is by far the most permeable epithelial barrier of the human body. The risk for adverse effects by inhaled nanoparticles (NPs) depends on their hazard (negative action on cells and organism) and on exposure (concentration in the inhaled air and pattern of deposition in the lung). With the development of advanced in vitro models, not only in vivo, but also cellular studies can be used for toxicological testing. Advanced in vitro studies use combinations of cells cultured in the air-liquid interface. These cultures are useful for particle uptake and mechanistic studies. Whole-body, nose-only, and lung-only exposures of animals could help to determine retention of NPs in the body. Both approaches also have their limitations; cellular studies cannot mimic the entire organism and data obtained by inhalation exposure of rodents have limitations due to differences in the respiratory system from that of humans. Simulation programs for lung deposition in humans could help to determine the relevance of the biological findings. Combination of biological data generated in different biological models and in silico modeling appears suitable for a realistic estimation of potential risks by inhalation exposure to NPs. PMID:24646916

Fröhlich, Eleonore; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

2014-01-01

264

Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction  

SciTech Connect

The science of aquatic toxicology is a relatively new science. The development of the field of aquatic toxicology since 1930 is traced. The state of the art of aquatic toxicology compared with that of classical toxicology is evaluated. The science of aquatic toxicology is expected to undergo a significant period of rapid growth and development, leading ultimately to the formation of a mature science.

Macek, K.J.

1980-02-01

265

Generating nano-aerosols from TiO? (5 nm) nanoparticles showing different agglomeration states. Application to toxicological studies.  

PubMed

Agglomeration of nanoparticles (NP) is a key factor in the generation of aerosols from nano-powders and may represent an important parameter to consider in toxicological studies. For this reason, the characterization of NP aerosols (e.g., concentration, size, and structure of agglomerates) is a critical step in the determination of the relationship between exposure and effects. The aim of this study was to generate and characterize aerosols composed of TiO? (5 nm) NP showing different agglomeration states. Two concentrations were tested: 2 and 7 mg/m³. Stable mass concentrations over 6 hr were successfully generated by a wet method using Collison and Delavan nebulizers that resulted in aerosols composed of smaller agglomerates (<100 nm), while aerosols composed of larger agglomerates (>100 nm) were obtained by dry generation techniques using either a Palas dust feeder or a Fluidized Bed. Particle size distributions in the aerosols were determined by an electrical low pressure impactor. Median number aerodynamic diameters corresponding to the aerosol with smaller and larger agglomerates were 30 and 185 nm, respectively, for the 2 mg/m³ concentration, and 31 and 194 nm for the 7 mg/m³ experiment. Image analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of compact or agglomerates with void spaces in the different nano-aerosols. These characterized nano-aerosols will be used in further experiments to study the influence of agglomerate size on NP toxicity. PMID:23252512

Noël, Alexandra; Cloutier, Yves; Wilkinson, Kevin James; Dion, Chantal; Hallé, Stéphane; Maghni, Karim; Tardif, Robert; Truchon, Ginette

2013-01-01

266

TOXICOLOGICAL SAFETY OF IRRADIATED FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irradiation of food and agricultural products is allowed in over 60 countries around the world, and has only been allowed only after extensive testing for toxicological safety. Studies conducted over a 50 year period found no detectable increases in the risk of cancer or birth defects associated wi...

267

[Studies of biologic activation associated with molecular receptor increase and tumor response in ChL6/L6 protocol patients; Studies in phantoms; Quantitative SPECT; Preclinical studies; and Clinical studies]. DOE annual report, 1994--95  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe results which have not yet been published from their associated studies listed in the title. For the first, they discuss Lym-1 single chain genetically engineered molecules, analysis of molecular genetic coded messages to enhance tumor response, and human dosimetry and therapeutic human use radiopharmaceuticals. Studies in phantoms includes a discussion of planar image quantitation, counts coincidence correction, organ studies, tumor studies, and {sup 90}Y quantitation with Bremsstrahlung imaging. The study on SPECT discusses attenuation correction and scatter correction. Preclinical studies investigated uptake of {sup 90}Y-BrE-3 in mice using autoradiography. Clinical studies discuss image quantitation verses counts from biopsy samples, S factors for radiation dose calculation, {sup 67}Cu imaging studies for lymphoma cancer, and {sup 111}In MoAb imaging studies for breast cancer to predict {sup 90}Y MoAb therapy.

DeNardo, S.J.

1995-12-31

268

Toxicology: recommended sequence of required courses www.toxicology.psu.edu Toxicology Program Coordinator  

E-print Network

E R M 431(3) Environmental Toxicology* FALL AT UNIVERSITY PARK ONLY VB SC 433(3) Molecular(3) Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology I H S 450(3) Environmental Health and Safety VB SC 410(3) PrinciplesToxicology: recommended sequence of required courses www.toxicology.psu.edu Toxicology Program

Omiecinski, Curtis

269

Toxicological evaluation of New Zealand deer velvet powder. Part I: acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats.  

PubMed

Potential toxic effects of acute and subchronic dosage regimens of deer velvet powder have been assessed in rats following OECD guidelines. In the acute study, rats of both sexes were exposed to a single dose of 2 g/kg body weight. There was no mortality or other signs of toxicity during 14 days' observation. Furthermore, no significant alteration either in relative organ weights or their histology was discernible at terminal autopsy. In the 90-day subchronic study, deer velvet was administered in 1 g/kg daily doses by gavage to rats. A control group of rats received water only. There was no effect on body weight, food consumption, clinical signs, haematology and most parameters of blood chemistry including carbohydrate metabolism, liver and kidney function. No significant differences were seen between the mean organ weights of the adrenal, kidney and brain in rats treated with deer velvet and control rats. However, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the group mean relative liver weight (3.52 +/- 0.30 vs 3.81 +/- 0.26 g/100 g body weight) of deer velvet-treated and control male rats. The gross necropsy and pathological examination of rats treated with deer velvet did not reveal any abnormalities in tissue morphology. Based on these results, it may be concluded that rats had no deer velvet treatment-related toxicological and histopathological abnormalities at the doses administered, despite the observed minor changes in liver weight. PMID:11038235

Zhang, H; Wanwimolruk, S; Coville, P F; Schofield, J C; Williams, G; Haines, S R; Suttie, J M

2000-11-01

270

Generation of genetically-modified human differentiated cells for toxicological tests and the study of neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Human differentiated cell types, such as neurons or hepatocytes, are of limited availability, and their use for experiments requiring ectopic gene expression is challenging. Using the human conditionally-immortalized neuronal precursor line LUHMES, we explored whether genetic modification in the proliferating state could be used for experiments in the differentiated post-mitotic neurons. First, alpha-synuclein (ASYN), a gene associated with the pathology of Parkinson's disease, was overexpressed. Increased amounts of the protein were tolerated without change of phenotype, and this approach now allows further studies on protein variants. Knockdown of ASYN attenuated the toxicity of the parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Different lentiviral constructs then were tested: cells labeled ubiquitously with green (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP) allowed the quantification of neurite growth and of its disturbance by toxicants; expression of proteins of interest could be targeted to different organelles; production of two different proteins from a single read-through construct was achieved successfully by an expression strategy using a linker peptide between the two proteins, which is cleaved by deubiquitinases; LUHMES, labeled with GFP in the cytosol and RFP in the mitochondria, were used to quantify mitochondrial mobility along the neurites. MPP+ reduced such organelle movement before any other detectable cellular change, and this toxicity was prevented by simultaneous treatment with the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Thus, a strategy has been outlined here to study new functional endpoints, and subtle changes of structure and proteostasis relevant in toxicology and biomedicine in post-mitotic human cells. PMID:24173167

Schildknecht, Stefan; Karreman, Christiaan; Pöltl, Dominik; Efrémova, Liudmila; Kullmann, Cornelius; Gutbier, Simon; Krug, Anne; Scholz, Diana; Gerding, Hanne R; Leist, Marcel

2013-01-01

271

NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM (NTP) DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was established in 1978 by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to coordinate toxicological testing programs within the department, strengthen the science base in toxicology; develop and validate improved testing methods; and pr...

272

Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the amphetamine-like anorectic fenproporex in human urine by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and fluorescence polarization immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of fenproporex (R,S-3-[(1-phenyl-2-propyl)-amino]-propionitrile, FP) using GC–MS and fluorescence polarization immunoassay are described. The metabolites were identified in urine samples of volunteers by GC–MS after cleavage of conjugates, extraction and acetylation. Besides unchanged FP, fourteen metabolites, including amphetamine, could be identified. Two partially overlapping metabolic pathways could be postulated: ring degradation by one-

Thomas Kraemer; Guenther A Theis; Armin A Weber; Hans H Maurer

2000-01-01

273

The value of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test in predicting pre-clinical performance: a prospective cohort study at Nottingham Medical School  

PubMed Central

Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) was introduced in 2006 as an additional tool for the selection of medical students. It tests mental ability in four distinct domains (Quantitative Reasoning, Verbal Reasoning, Abstract Reasoning, and Decision Analysis), and the results are available to students and admissions panels in advance of the selection process. As yet the predictive validity of the test against course performance is largely unknown. The study objective was to determine whether UKCAT scores predict performance during the first two years of the 5-year undergraduate medical course at Nottingham. Methods We studied a single cohort of students, who entered Nottingham Medical School in October 2007 and had taken the UKCAT. We used linear regression analysis to identify independent predictors of marks for different parts of the 2-year preclinical course. Results Data were available for 204/260 (78%) of the entry cohort. The UKCAT total score had little predictive value. Quantitative Reasoning was a significant independent predictor of course marks in Theme A ('The Cell'), (p = 0.005), and Verbal Reasoning predicted Theme C ('The Community') (p < 0.001), but otherwise the effects were slight or non-existent. Conclusion This limited study from a single entry cohort at one medical school suggests that the predictive value of the UKCAT, particularly the total score, is low. Section scores may predict success in specific types of course assessment. The ultimate test of validity will not be available for some years, when current cohorts of students graduate. However, if this test of mental ability does not predict preclinical performance, it is arguably less likely to predict the outcome in the clinical years. Further research from medical schools with different types of curriculum and assessment is needed, with longitudinal studies throughout the course. PMID:20667093

2010-01-01

274

Pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction.  

PubMed

Pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction (PDD) has been broadly defined as left ventricular diastolic dysfunction without the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (HF) and with normal systolic function. PDD is an entity that remains poorly understood, yet has definite clinical significance. Although few original studies have focused on PDD, it has been shown that PDD is prevalent, and that there is a clear progression from PDD to symptomatic HF including dyspnea, edema, and fatigue. In diabetic patients and in patients with coronary artery disease or hypertension, it has been shown that patients with PDD have a significantly higher risk of progression to heart failure and death compared with patients without PDD. Because of these findings and the increasing prevalence of the heart failure epidemic, it is clear that an understanding of PDD is essential to decreasing patients' morbidity and mortality. This review will focus on what is known concerning pre-clinical diastolic dysfunction, including definitions, staging, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the natural history of the disease. In addition, given the paucity of trials focused on PDD treatment, studies targeting risk factors associated with the development of PDD and therapeutic trials for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction will be reviewed. PMID:24291270

Wan, Siu-Hin; Vogel, Mark W; Chen, Horng H

2014-02-11

275

Nanomedicines for cancer therapy: state-of-the-art and limitations to pre-clinical studies that hinder future developments  

PubMed Central

The ability to efficiently deliver a drug or gene to a tumor site is dependent on a wide range of factors including circulation time, interactions with the mononuclear phagocyte system, extravasation from circulation at the tumor site, targeting strategy, release from the delivery vehicle, and uptake in cancer cells. Nanotechnology provides the possibility of creating delivery systems where the design constraints are decoupled, allowing new approaches for reducing the unwanted side effects of systemic delivery, increasing tumor accumulation, and improving efficacy. The physico-chemical properties of nanoparticle-based delivery platforms introduce additional complexity associated with pharmacokinetics, tumor accumulation, and biodistribution. To assess the impact of nanoparticle-based delivery systems, we first review the design strategies and pharmacokinetics of FDA-approved nanomedicines. Next we review nanomedicines under development, summarizing the range of nanoparticle platforms, strategies for targeting, and pharmacokinetics. We show how the lack of uniformity in preclinical trials prevents systematic comparison and hence limits advances in the field. PMID:25202689

Dawidczyk, Charlene M.; Russell, Luisa M.; Searson, Peter C.

2014-01-01

276

Pre-clinical studies of toxin-specific Nanobodies: Evidence of in vivo efficacy to prevent fatal disturbances provoked by scorpion envenoming  

SciTech Connect

Scorpions represent a significant threat to humans and animals in various countries throughout the world. Recently, we introduced Nanobodies (Nbs) to combat more efficiently scorpion envenoming and demonstrated the performance of NbAahIF12 and NbAahII10 to neutralize scorpion toxins of Androctonus australis hector venom. A bispecific Nb construct (NbF12-10) comprising these two Nbs is far more protective than the classic Fab?{sub 2} based therapy and is the most efficient antivenom therapy against scorpion sting in preclinical studies. Now we investigate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc labeled Nbs by in vivo imaging in rodents and compared these data with those of the Fab?{sub 2} product (PAS). The pharmacodynamics of the Nbs was investigated in rats by in vivo echocardiography and it is shown that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose of venom. Moreover, even a late injection of NbF12-10 restores the heart rate and brings the blood pressure to baseline values. Histology confirms that NbF12-10 prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. In conjunction, in this preclinical study, we provide proof of concept that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the fatal disturbances induced by Androctonus venom, and that the Nanobody based therapeutic has a potential to substitute the classic Fab?{sub 2} based product as immunotherapeutic in scorpion envenoming. Further clinical study using larger cohorts of animals should be considered to confirm the full protecting potential of our NbF12-10. -- Highlights: ? Nanobody therapy prevents the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose. ? Late injection of Nanobody restores hemodynamic parameters to baseline values. ? Nanobody therapy prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. ? Labeled Nanobody and Fab’2 pharmacokinetics curves reach plateau in favour of Nanobody.

Hmila, Issam [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Cosyns, Bernard [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)] [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium); Tounsi, Hayfa [Service d'Anatomo-Pathologie, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)] [Service d'Anatomo-Pathologie, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Roosens, Bram; Caveliers, Vicky [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)] [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium); Abderrazek, Rahma Ben [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Boubaker, Samir [Service d'Anatomo-Pathologie, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)] [Service d'Anatomo-Pathologie, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Muyldermans, Serge [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium) [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Department of Structural Biology, VIB, Brussels (Belgium); El Ayeb, Mohamed [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss, E-mail: balkiss.bouhaouala@pasteur.rns.tn [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia) [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Faculté de Médecine de Tunis, Université de Tunis-El Manar (Tunisia); Lahoutte, Tony [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)] [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

2012-10-15

277

The role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and addiction: combining preclinical evidence with human Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies  

PubMed Central

In the present review, we deliver an overview of the involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) activity and density in pathological anxiety, mood disorders and addiction. Specifically, we will describe mGluR5 studies in humans that employed Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and combined the findings with preclinical animal research. This combined view of different methodological approaches—from basic neurobiological approaches to human studies—might give a more comprehensive and clinically relevant view of mGluR5 function in mental health than the view on preclinical data alone. We will also review the current research data on mGluR5 along the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Firstly, we found evidence of abnormal glutamate activity related to the positive and negative valence systems, which would suggest that antagonistic mGluR5 intervention has prominent anti-addictive, anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects. Secondly, there is evidence that mGluR5 plays an important role in systems for social functioning and the response to social stress. Finally, mGluR5's important role in sleep homeostasis suggests that this glutamate receptor may play an important role in RDoC's arousal and modulatory systems domain. Glutamate was previously mostly investigated in non-human studies, however initial human clinical PET research now also supports the hypothesis that, by mediating brain excitability, neuroplasticity and social cognition, abnormal metabotropic glutamate activity might predispose individuals to a broad range of psychiatric problems.

Terbeck, Sylvia; Akkus, Funda; Chesterman, Laurence P.; Hasler, Gregor

2015-01-01

278

Disulfiram, and disulfiram derivatives as novel potential anticancer drugs targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome system in both preclinical and clinical studies.  

PubMed

Disulfiram is a FDA approved drug for the treatment of alcoholism and available for clinical use since over 5 decades. Despite data from the 1970s and 80s that showed that disulfiram and analogs are able to enhance the activity of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and might be useful chemopreventative agents, the underlying molecular mechanisms remained unknown until recently. Large scale screening efforts for agents that can inhibit the proteasome and be used as novel anticancer drugs, revealed that disulfiram has proteasome inhibitory activity. Moreover, disulfiram was also found to have specific activity against zinc fingers and RING-finger ubiquitin E3 ligases that play an important role in cancer development. Here, we review the preclinical and clinical studies exploring disulfiram as an anticancer agent as well as research programs that focus on the development of disulfiram derivatives as inhibitors of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:21247383

Kona, F R; Buac, D; M Burger, A

2011-03-01

279

Optimizing the Predictive Value of Preclinical Research Lessons Learned  

E-print Network

Optimizing the Predictive Value of Preclinical Research Lessons Learned Sharon Hesterlee Ph.D. Research Director for Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy and the Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration of these estimates What We Need (Stanley Lazic, F. Hoffman-LaRoche): #12;Consistent Theme: Treat preclinical study

280

Preclinical and clinical research on inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most lethal stroke subtypes. Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with ICH, its pathophysiology has not been investigated as well as that of ischemic stroke. Available evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the progression of ICH-induced secondary brain injury. For example, in preclinical ICH models,

Jian Wang

2010-01-01

281

Contrasting gray and white matter changes in preclinical Huntington disease  

E-print Network

Contrasting gray and white matter changes in preclinical Huntington disease An MRI study DD ABSTRACT Background: In Huntington disease (HD), substantial striatal atrophy precedes clinical motor of view; GM gray matter; HD Huntington disease; MRI magnetic resonance imaging; pre-HD preclinical HD

Aron, Adam

282

Preclinical and clinical endpoint assays for cystic fibrosis gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The credibility and hence value of pre-clinical and clinical cystic fibrosis gene therapy studies depend on the assays used to evaluate gene transfer. Awareness of assay suitability, sensitivity and variability is therefore crucial to the design of experimental programmes. Here, we review the assays that are in use to assess the efficacy of gene transfer in pre-clinical and clinical CF

Uta Griesenbach; A. Christopher Boyd

2005-01-01

283

MINING ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION WEB RESOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental toxicology is the study of the ecological effects of anthropogenic substances released into the environment. It is a relatively diverse field addressing impacts to aquatic and terrestrial organisms and communities. The determination of potential risk associated with...

284

IMPAIRED GAMETE FUNCTION: IMPLICATIONS FOR REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The invited symposium chapter reviews methods for evaluating sperm function in laboratory rodents and humans, and presents strategies for incorporating both in vivo and in vitro fertilization assessments into reproductive toxicology studies. The EPA Program Offices may encounter ...

285

Preclinical Studies to Predict Efficacy of Vascular Changes Induced by Combretastatin A-4 Disodium Phosphate in Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine how combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP) dose-dependent changes in radiation response of a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma relate to measurements of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters and how those mouse DCE-MRI results compare with published clinical DCE-MRI data. Methods and Materials: C3H mammary carcinomas grown in female CDF{sub 1} mice were treated when at 200 mm{sup 3} in size. Groups of mice were given graded radiation doses, either alone or followed 30 min later by an intraperitoneal injection of CA4DP, administered at doses of 10-250 mg/kg. The radiation dose producing local tumor control in 50% of treated animals at 90 days (TCD{sub 50}) was calculated for each CA4DP dose. DCE-MRI was performed before and 3 h after CA4DP administration, and parameters describing vascularity and interstitial volume were estimated. Results: TCD{sub 50} showed a dose-dependent decrease reaching significance at 25 mg/kg. At greater doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, the TCD{sub 50} increased slightly and was not significantly different from that of controls. TCD{sub 50} significantly decreased again at 250 mg/kg. The drug dose-response curves for all post-treatment vascular DCE-MRI parameters showed a shape similar to that of the TCD{sub 50} curve. A similar dose dependency was seen with previously published clinical data. Conclusion: Our preclinical DCE-MRI data could predict the CA4DP enhancement of the tumor radiation response and suggest the clinical CA4DP doses necessary to improve the radiation response in patients.

Nielsen, Thomas [Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Neuroradiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)], E-mail: thomas@oncology.dk; Murata, Rumi [Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Maxwell, Ross J. [University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Stodkilde-Jorgensen, Hans [MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Ostergaard, Leif [Department of Neuroradiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Horsman, Michael R. [Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

2008-03-01

286

Orthotopic mouse models for the preclinical and translational study of targeted therapies against metastatic human thyroid carcinoma with BRAF(V600E) or wild-type BRAF.  

PubMed

Molecular signature of advanced and metastatic thyroid carcinoma involves deregulation of multiple fundamental pathways activated in the tumor microenvironment. They include BRAF(V600E) and AKT that affect tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Human thyroid cancer orthotopic mouse models are based on human cell lines that generally harbor genetic alterations found in human thyroid cancers. They can reproduce in vivo and in situ (into the thyroid) many features of aggressive and refractory human advanced thyroid carcinomas, including local invasion and metastasis. Humanized orthotopic mouse models seem to be ideal and commonly used for preclinical and translational studies of compounds and therapies not only because they may mimic key aspects of human diseases (e.g. metastasis), but also for their reproducibility. In addition, they might provide the possibility to evaluate systemic effects of treatments. So far, human thyroid cancer in vivo models were mainly used to test single compounds, non selective and selective. Despite the greater antitumor activity and lower toxicity obtained with different selective drugs in respect to non-selective ones, most of them are only able to delay disease progression, which ultimately could restart with similar aggressive behavior. Aggressive thyroid tumors (for example, anaplastic or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma) carry several complex genetic alterations that are likely cooperating to promote disease progression and might confer resistance to single-compound approaches. Orthotopic models of human thyroid cancer also hold the potential to be good models for testing novel combinatorial therapies. In this article, we will summarize results on preclinical testing of selective and nonselective single compounds in orthotopic mouse models based on validated human thyroid cancer cell lines harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation or with wild-type BRAF. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential use of this model also for combinatorial approaches, which are expected to take place in the upcoming human thyroid cancer basic and clinical research. PMID:24362526

Antonello, Z A; Nucera, C

2014-11-20

287

Comparative Effectiveness of 3-Dimensional vs 2-Dimensional and High-Definition vs Standard-Definition Neuroendoscopy: A Preclinical Randomized Crossover Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Although the potential benefits of 3-dimensional (3-D) vs 2-dimensional (2-D) and high-definition (HD) vs standard-definition (SD) endoscopic visualization have long been recognized in other surgical fields, such endoscopes are generally considered too large and bulky for use within the brain. The recent development of 3-D and HD neuroendoscopes may therefore herald improved depth perception, better appreciation of anatomic details, and improved overall surgical performance. OBJECTIVE: To compare simultaneously the effectiveness of 3-D vs 2-D and HD vs SD neuroendoscopy. METHODS: Ten novice neuroendoscopic surgeons were recruited from a university hospital. A preclinical randomized crossover study design was adopted to compare 3-D vs 2-D and HD vs SD neuroendoscopy. The primary outcomes were time to task completion and accuracy. The secondary outcomes were perceived task workload using the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Task Load Index and subjective impressions of the endoscopes using a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: Time to task completion was significantly shorter when using the 3-D vs the 2-D neuroendoscopy (P = .001), and accuracy of probe placement was significantly greater when using the HD vs the SD neuroendoscopy (P = .009). We found that 3-D endoscopy significantly improved perceived depth perception (P < .001), HD endoscopy significantly improved perceived image quality (P < .001), and both improved participants’ overall impression (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional neuroendoscopy and HD neuroendoscopy have differing but complementary effects on surgical performance, suggesting that neither alone can completely compensate for the lack of the other. There is therefore strong preclinical evidence to justify 3-D HD neuroendoscopy. ABBREVIATIONS: HD, high definition SD, standard definition PMID:24220007

Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P.; Di Marco, Aimee; Pratt, Philip; Nandi, Dipankar; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

2013-01-01

288

Efficacy of multiple exposure with low level He-Ne laser dose on acute wound healing: a pre-clinical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations on the use of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) for wound healing especially with the red laser light have demonstrated its pro-healing potential on a variety of pre-clinical and surgical wounds. However, until now, in LLLT the effect of multiple exposure of low dose laser irradiation on acute wound healing on well-designed pre-clinical model is not much explored. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of multiple exposure of low dose Helium Neon laser on healing progression of full thickness excision wounds in Swiss albino mice. Further, the efficacy of the multiple exposure of low dose laser irradiation was compared with the single exposure of optimum dose. Full thickness excision wounds (circular) of 15 mm diameter were created, and subsequently illuminated with the multiple exposures (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 exposure/ week until healing) of He-Ne (632.8 nm, 4.02 mWcm-2) laser at 0.5 Jcm-2 along with single exposure of optimum laser dose (2 J/cm-2) and un-illuminated controls. Classical biophysical parameters such as contraction kinetics, area under the curve and the mean healing time were documented as the assessment parameters to examine the efficacy of multiple exposures with low level laser dose. Experimental findings substantiated that either single or multiple exposures of 0.5 J/cm2 failed to produce any detectable alterations on wound contraction, area under the curve and mean healing time compared to single exposure of optimum dose (2 Jcm-2) and un-illuminated controls. Single exposure of optimum, laser dose was found to be ideal for acute wound healing.

Prabhu, Vijendra; Rao, Bola Sadashiva S.; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

2014-02-01

289

GENOMIC ADAPTATION OF THE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL TEST (EST) FOR A TOXICOLOGICAL STUDY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Among the many promised and potential applications of embryonic stem cells, in vitro toxicology is one area in which ES cells have already proven their utility. In 2003, the Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) protocol was validated in Europe as an in vitro alternative to live animal...

290

Preclinical overview of brinzolamide.  

PubMed

The development of topically active carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) is a significant recent achievement in glaucoma medical treatment. Brinzolamide, the newest topical CAI, exhibits selectivity, high affinity, and potent inhibitory activity for the carbonic anhydrase type II isozyme (CA-II), which is involved in aqueous humor secretion. These characteristics, along with good ocular bioavailability, make brinzolamide maximally effective in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) by locally inhibiting CA-II in the ciliary processes and suppressing aqueous humor secretion. Notable among its attributes as a safe and efficacious glaucoma drug is brinzolamide's superior ocular comfort profile because of its optimized suspension formulation at physiologic pH. The degree of tolerability in the eye is considered an important determinant of a patient's willingness to comply with the dosing regimen for a long-term glaucoma medication. Results from the preclinical pharmacologic evaluation of brinzolamide indicated that it acts specifically to inhibit CA without significant other pharmacologic actions that could introduce undesired side effects. Moreover, the typical side effects associated with systemically administered CAIs are expected to occur at a lower incidence or not occur at all with brinzolamide, as its therapeutic dose and low systemic absorption do not produce a problematic level of systemic CA inhibition. Brinzolamide's long tissue half-life in the eye, particularly in the iris-ciliary body, favors a prolonged duration of IOP lowering. This was substantiated in clinical trials, which showed that twice-daily brinzolamide provides as significant an IOP reduction as three-times-daily brinzolamide or dorzolamide in a relatively high percentage of patients. Brinzolamide has been shown by the laser Doppler flowmetry technique to improve blood flow to the optic nerve head in pigmented rabbits after topical administration, without producing an increase of blood pCO2, indicating a potential for a local vasodilatory effect involving the optic nerve head circulation. The mean concentration of brinzolamide found in the retina of pigmented rabbits (0.338 microg equivalents/g) after a single dose of 14C-brinzolamide is sufficient to inhibit CA-II. These data suggest that topical brinzolamide could improve the blood flow in the optic nerve head in humans should it inhibit carbonic anhydrase in that vascular bed. Brinzolamide is a new topically active CAI that is safe and efficacious for reducing intraocular pressure. It offers the convenience of topical dose administration and greater freedom from side effects related to the inhibition of CA seen with the systemic administration of CAIs. Its formulation has been optimized to provide greater comfort upon instillation, and this can result in a higher compliance rate by the patient. Results of studies in animals show that brinzolamide has promise for increasing blood flow to the optic nerve head; however, this requires further assessment in the clinic. Brinzolamide represents a significant technical achievement and an important addition to the medical treatment of glaucoma as both a primary and an adjunctive drug. PMID:10665514

DeSantis, L

2000-01-01

291

Use of genetic toxicology data in U.S. EPA risk assessment: the mercury study report as an example.  

PubMed Central

Assessment of human health risks of environmental agents has often been limited to consideration of the potential for the agent to cause cancer or general systemic toxicity after long-term exposure. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is increasingly moving toward the development of integrated assessments, which consider all potential health end points including developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive effects, and germ cell mutagenicity. The U.S. EPA has a responsibility to assess risks to nonhuman species or ecosystems when appropriate data are available. An example of a recent integrated human health and ecological risk assessment can be found in the U.S. EPA Mercury Study Report to Congress. This report covers the following topics in separate volumes: an inventory of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States; an exposure assessment using measured and predicted values and including indirect dietary exposure; an evaluation of human health risks; an assessment of ecologic risk wherein water criteria are presented for several wildlife species; an overall integrated characterization of human and nonhuman risk; and a discussion of risk management considerations. In the evaluation of human health risk, genetic toxicology data were considered for three forms of mercury: elemental, inorganic (divalent), and methylmercury. These data were used in judgments of two types of potential health effects (carcinogenicity and germ cell mutagenicity). In assessment of potential carcinogenicity of inorganic and methylmercury, genetic toxicity data were key. Data for clastogenicity in the absence of mutagenicity supported the characterization of inorganic and methylmercury as materials that produce carcinogenic effects only at high, toxic doses. The evidence for clastogenicity, coupled with information on metabolism and distribution, resulted in a judgment of a moderate degree of concern (or weight of evidence) that inorganic mercury can act as a human germ cell mutagen. For methylmercury, the degree of concern for germ cell mutagenicity is high. PMID:8781402

Schoeny, R

1996-01-01

292

Metabolic profiling studies on the toxicological effects of realgar in rats by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The toxicological effects of realgar after intragastrical administration (1 g/kg body weight) were investigated over a 21 day period in male Wistar rats using metabonomic analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine, serum and liver tissue aqueous extracts. Liver and kidney histopathology examination and serum clinical chemistry analyses were also performed. {sup 1}H NMR spectra and pattern recognition analyses from realgar treated animals showed increased excretion of urinary Kreb's cycle intermediates, increased levels of ketone bodies in urine and serum, and decreased levels of hepatic glucose and glycogen, as well as hypoglycemia and hyperlipoidemia, suggesting the perturbation of energy metabolism. Elevated levels of choline containing metabolites and betaine in serum and liver tissue aqueous extracts and increased serum creatine indicated altered transmethylation. Decreased urinary levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, phenylacetylglycine and hippurate suggested the effects on the gut microflora environment by realgar. Signs of impairment of amino acid metabolism were supported by increased hepatic glutamate levels, increased methionine and decreased alanine levels in serum, and hypertaurinuria. The observed increase in glutathione in liver tissue aqueous extracts could be a biomarker of realgar induced oxidative injury. Serum clinical chemistry analyses showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase as well as increased levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating slight liver and kidney injury. The time-dependent biochemical variations induced by realgar were achieved using pattern recognition methods. This work illustrated the high reliability of NMR-based metabonomic approach on the study of the biochemical effects induced by traditional Chinese medicine.

Wei Lai; Liao Peiqiu; Wu Huifeng [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China); Li Xiaojing [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China)], E-mail: xjli@ciac.jl.cn; Pei Fengkui [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China)], E-mail: peifk@ciac.jl.cn; Li Weisheng; Wu Yijie [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China)

2009-02-01

293

Toxicology 3: Toxicology and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students apply their knowledge about pollutants and human anatomy towards understanding ways in which normal body functioning is impaired by environmental toxicants. Students first review concepts in toxicology and lung anatomy using online problem sets. They then conduct an online investigation and analyze scientific data to examine the effect of environmental tobacco smoke on human lung development.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2005-06-14

294

A toxicological study of 1,2,4-triazole-5-one  

SciTech Connect

The acute oral LD/sub 50/ values for 1,2,4-triazole-5-one (TO) are greater than 5g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both rats and mice. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show TO to have potential sensitizing effects. Skin application studies on the rabbit demonstrated it was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in the rabbit eye application studies. 4 refs., 1 tab.

London, J.

1988-12-01

295

Characterization of Lunar Dust for Toxicological Studies. II: Texture and Shape Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology shape and texture of dust fractions of five Apollo lunar soils and a lunar dust simulant, JSC-1Avf, was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Shape aspect ratio and complexity of particles was described based on the two-dimensional projection images. The distributions of aspect ratio and complexity of particles are reported. It was determined that the Apollo lunar dust particles

Yang Liu; Jaesung Park; Darren Schnare; Eddy Hill; Lawrence A. Taylor

2008-01-01

296

Toward a Checklist for Exchange and Interpretation of Data froma Toxicology Study  

EPA Science Inventory

With the advent of toxicogenomics came the need to share data across interdisciplinary teams and to deposit data associated with publications into public data repositories. Within a single institution, many variables associated with a study are standardized, for instance diet, an...

297

APPLICATION OF CDNA MICROARRAY TO THE STUDY OF ARSENIC TOXICOLOGY AND CARCINOGENESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic (As) is a common environmental toxicant and known human carcinogen. Epidemiological studies link As exposure to various disorders and cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms for As toxicity and carcinogenicity are not completely known. The cDNA microarray, a high-th...

298

HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN RODENTS ? USES AND CAVEATS IN TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of cardiac pacing dynamics that has recently garnered a great deal of interest in environmental health studies. While the use of these measures has become popular, much uncertainty remains in the interpretation of results, both in terms ...

299

STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL AND BEHAVIORAL TOXICOLOGY OF SUBSTITUTE CHEMICALS IN MICROTINE RODENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Acute oral LD50 and 30-day dietary subacute LC50 studies of 10 selected pesticides were evaluated in microtine rodents. As a means to developing new animal model systems, four species of microtine rodents including Microtus ochrogaster (MO), Microtus canicaudus (MC), Microtus pen...

300

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

1994-04-01

301

Shellfish: Toxicology studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of toxic substances on shellfish. Petroleum products, solvents, sewage, copper, mercury, chromium, dredged materials, and organic chemicals are among the toxic substances studied. Reproductive impairment, molting behavior, and population reduction caused by toxic chemicals are discussed. Shellfish as bioindicators and shellfish tolerance to toxic substances are briefly considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

302

Toxicological and cytogenetic assessment of a Salacia oblonga extract in a rat subchronic study.  

PubMed

Salacia oblonga holds potential as a natural method to mitigate the blood glucose response for people with diabetes by inhibiting the activity of intestinal alpha-glucosidases. As part of a safety evaluation of novel ingredients for use in blood glucose control, the toxicity of a S. oblonga root extract (SOE) was evaluated in a subchronic 90-day feeding study in rats. An in vivo-in vitro rat peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations assay was added at termination of the subchronic rat study to examine cultured lymphocytes for possible chromosomal aberration induction. This was conducted due to a previous weak; although reproducible, positive chromosomal aberrations response in cultured peripheral blood human lymphocytes after acute in vitro treatment with SOE. The present study results indicate that SOE was negative for the induction of chromosomal aberrations in cultured rat peripheral blood lymphocytes after 90 consecutive days of treatment with SOE. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be 2,500 mg/kg/day following daily subchronic oral gavage administrations to rats. PMID:17566623

Flammang, A M; Erexson, G L; Mirwald, J M; Henwood, S M

2007-10-01

303

Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA)—Power plant studies: assessment of breathing pattern  

PubMed Central

Our approach to study multi-pollutant aerosols isolates a single emissions source, evaluates the toxicity of primary and secondary particles derived from this source, and simulates chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere after emission. Three U.S. coal-fired power plants utilizing different coals and with different emission controls were evaluated. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from ?-pinene and/or ammonia was added in some experiments. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h to filtered air or different atmospheric mixtures. Scenarios studied at each plant included the following: primary particles (P); secondary (oxidized) particles (PO); oxidized particles + SOA (POS); and oxidized and neutralized particles + SOA (PONS); additional control scenarios were also studied. Continuous respiratory data were obtained during exposures using whole body plethysmography chambers. Of the 12 respiratory outcomes assessed, each had statistically significant changes at some plant and with some of the 4 scenarios. The most robust outcomes were found with exposure to the PO scenario (increased respiratory frequency with decreases in inspiratory and expiratory time); and the PONS scenario (decreased peak expiratory flow and expiratory flow at 50%). PONS findings were most strongly associated with ammonium, neutralized sulfate, and elemental carbon (EC) in univariate analyses, but only with EC in multivariate analyses. Control scenario O (oxidized without primary particles) had similar changes to PO. Adjusted R2 analyses showed that scenario was a better predictor of respiratory responses than individual components, suggesting that the complex atmospheric mixture was responsible for respiratory effects. PMID:21639693

Diaz, Edgar A.; Lemos, Miriam; Coull, Brent; Long, Mark S.; Rohr, Annette C.; Ruiz, Pablo; Gupta, Tarun; Kang, Choong-Min; Godleski, John J.

2013-01-01

304

The use of radiopharmaceuticals as an effective toxicologic technique for studying nephrotoxicity of drugs: cyclosporine-A.  

PubMed

The concept of altered biologic behavior of administered radiopharmaceuticals is used routinely in clinical nuclear medicine to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis, monitor the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation treatment, and determine injury caused by a drug whose effect has exceeded its therapeutic value. In this study, cyclosporine-A (CsA) an immunosuppressant drug known to cause nephrotoxicity due to tubular impairment and Tc-99m MAG-3, a renal imaging radiopharmaceutical secreted by the tubules have been used in animal models to establish a method for investigating the nephrotoxicity of drugs. New Zealand rabbits and Wistar rats were used. The rabbits and rats were treated with 30 mg/kg of CsA for 4 and 28 consecutive days respectively. Plasma creatinine and urea were measured and renogram studies were performed in the rabbits prior to and on 1, 4, 8, 11 and 15 days after treatment with CsA. For the renogram, the rabbits were given an intravenous bolus injection of 44.4 MBq (1.5 mCi) of Tc-99m MAG-3. The Tmax, T1/2, TTHM and uptake slope of the Tc-99m MAG-3 were calculated. Each rat was injected intravenously with 185 MBq (5 mCi) of Tc-99m MAG-3, killed 3 min later, the kidneys removed and 20 mm frozen sections made. Autoradiograms were generated from the frozen sections. Creatinine and urea levels were also measured in the rats. There was no consistent difference in creatinine and urea levels between control and CsA treated rabbits and rats. However, for the rabbit, on day 1 or 4 after treatment, there was significant increase in the values of Tmax, T1/2, TTHM and uptake slope between the control and CsA treated animals, indicating intrarenal vasoconstriction and delayed transit of Tc-99m MAG-3 from the parenchyma to the collecting system. This delay is dramatically shown in the tissue autoradiograms of the rats. The results are consistent with reported nephrotoxicity of CsA using other techniques. The results of this study, therefore, indicate that the concept of altered biologic behavior of Tc-99m MAG-3 can be used effectively as a toxicologic method for studying nephrotoxicity of drugs as exemplified by CsA. PMID:9865418

Owunwanne, A; Shihab-Eldeen, A; Yacoub, T; Ziada, G

1998-11-01

305

Preclinical Molecular Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis, a course that new blood vessels grow from the existing vasculature, plays important roles both physiologically and pathologically. Angiogenesis can be switched on by growth factors secreted by tumor cells, and in turn supplies more oxygen and nutrition to the tumor. More and more preclinical studies and clinical trials have shown that inhibition of angiogenesis is an effective way to inhibit tumor growth, substantiating the development of anti-angiogenesis therapeutics. Imaging technologies accelerate the translation of preclinical research to the clinic. In oncology, various imaging modalities are widely applied to drug development, tumor early detection and therapy response monitoring. So far, several angiogenesis related imaging agents are promising in cancer diagnosis. However, more effective imaging agents with less side-effect still need to be pursued to visualize angiogenesis process non-invasively. The main purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progresses in preclinical molecular imaging of angiogenesis and to discuss the potential of the current preclinical probes specific to various angiogenesis targets including vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors (VEGF/VEGFRs), integrin ?v?3 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). It is predicable that related investigations in the field will benefit cancer research and quicken the anti-angiogenic drug development. PMID:20639815

Zhu, Lei; Niu, Gang; Fang, Xuexun; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2010-01-01

306

Use of a heterotopic cardiac isotransplant for pharmacological and toxicological studies.  

PubMed

The heterotopically transplanted rat heart provides a unique model for examination of the direct humoral effects on the myocardium since the transplanted heart is exposed to the same hormonal milieu as the in situ heart but does not support the hemodynamic load. In this model, the heart of an inbred rat is transplanted into the abdomen of a recipient of the same inbred strain by attaching the stumps of aorta and pulmonary artery end to side to the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava of the recipient. The transplanted heart is perfused by the recipients' blood through the coronary vessels. It left ventricle beats mostly isovolumically and at a slower rate than the heart in situ. The transplant functions as a denervated "non working" Langendorf heart and does not appreciably contribute to the haemodynamics, while the recipient in situ heart supports the haemodynamics and serves as a control heart. The above model has been used to study the direct and indirect effects of thyroxine, catecholamines and of physical exercise on the cardiac mass and on its structure, function and chemical composition. It can also be used to study the acute and chronic effects of unloading and subsequent reloading. It can also shed some light upon the effect of denervation and potential reinnervation of the myocardium. PMID:2091232

Korecky, B; Masika, M

1990-01-01

307

Novel biological recycling water purification system for use in fish toxicology studies  

SciTech Connect

A major problem with fish toxicity testing has been maintaining an adequate supply of healthy, acclimated fish in the laboratory setting from which test populations can be obtained. The build-up of metabolic waste (ammonia) in holding tank environments leads to a stressful situation for the fish, resulting in mortality or erroneous toxicity data. Ammonia is the principal nitrogenous waste product of catfish and is excreted primarily as the toxic unionized ammonia from the gills. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel biological filter system which facilitates the nitrification process, thereby removing or controlling the build-up of toxic metabolic waste products in holding tanks in the laboratory. This system would provide a healthy, non-stressful environment for blue channel catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) fingerlings prior to their use in LC50 determinations of various insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides currently employed in the vicinity of catfish ponds or farms.

Veriangieri, A.J.; Lewis, R.M.; Bannon, A.W.; Wilson, M.C.

1988-02-01

308

Proof of Hazard and Proof of Safety in Toxicological Studies Using Simultaneous Confidence Intervals for Differences and Ratios to Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous confidence interval for differences or ratios to control are described for both the proof of hazard and the proof of safety for the typical design in toxicology including several doses and a control. For most endpoints the direction of harmfulness is a priori known; therefore one-sided confidence intervals for Gaussian distributed endpoints, proportions, and poly-k-adjusted tumor rates are used.

Ludwig A. Hothorn; Mario Hasler

2008-01-01

309

Toxicological studies of shale oils, some of their components, and commercial products.  

PubMed Central

Estonian shale oil contains about 25--30% phenols, and their action determines the toxicity of shale oils. The clinical symptoms of intoxication are rather similar, regardless of route of administration. Due to neurotropic action, the coordination of movements is impaired, and clonic and tetanic convulsions, paresis and paralysis of extremities, and narcosis are observed. In subacute and chronic toxicity tests, dysfunction of the central nervous system was found. In long-term (4--6 month) experiments, changes in liver and kidney function were found. Shale oil has gonadotropic activity and causes changes in the sexual cycle as well as diminution of the number of primordial folicles in the ovaries or a decrease in the quantity of normal spermatogonia in testicular germinal epithelium. Shale oils produce local irritation of skin and mucous membranes. Shale oil can induce sensitization of the organism after repeated administration. The results of acute intoxication tests have proved that volatile and nonvolatile phenol fractions, isomeric dimethylphenols, and 5-methylresorcinol, must be characterized as moderately toxic substances; the LD50 ranges from 501 to 1500 mg/kg. The clinical symptoms of acute toxication are similar for all studied phenols (restlessness, unsteadiness, clonic tremor, paresis and paralysis of extremities, and death). In spite of the moderate toxicity of phenols in acute experiments, repeated administration of small doses can cause different changes in the nervous system and internal organs of experimental animals. For all the phenols studied, the maximum allowable concentration in water was limited by their effect on the organoleptic properties of water. The nonactive dose for warm-blooded animals is from 100 to 3000 times the threshold limit value of phenols on the basis of their organoleptic properties. The effect of commercial products of oil shale industry is generally determined by the toxicity of the main components: water-soluble oil shale phenols. PMID:571802

Veldre, I A; Jänes, H J

1979-01-01

310

Quantitative determination of zolmitriptan in rat blood and cerebrospinal fluid by reversed phase HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis: application to in vivo preclinical pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

A fast HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of the potent and selective antimigraine zolmitriptan in rat blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The assay has been then applied for in vivo preclinical studies. The analytical determination has been used to obtain pharmacokinetics of zolmitriptan in the two biological matrices after its intravenous or nasal administration. Liquid-liquid extraction of zolmitriptan was performed from 100 ?L rat blood samples in the presence of N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (internal standard) with the employment of ethyl acetate. Calibration standards were prepared by using blood matrix and following the same liquid-liquid extraction procedure. CSF samples were analyzed without any pre-treatment steps and by using an external calibration method in pure water matrix. Chromatographic separation was performed under reversed phase and a gradient elution condition on a C18 packed column (100 × 2.0 mm, 2.5 ?m particles diameter). The mobile phase was a mixture between acetonitrile, water and formic acid (0.1% v/v). The applied HPLC-MS/MS method allowed low limits of detection, as calculated from calibration curves, of 6.6 and 24.4 ng/mL for water matrix and rat blood extracts, respectively. Linearity of the calibration curves was established up to 5 ?M (1.44 ?g/mL), as well as good assay accuracy. The intravenous infusion of 20 ?g zolmitriptan to male Sprague-Dawley rats produced blood concentrations ranging from 9.4±0.7 to 1.24±0.07 ?g/mL within 10 h, with a terminal half-life of 3.4±0.2h. The nasal administration of a water suspension of 20 ?g zolmitriptan produced blood concentrations ranging from 2.92±0.21 to 0.85±0.07 ?g/mL within 6h. One hour after zolmitriptan intravenous infusion or nasal administration, its CSF concentrations were 0.0539±0.0016 and 0.0453±0.0012 ?g/mL, respectively. This study determined the suitability of the herein proposed method to investigate the pharmacokinetics of zolmitriptan after its administration by means of novel formulations and, hence, to evaluate the efficacy of innovative nose-to-brain drug delivery in preclinical studies. PMID:22743338

Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Marchetti, Nicola; Cavazzini, Alberto; Pasti, Luisa; Velaga, Sitaram; Gavini, Elisabetta; Beggiato, Sarah; Ferraro, Luca

2012-07-15

311

System Vaccinology for the Evaluation of Influenza Vaccine Safety by Multiplex Gene Detection of Novel Biomarkers in a Preclinical Study and Batch Release Test  

PubMed Central

Vaccines are beneficial and universal tools to prevent infectious disease. Thus, safety of vaccines is strictly evaluated in the preclinical phase of trials and every vaccine batch must be tested by the National Control Laboratories according to the guidelines published by each country. Despite many vaccine production platforms and methods, animal testing for safety evaluation is unchanged thus far. We recently developed a systems biological approach to vaccine safety evaluation where identification of specific biomarkers in a rat pre-clinical study evaluated the safety of vaccines for pandemic H5N1 influenza including Irf7, Lgals9, Lgalsbp3, Cxcl11, Timp1, Tap2, Psmb9, Psme1, Tapbp, C2, Csf1, Mx2, Zbp1, Ifrd1, Trafd1, Cxcl9, ?2m, Npc1, Ngfr and Ifi47. The current study evaluated whether these 20 biomarkers could evaluate the safety, batch-to-batch and manufacturer-to-manufacturer consistency of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine using a multiplex gene detection system. When we evaluated the influenza HA vaccine (HAv) from four different manufactures, the biomarker analysis correlated to findings from conventional animal use tests, such as abnormal toxicity test. In addition, sensitivity of toxicity detection and differences in HAvs were higher and more accurate than with conventional methods. Despite a slight decrease in body weight caused by HAv from manufacturer B that was not statistically significant, our results suggest that HAv from manufacturer B is significantly different than the other HAvs tested with regard to Lgals3bp, Tapbp, Lgals9, Irf7 and C2 gene expression in rat lungs. Using the biomarkers confirmed in this study, we predicted batch-to-batch consistency and safety of influenza vaccines within 2 days compared with the conventional safety test, which takes longer. These biomarkers will facilitate the future development of new influenza vaccines and provide an opportunity to develop in vitro methods of evaluating batch-to-batch consistency and vaccine safety as an alternative to animal testing. PMID:25010690

Mizukami, Takuo; Momose, Haruka; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Takizawa, Kazuya; Araki, Kumiko; Furuhata, Keiko; Ishii, Ken J.; Hamaguchi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Kazunari

2014-01-01

312

Toxicological Sciences Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The journal Toxicological Sciences is now available online, thanks to a combined effort of the Society for Toxicology and Stanford University's HighWire Press. Toxicological Sciences publishes "research articles that are broadly relevant to assessing the potential adverse health effects resulting from exposure of human or animals to chemicals, drugs, natural products, or synthetic materials." Manuscripts are published in "all areas of toxicology" including descriptive, mechanistic, interpretive, theoretical, experimental, and observational investigations. The full text (.pdf format) of all articles is available online starting 1999, with abstracts from 1998. The Society has yet to announce when the free trial period will end, but at present, the site allows free access to all online materials, as well as a free sample issue.

313

DISEASE REGISTRY TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILES  

EPA Science Inventory

By Congressional mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) produces "toxicological profiles" for hazardous substances found at National Priorities List (NPL) sites. These hazardous substances are ranked based on frequency of occurrence at NPL sites, to...

314

The identification of complex interactions in epidemiology and toxicology: a simulation study of boosted regression trees  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need to evaluate complex interaction effects on human health, such as those induced by mixtures of environmental contaminants. The usual approach is to formulate an additive statistical model and check for departures using product terms between the variables of interest. In this paper, we present an approach to search for interaction effects among several variables using boosted regression trees. Methods We simulate a continuous outcome from real data on 27 environmental contaminants, some of which are correlated, and test the method’s ability to uncover the simulated interactions. The simulated outcome contains one four-way interaction, one non-linear effect and one interaction between a continuous variable and a binary variable. Four scenarios reflecting different strengths of association are simulated. We illustrate the method using real data. Results The method succeeded in identifying the true interactions in all scenarios except where the association was weakest. Some spurious interactions were also found, however. The method was also capable to identify interactions in the real data set. Conclusions We conclude that boosted regression trees can be used to uncover complex interaction effects in epidemiological studies. PMID:24993424

2014-01-01

315

Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24% in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide. PMID:23569971

El-Maghraby, Somia; Nawwar, Galal A; Bakr, Reda FA; Helmy, Nadia; Kamel, Omnia MHM

2012-01-01

316

Preclinical study of SZ2080 material 3D microstructured scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering made by femtosecond direct laser writing lithography.  

PubMed

Over the last decade DLW employing ultrafast pulsed lasers has become a well-established technique for the creation of custom-made free-form three-dimensional (3D) microscaffolds out of a variety of materials ranging from proteins to biocompatible glasses. Its potential applications for manufacturing a patient's specific scaffold seem unlimited in terms of spatial resolution and geometry complexity. However, despite few exceptions in which live cells or primitive organisms were encapsulated into a polymer matrix, no demonstration of an in vivo study case of scaffolds generated with the use of such a method was performed. Here, we report a preclinical study of 3D artificial microstructured scaffolds out of hybrid organic-inorganic (HOI) material SZ2080 fabricated using the DLW technique. The created 2.1 × 2.1 × 0.21 mm(3) membrane constructs are tested both in vitro by growing isolated allogeneic rabbit chondrocytes (Cho) and in vivo by implanting them into rabbit organisms for one, three and six months. An ex vivo histological examination shows that certain pore geometry and the pre-growing of Cho prior to implantation significantly improves the performance of the created 3D scaffolds. The achieved biocompatibility is comparable to the commercially available collagen membranes. The successful outcome of this study supports the idea that hexagonal-pore-shaped HOI microstructured scaffolds in combination with Cho seeding may be successfully implemented for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25797444

Ma?iulaitis, Justinas; Deveikyt?, Milda; Rekštyt?, Sima; Bratchikov, Maksim; Darinskas, Adas; Šimbelyt?, Agn?; Daunoras, Gintaras; Laurinavi?ien?, Aida; Laurinavi?ius, Arvydas; Gudas, Rimtautas; Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Ma?iulaitis, Romaldas

2015-01-01

317

Ultrasound guided fluorescence molecular tomography with improved quantification by an attenuation compensated born-normalization and in vivo preclinical study of cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound imaging, having the advantages of low-cost and non-invasiveness over MRI and X-ray CT, was reported by several studies as an adequate complement to fluorescence molecular tomography with the perspective of improving localization and quantification of fluorescent molecular targets in vivo. Based on the previous work, an improved dual-modality Fluorescence-Ultrasound imaging system was developed and then validated in imaging study with preclinical tumor model. Ultrasound imaging and a profilometer were used to obtain the anatomical prior information and 3D surface, separately, to precisely extract the tissue boundary on both sides of sample in order to achieve improved fluorescence reconstruction. Furthermore, a pattern-based fluorescence reconstruction on the detection side was incorporated to enable dimensional reduction of the dataset while keeping the useful information for reconstruction. Due to its putative role in the current imaging geometry and the chosen reconstruction technique, we developed an attenuation compensated Born-normalization method to reduce the attenuation effects and cancel off experimental factors when collecting quantitative fluorescence datasets over large area. Results of both simulation and phantom study demonstrated that fluorescent targets could be recovered accurately and quantitatively using this reconstruction mechanism. Finally, in vivo experiment confirms that the imaging system associated with the proposed image reconstruction approach was able to extract both functional and anatomical information, thereby improving quantification and localization of molecular targets.

Li, Baoqiang; Berti, Romain; Abran, Maxime; Lesage, Frédéric

2014-05-01

318

Ultrasound guided fluorescence molecular tomography with improved quantification by an attenuation compensated Born-normalization and in vivo preclinical study of cancer.  

PubMed

Ultrasound imaging, having the advantages of low-cost and non-invasiveness over MRI and X-ray CT, was reported by several studies as an adequate complement to fluorescence molecular tomography with the perspective of improving localization and quantification of fluorescent molecular targets in vivo. Based on the previous work, an improved dual-modality Fluorescence-Ultrasound imaging system was developed and then validated in imaging study with preclinical tumor model. Ultrasound imaging and a profilometer were used to obtain the anatomical prior information and 3D surface, separately, to precisely extract the tissue boundary on both sides of sample in order to achieve improved fluorescence reconstruction. Furthermore, a pattern-based fluorescence reconstruction on the detection side was incorporated to enable dimensional reduction of the dataset while keeping the useful information for reconstruction. Due to its putative role in the current imaging geometry and the chosen reconstruction technique, we developed an attenuation compensated Born-normalization method to reduce the attenuation effects and cancel off experimental factors when collecting quantitative fluorescence datasets over large area. Results of both simulation and phantom study demonstrated that fluorescent targets could be recovered accurately and quantitatively using this reconstruction mechanism. Finally, in vivo experiment confirms that the imaging system associated with the proposed image reconstruction approach was able to extract both functional and anatomical information, thereby improving quantification and localization of molecular targets. PMID:24880378

Li, Baoqiang; Berti, Romain; Abran, Maxime; Lesage, Frédéric

2014-05-01

319

Ultrasound guided fluorescence molecular tomography with improved quantification by an attenuation compensated born-normalization and in vivo preclinical study of cancer  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasound imaging, having the advantages of low-cost and non-invasiveness over MRI and X-ray CT, was reported by several studies as an adequate complement to fluorescence molecular tomography with the perspective of improving localization and quantification of fluorescent molecular targets in vivo. Based on the previous work, an improved dual-modality Fluorescence-Ultrasound imaging system was developed and then validated in imaging study with preclinical tumor model. Ultrasound imaging and a profilometer were used to obtain the anatomical prior information and 3D surface, separately, to precisely extract the tissue boundary on both sides of sample in order to achieve improved fluorescence reconstruction. Furthermore, a pattern-based fluorescence reconstruction on the detection side was incorporated to enable dimensional reduction of the dataset while keeping the useful information for reconstruction. Due to its putative role in the current imaging geometry and the chosen reconstruction technique, we developed an attenuation compensated Born-normalization method to reduce the attenuation effects and cancel off experimental factors when collecting quantitative fluorescence datasets over large area. Results of both simulation and phantom study demonstrated that fluorescent targets could be recovered accurately and quantitatively using this reconstruction mechanism. Finally, in vivo experiment confirms that the imaging system associated with the proposed image reconstruction approach was able to extract both functional and anatomical information, thereby improving quantification and localization of molecular targets.

Li, Baoqiang; Berti, Romain; Abran, Maxime; Lesage, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.lesage@polymtl.ca [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada) [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3A7 (Canada); Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec H1T 1C8 (Canada)

2014-05-15

320

Toxicology as a nanoscience? – Disciplinary identities reconsidered  

PubMed Central

Toxicology is about to establish itself as a leading scientific discipline in addressing potential health effects of materials on the nanosize level. Entering into a cutting-edge field, has an impact on identity-building processes within the involved academic fields. In our study, we analyzed the ways in which the entry into the field of nanosciences impacts on the formation of disciplinary identities. Using the methods of qualitative interviews with particle toxicologists in Germany, Holland, Switzerland and the USA, we could demonstrate that currently, toxicology finds itself in a transitional phase. The development of its disciplinary identity is not yet clear. Nearly all of our interview partners stressed the necessity of repositioning toxicology. However, they each suggested different approaches. While one part is already propagandizing the establishment of a new discipline – 'nanotoxicology'- others are more reserved and are demanding a clear separation of traditional and new research areas. In phases of disciplinary new-orientation, research communities do not act consistently. Rather, they establish diverse options. By expanding its disciplinary boundaries, participating in new research fields, while continuing its previous research, and only vaguely defining its topics, toxicology is feeling its way into the new fields without giving up its present self-conception. However, the toxicological research community is also discussing a new disciplinary identity. Within this, toxicology could develop from an auxiliary into a constitutive position, and take over a basic role in the cognitive, institutional and social framing of the nanosciences. PMID:16646961

Kurath, Monika; Maasen, Sabine

2006-01-01

321

Pre-clinical study of drug combinations that reduce breast cancer burden due to aberrant mTOR and metabolism promoted by LKB1 loss  

PubMed Central

Cancer therapies that simultaneously target activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cell metabolism are urgently needed. The goal of our study was to identify therapies that effectively inhibited both mTOR activity and cancer cell metabolism in primary tumors in vivo. Using our mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer promoted by loss of LKB1 expression in an ErbB2 activated model; referred to as LKB1?/?NIC mice, we evaluated the effect of novel therapies in vivo on primary tumors. Treatment of LKB1?/?NIC mice with AZD8055 and 2-DG mono-therapies significantly reduced mammary gland tumorigenesis by inhibiting mTOR pathways and glycolytic metabolism; however simultaneous inhibition of these pathways with AZD8055/2-DG combination was significantly more effective at reducing tumor volume and burden. At the molecular level, combination treatment inhibited mTORC1/mTORC2 activity, selectively inhibited mitochondria function and blocked MAPK pro-survival signaling responsible for the ERK-p90RSK feedback loop. Our findings suggest that loss of LKB1 expression be considered a marker for metabolic dysfunction given its role in regulating AMPK and mTOR function. Finally, the outcome of our pre-clinical study confirms therapies that simultaneously target mTORC1/mTORC2 and glycolytic metabolism in cancer produce the best therapeutic outcome for the treatment of patients harboring metabolically active HER2 positive breast cancers. PMID:25436981

Andrade-Vieira, Rafaela; Goguen, Donna; Bentley, Heidi A.; Bowen, Chris V.; Marignani, Paola A.

2014-01-01

322

Pre-clinical study of drug combinations that reduce breast cancer burden due to aberrant mTOR and metabolism promoted by LKB1 loss.  

PubMed

Cancer therapies that simultaneously target activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cell metabolism are urgently needed. The goal of our study was to identify therapies that effectively inhibited both mTOR activity and cancer cell metabolism in primary tumors in vivo. Using our mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer promoted by loss of LKB1 expression in an ErbB2 activated model; referred to as LKB1-/-NIC mice, we evaluated the effect of novel therapies in vivo on primary tumors. Treatment of LKB1-/-NIC mice with AZD8055 and 2-DG mono-therapies significantly reduced mammary gland tumorigenesis by inhibiting mTOR pathways and glycolytic metabolism; however simultaneous inhibition of these pathways with AZD8055/2-DG combination was significantly more effective at reducing tumor volume and burden. At the molecular level, combination treatment inhibited mTORC1/mTORC2 activity, selectively inhibited mitochondria function and blocked MAPK pro-survival signaling responsible for the ERK-p90RSK feedback loop. Our findings suggest that loss of LKB1 expression be considered a marker for metabolic dysfunction given its role in regulating AMPK and mTOR function. Finally, the outcome of our pre-clinical study confirms therapies that simultaneously target mTORC1/mTORC2 and glycolytic metabolism in cancer produce the best therapeutic outcome for the treatment of patients harboring metabolically active HER2 positive breast cancers. PMID:25436981

Andrade-Vieira, Rafaela; Goguen, Donna; Bentley, Heidi A; Bowen, Chris V; Marignani, Paola A

2014-12-30

323

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy of the prostate: a preclinical study with radiological and pathological correlation using customised MRI-based moulds  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterise the feasibility and safety of a novel transurethral ultrasound (US)-therapy device combined with real-time multi-plane magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based temperature monitoring and temperature feedback control, to enable spatiotemporally precise regional ablation of simulated prostate gland lesions in a preclinical canine model. To correlate ablation volumes measured with intra-procedural cumulative thermal damage estimates, post-procedural MRI, and histopathology. Materials and methods Three dogs were treated with three targeted ablations each, using a prototype MRI-guided transurethral US-therapy system (Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland). MRI provided images for treatment planning, guidance, real-time multi-planar thermometry, as well as post-treatment evaluation of efficacy. After treatment, specimens underwent histopathological analysis to determine the extent of necrosis and cell viability. Statistical analyses (Pearson’s correlation, Student’s t-test) were used to evaluate the correlation between ablation volumes measured with intra-procedural cumulative thermal damage estimates, post-procedural MRI, and histopathology. Results MRI combined with a transurethral US-therapy device enabled multi-planar temperature monitoring at the target as well as in surrounding tissues, allowing for safe, targeted, and controlled ablations of prescribed lesions. Ablated volumes measured by cumulative thermal dose positively correlated with volumes determined by histopathological analysis (r2 0.83, P < 0.001). Post-procedural contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI showed a positive correlation with non-viable areas on histopathological analysis (r2 0.89, P < 0.001, and r20.91, P = 0.003, respectively). Additionally, there was a positive correlation between ablated volumes according to cumulative thermal dose and volumes identified on post-procedural contrast-enhanced MRI (r2 0.77, P < 0.01). There was no difference in mean ablation volumes assessed with the various analysis methods (P > 0.05, Student’s t-test). Conclusions MRI-guided transurethral US therapy enabled safe and targeted ablations of prescribed lesions in a preclinical canine prostate model. Ablation volumes were reliably predicted by intra- and post-procedural imaging. Clinical studies are needed to confirm the feasibility, safety, oncological control, and functional outcomes of this therapy in patients in whom focal therapy is indicated. PMID:23746198

Partanen, Ari; Yerram, Nitin K.; Trivedi, Hari; Dreher, Matthew R.; Oila, Juha; Hoang, Anthony N.; Volkin, Dmitry; Nix, Jeffrey; Turkbey, Baris; Bernardo, Marcelino; Haines, Diana C.; Benjamin, Compton J.; Linehan, W. Marston; Choyke, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.; Ehnholm, Gösta J.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Pinto, Peter A.

2013-01-01

324

[Clinical toxicology of the Academy: yesterday, today and tomorrow].  

PubMed

National toxicology school of the Kirov Military Medical Academy, demonstrates the unity of clinical and experimental approaches related to one purpose throughout its history--saving human life and health from exposure to toxic substances of chemical nature. For more than three centuries the russian science of toxicology has been steadily developing, often ahead of the world science. It helped to create the means of protection and develop methods of treatment for chemical lesions. Currently, toxicology departments of military field therapy and military toxicology and medical protection are actively involved in the current study of military medicine, restructuring policy to provide toxicological aid in the Armed Forces, the development and introduction of Innovative methods of diagnosis and treatment of victims of toxicological etiology. PMID:24738280

Sofronov, G A; Khalimov, Iu Sh; Matveev, S Iu; Kuz'mich, V G; Fomichev, A V

2013-12-01

325

Toxicologic and biochemical effects of extracts from Karwinskia humboldtiana on the albino rat  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION. LITERATURE REVIEW MATERIAL AND METHODS. iv xiii XIV Preparation of Coyotillo Extracts. Chloroform extraction procedure Petroleum ether extraction procedure. Toxicologic Studies. Toxicologic Study 1 Toxicologic Study 2 Toxicologic Study... in rats following oral admini stration of coyoti llo plant extract (Ch-3) . 42 Final serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values in control rats and rats treated with coyotillo plant extract (Ch-3). 46 10...

Wheeler, Michael Hugh

1970-01-01

326

Review of the toxicology of mineral spirits.  

PubMed

This review of the toxicology of mineral spirits covers studies of the major classes of mineral spirits and several toxicologically important mineral spirit constituents. This review cites data from numerous previously unpublished animal toxicology studies conducted on mineral spirits during the past 30 years, expanding the existing database on the toxicology of this group of hydrocarbon solvents. The data can be used to better evaluate the potential effects associated with exposure to these materials, including health and environmental reviews such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency High Production Volume (HPV) chemical program and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) HPV Screening Information Data Set (SIDS) program. The majority of animal toxicology studies in the available literature were conducted on mineral spirits categorized as ASTM D235 Type I Class A (149 degrees C to 213 degrees C boiling range; 8% to 22% aromatics) and demonstrate that Type I Class A mineral spirits have a low order of acute toxicity and do not produce significant systemic effects. Some additional studies conducted with ASTM D235 Type II Class C mineral spirits (177 degrees C to 213 degrees C boiling range; < 2% aromatics) suggest that Type II Class C mineral spirits have similar toxicity to Type I Class A mineral spirits, though there is some evidence that Type II, Class C mineral spirits have a lesser degree of central nervous system (CNS) effects than the higher aromatic containing Type I Class A materials. In addition, toxicity data on selected chemical constituents of mineral spirits (e.g., n-nonane, n-decane, n-undecane) indicate that these chemicals have similar toxicological properties to mineral spirits. Overall, the data showed that mineral spirits have a low order of acute toxicity and do not appear to produce toxicologically relevant systemic effects. Ongoing studies are evaluating the concerns associated with chronic low-level exposure and central nervous system effects. PMID:18293216

Amoruso, Marie A; Gamble, John F; McKee, Richard H; Rohde, Arlean M; Jaques, Andrew

2008-01-01

327

Viewpoint: leaving the "empty glass" of problem-based learning behind: new assumptions and a revised model for case study in preclinical medical education.  

PubMed

The popularity of problem-based learning (PBL) reflects medical educators' recognition that case study can enhance the preclinical medical school curriculum. However, the PBL method itself has features, particularly its reliance on small-group work with tutor-facilitators, that are expensive to implement and that limit the potential educational value of case study. The author systematically analyzes specific aspects of the PBL methodology and concludes that the PBL approach misuses the faculty, tends to compromise the authenticity of cases, and results in an unnecessarily varied and impoverished educational experience for students. Approaches to case study with different assumptions need to be devised. A model is proposed that shifts the goal of case study from development of problem-solving skills to development of ideas that allow meaningful engagement in sophisticated discussions of medicine. In this model, the method shifts from self-directed learning to independent study guided by the expertise of the faculty. One possible approach to case study based on this model is briefly described. It consists of reading published cases from the medical literature, with analysis and discussion of the cases led by faculty experts in large-group format. The approach immerses students in an authentic, state-of-the-art discussion of medicine and is easily incorporated into any curriculum structure at limited cost. The author argues that, contrary to the claims of proponents, the glass is "mostly empty" for PBL and that we can generate the higher-level discussion that case study merits only by moving away from PBL's extraneous assumptions. PMID:17457072

Shanley, Paul F

2007-05-01

328

Preclinical Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Properties of Cardiac Adipose Tissue Progenitor Cells Using Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Direct Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Cell-based strategies to regenerate injured myocardial tissue have emerged over the past decade, but the optimum cell type is still under scrutiny. In this context, human adult epicardial fat surrounding the heart has been characterized as a reservoir of mesenchymal-like progenitor cells (cardiac ATDPCs) with potential clinical benefits. However, additional data on the possibility that these cells could trigger a deleterious immune response following implantation are needed. Thus, in the presented study, we took advantage of the well-established low immunogenicity of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs) to comparatively assess the immunomodulatory properties of cardiac ATDPCs in an in vitro allostimulatory assay using allogeneic mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Similar to UCBMSCs, increasing amounts of seeded cardiac ATDPCs suppressed the alloproliferation of T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6, TNF?, and IFN?) was also specifically modulated by the different numbers of cardiac ATDPCs cocultured. In summary, we show that cardiac ATDPCs abrogate T cell alloproliferation upon stimulation with allogeneic mature MDDCs, suggesting that they could further regulate a possible harmful immune response in vivo. Additionally, UCBMSCs can be considered as valuable tools to preclinically predict the immunogenicity of prospective regenerative cells. PMID:25861626

Perea-Gil, Isaac; Monguió-Tortajada, Marta; Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Borràs, Francesc E.; Roura, Santiago

2015-01-01

329

Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a novel strategy to protect the central nervous system: technical aspects, preclinical studies, and clinical perspectives.  

PubMed

The prevention of perinatal neurological disabilities remains a major challenge for public health, and no neuroprotective treatment to date has proven clinically useful in reducing the lesions leading to these disabilities. Efforts are, therefore, urgently needed to test other neuroprotective strategies including cell therapies. Although stem cells have raised great hopes as an inexhaustible source of therapeutic products that could be used for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in disorders affecting the brain and spinal cord, certain sources of stem cells are associated with potential ethical issues. The human umbilical cord (hUC) is a rich source of stem and progenitor cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived either from the cord or from cord blood. hUC MSCs (hUC-MSCs) have several advantages as compared to other types and sources of stem cells. In this review, we will summarize the most recent findings regarding the technical aspects and the preclinical investigation of these promising cells in neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, and their potential use in the developing human brain. However, extensive studies are needed to optimize the administration protocol, safety parameters, and potential preinjection cell manipulations before designing a controlled trial in human neonates. PMID:22430384

Dalous, Jérémie; Larghero, Jérome; Baud, Olivier

2012-04-01

330

Autofluorescence imaging device for real-time detection and tracking of pathogenic bacteria in a mouse skin wound model: preclinical feasibility studies.  

PubMed

Bacterial infection significantly impedes wound healing. Clinical diagnosis of wound infections is subjective and suboptimal, in part because bacteria are invisible to the naked eye during clinical examination. Moreover, bacterial infection can be present in asymptomatic patients, leading to missed opportunities for diagnosis and treatment. We developed a prototype handheld autofluorescence (AF) imaging device (Portable Real-time Optical Detection, Identification and Guidance for Intervention - PRODIGI) to noninvasively visualize and measure bacterial load in wounds in real time. We conducted preclinical pilot studies in an established nude mouse skin wound model inoculated with bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. We tested the feasibility of longitudinal AF imaging for in vivo visualization of bacterial load in skin wounds, validated by bioluminescence imaging. We showed that bacteria (S. aureus), occult to standard examination, can be visualized in wounds using PRODIGI. We also detected quantitative changes in wound bacterial load over time based on the antibiotic treatment and the correlation of bacterial AF intensity with bacterial load. AF imaging of wounds offers a safe, noninvasive method for visualizing the presence, location, and extent of bacteria as well as measuring relative changes in bacterial load in wounds in real time. PMID:25089944

Wu, Yichao Charlie; Kulbatski, Iris; Medeiros, Philip J; Maeda, Azusa; Bu, Jiachuan; Xu, Lizhen; Chen, Yonghong; DaCosta, Ralph S

2014-08-01

331

The ?2?1 binding domain of chondroadherin inhibits breast cancer-induced bone metastases and impairs primary tumour growth: a preclinical study.  

PubMed

cyclicCHAD is a peptide representing the ?2?1 integrin binding sequence of the matrix protein chondroadherin (CHAD), which in our hands proved effective at counteracting bone loss in ovariectomised mice by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Given that bone metastases are characterised by exacerbated osteoclast activity as well, we tested this therapy in mice intracardiacally injected with the osteotropic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Treatment with cyclicCHAD significantly decreased cachexia and incidence of bone metastases, and induced a trend of reduction of visceral metastasis volume, while in orthotopically injected mice cyclicCHAD reduced tumour volume. In vitro studies showed its ability to impair tumour cell motility and invasion, suggesting a direct effect not only on osteoclasts but also on the tumour cell phenotype. Interestingly, when administered together with a suboptimal, poorly effective, dose of doxorubicin (DXR), cyclicCHAD improved survival and reduced visceral metastases volume to a level similar to that of the optimal dose of DXR alone. Taken together, these preclinical data suggest that cyclicCHAD is a new inhibitor of bone metastases, with an appreciable direct effect also on tumour growth and a synergistic activity in combination with low dose chemotherapy, underscoring an important translational impact. PMID:25529009

Rucci, Nadia; Capulli, Mattia; Olstad, Ole K; Önnerfjord, Patrik; Tillgren, Viveka; Gautvik, Kaare M; Heinegård, Dick; Teti, Anna

2015-03-01

332

Universal hand-held three-dimensional optoacoustic imaging probe for deep tissue human angiography and functional preclinical studies in real time.  

PubMed

The exclusive combination of high optical contrast and excellent spatial resolution makes optoacoustics (photoacoustics) ideal for simultaneously attaining anatomical, functional and molecular contrast in deep optically opaque tissues. While enormous potential has been recently demonstrated in the application of optoacoustics for small animal research, vast efforts have also been undertaken in translating this imaging technology into clinical practice. We present here a newly developed optoacoustic tomography approach capable of delivering high resolution and spectrally enriched volumetric images of tissue morphology and function in real time. A detailed description of the experimental protocol for operating with the imaging system in both hand-held and stationary modes is provided and showcased for different potential scenarios involving functional and molecular studies in murine models and humans. The possibility for real time visualization in three dimensions along with the versatile handheld design of the imaging probe make the newly developed approach unique among the pantheon of imaging modalities used in today's preclinical research and clinical practice. PMID:25408083

Deán-Ben, Xosé; Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel

2014-01-01

333

Autofluorescence imaging device for real-time detection and tracking of pathogenic bacteria in a mouse skin wound model: preclinical feasibility studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial infection significantly impedes wound healing. Clinical diagnosis of wound infections is subjective and suboptimal, in part because bacteria are invisible to the naked eye during clinical examination. Moreover, bacterial infection can be present in asymptomatic patients, leading to missed opportunities for diagnosis and treatment. We developed a prototype handheld autofluorescence (AF) imaging device (Portable Real-time Optical Detection, Identification and Guidance for Intervention-PRODIGI) to noninvasively visualize and measure bacterial load in wounds in real time. We conducted preclinical pilot studies in an established nude mouse skin wound model inoculated with bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. We tested the feasibility of longitudinal AF imaging for in vivo visualization of bacterial load in skin wounds, validated by bioluminescence imaging. We showed that bacteria (S. aureus), occult to standard examination, can be visualized in wounds using PRODIGI. We also detected quantitative changes in wound bacterial load over time based on the antibiotic treatment and the correlation of bacterial AF intensity with bacterial load. AF imaging of wounds offers a safe, noninvasive method for visualizing the presence, location, and extent of bacteria as well as measuring relative changes in bacterial load in wounds in real time.

Wu, Yichao Charlie; Kulbatski, Iris; Medeiros, Philip J.; Maeda, Azusa; Bu, Jiachuan; Xu, Lizhen; Chen, Yonghong; DaCosta, Ralph S.

2014-08-01

334

Female Mecp2(+/-) mice display robust behavioral deficits on two different genetic backgrounds providing a framework for pre-clinical studies.  

PubMed

Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurological disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Typical RTT primarily affects girls and is characterized by a brief period of apparently normal development followed by the loss of purposeful hand skills and language, the onset of anxiety, hand stereotypies, autistic features, seizures and autonomic dysfunction. Mecp2 mouse models have extensively been studied to demonstrate the functional link between MeCP2 dysfunction and RTT pathogenesis. However, the majority of studies have focused primarily on the molecular and behavioral consequences of the complete absence of MeCP2 in male mice. Studies of female Mecp2(+/-) mice have been limited because of potential phenotypic variability due to X chromosome inactivation effects. To determine whether reproducible and reliable phenotypes can be detected Mecp2(+/-) mice, we analyzed Mecp2(+/-) mice of two different F1 hybrid isogenic backgrounds and at young and old ages using several neurobehavioral and physiological assays. Here, we report a multitude of phenotypes in female Mecp2(+/-) mice, some presenting as early as 5 weeks of life. We demonstrate that Mecp2(+/-) mice recapitulate several aspects of typical RTT and show that mosaic expression of MeCP2 does not preclude the use of female mice in behavioral and molecular studies. Importantly, we uncover several behavioral abnormalities that are present in two genetic backgrounds and report on phenotypes that are unique to one background. These findings provide a framework for pre-clinical studies aimed at improving the constellation of phenotypes in a mouse model of RTT. PMID:23026749

Samaco, Rodney C; McGraw, Christopher M; Ward, Christopher S; Sun, Yaling; Neul, Jeffrey L; Zoghbi, Huda Y

2013-01-01

335

Rigor or mortis: best practices for preclinical research in neuroscience.  

PubMed

Numerous recent reports document a lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies, raising concerns about potential lack of rigor. Examples of lack of rigor have been extensively documented and proposals for practices to improve rigor are appearing. Here, we discuss some of the details and implications of previously proposed best practices and consider some new ones, focusing on preclinical studies relevant to human neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25442936

Steward, Oswald; Balice-Gordon, Rita

2014-11-01

336

Utilization management in toxicology.  

PubMed

Recent upward trends in the prevalence of abuse of prescription drugs and illicit substances have resulted in increased demands for toxicology testing to support the emergency department and drug treatment in pain management programs. This review will discuss the challenges faced by clinical laboratories to manage the utilization of toxicology tests, particularly those ordered in managing poisoned patients in the emergency department and chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. Optimal utilization of toxicology tests to support the emergency department relies on selecting the appropriate tests for the patient, and the availability of the results in a timely fashion. Two tiers of toxicology testing systems with different requirements for turnaround time will be discussed. In patients with chronic pain urine drug testing, including screening and confirmation testing are used extensively in pain management to monitor patient compliance. A thorough understanding of the performance characteristics of the test methodologies and drug metabolism is a key to making a proper analytical and clinical interpretation of the test results and will contribute to effective utilization of these tests. In addition, the reimbursement system is an important factor in the decision making process for test selection utilization as significant costs can be incurred by both payers and patients. Collaboration, trust, and effective communication among clinicians, patients, and clinical laboratory professionals are essential for effective utilization of toxicology testing. PMID:24091099

Zhang, Yan; Kwong, Tai C

2014-01-01

337

Studies on the human metabolism and the toxicologic detection of the cough suppressant dropropizine in urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Studies are described on the metabolism and the toxicologic analysis of the nonopioid cough suppressant dropropizine [R,S-3-(4-phenyl-1-piperazinyl)1,2-propandiol, DRO] in human urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The metabolism studies showed that DRO was metabolized in humans mainly by hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, by N-dealkylation of the parent drug and of the hydroxyl-metabolite to the corresponding N-phenylpiperazines, and by degradation of the piperazine moiety. The authors' systematic toxicologic analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted acetylation allowed the unambiguous detection of DRO and its above-mentioned metabolites in human urine up to about 32 hours after intake of a single common therapeutic dose. The target analytes were found to be the parent compound DRO (earlier phase of excretion) and the hydroxylated metabolite para-hydroxy-DRO (later phase of excretion). Both allowed unambiguous detection of an intake of DRO and also differentiation from other phenylpiperazine derivatives. PMID:15257075

Staack, Roland F; Theobald, Denis S; Maurer, Hans H

2004-08-01

338

Evaluation of diethylnitrosamine- or hepatitis B virus X gene-induced hepatocellular carcinoma with 18F-FDG PET/CT: a preclinical study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in murine models resembles tumor progression in humans, using non?invasive molecular imaging methods. Murine HCC models were generated by treating mice with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or by the transgenic expression of hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein (HBx-Tg model). Tumor development was detected using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The histopathological changes and expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and hexokinase 2 (HK2) were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Tumor lesions as small as 1 mm in diameter were detected by MRI. Tumor development was monitored using 18F-FDG PET/CT at 6.5?10 months after DEN treatment or 11?20 months after birth of the HBx-Tg model mice. A correlation study between the 18F-FDG uptake levels and expression levels of HK2 and Glut1 in developed HCC showed a high 18F-FDG uptake in poorly differentiated HCCs that expressed high levels of HK2, in contrast to that in well-differentiated tumors. The progression of primary HCCs resembling human HCC in murine models was detected and monitored by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The correlation between tumor size and SUVmax was verified in the two HCC models. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that in vivo 18F-FDG uptake varies in HCCs according to differentiation grade in a preclinical study. PMID:25371060

Park, Ju Hui; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kyeong Min; Park, Ji Ae; Ko, Yin Ohk; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Young-Seo; Lim, Sang Moo

2015-01-01

339

American College of Medical Toxicology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) is a professional, nonprofit association of physicians with recognized expertise in medical toxicology, whose mission is to ensure that patients exposed to poisons and toxic substances receive optimal care.

340

In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences  

SciTech Connect

The applied use of in silico technologies (a.k.a. computational toxicology, in silico toxicology, computer-assisted tox, e-tox, i-drug discovery, predictive ADME, etc.) for predicting preclinical toxicological endpoints, clinical adverse effects, and metabolism of pharmaceutical substances has become of high interest to the scientific community and the public. The increased accessibility of these technologies for scientists and recent regulations permitting their use for chemical risk assessment supports this notion. The scientific community is interested in the appropriate use of such technologies as a tool to enhance product development and safety of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, while ensuring the reliability and accuracy of in silico approaches for the toxicological and pharmacological sciences. For pharmaceutical substances, this means active and impurity chemicals in the drug product may be screened using specialized software and databases designed to cover these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. A major goal for use of these software programs is to enable industry scientists not only to enhance the discovery process but also to ensure the judicious use of in silico tools to support risk assessments of drug-induced toxicities and in safety evaluations. However, a great amount of applied research is still needed, and there are many limitations with these approaches which are described in this review. Currently, there is a wide range of endpoints available from predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models driven by many different computational software programs and data sources, and this is only expected to grow. For example, there are models based on non-proprietary and/or proprietary information specific to assessing potential rodent carcinogenicity, in silico screens for ICH genetic toxicity assays, reproductive and developmental toxicity, theoretical prediction of human drug metabolism, mechanisms of action for pharmaceuticals, and newer models for predicting human adverse effects. How accurate are these approaches is both a statistical issue and challenge in toxicology. In this review, fundamental concepts and the current capabilities and limitations of this technology will be critically addressed.

Valerio, Luis G., E-mail: Luis.Valerio@fda.hhs.go [Science and Research Staff, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, White Oak 51 Room 4128, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002 (United States)

2009-12-15

341

TOXICOLOGY OF METALS. VOLUME II  

EPA Science Inventory

The report on metal toxicology contains reviews on twenty-three metals. These have been written for inclusion in a Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals: Environmental and Occupational Aspects which is being prepared by the Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals of the P...

342

PreClinical Study: Antioxidant Levels and Immunomodulatory Effects of Wolfberry Juice and Other Juice Mixtures in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although wolfberry juice, derived from the fruit of Lycium barbarum, has been purported by Chinese researchers to augment immune response, there is a paucity of information in scientific literature about its effects. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of wolfberry juice, individually and in mixtures with other juices, using a mouse model. The antioxidant activity of wolfberry

Sue Chao; Marc Schreuder; Gary Young; Karen Nakaoka; Lynn Moyes; Craig Oberg

343

Enivronmental Health and Toxicology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is packed with information related to the topic of environmental health and toxicology. There is an excellent tutorial section specifically targeted toward educators and students. The site has a wealth of information about chemicals used in industry and in the average household. This site would be beneficial to students working on environmental problems or trying to understand the chemicals they encounter on a day-to-day basis. The variety of toxicology and environmental health databases assembled and the links provides on this site provide a valuable resource for students to gather information.

344

Oral-toxicology.  

PubMed

Forensic toxicology deals with the investigation of toxic substances, poisonous products or with the environmental chemicals. This field of science helps to identify poison substance and hazardous chemicals. Forensic toxicology deals with the way that substances are absorbed, distributed or eliminated in the body - the metabolism of substances. This paper reviews the manifestations that each poisonous substance presents concentrating toward the commonly used poisonous substance especially in India. It also explains the Indian Penal Code, which is main criminal code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law regarding poison. PMID:24696586

Gowda, B K Charan; Sundharam, B Sivapatha; Mahadesh, Jyothi; Mukund

2014-01-01

345

Oral-toxicology  

PubMed Central

Forensic toxicology deals with the investigation of toxic substances, poisonous products or with the environmental chemicals. This field of science helps to identify poison substance and hazardous chemicals. Forensic toxicology deals with the way that substances are absorbed, distributed or eliminated in the body – the metabolism of substances. This paper reviews the manifestations that each poisonous substance presents concentrating toward the commonly used poisonous substance especially in India. It also explains the Indian Penal Code, which is main criminal code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law regarding poison. PMID:24696586

Gowda, B. K. Charan; Sundharam, B. Sivapatha; Mahadesh, Jyothi; Mukund

2014-01-01

346

Discovery and preliminary confirmation of novel early detection biomarkers for triple-negative breast cancer using preclinical plasma samples from the Women’s Health Initiative observational study  

PubMed Central

Triple-negative breast cancer is a particularly aggressive and lethal breast cancer subtype that is more likely to be interval-detected rather than screen-detected. The purpose of this study is to discover and initially validate novel early detection biomarkers for triple-negative breast cancer using preclinical samples. Plasma samples collected up to 17 months prior to diagnosis from 28 triple-negative cases and 28 matched controls from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study were equally divided into a training set and a test set and interrogated using a customized antibody array. Data were available on 889 antibodies, and in the training set statistically significant differences in case vs. control signals were observed for 93 (10.5%) antibodies at p<0.05. Of these 93 candidates, 29 were confirmed in the test set at p<0.05. Areas under the curve for these candidates ranged from 0.58 to 0.79. With specificity set at 98%, sensitivity ranged from 4% to 68% with ?20 candidates having a sensitivity 20% and 6 having a sensitivity ?40%. In an analysis of KEGG gene sets, the pyrimidine metabolism gene set was upregulated in cases compared to controls (p=0.004 in the testing set) and the JAK/Stat signaling pathway gene set was downregulated (p=0.003 in the testing set). Numerous potential early detection biomarkers specific to triple-negative breast cancer in multiple pathways were identified. Further research is required to follow-up on promising candidates in larger sample sizes and to better understand their potential biological importance as our understanding of the etiology of triple-negative breast cancer continues to grow. PMID:22903690

Li, Christopher I.; Mirus, Justin E.; Zhang, Yuzheng; Ramirez, Arturo B.; Ladd, Jon J.; Prentice, Ross L.; McIntosh, Martin; Hanash, Samir M.; Lampe, Paul D.

2012-01-01

347

Preclinical Safety of the Root Extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow in Sprague-Dawley Rats and Beagle Dogs  

PubMed Central

The root of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow has been used for the treatment of insomnia, depression, and amnesia. However, the toxicological properties of the herb have been overlooked, because it has been used for a long time for various purposes. In this study, we evaluated the preclinical safety of the root extract in rats and beagle dogs. First, the acute oral toxicity was tested in both rats and dogs. In the rats, only one female of 2?g/kg died, but no treatment-related death or clinical and gross findings were observed after the administration. No toxicological changes or mortalities related to the test substance were also observed after the administration in the dogs. Although vomiting, discoloration, or hemorrhage was found in some dogs, there were no serious abnormalities. Second, the subchronic toxicity was investigated in the rats. Two animals were found dead in the female group of 1,000?mg/kg/day, but there were no abnormal findings associated with the test substance. There also were no adverse effects on the clinical signs, body weight, and hematological and biochemical findings. Therefore, our results showed that the acute or subchronic toxicity of the root extract of Polygala tenuifolia might not be toxic to rats and dogs. PMID:25431613

Shin, Ki Young; Won, Beom Young; Ha, Hyun Jee; Yun, Yeo Sang; Lee, Hyung Gun

2014-01-01

348

Targeting therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma with doxorubicin prodrug PDOX increases anti-metastatic effect and reduces toxicity: a preclinical study  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to investigate the effects and safety of cathepsin B-cleavable doxorubicin (DOX)-prodrug (PDOX) for targeting therapy of metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using DOX as a positive control drug. Methods The orthotopic nude mice model of highly metastatic HCC was established and the animals were randomized and treated with PDOX, DOX and saline, respectively. Hematology, biochemistry and tumor markers were studied. At autopsy, liver tumor weight and size, ascites, abdominal lymph nodes metastases, experimental peritoneal carcinomatosis index (ePCI), and tumor-host body weight ratio were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies and western blotting were done to investigate key molecules involved in the mechanism of action. Results Compared with Control, both PDOX and DOX could similarly and significantly reduce liver tumor weight and tumor volume by over 40%, ePCI values, retroperitoneal lymph node metastases and lung metastases and serum AFP levels (P?

2013-01-01

349

Preclinical study of treatment response in HCT-116 cells and xenografts with (1) H-decoupled (31) P MRS.  

PubMed

The topoisomerase I inhibitor, irinotecan, and its active metabolite SN-38 have been shown to induce G(2) /M cell cycle arrest without significant cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116). Subsequent treatment of these G(2) /M-arrested cells with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, flavopiridol, induced these cells to undergo apoptosis. The goal of this study was to develop a noninvasive metabolic biomarker for early tumor response and target inhibition of irinotecan followed by flavopiridol treatment in a longitudinal study. A total of eleven mice bearing HCT-116 xenografts were separated into two cohorts where one cohort was administered saline and the other treated with a sequential course of irinotecan followed by flavopiridol. Each mouse xenograft was longitudinally monitored with proton ((1) H)-decoupled phosphorus ((31) P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) before and after treatment. A statistically significant decrease in phosphocholine (p?=?0.0004) and inorganic phosphate (p?=?0.0103) levels were observed in HCT-116 xenografts following treatment, which were evidenced within twenty-four hours of treatment completion. Also, a significant growth delay was found in treated xenografts. To discern the underlying mechanism for the treatment response of the xenografts, in vitro HCT-116 cell cultures were investigated with enzymatic assays, cell cycle analysis, and apoptotic assays. Flavopiridol had a direct effect on choline kinase as measured by a 67% reduction in the phosphorylation of choline to phosphocholine. Cells treated with SN-38 alone underwent 83?±?5% G(2) /M cell cycle arrest compared to untreated cells. In cells, flavopiridol alone induced 5?±?1% apoptosis while the sequential treatment (SN-38 then flavopiridol) resulted in 39?±?10% apoptosis. In vivo (1) H-decoupled (31) P MRS indirectly measures choline kinase activity. The decrease in phosphocholine may be a potential indicator of early tumor response to the sequential treatment of irinotecan followed by flavopiridol in noninvasive and/or longitudinal studies. PMID:21994185

Darpolor, Moses M; Kennealey, Peter T; Le, H Carl; Zakian, Kristen L; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Rizwan, Asif; Chen, Jin-Hong; Sambol, Elliot B; Schwartz, Gary K; Singer, Samuel; Koutcher, Jason A

2011-11-01

350

Preclinical Study of Treatment Response in HCT-116 Cells and Xenografts with 1H-decoupled 31P MRS  

PubMed Central

The topoisomerase I inhibitor, irinotecan, and its active metabolite SN-38 have been shown to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest without significant cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116). Subsequent treatment of these G2/M-arrested cells with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, flavopiridol, induced these cells to undergo apoptosis. The goal of this study was to develop a noninvasive metabolic biomarker for early tumor response and target inhibition of irinotecan followed by flavopiridol treatment in a longitudinal study. A total of eleven mice bearing HCT-116 xenografts were separated into two cohorts where one cohort was administered saline and the other treated with a sequential course of irinotecan followed by flavopiridol. Each mouse xenograft was longitudinally monitored with proton (1H)-decoupled phosphorus (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) before and after treatment. A statistically significant decrease in phosphocholine (p = 0.0004) and inorganic phosphate (p = 0.0103) levels were observed in HCT-116 xenografts following treatment, which were evidenced within twenty-four hours of treatment completion. Also, a significant growth delay was found in treated xenografts. To discern the underlying mechanism for the treatment response of the xenografts, in vitro HCT-116 cell cultures were investigated with enzymatic assays, cell cycle analysis, and apoptotic assays. Flavopiridol had a direct effect on choline kinase as measured by a 67% reduction in the phosphorylation of choline to phosphocholine. Cells treated with SN-38 alone underwent 83±5% G2/M cell cycle arrest compared to untreated cells. In cells, flavopiridol alone induced 5±1% apoptosis while the sequential treatment (SN-38 then flavopiridol) resulted in 39±10% apoptosis. In vivo 1H-decoupled 31P MRS indirectly measures choline kinase activity. The decrease in phosphocholine may be a potential indicator of early tumor response to the sequential treatment of irinotecan followed by flavopiridol in noninvasive and/or longitudinal studies. PMID:21994185

Darpolor, Moses M.; Kennealey, Peter T.; Carl Le, H; Zakian, Kristen L.; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Rizwan, Asif; Chen, Jin-Hong; Sambol, Elliot B.; Schwartz, Gary K.; Singer, Samuel; Koutcher, Jason A.

2011-01-01

351

Innovations in testing strategies in reproductive toxicology.  

PubMed

Toxicological hazard assessment currently finds itself at a crossroads where the existing classical test paradigm is challenged by a host of innovative approaches. Animal study protocols are being enhanced for additional parameters and improved for more efficient effect assessment with reduced animal numbers. Whilst existing testing paradigms have generally proven conservative for chemical safety assessment, novel alternative in silico and in vitro approaches and assays are being introduced that begin to elucidate molecular mechanisms of toxicity. Issues such as animal welfare, alternative assay validation, endocrine disruption, and the US-NAS report on toxicity testing in the twenty-first century have provided directionality to these developments. The reductionistic nature of individual alternative assays requires that they be combined in a testing strategy in order to provide a complete picture of the toxicological profile of a compound. One of the challenges of this innovative approach is the combined interpretation of assay results in terms of toxicologically relevant effects. Computational toxicology aims at providing that integration. In order to progress, we need to follow three steps: (1) Learn from past experience in animal studies and human diseases about critical end points and pathways of toxicity. (2) Design alternative assays for essential mechanisms of toxicity. (3) Build an integrative testing strategy tailored to human hazard assessment using a battery of available alternative tests for critical end points that provides optimal in silico and in vitro filters to upgrade toxicological hazard assessment to the mechanistic level. PMID:23138915

Piersma, Aldert H

2013-01-01

352

Testing computational toxicology models with phytochemicals.  

PubMed

Computational toxicology employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling is an evidence-based predictive method being evaluated by regulatory agencies for risk assessment and scientific decision support for toxicological endpoints of interest such as rodent carcinogenicity. Computational toxicology is being tested for its usefulness to support the safety assessment of drug-related substances (e.g. active pharmaceutical ingredients, metabolites, impurities), indirect food additives, and other applied uses of value for protecting public health including safety assessment of environmental chemicals. The specific use of QSAR as a chemoinformatic tool for estimating the rodent carcinogenic potential of phytochemicals present in botanicals, herbs, and natural dietary sources is investigated here by an external validation study, which is the most stringent scientific method of measuring predictive performance. The external validation statistics for predicting rodent carcinogenicity of 43 phytochemicals, using two computational software programs evaluated at the FDA, are discussed. One software program showed very good performance for predicting non-carcinogens (high specificity), but both exhibited poor performance in predicting carcinogens (sensitivity), which is consistent with the design of the models. When predictions were considered in combination with each other rather than based on any one software, the performance for sensitivity was enhanced, However, Chi-square values indicated that the overall predictive performance decreases when using the two computational programs with this particular data set. This study suggests that complementary multiple computational toxicology software need to be carefully selected to improve global QSAR predictions for this complex toxicological endpoint. PMID:20024931

Valerio, Luis G; Arvidson, Kirk B; Busta, Emily; Minnier, Barbara L; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Benz, R Daniel

2010-02-01

353

A Preclinical Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Occlusin Trade-Mark-Sign 500 Artificial Embolization Device in Sheep  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: This study evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and biodegradation of a new embolic agent, Occlusin Trade-Mark-Sign 503 Artificial Embolization Device (OCL 503). The agent consists of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres (150-212 {mu}m) coated with type I bovine collagen and was compared with Embosphere{sup Registered-Sign} Microspheres (300-500 {mu}m) in this controlled study of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in sheep. Methods: Unilateral UAE was performed in 32 adult ewes randomly assigned. Vessels were embolized to effective stasis. The cohort was divided into four groups, which were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: Both agents were 100% effective in achieving stasis. At 6 months, all OCL 503-treated arteries were occluded, the microspheres degraded with time, and at 12 months all four animals examined demonstrated recanalization. OCL 503 was found in the untreated uterine artery in one animal with no other evidence of non target embolization. In the Embosphere-treated group, all vessels remained occluded and microspheres were detected in the contralateral uterine artery in 6 of 15 examined vessels and in 10 vaginal, 2 ovarian, and 1 vesical artery. No procedural-related complications were seen in either group. Conclusions: OCL 503 is as effective an embolic agent as Embosphere{sup Registered-Sign} Microspheres when embolizing ovine uterine arteries and resorbs with time, allowing recanalization of the treated arteries. No device-related issues or adverse events were observed.

Owen, Richard J., E-mail: drrichardowen@tbwifi.ca [University of Alberta, Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Walter C. Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre (Canada); Nation, Patrick N. [University of Alberta, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Walter C. Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre (Canada); Polakowski, Robert [BioLipids Inc (Canada); Biliske, Jennifer A. [University of Alberta, Biological Sciences, CW405, Biological Sciences Building (Canada); Tiege, Paul B. [University of Alberta, Lipid Products Research Alberta (LiPRA), 410 Agriculture/Forestry Centre (Canada); Griffith, Irwin J. [IMBiotechnologies Ltd (Canada)

2012-06-15

354

A Novel Pre-Clinical Murine Model to Study the Life Cycle and Progression of Cervical and Anal Papillomavirus Infections  

PubMed Central

Background Papillomavirus disease and associated cancers remain a significant health burden in much of the world. The current protective vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, are expensive and not readily available to the underprivileged. In addition, the vaccines have not gained wide acceptance in the United States nor do they provide therapeutic value. Papillomaviruses are strictly species specific and thus human viruses cannot be studied in an animal host. An appropriate model for mucosal disease has long been sought. We chose to investigate whether the newly discovered mouse papillomavirus, MmuPV1, could infect mucosal tissues in Foxn1nu/Foxn1nu mice. Methods The vaginal and anal canals of Foxn1nu/Foxn1nu mice were gently abraded using Nonoxynol-9 and “Doctor’s BrushPicks” and MmuPV1 was delivered into the vaginal tract or the anal canal. Results Productive vaginal, cervical and anal infections developed in all mice. Vaginal/cervical infections could be monitored by vaginal lavage. Dysplasias were evident in all animals. Conclusions Anogenital tissues of a common laboratory mouse can be infected with a papillomavirus unique to that animal. This observation will pave the way for fundamental virological and immunological studies that have been challenging to carry out heretofore due to lack of a suitable model system. PMID:25803616

Cladel, Nancy M.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Balogh, Karla K.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Hu, Jiafen; Christensen, Neil D.

2015-01-01

355

Orazipone, a locally acting immunomodulator, ameliorates intestinal radiation injury: A preclinical study in a novel rat model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Intestinal radiation injury (radiation enteropathy) is relevant to cancer treatment, as well as to radiation accidents and radiation terrorism scenarios. This study assessed the protective efficacy of orazipone, a locally-acting small molecule immunomodulator. Methods and Materials: Male rats were orchiectomized, a 4-cm segment of small bowel was sutured to the inside of the scrotum, a proximal anteperistaltic ileostomy was created for intraluminal drug administration, and intestinal continuity was re-established by end-to-side anastomosis. After three weeks postoperative recovery, the intestine in the 'scrotal hernia' was exposed locally to single-dose or fractionated X-radiation. Orazipone (30 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered daily through the ileostomy, either during and after irradiation, or only after irradiation. Structural, cellular, and molecular aspects of intestinal radiation toxicity were assessed two weeks after irradiation. Results: Orazipone significantly ameliorated histologic injury and transforming growth factor-{beta} immunoreactivity levels, both after single-dose and fractionated irradiation. Intestinal wall thickness was significantly reduced after single-dose and nonsignificantly after fractionated irradiation. Mucosal surface area and numbers of mast cells were partially restored by orazipone after single-dose irradiation. Conclusions: This work (1) demonstrates the utility of the ileostomy rat model for intraluminal administration of response modifiers in single-dose and fractionated radiation studies; (2) shows that mucosal immunomodulation during and/or after irradiation ameliorates intestinal toxicity; and (3) highlights important differences between single-dose and fractionated radiation regimens.

Boerma, Marjan [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Wang, Junru [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Richter, Konrad K. [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States) and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States)]. E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu

2006-10-01

356

Preclinical pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of investigational new drugs. Annual report, 1 November 1993-31 October 1994  

SciTech Connect

During the past year of this contract pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, bioavailability and metabolism studies have been conducted on two anti-cyanotic agents (WR242511 and p-aminohetanophenone (PAHP)) and one nerve agent antidote (HI-6) which are under consideration for clinical development by the U.S. Army. Radiolabeled formulations of WR242511, PAHP and HI-6 were used in these investigations. Information has been obtained on the half-lives of absorption and elimination of both radioactivity and the parent compound following oral and i.v. administration of these three compounds to dogs and, for PAHP, also to rats. In addition, the rates and extent of urinary and fecal elimination of the agents has been characterized; the pharmacodynamics, as assessed by the production of methemoglobin, of two compounds (WR242511 and PAHP) has been studied; and the metabolism of each compound has been investigated. Data obtained to date indicate that: WR242511 does not directly produce methemoglobinemia but a metabolite sequestered in red cells is the responsible agent; dogs appear to metabolize PAHP differently than do rats; the major urinary metabolite of HI-6 is 2-pyridine aldoxime. Further efforts to isolate and identify the metabolites of all three compounds are in progress.

Noker, P.E.

1994-11-11

357

CD40 ligand is necessary and sufficient to support primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells in culture: a tool for in vitro preclinical studies with primary B-cell malignancies  

PubMed Central

Established cell lines are utilized extensively to study tumor biology and preclinical therapeutic development; however, they may not accurately recapitulate the heterogeneity of their corresponding primary disease. B-cell tumor cells are especially difficult to maintain under conventional culture conditions, limiting access to samples that faithfully represent this disease for preclinical studies. Here, we used primary canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma to establish a culture system that reliably supports the growth of these cells. CD40 ligand, either expressed by feeder cells or provided as a soluble two-trimeric form, was sufficient to support primary lymphoma cells in vitro. The tumor cells retained their original phenotype, clonality and known karyotypic abnormalities after extended expansion in culture. Finally, we illustrate the utility of the feeder cell-free culture system for comparable assessment of cytotoxicity using dog and human B-cell malignancies. We conclude this system has broad applications for in vitro preclinical development for B-cell malignancies. PMID:22229753

Ito, Daisuke; Frantz, Aric M.; Williams, Christina; Thomas, Rachael; Burnett, Robert C.; Avery, Anne C.; Breen, Matthew; Mason, Nicola J.; O’Brien, Timothy D.; Modiano, Jaime F.

2013-01-01

358

In-Vivo Efficacy of Compliant 3D Nano-Composite in Critical-Size Bone Defect Repair: a Six Month Preclinical Study in Rabbit  

PubMed Central

Bone defects above critical size do not heal completely by itself and thus represent major clinical challenge to reconstructive surgery. Numerous bone substitutes have already been used to promote bone regeneration, however their use, particularly for critical-sized bone defects along with their long term in vivo safety and efficacy remains a concern. The present study was designed to obtain a complete healing of critical-size defect made in the proximal tibia of New Zealand White rabbit, using nano-hydroxyapatite/gelatin and chemically carboxymethylated chitin (n-HA/gel/CMC) scaffold construct. The bone-implant interfaces and defect site healing was evaluated for a period up to 25 weeks using radiography, micro-computed tomography, fluorescence labeling, and histology and compared with respective SHAM (empty contra lateral control). The viscoelastic porous scaffold construct allows easy surgical insertion and post-operatively facilitate oxygenation and angiogenesis. Radiography of defect treated with scaffold construct suggested expedited healing at defect edges and within the defect site, unlike confined healing at edges of the SHAM sites. The architecture indices analyzed by micro-computed tomography showed a significant increase in percentage of bone volume fraction, resulted in reconciled cortico-trabecular bone formation at n-HA/gel/CMC constructs treated site (15.2% to 52.7%) when compared with respective SHAM (10.2% to 31.8%). Histological examination and fluorescence labeling revealed that the uniformly interconnected porous surface of scaffold construct enhanced osteoblasts’ activity and mineralization. These preclinical data suggest that, n-HA/gel/CMC construct exhibit stimulation of bone's innate regenerative capacity, thus underscoring their use in guided bone regeneration. PMID:24204879

Sagar, Nitin; Pandey, Alok K.; Gurbani, Deepak; Khan, Kainat; Singh, Dhirendra; Chaudhari, Bhushan P.; Soni, Vivek P.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Dhawan, Alok; Bellare, Jayesh R.

2013-01-01

359

TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

360

Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements.  

PubMed

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are stable in the atmosphere and may reach the stratosphere. They are cleaved by UV-radiation in the stratosphere to yield chlorine radicals, which are thought to interfere with the catalytic cycle of ozone formation and destruction and deplete stratospheric ozone concentrations. Due to potential adverse health effects of ozone depletion, chlorofluorocarbon replacements with much lower or absent ozone depleting potential are developed. The toxicology of these compounds that represent chlorofluorohydrocarbons (HCFCs) or fluorohydrocarbons (HFCs) has been intensively studied. All compounds investigated (1, 1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane [HCFC-141b], 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane [HFC-134a], pentafluoroethane [HFC-125], 1-chloro- 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane [HCFC-124], and 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane [HCFC-123]) show only a low potential for skin and eye irritation. Chronic adverse effects on the liver (HCFC-123) and the testes (HCFC-141b and HCFC-134a), including tumor formation, were observed in long-term inhalation studies in rodents using very high concentrations of these CFC replacements. All CFC replacements are, to varying extents, biotransformed in the organism, mainly by cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of C-H bonds. The formed acyl halides are hydrolyzed to give excretable carboxylic acids; halogenated aldehydes that are formed may be further oxidized to halogenated carboxylic acids or reduced to halogenated alcohols, which are excretory metabolites in urine from rodents exposed experimentally to CFC replacements. The chronic toxicity of the CFC replacements studied is unlikely to be of relevance for humans exposed during production and application of CFC replacements. PMID:8722112

Dekant, W

1996-03-01

361

Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements.  

PubMed Central

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are stable in the atmosphere and may reach the stratosphere. They are cleaved by UV-radiation in the stratosphere to yield chlorine radicals, which are thought to interfere with the catalytic cycle of ozone formation and destruction and deplete stratospheric ozone concentrations. Due to potential adverse health effects of ozone depletion, chlorofluorocarbon replacements with much lower or absent ozone depleting potential are developed. The toxicology of these compounds that represent chlorofluorohydrocarbons (HCFCs) or fluorohydrocarbons (HFCs) has been intensively studied. All compounds investigated (1, 1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane [HCFC-141b], 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane [HFC-134a], pentafluoroethane [HFC-125], 1-chloro- 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane [HCFC-124], and 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane [HCFC-123]) show only a low potential for skin and eye irritation. Chronic adverse effects on the liver (HCFC-123) and the testes (HCFC-141b and HCFC-134a), including tumor formation, were observed in long-term inhalation studies in rodents using very high concentrations of these CFC replacements. All CFC replacements are, to varying extents, biotransformed in the organism, mainly by cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of C-H bonds. The formed acyl halides are hydrolyzed to give excretable carboxylic acids; halogenated aldehydes that are formed may be further oxidized to halogenated carboxylic acids or reduced to halogenated alcohols, which are excretory metabolites in urine from rodents exposed experimentally to CFC replacements. The chronic toxicity of the CFC replacements studied is unlikely to be of relevance for humans exposed during production and application of CFC replacements. PMID:8722112

Dekant, W

1996-01-01

362

SALMONID PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Pharmacology and toxicology of Salmonids are described. Authors also document territorial behavior of salmonids and their response to effects of drugs, chemicals or pollutants. Current literature is cited as the best source of information regarding the use of drugs and chemicals ...

363

Toxicology, an STS Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are activities suggested through Project L.A.B.S. that involve the topic of toxicology. Activities include suggested research, the risk benefit seesaw, human-made compounds, legislation, a historical perspective, and health. A suggested readings list is provided. (KR)

Wagner, Richard

1990-01-01

364

Toxicology and Chemical Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

Hall, Stephen K.

1983-01-01

365

Toxicological characterization of the landfill leachate prior/after chemical and electrochemical treatment: a study on human and plant cells.  

PubMed

In this research, toxicological safety of two newly developed methods for the treatment of landfill leachate from the Piškornica (Croatia) sanitary landfill was investigated. Chemical treatment procedure combined chemical precipitation with CaO followed by coagulation with ferric chloride and final adsorption by clinoptilolite. Electrochemical treatment approach included pretreatment with ozone followed by electrooxidation/electrocoagulation and final polishing by microwave irradiation. Cell viability of untreated/treated landfill leachate was examined using fluorescence microscopy. Cytotoxic effect of the original leachate was obtained for both exposure periods (4 and 24 h) while treated samples showed no cytotoxic effect even after prolonged exposure time. The potential DNA damage of the untreated/treated landfill leachate was evaluated by the comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay using either human or plant cells. The original leachate exhibited significantly higher comet assay parameters compared to negative control after 24 h exposure. On the contrary, there was no significant difference between negative control and chemically/electrochemically treated leachate for any of the parameters tested. There was also no significant increase in either CBMN assay parameter compared to the negative control following the exposure of the lymphocytes to the chemically or electrochemically treated landfill leachate for both exposure periods while the original sample showed significantly higher number of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds for both exposure times. Results suggest that both methods are suitable for the treatment of such complex waste effluent due to high removal efficiency of all measured parameters and toxicological safety of the treated effluent. PMID:23790829

Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreš?anin, Višnja; Gajski, Goran; Geri?, Marko; Ruk, Damir; Kollar, Robert; Radi? Brkanac, Sandra; Cvjetko, Petra

2013-10-01

366

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 19, No. 10, pp. 23912393, 2000 Printed in the USA  

E-print Network

2391 Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 19, No. 10, pp. 2391­2393, 2000 2000 SETAC- mental Toxicology and Chemistry (ET&C), 933 studies pub- lished (36% of total papers in ET&C) addressed Printed in the USA 0730-7268/00 $9.00 .00 Letter to the Editor REPTILE TOXICOLOGY: CHALLENGES

Hopkins, William A.

367

Subsite Awareness in Neuropathology Evaluation of National Toxicology Program (NTP) Studies: A Review of Select Neuroanatomical Structures with their Functional Significance in Rodents  

PubMed Central

This review manuscript is designed to serve as an introductory guide in neuroanatomy for toxicologic pathologists evaluating general toxicity studies. The manuscript provides an overview of approximately 50 neuroanatomical subsites and their functional significance across seven coronal sections of the brain. Also reviewed are three sections of the spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves (trigeminal and sciatic respectively), and intestinal autonomic ganglia. The review is limited to the evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections, as light microscopic evaluation of these sections is an integral part of the first-tier toxicity screening of environmental chemicals, drugs, and other agents. Prominent neuroanatomical sites associated with major neurological disorders are noted. This guide, when used in conjunction with detailed neuroanatomic atlases may aid in an understanding of the significance of functional neuroanatomy, thereby improving the characterization of neurotoxicity in general toxicity and safety evaluation studies. PMID:24135464

Rao, Deepa B.; Little, Peter B.; Sills, Robert

2013-01-01

368

Studies of the Toxicological Potential of Tripeptides (L-Valyl-L-prolyl-L-proline and L-lsoleucyl-L-prolyl-L-proline): V. A 13Week Toxicity Study of Tripeptides-Containing Casein Hydrolysate in Male and Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this multiple-dose toxicity study was to assess the toxicological potential of two tripeptides, L-valyl-L-prolyl-L-proline (VPP) and L-isoleucyl-L-prolyl-L-proline (IPP), when administered once daily for 91 consecutive days to rats. The test article, powdered casein hydrolysate (CH) known to contain 0.6% VPP plus IPP, was prepared using Aspergillus oryzae protease. Prior to administration to the rats by oral gavage,

Seiichi Mizuno; John H. Mennear; Keiichi Matsuura; Bruce K. Bernard

2005-01-01

369

Review, discussion, and summary: toxicology  

SciTech Connect

The research presented in the toxicology session of the Symposium on the Health Effects of Acid Aerosols significantly advances our understanding of the health effects of acid aerosols and clearly illustrates the importance of animal inhalation toxicology to risk assessment. The description of the effects of acid on airway mucus buffering capacity and viscosity helps explain some of the mechanisms responsible for the effects of sulfuric acid on mucociliary clearance and pulmonary function observed in man and animals. Several of the papers illustrate that other pollutants interact with sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), causing concern about exposure risks and helping in elucidating the effects observed in epidemiology studies that have not yet been duplicated in a laboratory. For example, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ absorbed in zinc oxide (ZnO) particles appears to be about a log more potent than H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone in causing pulmonary function decrements. Low levels of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and O/sub 3/ were found to be synergistic in increasing collagen synthesis, implying a risk in development of lung fibrosis. More complex mixtures containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ cause a variety of interactions, depending upon the end points examined and the chemistry of the mixture. Other reports indicate that dose rate and length of exposure issues are critical to toxicological outcomes. Animal data on mucociliary clearance, which parallels that of human data, was extended to show that concentration of exposure was more important than time of exposure in eliciting a response, although time played a significant role. A recent chronic study showed that H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ caused effects that also can occur in the development of chronic bronchitis.

Graham, J.A.

1989-02-01

370

NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Acetaminophen (CAS No. 103-90-2) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).  

PubMed

Acetaminophen is a widely consumed analgesic found in several nonprescription pharmaceuticals. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering acetaminophen (purity >99%) in feed to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 14 days, 13 weeks, and 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and Chinese hamster ovary cells. 14-DAY STUDIES: Rats were fed diets containing 0, 800, 1,600, 3,100, 6,200, or 12,500 ppm acetaminophen, and mice were fed diets containing 0, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 ppm acetaminophen. There were no deaths among any groups during the study; the final mean body weight of male rats that received 12,500 ppm was significantly lower than that of the controls. Final mean body weights of male and female mice and female rats that received acetaminophen were similar to those of the controls. Feed consumption by male and female rats that received 12,500 ppm acetaminophen was lower than that of the controls; feed consumption by all other exposed groups was higher than that of the controls. 13-WEEK STUDIES: Rats and mice were fed diets containing 0, 800, 1,600, 3,200, 6,200, 12,500, or 25,000 ppm acetaminophen. Two male and two female rats, and one male and one female mouse that received 25,000 ppm, and two male mice that received 12,500 ppm died from acetaminophen-related toxicity before the end of the studies. Final mean body weights of male and female rats and mice that received 12,500 or 25,000 ppm were lower than those of the controls. The patterns of feed consumption and reduced body weights that occurred among rats and mice that received diets containing 12,500 or 25,000 ppm were indicative of poor feed palatability. Acetaminophen-related lesions were observed in the liver (necrosis, chronic active inflammation, hepatocytomegaly), kidney (tubule cast, tubule necrosis, tubule regeneration), reproductive organs (atrophy of testis, ovary, and uterus), thymus and lymph nodes (lymphoid depletion) of rats that received 25,000 ppm, and of the live (chronic active inflammation, hepatocytomegaly) and testis (atrophy) of male rats receiving 12,500 ppm. Compound-related lesions in mice were found in the liver (hepatocytomegaly, focal calcification, pigmentation, necrosis) of males that received 6,200, 12,500, or 25,000 ppm and females that received 12,000 or 25,000 ppm. Dose selection for the 2-year studies was based on reduced body weights and the liver lesions observed in rats and mice at 12,500 and 25,000 ppm. 2-YEAR STUDIES: Diets containing 0, 600, 3,000, or 6,000 ppm acetaminophen were given continuously to groups of 60 rats and mice of each sex for up to 104 weeks. After 65 weeks of exposure, 10 animals from each group were evaluated for histopathology and for hematology, urinalysis, and clinical chemistry parameters. Survival and mean body weights of rats that received acetaminophen were similar to those of the controls throughout the study. The average severity of nephropathy was increased in exposed male and female rats. In males this was associated with an increased incidence of parathyroid hyperplasia (renal hyperparathyroidism). The incidence of focal renal tubule hyperplasia was also increased in exposed male rats. The incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia was increased in exposed female rats and was significantly increased in the 6,000 ppm group (9/50; 17/50; 15/50; 24/50). Survival of exposed and control mice was similar throughout the study. Mean body weights of mice that received acetaminophen were generally lower than those of the controls throughout the study. Although the incidence of thyroid follicular cell hyperplasia increased with dose among groups of exposed male and female mice, there was no increase in the incidence of follicular cell neoplasms. Renal tubule hyperplasia occurred in one low-dose and two high-dose males and a renal tubule adenoma was present in one low-dose and one high-dose male. GENETIC TOXICOLOGY: Acetaminophen was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA1535, TA1537, or TA98 w

1993-01-01

371

Advances in Preclinical SPECT Instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Preclinical SPECT imaging of rodents is both in demand and very demanding. The need for high spatial resolution in combination with good sensitivity has given rise to considerable innovation in the areas of detectors, collimation, acquisition geometry, and image reconstruction. Some of the developments described herein are beginning to carry over into clinical imaging as well. PMID:22586145

Peterson, Todd E.; Shokouhi, Sepideh

2012-01-01

372

Lost in translation: preclinical studies on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine provide information on mechanisms of action, but do not allow accurate prediction of adverse events in humans  

PubMed Central

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induces both acute adverse effects and long-term neurotoxic loss of brain 5-HT neurones in laboratory animals. However, when choosing doses, most preclinical studies have paid little attention to the pharmacokinetics of the drug in humans or animals. The recreational use of MDMA and current clinical investigations of the drug for therapeutic purposes demand better translational pharmacology to allow accurate risk assessment of its ability to induce adverse events. Recent pharmacokinetic studies on MDMA in animals and humans are reviewed and indicate that the risks following MDMA ingestion should be re-evaluated. Acute behavioural and body temperature changes result from rapid MDMA-induced monoamine release, whereas long-term neurotoxicity is primarily caused by metabolites of the drug. Therefore acute physiological changes in humans are fairly accurately mimicked in animals by appropriate dosing, although allometric dosing calculations have little value. Long-term changes require MDMA to be metabolized in a similar manner in experimental animals and humans. However, the rate of metabolism of MDMA and its major metabolites is slower in humans than rats or monkeys, potentially allowing endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms to function in a species specific manner. Furthermore acute hyperthermia in humans probably limits the chance of recreational users ingesting sufficient MDMA to produce neurotoxicity, unlike in the rat. MDMA also inhibits the major enzyme responsible for its metabolism in humans thereby also assisting in preventing neurotoxicity. These observations question whether MDMA alone produces long-term 5-HT neurotoxicity in human brain, although when taken in combination with other recreational drugs it may induce neurotoxicity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is commented on by Parrott, pp. 1518–1520 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01941.x and to view the the rebuttal by the authors (Green et al., pp. 1521–1522 of this issue) visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01940.x PMID:22188379

Green, AR; King, MV; Shortall, SE; Fone, KCF

2012-01-01

373

From alternative methods to a new toxicology.  

PubMed

Mechanistic toxicology has evolved by relying, to a large extent, on methodologies that substitute or complement traditional animal tests. The biotechnology and informatics revolutions of the last decades have made such technologies broadly available and useful, but regulatory toxicology has been slow to embrace these new approaches. Major validation efforts, however, have delivered the evidence that new approaches do not lower safety standards and can be integrated into regulatory safety assessments. Particularly in the EU, political pressures, such as the REACH legislation and the 7th Amendment to the cosmetic legislation, have prompted the need of new approaches. In the US, the NRC vision report calling for a toxicology for the 21st century (and its most recent adaptation by EPA for their toxicity testing strategy) have initiated a debate about how to create a novel approach based on human cell cultures, lower species, high-throughput testing, and modeling. Lessons learned from the development, validation, and acceptance of alternative methods support the creation of a new approach based on identified toxicity pathways. Conceptual steering and an objective assessment of current practices by evidence-based toxicology (EBT) are required. EBT is modeled on evidence-based medicine, which has demonstrated that rigorous systematic reviews of current practices and meta-analyses of studies provide powerful tools to provide health care professionals and patients with the current best scientific evidence. Similarly, a portal for high-quality reviews of toxicological approaches and tools for the quantitative meta-analyses of data promise to serve as door opener for a new regulatory toxicology. PMID:21195172

Hartung, Thomas

2011-04-01

374

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Two-Generation Reproduction Study of Lewisite in Rats Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Occupational health standards have not been established for Lewisite [bis(2-chlorethyl)arsine], a potent toxic vesicant which reacts with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins through its arsenic group. The purposes of this study were to determine the reproductive consequences and dose~response of continuing Lewisite exposure of parental males and females and their offspring in a 42-week two-generation study. Solutions of Lewisite were prepared for administration by diluting the neat agent with sesame oil. Rats were administered Lewisite (0, 0.10, 0.25 or 0.60 mg/kg/day for 5 days a week) via intragastric intubation prior to mating, during mating and after mating until the birth of their offspring. The dams continued to receive Lewisite during lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring of each group were selected to continue on the study; rece1v1ng Lewisite during adolescence, mating and throughout gestation. Again, the dams continued to receive Lewisite until weaning of the offspring. Lewisite had no adverse effect on reproduction performance, fertility or reproductive organ weights of male or female rats through two consecutive generations. No adverse effect to offspring were attributed to Lewisite exposure. Minor changes in growth was the only maternal effect observed. Lewisite exposure of parental rats caused no gross or microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, uterus or vagina. Severe inflammation of the lung was observed at necropsy in cases in which Lewisite gained access to the respiratory system from accidental dosing or reflux and aspiration; this usually caused early death of the animal. The NOEL for reproductive effects in this study was greater than 0.60 mg/kg/day.

Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Mellick, P. W.; Buschbom, R. L.

1989-07-15

375

Comparative study of the neurotrophic effects elicited by VEGF-B and GDNF in preclinical in vivo models of Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) has recently been shown to be a promising novel neuroprotective agent for several neurodegenerative conditions. In the current study we extended previous work on neuroprotective potential for Parkinson’s disease (PD) by testing an expanded dose range of VEGF-B (1 ?g and 10 ?g) and directly comparing both neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects of VEGF-B in progressive unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD models to a single dose of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, 10 ?g), that has been established by several groups as a standard in both preclinical PD models. In the amphetamine-induced rotational tests the treatment with 1 and 10 ?g VEGF-B resulted in significantly improved motor function of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats compared to vehicle-treated 6-OHDA-lesioned rats in the neuroprotection paradigm. Both doses of VEGF-B caused an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell and fiber count in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum in the neuroprotective experiment. The effect size was comparable to the effects seen with GDNF. In the neurorestoration paradigm, VEGF-B injection had no significant effect in either the behavioral or the immunohistochemical analyses, whereas GDNF injection significantly improved the amphetamine-induced rotational behavior and reduced TH-positive neuronal cell loss in the SN. We also present a strong positive correlation (p = 1.9 e-50) of the expression of VEGF-B with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in fatty acid metabolism in rat midbrain, pointing to the mitochondria as a site of action of VEGF-B. GDNF showed a positive correlation with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes that was not nearly as strong (p = 0.018). VEGF-B counteracted rotenone-induced reduction of (a) fatty acid transport protein 1 and 4 levels and (b) both Akt protein and phosphorylation levels in SH-SY5Y cells. We further verified VEGF-B expression in the human SN pars compacta of healthy controls and Parkinson’s disease patients, in neuronal cells that show co-expression with neuromelanin. These results have demonstrated that VEGF-B has potential as a neuroprotective agent for PD therapy and should be further investigated. PMID:24291725

Yue, Xu; Hariri, Dana J.; Caballero, Beatrice; Zhang, Shiling; Bartlett, Mitchell J.; Kaut, Oliver; Mount, David W.; Wüllner, Ullrich; Sherman, Scott J.; Falk, Torsten

2014-01-01

376

Comparative study of the neurotrophic effects elicited by VEGF-B and GDNF in preclinical in vivo models of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) has recently been shown to be a promising novel neuroprotective agent for several neurodegenerative conditions. In the current study we extended previous work on neuroprotective potential for Parkinson's disease (PD) by testing an expanded dose range of VEGF-B (1 and 10 ?g) and directly comparing both neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects of VEGF-B in progressive unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD models to a single dose of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, 10 ?g), that has been established by several groups as a standard in both preclinical PD models. In the amphetamine-induced rotational tests the treatment with 1 and 10 ?g VEGF-B resulted in significantly improved motor function of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats compared to vehicle-treated 6-OHDA-lesioned rats in the neuroprotection paradigm. Both doses of VEGF-B caused an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell and fiber count in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum in the neuroprotective experiment. The effect size was comparable to the effects seen with GDNF. In the neurorestoration paradigm, VEGF-B injection had no significant effect in either the behavioral or the immunohistochemical analyses, whereas GDNF injection significantly improved the amphetamine-induced rotational behavior and reduced TH-positive neuronal cell loss in the SN. We also present a strong positive correlation (p=1.9e-50) of the expression of VEGF-B with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in fatty acid metabolism in rat midbrain, pointing to the mitochondria as a site of action of VEGF-B. GDNF showed a positive correlation with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes that was not nearly as strong (p=0.018). VEGF-B counteracted rotenone-induced reduction of (a) fatty acid transport protein 1 and 4 levels and (b) both Akt protein and phosphorylation levels in SH-SY5Y cells. We further verified VEGF-B expression in the human SN pars compacta of healthy controls and PD patients, in neuronal cells that show co-expression with neuromelanin. These results have demonstrated that VEGF-B has potential as a neuroprotective agent for PD therapy and should be further investigated. PMID:24291725

Yue, X; Hariri, D J; Caballero, B; Zhang, S; Bartlett, M J; Kaut, O; Mount, D W; Wüllner, U; Sherman, S J; Falk, T

2014-01-31

377

Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1988-08-01

378

Ruminant toxicology diagnostics.  

PubMed

The most common sources of ruminant poisoning are feed and water. Diagnoses are based on history, clinical signs, lesions, laboratory examinations, and analytical chemistry. A complete history is necessary for developing the scheme of laboratory investigation and may be valuable in case of litigation. This article outlines the toxicology involved, as well as the procedures and analytic capability of the tests used for differential diagnosis in these cases. PMID:23101675

Ensley, Steve; Rumbeiha, Wilson

2012-11-01

379

Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil,

B. E. Opresko; D. M. Suter

1993-01-01

380

History of wildlife toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of wildlife toxicology can be traced to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initial reports included\\u000a unintentional poisoning of birds from ingestion of spent lead shot and predator control agents, alkali poisoning of waterbirds,\\u000a and die-offs from maritime oil spills. With the advent of synthetic pesticides in the 1930s and 1940s, effects of DDT and\\u000a other pesticides

Barnett A. Rattner

2009-01-01

381

Evaluation Of Microdosing Strategies For Studies In Preclinical Drug Development: Demonstration Of Linear Pharmacokinetics In Dogs Of A Nucleoside Analogue Over A 50-Fold Dose Range  

SciTech Connect

The technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was validated successfully and utilized to study the pharmacokinetics and disposition in dogs of a preclinical drug candidate (Compound A), after oral and intravenous administration. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether Compound A displayed linear kinetics across sub-pharmacological (microdose) and pharmacological dose ranges in an animal model, prior to initiation of a human microdose study. The AMS-derived disposition properties of Compound A were comparable to data obtained via conventional techniques such as LC-MS/MS and liquid scintillation counting analyses. Thus, Compound A displayed multiphasic kinetics and possessed low plasma clearance (4.4 mL/min/kg), a long terminal elimination half-life (19.4 hr) and high oral bioavailability (82%). Currently there are no published comparisons of the kinetics of a pharmaceutical compound at pharmacological versus sub-pharmacological doses employing microdosing strategies. The present study thus provides the first description of the pharmacokinetics of a drug candidate assessed under these two dosing regimens. The data demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic properties of Compound A were similar following dosing at 0.02 mg/kg as at 1 mg/kg, indicating that in the case of Compound A, the kinetics of absorption, distribution and elimination in the dog appear to be linear across this 50-fold dose range. Moreover, the exceptional sensitivity of AMS provided a pharmacokinetic profile of Compound A, even following a microdose, which revealed aspects of the disposition of this agent that were inaccessible by conventional techniques. The applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are broad ranging and vary from studying environmental and ecological issues such as the isotopic composition of the atmosphere, soil and water (Hughen et al., 2000; Beck et al., 2001; Keith-Roach et al., 2001; Mironov et al., 2002), to archaeology and volcanology (Stafford et al., 1984; Vogel et al., 1990; Smith et al., 1999) to its use as a bioanalytical tool for nutritional research (Buchholz et al., 1999; Deuker et al., 2000; Weaver and Liebman, 2002). Biomedical applications of AMS and its use in the arena of pharmaceutical research also have been detailed in review articles (Barker and Garner, 1999; Garner, 2000; Turteltaub and Vogel, 2000). To date, most studies on the metabolism and disposition of xenobiotics by AMS have focused on how carcinogens bind to DNA and proteins to form adducts (Turteltaub et al., 1990, 1997; Frantz et al., 1995; Dingley et al., 1999; Li et al., 2003). Its application to the field of pharmaceutical sciences has been limited to a few studies (Kaye et al., 1997; Young et al., 2001; Garner et al., 2002). However, the pharmaceutical industry is becoming increasingly aware of the potential benefits that may accrue from the ultra high sensitivity afforded by AMS in terms of evaluating the pharmacokinetics of lead drug candidates in early development. Specifically, AMS allows administration of sub-pharmacological doses (microdoses) of carbon-14 or tritium-labeled investigational drugs to animals or humans at radiologically insignificant levels with the goal of obtaining preliminary information regarding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of test compounds (Turteltaub and Vogel, 2000). An unresolved issue, however, is whether the pharmacokinetics determined following a microdose are representative of those following a conventional (pharmacological) dose (Lappin and Garner, 2003). This paper examines the linearity of kinetics of an antiviral nucleoside analogue, Compound A, across sub-pharmacological and pharmacological dose ranges in the dog prior to initiation of a human microdose study. The specific objectives of this study, therefore, were (1) to assess the pharmacokinetics of Compound A in dogs by a conventional dosing approach utilizing LC-MS/MS for sample analysis, (2) to assess the pharmacokinetics of Compound A in dogs by the microdose approach utilizing AMS for sample ana

Sandhu, P; Vogel, J S; Rose, M J; Ubick, E A; Brunner, J E; Wallace, M A; Adelsberger, J K; Baker, M P; Henderson, P T; Pearson, P G; Baillie, T A

2004-04-22

382

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SELECTED CHLORINATED PHENOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Toxicology studies were conducted with the mono-, di-, and pentachlorophenols (CP). Chlorophenols (except PC) demonstrate a relatively low order of toxicity. The order of toxicity in mice and rats (most to least) is: PCP > tetra CPs > mono CPs > tri CPs > di CPs. Short-term (14 d...

383

Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

384

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis, possibly involving the generally sensitive spermatids.

Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

1989-05-01

385

Diagnostic accuracy of the Preclinical AD Scale (PAS) in cognitively mildly impaired subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Preclinical AD Scale (PAS) is a newly developed scale for the diagnosis of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). The\\u000a PAS combines six markers of preclinical AD, namely age, MMSE score, functional impairment, cognitive test performance, medial\\u000a temporal lobe atrophy, and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the PAS can\\u000a accurately identify subjects

Pieter Jelle Visser; Frans R. J. Verhey; Philip Scheltens; Marc Cruts; Rudolf W. H. M. Ponds; Christine L. Van Broeckhoven; Jellemer Jolles

2002-01-01

386

Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Hydrochlorothiazide (CAS No. 58-93-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies).  

PubMed

Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic active at the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by feeding diets containing hydrochlorothiazide (USP grade, greater than 98% pure) to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 15 days, 13 weeks, 1 year, or 2 years. Additional studies were performed to evaluate teratologic effects in CD(R). rats and CD(R).-1 mice. Genetic toxicology studies were performed with Salmonella, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, mouse lymphoma cells, and Drosophila. Fifteen-Day and Thirteen-Week Studies: All rats and mice lived to the end of the 15-day studies (dietary concentrations of 0 and 3,125-50,000 ppm). The final mean body weights of all dosed rat groups were 5%-11% lower than those of controls. The final mean body weights of the groups of male mice that received 6,250-50,000 ppm were 10%-14% lower than that of controls. The final mean body weights of dosed and control female mice were similar. Calculi were seen in the urinary bladder of 2/5 male and 2/5 female mice at 50,000 ppm and in 1/5 male and 1/5 female mice at 25,000 ppm. All rats lived to the end of the first 13-week studies (dietary concentrations of 0 and 3,125-50,000 ppm). Final body weights of dosed rats were 7%-16% lower than those of controls. Mineralization in the kidney was observed in all dosed rats and because of this, additional 13-week studies in rats were conducted at lower dietary concentrations. All rats lived to the end of the second 13-week studies (dietary concentrations of 0 and 250-4,000 ppm). The final mean body weights of all dosed rat groups were 5%-10% lower than those of controls. Renal mineralization was dose related and judged to be minimal to mild at the lowest dose. In the 13-week studies in mice, 7/10 males and 1/10 females that received 50,000 ppm hydrochlorothiazide died. The final mean body weights of mice that received 50,000 ppm were 11% lower than those of controls for males and females. Calculi were seen in the urinary bladder of mice that received hydrochlorothiazide at 12,500 ppm and above. Nephrosis occurred with dose-related incidences in mice receiving 12,500 ppm and above. Based on these results, 2-year studies were conducted by feeding diets containing 0, 250, 500, or 2,000 ppm hydrochlorothiazide to groups of 50 male and 50 female rats for 105-106 weeks. Diets containing 0, 2,500, or 5,000 ppm hydrochlorothiazide were fed to groups of 50 male and 50 female mice for 103-104 weeks. Ten additional rats per sex and dose group were placed on study and killed at 1 year for blood-clotting studies and histopathologic examination. Effects in the One-Year Studies: One of 10 female rats in the 1-year study group that received 2,000 ppm died with internal hemorrhage. In addition, evidence of hemorrhage was found in 11 of the 16 dosed female rats that died during the first year of the 2-year study. Hematologic analyses revealed no compound-related effects; however, activated partial thromboplastin times (APTTs) were highly variable and were lengthened in some dosed male rats. No effects on APTTs were seen for females, and no effects on prothrombin times or on the fibrinogen content of plasma were observed for dosed male or female rats. Nephropathy occurred in dosed and control rats, and the severity was judged to be greater in dosed male and high dose female rats. Increased incidences of mild focal renal mineralization were also seen in mid and high dose male rats and dosed female rats. Body Weight and Survival in the Two-Year Studies: Mean body weights of dosed rats were 8%-25% lower than those of controls. Mean body weights of dosed and control mice were similar throughout the studies. No significant differences in survival were observed between rats or mice of either sex (rats-- male: control, 18/50; low dose, 16/50; mid dose, 9/50; high dose, 11/50; female: 31/50; 26/50; 30/50; 27/50; mice--male: control, 43/50; low dose, 42/50; high dose, 43/50; female: 38/50; 40/50; 35/50). Survival of all groups of male rats was low because a lar

1989-07-01

387

Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife  

SciTech Connect

Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red-tailed hawk, osprey) (scientific names for both the mammalian and avian species are presented in Appendix B). [In this document, NOAEL refers to both dose (mg contaminant per kg animal body weight per day) and concentration (mg contaminant per kg of food or L of drinking water)]. The 20 wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. The chemicals are some of those that occur at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. The NOAEL-based benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species; LOAEL-based benchmarks represent threshold levels at which adverse effects are likely to become evident. These benchmarks consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media only. Exposure through inhalation and/or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

1993-01-01

388

42 CFR 493.1213 - Condition: Toxicology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Condition: Toxicology. 493.1213 Section 493.1213...Testing § 493.1213 Condition: Toxicology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Toxicology, the laboratory must meet the...

2010-10-01

389

42 CFR 493.937 - Toxicology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toxicology. 493.937 Section 493.937 ...Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.937 Toxicology. (a) Program content and frequency...approved for proficiency testing for toxicology, the annual program must...

2010-10-01

390

Locust bean gum safety in neonates and young infants: an integrated review of the toxicological database and clinical evidence.  

PubMed

Locust bean gum (LBG) is a galactomannan polysaccharide used as thickener in infant formulas with the therapeutic aim to treat uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Since its use in young infants below 12weeks of age is not explicitly covered by the current scientific concept of the derivation of health based guidance values, the present integrated safety review aimed to compile all the relevant preclinical toxicological studies and to combine them with substantial evidence gathered from the clinical paediatric use as part of the weight of evidence supporting the safety in young infants below 12weeks of age. LBG was demonstrated to have very low toxicity in preclinical studies mainly resulting from its indigestible nature leading to negligible systemic bioavailability and only possibly influencing tolerance. A standard therapeutic level of 0.5g/100mL in thickened infant formula is shown to confer a sufficiently protective Margin of Safety. LBG was not associated with any adverse toxic or nutritional effects in healthy term infants, while there are limited case-reports of possible adverse effects in preterms receiving the thickener inappropriately. Altogether, it can be concluded that LBG is safe for its intended therapeutic use in term-born infants to treat uncomplicated regurgitation from birth onwards. PMID:24997231

Meunier, Leo; Garthoff, Jossie A; Schaafsma, Anne; Krul, Lisette; Schrijver, Jaap; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Speijers, Gerrit; Vandenplas, Yvan

2014-10-01

391

Preclinical biosafety evaluation of cell-based therapies: emerging global paradigms.  

PubMed

Cell-based therapies have the potential to treat a diversity of disease conditions, many representing significant and long-standing unmet medical needs. Certain properties of cell-based therapies, such as differentiation potential and proliferative potential, present safety concerns uniquely distinct from those of small molecule drugs and other macromolecule biologics. These cellular products carry risks associated with localized host tissue response, long-term persistence, ectopic tissue formation, differentiation to undesirable cell and tissue types, uncontrollable biodistribution, tumorigenicity, and immunogenicity. Such risks are generally evaluated in preclinical animal model studies as part of a comprehensive safety program prior to administration in humans. However, safety assessment for these products can be challenging because of inconsistent approaches to product characterization, inadequately defined product parameters that anticipate adverse events, and the lack of standardized approaches in evaluating in vivo host responses. In this symposium, we introduced cell-based therapies as an emerging product class to the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and highlighted key challenges for consideration during product biosafety evaluation. PMID:25476796

Basu, Joydeep; Assaf, Basel T; Bertram, Timothy A; Rao, Mahendra

2015-01-01

392

Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: a case study.  

PubMed

There is currently no standard paradigm for hazard and human risk assessment of environmental metabolites for agrochemicals. Using an actual case study, solutions to challenges faced are described and used to propose a generic concept to address risk posed by metabolites to human safety. A novel approach - built on the foundation of predicted human exposures to metabolites in various compartments (such as food and water), the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and the concept of comparative toxicity - was developed for environmental metabolites of a new chemical, sulfoxaflor (X11422208). The ultimate aim was to address the human safety of the metabolites with the minimum number of in vivo studies, while at the same time, ensuring that human safety would be considered addressed on a global regulatory scale. The third component, comparative toxicity, was primarily designed to determine whether the metabolites had the same or similar toxicity profiles to their parent molecule, and also to one another. The ultimate goal was to establish whether the metabolites had the potential to cause key effects - such as cancer and developmental toxicity, based on mode-of-action (MoA) studies - and to develop a relative potency factor (RPF) compared to the parent molecule. Collectively, the work presented here describes the toxicology programme developed for sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, and how it might be used to address similar future challenges aimed at determining the relevance of the metabolites from a human hazard and risk perspective. Sulfoxaflor produced eight environmental metabolites at varying concentrations in various compartments - soil, water, crops and livestock. The MoA for the primary effects of the parent molecule were elucidated in detail and a series of in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo experiments were conducted on the environmental metabolites to assess relative potency of their toxicity profiles when compared to the parent. The primary metabolite, X11719474 found in soil, crops and, potentially, at low concentrations, in groundwater, was the most extensively studied, with genetic, acute, short-term rat and dog, rodent reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, and MoA studies conducted. These data supported that the toxicity profile for X11719474 was limited to liver effects via the same MoA as the parent and, overall, X11719474 was significantly less toxic than parent. Subsequently, the comparative toxicology programme was extended to cover all metabolites of sulfoxaflor. Based on structure (i.e., similarity of metabolite structures to one another), toxic effects in comparison with parent (i.e., consistency of the toxicity profiles and confidence in terms of ability to read across), residue compartment (e.g., crop, soil, water) and predicted level of exposure, fewer studies were required for establishing safety of these metabolites compared to X11719474. For example, for some metabolites with very low predicted environmental concentrations only genotoxicity testing was required. For some metabolites with low predicted concentrations, for example only present in liver, a TTC approach was utilized. This strategy of comparative assessment utilizing MoA data, relative potency, hazard characterization, read-across, predicted exposure and TTC provided a robust database, which minimized animal use, comprehensively assessed the hazard and human risk presented by these metabolites. PMID:25584438

Terry, C; Rasoulpour, R J; Knowles, S; Billington, R

2015-03-01

393

Reprint Library for Toxicology Data Bank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Industrial Toxicology Research Center, Lucknow, India, maintains a register of toxicology and provides its research workers with current information mainly through its collection of reprints. (Author)

Agarwal, S. N.; Khan, R. R.

1975-01-01

394

Preclinical biomarkers of Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

The search for markers of preclinical Parkinson disease (PD) is becoming increasingly important because pathogenesis-targeted neuroprotective strategies are being developed for future use in at-risk populations, even before clinical onset of disease. Advances in clinical recognition of early symptoms and signs, development of new neuroimaging probes and technologies, identification of new neuropathological markers of PD, and breakthroughs in genetics and basic neuroscience are gradually translating into better understanding of predisposing and preclinical factors that lead to progressive neurodegeneration. Coupled with system biology tools, progress is being made in the identification of new genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, lipidomic, and metabolomic molecules and new signaling pathways that are relevant to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in PD. These new tools will be critical not only in the discovery of sensitive, specific, and reliable biomarkers of preclinical PD but also in the development of tests that will aid in the early detection and differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders and in monitoring disease progression. PMID:21220674

Wu, Yuncheng; Le, Weidong; Jankovic, Joseph

2011-01-01

395

Africa's present and future needs in toxicology education: Southern African perspective  

SciTech Connect

Degrees and diplomas as well as certificates that are granted by universities and technikons in South Africa in scientific disciplines, such as forensic medicine, pharmacology, marine and veterinary sciences, environmental health, and occupational hygiene, include toxicology as one of the subjects in their overall syllabus. However, aspects of toxicology included in each of these courses are biased towards that particular subdiscipline and basic level of toxicology may be taught. Educational needs in toxicology in South Africa can be summarized as follows: (a) recognition of toxicology as a discipline in its own right at these tertiary education institutions and (b) creation of opportunities to study and obtain higher degrees in one or more of the many subdisciplines of toxicology. The results from a survey conducted on the toxicology syllabi offered at these tertiary education institutions are used to substantiate these needs.

Gulumian, Mary [National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOH), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa) and Department of Haematology and Molecular Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)]. E-mail: mary.gulumian@nioh.nhls.co.za; Ginsburg, Carren [Centre for Health Science Education (CHSE), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Stewart, Michael J. [Centre for Health Science Education (CHSE), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

2005-09-01

396

Behavioural and pharmacological mechanisms of bupropion's anti-smoking effects: Recent preclinical and clinical insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing studies continue to explore the behavioural and pharmacological effects of bupropion in smoking cessation studies and animal models of nicotine dependence. In the present review, the components of nicotine dependence that form the most likely targets of bupropion are identified within the context of an expanding preclinical and clinical literature regarding the anti-addictive properties of bupropion. Second, preclinical and

Neil E. Paterson

2009-01-01

397

Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology  

SciTech Connect

The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

Nordberg, Gunnar F. [Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, SE-90187 Umea (Sweden)], E-mail: gunnar.nordberg@envmed.umu.se

2009-08-01

398

Toxicology of chemical mixtures: Experimental approaches, underlying concepts, and some results  

SciTech Connect

The toxicology of chemical mixtures will be the toxicology of the 1990s and beyond. While this branch of toxicology most closely reflects the actual human exposure situation, as yet there is no standard protocol or consensus methodology for investigating the toxicology of mixtures. Thus, in this emerging science, experimentation is required just to develop a broadly applicable evaluation system. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the different experimental designs and the concepts behind each. These include the health effects studies of Love Canal soil samples, the Lake Ontario Coho salmon, the water samples repurified from secondary sewage in the city of Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Plant, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) effort on a mixture of 25 frequently detected groundwater contaminants derived from hazardous waste disposal sites. In the last instance, an extensive research program has been ongoing for the last two years at the NTP, encompassing general toxicology, immunotoxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biochemical toxicology, myelotoxicology, genetic toxicology, neurobehavioral toxicology, and hepato- and renal toxicology.

Yang, R.S.; Long, H.L.; Boorman, G.A.

1990-07-01

399

Toxicology of chemical mixtures: experimental approaches, underlying concepts, and some results.  

PubMed

The toxicology of chemical mixtures will be the toxicology of the 1990s and beyond. While this branch of toxicology most closely reflects the actual human exposure situation, there is yet no standard protocol or consensus methodology for investigating the toxicology of mixtures. Thus, in this emerging science, experimentation is required just to develop a broadly applicable evaluation system. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the different experimental designs and the concepts behind each. These include the health effects studies of Love Canal soil samples, the Lake Ontario Coho salmon, the water samples repurified from secondary sewage in the city of Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Plant, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) effort on a mixture of 25 frequently detected groundwater contaminants derived from hazardous waste disposal sites. In the last instance, an extensive research program has been ongoing for the last 2 years at the NTP, encompassing general toxicology, immunotoxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biochemical toxicology, myelotoxicology, genetic toxicology, neurobehavioral toxicology, and hepato- and renal toxicology. PMID:2690403

Yang, R S; Hong, H L; Boorman, G A

1989-12-01

400

Toxicology: Old Art, New Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the need for a science of toxicology and training at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in response to legislation controlling drugs, food additives and toxic substances in the work environment, and concern about effects on man. Stresses need for putting toxicology on a scientific base with adequate funding. (JM)

Timbrell, John A.

1983-01-01