Science.gov

Sample records for preconditioning prevents postischemic

  1. Preconditioning with soluble guanylate cyclase activation prevents postischemic inflammation and reduces nitrate tolerance in heme oxygenase-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Walter Z; Jones, Allan W; Wang, Meifang; Durante, William; Korthuis, Ronald J

    2013-08-15

    Previously we have shown that, unlike wild-type mice (WT), heme oxygenase-1 knockout (HO-1-/-) mice developed nitrate tolerance and were not protected from inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) when preconditioned with a H2S donor. We hypothesized that stimulation (with BAY 41-2272) or activation (with BAY 60-2770) of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) would precondition HO-1-/- mice against an inflammatory effect of I/R and increase arterial nitrate responses. Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize leukocyte rolling and adhesion to postcapillary venules of the small intestine in anesthetized mice. Relaxation to ACh and BAY compounds was measured on superior mesenteric arteries isolated after I/R protocols. Preconditioning with either BAY compound 10 min (early phase) or 24 h (late phase) before I/R reduced postischemic leukocyte rolling and adhesion to sham control levels and increased superior mesenteric artery responses to ACh, sodium nitroprusside, and BAY 41-2272 in WT and HO-1-/- mice. Late-phase preconditioning with BAY 60-2770 was maintained in HO-1-/- and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice pretreated with an inhibitor (dl-propargylglycine) of enzymatically produced H2S. Pretreatment with BAY compounds also prevented the I/R increase in small intestinal TNF-α. We speculate that increasing sGC activity and related PKG acts downstream to H2S and disrupts signaling processes triggered by I/R in part by maintaining low cellular Ca²⁺. In addition, BAY preconditioning did not increase sGC levels, yet increased the response to agents that act on reduced heme-containing sGC. Collectively these actions would contribute to increased nitrate sensitivity and vascular function. PMID:23771693

  2. Angiotensin II and ischemic preconditioning synergize to improve mitochondrial function while showing additive effects on ventricular post-ischemic recovery

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Rebeca E.; Castro, Miriam; Javadov, Sabzali; Escobales, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) against sustained ischemia/reperfusion (IR) can be replicated by angiotensin II (Ang II). However, it is not clear whether IPC and Ang II-induced preconditioning (APC) act through similar mechanisms or synergize to enhance cardioprotection. In this study, Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were subjected to IPC, APC or their combination (IPC/APC) followed by IR. IPC and less potently APC, significantly increased the percent recovery of the left ventricular developed-pressure, the first derivative of developed pressure and the rate pressure product compared to control. Furthermore, the post-ischemic recovery of the heart was significantly higher for IPC/APC compared to IPC or APC. The improvements in cardiac function by IPC, APC and IPC/APC were associated with similar reductions in LDH release and infarct size. However, a significant improvement in mitochondrial respiration was observed with IPC/APC. The post-ischemic recovery observed with APC and IPC/APC was inhibited by treatment with losartan, an Ang II type-1 receptor blocker, during the preconditioning phase but not by chelerythrine, a pan-PKC inhibitor. Both drugs, however, abolished the enhanced mitochondrial respiration by IPC/APC. Altogether, these results indicate that APC and IPC interact through mechanisms that enhance cardioprotection by affecting cardiac function and mitochondrial respiration. PMID:24705171

  3. Angiotensin II and ischemic preconditioning synergize to improve mitochondrial function while showing additive effects on ventricular postischemic recovery.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Rebeca E; Castro, Miriam; Javadov, Sabzali; Escobales, Nelson

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) against sustained ischemia/reperfusion can be replicated by angiotensin II (Ang II). However, it is not clear whether IPC and Ang II-induced preconditioning (APC) act through similar mechanisms or synergize to enhance cardioprotection. In this study, Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were subjected to IPC, APC, or their combination (IPC/APC) followed by ischemia/reperfusion. IPC, and less potently APC, significantly increased the percent recoveries of the left ventricular developed pressure, the first derivative of developed pressure, and the rate pressure product compared with control. Furthermore, the postischemic recovery of the heart was significantly higher for IPC/APC compared with IPC or APC. The improvements in cardiac function by IPC, APC, and IPC/APC were associated with similar reductions in lactate dehydrogenase release and infarct size. However, a significant improvement in mitochondrial respiration was observed with IPC/APC. The postischemic recovery observed with APC and IPC/APC was inhibited by treatment with losartan, an Ang II type-1 receptor blocker, during the preconditioning phase but not by chelerythrine, a pan-PKC inhibitor. Both drugs, however, abolished the enhanced mitochondrial respiration by IPC/APC. Altogether, these results indicate that APC and IPC interact through mechanisms that enhance cardioprotection by affecting cardiac function and mitochondrial respiration. PMID:24705171

  4. Unique Transcriptional Profile of Sustained Ligand-Activated Preconditioning in Pre- and Post-Ischemic Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Kevin J.; Tupicoff, Amanda; Williams-Pritchard, Grant; Kiessling, Can J.; See Hoe, Louise E.; Headrick, John P.; Peart, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Opioidergic SLP (sustained ligand-activated preconditioning) induced by 3–5 days of opioid receptor (OR) agonism induces persistent protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury in young and aged hearts, and is mechanistically distinct from conventional preconditioning responses. We thus applied unbiased gene-array interrogation to identify molecular effects of SLP in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium. Methodology/Principal Findings Male C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets for 5 days. Resultant SLP did not modify cardiac function, and markedly reduced dysfunction and injury in perfused hearts subjected to 25 min ischemia/45 min reperfusion. Microarray analysis identified 14 up- and 86 down-regulated genes in normoxic hearts from SLP mice (≥1.3-fold change, FDR≤5%). Induced genes encoded sarcomeric/contractile proteins (Myh7, Mybpc3,Myom2,Des), natriuretic peptides (Nppa,Nppb) and stress-signaling elements (Csda,Ptgds). Highly repressed genes primarily encoded chemokines (Ccl2,Ccl4,Ccl7,Ccl9,Ccl13,Ccl3l3,Cxcl3), cytokines (Il1b,Il6,Tnf) and other proteins involved in inflammation/immunity (C3,Cd74,Cd83, Cd86,Hla-dbq1,Hla-drb1,Saa1,Selp,Serpina3), together with endoplasmic stress proteins (known: Dnajb1,Herpud1,Socs3; putative: Il6, Gadd45g,Rcan1) and transcriptional controllers (Egr2,Egr3, Fos,Hmox1,Nfkbid). Biological themes modified thus related to inflammation/immunity, together with cellular/cardiovascular movement and development. SLP also modified the transcriptional response to I-R (46 genes uniquely altered post-ischemia), which may influence later infarction/remodeling. This included up-regulated determinants of cellular resistance to oxidant (Mgst3,Gstm1,Gstm2) and other forms of stress (Xirp1,Ankrd1,Clu), and repression of stress-response genes (Hspa1a,Hspd1,Hsp90aa,Hsph1,Serpinh1) and Txnip. Conclusions Protection via SLP is associated with transcriptional repression of inflammation/immunity, up-regulation of sarcomeric elements and natriuretic peptides, and modulation of cell stress, growth and development, while conventional protective molecules are unaltered. PMID:23991079

  5. Exogenous nitric oxide requires an endothelial glycocalyx to prevent postischemic coronary vascular leak in guinea pig hearts

    PubMed Central

    Bruegger, Dirk; Rehm, Markus; Jacob, Matthias; Chappell, Daniel; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Welsch, Ulrich; Conzen, Peter; Becker, Bernhard F

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Postischemic injury to the coronary vascular endothelium, in particular to the endothelial glycocalyx, may provoke fluid extravasation. Shedding of the glycocalyx is triggered by redox stress encountered during reperfusion and should be alleviated by the radical scavenger nitric oxide (NO). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous administration of NO during reperfusion on both coronary endothelial glycocalyx and vascular integrity. Methods Isolated guinea pig hearts were subjected to 15 minutes of warm global ischemia followed by 20 minutes of reperfusion in the absence (Control group) and presence (NO group) of 4 μM NO. In further experiments, the endothelial glycocalyx was enzymatically degraded by means of heparinase followed by reperfusion without (HEP group) and with NO (HEP+NO group). Results Ischemia and reperfusion severely damaged the endothelial glycocalyx. Shedding of heparan sulfate and damage assessed by electron microscopy were less in the presence of NO. Compared with baseline, coronary fluid extravasation increased after ischemia in the Control, HEP, and HEP+NO groups but remained almost unchanged in the NO group. Tissue edema was significantly attenuated in this group. Coronary vascular resistance rose by 25% to 30% during reperfusion, but not when NO was applied, irrespective of the state of the glycocalyx. Acute postischemic myocardial release of lactate was comparable in the four groups, whereas release of adenine nucleotide catabolites was reduced 42% by NO. The coronary venous level of uric acid, a potent antioxidant and scavenger of peroxynitrite, paradoxically decreased during postischemic infusion of NO. Conclusion The cardioprotective effect of NO in postischemic reperfusion includes prevention of coronary vascular leak and interstitial edema and a tendency to forestall both no-reflow and degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx. PMID:18518977

  6. ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING PREVENTS PROTEIN AGGREGATION AFTER TRANSIENT CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C.; Chen, S.; Kamme, F.; Hu, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Transient cerebral ischemia leads to protein aggregation mainly in neurons destined to undergo delayed neuronal death after ischemia. This study utilized a rat transient cerebral ischemia model to investigate whether ischemic preconditioning is able to alleviate neuronal protein aggregation, thereby protecting neurons from ischemic neuronal damage. Ischemic preconditioning was introduced by a sublethal 3 min period of ischemia followed by 48 h of recovery. Brains from rats with either ischemic preconditioning or sham-surgery were then subjected to a subsequent 7 min period of ischemia followed by 30 min, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h of reperfusion. Protein aggregation and neuronal death were studied by electron and confocal microscopy, as well as by biochemical analyses. Seven minutes of cerebral ischemia alone induced severe protein aggregation after 4 h of reperfusion mainly in CA1 neurons destined to undergo delayed neuronal death (which took place after 72 h of reperfusion). Ischemic preconditioning reduced significantly protein aggregation and virtually eliminated neuronal death in CA1 neurons. Biochemical analyses revealed that ischemic preconditioning decreased accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins (ubi-proteins) and reduced free ubiquitin depletion after brain ischemia. Furthermore, ischemic preconditioning also reduced redistribution of heat shock cognate protein 70 and Hdj1 from cytosolic fraction to protein aggregate-containing fraction after brain ischemia. These results suggest that ischemic preconditioning decreases protein aggregation after brain ischemia. PMID:15939539

  7. Superiority of zinc complex of acetylsalicylic acid to acetylsalicylic acid in preventing postischemic myocardial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Sevil; Atmanli, Ayhan; Li, Shiliang; Radovits, Tamás; Hegedűs, Peter; Barnucz, Enikő; Hirschberg, Kristóf; Loganathan, Sivakkanan; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    The pathophysiology of ischemic myocardial injury involves cellular events, reactive oxygen species, and an inflammatory reaction cascade. The zinc complex of acetylsalicylic acid (Zn(ASA)2) has been found to possess higher anti-inflammatory and lower ulcerogenic activities than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Herein, we studied the effects of both ASA and Zn(ASA)2 against acute myocardial ischemia. Rats were pretreated with ASA (75 mg/kg) or Zn(ASA)2 (100 mg/kg) orally for five consecutive days. Isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, subcutaneously [s.c.]) was applied to produce myocardial infarction. After 17-22 h, animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and both electrical and mechanical parameters of cardiac function were evaluated in vivo. Myocardial histological and gene expression analyses were performed. In isoproterenol-treated rats, Zn(ASA)2 treatment normalized significantly impaired left-ventricular contractility index (Emax 2.6 ± 0.7 mmHg/µL vs. 4.6 ± 0.5 mmHg/µL, P < 0.05), increased stroke volume (30 ± 3 µL vs. 50 ± 6 µL, P < 0.05), decreased systemic vascular resistance (7.2 ± 0.7 mmHg/min/mL vs. 4.2 ± 0.5 mmHg/min/mL, P < 0.05) and reduced inflammatory infiltrate into the myocardial tissues. ECG revealed a restoration of elevated ST-segment (0.21 ± 0.03 mV vs. 0.09 ± 0.02 mV, P < 0.05) and prolonged QT-interval (79.2 ± 3.2 ms vs. 69.5 ± 2.5 ms, P < 0.05) by Zn(ASA)2. ASA treatment did not result in an improvement of these parameters. Additionally, Zn(ASA)2 significantly increased the mRNA-expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (+73 ± 15%), glutathione peroxidase 4 (+44 ± 12%), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (+102 ± 22%). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that oral administration of zinc and ASA in the form of bis(aspirinato)zinc(II) complex is superior to ASA in preventing electrical, mechanical, and histological changes after acute myocardial ischemia. The induction of antioxidant enzymes and the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 may play a pivotal role in the mechanism of action of Zn(ASA)2. PMID:25670850

  8. Preconditioning as a potential strategy for the prevention of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Golpich, Mojtaba; Rahmani, Behrouz; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Dargahi, Leila; Mohamed, Zahurin; Raymond, Azman Ali; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive and massive loss of dopaminergic neurons by neuronal apoptosis in the substantia nigra pars compacta and depletion of dopamine in the striatum, which lead to pathological and clinical abnormalities. A numerous of cellular processes including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates are considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. A further understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of PD is crucial for developing effective diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic strategies to cure this devastating disorder. Preconditioning (PC) is assumed as a natural adaptive process whereby a subthreshold stimulus can promote protection against a subsequent lethal stimulus in the brain as well as in other tissues that affords robust brain tolerance facing neurodegenerative insults. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that preconditioning as a possible neuroprotective technique may reduce the neural deficits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. Throughout the last few decades, a lot of efforts have been made to discover the molecular determinants involved in preconditioning-induced protective responses; although, the accurate mechanisms underlying this "tolerance" phenomenon are not fully understood in PD. In this review, we will summarize pathophysiology and current therapeutic approaches in PD and discuss about preconditioning in PD as a potential neuroprotective strategy. Also the role of gene reprogramming and mitochondrial biogenesis involved in the preconditioning-mediated neuroprotective events will be highlighted. Preconditioning may represent a promising therapeutic weapon to combat neurodegeneration. PMID:24696268

  9. Can endurance exercise preconditioning prevention disuse muscle atrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Wiggs, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can provide a level of protection against disuse muscle atrophy. Endurance exercise training imposes oxidative, metabolic, and heat stress on skeletal muscle which activates a variety of cellular signaling pathways that ultimately leads to the increased expression of proteins that have been demonstrated to protect muscle from inactivity –induced atrophy. This review will highlight the effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on endogenous enzymatic antioxidant capacity (i.e., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase), the role of oxidative and metabolic stress on PGC1-α, and finally highlight the effect heat stress and HSP70 induction. Finally, this review will discuss the supporting scientific evidence that these proteins can attenuate muscle atrophy through exercise preconditioning. PMID:25814955

  10. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning prevents acceleration of kindling epileptogenesis induced by traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mansoureh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Alizadeh, Leila; Hadjighassem, Mahmoudreza

    2015-12-15

    10-20% of symptomatic epilepsies are post-traumatic. We examined effect of LPS preconditioning on epileptogenesis after controlled cortical impact (CCI). LPS (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) was injected i.p. to rats 5 days before induction of CCI to parieto-temporal cortex. Kindling started 24h after CCI by i.p. injection of 30 mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole every other day until manifestation of 3 consecutive generalized seizures. CCI injury accelerated the rate of kindled seizures acquisition. LPS (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) prevented the acceleration of kindling. LPS preconditioning significantly decreased IL-1β and TNF-α over-expression and the number of damaged neurons in the hippocampus of traumatic rats. PMID:26616884

  11. Trends in the use of preconditioning to hypoxia for early prevention of future life diseases.

    PubMed

    Basovich, Simon N

    2013-02-01

    Environmental factors during fetal life program the health outcomes regarding many diseases in future life. This idea has been supported by worldwide epidemiological studies, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Three questions should be answered. (i) Does a common underlying cause of ordinary pathological fetal development exist? (ii) If such a cause exists, which mechanism might develop disease in later life? (iii) Is it possible to prevent this underlying cause and therefore the associated obstetric complications to primarily prevent future life diseases? The objective of this review is to attempt to answer these three questions by using PubMed (extending to October 2012) and other sources. Three data-based answers corresponding to these questions were found: (i) hypoxia, (ii) excessive stimulation of neurogenesis, and (iii) preconditioning/adaptation to hypoxia. The method for such preconditioning/adaptation is intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), in which air with low oxygen concentration is breathed through a mask to protect against subsequent strong adverse influences. Data are cited for IHT applications for the prevention/treatment of diseases in different fields, particularly in obstetrics. Data suggested that all common fetal origins of adult diseases are likely predetermined by changes in the fetal brain; therefore, early detection of these changes must be very important. The use of IHT may be a real means to primarily prevent obstetric complications and therefore, prevent future life diseases. PMID:23524890

  12. Postischemic administration of liposome-encapsulated luteolin prevents against ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Zang, Shao-Yun; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Yao-Yue; Ji, Xun-He; Lu, Bu-Feng; Wu, Jia-Hu; Qin, Guo-Wei; Guo, Li-He

    2011-10-01

    Oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases; one such disease is ischemic stroke. Using reactive oxygen species (ROS)-insulted primary neurons, we screened neuroprotectants with clinical potential and then, using ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model, investigated the anti-ischemic potential of candidate neuroprotectants. Here, we showed that luteolin, isolated from the ripe fruit of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt, exhibited a neuroprotective action upon the in vitro platform, thus serving as candidate for in vivo pharmacological evaluation. Liposome-encapsulated luteolin produced dramatic preventing effects on I/R-induced behavioral and histological injuries after a 13-day post-ischemic treatment. Furthermore, this phytochemical not only lowered the increased level of mitochondrial ROS but also substantially up-regulated the decreased activity of catalase and glutathione in I/R rat brains. Collectively, luteolin as a neuroprotectant acts by anti-ischemic activity likely through a rebalancing of pro-oxidant/antioxidant status. Its multitarget mechanisms implicate potential effectiveness for clinically treating ischemia stroke. PMID:21190830

  13. Ozone-Oxidative Preconditioning Prevents Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Roche, Livan; Hernández-Matos, Yanet; Medina, Emilio A.; Morejón, Dalia Á.; González, Maité R.; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Induced dilated cardiomyopathy is the main limitation of the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin, which causes oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte death. As ozone therapy can activate the antioxidant systems, this study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of ozone-oxidative preconditioning against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Methods: The study was carried out from September 2013 to January 2014. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed in the following treatment groups: Group 1 were treated with 2 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) of doxorubicin twice a week for 50 days; Group 2 were treated with 0.3 mg of ozone/oxygen mixture at 50 μg/mL of ozone per 6 mL of oxygen by rectal insufflation and then treated with doxorubicin; Group 3 were treated as Group 2 but only with the oxygen, and Group 4 were treated with oxygen first, and then with sodium chloride i.p. as the control group. Results: The results showed that ozone therapy preserved left ventricle morphology which was accompanied by a reduction of serum pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels. The cardioprotective effects of ozone-oxidative preconditioning were associated with a significant increase (P <0.05) of antioxidant enzymes activities and a reduction of lipid and protein oxidation (P <0.05). Conclusion: Ozone-oxidative preconditioning prevents doxorubicin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy through an increase of antioxidant enzymes and a reduction of oxidised macromolecules. This establishes the background for future studies to determine if ozone therapy can be used as a complementary treatment for attenuating doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in cancer patients. PMID:25097769

  14. Acetyl-L-Carnitine selectively prevents post-ischemic LTP via a possible action on mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bagetta, Vincenza; Barone, Ilaria; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Sgobio, Carmelo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Calabresi, Paolo; Picconi, Barbara

    2008-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) contributes to mitochondrial ATP production through maintenance of key mitochondrial proteins and protects mitochondria against oxidative stress. We have investigated the role of ALC on the expression of two forms of synaptic plasticity in the striatum: (i) the physiological long-term potentiation (LTP) and (ii) the ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP), an aberrant form of synaptic plasticity occurring after in vitro ischemia. The application in vitro of ALC did not alter the induction or the maintenance of physiological activity-dependent LTP, while it prevented i-LTP in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of ALC to prevent i-LTP was not affected by previous application of scopolamine, a non-selective muscarinic receptors antagonist. Given the susceptibility of mitochondrial complex IV to ischemic oxidative insult, we investigated the role of this complex as possible target of ALC action. Thus, the application of a low dose of the mitochondrial toxin sodium azide, conventionally used as a model of hypoxia due to its capability to inhibit mitochondrial complex IV, induced a pathological synaptic potentiation that was fully prevented by ALC application. In the presence of a very low dose of the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP, ALC no longer prevented i-LTP suggesting that neuroprotective effects of ALC require a compensatory activity of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Our data demonstrate that ALC exerts neuroprotective effects by preventing the expression of pathological synaptic plasticity induced by ischemia. These effects crucially depend on the ability on ALC to affect mitochondrial processes. PMID:18590920

  15. Remote ischaemic pre-conditioning for the prevention of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ho, Phoebe Wing-Lam; Pang, Wing-Fai; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication associated with high morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. One potential mechanism underlying renal injury is ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), which attributed the organ damage to the inflammatory and oxidative stress responses induced by a period of renal ischaemia and subsequent reperfusion. Therapeutic strategies that aim at minimizing the effect of IRI on the kidneys may prevent AKI and improve clinical outcomes significantly. In this review, we examine the technique of remote ischaemic preconditioning (rIPC), which has been shown by several trials to confer organ protection by applying transient, brief episodes of ischaemia at a distant site before a larger ischaemic insult. We provide an overview of the current clinical evidence regarding the renoprotective effect of rIPC in the key clinical settings of cardiac or vascular surgery, contrast-induced AKI, pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplantation, and discuss key areas for future research. PMID:26370466

  16. Preconditioning enhances the paracrine effect of mesenchymal stem cells in preventing oxygen-induced neonatal lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Waszak, Paul; Alphonse, Rajesh; Vadivel, Arul; Ionescu, Lavinia; Eaton, Farah; Thbaud, Bernard

    2012-10-10

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a main complication of extreme prematurity. Bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) prevent lung injury in an O(2)-induced model of BPD. The low level of lung BM-MSC engraftment suggests alternate mechanisms-beyond cell replacement-to account for their therapeutic benefit. We hypothesized that BM-MSC prevent O(2)-induced BPD through a paracrine-mediated mechanism and that preconditioning of BM-MSC would further enhance this paracrine effect. To this end, conditioned medium (CM) from BM-MSC (MSCcm) or preconditioned CM harvested after 24 h of BM-MSC exposure to 95% O(2) (MSC-O2cm) were administrated for 21 days to newborn rats exposed to 95% O(2) from birth until postnatal day (P)14. Rat pups exposed to hyperoxia had fewer and enlarged air spaces and exhibited signs of pulmonary hypertension (PH), assessed by echo-Doppler, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary artery medial wall thickness. Daily intraperitoneal administration of both CM preserved alveolar growth. MSC-O2cm exerted the most potent therapeutic benefit and also prevented PH. CM of lung fibroblasts (control cells) had no effect. MSCcm had higher antioxidant capacity than control fibroblast CM. Preconditioning did not increase the antioxidant capacity in MSC-O2cm but produced higher levels of the naturally occurring antioxidant stanniocalcin-1 in MSC-O2cm. Ex vivo preconditioning enhances the paracrine effect of BM-MSC and opens new therapeutic options for cell-based therapies. Ex vivo preconditioning may also facilitate the discovery of MSC-derived repair molecules. PMID:22533467

  17. Early and Short-term Triiodothyronine Supplementation Prevents Adverse Postischemic Cardiac Remodeling: Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Antifibrotic miRNA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nicolini, Giuseppina; Forini, Francesca; Kusmic, Claudia; Pitto, Letizia; Mariani, Laura; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling in the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injured myocardium leads to dysregulation of miR-29-30-133, favoring the profibrotic process that leads to adverse cardiac remodeling (CR). We have previously shown that timely correction of the postischemic low-T3 syndrome (Low-T3S) exerts antifibrotic effects, but the underlying molecular players are still unknown. Here we hypothesize that a prompt, short-term infusion of T3 in a rat model of post I/R Low-T3S could hamper the early activation of the TGFβ1-dependent profibrotic cascade to confer long-lasting cardioprotection against adverse CR. Twenty-four hours after I/R, rats that developed the Low-T3S were randomly assigned to receive a 48-h infusion of 6 μg/kg/d T3 (I/R-L+T3) or saline (I/R-L) and sacrificed at 3 or 14 d post-I/R. Three days post-I/R, Low-T3S correction favored functional cardiac recovery. This effect was paralleled by a drop in TGFβ1 and increased miR-133a, miR-30c and miR-29c in the infarcted myocardium. Consistently, connective transforming growth factor (CTGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), validated targets of the above miRNAs, were significantly reduced. Fourteen days post-I/R, the I/R-L+T3 rats presented a significant reduction of scar size with a better preservation of cardiac performance and LV chamber geometry. At this time, TGFβ1 and miR-29c levels were in the normal range in both groups, whereas miR-30c-133a, MMP-2 and CTGF remained significantly altered in the I/R group. In conclusion, the antifibrotic effect exerted by T3 in the early phase of postischemic wound healing triggers a persistent cardioprotective response that hampers the progression of heart dysfunction and adverse CR. PMID:26623926

  18. Remote ischemic preconditioning for prevention of high-altitude diseases: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Berger, Marc Moritz; Macholz, Franziska; Mairbäurl, Heimo; Bärtsch, Peter

    2015-11-15

    Preconditioning refers to exposure to brief episodes of potentially adverse stimuli and protects against injury during subsequent exposures. This was first described in the heart, where episodes of ischemia/reperfusion render the myocardium resistant to subsequent ischemic injury, which is likely caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory processes. Protection of the heart was also found when preconditioning was performed in an organ different from the target, which is called remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). The mechanisms causing protection seem to include stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, increase in antioxidant enzymes, and downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. These pathways are also thought to play a role in high-altitude diseases: high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is associated with decreased bioavailability of NO and increased generation of ROS, whereas mechanisms causing acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) seem to involve cytotoxic effects by ROS and inflammation. Based on these apparent similarities between ischemic damage and AMS, HACE, and HAPE, it is reasonable to assume that RIPC might be protective and improve altitude tolerance. In studies addressing high-altitude/hypoxia tolerance, RIPC has been shown to decrease pulmonary arterial systolic pressure in normobaric hypoxia (13% O2) and at high altitude (4,342 m). Our own results indicate that RIPC transiently decreases the severity of AMS at 12% O2. Thus preliminary studies show some benefit, but clearly, further experiments to establish the efficacy and potential mechanism of RIPC are needed. PMID:26089545

  19. Polyethylene Glycol Preconditioning: An Effective Strategy to Prevent Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pantazi, Eirini; Calvo, Maria; Folch-Puy, Emma; Serafín, Anna; Panisello, Arnau; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable clinical problem for liver surgery. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are water soluble nontoxic polymers that have proven their effectiveness in various in vivo and in vitro models of tissue injury. The present study aims to investigate whether the intravenous administration of a high molecular weight PEG of 35 kDa (PEG 35) could be an effective strategy for rat liver preconditioning against IRI. PEG 35 was intravenously administered at 2 and 10 mg/kg to male Sprague Dawley rats. Then, rats were subjected to one hour of partial ischemia (70%) followed by two hours of reperfusion. The results demonstrated that PEG 35 injected intravenously at 10 mg/kg protected efficiently rat liver against the deleterious effects of IRI. This was evidenced by the significant decrease in transaminases levels and the better preservation of mitochondrial membrane polarization. Also, PEG 35 preserved hepatocyte morphology as reflected by an increased F-actin/G-actin ratio and confocal microscopy findings. In addition, PEG 35 protective mechanisms were correlated with the activation of the prosurvival kinase Akt and the cytoprotective factor AMPK and the inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, PEG may become a suitable agent to attempt pharmacological preconditioning against hepatic IRI. PMID:26981166

  20. Remote ischemic precondition prevents radial artery endothelial dysfunction induced by ischemia and reperfusion based on a cyclooxygenase-2-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Bing; Yang, Wen-Xia; Fu, Xiang-Hua; Zhao, Lin-Feng; Gao, Jun-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and remote ischemic precondition (RIPC) are resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. They have common protective mechanism. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 participate in the mechanism of IPC. So, the purpose of this study was to determine whether RIPC protects endothelial function of radial artery in human against IR and whether COX-2 involves in this effect. Endothelial IR injury was induced by arm ischemia (20 min) and reperfusion. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the radial artery was measured before and after IR. RIPC (three 5-min cycles of ischemia of the contralateral arm) was applied immediately and 24 h before IR. All volunteers received the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (200 mg orally twice daily) for 5 days. On day 6, all subjects experienced the same studies as described. FMD was reduced by IR without administration of RIPC (P<0.0001). RIPC prevent this impairment of FMD immediately (P=NS) and at 24 h (P=NS). Nevertheless, the COX-2 inhibiter abolished protective effect of RIPC at 24 h (P=NS), but not immediately (P=0.001). After administration of the COX-2 inhibiter, post-IR FMD after RIPC performed immediately had significant increase than after RIPC performed at 24 h (P=0.001) and without administration of RIPC (P=0.003). The COX-2 inhibiter made post-IR FMD evidently decrease after RIPC performed at 24 h (P=0.002). RIPC prevents radial artery endothelial dysfunction induced by IR. This protective effect of RIPC in the late phase is mediated by a COX-2-dependent mechanism. PMID:26885023

  1. Menstrual preconditioning for the prevention of major obstetrical syndromes in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The presence of multiple ovarian cysts, anovulation, and endometrial progesterone resistance in the neonate seems remarkably similar to ovarian and endometrial features of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) of adolescent and adult women. In fact, in the absence of cyclic menstruations after menarche, the neonatal progesterone resistance is likely to persist and adversely affect young women with PCOS at the time of pregnancy after induction of ovulation, because any persisting defect in progesterone response can interfere with the process of decidualization and trophoblast invasion. The primigravid woman with PCOS therefore is likely to be at risk of defective deep placentation as manifested by the increased risk of major obstetric syndromes. A recent, large epidemiologic study has demonstrated that the risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery is elevated in the 13- to 15-year old group, although it does not persist in the 16- to 17-year old group. It is proposed therefore that induction of ovulation in the infertile nulligravid woman with PCOS should be preceded by a period of progesterone withdrawal bleedings to achieve full endometrial progesterone response by the time of pregnancy. The cyclic administration of clomiphene citrate for a period to be determined by vascular response may be an appropriate tool to reduce the risk of major obstetric syndromes by menstrual preconditioning. PMID:26212182

  2. Quercetin Improves Postischemic Recovery of Heart Function in Doxorubicin-Treated Rats and Prevents Doxorubicin-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activation and Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Barteková, Monika; Šimončíková, Petra; Fogarassyová, Mária; Ivanová, Monika; Okruhlicová, Ľudmila; Tribulová, Narcisa; Dovinová, Ima; Barančík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin (QCT) is flavonoid that possesses various biological functions including anti-oxidative and radical-scavenging activities. Moreover, QCT exerts some preventive actions in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of present study was to explore effects of prolonged administration of QCT on changes induced by repeated application of doxorubicin (DOX) in rat hearts. We focused on the ultrastructure of myocardium, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), biometric parameters, and apoptosis induction. Our aim was also to examine effects of QCT on ischemic tolerance in hearts exposed to chronic effects of DOX, and to determine possible mechanisms underlying effects of QCT. Our results showed that QCT prevented several negative chronic effects of DOX: (I) reversed DOX-induced blood pressure increase; (II) mediated improvement of deleterious effects of DOX on ultrastructure of left ventricle; (III) prevented DOX-induced effects on tissue MMP-2 activation; and (iv) reversed effects of DOX on apoptosis induction and superoxide dismutase inhibition. Moreover, we showed that rat hearts exposed to effects of QCT were more resistant to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Effects of QCT on modulation of ischemic tolerance were linked to Akt kinase activation and connexin-43 up-regulation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that prolonged treatment with QCT prevented negative chronic effects of DOX on blood pressure, cellular damage, MMP-2 activation, and apoptosis induction. Moreover, QCT influenced myocardial responses to acute ischemic stress. These facts bring new insights into mechanisms of QCT action on rat hearts exposed to the chronic effects of DOX. PMID:25872140

  3. The GRONORUN 2 study: effectiveness of a preconditioning program on preventing running related injuries in novice runners. The design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Distance running is a popular recreational exercise. It is a beneficial activity for health and well being. However, running may also cause injuries, especially of the lower extremities. In literature there is no agreement what intrinsic and extrinsic factors cause running related injuries (RRIs). In theory, most RRIs are elicited by training errors, this too much, too soon. In a preconditioning program runners can adapt more gradually to the high mechanical loads of running and will be less susceptible to RRIs. In this study the effectiveness of a 4-week preconditioning program on the incidence of RRIs in novice runners prior to a training program will be studied. Methods/Design The GRONORUN 2 (Groningen Novice Running) study is a two arm randomized controlled trial studying the effect of a 4-week preconditioning (PRECON) program in a group of novice runners. All participants wanted to train for the recreational Groningen 4-Mile running event. The PRECON group started a 4-week preconditioning program with walking and hopping exercises 4 weeks before the start of the training program. The control (CON) and PRECON group started a frequently used 9-week training program in preparation for the Groningen 4-Mile running event. During the follow up period participants registered their running exposure, other sporting activities and running related injuries in an Internet based running log. The primary outcome measure was the number of RRIs. RRI was defined as a musculoskeletal ailment or complaint of the lower extremities or back causing a restriction on running for at least three training sessions. Discussion The GRONORUN 2 study will add important information to the existing running science. The concept of preconditioning is easy to implement in existing training programs and will hopefully prevent RRIs especially in novice runners. Trial registration The Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1906. The NTR is part of the WHO Primary Registries. PMID:20809930

  4. N-methyl-D-aspartate preconditioning prevents quinolinic acid-induced deregulation of glutamate and calcium homeostasis in mice hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Vandresen-Filho, S; Severino, P C; Constantino, L C; Martins, W C; Molz, S; Dal-Cim, T; Bertoldo, D B; Silva, F R M B; Tasca, C I

    2015-02-01

    The search for new therapeutic strategies through modulation of glutamatergic transmission using effective neuroprotective agents is essential. Glutamatergic excitotoxicity is a major factor common to neurodegenerative diseases and in acute events such as cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. We have previously demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning in mice showed 50 % of protection against seizures and full protection against damage to neuronal tissue induced by quinolinic acid (QA). In this study, cellular and molecular mechanisms involved on NMDA preconditioning and neuroprotection were investigated in mice treated with NMDA 24 h before QA insult. Calcium uptake and D-aspartate release from hippocampal slices obtained from mice treated with NMDA plus QA and not displaying seizures (protected mice) were similar to control (saline) or NMDA preconditioned mice. Increased calcium uptake and glutamate release is evidenced in unprotected (convulsed) mice as well as QA control, demonstrating that calcium and glutamate are involved in NMDA-induced preconditioning. Increased glutamate release evoked by QA was blocked by MK-801, whereas increased calcium uptake was abolished by voltage-dependent calcium channels inhibitors, but not MK-801. NMDA preconditioning is effective in normalizing the deregulation of glutamate transport and calcium homeostasis evoked by QA due to aberrant NMDA receptors activation that culminates in seizures and hippocampal cells damage. PMID:25367806

  5. Tandem action of exercise training and food restriction completely preserves ischemic preconditioning in the aging heart.

    PubMed

    Abete, P; Testa, G; Galizia, G; Mazzella, F; Della Morte, D; de Santis, D; Calabrese, C; Cacciatore, F; Gargiulo, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, G; Sica, V; Napoli, C; Rengo, F

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against ischemia reperfusion injury. IP, however, does not prevent post-ischemic dysfunction in the aging heart but may be partially corrected by exercise training and food restriction. We investigated the role of exercise training combined with food restriction on restoring IP in the aging heart. Effects of IP against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated hearts from adult (A, 6 months old), sedentary 'ad libitum' fed (SL), trained ad libitum fed (TL), sedentary food-restricted (SR), trained- and food-restricted senescent rats (TR) (24 months old) were investigated. Norepinephrine release in coronary effluent was determined by high performance liquid cromatography. IP significantly improved final recovery of percent developed pressure in hearts from A (p<0.01) but not in those from SL (p=NS) vs unconditioned controls. Developed pressure recovery was partial in hearts from TL and SR (64.3 and 67.3%, respectively; p<0.05 vs controls) but it was total in those from TR (82.3%, p=NS vs A; p<0.05 vs hearts from TL and SR). Similarly, IP determined a similar increase of norepinephrine release in A (p<0.001) and in TR (p<0.001, p=NS vs adult). IP was abolished by depletion of myocardial norepinephrine stores by reserpine in all groups. Thus, IP reduces post-ischemic dysfunction in A but not in SL. Moreover, IP was preserved partially in TR and SR and totally in TR. Complete IP maybe due to full restoration of norepinephrine release in response to IP stimulus. PMID:15664731

  6. Revisiting cobalt chloride preconditioning to prevent hypobaric hypoxia-induced damage: identification of global proteomic alteration and key networks.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Yasmin; Mishra, Shalini; Arya, Adtiya; Paul, Subhojit; Sharma, Manish; Prasad, Jyotsna; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have supported the hypoxia mimetic roles and cytoprotective properties of cobalt chloride in vitro and in vivo. However, a clear understanding of biological process-based mechanism that integrates the available information remains unknown. This study was aimed to explore the potential mechanism of cobalt chloride deciphering its benefits and well-known physiological challenge caused by hypobaric hypoxia that reportedly affects nearly 24 % of the global population. In order to explore the mechanism of CoCl2, we used global proteomic and systems biology approach in rat model to provide a deeper insight into molecular mechanisms of preconditioning. Furthermore, key conclusions were drawn based on biological network analysis and their enrichment with ontological overlaps. The study was further strengthened by consistent identification of validation of proteins using immunoblotting. CoCl2-pretreated animals exposed to hypoxia showed two significant networks, one lipid metabolism and other cell cycle associated, with a total score of 23 and eight focus molecules. In this study, we delineated two primary routes: one, by direct modulation of reactive oxygen species metabolism and, second, by regulation of lipid metabolism which was not known until now. The previously known benefits of cobalt chloride during physiological challenge by hypobaric hypoxia are convincing and could be explained by some basic set of metabolic and molecular reorganization within the hypoxia model. Interestingly, we also observed some of the completely unknown roles of cobalt chloride such as regulation of lipid that could undulate the translational roles of cobalt chloride supplementation beyond hypoxia preconditioning. PMID:26882918

  7. Influence of ischemic preconditioning on intracellular sodium, pH, and cellular energy status in isolated perfused heart.

    PubMed

    Babsky, Andriy; Hekmatyar, Shahryar; Wehrli, Suzanne; Doliba, Nicolai; Osbakken, Mary; Bansal, Navin

    2002-07-01

    The possible relationships between intracellular Na(+) (Na(i)(+)), bioenergetic status and intracellular pH (pH(i)) in the mechanism for ischemic preconditioning were studied using (23)Na and (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in isolated Langendorff perfused rat heart. The ischemic preconditioning (three 5-min ischemic episodes followed by two 5-min and one 10-min period of reperfusion) prior to prolonged ischemia (20 min stop-flow) resulted in a decrease in ischemic acidosis and faster and complete recovery of cardiac function (ventricular developed pressure and heart rate) after 30 min of reperfusion. The response of Na(i) during ischemia in the preconditioned hearts was characterized by an increase in Na(i)(+) at the end of preconditioning and an accelerated decrease during the first few minutes of reperfusion. During post-ischemic reperfusion, bioenergetic parameters (PCr/P(i) and betaATP/P(i) ratios) were partly recovered without any significant difference between control and preconditioned hearts. The reduced acidosis during prolonged ischemia and the accelerated decrease in Na(i)(+) during reperfusion in the preconditioned hearts suggest activation of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and other ion transport systems during preconditioning, which may protect the heart from intracellular acidosis during prolonged ischemia, and result in better recovery of mechanical function (LVDP and heart rate) during post-ischemic reperfusion. PMID:12094017

  8. Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Levy A.; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; De Pascali, Francesco; Hemann, Craig; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP+, coincided with formation of 2’-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes. PMID:26297248

  9. Sensory preconditioning in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Müller, D; Gerber, B; Hellstern, F; Hammer, M; Menzel, R

    2000-04-01

    Sensory preconditioning means that reinforcement of stimulus A after unreinforced exposure to a compound AB also leads to responses to stimulus B. Here, we describe and analyze sensory preconditioning in an insect, the honeybee Apis mellifera. Using two-element odorant compounds in classical conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, we found (i) that sensory preconditioning is not due to stimulus generalization, (ii) that paired, but not unpaired, presentation of elements supports sensory preconditioning, (iii) that simultaneous, but not sequential, exposure to the elements of the compound supports sensory preconditioning and (iv) that a single presentation of the compound yields maximal sensory preconditioning. The results are discussed with respect to configural and chain-like associative explanations for sensory preconditioning. We suggest an experience-dependent step of compound processing, establishing configural units, as an additional explanation for sensory preconditioning. PMID:10729283

  10. The macrophage mediates the renoprotective effects of endotoxin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Hato, Takashi; Winfree, Seth; Kalakeche, Rabih; Dube, Shataakshi; Kumar, Rakesh; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Plotkin, Zoya; Dagher, Pierre C

    2015-06-01

    Preconditioning is a preventative approach, whereby minimized insults generate protection against subsequent larger exposures to the same or even different insults. In immune cells, endotoxin preconditioning downregulates the inflammatory response and yet, preserves the ability to contain infections. However, the protective mechanisms of preconditioning at the tissue level in organs such as the kidney remain poorly understood. Here, we show that endotoxin preconditioning confers renal epithelial protection in various models of sepsis in vivo. We also tested the hypothesis that this protection results from direct interactions between the preconditioning dose of endotoxin and the renal tubules. This hypothesis is on the basis of our previous findings that endotoxin toxicity to nonpreconditioned renal tubules was direct and independent of immune cells. Notably, we found that tubular protection after preconditioning has an absolute requirement for CD14-expressing myeloid cells and particularly, macrophages. Additionally, an intact macrophage CD14-TRIF signaling pathway was essential for tubular protection. The preconditioned state was characterized by increased macrophage number and trafficking within the kidney as well as clustering of macrophages around S1 proximal tubules. These macrophages exhibited increased M2 polarization and upregulation of redox and iron-handling molecules. In renal tubules, preconditioning prevented peroxisomal damage and abolished oxidative stress and injury to S2 and S3 tubules. In summary, these data suggest that macrophages are essential mediators of endotoxin preconditioning and required for renal tissue protection. Preconditioning is, therefore, an attractive model to investigate novel protective pathways for the prevention and treatment of sepsis. PMID:25398784

  11. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of endothelial ischemia/reperfusion injury: perspectives and implications for postischemic myocardial protection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qin; He, Guo-Wei; Underwood, Malcolm John; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of myocardial damage. Despite continuous efforts, minimizing I/R injury still represents a great challenge in standard medical treatments of ischemic heart disease, i.e., thrombolytic therapy, primary percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary arterial bypass grafting. Development of effective interventions and strategies to prevent or reduce myocardial I/R injury is therefore of great clinical significance. Endothelial dysfunction plays a significant role in myocardial I/R injury, which renders endothelial cells an attractive target for postischemic myocardial protection. The rapidly evolving knowledge of the mechanisms of endothelial I/R injury helps broaden perspective for future development of novel strategies targeting endothelium for alleviating myocardial I/R damage. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of endothelial I/R injury. Current perspectives and future directions for developing endothelium targeting therapeutics for postischemic myocardial protection are further discussed. PMID:27158368

  12. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of endothelial ischemia/reperfusion injury: perspectives and implications for postischemic myocardial protection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; He, Guo-Wei; Underwood, Malcolm John; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of myocardial damage. Despite continuous efforts, minimizing I/R injury still represents a great challenge in standard medical treatments of ischemic heart disease, i.e., thrombolytic therapy, primary percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary arterial bypass grafting. Development of effective interventions and strategies to prevent or reduce myocardial I/R injury is therefore of great clinical significance. Endothelial dysfunction plays a significant role in myocardial I/R injury, which renders endothelial cells an attractive target for postischemic myocardial protection. The rapidly evolving knowledge of the mechanisms of endothelial I/R injury helps broaden perspective for future development of novel strategies targeting endothelium for alleviating myocardial I/R damage. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of endothelial I/R injury. Current perspectives and future directions for developing endothelium targeting therapeutics for postischemic myocardial protection are further discussed. PMID:27158368

  13. Postischemic regulation of central histamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Lozada, A; Munyao, N; Sallmen, T; Lintunen, M; Leurs, R; Lindsberg, P J; Panula, P

    2005-01-01

    This study characterizes changes occurring in the central histaminergic system associated with ischemia-reperfusion pathology in the rat. Specifically, after a postocclusion time period of 48 h, we have analyzed histamine H(1) receptor mRNA expression, histamine H(2) receptor protein amount and binding densities, and histamine H(3) receptor mRNA expression and binding densities in brain regions that have been suggested to be selectively vulnerable to transient global ischemia, i.e. hippocampus, thalamus, caudate-putamen, and cerebral cortex. We found an increase in H(1) receptor mRNA expression in the caudate-putamen: given that ischemia reduces glucose uptake and H(1) receptor activation has been shown to decrease this effect, an increase of expression levels may result in mitigating tissue damage due to energy failure observed in ischemia. A decrease in H(2) receptor binding densities in the caudate-putamen was also observed; the ischemia-induced decrease in H(2) receptor protein was also detectable by Western blot analysis. This phenomenon may underlie the previously reported ischemia induced striatal dopamine release. H(3) receptor mRNA expression was increased in the caudate putamen of the postischemic brain but was decreased in the globus pallidus and the thalamus; in association with this, H(3) receptor binding densities were increased in the cortex, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, and hippocampus. The upregulation of H(3) receptor ligand binding may be involved in the previously reported continuous neuronal histamine release. Our data suggest that central histamine receptor expression and ligand binding are altered in brain ischemia in distinct areas, and may participate in neuroprotection and/or ischemia-associated neuronal damage. PMID:16181737

  14. Cardiac parametric variations in post-ischemic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Li, John K-J; Zhu, Ying; Khaw, Kenneth; Kedem, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Mechanisms governing post-ischemic ventricular function after episodes of acute myocardial ischemia are still unclear. We investigated this stunned myocardial function with a computer model in conjunction with animal experiments. A modified lumped cardiac muscle model was subjected to parametric changes similar to regionally recorded ventricular parameters. The model was perturbed by alterations in contractility and rates of activation and deactivation. Results show that the cardiac muscle model can mimic many of the physiological changes observed in a stunned myocardium. PMID:17271081

  15. Preconditioned Iterative Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-08-01

    AztecOO contains a collection of preconditioned iterative methods for the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. In addition to providing many of the common algebraic preconditioners and basic iterative methods, AztecOO can be easily extended to interact with user-provided preconditioners and matrix operators.

  16. Postischemic revascularization: from cellular and molecular mechanisms to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Smadja, David M; Lévy, Bernard I

    2013-10-01

    After the onset of ischemia, cardiac or skeletal muscle undergoes a continuum of molecular, cellular, and extracellular responses that determine the function and the remodeling of the ischemic tissue. Hypoxia-related pathways, immunoinflammatory balance, circulating or local vascular progenitor cells, as well as changes in hemodynamical forces within vascular wall trigger all the processes regulating vascular homeostasis, including vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and collateral growth, which act in concert to establish a functional vascular network in ischemic zones. In patients with ischemic diseases, most of the cellular (mainly those involving bone marrow-derived cells and local stem/progenitor cells) and molecular mechanisms involved in the activation of vessel growth and vascular remodeling are markedly impaired by the deleterious microenvironment characterized by fibrosis, inflammation, hypoperfusion, and inhibition of endogenous angiogenic and regenerative programs. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and aging, constitute a deleterious macroenvironment that participates to the abrogation of postischemic revascularization and tissue regeneration observed in these patient populations. Thus stimulation of vessel growth and/or remodeling has emerged as a new therapeutic option in patients with ischemic diseases. Many strategies of therapeutic revascularization, based on the administration of growth factors or stem/progenitor cells from diverse sources, have been proposed and are currently tested in patients with peripheral arterial disease or cardiac diseases. This review provides an overview from our current knowledge regarding molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in postischemic revascularization, as well as advances in the clinical application of such strategies of therapeutic revascularization. PMID:24137021

  17. Post-ischemic inflammation regulates neural damage and protection

    PubMed Central

    Shichita, Takashi; Ito, Minako; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Post-ischemic inflammation is important in ischemic stroke pathology. However, details of the inflammation process, its resolution after stroke and its effect on pathology and neural damage have not been clarified. Brain swelling, which is often fatal in ischemic stroke patients, occurs at an early stage of stroke due to endothelial cell injury and severe inflammation by infiltrated mononuclear cells including macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. At early stage of inflammation, macrophages are activated by molecules released from necrotic cells [danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)], and inflammatory cytokines and mediators that increase ischemic brain damage by disruption of the blood–brain barrier are released. After post-ischemic inflammation, macrophages function as scavengers of necrotic cell and brain tissue debris. Such macrophages are also involved in tissue repair and neural cell regeneration by producing tropic factors. The mechanisms of inflammation resolution and conversion of inflammation to neuroprotection are largely unknown. In this review, we summarize information accumulated recently about DAMP-induced inflammation and the neuroprotective effects of inflammatory cells, and discuss next generation strategies to treat ischemic stroke. PMID:25352781

  18. Heme oxygenase-1-derived bilirubin ameliorates postischemic myocardial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Clark, J E; Foresti, R; Sarathchandra, P; Kaur, H; Green, C J; Motterlini, R

    2000-02-01

    Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant generated intracellularly during the degradation of heme by the enzyme heme oxygenase. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of increased cardiac bilirubin in protection against postischemic myocardial dysfunction. Rat hearts were isolated and perfused according to the Langendorff technique to evaluate the recovery of myocardial function after 30 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. We found that upregulation of the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO-1) by treatment of animals with hemin 24 h before ischemia ameliorated myocardial function and reduced infarct size (tetrazolium staining) on reperfusion of isolated hearts. Tin protoporphyrin IX, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase activity, completely abolished the improved postischemic myocardial performance observed after hemin-mediated HO-1 induction. Likewise, cardiac tissue injury was exacerbated by treatment with tin protoporphyrin IX. Increased cardiac HO-1 expression and heme oxygenase activity were associated with enhanced tissue bilirubin content and an increased rate of bilirubin release into the perfusion buffer. Furthermore, exogenously administered bilirubin at concentrations as low as 100 nanomolar significantly restored myocardial function and minimized both infarct size and mitochondrial damage on reperfusion. Our data provide strong evidence for a primary role of HO-1-derived bilirubin in cardioprotection against reperfusion injury. PMID:10666097

  19. miR-15b Suppression of Bcl-2 Contributes to Cerebral Ischemic Injury and is Reversed by Sevoflurane Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong; Sun, Bao-liang; Zhang, Jia; Lu, Shiduo; Zhang, Pengyue; Wang, Hailian; Yu, Qiong; Stetler, R Anne; Vosler, Peter S.; Chen, Jun; Gao, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic neuroprotection afforded by sevoflurane preconditioning has been previously demonstrated, yet the underlying mechanism is poorly understood and likely affects a wide range of cellular activities. Several individual microRNAs have been implicated in both the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia and cellular survival, and are capable of affecting a range of target mRNA. Conceivably, sevoflurane preconditioning may lead to alterations in ischemia-induced microRNA expression that may subsequently exert neuroprotective effects. We first examined the microRNA expression profile following transient cerebral ischemia in rats and the impact of sevoflurane preconditioning. Microarray analysis revealed that 3 microRNAs were up-regulated (>2.0 fold) and 9 were down-regulated (< 0.5 fold) following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) compared to sham controls. In particular, miR-15b was expressed at significantly high levels after MCAO. Preconditioning with sevoflurane significantly attenuated the upregulation of miR-15b at 72h after reperfusion. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic gene involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, has been identified as a direct target of miR-15b. Consistent with the observed downregulation of miR-15b in sevoflurane-preconditioned brain, post-ischemic Bcl-2 expression was significantly increased by sevoflurane preconditioning. We identified the 3’-UTR of Bcl-2 as the target for miR-15b. Molecular inhibition of miR-15b was capable of mimicking the neuroprotective effect of sevoflurane preconditioning, suggesting that the suppression of miR-15b due to sevoflurane contributes to its ischemic neuroprotection. Thus, sevoflurane preconditioning may exert its anti-apoptotic effects by reducing the elevated expression of miR-15b following ischemic injury, allowing its target proteins, including Bcl-2, to be translated and expressed at the protein level. PMID:23469855

  20. Silymarin and its constituents in cardiac preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Zholobenko, A; Modriansky, M

    2014-09-01

    Silymarin, a standardised extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle), comprises mainly of silybin, with dehydrosilybin (DHSB), quercetin, taxifolin, silychristin and a number of other compounds which are known to possess a range of salutary effects. Indeed, there is evidence for their role in reducing tumour growth, preventing liver toxicity, and protecting a number of organs against ischemic damage. The hepatoprotective effects of silymarin, especially in preventing Amanita and alcohol intoxication induced damage to the liver, are a well established fact. Likewise, there is weighty evidence that silymarin possesses antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Additionally, it has emerged that in animal models, silymarin can protect the heart, brain, liver and kidneys against ischemia reperfusion injury, probably by preconditioning. The mechanisms of preconditioning are, in general, well studied, especially in the heart. On the other hand, the mechanism by which silymarin protects the heart from ischemia remains largely unexplored. This review, therefore, focuses on evaluating existing studies on silymarin induced cardioprotection in the context of the established mechanisms of preconditioning. PMID:24879900

  1. Neuronal Preconditioning by Inhalational Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Bantel, Carsten; Maze, Mervyn; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic preconditioning is an important intrinsic mechanism for neuroprotection. Preconditioning can also be achieved by exposure of neurons to K+ channel–opening drugs that act on adenosine triphosphate–sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. However, these agents do not readily cross the blood–brain barrier. Inhalational anesthetics which easily partition into brain have been shown to precondition various tissues. Here, the authors explore the neuronal preconditioning effect of modern inhalational anesthetics and investigate their effects on KATP channels. Methods Neuronal–glial cocultures were exposed to inhalational anesthetics in a preconditioning paradigm, followed by oxygen–glucose deprivation. Increased cell survival due to preconditioning was quantified with the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide reduction test. Recombinant plasmalemmal KATP channels of the main neuronal type (Kir6.2/SUR1) were expressed in HEK293 cells, and the effects of anesthetics were evaluated in whole cell patch clamp recordings. Results Both sevoflurane and the noble gas xenon preconditioned neurons at clinically used concentrations. The effect of sevoflurane was independent of KATP channel activation, whereas the effect of xenon required the opening of plasmalemmal KATP channels. Recombinant KATP channels were activated by xenon but inhibited by halogenated volatiles. Modulation of mitochondrial K-ATP channels did not affect the activity of KATP channels, thus ruling out an indirect effect of volatiles via mitochondrial channels. Conclusions The preconditioning properties of halogenated volatiles cannot be explained by their effect on KATP channels, whereas xenon preconditioning clearly involves the activation of these channels. Therefore, xenon might mimic the intrinsic mechanism of ischemic preconditioning most closely. This, together with its good safety profile, might suggest xenon as a viable neuroprotective agent in the clinical setting. PMID:19352153

  2. The neuroprotective mechanism of brain ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-qian; Sheng, Rui; Qin, Zheng-hong

    2009-01-01

    Brain ischemia is one of the most common causes of death and the leading cause of adult disability in the world. Brain ischemic preconditioning (BIP) refers to a transient, sublethal ischemia which results in tolerance to later, otherwise lethal, cerebral ischemia. Many attempts have been made to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotection offered by ischemic preconditioning. Many studies have shown that neuroprotective mechanisms may involve a series of molecular regulatory pathways including activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and adenosine receptors; activation of intracellular signaling pathways such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and other protein kinases; upregulation of Bcl-2 and heat shock proteins (HSPs); and activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the autophagic-lysosomal pathway. A better understanding of the processes that lead to cell death after stroke as well as of the endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms by which BIP protects against brain ischemic insults could help to develop new therapeutic strategies for this devastating neurological disease. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the neuroprotective mechanisms of BIP and to discuss the possibility of mimicking ischemic preconditioning as a new strategy for preventive treatment of ischemia. PMID:19617892

  3. Bcl-2 upregulation after 3-nitropropionic acid preconditioning in warm rat liver ischemia.

    PubMed

    Dünschede, Friedrich; Tybl, Elisabeth; Kiemer, Alexandra K; Dutkowski, Philipp; Erbes, Kirsten; Kircher, Achim; Gockel, Ines; Zechner, Ulrich; Schad, Arno; Lang, Hauke; Junginger, Theodor; Kempski, Oliver

    2008-12-01

    We aimed to determine whether 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) preconditioning protects rat livers against warm ischemia/reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that 3-NPA mediates its protective effects by Bcl-2 upregulation. Brown-Norway rats (200 g) were injected with 3-NPA (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) 24 h before 90 min of selective warm in situ ischemia. In additional experiments, 30-day survival was studied after 90 min of warm liver ischemia and resection of nonischemic liver tissue. We demonstrate increased mRNA and protein levels of Bcl-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis in 3-NPA-pretreated rats. All treated animals survived, whereas all untreated rats died within 3 days after selective ischemia and resection of the nonischemic tissue. This corresponded well with a significant decrease of caspases 3 and 9 activity at 1 h of reperfusion after preconditioning with 3-NPA as compared with untreated rats. The histological sections showed protection of liver tissue after 3-NPA by reduction of apoptotic and oncotic tissue damage. Lipid peroxidation in liver tissue was reduced after 3-NPA preconditioning. We show that subtoxic doses of the mitochondrial toxin 3-NPA induces tolerance to warm liver ischemia in rats associated by synthesis of Bcl-2. Bcl-2 upregulation might protect against the postischemic burst of reactive oxygen species and therefore reduces apoptotic- and oncotic-related cell death. PMID:18461020

  4. Noopept reduces the postischemic functional and metabolic disorders in the brain of rats with different sensitivity to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, I V; Shabanov, P D

    2009-03-01

    Chronic cerebral ischemia was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries in Wistar rats, divided by sensitivity to hypoxia into highly sensitive and low-sensitive. Noopept (peptide preparation), injected (0.5 mg/kg) during 7 days after occlusion of the carotid arteries, reduced the neurological disorders in rats with high and low sensitivity to hypoxia and improved their survival during the postischemic period. Noopept normalized behavior disordered by cerebral ischemia (according to the open field and elevated plus maze tests), prevented accumulation of LPO products and inhibition of antioxidant systems in the brain of rats with high and low sensitivity to hypoxia. Hence, noopept exhibited a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia. PMID:19529857

  5. The iron chelator desferrioxamine attenuates postischemic ventricular dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Bolli, R.; Patel, B.S.; Zhu, Weixi; O'Neill, P.G.; Hartley, C.J.; Charlat, M.L.; Roberts, R. )

    1987-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that postischemic myocardial dysfunction (stunning) may be mediated by oxygen free radicals, but the mechanism by which they produce myocellular damage remains unknown. Since iron catalyzes formation of hydroxyl radicals (HO{center dot}) as well as HO{center dot}-initiated lipid peroxidation, the authors explored the potential role of this metal in the pathogenesis of myocardial stunning. Open-chest dogs undergoing a 15-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) followed by 4 h of reperfusion (REP) received the iron chelator desferrioxamine intravenously or normal saline. Regional myocardial function was assessed by measuring systolic wall thickening with an epicardial Doppler probe. The two groups exhibited comparable systolic thickening under base-line conditions and similar degrees of dyskinesis during ischemia. After REP, however, recovery of contractile function as considerably greater in desferrioxamine-treated compared with control dogs. These differences could not be ascribed to hemodynamic factors. The results suggest that iron-catalyzed reactions (possibly HO{center dot} generation) play a significant role in myocardial stunning after a brief episode of reversible regional ischemia.

  6. An improved algorithm of fiber tractography demonstrates postischemic cerebral reorganization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-dong; Lu, Jie; Yao, Li; Li, Kun-cheng; Zhao, Xiao-jie

    2008-03-01

    In vivo white matter tractography by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) accurately represents the organizational architecture of white matter in the vicinity of brain lesions and especially ischemic brain. In this study, we suggested an improved fiber tracking algorithm based on TEND, called TENDAS, for tensor deflection with adaptive stepping, which had been introduced a stepping framework for interpreting the algorithm behavior as a function of the tensor shape (linear-shaped or not) and tract history. The propagation direction at each step was given by the deflection vector. TENDAS tractography was used to examine a 17-year-old recovery patient with congenital right hemisphere artery stenosis combining with fMRI. Meaningless picture location was used as spatial working memory task in this study. We detected the shifted functional localization to the contralateral homotypic cortex and more prominent and extensive left-sided parietal and medial frontal cortical activations which were used directly as seed mask for tractography for the reconstruction of individual spatial parietal pathways. Comparing with the TEND algorithms, TENDAS shows smoother and less sharp bending characterization of white matter architecture of the parietal cortex. The results of this preliminary study were twofold. First, TENDAS may provide more adaptability and accuracy in reconstructing certain anatomical features, whereas it is very difficult to verify tractography maps of white matter connectivity in the living human brain. Second, our study indicates that combination of TENDAS and fMRI provide a unique image of functional cortical reorganization and structural modifications of postischemic spatial working memory.

  7. Early postischemic /sup 45/Ca accumulation in rat dentate hilus

    SciTech Connect

    Benveniste, H.; Diemer, N.H.

    1988-10-01

    Several studies have found postischemic regional accumulation of calcium to be time-dependent and coincident with the progression of ischemic cell change. In the most vulnerable cells in the hippocampus one would therefore expect to find a primary and specific early uptake of calcium after ischemia. Autoradiograms of /sup 45/Ca and /sup 3/H-inulin distribution were investigated before and 1 h after 20 min ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Two different methodological approaches were used for administration of /sup 45/Ca: (a) administration via microdialysis probes, (b) intraventricular injection. During control conditions the /sup 45/Ca autoradiograms showed variations in distribution volume in accordance with /sup 3/H-inulin determination of extracellular space size. One hour after ischemia a massive accumulation of /sup 45/Ca was found in the dentate hilus. No change in the distribution pattern of /sup 3/H-inulin could be demonstrated 1 h after ischemia. We suggest that /sup 45/Ca accumulation in dentate hilus 1 h after ischemia is a result of increased Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake before irreversible cell damage occurs and is not due to passive influx of calcium across a leaky plasma membrane.

  8. Protective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Cold Preservation and Reperfusion Injury Associated With Rat Intestinal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sola, Anna; De Oca, Javier; Gonzlez, Rosario; Prats, Neus; Rosell-Catafau, Joan; Gelp, Emilio; Jaurrieta, Eduardo; Hotter, Georgina

    2001-01-01

    Objective To define the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on cold ischemia and reperfusion injury associated with intestinal transplantation, and the role of nitric oxide in this process. Summary Background Data Ischemia/reperfusion injury continues to be a significant obstacle in small bowel transplantation. Preconditioning is a mechanism that protects against this injury. Methods To study the capacity of preconditioning to prevent cold ischemia-associated injury and the inflammatory response associated with intestinal transplantation, the authors studied a control group of animals, cold ischemia groups with or without previous preconditioning and with or without previous administration of L-NAME or NONOS, and intestinal transplantation groups with or without previous preconditioning and with or without previous administration of L-NAME or NONOS. Results Histologic findings and the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the preservation solution showed that preconditioning protects against cold ischemic preservation-associated injury. Preconditioning also prevented the inflammatory response associated with intestinal transplantation, measured by the above parameters and by neutrophil recruitment in the intestine. Inhibition of nitric oxide eliminates the protective effect. Conclusions Preconditioning protects the intestinal grafts from cold preservation and reperfusion injury in the rat intestinal transplantation model. Nitric oxide is involved in this protection. PMID:11420489

  9. Biomarkers for ischemic preconditioning: finding the responders

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sebastian; Della-Morte, David; Dave, Kunjan R; Sacco, Ralph L; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning is emerging as an innovative and novel cytoprotective strategy to counter ischemic vascular disease. At the root of the preconditioning response is the upregulation of endogenous defense systems to achieve ischemic tolerance. Identifying suitable biomarkers to show that a preconditioning response has been induced remains a translational research priority. Preconditioning leads to a widespread genomic and proteonomic response with important effects on hemostatic, endothelial, and inflammatory systems. The present article summarizes the relevant preclinical studies defining the mechanisms of preconditioning, reviews how the human preconditioning response has been investigated, and which of these bioresponses could serve as a suitable biomarker. Human preconditioning studies have investigated the effects of preconditioning on coagulation, endothelial factors, and inflammatory mediators as well as on genetic expression and tissue blood flow imaging. A biomarker for preconditioning would significantly contribute to define the optimal preconditioning stimulus and the extent to which such a response can be elicited in humans and greatly aid in dose selection in the design of phase II trials. Given the manifold biologic effects of preconditioning a panel of multiple serum biomarkers or genomic assessments of upstream regulators may most accurately reflect the full spectrum of a preconditioning response. PMID:24643082

  10. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  11. Postischemic [Ca2+] repletion improves cardiac performance without altering oxygen demands.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, H; Julian, J S; Vinten-Johansen, J; Johnston, W E; Smith, T D; McGee, D S; Cordell, A R

    1990-06-01

    The positive inotropism expected with correction of postischemic hypocalcemia might be counterbalanced by potential aggravation of reperfusion injury, in particular by calcium overload. We evaluated the effect of normalizing blood calcium concentration ([Ca2+]) on postischemic left ventricular systolic and diastolic mechanics using oxygen consumption and indices derived from pressure-diameter relations. In 10 open-chest dogs on cardiopulmonary bypass, the hearts underwent 30 minutes of normothermic global ischemia followed by one hour of multidose hypothermic (4 degrees C), hypocalcemic (0.3 mmol/L) blood cardioplegia. After reperfusion, systemic [Ca2+] had decreased to 70% of control (p = 0.017). The left ventricular inotropic state was significantly depressed from baseline (control) values, but was restored to baseline levels by resumption of normocalcemia after one hour of reperfusion. Chamber stiffness increased by 308% (p = 0.006) after hypocalcemic reperfusion but decreased significantly after [Ca2+] correction. Recovery of left ventricular performance with [Ca2+] correction did not augment myocardial oxygen consumption from the postischemic uncorrected state (5.0 +/- 0.3 mL O2/min/100 g versus 5.3 +/- 0.3 mL O2/min/100 g). We conclude that normalizing [Ca2+] after blood cardioplegia improves postischemic left ventricular performance without adversely affecting compliance or oxygen consumption. PMID:2369187

  12. Effect of Hypoxic Preconditioning on Stress Reaction in Rats.

    PubMed

    Naryzhnaya, N V; Maslov, L N; Vychuzhanova, E A; Sementsov, A S; Podoksyonov, Yu K; Portnichenko, A G; Lishmanov, Yu B

    2015-08-01

    In rats, immobilization stress (24 h) induced involution of the thymus and spleen, adrenal hypertrophy, and pronounced elevation (by 67%) of serum cortisol in comparison with intact animals; the mean number of stomach ulcers in rats subjected to stress was 6.9. Hypoxic preconditioning consisting of 6 sessions of 10-min hypoxia (8% O2) followed by 10-min reoxygenation with atmospheric air induced adrenal hypertrophy and spleen involution, but did not change blood cortisol level; no stomach ulcers were found in preconditioned rats. In rats subjected to both hypoxic preconditioning and immobilization, the weights of the thymus, adrenal glands, and spleen, as well as cortisol level did not differ from the corresponding parameters in rats subjected to immobilization stress alone. The number of stomach ulcers in experimental rats was 1.5-fold lower than in the stress-control ones. Thus, hypoxic preconditioning exerts a pronounced preventive anti-ulcer effect during immobilization, but it does not affect other indices of the stress reaction. PMID:26385407

  13. Cerebral Ischemic Preconditioning: the Road So Far….

    PubMed

    N, Thushara Vijayakumar; Sangwan, Amit; Sharma, Bhargy; Majid, Arshad; Gk, Rajanikant

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral preconditioning constitutes the brain's adaptation to lethal ischemia when first exposed to mild doses of a subtoxic stressor. The phenomenon of preconditioning has been largely studied in the heart, and data from in vivo and in vitro models from past 2-3 decades have provided sufficient evidence that similar machinery exists in the brain as well. Since preconditioning results in a transient protective phenotype labeled as ischemic tolerance, it can open many doors in the medical warfare against stroke, a debilitating cerebrovascular disorder that kills or cripples thousands of people worldwide every year. Preconditioning can be induced by a variety of stimuli from hypoxia to pharmacological anesthetics, and each, in turn, induces tolerance by activating a multitude of proteins, enzymes, receptors, transcription factors, and other biomolecules eventually leading to genomic reprogramming. The intracellular signaling pathways and molecular cascades behind preconditioning are extensively being investigated, and several first-rate papers have come out in the last few years centered on the topic of cerebral ischemic tolerance. However, translating the experimental knowledge into the clinical scaffold still evades practicality and faces several challenges. Of the various preconditioning strategies, remote ischemic preconditioning and pharmacological preconditioning appears to be more clinically relevant for the management of ischemic stroke. In this review, we discuss current developments in the field of cerebral preconditioning and then examine the potential of various preconditioning agents to confer neuroprotection in the brain. PMID:26081149

  14. Management of Preconditioned Calves and Impacts of Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Hilton, W Mark

    2015-07-01

    When studying the practice of preconditioning (PC) calves, many factors need to be examined to determine if cow-calf producers should make this investment. Factors such as average daily gain, feed efficiency, available labor, length of the PC period, genetics, and marketing options must be analyzed. The health sales price advantage is an additional benefit in producing and selling PC calves but not the sole determinant of PC's financially feasibility. Studies show that a substantial advantage of PC is the selling of additional pounds at a cost of gain well below the marginal return of producing those additional pounds. PMID:26139187

  15. Preconditioning Provides Neuroprotection in Models of CNS Disease: Paradigms and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, R. Anne; Leak, Rehana K.; Gan, Yu; Li, Peiying; Hu, Xiaoming; Jing, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Zigmond, Michael J.; Gao, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    Preconditioning is a phenomenon in which brief episodes of a sublethal insult induce robust protection against subsequent lethal injuries. Preconditioning has been observed in multiple organisms and can occur in the brain as well as other tissues. Extensive animal studies suggest that the brain can be preconditioned to resist acute injuries, such as ischemic stroke, neonatal hypoxia/ischemia, trauma, and agents that are used in models of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Effective preconditioning stimuli are numerous and diverse, ranging from transient ischemia, hypoxia, hyperbaric oxygen, hypothermia and hyperthermia, to exposure to neurotoxins and pharmacological agents. The phenomenon of “cross-tolerance,” in which a sublethal stress protects against a different type of injury, suggests that different preconditioning stimuli may confer protection against a wide range of injuries. Research conducted over the past few decades indicates that brain preconditioning is complex, involving multiple effectors such as metabolic inhibition, activation of extra- and intracellular defense mechanisms, a shift in the neuronal excitatory/inhibitory balance, and reduction in inflammatory sequelae. An improved understanding of brain preconditioning should help us identify innovative therapeutic strategies that prevent or at least reduce neuronal damage in susceptible patients. In this review, we focus on the experimental evidence of preconditioning in the brain and systematically survey the models used to develop paradigms for neuroprotection, and then discuss the clinical potential of brain preconditioning. In a subsequent components of this two-part series, we will discuss the cellular and molecular events that are likely to underlie these phenomena. PMID:24389580

  16. Myocardial Po2 does not limit aerobic metabolism in the postischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Chung, Youngran

    2016-01-15

    Reperfused hypertrophic hearts are prone to develop reflow abnormalities, which are likely to impair O2 return to the myocardium. Yet, reflow deficit may not be the only factor determining postischemic oxygenation in the hypertrophic heart. Altered O2 demand may also contribute to hypoxia. In addition, the extent to which myocardial Po2 dictates energy and functional recovery in the reperfused heart remains uncertain. In the present study, moderately hypertrophied hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion, and the recovery time courses of pH and high-energy phosphates were followed by (31)P NMR. (1)H NMR measurement of intracellular myoglobin assessed tissue O2 levels. The present study found that the exacerbation of hypoxia in the postischemic spontaneously hypertensive rat heart arises mostly from impaired microvascular supply of O2. However, postischemic myocardial Po2, at least when it exceeds ∼18% of the preischemic level, does not limit mitochondrial respiration and high-energy phosphate resynthesis. It only passively reflects changes in the O2 supply-demand balance. PMID:26589325

  17. Gender disparity in the role of TLR2 in post-ischemic myocardial inflammation and injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jilin; Ao, Lihua; Zhai, Yufeng; Cleveland, Joseph C Jr; Fullerton, David A; Meng, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 plays a role in post-ischemic myocardial inflammatory response and cardiac dysfunction in both males and females. Permanent ischemia was induced in male and female C57BL/6J (wild-type, WT) and TLR2 knockout (KO) mice. Infarct size and left ventricular (LV) function were analyzed at day 7. Myocardial levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), as well as neutrophil infiltration, were assessed at day 3, and mononuclear cell accumulation was determined at day 7. Lower MCP-1 and ICAM-1 levels, and reduced leukocyte accumulation correlated with smaller infarct size and improved LV function in male TLR2 KO mice. Female WT mice exhibited attenuated myocardial inflammatory response and injury, and TLR2 KO in females did not provide a protective effect although myocardial TLR2 levels in female WT mice were unaltered, and their cardiac cells responded to bacterial TLR2 agonist properly. TLR2 KO in male mice reduced post-ischemic myocardial inflammatory response, resulting in smaller infarct sizes and improved cardiac function. However, TLR2 KO was not beneficial in female mice. The gender disparity in the role of TLR2 in post-ischemic myocardial inflammatory response and myocardial injury suggests that interception with TLR2 signaling may have therapeutic potentials only in males. PMID:26379843

  18. The time of maximum post-ischemic hyperperfusion indicates infarct growth following transient experimental ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Susanne; Artmann, Judith; Luft, Andreas R; Buxton, Richard B; Weller, Michael; Wong, Eric C

    2013-01-01

    After recanalization, cerebral blood flow (CBF) can increase above baseline in cerebral ischemia. However, the significance of post-ischemic hyperperfusion for tissue recovery remains unclear. To analyze the course of post-ischemic hyperperfusion and its impact on vascular function, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) and measured CBF quantitatively during and after a 60 minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rats. We added a 5% CO2 - challenge to analyze vasoreactivity in the same animals. Results from MRI were compared to histological correlates of angiogenesis. We found that CBF in the ischemic area recovered within one day and reached values significantly above contralateral thereafter. The extent of hyperperfusion changed over time, which was related to final infarct size: early (day 1) maximal hyperperfusion was associated with smaller lesions, whereas a later (day 4) maximum indicated large lesions. Furthermore, after initial vasoparalysis within the ischemic area, vasoreactivity on day 14 was above baseline in a fraction of animals, along with a higher density of blood vessels in the ischemic border zone. These data provide further evidence that late post-ischemic hyperperfusion is a sequel of ischemic damage in regions that are likely to undergo infarction. However, it is transient and its resolution coincides with re-gaining of vascular structure and function. PMID:23741488

  19. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with the “General vehicle handling requirements” per 40 CFR 86.132-96, up to and including the completion of the hot start exhaust test. (b) The preconditioning procedure prescribed at 40 CFR 86.132-96... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52...

  20. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with the “General vehicle handling requirements” per 40 CFR 86.132-96, up to and including the completion of the hot start exhaust test. (b) The preconditioning procedure prescribed at 40 CFR 86.132-96... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52...

  1. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with the “General vehicle handling requirements” per 40 CFR 86.132-96, up to and including the completion of the hot start exhaust test. (b) The preconditioning procedure prescribed at 40 CFR 86.132-96... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.518 - Engine preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine preconditioning. 1065.518 Section 1065.518 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.518 Engine preconditioning. (a) This section applies...

  3. Soluble guanylate cyclase activation during ischemic injury in mice protects against postischemic inflammation at the mitochondrial level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Derek Z; Jones, Allan W; Wang, Walter Z; Wang, Meifang; Korthuis, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to determine whether treatment with BAY 60-2770, a selective activator of oxidized soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), near the end of an ischemic event would prevent postischemic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in wild-type (WT) and heme oxygenase-1 KO (HO-1(-/-)) mice. This protocol prevented increases in leukocyte rolling (LR) and adhesion (LA) to intestinal venules along with elevated TNFα and circulating neutrophil levels that accompany ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in both animal models. We further hypothesized that a component of BAY 60-2770 treatment involves maintenance of mitochondrial membrane integrity during I/R. Measurements on isolated enterocytes of calcein fluorescence (mitochondrial permeability) and JC-1 fluorescence ratio (mitochondrial membrane potential) were reduced by I/R, indicating formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTP). These effects were abrogated by BAY 60-2770 as well as cyclosporin A and SB-216763, which prevented mPTP opening and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), respectively. Western blots of WT and HO-1(-/-) enterocytes indicated that GSK-3β phosphorylation on Ser(9) (inhibitory site) was reduced by half following I/R alone (increased GSK-3β activity) and increased by one-third (reduced GSK-3β activity) following BAY 60-2770. Other investigators have associated phosphorylation of the GSK-3β substrate cyclophilin D (pCyPD) with mPTP formation. We observed a 60% increase in pCyPD after I/R, whereas BAY 60-2770 treatment of sham and I/R groups reduced pCyPD by about 20%. In conclusion, selective activation of oxidized sGC of WT and HO-1(-/-) during ischemia protects against I/R-induced inflammation and preserves mucosal integrity in part by reducing pCyPD production and mPTP formation. PMID:26950856

  4. Remote Ischemic Limb Preconditioning After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sebastian; Katsnelson, Michael; Dong, Chuanhui; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Making a limb transiently ischemic has been shown to induce ischemic tolerance in a distant organ. This phenomenon is known as remote ischemic limb preconditioning. We conducted a Phase IB study of remote ischemic limb preconditioning to determine the safety and feasibility of increasing durations of limb ischemia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent limb preconditioning every 24 to 48 hours for 14 days. Limb preconditioning consisted of 3 5-minute inflations of a blood pressure cuff to 200 mm Hg around a limb followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion. In the lead-in phase, we preconditioned the upper extremities, but this proved impractical and we began preconditioning the leg in a similar manner. Ischemia times were then escalated to 7.5 and 10 minutes. After each session, a visual analog scale was obtained and the extremity examined for neurovascular complications. Results A total of 33 patients completed the study. Mean age was 53±12 years and mean Hunt Hess score was 2.4±0.9. In the lead-in phase, an average of 7.7±2.4 preconditioning sessions was completed with mean visual analog scale 3.6±3.4. In the dose escalation phase, an average of 8.6±2.1 preconditioning sessions was done with mean visual analog scale 1.8±2.2 and 2.5±2.9 for the 7.5- and 10-minute cohorts, respectively. No session was prematurely terminated due to subject discomfort. No objective signs of neurovascular injury were observed. Conclusions We found limb preconditioning to be safe and well tolerated, even at ischemia times of 10 minutes, in critically ill patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:21415404

  5. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: A double edged sword in ischemia/reperfusion vs preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeris, Theodore; Bao, Yimin; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in the blood supply produce considerable injury if the duration of ischemia is prolonged. Paradoxically, restoration of perfusion to ischemic organs can exacerbate tissue damage and extend the size of an evolving infarct. Being highly metabolic organs, the heart and brain are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). While the pathogenetic mechanisms contributing to I/R-induced tissue injury and infarction are multifactorial, the relative importance of each contributing factor remains unclear. However, an emerging body of evidence indicates that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria plays a critical role in damaging cellular components and initiating cell death. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms whereby mitochondrial ROS generation occurs in I/R and contributes to myocardial infarction and stroke. In addition, mitochondrial ROS have been shown to participate in preconditioning by several pharmacologic agents that target potassium channels (e.g., ATP-sensitive potassium (mKATP) channels or large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (mBKCa) channels) to activate cell survival programs that render tissues and organs more resistant to the deleterious effects of I/R. Finally, we review novel therapeutic approaches that selectively target mROS production to reduce postischemic tissue injury, which may prove efficacious in limiting myocardial dysfunction and infarction and abrogating neurocognitive deficits and neuronal cell death in stroke. PMID:24944913

  6. Preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions for solution of the preconditioned Euler equations at low Mach number flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejranfar, Kazem; Kamali-Moghadam, Ramin

    2012-06-01

    Preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions (BCs) are implemented at artificial boundaries for the solution of the two- and three-dimensional preconditioned Euler equations at low Mach number flows. The preconditioned compatibility equations and the corresponding characteristic variables (or the Riemann invariants) based on the characteristic forms of preconditioned Euler equations are mathematically derived for three preconditioners proposed by Eriksson, Choi and Merkle, and Turkel. A cell-centered finite volume Roe's method is used for the discretization of the preconditioned system of equations on unstructured meshes. The accuracy and performance of the preconditioned characteristic BCs applied at artificial boundaries are evaluated in comparison with the non-preconditioned characteristic BCs and the simplified BCs in computing steady low Mach number flows. The two-dimensional flow over the NACA0012 airfoil and three-dimensional flow over the hemispherical headform are computed and the results are obtained for different conditions and compared with the available numerical and experimental data. The sensitivity of the solution to the size of computational domain and the variation of the angle of attack for each type of BCs is also examined. Indications are that the preconditioned characteristic BCs implemented in the preconditioned system of Euler equations greatly enhance the convergence rate of the solution of low Mach number flows compared to the other two types of BCs.

  7. Progranulin Deficiency Promotes Post-Ischemic Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Katherine; Kahles, Timo; Lane, Diane; Garcia-Bonilla, Lidia; Abe, Takato; Capone, Carmen; Hochrainer, Karin; Voss, Henning; Zhou, Ping; Ding, Aihao; Anrather, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of progranulin (PGRN) have been linked to frontotemporal dementia, but little is known about the effects of PGRN deficiency on the brain in health and disease. PGRN has been implicated in neurovascular development, inflammation, and Wnt signaling, a pathway involved in the formation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Because BBB alterations and inflammation contribute to ischemic brain injury, we examined the role of PGRN in the brain damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion. PGRN+/− and PGRN−/− mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with monitoring of cerebral blood flow. Infarct volume and motor deficits were assessed 72 h later. Post-ischemic inflammation was examined by expression of inflammatory genes and flow cytometry. BBB structure and permeability were examined by electron microscopy (EM) and Evans blue (EB) extravasation, respectively. MCAO resulted in ∼60% larger infarcts in PGRN+/− and PGRN−/− mice, an effect independent of hemodynamic factors or post-ischemic inflammation. Rather, massive hemorrhages and post-ischemic BBB disruption were observed, unrelated to degradation of tight junction (TJ) proteins or matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). By EM, TJ were 30–52% shorter, fewer, and less interlocking, suggesting a weaker seal between endothelial cells. Intracerebral injection of platelet-derived growth factor-CC (PDGF-CC), which increases BBB permeability, resulted in a more severe BBB breakdown in PGRN+/− and PGRN−/− than wild-type mice. We describe a previously unrecognized involvement of PGRN in the expression of key ultrastructural features of the BBB. Such a novel vasoprotective role of PGRN may contribute to brain dysfunction and damage in conditions associated with reduced PGRN function. PMID:24336722

  8. Wnt/β-catenin signaling mediates the seizure-facilitating effect of postischemic reactive astrocytes after pentylenetetrazole-kindling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jialei; Zhang, Xiufen; Wu, Yin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Xunyuan; Pan, Yuanhang; Liu, Yonghong; Ding, Yuqiang; Qiu, Mengsheng; Wang, Ya-Zhou; Zhao, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Ischemia not only leads to tissue damage, but also induces seizures, which in turn worsens the outcome of ischemia. Recent studies have revealed the impaired homeostatic functions of reactive astrocytes, which were thought to facilitate the development of seizures. However, how this phenotype of reactive astrocytes is regulated remains unclear. Here, using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling model, we investigated the roles of reactive astrocytes and their intracellular Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the ischemia-increased seizure susceptibility. Our data showed that somatosensory cortical ischemia significantly increased the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure. Genetic ablation of Nestin-positive reactive astrocytes significantly decreased the incidence and severity of seizures. By using a Wnt signaling reporter mice line Topgal mice, we found that Wnt/β-catenin signaling was upregulated in reactive astrocytes after ischemia. Depletion of β-catenin in reactive astrocytes significantly decreased the susceptibility of seizures and the expression of c-Fos induced by PTZ in the ischemic cortex. Overexpression of β-catenin in reactive astrocytes, in contrast, significantly increased seizure susceptibility and the expression of c-Fos. Furthermore, the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) and inwardly rectifying K(+) channel 4.1 (Kir4.1), two molecules reportedly associated with seizure development, was oppositely affected in reactive astrocytes with β-catenin depletion or overexpression. Taken together, these data indicated that astrocytic Wnt/β-catenin signaling accounts, at least partially, for the ischemia-increased seizure susceptibility. Inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling may be utilized in the future for preventing postischemic seizures. GLIA 2016;64:1083-1091. PMID:27003605

  9. Remote ischemic preconditioning for kidney protection: GSK3β-centric insights into the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhangsuo; Gong, Rujun

    2015-11-01

    Preventing acute kidney injury (AKI) in high-risk patients following medical interventions is a paramount challenge for clinical practice. Recent data from animal experiments and clinical trials indicate that remote ischemic preconditioning, represented by limb ischemic preconditioning, confers a protective action on the kidney. Ischemic preconditioning is effective in reducing the risk for AKI following cardiovascular interventions and the use of iodinated radiocontrast media. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms for this protective effect are elusive. A protective signal is conveyed from the remote site undergoing ischemic preconditioning, such as the limb, to target organs, such as the kidney, by multiple potential communication pathways, which may involve humoral, neuronal, and systemic mechanisms. Diverse transmitting pathways trigger a variety of signaling cascades, including the reperfusion injury salvage kinase and survivor activating factor enhancement pathways, all of which converge on glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Inhibition of GSK3β subsequent to ischemic preconditioning reinforces the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense, diminishes the nuclear factor-κB-dependent proinflammatory response, and exerts prosurvival effects ensuing from the desensitized mitochondria permeability transition. Thus, therapeutic targeting of GSK3β by ischemic preconditioning or by pharmacologic preconditioning with existing US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs having GSK3β-inhibitory activities might represent a pragmatic and cost-effective adjuvant strategy for kidney protection and prophylaxis against AKI. PMID:26271146

  10. An electrocardiographic sign of ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Meijs, Loek P B; Galeotti, Loriano; Pueyo, Esther P; Romero, Daniel; Jennings, Robert B; Ringborn, Michael; Warren, Stafford G; Wagner, Galen S; Strauss, David G

    2014-07-01

    Ischemic preconditioning is a form of intrinsic cardioprotection where an episode of sublethal ischemia protects against subsequent episodes of ischemia. Identifying a clinical biomarker of preconditioning could have important clinical implications, and prior work has focused on the electrocardiographic ST segment. However, the electrophysiology biomarker of preconditioning is increased action potential duration (APD) shortening with subsequent ischemic episodes, and APD shortening should primarily alter the T wave, not the ST segment. We translated findings from simulations to canine to patient models of preconditioning to test the hypothesis that the combination of increased [delta (Δ)] T wave amplitude with decreased ST segment elevation characterizes preconditioning. In simulations, decreased APD caused increased T wave amplitude with minimal ST segment elevation. In contrast, decreased action potential amplitude increased ST segment elevation significantly. In a canine model of preconditioning (9 mongrel dogs undergoing 4 ischemia-reperfusion episodes), ST segment amplitude increased more than T wave amplitude during the first ischemic episode [ΔT/ΔST slope = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-1.15]; however, during subsequent ischemic episodes the T wave increased significantly more than the ST segment (ΔT/ΔST slope = 2.43, CI 2.07-2.80) (P < 0.001 for interaction of occlusions 2 vs. 1). A similar result was observed in patients (9 patients undergoing 2 consecutive prolonged occlusions during elective percutaneous coronary intervention), with an increase in slope of ΔT/ΔST of 0.13 (CI -0.15 to 0.42) in the first occlusion to 1.02 (CI 0.31-1.73) in the second occlusion (P = 0.02). This integrated analysis of the T wave and ST segment goes beyond the standard approach to only analyze ST elevation, and detects cellular electrophysiology changes of preconditioning. PMID:24778173

  11. Estrogen receptors alpha mediates postischemic inflammation in chronically estrogen-deprived mice.

    PubMed

    Cordeau, Pierre; Lalancette-Hébert, Mélanie; Weng, Yuan Cheng; Kriz, Jasna

    2016-04-01

    Estrogens are known to exert neuroprotective and immuneomodulatory effects after stroke. However, at present, little is known about the role of estrogens and its receptors in postischemic inflammation after menopause. Here, we provide important in vivo evidence of a distinct shift in microglial phenotypes in the model of postmenopause brain. Using a model-system for live imaging of microglial activation in the context of chronic estrogen- and ERα-deficiency associated with aging, we observed a marked deregulation of the TLR2 signals and/or microglial activation in ovariectomized and/or ERα knockout mice. Further analysis revealed a 5.7-fold increase in IL-6, a 4.7-fold increase in phospho-Stat3 levels suggesting an overactivation of JAK/STAT3 pathway and significantly larger infarction in ERα knockouts chronically deprived of estrogen. Taken together, our results suggest that in the experimental model of menopause and/or aging, ERα mediates innate immune responses and/or microglial activation, and ischemia-induced production of IL-6. Based on our results, we propose that the loss of functional ERα may lead to deregulation of postischemic inflammatory responses and increased vulnerability to ischemic injury in aging female brains. PMID:26973103

  12. Sivelestat Attenuates Myocardial Reperfusion Injury during Brief Low Flow Postischemic Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Aune, Sverre E.; Yeh, Steve T.; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Kuppusamy, M. Lakshmi; Khan, Mahmood; Angelos, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The neutrophil elastase inhibitor sivelestat (ONO-5046) possesses unknown mechanisms of cardioprotection when infused following global ischemia, even in the absence of neutrophils. Since myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is strongly associated with endothelial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during reperfusion, we have tested the hypothesis that infusion of sivelestat during postischemic low flow would preserve endothelial and contractile function and reduce infarct size through an ROS-mediated mechanism. Isolated male rat hearts, subjected to global ischemia of 25 minutes, were reperfused with low flow with or without sivelestat followed by a full flow reperfusion. Hearts treated with sivelestat showed a significant improvement of LV contractile function and a reduction in infarct size. Infusion of L-NAME (nonspecific blocker of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)) along with sivelestat during reperfusion reversed the preservation of contractile function and infarct size. In vitro EPR spin trapping experiments showed that sivelestat treatment decreased superoxide adduct formation in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Similarly, dihydroethidine (DHE) staining showed decreased superoxide production in LV sections from sivelestat-treated hearts. Taken together, these results indicate that sivelestat infusion during postischemic low flow reduces infarct size and preserves vasoreactivity in association with decreased ROS formation and the preservation of nitric oxide. PMID:23766850

  13. Neuroprotective effects of a glutathione depletor in rat post-ischemic reperfusion brain damage.

    PubMed

    Giacomo, Claudia Di; Santangelo, Rosa; Sorrenti, Valeria; Volti, Giovanni L; Acquaviva, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    The induction of heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, occurs as an adaptative response to oxidative stress and is consequent to decrease in cellular glutathione levels. Our previous studies demonstrated significant increase in survival rates of rats treated with glutathione depletors and submitted to transient cerebral ischemia. The aim of the present research was to test the effects of L-Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a glutathione depletor, during cerebral post-ischemic reperfusion. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral clamping of common carotid arteries for 20 min. Each sample was used for glutathione ad lipid peroxidation level dosage and for evaluating the expression of heme oxygenase both after a single subcutaneous administration of BSO and without treatment. In the same experimental conditions, endothelial, inducible and neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS, iNOS and nNOS) and Dimethylarginine Dimethyl amine Hydrolases (DDAH-1 and DDAH-2) were also evaluated. Results obtained in the present study suggested that HO-1 over-expression may be implicated in the protective effect of BSO in post-ischemic reperfusion brain damage, although the involvement of other important stress mediators cannot be ruled out. PMID:25613502

  14. Direct Evidence that Myocardial Insulin Resistance following Myocardial Ischemia Contributes to Post-Ischemic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Feng; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jia; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Chengfeng; Yang, Weidong; Gao, Chao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Yan; Cui, Qin; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling; Wang, Jing; Quon, Michael J; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A close link between heart failure (HF) and systemic insulin resistance has been well documented, whereas myocardial insulin resistance and its association with HF are inadequately investigated. This study aims to determine the role of myocardial insulin resistance in ischemic HF and its underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) developed progressive left ventricular dilation with dysfunction and HF at 4 wk post-MI. Of note, myocardial insulin sensitivity was decreased as early as 1 wk after MI, which was accompanied by increased production of myocardial TNF-α. Overexpression of TNF-α in heart mimicked impaired insulin signaling and cardiac dysfunction leading to HF observed after MI. Treatment of rats with a specific TNF-α inhibitor improved myocardial insulin signaling post-MI. Insulin treatment given immediately following MI suppressed myocardial TNF-α production and improved cardiac insulin sensitivity and opposed cardiac dysfunction/remodeling. Moreover, tamoxifen-induced cardiomyocyte-specific insulin receptor knockout mice exhibited aggravated post-ischemic ventricular remodeling and dysfunction compared with controls. In conclusion, MI induces myocardial insulin resistance (without systemic insulin resistance) mediated partly by ischemia-induced myocardial TNF-α overproduction and promotes the development of HF. Our findings underscore the direct and essential role of myocardial insulin signaling in protection against post-ischemic HF. PMID:26659007

  15. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid prevents postischemic electrocardiogram abnormalities in an isolated heart model.

    PubMed

    Batchu, S N; Law, E; Brocks, D R; Falck, J R; Seubert, J M

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) which are in turn converted to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The main objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of EETs following ischemic injury using an ex vivo electrocardiogram (EKG) model. Hearts from C57Bl/6, transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of CYP2J2 (Tr) and wildtype (WT) littermates were excised and perfused with constant pressure in a Langendorff apparatus. Electrodes were placed superficially at the right atrium and left ventricle to assess EKG waveforms. In ischemic reperfusion experiments hearts were subjected to 20 min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 20 min of reperfusion (R20). The EKG from C57Bl/6 hearts perfused with 1 microM 14,15-EET showed less QT prolongation (QTc) and ST elevation (STE) (QTc=41+/-3, STE=2.3+/-0.3; R20: QTc=42+/-2 ms, STE=1.2+/-0.2mv) than control hearts (QTc=36+/-2, STE=2.3+/-0.2; R20: QTc=53+/-3 ms; STE=3.6+/-0.4mv). Similar results of reduced QT prolongation and ST elevation were observed in EKG recording from CYP2J2 Tr mice (QTc=35+/-1, STE=1.9+/-0.1; R20: QTc=38+/-4 ms, STE=1.3+/-0.2mv) compared to WT hearts. The putative epoxygenase inhibitor MS-PPOH (50 microM) and EET antagonist 14,15-EEZE (10 microM) both abolished the cardioprotective response, implicating EETs in this process. In addition, separate exposure to the K(ATP) channel blockers glibenclamide (1 microM) and HMR1098 (10 microM), or the PKA protein inhibitor H89 (50 nM) during reperfusion abolished the improved repolarization in both the models. Consistent with a role of PKA, CYP2J2 Tr mice had an enhanced activation of the PKAalpha regulatory II subunit in plasma membrane following IR injury. The present data demonstrate that EETs can enhance the recovery of ventricular repolarization following ischemia, potentially by facilitating activation of K(+) channels and PKA-dependent signaling. PMID:18973759

  16. Pharmacologic preconditioning with berberine attenuating ischemia-induced apoptosis and promoting autophagy in neuron.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qichun; Bian, Huimin; Guo, Liwei; Zhu, Huaxu

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologic preconditioning is an intriguing and emerging approach adopted to prevent injury of ischemia/reperfusion. Neuroprotection is the cardinal effect of these pleiotropic actions of berberine. Here we investigated that whether berberine could acts as a preconditioning stimuli contributing to attenuate hypoxia-induced neurons death as well. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and rat primary cortical neurons undergoing oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) were preconditioned with berberine (40 mg/kg, for 24 h in vivo, and 10(-6) mol/L, for 2 h in vitro, respectively). The neurological deficits and cerebral water contents of MCAO rats were evaluated. The autophagy and apoptosis were further determined in primary neurons in vitro. Berberine preconditioning (BP) was then shown to ameliorate the neurological deficits, decrease cerebral water content and promote neurogenesis of MCAO rats. Decreased LDH release from OGD-treated neurons was observed via BP, which was blocked by LY294002 (20 µmol/L), GSK690693 (10 µmol/L), or YC-1 (25 µmol/L). Furthermore, BP stimulated autophagy and inhibited apoptosis via modulated the autophagy-associated proteins LC 3, Beclin-1 and p62, and apoptosis-modulating proteins caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, PARP and BCL-2/Bax. In conclusion, berberine acts as a stimulus of preconditioning that exhibits neuroprotection via promoting autophagy and decreasing anoxia-induced apoptosis. PMID:27158406

  17. Pharmacologic preconditioning with berberine attenuating ischemia-induced apoptosis and promoting autophagy in neuron

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qichun; Bian, Huimin; Guo, Liwei; Zhu, Huaxu

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologic preconditioning is an intriguing and emerging approach adopted to prevent injury of ischemia/reperfusion. Neuroprotection is the cardinal effect of these pleiotropic actions of berberine. Here we investigated that whether berberine could acts as a preconditioning stimuli contributing to attenuate hypoxia-induced neurons death as well. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and rat primary cortical neurons undergoing oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) were preconditioned with berberine (40 mg/kg, for 24 h in vivo, and 10-6 mol/L, for 2 h in vitro, respectively). The neurological deficits and cerebral water contents of MCAO rats were evaluated. The autophagy and apoptosis were further determined in primary neurons in vitro. Berberine preconditioning (BP) was then shown to ameliorate the neurological deficits, decrease cerebral water content and promote neurogenesis of MCAO rats. Decreased LDH release from OGD-treated neurons was observed via BP, which was blocked by LY294002 (20 µmol/L), GSK690693 (10 µmol/L), or YC-1 (25 µmol/L). Furthermore, BP stimulated autophagy and inhibited apoptosis via modulated the autophagy-associated proteins LC 3, Beclin-1 and p62, and apoptosis-modulating proteins caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, PARP and BCL-2/Bax. In conclusion, berberine acts as a stimulus of preconditioning that exhibits neuroprotection via promoting autophagy and decreasing anoxia-induced apoptosis.

  18. Preconditioning-induced ischemic tolerance: a window into endogenous gearing for cerebroprotection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Ischemic tolerance defines transient resistance to lethal ischemia gained by a prior sublethal noxious stimulus (i.e., preconditioning). This adaptive response is thought to be an evolutionarily conserved defense mechanism, observed in a wide variety of species. Preconditioning confers ischemic tolerance if not in all, in most organ systems, including the heart, kidney, liver, and small intestine. Since the first landmark experimental demonstration of ischemic tolerance in the gerbil brain in early 1990's, basic scientific knowledge on the mechanisms of cerebral ischemic tolerance increased substantially. Various noxious stimuli can precondition the brain, presumably through a common mechanism, genomic reprogramming. Ischemic tolerance occurs in two temporally distinct windows. Early tolerance can be achieved within minutes, but wanes also rapidly, within hours. Delayed tolerance develops in hours and lasts for days. The main mechanism involved in early tolerance is adaptation of membrane receptors, whereas gene activation with subsequent de novo protein synthesis dominates delayed tolerance. Ischemic preconditioning is associated with robust cerebroprotection in animals. In humans, transient ischemic attacks may be the clinical correlate of preconditioning leading to ischemic tolerance. Mimicking the mechanisms of this unique endogenous protection process is therefore a potential strategy for stroke prevention. Perhaps new remedies for stroke are very close, right in our cells. PMID:20298534

  19. Steps to translate preconditioning from basic research to the clinic

    PubMed Central

    Bahjat, Frances R; Gesuete, Raffaella; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases often focus on the mitigation of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Many treatments or preconditioners are known to provide substantial protection against the I/R injury when administered prior to the event. Brief periods of ischemia itself have been validated as a means to achieve neuroprotection in many experimental disease settings, in multiple organ systems, and in multiple species suggesting a common pathway leading to tolerance. In addition, pharmacological agents that act as potent preconditioners have been described. Experimental induction of neuroprotection using these various preconditioning paradigms has provided a unique window into the brains endogenous protective mechanisms. Moreover, preconditioning agents themselves hold significant promise as clinical-stage therapies for prevention of I/R injury. The aim of this article is to explore several key steps involved in the preclinical validation of preconditioning agents prior to the conduct of clinical studies in humans. Drug development is difficult, expensive and relies on multi-factorial analysis of data from diverse disciplines. Importantly, there is no single path for the preclinical development of a novel therapeutic and no proven strategy to ensure success in clinical translation. Rather, the conduct of a diverse array of robust preclinical studies reduces the risk of clinical failure by varying degrees depending upon the relevance of preclinical models and drug pharmacology to humans. A strong sense of urgency and high tolerance of failure are often required to achieve success in the development of novel treatment paradigms for complex human conditions. PMID:23504609

  20. Preconditioning the Helmholtz Equation for Rigid Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1998-01-01

    An innovative hyperbolic preconditioning technique is developed for the numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation which governs acoustic propagation in ducts. Two pseudo-time parameters are used to produce an explicit iterative finite difference scheme. This scheme eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with numerical solutions to the Helmholtz equation. The solution procedure is very fast when compared to other transient and steady methods. Optimization and an error analysis of the preconditioning factors are present. For validation, the method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D semi-infinite hard wall duct.

  1. Creatine kinase overexpression improves ATP kinetics and contractile function in postischemic myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Akki, Ashwin; Su, Jason; Yano, Toshiyuki; Gupta, Ashish; Wang, Yibin; Leppo, Michelle K.; Chacko, Vadappuram P.; Steenbergen, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Reduced myofibrillar ATP availability during prolonged myocardial ischemia may limit post-ischemic mechanical function. Because creatine kinase (CK) is the prime energy reserve reaction of the heart and because it has been difficult to augment ATP synthesis during and after ischemia, we used mice that overexpress the myofibrillar isoform of creatine kinase (CKM) in cardiac-specific, conditional fashion to test the hypothesis that CKM overexpression increases ATP delivery in ischemic-reperfused hearts and improves functional recovery. Isolated, retrograde-perfused hearts from control and CKM mice were subjected to 25 min of global, no-flow ischemia and 40 min of reperfusion while cardiac function [rate pressure product (RPP)] was monitored. A combination of 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments at 11.7T and biochemical assays was used to measure the myocardial rate of ATP synthesis via CK (CK flux) and intracellular pH (pHi). Baseline CK flux was severalfold higher in CKM hearts (8.1 ± 1.0 vs. 32.9 ± 3.8, mM/s, control vs. CKM; P < 0.001) with no differences in phosphocreatine concentration [PCr] and RPP. End-ischemic pHi was higher in CKM hearts than in control hearts (6.04 ± 0.12 vs. 6.37 ± 0.04, control vs. CKM; P < 0.05) with no differences in [PCr] and [ATP] between the two groups. Post-ischemic PCr (66.2 ± 1.3 vs. 99.1 ± 8.0, %preischemic levels; P < 0.01), CK flux (3.2 ± 0.4 vs. 14.0 ± 1.2 mM/s; P < 0.001) and functional recovery (13.7 ± 3.4 vs. 64.9 ± 13.2%preischemic RPP; P < 0.01) were significantly higher and lactate dehydrogenase release was lower in CKM than in control hearts. Thus augmenting cardiac CKM expression attenuates ischemic acidosis, reduces injury, and improves not only high-energy phosphate content and the rate of CK ATP synthesis in postischemic myocardium but also recovery of contractile function. PMID:22886411

  2. Ischemic preconditioning enhances integrity of coronary endothelial tight junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhao; Jin, Zhu-Qiu

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac tight junctions are present between coronary endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning preserves the structural and functional integrity of tight junctions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocardial edema is prevented in hearts subjected to ischemic preconditioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning enhances translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. -- Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most effective procedures known to protect hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis of the inner environment of tissues. However, the effect of IPC on the structure and function of cardiac TJs remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial IR injury ruptures the structure of TJs and impairs endothelial permeability whereas IPC preserves the structural and functional integrity of TJs in the blood-heart barrier. Langendorff hearts from C57BL/6J mice were prepared and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and myocardial edema were measured. Cardiac TJ function was evaluated by measuring Evans blue-conjugated albumin (EBA) content in the extravascular compartment of hearts. Expression and translocation of zonula occludens (ZO)-2 in IR and IPC hearts were detected with Western blot. A subset of hearts was processed for the observation of ultra-structure of cardiac TJs with transmission electron microscopy. There were clear TJs between coronary endothelial cells of mouse hearts. IR caused the collapse of TJs whereas IPC sustained the structure of TJs. IR increased extravascular EBA content in the heart and myocardial edema but decreased the expression of ZO-2 in the cytoskeleton. IPC maintained the structure of TJs. Cardiac EBA content and edema were reduced in IPC hearts. IPC enhanced the translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. In conclusion, TJs occur in normal mouse heart. IPC preserves the integrity of TJ structure and function that are vulnerable to IR injury.

  3. Post-ischemic Reperfusion Causes Smooth Muscle Calcium Sensitization and Vasoconstriction of Parenchymal Arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Cipolla, Marilyn J.; Chan, Siu-Lung; Sweet, Julie; Tavares, Matthew J.; Gokina, Natalia; Brayden, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Parenchymal arterioles (PAs) are high resistance vessels in the brain that connect pial vessels to the microcirculation. We previously showed that PAs have increased vasoconstriction after ischemia and reperfusion that could increase perfusion deficit. Here, we investigated underlying mechanisms by which early post-ischemic reperfusion causes increased vasoconstriction of PAs. Methods Isolated and pressurized PAs from within the MCA territory were studied in male Wistar rats that were either nonischemic control (CTL; n=34) or after exposure to transient MCAO by filament occlusion for 2 hours with 30 minutes of reperfusion (MCAO; n=38). The relationships between pressure-induced tone, smooth muscle calcium (using Fura 2) and membrane potential were determined. Sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to calcium was measured in permeabilized arterioles using Staphaloccus aureus α-toxin. Reactivity to inhibition of TRPM4 (9-phenanthrol), Rho kinase (Y27632) and protein kinase C (Gö6976) was also measured. Results After MCAO, PAs had increased myogenic tone compared to controls (47±2% vs. 35±2% at 40 mmHg; p<0.01), without an increase in smooth muscle calcium (177±21 vs. 201±16 nmol/L; p>0.05) or membrane depolarization (−38±4 vs. −36±1 mV;p>0.05). In α-toxin permeabilized vessels, MCAO caused increased sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to calcium. MCAO did not affect dilation to TRPM4- or PKC-inhibition, but diminished dilation to Rho kinase inhibition. Conclusions The increased vasoconstriction of PAs during early post-ischemic reperfusion appears to be due to calcium sensitization of smooth muscle and could contribute to infarct expansion and limit neuroprotective agents from reaching their target tissue. PMID:24968928

  4. Improving Reconstituted HDL Composition for Efficient Post-Ischemic Reduction of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brulhart-Meynet, Marie-Claude; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Brinck, Jonas; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Prost, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, Aurelien; Galan, Katia; Pelli, Graziano; Pedretti, Sarah; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Mach, François; Lecour, Sandrine; James, Richard W.; Frias, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background New evidence shows that high density lipoproteins (HDL) have protective effects beyond their role in reverse cholesterol transport. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL) offer an attractive means of clinically exploiting these novel effects including cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). However, basic rHDL composition is limited to apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) and phospholipids; addition of bioactive compound may enhance its beneficial effects. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the role of rHDL in post-ischemic model, and to analyze the potential impact of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in rHDL formulations. Methods and Results The impact of HDL on IRI was investigated using complementary in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro IRI models. Acute post-ischemic treatment with native HDL significantly reduced infarct size and cell death in the ex vivo, isolated heart (Langendorff) model and the in vivo model (-48%, p<0.01). Treatment with rHDL of basic formulation (apoAI + phospholipids) had a non-significant impact on cell death in vitro and on the infarct size ex vivo and in vivo. In contrast, rHDL containing S1P had a highly significant, protective influence ex vivo, and in vivo (-50%, p<0.01). This impact was comparable with the effects observed with native HDL. Pro-survival signaling proteins, Akt, STAT3 and ERK1/2 were similarly activated by HDL and rHDL containing S1P both in vitro (isolated cardiomyocytes) and in vivo. Conclusion HDL afford protection against IRI in a clinically relevant model (post-ischemia). rHDL is significantly protective if supplemented with S1P. The protective impact of HDL appears to target directly the cardiomyocyte. PMID:25781943

  5. Local preconditioning by thermal stress accelerates microvascular thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Rücker, Martin; Laschke, Matthias W; Stamm, Alexander; Harder, Yves; Vollmar, Brigitte; Menger, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) has been shown to suppress microvascular thrombus formation. Because stress conditioning induces HO-1 and, in addition, the anticoagulant thrombomodulin and thrombospondin 1, we studied the effect of hyperthermic and hypothermic local stress conditioning on microvascular thrombus formation. For local stress conditioning, the hindlimb of Sprague-Dawley rats was subjected to local heating (42.5 degrees C) or cooling (4 degrees C) for 30 min at 24 h before induction of thrombosis. Sham-exposed hindlimbs served as controls. Thrombosis was induced photochemically in arterioles and venules of the preconditioned tissue (muscle, subcutis, and periosteum) by continuous light exposure after injection of a fluorescent dye. Immunohistochemistry revealed that stress conditioning distinctly induced HO-1, thrombomodulin, and thrombospondin 1 but also von Willebrand factor in endothelial cells. Of interest, intravital fluorescence microscopic analysis of the kinetics of thrombus formation could not confirm an antithrombotic effect of stress conditioning but showed, in contrast, a significant acceleration of thrombosis (P < 0.05) in both arterioles and venules of either of the tissues studied. Although hypothermic and hyperthermic stress conditioning induces antithrombotic HO-1, thrombomodulin, and thrombospondin 1, it enhances endogenous thrombogenicity, most probably due to upregulation of the prothrombotic von Willebrand factor. Thus, preconditioning with local stress cannot be considered as a strategy to prevent thrombus formation. PMID:18827743

  6. Resveratrol and ischemic preconditioning in the brain.

    PubMed

    Raval, Ami P; Lin, Hung Wen; Dave, Kunjan R; Defazio, R Anthony; Della Morte, David; Kim, Eun Joo; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular pathologies in the French are not prevalent despite high dietary saturated fat consumption. This is commonly referred to as the "French Paradox" attributing its anti-lipidemic effects to moderate consumption of red wine. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in red wine, is currently the focus of intense research both in the cardiovascular system and the brain. Current research suggests resveratrol may enhance prognosis of neurological disorders such as, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's diseases and stroke. The beneficial effects of resveratrol include: antioxidation, free radical scavenger, and modulation of neuronal energy homeostasis and glutamatergic receptors/ion channels. Resveratrol directly increases sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity, a NAD(+) (oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)-dependent histone deacetylase related to increased lifespan in various species similar to calorie restriction. We recently demonstrated that brief resveratrol pretreatment conferred neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia via SIRT1 activation. This neuroprotective effect produced by resveratrol was similar to ischemic preconditioning-induced neuroprotection, which protects against lethal ischemic insults in the brain and other organ systems. Inhibition of SIRT1 abolished ischemic preconditioning-induced neuroprotection in CA1 region of the hippocampus. Since resveratrol and ischemic preconditioning-induced neuroprotection require activation of SIRT1, this common signaling pathway may provide targeted therapeutic treatment modalities as it relates to stroke and other brain pathologies. In this review, we will examine common signaling pathways, cellular targets of resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning-induced neuroprotection as it relates to the brain. PMID:18537630

  7. Revealing Preconditions for Trustful Collaboration in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses preconditions for trust in virtual learning environments. The concept of trust is discussed with reference to cases reporting trust in cyberspace and through a philosophical clarification holding that trust in the form of self-surrender is a common characteristic of all human co-existence. In virtual learning environments,…

  8. Preconditioning and tolerance against cerebral ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Dirnagl, Ulrich; Becker, Kyra; Meisel, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Neuroprotection and brain repair in patients after acute brain damage are still major unfulfilled medical needs. Pharmacological treatments are either ineffective or confounded by adverse effects. Consequently, endogenous mechanisms by which the brain protects itself against noxious stimuli and recovers from damage are being studied. Research on preconditioning, also known as induced tolerance, over the past decade has resulted in various promising strategies for the treatment of patients with acute brain injury. Several of these strategies are being tested in randomised clinical trials. Additionally, research into preconditioning has led to the idea of prophylactically inducing protection in patients such as those undergoing brain surgery and those with transient ischaemic attack or subarachnoid haemorrhage who are at high risk of brain injury in the near future. In this Review, we focus on the clinical issues relating to preconditioning and tolerance in the brain; specifically, we discuss the clinical situations that might benefit from such procedures. We also discuss whether preconditioning and tolerance occur naturally in the brain and assess the most promising candidate strategies that are being investigated. PMID:19296922

  9. Revealing Preconditions for Trustful Collaboration in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses preconditions for trust in virtual learning environments. The concept of trust is discussed with reference to cases reporting trust in cyberspace and through a philosophical clarification holding that trust in the form of self-surrender is a common characteristic of all human co-existence. In virtual learning environments,

  10. Condition Number Estimation of Preconditioned Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Kushida, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    The present paper introduces a condition number estimation method for preconditioned matrices. The newly developed method provides reasonable results, while the conventional method which is based on the Lanczos connection gives meaningless results. The Lanczos connection based method provides the condition numbers of coefficient matrices of systems of linear equations with information obtained through the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. Estimating the condition number of preconditioned matrices is sometimes important when describing the effectiveness of new preconditionerers or selecting adequate preconditioners. Operating a preconditioner on a coefficient matrix is the simplest method of estimation. However, this is not possible for large-scale computing, especially if computation is performed on distributed memory parallel computers. This is because, the preconditioned matrices become dense, even if the original matrices are sparse. Although the Lanczos connection method can be used to calculate the condition number of preconditioned matrices, it is not considered to be applicable to large-scale problems because of its weakness with respect to numerical errors. Therefore, we have developed a robust and parallelizable method based on Hager’s method. The feasibility studies are curried out for the diagonal scaling preconditioner and the SSOR preconditioner with a diagonal matrix, a tri-daigonal matrix and Pei’s matrix. As a result, the Lanczos connection method contains around 10% error in the results even with a simple problem. On the other hand, the new method contains negligible errors. In addition, the newly developed method returns reasonable solutions when the Lanczos connection method fails with Pei’s matrix, and matrices generated with the finite element method. PMID:25816331

  11. The remote ischemic preconditioning algorithm: effect of number of cycles, cycle duration and effector organ mass on efficacy of protection.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Jacob; Pryds, Kasper; Salman, Rasha; Løfgren, Bo; Kristiansen, Steen Buus; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2016-03-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC), induced by cycles of transient limb ischemia and reperfusion (IR), is cardioprotective. The optimal rIPC-algorithm is not established. We investigated the effect of cycle numbers and ischemia duration within each rIPC-cycle and the influence of effector organ mass on the efficacy of cardioprotection. Furthermore, the duration of the early phase of protection by rIPC was investigated. Using a tourniquet tightened at the inguinal level, we subjected C57Bl/6NTac mice to intermittent hind-limb ischemia and reperfusion. The rIPC-protocols consisted of (I) two, four, six or eight cycles, (II) 2, 5 or 10 min of ischemia in each cycle, (III) single or two hind-limb occlusions and (IV) 0.5, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 h intervals from rIPC to index cardiac ischemia. All rIPC algorithms were followed by 5 min of reperfusion. The hearts were subsequently exposed to 25 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion in an ex vivo Langendorff model. Cardioprotection was evaluated by infarct size and post-ischemic hemodynamic recovery. Four to six rIPC cycles yielded significant cardioprotection with no further protection by eight cycles. Ischemic cycles lasting 2 min offered the same protection as cycles of 5 min ischemia, whereas prolonged cycles lasting 10 min abrogated protection. One and two hind-limb preconditioning were equally protective. In our mouse model, the duration of protection by rIPC was 1.5 h. These findings indicate that the number and duration of cycles rather than the tissue mass exposed to rIPC determines the efficacy of rIPC. PMID:26768477

  12. A Hybrid Parallel Preconditioning Algorithm For CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth,Timothy J.; Tang, Wei-Pai; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A new hybrid preconditioning algorithm will be presented which combines the favorable attributes of incomplete lower-upper (ILU) factorization with the favorable attributes of the approximate inverse method recently advocated by numerous researchers. The quality of the preconditioner is adjustable and can be increased at the cost of additional computation while at the same time the storage required is roughly constant and approximately equal to the storage required for the original matrix. In addition, the preconditioning algorithm suggests an efficient and natural parallel implementation with reduced communication. Sample calculations will be presented for the numerical solution of multi-dimensional advection-diffusion equations. The matrix solver has also been embedded into a Newton algorithm for solving the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations governing compressible flow. The full paper will show numerous examples in CFD to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the method.

  13. Preconditioning Stem Cells for In Vivo Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sart, Sbastien; Ma, Teng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Stem cells have emerged as promising tools for the treatment of incurable neural and heart diseases and tissue damage. However, the survival of transplanted stem cells is reported to be low, reducing their therapeutic effects. The major causes of poor survival of stem cells in vivo are linked to anoikis, potential immune rejection, and oxidative damage mediating apoptosis. This review investigates novel methods and potential molecular mechanisms for stem cell preconditioning in vitro to increase their retention after transplantation in damaged tissues. Microenvironmental preconditioning (e.g., hypoxia, heat shock, and exposure to oxidative stress), aggregate formation, and hydrogel encapsulation have been revealed as promising strategies to reduce cell apoptosis in vivo while maintaining biological functions of the cells. Moreover, this review seeks to identify methods of optimizing cell dose preparation to enhance stem cell survival and therapeutic function after transplantation. PMID:25126478

  14. Does intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorate the methotrexate induced nephrotoxicity in rats?

    PubMed Central

    Aslaner, Arif; Çakır, Tuğrul; Çelik, Betül; Doğan, Uğur; Mayir, Burhan; Akyüz, Cebrail; Polat, Cemal; Baştürk, Ahmet; Soyer, Vural; Koç, Süleyman; Şehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate is a chemotherapeutic agent used for many cancer treatments. It leads to toxicity with its oxidative injury. The purpose of our study is investigating the medical ozone preconditioning and treatment has any effect on the methotrexate-induced kidneys by activating antioxidant enzymes in rats. Eighteen rats were divided into three equal groups; control, Mtx without and with medical ozone. Nephrotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx intraperitoneally at the fifteenth day of experiment on groups 2 and 3. Medical ozone preconditioning was performed at a dose of 25 mcg/ml (5 ml) intraperitoneally everyday in the group 3 and treated with medical ozone for five more days while group 2 was received only 5 ml of saline everyday for twenty days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of third week and the blood and kidney tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. Kidney injury score was evaluated histolopatologically. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorated the biochemical parameters and kidney injury induced by Mtx. There was significant increase in tissue MDA, MPO activity, TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05) and significant decrease in tissue GSH and histopathology (P<0.05) after Mtx administration. The preconditioning and treatment with medical ozone ameliorated the nephrotoxicity induced by Mtx in rats by activating antioxidant enzymes and prevented renal tissue. PMID:26550330

  15. M-step preconditioned conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L.

    1983-01-01

    Preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for solving sparse symmetric and positive finite systems of linear equations are described. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for when these preconditioners can be used and an analysis of their effectiveness is given. Efficient computer implementations of these methods are discussed and results on the CYBER 203 and the Finite Element Machine under construction at NASA Langley Research Center are included.

  16. On polynomial preconditioning for indefinite Hermitian matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland W.

    1989-01-01

    The minimal residual method is studied combined with polynomial preconditioning for solving large linear systems (Ax = b) with indefinite Hermitian coefficient matrices (A). The standard approach for choosing the polynomial preconditioners leads to preconditioned systems which are positive definite. Here, a different strategy is studied which leaves the preconditioned coefficient matrix indefinite. More precisely, the polynomial preconditioner is designed to cluster the positive, resp. negative eigenvalues of A around 1, resp. around some negative constant. In particular, it is shown that such indefinite polynomial preconditioners can be obtained as the optimal solutions of a certain two parameter family of Chebyshev approximation problems. Some basic results are established for these approximation problems and a Remez type algorithm is sketched for their numerical solution. The problem of selecting the parameters such that the resulting indefinite polynomial preconditioners speeds up the convergence of minimal residual method optimally is also addressed. An approach is proposed based on the concept of asymptotic convergence factors. Finally, some numerical examples of indefinite polynomial preconditioners are given.

  17. Effects of Postconditioning, Preconditioning and Perfusion of L-carnitine During Whole Period of Ischemia/ Reperfusion on Cardiac Hemodynamic Functions and Myocardial Infarction Size in Isolated Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Moslem

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): In the present work, the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on postischemic cardiac hemodynamic functions and infarction size were studied in isolated rat heart. Materials and Methods: The hearts were subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. Then they were perfused by a drug-free or LC-enriched Krebs–Henseleit (K/H) solution during ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) (Protocol 1), 10 min before ischemia induction (Protocol 2; preconditioning group) or the first 10 min of reperfusion (Protocol 3; postconditioning group). Results: The perfusion of LC in protocol 1 significantly reduced left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) (P<0.05), and increased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) (P<0.05), rate pressure product (RPP) (P<0.01) and coronary flow rate (CFR) (P<0.05). The short-term preischemic administration of LC in protocol 2 improved RPP, CFR and decreased the extent of LVEDP elevation. However, protective effects of LC in this protocol were low compared to the whole period perfusion. In protocol 3, LC preserved postischemic cardiac functions not as much as the other protocols. In addition, infarct size significantly decreased by LC in all protocols as opposed to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present work showed that LC produced protective effects against I/R injury. These protective actions were reversed by concomitant use of etomoxir (a CPT-I inhibitor), suggesting that the efficacy of LC could be due to its mitochondrial action, probably related to the raise in glucose oxidation of the reperfused hearts. PMID:24250945

  18. Effects of Postconditioning, Preconditioning and Perfusion of L-carnitine During Whole Period of Ischemia/ Reperfusion on Cardiac Hemodynamic Functions and Myocardial Infarction Size in Isolated Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Moslem

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): In the present work, the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on postischemic cardiac hemodynamic functions and infarction size were studied in isolated rat heart. Materials and Methods: The hearts were subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. Then they were perfused by a drug-free or LC-enriched Krebs–Henseleit (K/H) solution during ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) (Protocol 1), 10 min before ischemia induction (Protocol 2; preconditioning group) or the first 10 min of reperfusion (Protocol 3; postconditioning group). Results: The perfusion of LC in protocol 1 significantly reduced left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) (P<0.05), and increased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) (P<0.05), rate pressure product (RPP) (P<0.01) and coronary flow rate (CFR) (P<0.05). The short-term preischemic administration of LC in protocol 2 improved RPP, CFR and decreased the extent of LVEDP elevation. However, protective effects of LC in this protocol were low compared to the whole period perfusion. In protocol 3, LC preserved postischemic cardiac functions not as much as the other protocols. In addition, infarct size significantly decreased by LC in all protocols as opposed to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present work showed that LC produced protective effects against I/R injury. These protective actions were reversed by concomitant use of etomoxir (a CPT-I inhibitor), suggesting that the efficacy of LC could be due to its mitochondrial action, probably related to the raise in glucose oxidation of the reperfused hearts. PMID:24250943

  19. Is longer sevoflurane preconditioning neuroprotective in permanent focal cerebral ischemia?

    PubMed

    Qiu, Caiwei; Sheng, Bo; Wang, Shurong; Liu, Jin

    2013-08-15

    Sevoflurane preconditioning has neuroprotective effects in the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. However, its influence on permanent cerebral ischemia remains unclear. In the present study, the rats were exposed to sevoflurane for 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes, followed by induction of permanent cerebral ischemia. Results demonstrated that 30- and 60-minute sevoflurane preconditioning significantly reduced the infarct volume at 24 hours after cerebral ischemia, and 60-minute lurane preconditioning additionally reduced the number of TUNEL- and caspase-3-positive cells in the ischemic penumbra. However, 120-minute sevoflurane preconditioning did not show evident neuroprotective effects. Moreover, 60-minute sevoflurane preconditioning significantly attenuated neurological deficits and infarct volume in rats at 4 days after cerebral ischemia. These findings indicated that 60-minute sevoflurane preconditioning can induce the best neuroprotective effects in rats with permanent cerebral ischemia through the inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:25206521

  20. Is longer sevoflurane preconditioning neuroprotective in permanent focal cerebral ischemia?

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Caiwei; Sheng, Bo; Wang, Shurong; Liu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Sevoflurane preconditioning has neuroprotective effects in the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. However, its influence on permanent cerebral ischemia remains unclear. In the present study, the rats were exposed to sevoflurane for 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes, followed by induction of permanent cerebral ischemia. Results demonstrated that 30- and 60-minute sevoflurane preconditioning significantly reduced the infarct volume at 24 hours after cerebral ischemia, and 60-minute lurane preconditioning additionally reduced the number of TUNEL- and caspase-3-positive cells in the ischemic penumbra. However, 120-minute sevoflurane preconditioning did not show evident neuroprotective effects. Moreover, 60-minute sevoflurane preconditioning significantly attenuated neurological deficits and infarct volume in rats at 4 days after cerebral ischemia. These findings indicated that 60-minute sevoflurane preconditioning can induce the best neuroprotective effects in rats with permanent cerebral ischemia through the inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:25206521

  1. Influence of preischemic hyperglycemia on osmolality and early postischemic edema in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gisselsson, L; Smith, M L; Siesj, B K

    1992-09-01

    Preischemic hyperglycemia, which raises tissue lactate content during ischemia, is known to aggravate ischemic brain damage. To explore the possibility that the enhanced lactic acidosis gives rise to osmotic damage, we studied the influence of a varied preischemic plasma glucose concentration on the early postischemic edema. Brain edema was measured by the specific-gravity technique. Brain and plasma osmolality were measured with a vapor pressure osmometer. We examined different brain regions in hyperglycemic and moderately hypoglycemic rats subjected to 15 min of forebrain ischemia, followed by recirculation for 5, 15, and 30 min. The decrease in specific gravity was compared with the increase in osmolality, to study whether the edema formation in the different groups correlated to the increase in tissue osmolality. We found edema formation to be most pronounced in frontoparietal cortex. In this structure and in hippocampus, statistically significant decreases of specific gravity were seen at all recirculation times studied. In caudoputamen, significant edema was seen only in the groups with 5 and 15 min of recirculation. Contrary to expectations, no difference was found between hyperglycemic and hyperglycemic animals. Tissue osmolality increased during ischemia in both the low and high glucose groups, but to a higher level in the latter (hypoglycemia 311 +/- 1 mmol kg-1, hyperglycemia 328 +/- 10 mmol kg-1; mean +/- SD, p less than 0.05). In the hyperglycemic group, brain osmolality remained elevated for the first 15 min of recirculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1506445

  2. LPS-Induced Delayed Preconditioning Is Mediated by Hsp90 and Involves the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kaucsár, Tamás; Bodor, Csaba; Godó, Mária; Szalay, Csaba; Révész, Csaba; Németh, Zalán; Mózes, Miklós; Szénási, Gábor; Rosivall, László; Sőti, Csaba; Hamar, Péter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We and others demonstrated previously that preconditioning with endotoxin (LPS) protected from a subsequent lethal LPS challenge or from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). LPS is effective in evoking the heat shock response, an ancient and essential cellular defense mechanism, which plays a role in resistance to, and recovery from diseases. Here, by using the pharmacological Hsp90 inhibitor novobiocin (NB), we investigated the role of Hsp90 and the heat shock response in LPS-induced delayed renal preconditioning. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with preconditioning (P: 2 mg/kg, ip.) and subsequent lethal (L: 10 mg/kg, ip.) doses of LPS alone or in combination with NB (100 mg/kg, ip.). Controls received saline (C) or NB. Results Preconditioning LPS conferred protection from a subsequent lethal LPS treatment. Importantly, the protective effect of LPS preconditioning was completely abolished by a concomitant treatment with NB. LPS induced a marked heat shock protein increase as demonstrated by Western blots of Hsp70 and Hsp90. NB alone also stimulated Hsp70 and Hsp90 mRNA but not protein expression. However, Hsp70 and Hsp90 protein induction in LPS-treated mice was abolished by a concomitant NB treatment, demonstrating a NB-induced impairment of the heat shock response to LPS preconditioning. Conclusion LPS-induced heat shock protein induction and tolerance to a subsequent lethal LPS treatment was prevented by the Hsp90 inhibitor, novobiocin. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of Hsp90 in LPS signaling, and a potential involvement of the heat shock response in LPS-induced preconditioning. PMID:24646925

  3. Matrix preconditioning: a robust operation for optical linear algebra processors.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Paparao, P

    1987-07-15

    Analog electrooptical processors are best suited for applications demanding high computational throughput with tolerance for inaccuracies. Matrix preconditioning is one such application. Matrix preconditioning is a preprocessing step for reducing the condition number of a matrix and is used extensively with gradient algorithms for increasing the rate of convergence and improving the accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we describe a simple parallel algorithm for matrix preconditioning, which can be implemented efficiently on a pipelined optical linear algebra processor. From the results of our numerical experiments we show that the efficacy of the preconditioning algorithm is affected very little by the errors of the optical system. PMID:20489953

  4. Approximate polynomial preconditioning applied to biharmonic equations on vector supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Yau Shu; Jiang, Hong

    1987-01-01

    Applying a finite difference approximation to a biharmonic equation results in a very ill-conditioned system of equations. This paper examines the conjugate gradient method used in conjunction with the generalized and approximate polynomial preconditionings for solving such linear systems. An approximate polynomial preconditioning is introduced, and is shown to be more efficient than the generalized polynomial preconditionings. This new technique provides a simple but effective preconditioning polynomial, which is based on another coefficient matrix rather than the original matrix operator as commonly used.

  5. Preconditioning and the limit to the incompressible flow equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, E.; Fiterman, A.; Vanleer, B.

    1993-01-01

    The use of preconditioning methods to accelerate the convergence to a steady state for both the incompressible and compressible fluid dynamic equations are considered. The relation between them for both the continuous problem and the finite difference approximation is also considered. The analysis relies on the inviscid equations. The preconditioning consists of a matrix multiplying the time derivatives. Hence, the steady state of the preconditioned system is the same as the steady state of the original system. For finite difference methods the preconditioning can change and improve the steady state solutions. An application to flow around an airfoil is presented.

  6. Desflurane Preconditioning Induces Oscillation of NF-κB in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Changhong; Tang, Jianguo; Zhu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has been implicated in anesthetic preconditioning (APC) induced protection against anoxia and reoxygenation (A/R) injury. The authors hypothesized that desflurane preconditioning would induce NF-κB oscillation and prevent endothelial cells apoptosis. Methods A human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) A/R injury model was used. A 30 minute desflurane treatment was initiated before anoxia. NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 was administered in some experiments before desflurane preconditioning. Cells apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry using annexin V–fluorescein isothiocyanate staining and cell viability was evaluated by modified tertrozalium salt (MTT) assay. The cellular superoxide dismutases (SOD) activitiy were tested by water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay. NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear translocation was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Expression of inhibitor of NF-κB-α (IκBα), NF-κB p65 and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (c-IAP1), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), cysteine containing aspartate specific protease 3 (caspases-3) and second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspase (SMAC/DIABLO) were determined by western blot. Results Desflurane preconditioning caused phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB before anoxia, on the contrary, induced the synthesis of IκBα and inhibition of NF-κB after reoxygenation. Desflurane preconditioning up-regulated the expression of c-IAP1 and Bcl-2, blocked the cleavage of caspase-3 and reduced SMAC release, and decreased the cell death of HUVECs after A/R. The protective effect was abolished by BAY11-7082 administered before desflurane. Conclusions The results demonstrated that desflurane activated NF-κB during the preconditioning period and inhibited excessive activation of NF-κB in reperfusion. And the oscillation of NF-κB induced by desflurane preconditioning finally up-regulated antiapoptotic proteins expression and protected endothelial cells against A/R. PMID:23799118

  7. IRE1-RACK1 axis orchestrates ER stress preconditioning-elicited cytoprotection from ischemia/reperfusion injury in liver.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Ti; Yao, William; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fengsong; Aikhionbare, Felix O; Hill, Donald L; Emmett, Nerimah; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Dongmei; Yao, Xuebiao; Chen, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in ischemic preconditioning that protects various organs from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We established an in vivo ER stress preconditioning model in which tunicamycin was injected into rats before hepatic I/R. The hepatic I/R injury, demonstrated by serum aminotransferase level and the ultra-structure of the liver, was alleviated by administration of tunicamycin, which induced ER stress in rat liver by activating inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and upregulating 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78). The proteomic identification for IRE1 binders revealed interaction and cooperation among receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), phosphorylated AMPK, and IRE1 under ER stress conditions in a spatiotemporal manner. Furthermore, in vitro ER stress preconditioning was induced by thapsigargin and tunicamycin in L02 and HepG2 cells. Surprisingly, BCL2 was found to be phosphorylated by IRE1 under ER stress conditions to prevent apoptotic process by activation of autophagy. In conclusion, ER stress preconditioning protects against hepatic I/R injury, which is orchestrated by IRE1-RACK1 axis through the activation of BCL2. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular pathways underlying ER stress preconditioning-elicited cytoprotective effect against hepatic I/R injury. PMID:26711306

  8. H(curl) Auxiliary Mesh Preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, T V; Pasciak, J E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-08-31

    This paper analyzes a two-level preconditioning scheme for H(curl) bilinear forms. The scheme utilizes an auxiliary problem on a related mesh that is more amenable for constructing optimal order multigrid methods. More specifically, we analyze the case when the auxiliary mesh only approximately covers the original domain. The latter assumption is important since it allows for easy construction of nested multilevel spaces on regular auxiliary meshes. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions illustrate the optimal performance of the method.

  9. Domain-decomposed preconditionings for transport operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Gropp, William D.; Keyes, David E.

    1991-01-01

    The performance was tested of five different interface preconditionings for domain decomposed convection diffusion problems, including a novel one known as the spectral probe, while varying mesh parameters, Reynolds number, ratio of subdomain diffusion coefficients, and domain aspect ratio. The preconditioners are representative of the range of practically computable possibilities that have appeared in the domain decomposition literature for the treatment of nonoverlapping subdomains. It is shown that through a large number of numerical examples that no single preconditioner can be considered uniformly superior or uniformly inferior to the rest, but that knowledge of particulars, including the shape and strength of the convection, is important in selecting among them in a given problem.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of OBA-09, a salicylic acid/pyruvate ester, in the postischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Woo; Jin, Yinchuan; Kim, Il-Doo; Park, Ju-Young; Yoon, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2013-08-28

    Cerebral ischemia leads to brain injury via a complex series of pathophysiological events, and therefore, multi-drug treatments or multi-targeting drug treatments provide attractive options with respect to limiting brain damage. Previously, we reported that a novel multi-functional compound oxopropanoyloxy benzoic acid (OBA-09, a simple ester of pyruvate and salicylic acid) affords robust neuroprotective effects in the postischemic rat brain. OBA-09 exhibited anti-oxidative effects that appeared to be executed by OBA-09 and by the salicylic acid afforded by hydrolysis. Here, we report the anti-inflammatory effects of OBA-09. Microglial activation observed at 2 days post-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 90 min) and at 1 day after a LPS injection (0.5 mg/kg, intravenously) in the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats were markedly suppressed by the administration of OBA-09 (10 mg/kg). Inductions of proinflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2) were also suppressed by OBA-09 in both the LPS and MCAO models. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect of OBA-09 was accompanied by the suppression of infarct formation in the postischemic brain, but appeared to be independent of neuroprotection in LPS-treated rats. The inductions of proinflammatory markers were also inhibited by OBA-09 in LPS-treated BV2 cells (a microglia cell line) and in LPS-treated-primary neutrophils, possibly due to the suppression of NF-κB activity. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory effect of OBA-09 was greater than that of equivalent co-treatment with pyruvate and salicylic acid. Together these results indicate that OBA-09 is a potent multi-modal neuroprotectant in the postischemic brain, and that its anti-inflammatory effect contributes to its neuroprotective function. PMID:23850644

  11. The multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatebe, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    A multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method (MGCG method), which uses the multigrid method as a preconditioner of the PCG method, is proposed. The multigrid method has inherent high parallelism and improves convergence of long wavelength components, which is important in iterative methods. By using this method as a preconditioner of the PCG method, an efficient method with high parallelism and fast convergence is obtained. First, it is considered a necessary condition of the multigrid preconditioner in order to satisfy requirements of a preconditioner of the PCG method. Next numerical experiments show a behavior of the MGCG method and that the MGCG method is superior to both the ICCG method and the multigrid method in point of fast convergence and high parallelism. This fast convergence is understood in terms of the eigenvalue analysis of the preconditioned matrix. From this observation of the multigrid preconditioner, it is realized that the MGCG method converges in very few iterations and the multigrid preconditioner is a desirable preconditioner of the conjugate gradient method.

  12. 40 CFR 1066.407 - Vehicle preparation and preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Prepare the vehicle for testing as described in 40 CFR 86.131. (b) If testing will include measurement of refueling emissions, perform the vehicle preconditioning steps as described in 40 CFR 86.153. Otherwise, perform the vehicle preconditioning steps as described in 40 CFR 86.132....

  13. A preconditioned formulation of the Cauchy-Riemann equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. N.

    1983-01-01

    A preconditioning of the Cauchy-Riemann equations which results in a second-order system is described. This system is shown to have a unique solution if the boundary conditions are chosen carefully. This choice of boundary condition enables the solution of the first-order system to be retrieved. A numerical solution of the preconditioned equations is obtained by the multigrid method.

  14. 40 CFR 86.532-78 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.532-78... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.532-78 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) The...

  15. 40 CFR 86.532-78 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.532-78... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.532-78 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) The...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1232-96 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.1232-96... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1232-96 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Fuel tank cap(s) of...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1232-96 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.1232-96... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1232-96 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Fuel tank cap(s) of...

  18. 40 CFR 86.532-78 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.532-78... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.532-78 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) The...

  19. 40 CFR 1066.407 - Vehicle preparation and preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Prepare the vehicle for testing as described in 40 CFR 86.131. (b) If testing will include measurement of refueling emissions, perform the vehicle preconditioning steps as described in 40 CFR 86.153. Otherwise, perform the vehicle preconditioning steps as described in 40 CFR 86.132....

  20. [STRESS AND INFARCT LIMITING EFFECTS OF EARLY HYPOXIC PRECONDITIONING].

    PubMed

    Lishmanov, Yu B; Maslov, L N; Sementsov, A S; Naryzhnaya, N V; Tsibulnikov, S Yu

    2015-09-01

    It was established that early hypoxic preconditioning is an adaptive state different from eustress and distress. Hypoxic preconditioning has the cross effects, increasing the tolerance of the heart to ischemia-reperfusion and providing antiulcerogenic effect during immobilization stress. PMID:26672158

  1. Reproductive Senescence Blunts Response of Estrogen Receptor-α Expression to Estrogen Treatment in Rat Post-Ischemic Cerebral Microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalov, Emil; Rezvani, Niloofar; Miyazaki, Chikao; Liu, Xiaoguang; Littleton-Kearney, Marguerite T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies demonstrate that estrogen treatment improves cerebral blood flow in ischemic brain regions of young ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) may mediate estrogen’s beneficial actions via its effects on the cerebral microvasculature. However, estrogen-derived benefit may be attenuated in aged, reproductively senescent (RS) rats. Our goal was to determine the effects of aging, estrogen deprivation and estrogen repletion with oral conjugated estrogens (CE) on postischemic cerebral microvascular protein expression of ER-α and ER-β. Methods Fisher-344 (n = 37) female rats were randomly divided into the following groups: OVX, OVX CE-treated, RS untreated, and RS CE-treated. After 30 days pretreatment with CE (0.01 mg/kg) rats were subjected to15 min. transient global cerebral ischemia. Non-ischemic naïve, OVX and RS rats were used as controls. Expression of ER-α and ER-β in isolated cortical cerebral microvessels (20 to 100 µm in diameter) was assessed using Western blot and immunohistochemistry techniques. Results Age and reproductive status blunted nonischemic ER-α expression in microvessels of OVX rats (0.31±0.05) and RS rats (0.33±0.06) compared to naïve rats (0.45±0.02). Postischemic microvascular expression of ER-α in OVX rats (0.01±0.0) was increased by CE treatment (0.04±0.01). Expression of ER-α in microvessels of RS rats (0.03±0.02) was unaffected by CE treatment (0.01±0.02). Western blot data are presented as a ratio of ER-α or ER-β proteins to β-actin and. Oral CE treatment had no effect on ER-β expression in postischemic microvessels of OVX and RS rats. Statistical analysis was performed by One-Way ANOVA and a Newman-Keuls or Student’s post-hoc test. Conclusion Chronic treatment with CE increases ER-α but not ER-β expression in cerebral microvessels of OVX rats. Aging appears to reduce the normal ability of estrogen to increase ER-α expression in postischemic cerebral microvessels. PMID:25010766

  2. A limited role for regulatory T cells in post-ischemic neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Hellingman, AA; van der Vlugt, LEPM; Lijkwan, MA; Bastiaansen, AJNM; Sparwasser, T; Smits, HH; Hamming, JF; Quax, PHA

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recently, it was demonstrated that arteriogenesis is enhanced in mice deficient in regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cell), which can suppress effector T cell responses. The present study investigates the effects of these regulatory T cells on arteriogenesis in more detail by either specific expanding or depleting regulatory T cells. Hind limb ischemia was induced by electro-coagulation of the femoral artery in mice. Regulatory T cells were either expanded by injecting mice with a complex of interleukin (IL)-2 with the IL-2 monoclonal antibody JES6–1, or depleted by anti-CD25 antibody or diphtheria toxin injections in DEREG mice (depletion of regulatory T cells). Blood flow restoration was monitored using laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Collateral arteries were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Regulatory T cell expansion led to a moderate though significant suppression of blood flow restoration after ischemia induction. Surprisingly, depletion of regulatory T cells resulted in minor increase on blood flow recovery. However, collateral and capillary densities in the post-ischemic skeletal muscle were significantly increased in DEREG mice depleted for regulatory T cells. The presence of regulatory T cells after ischemia induction when analysed in non-depleted DEREG mice could be demonstrated by green fluorescent protein staining only in lymph nodes in the ischemic area, and not in the ischemic muscle tissue. The current study demonstrates that, even under conditions of major changes in regulatory T cell content, the contribution of regulatory T cells to the regulation of the arteriogenic response is only moderate. PMID:21426486

  3. A limited role for regulatory T cells in post-ischemic neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Hellingman, A A; van der Vlugt, L E P M; Lijkwan, M A; Bastiaansen, A J N M; Sparwasser, T; Smits, H H; Hamming, J F; Quax, P H A

    2012-02-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that arteriogenesis is enhanced in mice deficient in regulatory T cells (CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cell), which can suppress effector T cell responses. The present study investigates the effects of these regulatory T cells on arteriogenesis in more detail by either specific expanding or depleting regulatory T cells. Hind limb ischemia was induced by electro-coagulation of the femoral artery in mice. Regulatory T cells were either expanded by injecting mice with a complex of interleukin (IL)-2 with the IL-2 monoclonal antibody JES6-1, or depleted by anti-CD25 antibody or diphtheria toxin injections in DEREG mice (depletion of regulatory T cells). Blood flow restoration was monitored using laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Collateral arteries were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Regulatory T cell expansion led to a moderate though significant suppression of blood flow restoration after ischemia induction. Surprisingly, depletion of regulatory T cells resulted in minor increase on blood flow recovery. However, collateral and capillary densities in the post-ischemic skeletal muscle were significantly increased in DEREG mice depleted for regulatory T cells. The presence of regulatory T cells after ischemia induction when analysed in non-depleted DEREG mice could be demonstrated by green fluorescent protein staining only in lymph nodes in the ischemic area, and not in the ischemic muscle tissue. The current study demonstrates that, even under conditions of major changes in regulatory T cell content, the contribution of regulatory T cells to the regulation of the arteriogenic response is only moderate. PMID:21426486

  4. Recovery of postischemic contractile function is depressed by antegrade warm continuous blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Misare, B D; Krukenkamp, I B; Lazer, Z P; Levitsky, S

    1993-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of warm antegrade continuous blood cardioplegia in the setting of an acute coronary arterial occlusion, we instrumented 19 Yorkshire swine to quantitate left ventricular global, systolic, diastolic, and regional mechanics. Data were acquired before and after 10 minutes of mid-left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion followed by 60 minutes of aortic crossclamping. Cardiac arrest was induced by the antegrade infusion of 20 ml/kg of warm (37 degrees C) or cold (4 degrees C) oxygenated blood cardioplegic solution followed by either continuous warm (75 ml/min, n = 9) or intermittent cold (10 ml/kg every 20 minutes, n = 10) cardioplegic reinfusions. Left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion was released 20 minutes after aortic crossclamping and resulted in warm-arrested hearts developing a 139% increase in global oxygen consumption compared with values obtained with the left anterior descending coronary artery occluded (p < 0.02). Recovery of global left ventricle contractility, quantitated by the linear preload recruitable stroke-work relationship, was significantly worse after warm cardioplegia (52.4% +/- 5.1% versus 68.0% +/- 5.9%, warm versus cold, p < 0.05). Similarly, left anterior descending coronary artery regional ischemic zone contractility recovered 34.5% +/- 7.3% of control function with cold cardioplegia, whereas warm cardioplegia resulted in -11.36% +/- 7.46% functional recovery indicative of dyssynchronous contraction (p < 0.05). Diastolic compliance, calculated with an exponential end-diastolic pressure-versus-volume relationship, was not changed postischemically in either group. These data suggest that warm antegrade blood cardioplegia may potentiate acute ischemic injury and provide inadequate myocardial protection. PMID:8419707

  5. Kinin receptor agonism restores hindlimb postischemic neovascularization capacity in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Desposito, Dorinne; Potier, Louis; Chollet, Catherine; Gobeil, Fernand; Roussel, Ronan; Alhenc-Gelas, Francois; Bouby, Nadine; Waeckel, Ludovic

    2015-02-01

    Limb ischemia is a major complication of thromboembolic diseases. Diabetes worsens prognosis by impairing neovascularization. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of the kallikrein-kinin system aggravates limb ischemia in nondiabetic animals, whereas angiotensin I-converting enzyme/kininase II inhibition improves outcome. The role of kinins in limb ischemia in the setting of diabetes is not documented. We assessed whether selective activation of kinin receptors by pharmacological agonists can influence neovascularization in diabetic mice with limb ischemia and have a therapeutic effect. Selective pseudopeptide kinin B1 or B2 receptor agonists resistant to peptidase action were administered by osmotic minipumps at a nonhypotensive dosage for 14 days after unilateral femoral artery ligation in mice previously rendered diabetic by streptozotocin. Comparison was made with ligatured, nonagonist-treated nondiabetic and diabetic mice. Diabetes reduced neovascularization, assessed by microangiography and histologic capillary density analysis, by roughly 40%. B1 receptor agonist or B2 receptor agonist similarly restored neovascularization in diabetic mice. Neovascularization in agonist-treated diabetic mice was indistinguishable from nondiabetic mice. Both treatments restored blood flow in the ischemic hindfoot, measured by laser-Doppler perfusion imaging. Macrophage infiltration increased 3-fold in the ischemic gastrocnemius muscle during B1 receptor agonist or B2 receptor agonist treatment, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level increased 2-fold. Both treatments increased, by 50-100%, circulating CD45/CD11b-positive monocytes and CD34(+)/VEGFR2(+) progenitor cells. Thus, selective pharmacological activation of B1 or B2 kinin receptor overcomes the effect of diabetes on postischemic neovascularization and restores tissue perfusion through monocyte/macrophage mobilization. Kinin receptors are potential therapeutic targets in limb ischemia in diabetes. PMID:25398240

  6. Thallium 201 kinetics in stunned myocardium characterized by severe postischemic systolic dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.A.; Cannon, J.; Watson, D.D.; Kaul, S.; Beller, G.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study was that despite the presence of severe postischemic myocardial dysfunction (stunning), the extraction and subsequent intracellular washout of thallium 201 should be preserved as long as irreversible sarcolemmal membrane injury was avoided. To produce myocardial stunning, 19 open-chested dogs with a critical left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) stenosis underwent 10 5-minute periods of total LAD occlusion, each interspersed by 10 minutes of reperfusion by reflow through the critical stenosis. In another 12 control dogs observed for the same time period, no LAD occlusions were performed after placement of the critical stenosis. Hemodynamics, regional myocardial thickening by quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography, and microsphere-determined regional blood flows were serially measured. In 18 stunned dogs, systolic thickening in the LAD zone was markedly reduced to 0.4 +/- 2.4% at 40 minutes after the 10th reperfusion period compared with 32.5 +/- 2.2% thickening (p less than 0.001) in 12 control dogs at a matched time. The 201Tl first-pass extraction fraction determined by a double-isotope method using intracoronary 201Tl administration was comparable after the 10th reflow in a subgroup of 13 stunned (0.78) and six control (0.79) dogs. The T1/2 for the intracellular washout rate was also not significantly different in another group of six stunned (60 +/- 13 minutes) and six control (53 +/- 14 minutes) dogs, nor was the percentage of the 201Tl dose initially distributed in the interstitial compartment (11 +/- 3% vs. 7 +/- 2%). Systemic hemodynamics and regional flows were comparable in the two groups at 40 minutes after the 10th reflow. No dog had evidence of myocardial necrosis by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining.

  7. Attenuation of Postischemic Genomic Alteration by Mesenchymal Stem Cells: a Microarray Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chunggab; Oh, Seung-Hun; Noh, Jeong-Eun; Jeong, Yong-Woo; Kim, Soonhag; Ko, Jung Jae; Kim, Ok-Joon; Song, Jihwan

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (IV-MSC) protects the ischemic rat brain in a stroke model, but the molecular mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect is unclear. We compared genomic profiles using the mRNA microarray technique in a rodent stroke model. Rats were treated with 1 × 106 IV-MSC or saline (sham group) 2 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). mRNA microarray was conducted 72 h after MCAo using brain tissue from normal rats (normal group) and the sham and MSC groups. Predicted pathway analysis was performed in differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and functional tests and immunohistochemistry for inflammation-related proteins were performed. We identified 857 DEGs between the sham and normal groups, with the majority of them (88.7%) upregulated in sham group. Predicted pathway analysis revealed that cerebral ischemia activated 10 signaling pathways mainly related to inflammation and cell cycle. IV-MSC attenuated the numbers of dysregulated genes in cerebral ischemia (118 DEGs between the MSC and normal groups). In addition, a total of 218 transcripts were differentially expressed between the MSC and sham groups, and most of them (175/218 DEGs, 80.2%) were downregulated in the MSC group. IV-MSC reduced the number of Iba-1+ cells in the peri-infarct area, reduced the overall infarct size, and improved functional deficits in MCAo rats. In conclusion, transcriptome analysis revealed that IV-MSC attenuated postischemic genomic alterations in the ischemic brain. Amelioration of dysregulated inflammation- and cell cycle-related gene expression in the host brain is one of the molecular mechanisms of IV-MSC therapy for cerebral ischemia. PMID:26923192

  8. NCX1 Exchanger Cooperates with Calretinin to Confer Preconditioning-Induced Tolerance Against Cerebral Ischemia in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Boscia, Francesca; Casamassa, Antonella; Secondo, Agnese; Esposito, Alba; Pannaccione, Anna; Sirabella, Rossana; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Cuomo, Ornella; Vinciguerra, Antonio; de Rosa, Valeria; Annunziato, Lucio

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the Na(+)/Ca(+2) exchanger NCX1 and the calcium binding protein calretinin have emerged as new molecular effectors of delayed preconditioning in the brain. In the present study, we investigated whether NCX1 and calretinin cooperate within the preconditioned striatum to confer neurons greater resistance to degeneration. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that NCX1 expression was upregulated in calretinin-positive interneurons in the rat striatum after tolerance induction. Consistently, coimmunoprecipitation assays performed on human SHSY-5Y cells, a neuronal cell line which constitutively expresses calretinin, revealed a binding between NCX1 and calretinin. Finally, silencing of calretinin expression, both in vitro and in vivo, significantly prevented preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Interestingly, our biochemical and functional studies showed that the selective silencing of calretinin in brain cells significantly prevented not only the preconditioning-induced upregulation of NCX1 expression and activity but also the activation of the prosurvival protein kinase Akt, which is involved in calretinin and NCX1 protective actions. Collectively, our results indicate that the Na(+)/Ca(+2) exchanger NCX1 and the calcium binding protein calretinin cooperate within the striatum to confer tolerance against cerebral ischemia. PMID:25633096

  9. Pharmacological neutropenia prevents endothelial dysfunction but not smooth muscle functions impairment induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Pétrault, Olivier; Ouk, Thavarak; Gautier, Sophie; Laprais, Maud; Gelé, Patrick; Bastide, Michèle; Bordet, Régis

    2005-01-01

    The polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) activation and mobilization observed in acute cerebral infarction contribute to the brain tissue damage, but PMN could also be involved in postischemic functional injury of ischemied blood vessel. This study was undertaken to investigate whether pharmacological neutropenia could modify the postischemic endothelial dysfunction in comparison to smooth muscle whose impairment is likely more related to reperfusion and oxidative stress. A cerebral ischemia–reperfusion by endoluminal occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (MCA) was performed 4 days after intravenous administration of vinblastine or 12 h after RP-3 anti-rat neutrophils monoclonal antibody (mAb RP-3) injection into the peritoneal cavity, on male Wistar rats with 1-h ischemia then followed by 24-h reperfusion period. Brain infarct volume was measured by histomorphometric analysis and vascular endothelial and smooth muscle reactivity of MCA was analysed using Halpern myograph. Neutropenia induced a neuroprotective effect as demonstrated by a significant decrease of brain infarct size. In parallel to neuroprotection, neutropenia prevented postischemic impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxing response to acetylcholine. In contrast, smooth muscle functional alterations were not prevented by neutropenia. Ischemia–reperfusion-induced myogenic tone impairment remained unchanged in vinblastine and mAb RP-3-treated rats. Postischemic Kir2.x-dependent relaxation impairment was not prevented in neutropenic conditions. The fully relaxation of smooth muscle response to sodium nitroprusside was similar in all groups. Our results evidenced the dissociate prevention of pharmacologically induced neutropenia on postischemic vascular endothelial and smooth muscle impairment. The selective endothelial protection by neutropenia is parallel to a neuroprotective effect suggesting a possible relationship between the two phenomena. PMID:15700030

  10. Preservation of peritubular capillary endothelial integrity and increasing pericytes may be critical to recovery from postischemic acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Osun; Hong, Seok-Min; Sutton, Timothy A.; Temm, Constance J.

    2008-01-01

    Decreased renal blood flow following an ischemic insult contributes to a reduction in glomerular filtration. However, little is known about the underlying cellular or subcellular mechanisms mediating reduced renal blood flow in human ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) or acute renal failure (ARF). To examine renal vascular injury following ischemia, intraoperative graft biopsies were performed after reperfusion in 21 cadaveric renal allografts. Confocal fluorescence microscopy was utilized to examine vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell integrity as well as peritubular interstitial pericytes in the biopsies. The reperfused, transplanted kidneys exhibited postischemic injury to the renal vasculature, as demonstrated by disorganization/disarray of the actin cytoskeleton in vascular smooth muscle cells and disappearance of von Willebrand factor from vascular endothelial cells. Damage to peritubular capillary endothelial cells was more severe in subjects destined to have sustained ARF than in those with rapid recovery of their graft function. In addition, peritubular pericytes/myofibroblasts were more pronounced in recipients destined to recover than those with sustained ARF. Taken together, these data suggest damage to the renal vasculature occurs after ischemia-reperfusion in human kidneys. Preservation of peritubular capillary endothelial integrity and increasing pericytes may be critical to recovery from postischemic AKI. PMID:18562634

  11. A fast, preconditioned conjugate gradient Toeplitz solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Victor; Schrieber, Robert

    1989-01-01

    A simple factorization is given of an arbitrary hermitian, positive definite matrix in which the factors are well-conditioned, hermitian, and positive definite. In fact, given knowledge of the extreme eigenvalues of the original matrix A, an optimal improvement can be achieved, making the condition numbers of each of the two factors equal to the square root of the condition number of A. This technique is to applied to the solution of hermitian, positive definite Toeplitz systems. Large linear systems with hermitian, positive definite Toeplitz matrices arise in some signal processing applications. A stable fast algorithm is given for solving these systems that is based on the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. The algorithm exploits Toeplitz structure to reduce the cost of an iteration to O(n log n) by applying the fast Fourier Transform to compute matrix-vector products. Matrix factorization is used as a preconditioner.

  12. The preconditioning of major sudden stratospheric warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancalá, S.; Krüger, K.; Giorgetta, M.

    2012-02-01

    The preconditioning of major sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) is investigated with two long time series using reanalysis (ERA-40) and model (MAECHAM5/MPI-OM) data. Applying planetary wave analysis, we distinguish between wavenumber-1 and wavenumber-2 major SSWs based on the wave activity of zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2 during the prewarming phase. For this analysis an objective criterion to identify and classify the preconditioning of major SSWs is developed. Major SSWs are found to occur with a frequency of six and seven events per decade in the reanalysis and in the model, respectively, thus highlighting the ability of MAECHAM5/MPI-OM to simulate the frequency of major SSWs realistically. However, from these events only one quarter are wavenumber-2 major warmings, representing a low (˜0.25) wavenumber-2 to wavenumber-1 major SSW ratio. Composite analyses for both data sets reveal that the two warming types have different dynamics; while wavenumber-1 major warmings are preceded only by an enhanced activity of the zonal wavenumber-1, wavenumber-2 events are either characterized by only the amplification of zonal wavenumber-2 or by both zonal wavenumber-1 and zonal wavenumber-2, albeit at different time intervals. The role of tropospheric blocking events influencing these two categories of major SSWs is evaluated in the next step. Here, the composite analyses of both reanalysis and model data reveal that blocking events in the Euro-Atlantic sector mostly lead to the development of wavenumber-1 major warmings. The blocking-wavenumber-2 major warming connection can only be statistical reliable analyzed with the model time series, demonstrating that blocking events in the Pacific region mostly precede wavenumber-2 major SSWs.

  13. Pre-Conditioning with Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy: Light Before the Storm

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Tanupriya; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Rai, Vikrant; Carroll, James D.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-conditioning by ischemia, hyperthermia, hypothermia, hyperbaric oxygen (and numerous other modalities) is a rapidly growing area of investigation that is used in pathological conditions where tissue damage may be expected. The damage caused by surgery, heart attack, or stroke can be mitigated by pre-treating the local or distant tissue with low levels of a stress-inducing stimulus, that can induce a protective response against subsequent major damage. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been used for nearly 50 years to enhance tissue healing and to relieve pain, inflammation and swelling. The photons are absorbed in cytochrome(c) oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain), and this enzyme activation increases electron transport, respiration, oxygen consumption and ATP production. A complex signaling cascade is initiated leading to activation of transcription factors and up- and down-regulation of numerous genes. Recently it has become apparent that LLLT can also be effective if delivered to normal cells or tissue before the actual insult or trauma, in a pre-conditioning mode. Muscles are protected, nerves feel less pain, and LLLT can protect against a subsequent heart attack. These examples point the way to wider use of LLLT as a pre-conditioning modality to prevent pain and increase healing after surgical/medical procedures and possibly to increase athletic performance. PMID:25552961

  14. Pharmacological Preconditioning by Adenosine A2a Receptor Stimulation: Features of the Protected Liver Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Alchera, Elisa; Imarisio, Chiara; Mandili, Giorgia; Merlin, Simone; Chandrashekar, Bangalore R.; Novelli, Francesco; Follenzi, Antonia; Carini, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) of the liver by a brief interruption of the blood flow protects the damage induced by a subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) preventing parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cell damage. The discovery of IP has shown the existence of intrinsic systems of cytoprotection whose activation can stave off the progression of irreversible tissue damage. Deciphering the molecular mediators that underlie the cytoprotective effects of preconditioning can pave the way to important therapeutic possibilities. Pharmacological activation of critical mediators of IP would be expected to emulate or even to intensify its salubrious effects. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the role of the adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) as a trigger of liver IP. This review will provide insight into the phenotypic changes that underline the resistance to death of liver cells preconditioned by pharmacological activation of A2aR and their implications to develop innovative strategies against liver IR damage. PMID:26539478

  15. Mitochondrial Mechanisms in Cerebral Vascular Control: Shared Signaling Pathways with Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Busija, David W.; Katakam, Prasad V.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial initiated events protect the neurovascular unit against lethal stresses via a process called preconditioning which independently promotes changes in cerebrovascular tone through shared signaling pathways. Activation of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent potassium channels on the inner mitochondrial membrane (mitoKATP channels) is a specific and dependable way to induce protection of neurons, astroglia, and cerebral vascular endothelium. Through the opening of mitoKATP channels, mitochondrial depolarization leads to activation of protein kinases and transient increases in cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) levels that activate terminal mechanisms that protect the neurovascular unit against lethal stress. Release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria have similar protective effects. Signaling elements of the preconditioning pathways also are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. Activation of mitoKATP channels in cerebral arteries causes vasodilation, with cell-specific contributions from endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and nerves. Pre-existing chronic conditions, such as insulin resistance (IR) and/or diabetes, prevent preconditioning and impair relaxation to mitochondrial centered responses in cerebral arteries. Surprisingly, mitochondrial activation after anoxic or ischemic stress appears to protect cerebral vascular endothelium and promotes the restoration of blood flow; therefore, mitochondria may represent an important, but underutilized target in attenuating vascular dysfunction and brain injury in stroke patients. PMID:24862206

  16. Pre-conditioning with low-level laser (light) therapy: light before the storm.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tanupriya; Gupta, Gaurav K; Rai, Vikrant; Carroll, James D; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Pre-conditioning by ischemia, hyperthermia, hypothermia, hyperbaric oxygen (and numerous other modalities) is a rapidly growing area of investigation that is used in pathological conditions where tissue damage may be expected. The damage caused by surgery, heart attack, or stroke can be mitigated by pre-treating the local or distant tissue with low levels of a stress-inducing stimulus, that can induce a protective response against subsequent major damage. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been used for nearly 50 years to enhance tissue healing and to relieve pain, inflammation and swelling. The photons are absorbed in cytochrome(c) oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain), and this enzyme activation increases electron transport, respiration, oxygen consumption and ATP production. A complex signaling cascade is initiated leading to activation of transcription factors and up- and down-regulation of numerous genes. Recently it has become apparent that LLLT can also be effective if delivered to normal cells or tissue before the actual insult or trauma, in a pre-conditioning mode. Muscles are protected, nerves feel less pain, and LLLT can protect against a subsequent heart attack. These examples point the way to wider use of LLLT as a pre-conditioning modality to prevent pain and increase healing after surgical/medical procedures and possibly to increase athletic performance. PMID:25552961

  17. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning protects rats against CNS oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Yehuda; Kotler, Doron; Eynan, Mirit; Hochman, Ayala

    2014-06-15

    We examined the hypothesis that repeated exposure to non-convulsive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) as preconditioning provides protection against central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT). Four groups of rats were used in the study. Rats in the control and the negative control (Ctl-) groups were kept in normobaric air. Two groups of rats were preconditioned to non-convulsive HBO at 202 kPa for 1h once every other day for a total of three sessions. Twenty-four hours after preconditioning, one of the preconditioned groups and the control rats were exposed to convulsive HBO at 608 kPa, and latency to CNS-OT was measured. Ctl- rats and the second preconditioned group (PrC-) were not subjected to convulsive HBO exposure. Tissues harvested from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were evaluated for enzymatic activity and nitrotyrosine levels. In the group exposed to convulsive oxygen at 608 kPa, latency to CNS-OT increased from 12.8 to 22.4 min following preconditioning. A significant decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and a significant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity, was observed in the hippocampus of preconditioned rats. Nitrotyrosine levels were significantly lower in the preconditioned animals, the highest level being observed in the control rats. In the cortex of the preconditioned rats, a significant increase was observed in glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Repeated exposure to non-convulsive HBO provides protection against CNS-OT. The protective mechanism involves alterations in the enzymatic activity of the antioxidant system and lower levels of peroxynitrite, mainly in the hippocampus. PMID:24675062

  18. Hypoxic preconditioning alleviates ethanol neurotoxicity: the involvement of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiping; Bower, Kimberly A; Frank, Jacqueline A; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and neurodegeneration is the most devastating consequence of developmental exposure to ethanol. A sublethal preconditioning has been proposed as a neuroprotective strategy against several central nervous system neurodegenerative diseases. We have recently demonstrated that autophagy is a protective response to alleviate ethanol toxicity. A modest hypoxic preconditioning (1 % oxygen) did not cause neurotoxicity but induced autophagy (Tzeng et al. Free Radic Biol Med 49: 839-846, 2010). We, therefore, hypothesize that the modest hypoxic preconditioning may offer a protection against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We showed here that the modest hypoxic preconditioning (1 % oxygen) for 8 h significantly alleviated ethanol-induced death of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Under the normoxia condition, cell viability in ethanol-exposed cultures (316 mg/dl for 48 h) was 49 ± 6 % of untreated controls; however, with hypoxic preconditioning, cell viability in the ethanol-exposed group increased to 78 ± 7 % of the controls (p < 0.05; n = 3). Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of autophagosome and lysosome fusion, blocked hypoxic preconditioning-mediated protection. Similarly, inhibition of autophagic initiation by wortmannin also eliminated hypoxic preconditioning-mediated protection. In contrast, activation of autophagy by rapamycin further enhanced neuroprotection caused by hypoxic preconditioning. Taken together, the results confirm that autophagy is a protective response against ethanol neurotoxicity and the modest hypoxic preconditioning can offer neuroprotection by activating autophagic pathways. PMID:23568540

  19. Glutathione preconditioning ameliorates mitochondria dysfunction during warm pulmonary ischemia–reperfusion injury†, ‡

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Sebastian-Patrick; Sommer, Stefanie; Sinha, Bhanu; Walter, Daniel; Aleksic, Ivan; Gohrbandt, Bernhard; Otto, Christoph; Leyh, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Reduced glutathione (GSH) has been shown to improve pulmonary graft preservation. Mitochondrial dysfunction is regarded to be the motor of ischemia–reperfusion injury (IR) in solid organs. We have shown previously that IR induces pulmonary mitochondrial damage. This study elucidates the impact of GSH preconditioning on the integrity and function of pulmonary mitochondria in the setting of warm pulmonary IR. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to control, sham, and to two-study-group conditions (IR30/60 and GSH-IR30/60) receiving IR with or without GSH preconditioning. Rats were anesthetized and received mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary in situ clamping followed by reperfusion generated IR. Mitochondria were isolated from pulmonary tissue. Respiratory chain complexes activities (I–IV) were analyzed by polarography. Mitochondrial viability (Ca2+-induced swelling) and membrane integrity (citrate synthase assay) were determined. Subcellular-fractional cytochrome C-content (Cyt C) was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) after energizing and uncoupling. Inflammatory activation was determined by myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), matrix-metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity by gel zymography. RESULTS: Pulmonary IR significantly reduced mitochondrial viability in combination with ΔΨm hyper-polarization. GSH preconditioning improved mitochondrial viability and normalized ΔΨm. Cyt C was reduced after IR; GSH protected from Cyt C liberation. Respiratory chain complex activities (I, II, III) declined during IR; GSH protected complex II function. GSH also protected from MMP-9 and neutrophil sequestration (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: GSH preconditioning is effective to prevent mitochondrial death and improves complex II function during IR, but not mitochondrial membrane stability. GSH-mediated amelioration of ΔΨm hyper-polarization appears to be the key factor of mitochondrial protection. PMID:21596579

  20. A Molecular Approach to Epilepsy Management: from Current Therapeutic Methods to Preconditioning Efforts.

    PubMed

    Amini, Elham; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Golpich, Mojtaba; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Mohamed, Zahurin; Raymond, Azman Ali; Dargahi, Leila; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-08-01

    Epilepsy is the most common and chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. The key aim in treating patients with epilepsy is the suppression of seizures. An understanding of focal changes that are involved in epileptogenesis may therefore provide novel approaches for optimal treatment of the seizure. Although the actual pathogenesis of epilepsy is still uncertain, recently growing lines of evidence declare that microglia and astrocyte activation, oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondria dysfunction, and damage of blood-brain barrier (BBB) are involved in its pathogenesis. Impaired GABAergic function in the brain is probably the most accepted hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Clinical neuroimaging of patients and experimental modeling have demonstrated that seizures may induce neuronal apoptosis. Apoptosis signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of several types of epilepsy such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The quality of life of patients is seriously affected by treatment-related problems and also by unpredictability of epileptic seizures. Moreover, the available antiepileptic drugs (AED) are not significantly effective to prevent epileptogenesis. Thus, novel therapies that are proficient to control seizure in people who are suffering from epilepsy are needed. The preconditioning method promises to serve as an alternative therapeutic approach because this strategy has demonstrated the capability to curtail epileptogenesis. For this reason, understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying brain tolerance induced by preconditioning is crucial to delineate new neuroprotective ways against seizure damage and epileptogenesis. In this review, we summarize the work to date on the pathogenesis of epilepsy and discuss recent therapeutic strategies in the treatment of epilepsy. We will highlight that novel therapy targeting such as preconditioning process holds great promise. In addition, we will also highlight the role of gene reprogramming and mitochondrial biogenesis in the preconditioning-mediated neuroprotective events. PMID:25195699

  1. Preconditioning Triggered by Carbon Monoxide (CO) Provides Neuronal Protection Following Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Widerøe, Marius; Alves, Paula M.; Vercelli, Alessandro; Vieira, Helena L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of acute mortality in newborns and cognitive and motor impairments in children. Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia leads to excitotoxicity and necrotic and apoptotic cell death, in which mitochondria play a major role. Increased resistance against major damage can be achieved by preconditioning triggered by subtle insults. CO, a toxic molecule that is also generated endogenously, may have a role in preconditioning as low doses can protect against inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, the role of CO-induced preconditioning on neurons was addressed in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 1 h of CO treatment on neuronal death (plasmatic membrane permeabilization and chromatin condensation) and bcl-2 expression was studied in cerebellar granule cells undergoing to glutamate-induced apoptosis. CO's role was studied in vivo in the Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (common carotid artery ligature +75 min at 8% oxygen). Apoptotic cells, assessed by Nissl staining were counted with a stereological approach and cleaved caspase 3-positive profiles in the hippocampus were assessed. Apoptotic hallmarks were analyzed in hippocampal extracts by Western Blot. CO inhibited excitotoxicity-induced cell death and increased Bcl-2 mRNA in primary cultures of neurons. In vivo, CO prevented hypoxia-ischemia induced apoptosis in the hippocampus, limited cytochrome c released from mitochondria and reduced activation of caspase-3. Still, Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in hippocampus of CO pre-treated rat pups. Our results show that CO preconditioning elicits a molecular cascade that limits neuronal apoptosis. This could represent an innovative therapeutic strategy for high-risk cerebral hypoxia-ischemia patients, in particular neonates. PMID:22952602

  2. Preconditioning triggered by carbon monoxide (CO) provides neuronal protection following perinatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, Cláudia S F; Tomasi, Simone; Widerøe, Marius; Alves, Paula M; Vercelli, Alessandro; Vieira, Helena L A

    2012-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of acute mortality in newborns and cognitive and motor impairments in children. Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia leads to excitotoxicity and necrotic and apoptotic cell death, in which mitochondria play a major role. Increased resistance against major damage can be achieved by preconditioning triggered by subtle insults. CO, a toxic molecule that is also generated endogenously, may have a role in preconditioning as low doses can protect against inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, the role of CO-induced preconditioning on neurons was addressed in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 1 h of CO treatment on neuronal death (plasmatic membrane permeabilization and chromatin condensation) and bcl-2 expression was studied in cerebellar granule cells undergoing to glutamate-induced apoptosis. CO's role was studied in vivo in the Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (common carotid artery ligature +75 min at 8% oxygen). Apoptotic cells, assessed by Nissl staining were counted with a stereological approach and cleaved caspase 3-positive profiles in the hippocampus were assessed. Apoptotic hallmarks were analyzed in hippocampal extracts by Western Blot. CO inhibited excitotoxicity-induced cell death and increased Bcl-2 mRNA in primary cultures of neurons. In vivo, CO prevented hypoxia-ischemia induced apoptosis in the hippocampus, limited cytochrome c released from mitochondria and reduced activation of caspase-3. Still, Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in hippocampus of CO pre-treated rat pups. Our results show that CO preconditioning elicits a molecular cascade that limits neuronal apoptosis. This could represent an innovative therapeutic strategy for high-risk cerebral hypoxia-ischemia patients, in particular neonates. PMID:22952602

  3. Preconditioned Minimal Residual Methods for Chebyshev Spectral Caluclations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, C.; Quarteroni, A.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of preconditioning the pseudospectral Chebyshev approximation of an elliptic operator is considered. The numerical sensitiveness to variations of the coefficients of the operator are investigated for two classes of preconditioning matrices: one arising from finite differences, the other from finite elements. The preconditioned system is solved by a conjugate gradient type method, and by a DuFort-Frankel method with dynamical parameters. The methods are compared on some test problems with the Richardson method and with the minimal residual Richardson method.

  4. [Phytoadaptogens-induced phenomenon similar to ischemic preconditioning].

    PubMed

    Arbuzov, A G; Maslov, L N; Burkova, V N; Krylatov, A V; Konkovskaia, Iu N; Safronov, S M

    2009-04-01

    The course administration (16 mg/kg per os for 5 days) of extracts of Panax ginseng or Rhodiola rosea induced a decrease in the infarction size/the area at risk (IS AAR) ratio during a 45-min local ischemia and a 2-hr reperfusion in artificially ventilated chloralose-anaesthetized rats. Single administration of ginseng or Rhodiola 24 h before ischemia did not affect the IS/AAR ratio. Chronic administration of Extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Leuzea carthamoides and Aralia mandshurica had no effect on the IS/AAR ratio. Pretreatment with extract ofAralia mandshurica prevented appearance of ventricular arrhythmias during first 10 min coronary artery occlusion. Pretreatment with extract of Rhodiola rosea decreased the incidence of ventricular fibrillation during ischemia. Single administration of extracts of Panax ginseng or Rhodiola rosea in a dose of 16 mg/kg had no effect on the IS/AAR ratio. The authors conclude that extracts of ginseng or Rhodiola exhibit a powerful cardioprotective effect. Extract of Aralia exhibit a strong antiarrhythmic effect. Extracts of ginseng and Rhodiola do not mimic phenomena of ischemia preconditioning. PMID:19505042

  5. A Sphingosine Kinase Form 2 Knockout Sensitizes Mouse Myocardium to Ischemia/Reoxygenation Injury and Diminishes Responsiveness to Ischemic Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Vessey, Donald A.; Li, Luyi; Jin, Zhu-Qiu; Kelley, Michael; Honbo, Norman; Zhang, Jianqing; Karliner, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase (SphK) exhibits two isoforms, SphK1 and SphK2. Both forms catalyze the synthesis of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a sphingolipid involved in ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Since the ratio of SphK1?:?SphK2 changes dramatically with aging, it is important to assess the role of SphK2 in IR injury and IPC. Langendorff mouse hearts were subjected to IR (30?min equilibration, 50?min global ischemia, and 40?min reperfusion). IPC consisted of 2?min of ischemia and 2?min of reperfusion for two cycles. At baseline, there were no differences in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), ?dP/dtmax, and heart rate between SphK2 null (KO) and wild-type (WT) hearts. In KO hearts, SphK2 activity was undetectable, and SphK1 activity was unchanged compared to WT. Total SphK activity was reduced by 53%. SphK2 KO hearts subjected to IR exhibited significantly more cardiac damage (37 1% infarct size) compared with WT (28 1% infarct size); postischemic recovery of LVDP was lower in KO hearts. IPC exerted cardioprotection in WT hearts. The protective effect of IPC against IR was diminished in KO hearts which had much higher infarction sizes (35 2%) compared to the IPC/IR group in control hearts (12 1%). Western analysis revealed that KO hearts had substantial levels of phosphorylated p38 which could predispose the heart to IR injury. Thus, deletion of the SphK2 gene sensitizes the myocardium to IR injury and diminishes the protective effect of IPC. PMID:21904650

  6. Pathomechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion injury as the basis for novel preventive strategies: is it time for the introduction of pleiotropic compounds?

    PubMed

    Menger, M D; Vollmar, B

    2007-03-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion-associated tissue dysfunction and organ failure still represent major complications in transplantation surgery. The pathomechanisms involve microvascular perfusion failure, ie, no-reflow and tissue hypoxia despite reperfusion and reoxygenation. However, postischemic reperfusion also provokes an inflammatory response, ie, reflow paradox, with activation of macrophages, recruitment of leukocytes, and accumulation of platelets, involving surface adhesion molecules such as P-selectin, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL)-1, Mac-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. These inflammatory cells produce cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators, and oxygen radicals, which all may contribute to the manifestation of injury, including apoptosis, necrosis, and necrapoptosis. Although specific inhibition of single mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1, and oxygen radicals, or distinct molecules, such as P-selectin and ICAM-1, has been shown to be protective in the experimental setting, these single-agent antimediator and antimolecule approaches did not find their way into clinical practice. Clinically, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution for organ preservation is still the major milestone for prevention of ischemia- and reperfusion-associated injury. Characteristically, this treatment strategy does not represent an anti-single mediator approach, but exerts protection by influencing multiple pathways involved in hypoxic and inflammatory injury, potentially restoring the overall homeostasis. This type of pleiotropic action may also be achieved by single pharmacological compounds, such as statins, erythropoietin, hemoxygenase-1, and L-glycine. In recent experimental studies, these compounds have been shown to be effective to reduce post-ischemic-reperfusion injury, and, additionally, to be associated with less side effects. Accordingly, these pleiotropic substances may represent ideal candidates for pharmacological preconditioning in patient treatment, and, thus, should be further evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:17362764

  7. 40 CFR 1066.816 - Vehicle preconditioning for FTP testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures for Motor Vehicles... measurement as described in 40 CFR 86.132. ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning for...

  8. Remote ischaemic preconditioning for coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Benstoem, Carina; Stoppe, Christian; Liakopoulos, Oliver J; Meybohm, Patrick; Clayton, Tim C; Yellon, Derek M; Hausenloy, Derek J; Goetzenich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the benefits and harms of remote ischaemic preconditioning in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, with or without valve surgery.

  9. Progress in Parallel Schur Complement Preconditioning for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chan, Tony F.; Tang, Wei-Pai; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    We consider preconditioning methods for nonself-adjoint advective-diffusive systems based on a non-overlapping Schur complement procedure for arbitrary triangulated domains. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop scalable preconditioning algorithms for fluid flow discretizations on parallel computing architectures. In our implementation of the Schur complement preconditioning technique, the triangulation is first partitioned into a number of subdomains using the METIS multi-level k-way partitioning code. This partitioning induces a natural 2X2 partitioning of the p.d.e. discretization matrix. By considering various inverse approximations of the 2X2 system, we have developed a family of robust preconditioning techniques. A computer code based on these ideas has been developed and tested on the IBM SP2 and the SGI Power Challenge array using MPI message passing protocol. A number of example CFD calculations will be presented to illustrate and assess various Schur complement approximations.

  10. Preconditioning methods for improved convergence rates in iterative reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Clinthorne, N.H.; Chiao, Pingchun; Rogers, W.L. . Div. of Nuclear Medicine); Pan, T.S. . Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Stamos, J.A. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Because of the characteristics of the tomographic inversion problem, iterative reconstruction techniques often suffer from poor convergence rates--especially at high spatial frequencies. By using preconditioning methods, the convergence properties of most iterative methods can be greatly enhanced without changing their ultimate solution. To increase reconstruction speed, the authors have applied spatially-invariant preconditioning filters that can be designed using the tomographic system response and implemented using 2-D frequency-domain filtering techniques. In a sample application, the authors performed reconstructions from noiseless, simulated projection data, using preconditioned and conventional steepest-descent algorithms. The preconditioned methods demonstrated residuals that were up to a factor of 30 lower than the unassisted algorithms at the same iteration. Applications of these methods to regularized reconstructions from projection data containing Poisson noise showed similar, although not as dramatic, behavior.

  11. A Weakest Precondition Approach to Robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balliu, Musard; Mastroeni, Isabella

    With the increasing complexity of information management computer systems, security becomes a real concern. E-government, web-based financial transactions or military and health care information systems are only a few examples where large amount of information can reside on different hosts distributed worldwide. It is clear that any disclosure or corruption of confidential information in these contexts can result fatal. Information flow controls constitute an appealing and promising technology to protect both data confidentiality and data integrity. The certification of the security degree of a program that runs in untrusted environments still remains an open problem in the area of language-based security. Robustness asserts that an active attacker, who can modify program code in some fixed points (holes), is unable to disclose more private information than a passive attacker, who merely observes unclassified data. In this paper, we extend a method recently proposed for checking declassified non-interference in presence of passive attackers only, in order to check robustness by means of weakest precondition semantics. In particular, this semantics simulates the kind of analysis that can be performed by an attacker, i.e., from public output towards private input. The choice of semantics allows us to distinguish between different attacks models and to characterize the security of applications in different scenarios.

  12. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants. PMID:15025702

  13. Cellular prion protein promotes post-ischemic neuronal survival, angioneurogenesis and enhances neural progenitor cell homing via proteasome inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Doeppner, T R; Kaltwasser, B; Schlechter, J; Jaschke, J; Kilic, E; Bähr, M; Hermann, D M; Weise, J

    2015-01-01

    Although cellular prion protein (PrPc) has been suggested to have physiological roles in neurogenesis and angiogenesis, the pathophysiological relevance of both processes remain unknown. To elucidate the role of PrPc in post-ischemic brain remodeling, we herein exposed PrPc wild type (WT), PrPc knockout (PrP−/−) and PrPc overexpressing (PrP+/+) mice to focal cerebral ischemia followed by up to 28 days reperfusion. Improved neurological recovery and sustained neuroprotection lasting over the observation period of 4 weeks were observed in ischemic PrP+/+ mice compared with WT mice. This observation was associated with increased neurogenesis and angiogenesis, whereas increased neurological deficits and brain injury were noted in ischemic PrP−/− mice. Proteasome activity and oxidative stress were increased in ischemic brain tissue of PrP−/− mice. Pharmacological proteasome inhibition reversed the exacerbation of brain injury induced by PrP−/−, indicating that proteasome inhibition mediates the neuroprotective effects of PrPc. Notably, reduced proteasome activity and oxidative stress in ischemic brain tissue of PrP+/+ mice were associated with an increased abundance of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and PACAP-38, which are known stimulants of neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration and trafficking. To elucidate effects of PrPc on intracerebral NPC homing, we intravenously infused GFP+ NPCs in ischemic WT, PrP−/− and PrP+/+ mice, showing that brain accumulation of GFP+ NPCs was greatly reduced in PrP−/− mice, but increased in PrP+/+ animals. Our results suggest that PrPc induces post-ischemic long-term neuroprotection, neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the ischemic brain by inhibiting proteasome activity. PMID:26673668

  14. Effect of ischemia and postischemic dysfunction on myocardial uptake of technetium-99m-labeled methoxyisobutyl isonitrile and thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Sinusas, A.J.; Watson, D.D.; Cannon, J.M. Jr.; Beller, G.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The myocardial uptake of a new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial perfusion agent, methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI), and thallium-201 was correlated with microsphere flow in an open chest canine model of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction. Eighteen dogs were given an injection of thallium-201 (0.5 mCi) and Tc-99m MIBI (5 mCi) either after 40 min of partial left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group I, 10 dogs) or during reperfusion after 15 min of left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group II, 8 dogs). Regional dysfunction was documented during injection in both groups by quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography. Regional blood flow was assessed by radiolabeled microspheres. The heart was excised 15 min after radionuclide injection and the left ventricle divided into 96 segments for gamma well counting. Among Group I dogs, central ischemic thallium-201 and Tc-99m MIBI activity (expressed as a percent of the activity in the corresponding nonischemic zone) was comparable, respectively, for endocardial (54 +/- 17% and 52 +/- 17%), mid-wall (71 +/- 20% and 69 +/- 17%) and epicardial (89 +/- 13% and 94 +/- 9%) segments and increased proportionally with flow. There was a good linear correlation among these endocardial segments between flow and both thallium-201 (r = 0.78) and Tc-99m MIBI (r = 0.85) activity. Among Group II dogs, central ischemic endocardial flow (59 +/- 14%) was comparable to thallium-201 (70 +/- 18%) and Tc-99m MIBI (74 +/- 12%) activity. Similarly, relative endocardial flow in the intermediate ischemic region (71 +/- 11%) was comparable to thallium-201 (77 +/- 11%) and Tc-99m MIBI (81 +/- 10%) activity. Thus, myocardial uptake of Tc-99m MIBI and thallium-201 is comparable under conditions of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction and closely parallels flow alterations.

  15. Fetal asphyctic preconditioning alters the transcriptional response to perinatal asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genomic reprogramming is thought to be, at least in part, responsible for the protective effect of brain preconditioning. Unraveling mechanisms of this endogenous neuroprotection, activated by preconditioning, is an important step towards new clinical strategies for treating asphyctic neonates. Therefore, we investigated whole-genome transcriptional changes in the brain of rats which underwent perinatal asphyxia (PA), and rats where PA was preceded by fetal asphyctic preconditioning (FAPA). Offspring were sacrificed 6 h and 96 h after birth, and whole-genome transcription was investigated using the Affymetrix Gene1.0ST chip. Microarray data were analyzed with the Bioconductor Limma package. In addition to univariate analysis, we performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) in order to derive results with maximum biological relevance. Results We observed minimal, 25% or less, overlap of differentially regulated transcripts across different experimental groups which leads us to conclude that the transcriptional phenotype of these groups is largely unique. In both the PA and FAPA group we observe an upregulation of transcripts involved in cellular stress. Contrastingly, transcripts with a function in the cell nucleus were mostly downregulated in PA animals, while we see considerable upregulation in the FAPA group. Furthermore, we observed that histone deacetylases (HDACs) are exclusively regulated in FAPA animals. Conclusions This study is the first to investigate whole-genome transcription in the neonatal brain after PA alone, and after perinatal asphyxia preceded by preconditioning (FAPA). We describe several genes/pathways, such as ubiquitination and proteolysis, which were not previously linked to preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Furthermore, we observed that the majority of upregulated genes in preconditioned animals have a function in the cell nucleus, including several epigenetic players such as HDACs, which suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are likely to play a role in preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. PMID:24885038

  16. Meclizine Preconditioning Protects the Kidney Against Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Seiji; Campanholle, Gabriela; Gohil, Vishal M.; Perocchi, Fabiana; Brooks, Craig R.; Morizane, Ryuji; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Ichimura, Takaharu; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Global or local ischemia contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Currently there are no specific therapies to prevent AKI. Potentiation of glycolytic metabolism and attenuation of mitochondrial respiration may decrease cell injury and reduce reactive oxygen species generation from the mitochondria. Meclizine, an over-the-counter anti-nausea and -dizziness drug, was identified in a ‘nutrient-sensitized’ chemical screen. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg of meclizine, 17 h prior to ischemia protected mice from IRI. Serum creatinine levels at 24 h after IRI were 0.13 ± 0.06 mg/dl (sham, n = 3), 1.59 ± 0.10 mg/dl (vehicle, n = 8) and 0.89 ± 0.11 mg/dl (meclizine, n = 8). Kidney injury was significantly decreased in meclizine treated mice compared with vehicle group (p < 0.001). Protection was also seen when meclizine was administered 24 h prior to ischemia. Meclizine reduced inflammation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial fragmentation, and tubular injury. Meclizine preconditioned kidney tubular epithelial cells, exposed to blockade of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism with 2-deoxyglucose and NaCN, had reduced LDH and cytochrome c release. Meclizine upregulated glycolysis in glucose-containing media and reduced cellular ATP levels in galactose-containing media. Meclizine inhibited the Kennedy pathway and caused rapid accumulation of phosphoethanolamine. Phosphoethanolamine recapitulated meclizine-induced protection both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26501107

  17. Meclizine Preconditioning Protects the Kidney Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Seiji; Campanholle, Gabriela; Gohil, Vishal M; Perocchi, Fabiana; Brooks, Craig R; Morizane, Ryuji; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Ichimura, Takaharu; Mootha, Vamsi K; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2015-09-01

    Global or local ischemia contributes to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI). Currently there are no specific therapies to prevent AKI. Potentiation of glycolytic metabolism and attenuation of mitochondrial respiration may decrease cell injury and reduce reactive oxygen species generation from the mitochondria. Meclizine, an over-the-counter anti-nausea and -dizziness drug, was identified in a 'nutrient-sensitized' chemical screen. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg of meclizine, 17 h prior to ischemia protected mice from IRI. Serum creatinine levels at 24 h after IRI were 0.13 ± 0.06 mg/dl (sham, n = 3), 1.59 ± 0.10 mg/dl (vehicle, n = 8) and 0.89 ± 0.11 mg/dl (meclizine, n = 8). Kidney injury was significantly decreased in meclizine treated mice compared with vehicle group (p < 0.001). Protection was also seen when meclizine was administered 24 h prior to ischemia. Meclizine reduced inflammation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, oxidative stress, mitochondrial fragmentation, and tubular injury. Meclizine preconditioned kidney tubular epithelial cells, exposed to blockade of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism with 2-deoxyglucose and NaCN, had reduced LDH and cytochrome c release. Meclizine upregulated glycolysis in glucose-containing media and reduced cellular ATP levels in galactose-containing media. Meclizine inhibited the Kennedy pathway and caused rapid accumulation of phosphoethanolamine. Phosphoethanolamine recapitulated meclizine-induced protection both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26501107

  18. Water stress preconditioning to improve drought resistance in young apricot plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sánchez; Domingo; Torrecillas; Pérez-Pastor

    2000-07-28

    The effect of water stress preconditioning was studied in 1-year-old apricot plants (Prunus armeniaca L., cv. Búlida). Plants were submitted to different treatments, T-0 (control treatment) and T-1, drip irrigated daily; T-2 and T-3, irrigated daily at 50% and 25% of T-0, respectively; T-4 and T-5, irrigated to field capacity every 3 and 6 days, respectively. After 30 days, irrigation was withheld for 10 days, maintaining the T-0 treatment irrigated daily. After this period, the plants were re-irrigated to run-off and treated as control treatment. The stomatal closure and epinasty observed in response to water stress represented adaptive mechanisms to drought, allowing the plants to regulate water loss more effectively and prevent leaf heating. A substantial reduction in the irrigation water supplied combined with a high frequency of application (T-3 treatment) promoted plant hardening; the plants enduring drought better, due to their greater osmotic adjustment (0.77 MPa), which prevented severe plant dehydration and leaf abscission. Such a preconditioning treatment may be valuable for young apricot plants in the nursery stage in order to improve their subsequent resistance to drought. A 50% reduction in daily irrigation (T-2 treatment) did not significantly affect either gas exchange rates or leaf turgor, which suggests that water should be applied frequently if deficit irrigation is to be implemented. PMID:10936532

  19. Remote intrathecal morphine preconditioning is ineffective in the presence of neuraxial blockade with lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Wong, Gordon Tin Chun; Zhang, Ye; Hu, Jun; Dong, Chunshan

    2014-02-01

    Remote intrathecal morphine preconditioning (RMPC) induces cardioprotection via a neural pathway. Intrathecal lidocaine (LID) blocks spinal cord nerve transmission. This study examine whether LID prevents the effects of RMPC. Anesthetized, open chest, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of seven treatment groups 3 days after intrathecal catheter placement. Rats from both RMPC and LID groups, respectively, received intrathecal morphine (3 μg/kg) and lidocaine (1%, 10 μL); morphine was administered by three cycles of 5-minute infusions interspersed with 5-minute infusion-free periods. The LID + RMPC group received the combination of LID and RMPC. Intrathecal naloxone methiodide (NM) (20 μg/kg) was administered either 15 minutes before RMPC, or 5 minutes before LID + RMPC. Ischemia and reperfusion injury were then induced by 30 minutes of left coronary artery occlusion, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Infarct size, as a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium staining. The RMPC and LID groups markedly reduced the infarct size (IS) compared with controls. LID prevented the effect of RMPC. NM had no effect on control and LID + RMPC treatments. However, NM pretreatment reversed cardioprotection of RMPC treatment. Intrathecal morphine preconditioning is ineffective in the presence of neuraxial blockade with lidocaine. PMID:24444535

  20. BWR Fuel Thermomechanical Evaluation for Preconditioning Procedures With FEMAXI-V

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Lopez, Hector; Lucatero, Marco A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier

    2006-07-01

    Burnup limitations are normally set to limit stresses in the fuel assembly components. The defined limits provide guidance to the fuel designer to minimize fuel failure during steady sate operation, and also prevent against some thermal and mechanical phenomena that could occur during overpower transients. In particular, a LHGR limit value is set to take into account physical phenomena that could lead to pellet-cladding interaction. This limit value directly relates to a PCI limit, which may be set based on experimental ramp tests. Thus, to avoid violating the PCI limit, fuel conditioning procedures are still required for both barrier and non-barrier fuel. Simulation of the power ramp procedures to be performed by the reactor operator during startup or power increase maneuvers is advisable as a preventive measure of possible overpower consequences on the fuel thermomechanical behavior. In this paper, the thermomechanical behavior of two different kinds of BWR fuel rods is analyzed for fuel preconditioning procedures. Five different preconditioning computations were performed, each with three different ascending linear power rate ramps. The starting point of the ramps was taken from data of the Cycle 8 of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant, located in Mexico. The top limit of the ramps was the threshold linear power at which failure by PCI could occur, as a function of burnup. The analysis was performed with the FEMAXI-V code. (authors)

  1. Heat shock proteins, end effectors of myocardium ischemic preconditioning?

    PubMed Central

    Guisasola, María Concepcion; Desco, Maria del Mar; Gonzalez, Fernanda Silvana; Asensio, Fernando; Dulin, Elena; Suarez, Antonio; Garcia Barreno, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether ischemia-reperfusion increased the content of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) transcripts and (2) whether myocardial content of Hsp72 is increased by ischemic preconditioning so that they can be considered as end effectors of preconditioning. Twelve male minipigs (8 protocol, 4 sham) were used, with the following ischemic preconditioning protocol: 3 ischemia and reperfusion 5-minute alternative cycles and last reperfusion cycle of 3 hours. Initial and final transmural biopsies (both in healthy and ischemic areas) were taken in all animals. Heat shock protein 72 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was measured by a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method using complementary DNA normalized against the housekeeping gene cyclophilin. The identification of heat shock protein 72 was performed by immunoblot. In our “classic” preconditioning model, we found no changes in mRNA hsp72 levels or heat shock protein 72 content in the myocardium after 3 hours of reperfusion. Our experimental model is valid and the experimental techniques are appropriate, but the induction of heat shock proteins 72 as end effectors of cardioprotection in ischemic preconditioning does not occur in the first hours after ischemia, but probably at least 24 hours after it, in the so-called “second protection window.” PMID:17009598

  2. Xenon preconditioning reduces brain damage from neonatal asphyxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daqing; Hossain, Mahmuda; Pettet, Garry K J; Luo, Yan; Lim, Ta; Akimov, Stanislav; Sanders, Robert D; Franks, Nicholas P; Maze, Mervyn

    2006-02-01

    Xenon attenuates on-going neuronal injury in both in vitro and in vivo models of hypoxic-ischaemic injury when administered during and after the insult. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether the neuroprotective efficacy of xenon can be observed when administered before an insult, referred to as 'preconditioning'. In a neuronal-glial cell coculture, preexposure to xenon for 2 h caused a concentration-dependent reduction of lactate dehydrogenase release from cells deprived of oxygen and glucose 24 h later; xenon's preconditioning effect was abolished by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Preconditioning with xenon decreased propidium iodide staining in a hippocampal slice culture model subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. In an in vivo model of neonatal asphyxia involving hypoxic-ischaemic injury to 7-day-old rats, preconditioning with xenon reduced infarction size when assessed 7 days after injury. Furthermore, a sustained improvement in neurologic function was also evident 30 days after injury. Phosphorylated cAMP (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate)-response element binding protein (pCREB) was increased by xenon exposure. Also, the prosurvival proteins Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were upregulated by xenon treatment. These studies provide evidence for xenon's preconditioning effect, which might be caused by a pCREB-regulated synthesis of proteins that promote survival against neuronal injury. PMID:16034370

  3. Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for coarse mesh neutron diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, H.G.; Downar, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomains increases. Speedups up to 32.1 are achievable with 64 processing elements for a 34{times}34{times}36 full core three-dimensional problem.

  4. Green Tea Polyphenols Precondition against Cell Death Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation via Stimulation of Laminin Receptor, Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species, and Activation of Protein Kinase Cϵ

    PubMed Central

    Gundimeda, Usha; McNeill, Thomas H.; Elhiani, Albert A.; Schiffman, Jason E.; Hinton, David R.; Gopalakrishna, Rayudu

    2012-01-01

    As the development of synthetic drugs for the prevention of stroke has proven challenging, utilization of natural products capable of preconditioning neuronal cells against ischemia-induced cell death would be a highly useful complementary approach. In this study using an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in PC12 cells, we show that 2-day pretreatment with green tea polyphenols (GTPP) and their active ingredient, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), protects cells from subsequent OGD/R-induced cell death. A synergistic interaction was observed between GTPP constituents, with unfractionated GTPP more potently preconditioning cells than EGCG. GTPP-induced preconditioning required the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR), to which EGCG binds with high affinity. 67LR also mediated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH oxidase. An exogenous ROS-generating system bypassed 67LR to induce preconditioning, suggesting that sublethal levels of ROS are indeed an important mediator in GTPP-induced preconditioning. This role for ROS was further supported by the fact that antioxidants blocked GTPP-induced preconditioning. Additionally, ROS induced an activation and translocation of protein kinase C (PKC), particularly PKCϵ from the cytosol to the membrane/mitochondria, which was also blocked by antioxidants. The crucial role of PKC in GTPP-induced preconditioning was supported by use of its specific inhibitors. Preconditioning was increased by conditional overexpression of PKCϵ and decreased by its knock-out with siRNA. Collectively, these results suggest that GTPP stimulates 67LR and thereby induces NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of ROS, which in turn induces activation of PKC, particularly prosurvival isoenzyme PKCϵ, resulting in preconditioning against cell death induced by OGD/R. PMID:22879598

  5. Hepatic Branch Vagus Nerve Plays a Critical Role in the Recovery of Post-Ischemic Glucose Intolerance and Mediates a Neuroprotective Effect by Hypothalamic Orexin-A

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A. PMID:24759941

  6. Hepatic branch vagus nerve plays a critical role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A. PMID:24759941

  7. Liquid hydrogen turbopump rapid start program. [thermal preconditioning using coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, G. S.

    1973-01-01

    This program was to analyze, test, and evaluate methods of achieving rapid-start of a liquid hydrogen feed system (inlet duct and turbopump) using a minimum of thermal preconditioning time and propellant. The program was divided into four tasks. Task 1 includes analytical studies of the testing conducted in the other three tasks. Task 2 describes the results from laboratory testing of coating samples and the successful adherence of a KX-635 coating to the internal surfaces of the feed system tested in Task 4. Task 3 presents results of testing an uncoated feed system. Tank pressure was varied to determine the effect of flowrate on preconditioning. The discharge volume and the discharge pressure which initiates opening of the discharge valve were varied to determine the effect on deadhead (no through-flow) start transients. Task 4 describes results of testing a similar, internally coated feed system and illustrates the savings in preconditioning time and propellant resulting from the coatings.

  8. Operator-Based Preconditioning of Stiff Hyperbolic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Daniel R.; Samtaney, Ravi; Woodward, Carol S.

    2009-02-09

    We introduce an operator-based scheme for preconditioning stiff components encoun- tered in implicit methods for hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations posed on regular grids. The method is based on a directional splitting of the implicit operator, followed by a char- acteristic decomposition of the resulting directional parts. This approach allows for solution to any number of characteristic components, from the entire system to only the fastest, stiffness-inducing waves. We apply the preconditioning method to stiff hyperbolic systems arising in magnetohydro- dynamics and gas dynamics. We then present numerical results showing that this preconditioning scheme works well on problems where the underlying stiffness results from the interaction of fast transient waves with slowly-evolving dynamics, scales well to large problem sizes and numbers of processors, and allows for additional customization based on the specific problems under study.

  9. Is red blood cell a mediator of remote ischaemic preconditioning?

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Maya; Saurabh, Suman

    2014-12-01

    Remote ischaemic preconditioning is emerging as a promising clinical technique which can afford immediate protection against coronary ischaemia. The mechanisms which mediate the signal transduction from remote organ to the heart are still unclear. The role of ATP sensitive potassium channels in ischaemic preconditioning has been established. It is known that the red blood cell (RBC) acts as a mediator of local autoregulation in adjusting oxygen supply to demand by sensing hypoxia and releasing ATP locally to achieve vasodilatation in the adjacent vascular beds. Our hypothesis links these two known mechanisms. Remote ischaemic preconditioning and local RBC autoregulation might share a common mechanism using the ATP sensitive potassium channels. Therefore, we hypothesize that the signal transduction by RBC might be partly responsible for this protection against ischaemia. PMID:25468784

  10. On adaptive weighted polynomial preconditioning for Hermitian positive definite matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Freund, Roland W.

    1992-01-01

    The conjugate gradient algorithm for solving Hermitian positive definite linear systems is usually combined with preconditioning in order to speed up convergence. In recent years, there has been a revival of polynomial preconditioning, motivated by the attractive features of the method on modern architectures. Standard techniques for choosing the preconditioning polynomial are based only on bounds for the extreme eigenvalues. Here a different approach is proposed, which aims at adapting the preconditioner to the eigenvalue distribution of the coefficient matrix. The technique is based on the observation that good estimates for the eigenvalue distribution can be derived after only a few steps of the Lanczos process. This information is then used to construct a weight function for a suitable Chebyshev approximation problem. The solution of this problem yields the polynomial preconditioner. In particular, we investigate the use of Bernstein-Szego weights.

  11. Optimal bounds for solving tridiagonal systems with preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Zellini, P. )

    1988-10-01

    Let (1) Tx=f be a linear tridiagonal system system of n equations in the unknown x/sub 1/, ..., x/sub n/. It is proved that 3n-2 (nonscalar) multiplications/divisions are necessary to solve (1) in a straight-line program excluding divisions by elements of f. This bound is optimal if the cost of preconditioning of T is not counted. Analogous results are obtained in case (i) T is bidiagonal and (ii) T and f are both centrosymmetric. The existence of parallel algorithms to solve (1) with preconditioning and with minimal multiplicative redundancy is also discussed.

  12. Fourier analysis of finite element preconditioned collocation schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deville, Michel O.; Mund, Ernest H.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of the iteration operator of some finite element preconditioned Fourier collocation schemes is investigated. The first part of the paper analyses one-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic model problems and the advection-diffusion equation. Analytical expressions of the eigenvalues are obtained with use of symbolic computation. The second part of the paper considers the set of one-dimensional differential equations resulting from Fourier analysis (in the tranverse direction) of the 2-D Stokes problem. All results agree with previous conclusions on the numerical efficiency of finite element preconditioning schemes.

  13. Choice of Variables and Preconditioning for Time Dependent Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, Eli; Vatsa, Verr N.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the use of low speed preconditioning for time dependent problems. These are solved using a dual time step approach. We consider the effect of this dual time step on the parameter of the low speed preconditioning. In addition, we compare the use of two sets of variables, conservation and primitive variables, to solve the system. We show the effect of these choices on both the convergence to a steady state and the accuracy of the numerical solutions for low Mach number steady state and time dependent flows.

  14. Remote preconditioning and cardiac surgery: regrouping after Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Heart Surgery (RIPHeart) and Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (ERICCA).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Cherry X; Healy, Donagh A; Walsh, Stewart R

    2016-03-01

    Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an attractive cardioprotective strategy. Although results from animal studies and phase II study on humans are convincing, it cannot have a role in clinical practice until benefits in clinical outcomes are proven in phase III study. Two phase III studies were recently published [Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Heart Surgery (RIPHeart) and Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (ERICCA)] and this article discusses their design, results and implications. PMID:27076969

  15. Resistance to Reperfusion Injury Following Short Term Postischemic Administration of Natural Honey in Globally Ischemic Isolated Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Vaez, Haleh; Samadzadeh, Mehrban; Zahednezhad, Fahimeh; Najafi, Moslem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Results of our previous study revealed that preischemic perfusion of honey before zero flow global ischemia had cardioprotective effects in rat. The present study investigated potential resistance to reperfusion injury following short term postischemic administration of natural honey in globally ischemic isolated rat heart. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10-13). The rat hearts were isolated, mounted on a Langendorff apparatus, allowed to equilibrate for 30 min then subjected to 30 min global ischemia. In the control group, the hearts were reperfused with drug free normal Krebs-Henseleit (K/H) solution before ischemia and during 120 min reperfusion. In the treatment groups, reperfusion was initiated with K/H solution containing different concentration of honey (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%) for 15 min and was resumed until the end of 120 min with normal K/H solution. Results: In the control group, VEBs number was 784±199, while in honey concentration of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%, it decreased to 83±23 (P<0.001), 138±48 (P<0.01), 142±37 (P<0.001) and 157±40 (P<0.01), respectively. Number and duration of VT and time spent in reversible VF were also reduced by honey. In the control group, the infarct size was 54.1±7.8%, however; honey (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%) markedly lowered the value to 12.4±2.4, 12.7±3.3, 11.3±2.6 and 7.9±1.7 (P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Postischemic administration of natural honey in global ischemia showed protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries in isolated rat heart. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, lipoperoxidation inhibition, reduction of necrotized tissue, presence of rich energy sources, various type of vitamins, minerals and enzymes and formation of NO-contain metabolites may probably involve in those cardioprotective effects. PMID:24312792

  16. In vivo inhibition of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase in neurons promotes metabolic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Formentini, Laura; Pereira, Marta P; Sánchez-Cenizo, Laura; Santacatterina, Fulvio; Lucas, José J; Navarro, Carmen; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto; Cuezva, José M

    2014-01-01

    A key transducer in energy conservation and signaling cell death is the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase. The expression of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is a strategy used by cancer cells to inhibit the activity of the H+-ATP synthase to generate a ROS signal that switches on cellular programs of survival. We have generated a mouse model expressing a mutant of human IF1 in brain neurons to assess the role of the H+-ATP synthase in cell death in vivo. The expression of hIF1 inhibits the activity of oxidative phosphorylation and mediates the shift of neurons to an enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Metabolic reprogramming induces brain preconditioning affording protection against quinolinic acid-induced excitotoxicity. Mechanistically, preconditioning involves the activation of the Akt/p70S6K and PARP repair pathways and Bcl-xL protection from cell death. Overall, our findings provide the first in vivo evidence highlighting the H+-ATP synthase as a target to prevent neuronal cell death. PMID:24521670

  17. 33 CFR 183.220 - Preconditioning for tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preconditioning for tests. 183.220 Section 183.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General...

  18. 33 CFR 183.320 - Preconditioning for tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preconditioning for tests. 183.320 Section 183.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General §...

  19. 40 CFR 1066.405 - Vehicle preparation and preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Preparing Vehicles and Running an Exhaust Emission Test 1066.405 Vehicle preparation and preconditioning. Prepare the vehicle for testing (including... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle preparation...

  20. Preconditions of Change in Schools (FISK). Project Number 6051.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svingby, Gunilla

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results of this study of the preconditions for pedagogical change in Swedish schools indicate that national curricular emphases have changed, but that accompanying changes in teaching methods may conceal wide variation in content and import. The study's objective was to identify the factors conducive or hostile to change in the…

  1. 40 CFR 1065.516 - Sample system decontamination and preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample system decontamination and preconditioning. 1065.516 Section 1065.516 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.516 Sample...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1774-99 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.1774-99... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1774-99 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.1774-99... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and...

  4. 40 CFR 86.132-00 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.132-00... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  5. 40 CFR 86.232-94 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.232-94... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  6. 40 CFR 86.232-94 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.232-94... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  7. 40 CFR 86.132-00 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.132-00... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  8. 40 CFR 86.132-00 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.132-00... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1774-99 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.1774-99... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Provisions for the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and...

  10. 40 CFR 86.232-94 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.232-94... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  11. Dexmedetomidine Preconditioning Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Ototoxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Min, Too Jae; Ha, Young Ran; Jeong, In young; Yoo, Ji young

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Utilisation of high-frequency drills is known to increase noise induced hearing loss due to increasing the damages of inner ear cells. This study aimed to investigate whether preconditioning by using dexmedetomidine (DEX) decreased the occurrence of ischemia in inner cells of the ear. Methods We utilised a transgenic zebrafish line Brn3C, and the embryos were collected from breeding adult zebrafish. Five-day-old larvae were cultured at the density of 50 embryos, and the larvae were classified into 4 groups: control, cisplatin group, DEX group, and DEX+yohimbine; adrenoreceptor blocker group. The DEX group was categorised into 3 subgroups by dosage; 0.1, 1, and 10 µM. Preconditioning was performed for 150 minutes and then exposed to cisplatin for 6 hours. The experiment was performed in 7 replicates for each group and the number of hair cells in 3 parts of the neuromasts of each fish was determined. Results Hair cell apoptosis by cisplatin was attenuated more significantly in the DEX preconditioning group than in the control group. However, the preconditioning effects were not blocked by yohimbine. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that hearing loss caused by vibration-induced noise could be reduced by using DEX and may occur through other mechanisms rather than adreno-receptors. PMID:25436046

  12. 40 CFR 86.132-96 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.132-96 Section 86.132-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New...

  13. 40 CFR 86.132-96 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 86.132-96 Section 86.132-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New...

  14. PKMζ knockdown disrupts post-ischemic long-term potentiation via inhibiting postsynaptic expression of aminomethyl phosphonic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nan; Hu, Xiaoqiao; Tian, Tian; Lu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Post-ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP) is a pathological form of plasticity that was observed in glutamate receptor-mediated neurotransmission after stroke and may exert a detrimental effect via facilitating excitotoxic damage. The mechanism underlying i-LTP, however, remains less understood. By employing electrophysiological recording and immunofluorescence assay on hippocampal slices and cultured neurons, we found that protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), an atypical protein kinase C isoform, was involved in enhancing aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR) expression after i-LTP induction. PKMζ knockdown attenuated postsynaptic expression of AMPA receptors and disrupted i-LTP. Consistently, we observed less neuronal death of cultured hippocampal cells with PKMζ knockdown. Meanwhile, these findings indicate that PKMζ plays an important role in i-LTP by regulating postsynaptic expression of AMPA receptors. This work adds new knowledge to the mechanism of i-LTP, and thus is helpful to find the potential target for clinical therapy of ischemic stroke. PMID:26060448

  15. Comparative effects of L-arginine and vitamin C pretreatment in SHR with induced postischemic acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Miloradović, Zoran; Mihailović-Stanojević, Nevena; Grujić-Milanović, Jelica; Ivanov, Milan; Kuburović, Gordana; Marković-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Jovović, Durdica

    2009-01-01

    Postischemic acute renal failure is worsened when occurs in a various conditions with impaired nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, such as arterial hypertension. Reoxygenation itself increases ischemic injury through the massive production of oxygen-free radicals. Therefore, we have directed our investigations to effects of both NO donor and antioxidant treatment on course of acute renal failure in experimental hypertension. Experiments were performed in anesthetized, adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats. In ARF groups the right kidney was removed, and rats were subjected to renal ischemia by clamping the left renal artery for 40 min. Experimental group received NO donor L-arginine (2 g/kg b.m.) (LArg group), or oxidant scavenger vitamin C (100 mg/kg b.m.) (Vit C group) during 3 days before the period of ischaemia. All parameters were measured 24 h after reperfusion. The mean arterial pressure was markedly reduced and renal vascular resistance significantly dropped in the ARF+L-Arg group vs. ARF group. Tubular injuries were similar between the ARF+L-Arg and ARF groups. Intensity of tubular necrosis and dilatation was markedly reduced in ARF+Vit C group in comparison to ARF. L-arginine failed to reduce tubular injury, despite its evident improvement of systemic and renal haemodynamic, thus NO seems to act as a double-egged sword, but reduction of tubular injury promotes vitamin C as an effective chemoprotectant against ishemia-reperfusion tubular injury in hypertension. PMID:19893087

  16. Increased uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in postischemic myocardium of patients with exercise-induced angina

    SciTech Connect

    Camici, P.; Araujo, L.I.; Spinks, T.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Kaski, J.C.; Shea, M.J.; Selwyn, A.P.; Jones, T.; Maseri, A.

    1986-07-01

    Regional myocardial perfusion and exogenous glucose uptake were assessed with rubidium-82 (82Rb) and 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) in 10 normal volunteers and 12 patients with coronary artery disease and stable angina pectoris by means of positron emission tomography. In patients at rest, the myocardial uptake of /sup 82/Rb and FDG did not differ significantly from that measured in normal subjects. The exercise test performed within the positron camera in eight patients produced typical chest pain and ischemic electrocardiographic changes in all. In each of the eight patients a region of reduced cation uptake was demonstrated in the /sup 82/Rb scan recorded at peak exercise, after which uptake of /sup 82/Rb returned to the control value 5 to 14 min after the end of the exercise. In these patients, FDG was injected in the recovery phase when all the variables that were altered during exercise, including regional myocardial /sup 82/Rb uptake, had returned to control values. In all but one patient, FDG accumulation in the regions of reduced /sup 82/Rb uptake during exercise was significantly higher than that in the nonischemic regions, i.e., the ones with a normal increment of /sup 82/Rb uptake on exercise. In the nonischemic areas, FDG uptake was not significantly different from that found in normal subjects after exercise. In conclusion, myocardial glucose transport and phosphorylation seem to be enhanced in the postischemic myocardium of patients with exercise-induced ischemia.

  17. Interleukin-6 mediates exercise preconditioning against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Graham Ripley; Ballmann, Christopher; Peters, Bridget; Nanayakkara, Gayani; Roberts, Michael; Amin, Rajesh; Quindry, John C

    2015-06-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that protects against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury following pharmacological and ischemic preconditioning (IPC), but the affiliated role in exercise preconditioning is unknown. Our study purpose was to characterize exercise-induced IL-6 cardiac signaling (aim 1) and evaluate myocardial preconditioning (aim 2). In aim 1, C57 and IL-6(-/-) mice underwent 3 days of treadmill exercise for 60 min/day at 18 m/min. Serum, gastrocnemius, and heart were collected preexercise, immediately postxercise, and 30 and 60 min following the final exercise session and analyzed for indexes of IL-6 signaling. For aim 2, a separate cohort of exercise-preconditioned (C57 EX and IL-6(-/-) EX) and sedentary (C57 SED and IL-6(-/-) SED) mice received surgical I/R injury (30 min I, 120 min R) or a time-matched sham operation. Ischemic and perfused tissues were examined for necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy. In aim 1, serum IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), gastrocnemius, and myocardial IL-6R were increased following exercise in C57 mice only. Phosphorylated (p) signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was increased in gastrocnemius and heart in C57 and IL-6(-/-) mice postexercise, whereas myocardial iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 were unchanged in the exercised myocardium. Exercise protected C57 EX mice against I/R-induced arrhythmias and necrosis, whereas arrhythmia score and infarct outcomes were higher in C57 SED, IL-6(-/-) SED, and IL-6(-/-) EX mice compared with SH. C57 EX mice expressed increased p-p44/42 MAPK (Thr(202)/Tyr(204)) and p-p38 MAPK (Thr(180)/Tyr(182)) compared with IL-6(-/-) EX mice, suggesting pathway involvement in exercise preconditioning. Findings indicate exercise exerts cardioprotection via IL-6 and strongly implicates protective signaling originating from the exercised skeletal muscle. PMID:25820396

  18. Postischemic Anhedonia Associated with Neurodegenerative Changes in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Jiro; Uchida, Hiroto; Tezuka, Kenta; Oka, Nanae

    2016-01-01

    Poststroke depression is one of the major symptoms observed in the chronic stage of brain stroke such as cerebral ischemia. Its pathophysiological mechanisms, however, are not well understood. Using the transient right middle cerebral artery occlusion- (MCAO-, 90 min) operated rats as an ischemia model in this study, we first observed that aggravation of anhedonia spontaneously occurred especially after 20 weeks of MCAO, and it was prevented by chronic antidepressants treatment (imipramine or fluvoxamine). The anhedonia specifically associated with loss of the granular neurons in the ipsilateral side of hippocampal dentate gyrus and was also prevented by an antidepressant imipramine. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased apoptosis inside the granular cell layer prior to and associated with the neuronal loss, and imipramine seemed to recover the survival signal rather than suppressing the death signal to prevent neurons from apoptosis. Proliferation and development of the neural stem cells were increased transiently in the subgranular zone of both ipsi- and contralateral hippocampus within one week after MCAO and then decreased and almost ceased after 6 weeks of MCAO, while chronic imipramine treatment prevented them partially. Overall, our study suggests new insights for the mechanistic correlation between poststroke depression and the delayed neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus with effective use of antidepressants on them. PMID:27057366

  19. Ischemic preconditioning protects hippocampal pyramidal neurons from transient ischemic injury via the attenuation of oxidative damage through upregulating heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Cho, Geum-Sil; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Bai Hui; Yan, Bing Chun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Choi, Jung Hoon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho

    2015-02-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides neuroprotection against subsequent severe ischemic injury by activating specific mechanisms. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IPC attenuates postischemic neuronal death via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Animals used in this study were randomly assigned to 4 groups; sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated group and IPC+ischemia-operated group. IPC was induced by subjecting gerbils to 2min of ischemia followed by 1 day of recovery. A significant loss of neurons was observed in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) in the ischemia-operated groups at 5 days postischemia. In the IPC+ischemia-operated groups, CA1 pyramidal neurons were well protected. The level of HO-1 protein and its activity increased significantly in the CA1 of the IPC+sham-operated group, and the level and activity was maintained in all the time after ischemia-reperfusion compared with the ischemia-operated groups. HO-1 immunoreactivity was induced in the CA1 pyramidal neurons in both IPC+sham-operated- and IPC+ischemia-operated groups. We also found that levels or immunoreactivities of superoxide anion, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were significantly decreased in the CA1 of both IPC+sham-operated- and IPC+ischemia-operated groups. Whereas, treatment with zinc protoporphyrin IX (a HO-1 inhibitor) into the IPC+ischemia-operated groups did not preserve the IPC-mediated increase of HO-1 and lost beneficial effects of IPC by inhibiting ischemia-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. In brief, IPC protects CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic injury by upregulating HO-1, and we suggest that the enhancement of HO-1 expression by IPC may be a legitimate strategy for a therapeutic intervention of cerebral ischemic damage. PMID:25483558

  20. Strategies for study of neuroprotection from cold-preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Heidi M; White, David M; Kraig, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident. Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro model that closely reflects their in vivo counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia/microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue-wide cytokine changes. The latter is a most sensitive and reproducible means to measure multiple cytokine system signaling changes simultaneously. Significant changes are confirmed with targeted qPCR and then protein detection. We probe for tissue-based cytokine protein changes using multiplexed microsphere flow cytometric assays using Luminex technology. Cell-specific cytokine production is determined with double-label immunohistochemistry. Taken together, this brain tissue preparation and style of use, coupled to the suggested investigative strategies, may be an optimal approach for identifying potential targets for the development of novel therapeutics that could mimic the advantages of cold-preconditioning. PMID:20834222

  1. Formation of Hydrogen Peroxide and Reduction of Peroxynitrite via Dismutation of Superoxide at Reperfusion Enhances Myocardial Blood Flow and Oxygen Consumption in Postischemic Mouse Heart

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Liu, Bin; Zweier, Jay L.; He, Guanglong

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species suppress myocardial oxygen consumption. In this study, we determined that endogenous hydrogen peroxide through dismutation of superoxide enhances postischemic myocardial blood perfusion and oxygen consumption. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry was applied to monitor in vivo tissue Po2 in mouse heart subjected to regional ischemia reperfusion. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, blood flow, infarction, and activities of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase were measured in six groups of wild-type (WT) and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase knock-out (eNOS−/−) mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), superoxide dismutase mimetic (SODm) M40403 [a manganese(II)-bis(cyclohexylpyridine)-substituted macrocyclic superoxide dismutase mimetic, C21H35Cl2MnN5], 10006329 EUK 134 [EUK134, manganese 3-methoxy N,N1-bis(salicyclidene)ethylenediamine chloride], and SODm plus glibenclamide to study the protective effect of hydrogen peroxide via dismutation of superoxide on the activation of sarcolemmal potassium channels. In the PBS group, there was an overshoot of tissue Po2 after reperfusion. Treatment with SODm, EUK134, and SODm + glibenclamide protected mitochondrial enzyme activities, reduced infarct size, and suppressed the post-ischemic hyperoxygenation. In particular, in the SODm-treated group, there was a transient peak of tissue Po2 at 9 min after reperfusion, which was dependent on endogenous hydrogen peroxide but not nitric oxide formation as it appeared in both WT and eNOS−/− mice. Blood flow and rate pressure product were higher in the SODm group than in other groups, which contributed to the transient oxygen peak. Thus, SOD mimetics protected mouse heart from superoxide-induced reperfusion injury. With treatment of different SOD mimetics, it is concluded that endogenous hydrogen peroxide via dismutation of superoxide at reperfusion enhances postischemic myocardial blood perfusion and mitochondrial oxygen consumption, possibly through activation of sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channels. PMID:18685120

  2. AdipoRon, the first orally active adiponectin receptor activator, attenuates postischemic myocardial apoptosis through both AMPK-mediated and AMPK-independent signalings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqing; Zhao, Jianli; Li, Rui; Lau, Wayne Bond; Yuan, Yue-Xing; Liang, Bin; Li, Rong; Gao, Er-He; Koch, Walter J; Ma, Xin-Liang; Wang, Ya-Jing

    2015-08-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is a cardioprotective molecule. Its reduction in diabetes exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Although APN administration in animals attenuates MI/R injury, multiple factors limit its clinical application. The current study investigated whether AdipoRon, the first orally active molecule that binds APN receptors, may protect the heart against MI/R injury, and if so, to delineate the involved mechanisms. Wild-type (WT), APN knockout (APN-KO), and cardiomyocyte specific-AMPK dominant negative (AMPK-DN) mice were treated with vehicle or AdipoRon (50 mg/kg, 10 min prior to MI) and subjected to MI/R (30 min/3-24 h). Compared with vehicle, oral administration of AdipoRon to WT mice significantly improved cardiac function and attenuated postischemic cardiomyocyte apoptosis, determined by DNA ladder formation, TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 activation (all P < 0.01). MI/R-induced apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced in mice deficient in either APN (APN-KO) or AMPK (AMPK-DN). In APN-KO mice, AdipoRon attenuated MI/R injury to the same degree as observed in WT mice. In AMPK-DN mice, AdipoRon's antiapoptotic action was partially inhibited but not lost. Finally, AdipoRon significantly attenuated postischemic oxidative stress, as evidenced by reduced NADPH oxidase expression and superoxide production. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that AdipoRon, an orally active APN receptor activator, effectively attenuated postischemic cardiac injury, supporting APN receptor agonists as a promising novel therapeutic approach treating cardiovascular complications caused by obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. PMID:26037251

  3. Reconstructing Clusters for Preconditioned Short-term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Tadahiro; Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents a new preconditioned method for short-term load forecasting that focuses on more accurate predicted value. In recent years, the deregulated and competitive power market increases the degree of uncertainty. As a result, more sophisticated short-term load forecasting techniques are required to deal with more complicated load behavior. To alleviate the complexity of load behavior, this paper presents a new preconditioned model. In this paper, clustering results are reconstructed to equalize the number of learning data after clustering with the Kohonen-based neural network. That enhances a short-term load forecasting model at each reconstructed cluster. The proposed method is successfully applied to real data of one-step ahead daily maximum load forecasting.

  4. HMC algorithm with multiple time scale integration and mass preconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, C.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wenger, U.

    2006-01-01

    We present a variant of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning (Hasenbusch acceleration) and multiple time scale integration. We have tested this variant for standard Wilson fermions at β=5.6 and at pion masses ranging from 380 to 680 MeV. We show that in this situation its performance is comparable to the recently proposed HMC variant with domain decomposition as preconditioner. We give an update of the "Berlin Wall" figure, comparing the performance of our variant of the HMC algorithm to other published performance data. Advantages of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning and multiple time scale integration are that it is straightforward to implement and can be used in combination with a wide variety of lattice Dirac operators.

  5. Finding Chemical Reaction Paths with a Multilevel Preconditioning Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Finding transition paths for chemical reactions can be computationally costly owing to the level of quantum-chemical theory needed for accuracy. Here, we show that a multilevel preconditioning scheme that was recently introduced (Tempkin et al. J. Chem. Phys.2014, 140, 184114) can be used to accelerate quantum-chemical string calculations. We demonstrate the method by finding minimum-energy paths for two well-characterized reactions: tautomerization of malonaldehyde and Claissen rearrangement of chorismate to prephanate. For these reactions, we show that preconditioning density functional theory (DFT) with a semiempirical method reduces the computational cost for reaching a converged path that is an optimum under DFT by several fold. The approach also shows promise for free energy calculations when thermal noise can be controlled. PMID:25516726

  6. Shape reanalysis and sensitivities utilizing preconditioned iterative boundary solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guru Prasad, K.; Kane, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    The computational advantages associated with the utilization of preconditined iterative equation solvers are quantified for the reanalysis of perturbed shapes using continuum structural boundary element analysis (BEA). Both single- and multi-zone three-dimensional problems are examined. Significant reductions in computer time are obtained by making use of previously computed solution vectors and preconditioners in subsequent analyses. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated for the computation of shape response sensitivities required in shape optimization. Computer times and accuracies achieved using the preconditioned iterative solvers are compared with those obtained via direct solvers and implicit differentiation of the boundary integral equations. It is concluded that this approach employing preconditioned iterative equation solvers in reanalysis and sensitivity analysis can be competitive with if not superior to those involving direct solvers.

  7. Effect of HMGB1 on the paracrine action of EPC promotes post-ischemic neovascularization in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Lin, Xiaojie; Wang, Jixian; Tang, Guanghui; Mu, Zhihao; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jin; Wang, Yongting; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) leads to better outcomes in experimental stroke, but the mechanism remains unclear. It was reported that astrocytic-high mobility group box1 (HMGB1) promoted endogenous EPC-mediated neurovascular remodeling during stroke recovery. It is unclear whether HMGB1 involves in exogenous EPC-mediated stroke recovery. In this study, we aim to explore whether microglial HMGB1 contributes to human peripheral blood-derived (hPB)-EPCs-mediated neurovascular remodeling by modulating the paracrine function of exogenous hPB-EPCs. Coculturing hPB-EPCs with lipopolysaccharides stimulated BV2 cells upregulated Interleukin-8 expression in hPB-EPCs; this was blocked by treating BV2 cells with HMGB1 inhibitor Glycyrrhizin. Conditioned medium (CM) of hPB-EPCs cocultured with BV2 cells promoted the viability and tube formation of human umbilical cord vein cells. Inhibiting either HMGB1 or IL-8 could block the effect of hPB-EPCs CM. In vivo study showed hPB-EPCs transplantation improved neurobehavioral outcomes, reduced brain atrophy volume, and enhanced neovascularization in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mice. Intraperitoneally administration of HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin blocked the beneficial effect of hPB-EPC transplantation. We did not observe the integration of green fluorescent protein-labeled hPB-EPCs with microvessels in peri-infarct areas at day-14 after tMCAO. In summary, the result suggested that HMGB1 upregulation in postischemic brain could promote exogenous hPB-EPC-mediated stroke recovery by modulating paracrine function of hPB-EPCs. PMID:24888319

  8. Cardiac hypertrophy in the newborn delays the maturation of fatty acid β-oxidation and compromises postischemic functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Oka, Tatsujiro; Lam, Victoria H; Zhang, Liyan; Keung, Wendy; Cadete, Virgilio J J; Samokhvalov, Victor; Tanner, Brandon A; Beker, Donna L; Ussher, John R; Huqi, Alda; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2012-05-01

    During the neonatal period, cardiac energy metabolism progresses from a fetal glycolytic profile towards one more dependent on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. In this study, we identified the effects of cardiac hypertrophy on neonatal cardiac metabolic maturation and its impact on neonatal postischemic functional recovery. Seven-day-old rabbits were subjected to either a sham or a surgical procedure to induce a left-to-right shunt via an aortocaval fistula to cause RV volume-overload. At 3 wk of age, hearts were isolated from both groups and perfused as isolated, biventricular preparations to assess cardiac energy metabolism. Volume-overload resulted in cardiac hypertrophy (16% increase in cardiac mass, P < 0.05) without evidence of cardiac dysfunction in vivo or in vitro. Fatty acid oxidation rates were 60% lower (P < 0.05) in hypertrophied hearts than controls, whereas glycolysis increased 246% (P < 0.05). In contrast, glucose and lactate oxidation rates were unchanged. Overall ATP production rates were significantly lower in hypertrophied hearts, resulting in increased AMP-to-ATP ratios in both aerobic hearts and ischemia-reperfused hearts. The lowered energy generation of hypertrophied hearts depressed functional recovery from ischemia. Decreased fatty acid oxidation rates were accompanied by increased malonyl-CoA levels due to decreased malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity/expression. Increased glycolysis in hypertrophied hearts was accompanied by a significant increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression, a key transcriptional regulator of glycolysis. Cardiac hypertrophy in the neonatal heart results in a reemergence of the fetal metabolic profile, which compromises ATP production in the rapidly maturing heart and impairs recovery of function following ischemia. PMID:22408020

  9. Mechanisms of enhanced basal tone of brain parenchymal arterioles during early postischemic reperfusion: role of ET-1-induced peroxynitrite generation

    PubMed Central

    Cipolla, Marilyn J; Sweet, Julie G; Gokina, Natalia I; White, Sheryl L; Nelson, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1 (ET-1), peroxynitrite) and endothelium-dependent vasodilatory mechanisms to basal tone were investigated in parenchymal arterioles (PAs) after early postischemic reperfusion. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced for 2 hours with 30 minutes reperfusion in male Wistar rats and compared with ischemia alone (permanent MCAO (pMCAO); 2.5 hours) or sham controls. Changes in lumen diameter of isolated and pressurized PAs were compared. Quantitative PCR was used to measure endothelin type B (ETB) receptors. Constriction to intravascular pressure (‘basal tone') was not affected by tMCAO or pMCAO. However, constriction to inhibitors of endothelial cell, small- (SK) and intermediate- (IK) conductance, Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels (apamin and TRAM-34, respectively) were significantly enhanced in PAs from tMCAO compared with pMCAO or sham. Addition of the ETB agonist sarafotoxin caused constriction in PAs from tMCAO but not from sham animals (21±4% versus 3±3% at 1 nmol/L; P<0.01) that was inhibited by the peroxynitrite scavenger FeTMPyP (5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methyl-4′-pyridyl) porphinato iron (III) chloride) (100 μmol/L). Expression of ETB receptors was not found on PA smooth muscle, suggesting that constriction to sarafotoxin after tMCAO was due to peroxynitrite and not ETB receptor expression. The maintenance of basal tone in PAs after tMCAO may restrict flow to the ischemic region and contribute to infarct expansion. PMID:23778163

  10. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E.; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R.; Skoda, Erin M.; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3 mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20-min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca2+-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury. PMID:25451170

  11. Novel Role of ROS-Activated trp Melastatin Channel-2 (TRPM2) in Mediating Angiogenesis and Post-Ischemic Neovascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Manish; Urao, Norifumi; Hecquet, Claudie M.; Zhang, Min; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Gao, Xiao-pei; Komarova, Yulia; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-2 (TRPM2) channel is a non-selective cation channel that mediates influx of Ca2+ and Na+ with relative permeability of PCa:PNa ∼0.6 in response to cellular oxidative stress. As angiogenesis and ischemic neovascularization are both significantly dependent on oxidant signaling, here we investigated the possibile role of VEGF-induced ROS production in activating TRPM2-dependent Ca2+ signaling, and in the mechanism of angiogensis and ischemic neovascularization. Approach and Results We observed that VEGF stimulation rapidly induced the association of TRPM2 and c-Src kinase with VE-cadherin forming a signalplex at VE-cadherin junctions in endothelial cells (ECs). Using ECs isolated from TRPM2−/− mice or after siRNA depletion of TRPM2, we demonstrated that TRPM2-activated Ca2+ signaling was required for c-Src kinase-induced phosphorylation of VE-cadherin at Y658 and Y731, the crucial sites involved in VE-cadherin internalization in response to VEGF. VEGF-induced ROS generation activated TRPM2-induced Ca2+ entry whereas the ROS-insensitive TRPM2 mutant (C1008→A) showed impaired Ca2+ entry. ECs depleted of TRPM2 also displayed significantly perturbed migratory phenotype and impaired activation of c-Src in response to VEGF. TRPM2-/- mice reconstituted with wild type myeloid cells demonstrated aberrant angiogenesis and neovascularisation in the hindlimb ischemia model as compared to wild type mice. Conclusion VEGF-induced angiogeneis and post-ischemic neovascularisation in mice required ROS generation in ECs and resultant TRPM2 activation. Thus, our findings provide novel insight into the role of TRPM2 in mechanism of angiogenesis and ischemic neovascularisation. PMID:25675998

  12. Intramyocardial injection of hypoxia-preconditioned adipose-derived stromal cells treats acute myocardial infarction: an in vivo study in swine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yiyao; Chang, Pengyu; Pei, Yu; Li, Baojiang; Liu, Yongjun; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Delin; Liu, Xiaocheng

    2014-11-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning is a promising method for improving the anti-apoptotic and paracrine signaling capabilities of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs). The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of different hypoxic conditions on ADSCs and the therapeutic effects of hypoxia-preconditioned ADSCs (HPADSCs) on an animal model of myocardial infarction (MI). For the in vitro studies, ADSCs were divided into five groups and cultured in different oxygen concentrations (1, 3, 5, 10, and 21 %). After 24 h, RT-PCR and western blots showed that 3 % oxygen preconditioning could improve the viability and cytokine secretion of the ADSCs. A Matrigel assay indicated that the HPADSC-conditioned medium could stimulate endothelial cells to form capillary-like tubes. For the in vivo studies, MI was induced by coronary occlusion in 24 mature Chinese minipigs. The animals were divided into three groups and treated by intramyocardial injection with vehicle alone (saline group), with 1 × 10(8) ADSCs cultured in normoxic conditions (ADSCs group) or with 1 × 10(8) ADSCs precultured in 3 % oxygen (HPADSCs group). SPECT and echocardiography demonstrated that cardiac function was improved significantly in the HPADSC transplant group compared with the vehicle control group (P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence showed fewer apoptotic cells and more small- to medium-sized vessels in the HPADSC transplantation group (P < 0.05). Three percent oxygen is the optimum preconditioning treatment for ADSCs. HPADSC transplantation can prevent ventricular remodeling and reduce the infarct size. PMID:25135062

  13. Object-oriented design of preconditioned iterative methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bruaset, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    In this talk the author discusses how object-oriented programming techniques can be used to develop a flexible software package for preconditioned iterative methods. The ideas described have been used to implement the linear algebra part of Diffpack, which is a collection of C++ class libraries that provides high-level tools for the solution of partial differential equations. In particular, this software package is aimed at rapid development of PDE-based numerical simulators, primarily using finite element methods.

  14. Parallel Domain Decomposition Preconditioning for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chan, Tony F.; Tang, Wei-Pai; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the parallel domain decomposition preconditioning for computational fluid dynamics. Details are given on some difficult fluid flow problems, stabilized spatial discretizations, and Newton's method for solving the discretized flow equations. Schur complement domain decomposition is described through basic formulation, simplifying strategies (including iterative subdomain and Schur complement solves, matrix element dropping, localized Schur complement computation, and supersparse computations), and performance evaluation.

  15. Cardioprotection acquired through exercise: the role of ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Elisabetta; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    A great bulk of evidence supports the concept that regular exercise training can reduce the incidence of coronary events and increase survival chances after myocardial infarction. These exercise-induced beneficial effects on the myocardium are reached by means of the reduction of several risk factors relating to cardiovascular disease, such as high cholesterol, hypertension, obesity etc. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that exercise can reproduce the "ischemic preconditioning" (IP), which refers to the capacity of short periods of ischemia to render the myocardium more resistant to subsequent ischemic insult and to limit infarct size during prolonged ischemia. However, IP is a complex phenomenon which, along with infarct size reduction, can also provide protection against arrhythmia and myocardial stunning due to ischemia-reperfusion. Several clues demonstrate that preconditioning may be directly induced by exercise, thus inducing a protective phenotype at the heart level without the necessity of causing ischemia. Exercise appears to act as a physiological stress that induces beneficial myocardial adaptive responses at cellular level. The purpose of the present paper is to review the latest data on the role played by exercise in triggering myocardial preconditioning. PMID:24720421

  16. The evolving concept of physiological ischemia training vs. ischemia preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jun; Lu, Hongjian; Lu, Xiao; Jiang, Minghui; Peng, Qingyun; Ren, Caili; Xiang, Jie; Mei, Chengyao; Li, Jianan

    2015-11-01

    Ischemic heart diseases are the leading cause of death with increasing numbers of patients worldwide. Despite advances in revascularization techniques, angiogenic therapies remain highly attractive. Physiological ischemia training, which is first proposed in our laboratory, refers to reversible ischemia training of normal skeletal muscles by using a tourniquet or isometric contraction to cause physiologic ischemia for about 4 weeks for the sake of triggering molecular and cellular mechanisms to promote angiogenesis and formation of collateral vessels and protect remote ischemia areas. Physiological ischemia training therapy augments angiogenesis in the ischemic myocardium by inducing differential expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell migration, protein folding, and generation. It upregulates the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor, and induces angiogenesis, protects the myocardium when infarction occurs by increasing circulating endothelial progenitor cells and enhancing their migration, which is in accordance with physical training in heart disease rehabilitation. These findings may lead to a new approach of therapeutic angiogenesis for patients with ischemic heart diseases. On the basis of the promising results in animal studies, studies were also conducted in patients with coronary artery disease without any adverse effect in vivo, indicating that physiological ischemia training therapy is a safe, effective and non-invasive angiogenic approach for cardiovascular rehabilitation. Preconditioning is considered to be the most protective intervention against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury to date. Physiological ischemia training is different from preconditioning. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical data of physiological ischemia training and its difference from preconditioning. PMID:26664354

  17. Preconditioning the bidomain model with almost linear complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The bidomain model is widely used in electro-cardiology to simulate spreading of excitation in the myocardium and electrocardiograms. It consists of a system of two parabolic reaction diffusion equations coupled with an ODE system. Its discretisation displays an ill-conditioned system matrix to be inverted at each time step: simulations based on the bidomain model therefore are associated with high computational costs. In this paper we propose a preconditioning for the bidomain model either for an isolated heart or in an extended framework including a coupling with the surrounding tissues (the torso). The preconditioning is based on a formulation of the discrete problem that is shown to be symmetric positive semi-definite. A block LU decomposition of the system together with a heuristic approximation (referred to as the monodomain approximation) are the key ingredients for the preconditioning definition. Numerical results are provided for two test cases: a 2D test case on a realistic slice of the thorax based on a segmented heart medical image geometry, a 3D test case involving a small cubic slab of tissue with orthotropic anisotropy. The analysis of the resulting computational cost (both in terms of CPU time and of iteration number) shows an almost linear complexity with the problem size, i.e. of type nlog α( n) (for some constant α) which is optimal complexity for such problems.

  18. Preconditioned alternating projection algorithms for maximum a posteriori ECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Andrzej; Li, Si; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng

    2012-11-01

    We propose a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for solving the maximum a posteriori (MAP) emission computed tomography (ECT) reconstruction problem. Specifically, we formulate the reconstruction problem as a constrained convex optimization problem with the total variation (TV) regularization. We then characterize the solution of the constrained convex optimization problem and show that it satisfies a system of fixed-point equations defined in terms of two proximity operators raised from the convex functions that define the TV-norm and the constraint involved in the problem. The characterization (of the solution) via the proximity operators that define two projection operators naturally leads to an alternating projection algorithm for finding the solution. For efficient numerical computation, we introduce to the alternating projection algorithm a preconditioning matrix (the EM-preconditioner) for the dense system matrix involved in the optimization problem. We prove theoretically convergence of the PAPA. In numerical experiments, performance of our algorithms, with an appropriately selected preconditioning matrix, is compared with performance of the conventional MAP expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm with TV regularizer (EM-TV) and that of the recently developed nested EM-TV algorithm for ECT reconstruction. Based on the numerical experiments performed in this work, we observe that the alternating projection algorithm with the EM-preconditioner outperforms significantly the EM-TV in all aspects including the convergence speed, the noise in the reconstructed images and the image quality. It also outperforms the nested EM-TV in the convergence speed while providing comparable image quality.

  19. Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase 1 (PARP-1) Activation and Ca(2+) Permeable α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Channels in Post-Ischemic Brain Damage: New Therapeutic Opportunities?

    PubMed

    Gerace, Elisabetta; Pellegrini-Giampietro, Domenico E; Moroni, Flavio; Mannaioni, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of laboratories observed that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, administered a few hours after ischemic or traumatic brain injury, may drastically reduce the subsequent neurological damage. It has also been shown that PARP inhibitors, administered for 24 hours to rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), may reduce the number of dying neurons for a long period after surgery, thus suggesting that these agents could reduce the delayed brain damage and the neurological and cognitive impairment (dementia) frequently observed a few months after a stroke. In organotypic hippocampal slices exposed to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), an alkylating agent able to activate PARP, a selective and delayed degeneration of the CA1 pyramidal cells which was anatomically similar to that observed after a short period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) has been described. Biochemical and electrophysiological approaches showed that MNNG exposure caused an increased expression and function of the calcium permeable α-amino- 3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) channels in the CA1 but not in the CA3 hippocampal region. PARP inhibitors prevented this increase and reduced CA1 cell death. The AMPA receptor antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6- nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione or the selective Ca(2+) permeable AMPA channel blocker 1-Naphthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM), also reduced the MNNG-induced CA1 pyramidal cell death. Since activation of PARP-1 facilitate the expression of Ca(2+) permeable channels and the subsequent delayed cell death, PARP inhibitors administered a few hours after a stroke may not only reduce the early post-ischemic brain damage but also the late neuronal death frequently occurring after severe stroke. PMID:25924998

  20. Liver ischemia contributes to early islet failure following intraportal transplantation: benefits of liver ischemic-preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Yin, D; Ding, J W; Shen, J; Ma, L; Hara, M; Chong, A S

    2006-01-01

    Early graft failure following intraportal islet transplantation (IPIT) represents a major obstacle for successful islet transplantation. Here, we examined the role of islet emboli in the induction of early graft failure and utilized a strategy of ischemic-preconditioning (IP) to prevent early islet destruction in a model of syngeneic IPIT in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Numerous focal areas of liver necrosis associated with the islet emboli were observed within 24 h post-IPIT. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta and IL-6, were significantly increased 3 h after IPIT, while TNF-alpha was elevated for up to 5 days post-IPIT. Caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling positive cells were observed in the transplanted islets trapped in areas of necrotic liver at 3 h and 1 day post-IPIT. Hyperglycemia was corrected immediately following IPIT of 200 islets, but recurrence of hyperglycemia was observed within 14 days associated with a poor response to glucose challenge. IP, a procedure of pre-exposure of the liver to transient ischemia and reperfusion, protected the liver from embolism-induced ischemic injury and prevented early islet graft failure. These data suggest that islet embolism in the portal vein is a major cause of functional loss following IPIT that can be prevented by liver IP. PMID:16433757

  1. Preconditioning concepts in polymer flooding in high-salinity reservoirs; Laboratory investigations and case histories

    SciTech Connect

    Volz, H.; Maltin, B.K. ); Sohn, W.O.

    1990-11-01

    In polymer-flood field projects with partially hydrolized polyacrylamide (PH PAA) solutions, the authors applied two methods of preconditioning: a preflush with fresh water and the use of a relatively small slug of a less-salt-sensitive polymer. Results of laboratory work that led to an improved preconditioning concept with polymer are described. Case histories of two projects with two different preconditioning processes are presented and discussed in detail.

  2. Morphine-Induced Preconditioning: Involvement of Protein Kinase A and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    PubMed Central

    Dorsch, Marianne; Behmenburg, Friederike; Raible, Miriam; Blase, Dominic; Grievink, Hilbert; Hollmann, Markus W.; Heinen, André; Huhn, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Morphine induces myocardial preconditioning (M-PC) via activation of mitochondrial large conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (mKCa) channels. An upstream regulator of mKCa channels is protein kinase A (PKA). Furthermore, mKCa channel activation regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics and thereby prevents opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here, we investigated in the rat heart in vivo whether 1) M-PC is mediated by activation of PKA, and 2) pharmacological opening of the mPTP abolishes the cardioprotective effect of M-PC and 3) M-PC is critically dependent on STAT3 activation, which is located upstream of mPTP within the signalling pathway. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomised to six groups (each n = 6). All animals underwent 25 minutes of regional myocardial ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Control animals (Con) were not further treated. Morphine preconditioning was initiated by intravenous administration of 0.3 mg/kg morphine (M-PC). The PKA blocker H-89 (10 μg/kg) was investigated with and without morphine (H-89+M-PC, H-89). We determined the effect of mPTP opening with atractyloside (5 mg/kg) with and without morphine (Atr+M-PC, Atr). Furthermore, the effect of morphine on PKA activity was tested in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. In further experiments in isolated hearts we tested the protective properties of morphine in the presence of STAT3 inhibition, and whether pharmacological prevention of the mPTP-opening by cyclosporine A (CsA) is cardioprotective in the presence of STAT3 inhibition. Results Morphine reduced infarct size from 64±5% to 39±9% (P<0.05 vs. Con). H-89 completely blocked preconditioning by morphine (64±9%; P<0.05 vs. M-PC), but H-89 itself had not effect on infarct size (61±10%; P>0.05 vs. Con). Also, atractyloside abolished infarct size reduction of morphine completely (65±9%; P<0.05 vs. M-PC) but had no influence on infarct size itself (64±5%; P>0.05 vs. Con). In isolated hearts STAT3 inhibitor Stattic completely abolished morphine-induced preconditioning. Administration of Stattic and mPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A reduced infarct size to 31±6% (Stat+CsA, P<0.05 vs. Con). Cyclosporine A alone reduced infarct size to 26±7% (CsA P<0.05 vs. Con). In cardiomyocytes, PKA activity was increased by morphine. Conclusion Our data suggest that morphine-induced cardioprotection is mediated by STAT3-activation and inhibition of mPTP, with STA3 located upstream of mPTP. There is some evidence that protein kinase A is involved within the signalling pathway. PMID:26968004

  3. Postischemic hyperperfusion on arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI is linked to hemorrhagic transformation in stroke.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songlin; Liebeskind, David S; Dua, Sumit; Wilhalme, Holly; Elashoff, David; Qiao, Xin J; Alger, Jeffry R; Sanossian, Nerses; Starkman, Sidney; Ali, Latisha K; Scalzo, Fabien; Lou, Xin; Yoo, Bryan; Saver, Jeffrey L; Salamon, Noriko; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hyperperfusion and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) with background suppressed 3D GRASE was performed during routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on AIS patients at various time points. Arterial spin labeling cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps were visually inspected for the presence of hyperperfusion. Hemorrhagic transformation was followed during hospitalization and was graded on gradient recalled echo (GRE) scans into hemorrhagic infarction (HI) and parenchymal hematoma (PH). A total of 361 ASL scans were collected from 221 consecutive patients with middle cerebral artery stroke from May 2010 to September 2013. Hyperperfusion was more frequently detected posttreatment (odds ratio (OR) = 4.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5 to 8.9, P < 0.001) and with high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission (P<0.001). There was a significant association between having hyperperfusion at any time point and HT (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 2.0 to 6.3, P < 0.001). There was a positive relationship between the grade of HT and time-hyperperfusion with the Spearman's rank correlation of 0.44 (P = 0.003). Arterial spin labeling hyperperfusion may provide an imaging marker of HT, which may guide the management of AIS patients post tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and/or endovascular treatments. Late hyperperfusion should be given more attention to prevent high-grade HT. PMID:25564233

  4. Expression of Monocarboxylate Transporter Isoforms in Rat Skeletal Muscle Under Hypoxic Preconditioning and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Saurabh; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju

    2016-03-01

    Saxena, Saurabh, Dhananjay Shukla, and Anju Bansal. Expression of monocarboxylate transporter isoforms in rat skeletal muscle under hypoxic preconditioning and endurance training. High Alt Med Biol 17:32-42, 2016-Previously, we have reported the regulation of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT)1 and MCT4 by physiological stimuli such as hypoxia and exercise. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of hypoxic preconditioning and training on expression of different MCT isoforms in muscles. We found the increased mRNA expression of MCT1, MCT11, and MCT12 after hypoxic preconditioning with cobalt chloride and training. However, the expression of other MCT isoforms increased marginally or even reduced after hypoxic preconditioning. Only the protein expression of MCT1 increased after hypoxia preconditioning. MCT2 protein expression increased after training only and MCT4 protein expression decreased both in preconditioning and hypoxic training. Furthermore, we found decreased plasma lactate level during hypoxia preconditioning (0.74-fold), exercise (0.78-fold), and hypoxia preconditioning along with exercise (0.67-fold), which indicates increased lactate uptake by skeletal muscle. The protein-protein interactions with hypoxia inducible factor-1 and MCT isoforms were also evaluated, but no interaction was found. In conclusion, we say that almost all MCTs are expressed in red gastrocnemius muscle at the mRNA level and their expression is regulated differently under hypoxia preconditioning and exercise condition. PMID:26716978

  5. Preservation of cardiac contractility after long-term therapy with oxypurinol in post-ischemic heart failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhen; Dai, Tieying; Zhong, Xin; Tian, Ye; Leppo, Michelle K; Gao, Wei Dong

    2009-10-25

    Previously, we showed that oral allopurinol increased survival in mice with post-ischemic cardiomyopathy and attributed this outcome to an improvement of excitation-contraction coupling that boosted contractility. In this study, we tested the sustainability of this enhanced contraction associated with decreased oxidative damage over an extended time. Mice were divided into three groups: sham-operated control, myocardial infarction-heart failure (MI-HF), and oxypurinol-treated heart failure (Oxy-HF). After 9-11 months, echocardiography showed that mice treated with oxypurinol (1mM in drinking water) had significantly higher left ventricle fractional contraction and fractional wall thickening during systole than did mice in the MI-HF group (left ventricle fractional contraction: 28.4+/-2.2% vs. 19.9+/-2.3%, P<0.05; left ventricle fractional wall thickening: 45.0+/-4.0% vs. 23.5+/-2.0%, P<0.05). Left ventricular diastolic dimension, however, remained enlarged (0.50+/-0.04 vs. 0.54+/-0.05 cm, not significant). Twitch force was significantly higher at any given external Ca(2+) concentration in the Oxy-HF group than in the MI-HF group (P<0.01); amplitudes of intracellular Ca(2+) transients were also higher in the Oxy-HF group but were not statistically different from those of the MI-HF group. Force-frequency relation was improved in the Oxy-HF group. Muscle in the Oxy-HF group exhibited increases in myofilament Ca(2+) responsiveness, as evidenced by significantly higher maximal Ca(2+)-activated force (77.8+/-12.7 vs. 36.4+/-4.4 mN/mm(2), P<0.01). Finally, lipid peroxidation and myofilament oxidation were suppressed in the Oxy-HF group. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of antioxidation can be sustained by long-term treatment with oxypurinol after ischemic heart failure, with significantly improved cardiac contractility. PMID:19737552

  6. Glycine preconditioning to ameliorate pulmonary ischemia reperfusion injury in rats†

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Sebastian-Patrick; Sommer, Stefanie; Sinha, Bhanu; Leyh, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of glycine (Gly) preconditioning on ischemia reperfusion (IR)-induced pulmonary mitochondrial injury to research the previously, in pig lungs, demonstrated Gly-dependent amelioration of pulmonary IR injury. IR injury was induced in rat lungs by 30 min pulmonary hilum clamping followed by 60 min reperfusion time. Rats were subjected to controls, shams and two study groups (IR30/60, Gly-IR30/60) receiving 37.5 mg Gly i.v. or not before IR induction. The wet/dry-weight ratio, mitochondria viability (MV), membrane integrity (MI), respiratory chain complex (RCC) activities, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cytochrome C (Cyt C) content were analysed. In IR30/60, RCC and MV were impaired; Cyt C loss and MI combined with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and ΔΨm alteration were observed when compared with controls. In Gly-IR30/60, complex II function and mitochondrial viability were protected during IR, and MMP-9 activation combined with tissue-water content accumulation and ΔΨm alteration were ameliorated. Cyt C loss, mitochondrial membranes damage, tissue GSH oxidation or neutrophil sequestration was not extenuated in Gly-IR30/60. Gly ameliorates IR-associated mitochondrial dysfunction and decay of viability and normalizes ΔΨm but does not protect from Cyt C liberation and mitochondrial membrane damage. Our data suggest that the previously described effect of Gly preconditioning results at least partially from mitochondrial protection. A dose-finding study is necessary to improve results of Gly preconditioning. PMID:22350772

  7. Dexmedetomidine preconditioning ameliorates kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Lempiäinen, Juha; Finckenberg, Piet; Mervaala, Elina E; Storvik, Markus; Kaivola, Juha; Lindstedt, Ken; Levijoki, Jouko; Mervaala, Eero M

    2014-01-01

    Kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common cause of acute kidney injury. We tested whether dexmedetomidine (Dex), an alpha2 adrenoceptor (α2-AR) agonist, protects against kidney I/R injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (1) Sham-operated group; (2) I/R group (40 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion); (3) I/R group + Dex (1 μg/kg i.v. 60 min before the surgery), (4) I/R group + Dex (10 μg/kg). The effects of Dex postconditiong (Dex 1 or 10 μg/kg i.v. after reperfusion) as well as the effects of peripheral α2-AR agonism with fadolmidine were also examined. Hemodynamic effects were monitored, renal function measured, and acute tubular damage along with monocyte/macrophage infiltration scored. Kidney protein kinase B, toll like receptor 4, light chain 3B, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), sirtuin 1, adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressions were measured, and kidney transciptome profiles analyzed. Dex preconditioning, but not postconditioning, attenuated I/R injury-induced renal dysfunction, acute tubular necrosis and inflammatory response. Neither pre- nor postconditioning with fadolmidine protected kidneys. Dex decreased blood pressure more than fadolmidine, ameliorated I/R-induced impairment of autophagy and increased renal p38 and eNOS expressions. Dex downregulated 245 and upregulated 61 genes representing 17 enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, in particular, integrin pathway and CD44. Ingenuity analysis revealed inhibition of Rac and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 pathways, whereas aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway was activated. Dex preconditioning ameliorates kidney I/R injury and inflammatory response, at least in part, through p38-CD44-pathway and possibly also through ischemic preconditioning. PMID:25505591

  8. Weighted graph based ordering techniques for preconditioned conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clift, Simon S.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1994-01-01

    We describe the basis of a matrix ordering heuristic for improving the incomplete factorization used in preconditioned conjugate gradient techniques applied to anisotropic PDE's. Several new matrix ordering techniques, derived from well-known algorithms in combinatorial graph theory, which attempt to implement this heuristic, are described. These ordering techniques are tested against a number of matrices arising from linear anisotropic PDE's, and compared with other matrix ordering techniques. A variation of RCM is shown to generally improve the quality of incomplete factorization preconditioners.

  9. Preconditioning methods for ideal and multiphase fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ashish

    The objective of this study is to develop a preconditioning method for ideal and multiphase multispecies compressible fluid flow solver using homogeneous equilibrium mixture model. The mathematical model for fluid flow going through phase change uses density and temperature in the formulation, where the density represents the multiphase mixture density. The change of phase of the fluid is then explicitly determined using the equation of state of the fluid, which only requires temperature and mixture density. The method developed is based on a finite-volume framework in which the numerical fluxes are computed using Roe's approximate Riemann solver and the modified Harten, Lax and Van-leer scheme (HLLC). All speed Roe and HLLC flux based schemes have been developed either by using preconditioning or by directly modifying dissipation to reduce the effect of acoustic speed in its numerical dissipation when Mach number decreases. Preconditioning proposed by Briley, Taylor and Whitfield, Eriksson and Turkel are studied in this research, where as low dissipation schemes proposed by Rieper and Thornber, Mosedale, Drikakis, Youngs and Williams are also considered. Various preconditioners are evaluated in terms of development, performance, accuracy and limitations in simulations at various Mach numbers. A generalized preconditioner is derived which possesses well conditioned eigensystem for multiphase multispecies flow simulations. Validation and verification of the solution procedure are carried out on several small model problems with comparison to experimental, theoretical, and other numerical results. Preconditioning methods are evaluated using three basic geometries; 1) bump in a channel 2) flow over a NACA0012 airfoil and 3) flow over a cylinder, which are then compared with theoretical and numerical results. Multiphase capabilities of the solver are evaluated in cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions. For cryogenic conditions the solver is evaluated by predicting cavitation on two basic geometries for which experimental data are available, that is, flow over simple foil and a quarter caliber hydrofoil in a tunnel using liquid nitrogen as a fluid. For non-cryogenic conditions, water near boiling conditions is used to predict cavitation on two simple geometries, that is, flow over simple foil in a tunnel and flow over a one caliber ogive. Cavitation predictions in both cryogenic and non-cryogenic cases are shows to agree well with available experimental data.

  10. Preconditioning Neuroprotection in Global Cerebral Ischemia Involves NMDA Receptor-Mediated ERK-JNK3 Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan-Guang; Wang, Rui-Min; Han, Dong; Yang, Li-Cai; Li, Jie; Brann, Darrell W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning neuroprotection is associated with inhibition of JNK pathway activation. The present study was designed to examine the hypothesis that the suppression of JNK3 activation by preconditioning is mediated by NMDA receptors and crosstalk between ERK1/2 and JNK3. Preconditioning (3 min ischemia) 2 days before global cerebral ischemia (8-min) markedly decreased neuronal degeneration in hippocampus CA1, an effect abolished by pretreatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Furthermore, preconditioning abolished cerebral ischemia-induced JNK3 activation and enhanced ERK1/2 activation, an effect reversed by MK-801. Due to the inverse relationship between ERK1/2 and JNK3 activation following preconditioning, we hypothesized that ERK1/2 may regulate JNK3 activation following preconditioning. In support of this contention, pretreatment with the MEK inhibitor, PD98059 significantly attenuated preconditioning-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and strongly reversed preconditioning down-regulation of JNK3 phosphorylation. This finding suggests that ERK1/2 signaling is responsible for preconditioning-induced down-regulation of JNK3 activation. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry further demonstrated that preconditioning, in an NMDA-dependent manner, enhanced activation of the pro-survival factors, p-CREB and Bcl-2, while attenuating activation of putative pro-death factors, p-c-Jun and Fas-L in the hippocampus CA1. As a whole, the study demonstrates that preconditioning attenuation of pro-death JNK3 in the hippocampus CA1 following global cerebral ischemia is mediated by NMDA receptor-Induced crosstalk between ERK1/2 and JNK3. The ERK1/2-mediated reduction of JNK3 activation leads to enhanced prosurvival signaling (P-CREB and Bcl-2 induction) and attenuation of prodeath signaling (p-c-Jun and Fas-L), with subsequent induction of ischemic tolerance. PMID:19373993

  11. Roles of thioredoxin in nitric oxide-dependent preconditioning-induced tolerance against MPTP neurotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Chiueh, C.C. . E-mail: chiueh@tmu.edu.tw; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Chock, P. Boon

    2005-09-01

    Hormesis, a stress tolerance, can be induced by ischemic preconditioning stress. In addition to preconditioning, it may be induced by other means, such as gas anesthetics. Preconditioning mechanisms, which may be mediated by reprogramming survival genes and proteins, are obscure. A known neurotoxicant, 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), causes less neurotoxicity in the mice that are preconditioned. Pharmacological evidences suggest that the signaling pathway of {center_dot}NO-cGMP-PKG (protein kinase G) may mediate preconditioning phenomenon. We developed a human SH-SY5Y cell model for investigating {sup {center_dot}}NO-mediated signaling pathway, gene regulation, and protein expression following a sublethal preconditioning stress caused by a brief 2-h serum deprivation. Preconditioned human SH-SY5Y cells are more resistant against severe oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by lethal serum deprivation and 1-mehtyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP{sup +}). Both sublethal and lethal oxidative stress caused by serum withdrawal increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS/NOS1) expression and {sup {center_dot}}NO levels to a similar extent. In addition to free radical scavengers, inhibition of nNOS, guanylyl cyclase, and PKG blocks hormesis induced by preconditioning. S-nitrosothiols and 6-Br-cGMP produce a cytoprotection mimicking the action of preconditioning tolerance. There are two distinct cGMP-mediated survival pathways: (i) the up-regulation of a redox protein thioredoxin (Trx) for elevating mitochondrial levels of antioxidant protein Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, and (ii) the activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels [K(ATP)]. Preconditioning induction of Trx increased tolerance against MPP{sup +}, which was blocked by Trx mRNA antisense oligonucleotide and Trx reductase inhibitor. It is concluded that Trx plays a pivotal role in {sup {center_dot}}NO-dependent preconditioning hormesis against MPTP/MPP{sup +}.

  12. Global and Ocular Hypothermic Preconditioning Protect the Rat Retina from Ischemic Damage

    PubMed Central

    Salido, Ezequiel M.; Dorfman, Damián; Bordone, Melina; Chianelli, Mónica; González Fleitas, María Florencia; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Retinal ischemia could provoke blindness. At present, there is no effective treatment against retinal ischemic damage. Strong evidence supports that glutamate is implicated in retinal ischemic damage. We investigated whether a brief period of global or ocular hypothermia applied 24 h before ischemia (i.e. hypothermic preconditioning, HPC) protects the retina from ischemia/reperfusion damage, and the involvement of glutamate in the retinal protection induced by HPC. For this purpose, ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure to 120 mm Hg for 40 min. One day before ischemia, animals were submitted to global or ocular hypothermia (33°C and 32°C for 20 min, respectively) and fourteen days after ischemia, animals were subjected to electroretinography and histological analysis. Global or ocular HPC afforded significant functional (electroretinographic) protection in eyes exposed to ischemia/reperfusion injury. A marked alteration of the retinal structure and a decrease in retinal ganglion cell number were observed in ischemic retinas, whereas global or ocular HPC significantly preserved retinal structure and ganglion cell count. Three days after ischemia, a significant decrease in retinal glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase activity was observed, whereas ocular HPC prevented the effect of ischemia on these parameters. The intravitreal injection of supraphysiological levels of glutamate induced alterations in retinal function and histology which were significantly prevented by ocular HPC. These results support that global or ocular HPC significantly protected retinal function and histology from ischemia/reperfusion injury, probably through a glutamate-dependent mechanism. PMID:23626711

  13. AdVEGF-All6A+ Preconditioning of Murine Ischemic Skin Flaps Is Comparable to Surgical Delay

    PubMed Central

    Gersch, Robert P.; Fourman, Mitchell S.; Phillips, Brett T.; Nasser, Ahmed; McClain, Steve A.; Khan, Sami U.; Dagum, Alexander B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical flap delay is commonly used in preconditioning reconstructive flaps to prevent necrosis. However, staged procedures are not ideal. Pharmacologic up-regulation of angiogenic and arteriogenic factors before flap elevation poses a nonsurgical approach to improve flap survival. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control (n = 16), surgical delay (Delay), AdNull, AdEgr-1, and AdVEGF (n ≥ 9/group) groups. Delay rats had a 9 cm × 3 cm cranial based pedicle skin flap incised 10 days prior to elevation. Adenoviral groups received 28 intradermal injections (109 pu/animal total) throughout the distal two thirds of the flap 1 week prior to elevation. At postoperative day (POD) 0 flaps were elevated and silicone sheeting was placed between flap and wound bed. Perfusion analysis in arbitrary perfusion units of the ischemic middle third of the flap using laser Doppler imaging was conducted preoperatively and on POD 0, 3, and 7. Clinical and histopathologic assessments of the skin flaps were performed on POD 7. Results: AdVEGF (50.8 ± 10.9 APU) and AdEgr-1 (39.3 ± 10.6 APU) perfusion levels were significantly higher than controls (16.5 ± 4.2 APU) on POD 7. Delay models were equivalent to controls (25.9 ± 6.8 APU). AdVEGF and Delay animals showed significantly more viable surface area on POD 7 (14.4 ± 1.3 cm2, P < 0.01 and 12.4 ± 1.2 cm2, P < 0.05, respectively) compared with Controls (8.7 ± 0.7 cm2). Conclusions: AdVEGF preconditioning resulted in flap survival comparable to surgical delay. Adenoviral preconditioning maintained perfusion levels postoperatively while surgical delay did not. PMID:26495207

  14. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved. PMID:26938221

  15. Stress Preconditioning of Spreading Depression in the Locust CNS

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Corinne I.; Armstrong, Gary A. B.; Shoemaker, Kelly L.; LaBrie, John D.; Moyes, Christopher D.; Robertson, R. Meldrum

    2007-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is closely associated with important pathologies including stroke, seizures and migraine. The mechanisms underlying SD in its various forms are still incompletely understood. Here we describe SD-like events in an invertebrate model, the ventilatory central pattern generator (CPG) of locusts. Using K+ -sensitive microelectrodes, we measured extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o) in the metathoracic neuropile of the CPG while monitoring CPG output electromyographically from muscle 161 in the second abdominal segment to investigate the role K+ in failure of neural circuit operation induced by various stressors. Failure of ventilation in response to different stressors (hyperthermia, anoxia, ATP depletion, Na+/K+ ATPase impairment, K+ injection) was associated with a disturbance of CNS ion homeostasis that shares the characteristics of CSD and SD-like events in vertebrates. Hyperthermic failure was preconditioned by prior heat shock (3 h, 45°C) and induced-thermotolerance was associated with an increase in the rate of clearance of extracellular K+ that was not linked to changes in ATP levels or total Na+/K+ ATPase activity. Our findings suggest that SD-like events in locusts are adaptive to terminate neural network operation and conserve energy during stress and that they can be preconditioned by experience. We propose that they share mechanisms with CSD in mammals suggesting a common evolutionary origin. PMID:18159249

  16. Cardioprotection Acquired Through Exercise: The Role of Ischemic Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Marongiu, Elisabetta; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A great bulk of evidence supports the concept that regular exercise training can reduce the incidence of coronary events and increase survival chances after myocardial infarction. These exercise-induced beneficial effects on the myocardium are reached by means of the reduction of several risk factors relating to cardiovascular disease, such as high cholesterol, hypertension, obesity etc. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that exercise can reproduce the “ischemic preconditioning” (IP), which refers to the capacity of short periods of ischemia to render the myocardium more resistant to subsequent ischemic insult and to limit infarct size during prolonged ischemia. However, IP is a complex phenomenon which, along with infarct size reduction, can also provide protection against arrhythmia and myocardial stunning due to ischemia-reperfusion. Several clues demonstrate that preconditioning may be directly induced by exercise, thus inducing a protective phenotype at the heart level without the necessity of causing ischemia. Exercise appears to act as a physiological stress that induces beneficial myocardial adaptive responses at cellular level. The purpose of the present paper is to review the latest data on the role played by exercise in triggering myocardial preconditioning. PMID:24720421

  17. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L

    2016-01-01

    In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved. PMID:26938221

  18. Sensory Preconditioning in Newborn Rabbits: From Common to Distinct Odor Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coureaud, Gerard; Tourat, Audrey; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether olfactory preconditioning is functional in newborn rabbits and based on joined or independent memory of odorants. First, after exposure to odorants A+B, the conditioning of A led to high responsiveness to odorant B. Second, responsiveness to B persisted after amnesia of A. Third, preconditioning was also functional…

  19. 40 CFR 85.2218 - Preconditioned idle test-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preconditioned idle test-EPA 91. 85.2218 Section 85.2218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Tests § 85.2218 Preconditioned idle test—EPA 91. (a) General requirements—(1) Exhaust gas...

  20. A note on the preconditioned Gauss-Seidel (GS) method for linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen

    2005-10-01

    In this note recent comparison results for preconditioned Gauss-Seidel (GS) methods are discussed. A new strict comparison result between two different preconditioned GS methods is given, some errors in a recent article by Niki et al. (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 164-165 (2004) 587) are pointed out and a new proof for the corresponding results in Niki et al. is presented.

  1. 40 CFR 85.2218 - Preconditioned idle test-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preconditioned idle test-EPA 91. 85.2218 Section 85.2218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2218 Preconditioned idle...

  2. 40 CFR 85.2218 - Preconditioned idle test-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preconditioned idle test-EPA 91. 85.2218 Section 85.2218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2218 Preconditioned idle...

  3. Local and remote ischemic preconditioning protect against intestinal ischemic/reperfusion injury after supraceliac aortic clamping

    PubMed Central

    Erling, Nilon; de Souza Montero, Edna Frasson; Sannomiya, Paulina; Poli-de-Figueiredo (in memoriam), Luiz Francisco

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tests the hypothesis that local or remote ischemic preconditioning may protect the intestinal mucosa against ischemia and reperfusion injuries resulting from temporary supraceliac aortic clamping. METHODS: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the sham surgery group, the supraceliac aortic occlusion group, the local ischemic preconditioning prior to supraceliac aortic occlusion group, and the remote ischemic preconditioning prior to supraceliac aortic occlusion group. Tissue samples from the small bowel were used for quantitative morphometric analysis of mucosal injury, and blood samples were collected for laboratory analyses. RESULTS: Supraceliac aortic occlusion decreased intestinal mucosal length by reducing villous height and elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase and lactate levels. Both local and remote ischemic preconditioning mitigated these histopathological and laboratory changes. CONCLUSIONS: Both local and remote ischemic preconditioning protect intestinal mucosa against ischemia and reperfusion injury following supraceliac aortic clamping. PMID:24473514

  4. Contribution of the maritime continent convection during the preconditioning stage of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, H.; Yoneyama, K.; Nasuno, T.; Hamada, J.

    2013-12-01

    During the international field experiment 'Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011)', the preconditioning process of the MJO was observed. In this study, the contribution of the maritime continent convection was focused on the preconditioning process of the third MJO. During the preconditioning stage of the MJO, westward propagating disturbances were observed from Sumatera Island to the central Indian Ocean and moistened the atmosphere. Convections over the Sumatera Island were activated around December 15th when the moist air mass reached from South China Sea. The origin of the moist air mass was tropical cyclone which was formed in South China Sea in December 10th. The high moisture associated with tropical cyclone activated the convection over Sumatera Island, promoted westward propagating disturbances, and acted a favorable environment for the preconditioning of the MJO. This preconditioning stage of the MJO is simulated by Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) and investigated the moistening process.

  5. Type 2 Diabetes Restricts Multipotency of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Impairs Their Capacity to Augment Postischemic Neovascularization in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jinglian; Tie, Guodong; Wang, Shouying; Messina, Katharine E.; DiDato, Sebastian; Guo, Sujuan; Messina, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study tested the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes restricts multipotency of db/db mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), promotes their terminal differentiation into adipocytes rather than endothelial cells, thereby promotes adipocytic infiltration into ischemic muscles, and reduces their capacity to participate in postischemic neovascularization. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis, we transplanted MSCs from db/db or wild-type (WT) mice into WT recipients after induction of hind limb ischemia. WT recipients of db/db MSCs demonstrated adipocyte infiltration of ischemic muscle and impaired neovascularization; WT recipients of WT MSCs showed no intramuscular adipocyte infiltration and had significantly enhanced neovascularization (P<0.05; n=6). Confocal microscopy showed that the percentage of MSCs that differentiated into an adipocyte phenotype was greater and into an endothelial cell was less in WT recipients transplanted with db/db MSCs than those transplanted with WT MSCs (P<0.05; n=6). In vitro, db/db MSCs exhibited greater oxidant stress, greater adipocyte differentiation, and less endothelial differentiation than WT MSCs, and these differences were reversed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine or Nox4 siRNA (P<0.05; n=6). Insulin increased Nox4 expression, oxidant stress, and adipocyte differentiation in WT MSCs, and these insulin-induced effects were reversed by Nox4 siRNA (P<0.05; n=6). Reversal of db/db MSC oxidant stress by in vivo pretreatment with Nox4 siRNA before transplantation reversed their impaired capacity to augment postischemic neovascularization. Conclusions Type 2 diabetes–induced oxidant stress restricts the multipotency of MSCs and impairs their capacity to increase blood flow recovery after the induction of hind-limb ischemia. Reversal of MSC oxidant stress might permit greater leverage of the therapeutic potential of MSC transplantation in the setting of diabetes. PMID:23316315

  6. C-terminal variable AGES domain of Thymosin β4: the molecule's primary contribution in support of post-ischemic cardiac function and repair.

    PubMed

    Hinkel, Rabea; Ball, Haydn L; DiMaio, J Michael; Shrivastava, Santwana; Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Singh, Ajay N; Sun, Xiankai; Faskerti, Gabor; Olson, Eric N; Kupatt, Christian; Bock-Marquette, Ildiko

    2015-10-01

    Repairing defective cardiac cells is important towards improving heart function. Due to the frequency and severity of ischemic heart disease, management of patients featuring this type of cardiac failure receives significant interest. Previously we discovered that Thymosin β4 (TB4), a 43 amino-acid secreted actin sequestering peptide, is beneficial for myocardial cell survival and coronary re-growth after infarction in adult mammals. Considering the regenerative potential of full-length TB4 in the heart, and that minimal structural variations alter TB4's influence on actin assembly and cell movement, we investigated how various TB4 domains affect cardiac cell behavior and post-ischemic mammalian heart function. We synthesized 17 domain combinations of full-length TB4 and analyzed their impact on embryonic cardiac cells in vitro, and after cardiac infarction in vivo. We discovered the domains of TB4 affect cardiac cell behavior distinctly. We revealed TB4 specific C-terminal tetrapeptide, AGES, increases embryonic cardiac cell migration and myocyte beating in culture, and improves adult mammalian heart function following ischemia. Investigating the molecular background and mechanism we discovered systemic injection of AGES enhances early myocyte survival by activating Akt-mediated signaling mechanisms, increases coronary vessel growth and inhibits inflammation in mice and pigs. Biodistribution analyses revealed cardiomyocytes uptake AGES efficiently in vitro and in vivo projecting a potential independent clinical utilization for the tetrapeptide. Our comprehensive domain investigations also suggest, preservation and/or restoration of cardiomyocyte communication is a target of TB4 and AGES, and critical to improve post-ischemic heart function in pigs. In summary, we identified the C-terminal four amino-acid variable end of TB4 as the essential and responsible domain for the molecule's full benefits in the hypoxic heart. Additionally, we introduced AGES as a novel, systemically applicable drug candidate to aid cardiac infarction in adult mammals. PMID:26255251

  7. Low molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 signals via protein kinase C and myofibrillar proteins to protect against postischemic cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Janet R.; Perkins, Sarah O.; Sinclair, Elizabeth A.; Gao, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yu; Newman, Gilbert; Pyle, W. Glen

    2013-01-01

    Among its many biological roles, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) acutely protects the heart from dysfunction associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our laboratory has demonstrated that this is due to the activity of the low molecular weight (LMW) isoform of FGF2 and that FGF2-mediated cardioprotection relies on the activity of protein kinase C (PKC); however, which PKC isoforms are responsible for LMW FGF2-mediated cardioprotection, and their downstream targets, remain to be elucidated. To identify the PKC pathway(s) that contributes to postischemic cardiac recovery by LMW FGF2, mouse hearts expressing only LMW FGF2 (HMWKO) were bred to mouse hearts not expressing PKCα (PKCαKO) or subjected to a selective PKCε inhibitor (εV1–2) before and during I/R. Hearts only expressing LMW FGF2 showed significantly improved postischemic recovery of cardiac function following I/R (P < 0.05), which was significantly abrogated in the absence of PKCα (P < 0.05) or presence of PKCε inhibition (P < 0.05). Hearts only expressing LMW FGF2 demonstrated differences in actomyosin ATPase activity as well as increases in the phosphorylation of troponin I and T during I/R compared with wild-type hearts; several of these effects were dependent on PKCα activity. This evidence indicates that both PKCα and PKCε play a role in LMW FGF2-mediated protection from cardiac dysfunction and that PKCα signaling to the contractile apparatus is a key step in the mechanism of LMW FGF2-mediated protection against myocardial dysfunction. PMID:23479264

  8. Hypophosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 is a molecular mechanism underlying ischemic tolerance induced by either hibernation or preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Shin-ichi; Wakita, Hideaki; Bernstock, Joshua D; Castri, Paola; Ruetzler, Christl; Miyake, Junko; Lee, Yang-Ja; Hallenbeck, John M

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) have an extraordinary capacity to withstand prolonged and profound reductions in blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain without incurring any cellular damage. As such, the hibernation torpor of I. tridecemlineatus provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we report that during hibernation torpor, a marked reduction in the phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) occurs within the brains of I. tridecemlineatus. Of note, rpS6 phosphorylation was shown to increase in the brains of rats that underwent an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. However, such an increase was attenuated after the implementation of an ischemic preconditioning paradigm. In addition, cultured cortical neurons treated with the rpS6 kinase (S6K) inhibitors, D-glucosamine or PF4708671, displayed a decrease in rpS6 phosphorylation and a subsequent increase in tolerance to oxygen/glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of ischemic stroke. Collectively, such evidence suggests that the down-regulation of rpS6 signal transduction may account for a substantial part of the observed increase in cellular tolerance to brain ischemia that occurs during hibernation torpor and after ischemic preconditioning. Further identification and characterization of the mechanisms used by hibernating species to increase ischemic tolerance may eventually clarify how the loss of homeostatic control that occurs during and after cerebral ischemia in the clinic can ultimately be minimized and/or prevented. Mammalian hibernation provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we demonstrate that marked reductions in the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), extracellular signal-regulated kinase family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p44/42 (p44/42MAPK) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) occur within the brains of both hibernating squirrels and rats, which have undergone an ischemic preconditioning paradigm. We therefore propose that the down-regulation of rpS6 signal transduction may account for a substantial part of the observed increase in cellular tolerance to brain ischemia that occurs during hibernation torpor and after ischemic preconditioning, via a suppression of protein synthesis and/or energy consumption. PMID:26375300

  9. Ischemic Preconditioning and Placebo Intervention Improves Resistance Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Marocolo, Moacir; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Marocolo, Isabela C; Ribeiro da Mota, Gustavo; Simão, Roberto; Maior, Alex S

    2016-05-01

    Marocolo, M, Willardson, JM, Marocolo, IC, da Mota, GR, Simão, R, and Maior, AS. Ischemic preconditioning and PLACEBO intervention improves resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1462-1469, 2016-This study evaluated the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on resistance exercise performance in the lower limbs. Thirteen men participated in a randomized crossover design that involved 3 separate sessions (IPC, PLACEBO, and control). A 12-repetition maximum (12RM) load for the leg extension exercise was assessed through test and retest sessions before the first experimental session. The IPC session consisted of 4 cycles of 5 minutes of occlusion at 220 mm Hg of pressure alternated with 5 minutes of reperfusion at 0 mm Hg for a total of 40 minutes. The PLACEBO session consisted of 4 cycles of 5 minutes of cuff administration at 20 mm Hg of pressure alternated with 5 minutes of pseudo-reperfusion at 0 mm Hg for a total of 40 minutes. The occlusion and reperfusion phases were conducted alternately between the thighs, with subjects remaining seated. No ischemic pressure was applied during the control (CON) session and subjects sat passively for 40 minutes. Eight minutes after IPC, PLACEBO, or CON, subjects performed 3 repetition maximum sets of the leg extension (2-minute rest between sets) with the predetermined 12RM load. Four minutes after the third set for each condition, blood lactate was assessed. The results showed that for the first set, the number of repetitions significantly increased for both the IPC (13.08 ± 2.11; p = 0.0036) and PLACEBO (13.15 ± 0.88; p = 0.0016) conditions, but not for the CON (11.88 ± 1.07; p > 0.99) condition. In addition, the IPC and PLACEBO conditions resulted insignificantly greater repetitions vs. the CON condition on the first set (p = 0.015; p = 0.007) and second set (p = 0.011; p = 0.019), but not on the third set (p = 0.68; p > 0.99). No difference (p = 0.465) was found in the fatigue index and lactate concentration between conditions. These results indicate that IPC and PLACEBO IPC may have small beneficial effects on repetition performance over a CON condition. Owing to potential for greater discomfort associated with the IPC condition, it is suggested that ischemic preconditioning might be practiced gradually to assess tolerance and potential enhancements to exercise performance. PMID:26466134

  10. A frequency dependent preconditioned wavelet method for atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudytskiy, Mykhaylo; Helin, Tapio; Ramlau, Ronny

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric tomography, i.e. the reconstruction of the turbulence in the atmosphere, is a main task for the adaptive optics systems of the next generation telescopes. For extremely large telescopes, such as the European Extremely Large Telescope, this problem becomes overly complex and an efficient algorithm is needed to reduce numerical costs. Recently, a conjugate gradient method based on wavelet parametrization of turbulence layers was introduced [5]. An iterative algorithm can only be numerically efficient when the number of iterations required for a sufficient reconstruction is low. A way to achieve this is to design an efficient preconditioner. In this paper we propose a new frequency-dependent preconditioner for the wavelet method. In the context of a multi conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) system simulated on the official end-to-end simulation tool OCTOPUS of the European Southern Observatory we demonstrate robustness and speed of the preconditioned algorithm. We show that three iterations are sufficient for a good reconstruction.

  11. Preconditioned Mixed Spectral Element Methods for Elasticity and Stokes Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavarino, Luca F.

    1996-01-01

    Preconditioned iterative methods for the indefinite systems obtained by discretizing the linear elasticity and Stokes problems with mixed spectral elements in three dimensions are introduced and analyzed. The resulting stiffness matrices have the structure of saddle point problems with a penalty term, which is associated with the Poisson ratio for elasticity problems or with stabilization techniques for Stokes problems. The main results of this paper show that the convergence rate of the resulting algorithms is independent of the penalty parameter, the number of spectral elements Nu and mildly dependent on the spectral degree eta via the inf-sup constant. The preconditioners proposed for the whole indefinite system are block-diagonal and block-triangular. Numerical experiments presented in the final section show that these algorithms are a practical and efficient strategy for the iterative solution of the indefinite problems arising from mixed spectral element discretizations of elliptic systems.

  12. Hypoxically preconditioned human peripheral blood mononuclear cells improve blood flow in hindlimb ischemia xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Tomoaki; Kubo, Masayuki; Katsura, Shunsaku; Nishimoto, Arata; Ueno, Koji; Samura, Makoto; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of hindlimb ischemia. However, insufficient angiogenesis in ischemic hindlimb after cell transplantation reduces the importance and practicality of this approach. Previously, we demonstrated using mouse models that hypoxic preconditioning augmented the cellular functions of rodent PBMNCs, such as increased cell adhesion capacity and accelerated neovascularization in ischemic hindlimb. To test the clinical application of this therapeutic strategy in this study, we investigated whether the protocol of hypoxic preconditioning, which was established in a condition of 2% O2 for 24 h, can be made available for human PBMNCs (hPBMNCs). In addition, we grafted preconditioned hPBMNCs in a hindlimb ischemia mouse model. Hypoxic preconditioning enhanced cell adhesion capacity and oxidative stress resistance in hPBMNCs. We also observed an up-regulation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in hPBMNCs by hypoxic preconditioning. Furthermore, preconditioned hPBMNCs significantly recovered limb blood flow in ischemic mice after transplantation. These results indicate that our established preconditioning protocol is available for hPBMNCs to effectively reinforce multiple cellular functions. Taken together with our series of study, we believe that this simple but powerful therapeutic strategy will be helpful in curing patients with severe hindlimb ischemia. PMID:25360221

  13. Exercise preconditioning of myocardial infarct size in dogs is triggered by calcium.

    PubMed

    Parra, Víctor M; Macho, Pilar; Sánchez, Gina; Donoso, Paulina; Domenech, Raúl J

    2015-03-01

    We showed that exercise induces early and late myocardial preconditioning in dogs and that these effects are mediated through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced form (NADPH) oxidase activation. As the intracoronary administration of calcium induces preconditioning and exercise enhances the calcium inflow to the cell, we studied if this effect of exercise triggers exercise preconditioning independently of its hemodynamic effects. We analyzed in 81 dogs the effect of blocking sarcolemmal L-type Ca channels with a low dose of verapamil on early and late preconditioning by exercise, and in other 50 dogs, we studied the effect of verapamil on NADPH oxidase activation in early exercise preconditioning. Exercise reduced myocardial infarct size by 76% and 52% (early and late windows respectively; P < 0.001 both), and these effects were abolished by a single low dose of verapamil given before exercise. This dose of verapamil did not modify the effect of exercise on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters. In addition, verapamil blocked the activation of NADPH oxidase during early preconditioning. The protective effect of exercise preconditioning on myocardial infarct size is triggered, at least in part, by calcium inflow increase to the cell during exercise and, during the early window, is mediated by NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:25658459

  14. The Effect of Hypoxic Preconditioning on Induced Schwann Cells under Hypoxic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ou; Wu, Miaomiao; Jiang, Liangfu

    2015-01-01

    Object Our objective was to explore the protective effects of hypoxic preconditioning on induced Schwann cells exposed to an environment with low concentrations of oxygen. It has been observed that hypoxic preconditioning of induced Schwann cells can promote axonal regeneration under low oxygen conditions. Method Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into Schwann cells and divided into a normal oxygen control group, a hypoxia-preconditioning group and a hypoxia group. The ultrastructure of each of these groups of cells was observed by electron microscopy. In addition, flow cytometry was used to measure changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining was used to detect apoptosis, and Western blots were used to detect the expression of Bcl-2/Bax. Fluorescence microscopic observations of axonal growth in NG-108 cells under hypoxic conditions were also performed. Results The hypoxia-preconditioning group maintained mitochondrial cell membrane and crista integrity, and these cells exhibited less edema than the hypoxia group. In addition, the cells in the hypoxia-preconditioning group were found to be in early stages of apoptosis, whereas cells from the hypoxia group were in the later stages of apoptosis. The hypoxia-preconditioning group also had higher levels of Bcl-2/Bax expression and longer NG-108 cell axons than were observed in the hypoxia group. Conclusion Hypoxic preconditioning can improve the physiological state of Schwann cells in a severe hypoxia environment and improve the ability to promote neurite outgrowth. PMID:26509259

  15. Preconditioning donor with a combination of tacrolimus and rapamacyn to decrease ischaemia–reperfusion injury in a rat syngenic kidney transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Cicora, F; Roberti, J; Vasquez, D; Guerrieri, D; Lausada, N; Cicora, P; Palti, G; Chuluyan, E; Gonzalez, P; Stringa, P; Raimondi, C

    2012-01-01

    Reperfusion injury remains one of the major problems in transplantation. Repair from ischaemic acute renal failure (ARF) involves stimulation of tubular epithelial cell proliferation. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effects of preconditioning donor animals with rapamycin and tacrolimus to prevent ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury. Twelve hours before nephrectomy, the donor animals received immunosuppressive drugs. The animals were divided into four groups, as follows: group 1 control: no treatment; group 2: rapamycin (2 mg/kg); group 3 FK506 (0, 3 mg/kg); and group 4: FK506 (0, 3 mg/kg) plus rapamycin (2 mg/kg). The left kidney was removed and after 3 h of cold ischaemia, the graft was transplanted. Twenty-four hours after transplant, the kidney was recovered for histological analysis and cytokine expression. Preconditioning treatment with rapamycin or tacrolimus significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen and creatinine compared with control [blood urea nitrogen (BUN): P < 0·001 versus control and creatinine: P < 0·001 versus control]. A further decrease was observed when rapamycin was combined with tacrolimus. Acute tubular necrosis was decreased significantly in donors treated with immunosuppressants compared with the control group (P < 0·001 versus control). Moreover, the number of apoptotic nuclei in the control group was higher compared with the treated groups (P < 0·001 versus control). Surprisingly, only rapamycin preconditioning treatment increased anti-apoptotic Bcl2 levels (P < 0·001). Finally, inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, showed lower levels in the graft of those animals that had been pretreated with rapamycin or tacrolimus. This exploratory study demonstrates that preconditioning donor animals with rapamycin or tacrolimus improves clinical outcomes and reduce necrosis and apoptosis in kidney I/R injury. PMID:22132896

  16. Eigenmode Analysis of Boundary Conditions for One-Dimensional Preconditioned Euler Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darmofal, David L.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of local preconditioning on boundary conditions for the subsonic, one-dimensional Euler equations is presented. Decay rates for the eigenmodes of the initial boundary value problem are determined for different boundary conditions. Riemann invariant boundary conditions based on the unpreconditioned Euler equations are shown to be reflective with preconditioning, and, at low Mach numbers, disturbances do not decay. Other boundary conditions are investigated which are non-reflective with preconditioning and numerical results are presented confirming the analysis.

  17. Exercise and Cyclic Light Preconditioning Protect Against Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration and Evoke Similar Gene Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Chrenek, Micah A; Sellers, Jana T; Lawson, Eric C; Cunha, Priscila P; Johnson, Jessica L; Girardot, Preston E; Kendall, Cristina; Han, Moon K; Hanif, Adam; Ciavatta, Vincent T; Gogniat, Marissa A; Nickerson, John M; Pardue, Machelle T; Boatright, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    To compare patterns of gene expression following preconditioning cyclic light rearing versus preconditioning aerobic exercise. BALB/C mice were preconditioned either by rearing in 800 lx 12:12 h cyclic light for 8 days or by running on treadmills for 9 days, exposed to toxic levels of light to cause light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD), then sacrificed and retinal tissue harvested. Subsets of mice were maintained for an additional 2 weeks and for assessment of retinal function by electroretinogram (ERG). Both preconditioning protocols partially but significantly preserved retinal function and morphology and induced similar leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene expression pattern. The data demonstrate that exercise preconditioning and cyclic light preconditioning protect photoreceptors against LIRD and evoke a similar pattern of retinal LIF gene expression. It may be that similar stress response pathways mediate the protection provided by the two preconditioning modalities. PMID:26427444

  18. Impact of ischemic preconditioning on ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rat sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuanghai; Cao, Yun; Li, Haoqing; Tian, Jiwei; Yi, Chengqing; Sang, Weilin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the preventive effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the sciatic nerve of the rat hind limb. This study included two experiments. For Experiment 1, 40 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups that received different IPC treatments prior to IR. Serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed following reperfusion. Furthermore, we tested the electrophysiological response and ultrastructural changes in the ipsilateral sciatic nerve after IR. After determining the best IPC protocol for protection, we performed a second experiment with 30 SD rats randomly divided into 3 equal groups. Each group underwent 1, 2, or 3 IPC cycles before prolonged ischemia and reperfusion. The same analyses as in Experiment 1 were performed. In Experiment 1, the AST, LDH, and MDA concentrations were decreased in all IPC groups compared with the control group. Concentration of these enzymes showed decreases with increasing IPC cycle number in Experiment 2; however, the difference between 2 and 3 cycles of IPC did not reach significance. Conversely, SOD activity increased in the rapid and delayed groups, and with increasing cycles of IPC. The electrophysiological test showed a decrease in amplitude and increase in conduction velocity with increasing IPC cycles. Moreover, ultrastructural damage decreased with increasing IPC cycles. IPC protected against IR injury in the peripheral nerves. This effect was positively correlated with the number of IPC cycles. PMID:26629140

  19. Effect of Preconditioning and Soldering on Failures of Chip Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Soldering of molded case tantalum capacitors can result in damage to Ta205 dielectric and first turn-on failures due to thermo-mechanical stresses caused by CTE mismatch between materials used in the capacitors. It is also known that presence of moisture might cause damage to plastic cases due to the pop-corning effect. However, there are only scarce literature data on the effect of moisture content on the probability of post-soldering electrical failures. In this work, that is based on a case history, different groups of similar types of CWR tantalum capacitors from two lots were prepared for soldering by bake, moisture saturation, and longterm storage at room conditions. Results of the testing showed that both factors: initial quality of the lot, and preconditioning affect the probability of failures. Baking before soldering was shown to be effective to prevent failures even in lots susceptible to pop-corning damage. Mechanism of failures is discussed and recommendations for pre-soldering bake are suggested based on analysis of moisture characteristics of materials used in the capacitors' design.

  20. Aggravation of post-ischemic liver injury by overexpression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lu; Koh, Hyoung-Won; Bae, Ui-Jin; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to inhibit reperfusion-induced apoptosis. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is the major circulating carrier protein for IGF-1 and induces apoptosis. In this study, we determined if IGFBP-3 was important in the hepatic response to I/R. To deliver IGFBP-3, we used an adenovirus containing IGFBP-3 cDNA (AdIGFBP-3) or an IGFBP-3 mutant devoid of IGF binding affinity but retaining IGFBP-3 receptor binding ability (AdIGFBP-3GGG). Mice subjected to I/R injury showed typical patterns of hepatocellular damage. Protein levels of IGFBP-3 were increased after reperfusion and showed a positive correlation with the extent of liver injury. Prior injection with AdIGFBP-3 aggravated liver injury: serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time, proinflammatory cytokines, hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration were markedly increased compared to control mice. A decrease in antioxidant potential and an upregulation of NADPH oxidase might have caused these aggravating effects of IGFBP-3. Experiments using HepG2 cells and N-acetylcysteine-pretreated mice showed a discernible effect of IGFBP-3 on reactive oxygen species generation. Lastly, AdIGFBP-3 abolished the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning and hypothermia. Mice treated with AdIGFBP-3GGG exhibited effects similar to those of AdIGFBP-3, suggesting a ligand-independent effect of IGFBP-3. Our results suggest IGFBP-3 as an aggravating factor during hepatic I/R injury. PMID:26073647

  1. Analysis of a Lipid/Polymer Membrane for Bitterness Sensing with a Preconditioning Process.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Rui; Noda, Junpei; Tahara, Yusuke; Naito, Yoshinobu; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    It is possible to evaluate the taste of foods or medicines using a taste sensor. The taste sensor converts information on taste into an electrical signal using several lipid/polymer membranes. A lipid/polymer membrane for bitterness sensing can evaluate aftertaste after immersion in monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is called "preconditioning". However, we have not yet analyzed the change in the surface structure of the membrane as a result of preconditioning. Thus, we analyzed the change in the surface by performing contact angle and surface zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and gas cluster ion beam time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-TOF-SIMS). After preconditioning, the concentrations of MSG and tetradodecylammonium bromide (TDAB), contained in the lipid membrane were found to be higher in the surface region than in the bulk region. The effect of preconditioning was revealed by the above analysis methods. PMID:26404301

  2. Time-dependent mechanical behavior of sheep digital tendons, including the effects of preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Sverdlik, A; Lanir, Y

    2002-02-01

    The time-dependent mechanical properties of sheep digital extensor tendons were studied by sequences of stress-relaxation tests. The results exhibited irreversible preconditioning and reversible viscoelasticity. Preconditioning effects were manifested by stress decay during consecutive stretch cycles to the same strain level, accompanied by elongation of the tendon's reference length. They intensified with increased strain level, and were reduced or became negligible as the strain decreased. The significance of intrinsic response mechanisms was studied via a structural model that includes viscoelasticity, preconditioning, and morphology of the tendon's collagen fibers. Model/data comparisons showed good agreement and good predictive power, suggesting that preconditioning can be integrated into comprehensive material characterization of tendons. PMID:11871608

  3. Preconditioning for Numerical Simulation of Low Mach Number Three-Dimensional Viscous Turbomachinery Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Turkel, Eli

    1997-01-01

    A preconditioning scheme has been implemented into a three-dimensional viscous computational fluid dynamics code for turbomachine blade rows. The preconditioning allows the code, originally developed for simulating compressible flow fields, to be applied to nearly-incompressible, low Mach number flows. A brief description is given of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a rotating coordinate system, along with the preconditioning method employed. Details about the conservative formulation of artificial dissipation are provided, and different artificial dissipation schemes are discussed and compared. The preconditioned code was applied to a well-documented case involving the NASA large low-speed centrifugal compressor for which detailed experimental data are available for comparison. Performance and flow field data are compared for the near-design operating point of the compressor, with generally good agreement between computation and experiment. Further, significant differences between computational results for the different numerical implementations, revealing different levels of solution accuracy, are discussed.

  4. Hybrid preconditioning for iterative diagonalization of ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems in electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunfeng; Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis 95616 ; Bai, Zhaojun; Pask, John E.; Sukumar, N.

    2013-12-15

    The iterative diagonalization of a sequence of large ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems is a computational bottleneck in quantum mechanical methods employing a nonorthogonal basis for ab initio electronic structure calculations. We propose a hybrid preconditioning scheme to effectively combine global and locally accelerated preconditioners for rapid iterative diagonalization of such eigenvalue problems. In partition-of-unity finite-element (PUFE) pseudopotential density-functional calculations, employing a nonorthogonal basis, we show that the hybrid preconditioned block steepest descent method is a cost-effective eigensolver, outperforming current state-of-the-art global preconditioning schemes, and comparably efficient for the ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems produced by PUFE as the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate-gradient method for the well-conditioned standard eigenvalue problems produced by planewave methods.

  5. Exercise-induced cardiac preconditioning: how exercise protects your achy-breaky heart.

    PubMed

    Frasier, Chad R; Moore, Russell L; Brown, David A

    2011-09-01

    The ability of exercise to protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is well known in both human epidemiological studies and experimental animal models. In this review article, we describe what is currently known about the ability of exercise to precondition the heart against infarction. Just 1 day of exercise can protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion damage, and this protection is upheld with months of exercise, making exercise one of the few sustainable preconditioning stimuli. Exercise preconditioning depends on the model and intensity of exercise, and appears to involve heightened oxidant buffering capacity, upregulated subunits of sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channels, and adaptations to cardiac mitochondria. We review the putative mechanisms involved in exercise preconditioning and point out many areas where future research is necessary to advance our understanding of how this stimulus confers resistance against I/R damage. PMID:21393468

  6. Effects of Thermal Preconditioning on Tissue Susceptibility to Histotripsy.

    PubMed

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Xu, Zhen; Arvidson, Alexa; Jin, Lifang; Roberts, William; Cain, Charles

    2015-11-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive ablation method that mechanically fractionates tissue by controlling acoustic cavitation. Previous work has revealed that tissue mechanical properties play a significant role in the histotripsy process, with stiffer tissues being more resistant to histotripsy-induced tissue damage. In this study, we propose a thermal pretreatment strategy to precondition tissues before histotripsy. We hypothesize that a thermal pretreatment can be used to alter tissue stiffness by modulating collagen composition, thus changing tissue susceptibility to histotripsy. More specifically, we hypothesize that tissues will soften and become more susceptible to histotripsy when preheated at ∼60°C because of collagen denaturation, but that tissues will rapidly stiffen and become less susceptible to histotripsy when preheated at ∼90°C because of collagen contraction. To test this hypothesis, a controlled temperature water bath was used to heat various ex vivo bovine tissues (tongue, artery, liver, kidney medulla, tendon and urethra). After heating, the Young's modulus of each tissue sample was measured using a tissue elastometer, and changes in tissue composition (i.e., collagen structure/density) were analyzed histologically. The susceptibility of tissues to histotripsy was investigated by treating the samples using a 750-kHz histotripsy transducer. Results revealed a decrease in stiffness and an increase in susceptibility to histotripsy for tissues (except urethra) preheated to 58°C. In contrast, preheating to 90°C increased tissue stiffness and reduced susceptibility to histotripsy for all tissues except tendon, which was significantly softened due to collagen hydrolysis into gelatin. On the basis of these results, a final set of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using high-intensity focused ultrasound to provide the thermal pretreatment. Overall, the results of this study indicate the initial feasibility of a thermal pretreatment strategy to precondition tissue mechanical properties and alter tissue susceptibility to histotripsy. Future work will aim to optimize this thermal pretreatment strategy to determine if this approach is practical for specific clinical applications in vivo without causing unwanted damage to surrounding or overlying tissue. PMID:26318560

  7. Inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors abolished histological protection by late ischemic preconditioning in rat retina.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kenji; Yonoki, Yuzuru; Kubota, Yuko; Kuwagata, Mayumi; Saito, Maki; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2006-03-01

    Brief ischemia was reported to protect retinal cells against injury induced by subsequent ischemia-reperfusion with de novo protein synthesis, and this phenomenon is known as late ischemic preconditioning. The aims of the present study were to determine whether nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was involved in the mechanism of late ischemic preconditioning in rat retina using pharmacological tools. Under anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 60 min of retinal ischemia by raising intraocular pressure to 130 mm Hg. Ischemic preconditioning was achieved by applying 5 min of ischemia 24 hrs before 60 min of ischemia. Retinal sections sliced into 5 microm thick were examined 7 days after ischemia. Additional groups of rats received NG-nitro-L-arginine and NG-monomethyl-L-arginin, non-selective NO synthase inhibitors, 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal NOS inhibitor, and aminoguanidine and L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitors before preconditioning, and were subjected to 60 min of ischemia. In the non-preconditioned group, cell loss in the ganglion cell layer and thinning of the inner plexiform and inner nuclear layer were observed 7 days after 60 min of ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning for 5 min completely protected against the histological damage induced by 60 min of ischemia applied 24 hrs thereafter. Treatment of rats with aminoguanidine and L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine, but not NG-nitro-L-arginine, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine or 7-nitroindazole, wiped off the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The inhibitory effect of aminoguanidine was abolished by L-arginine, but not D-arginine. The results in the present study suggest that NO synthesized by iNOS is involved in the histological protection by late ischemic preconditioning in rat retina. PMID:16198335

  8. Ischemic preconditioning affects long-term cell fate through DNA damage-related molecular signaling and altered proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Sorabh; Berishvili, Ekaterine; Bandi, Sriram; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2014-10-01

    Despite the potential of ischemic preconditioning for organ protection, long-term effects in terms of molecular processes and cell fates are ill defined. We determined consequences of hepatic ischemic preconditioning in rats, including cell transplantation assays. Ischemic preconditioning induced persistent alterations; for example, after 5 days liver histology was normal, but γ-glutamyl transpeptidase expression was observed, with altered antioxidant enzyme content, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative DNA adducts. Nonetheless, ischemic preconditioning partially protected from toxic liver injury. Similarly, primary hepatocytes from donor livers preconditioned with ischemia exhibited undesirably altered antioxidant enzyme content and lipid peroxidation, but better withstood insults. However, donor hepatocytes from livers preconditioned with ischemia did not engraft better than hepatocytes from control livers. Moreover, proliferation of hepatocytes from donor livers preconditioned with ischemia decreased under liver repopulation conditions. Hepatocytes from donor livers preconditioned with ischemia showed oxidative DNA damage with expression of genes involved in MAPK signaling that impose G1/S and G2/M checkpoint restrictions, including p38 MAPK-regulated or ERK-1/2-regulated cell-cycle genes such as FOS, MAPK8, MYC, various cyclins, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, TP53, and RB1. Thus, although ischemic preconditioning allowed hepatocytes to better withstand secondary insults, accompanying DNA damage and molecular events simultaneously impaired their proliferation capacity over the long term. Mitigation of ischemic preconditioning-induced DNA damage and deleterious molecular perturbations holds promise for advancing clinical applications. PMID:25128377

  9. Ischemic Preconditioning Affects Long-Term Cell Fate through DNA DamageRelated Molecular Signaling and Altered Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Sorabh; Berishvili, Ekaterine; Bandi, Sriram; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential of ischemic preconditioning for organ protection, long-term effects in terms of molecular processes and cell fates are ill defined. We determined consequences of hepatic ischemic preconditioning in rats, including cell transplantation assays. Ischemic preconditioning induced persistent alterations; for example, after 5 days liver histology was normal, but ?-glutamyl transpeptidase expression was observed, with altered antioxidant enzyme content, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative DNA adducts. Nonetheless, ischemic preconditioning partially protected from toxic liver injury. Similarly, primary hepatocytes from donor livers preconditioned with ischemia exhibited undesirably altered antioxidant enzyme content and lipid peroxidation, but better withstood insults. However, donor hepatocytes from livers preconditioned with ischemia did not engraft better than hepatocytes from control livers. Moreover, proliferation of hepatocytes from donor livers preconditioned with ischemia decreased under liver repopulation conditions. Hepatocytes from donor livers preconditioned with ischemia showed oxidative DNA damage with expression of genes involved in MAPK signaling that impose G1/S and G2/M checkpoint restrictions, including p38 MAPKregulated or ERK-1/2regulated cell-cycle genes such as FOS, MAPK8, MYC, various cyclins, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, TP53, and RB1. Thus, although ischemic preconditioning allowed hepatocytes to better withstand secondary insults, accompanying DNA damage and molecular events simultaneously impaired their proliferation capacity over the long term. Mitigation of ischemic preconditioninginduced DNA damage and deleterious molecular perturbations holds promise for advancing clinical applications. PMID:25128377

  10. Induction of manganese superoxide dismutase in rat cardiac myocytes increases tolerance to hypoxia 24 hours after preconditioning.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, N; Nishida, M; Hoshida, S; Kuzuya, T; Hori, M; Taniguchi, N; Kamada, T; Tada, M

    1994-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) is induced in ischemic hearts 24 h after ischemic preconditioning, when tolerance to ischemia is acquired. We examined the relationship between Mn-SOD induction and the protective effect of preconditioning using cultured rat cardiac myocytes. Exposure of cardiac myocytes to brief hypoxia (1 h) decreased creatine kinase release induced by sustained hypoxia (3 h) that follows when the sustained hypoxia was applied 24 h after hypoxic preconditioning (57% of that in cells without preconditioning). The activity and content of Mn-SOD in cardiac myocytes were increased 24 h after hypoxic preconditioning (activity, 170%; content, 139% compared with cells without preconditioning) coincidentally with the acquisition of tolerance to hypoxia. Mn-SOD mRNA was also increased 20-40 min after preconditioning. Antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides corresponding to the initiation site of Mn-SOD translation inhibited the increases in the Mn-SOD content and activity and abolished the expected decrease in creatine kinase release induced by sustained hypoxia after 24 h of hypoxic preconditioning. Sense oligodeoxyribonucleotides did not abolish either Mn-SOD induction or tolerance to hypoxia. These results suggest that the induction of Mn-SOD in myocytes by preconditioning plays a pivotal role in the acquisition of tolerance to ischemia at a later phase (24 h) of ischemic preconditioning. Images PMID:7989574

  11. Enhanced nucleotide excision repair capacity in lung cancer cells by preconditioning with DNA-damaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Ye; Park, Jeong-Min; Yi, Joo Mi; Leem, Sun-Hee; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of tumor cells for nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major determinant of the efficacy of and resistance to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin. Here, we demonstrate that using lesion-specific monoclonal antibodies, NER capacity is enhanced in human lung cancer cells after preconditioning with DNA-damaging agents. Preconditioning of cells with a nonlethal dose of UV radiation facilitated the kinetics of subsequent cisplatin repair and vice versa. Dual-incision assay confirmed that the enhanced NER capacity was sustained for 2 days. Checkpoint activation by ATR kinase and expression of NER factors were not altered significantly by the preconditioning, whereas association of XPA, the rate-limiting factor in NER, with chromatin was accelerated. In preconditioned cells, SIRT1 expression was increased, and this resulted in a decrease in acetylated XPA. Inhibition of SIRT1 abrogated the preconditioning-induced predominant XPA binding to DNA lesions. Taking these data together, we conclude that upregulated NER capacity in preconditioned lung cancer cells is caused partly by an increased level of SIRT1, which modulates XPA sensitivity to DNA damage. This study provides some insights into the molecular mechanism of chemoresistance through acquisition of enhanced DNA repair capacity in cancer cells. PMID:26317794

  12. Convergence Acceleration of the Navier-Stokes Equations Through Time-Derivative Preconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.; Venkateswaran, Sankaran; Deshpande, Manish

    1996-01-01

    Chorin's method of artificial compressibility is extended to both compressible and incompressible fluids by using physical arguments to define artificial fluid properties that make up a local preconditioning matrix. In particular, perturbation expansions are used to provide appropriate temporal derivatives for the equations of motion at both low speeds and low Reynolds numbers. These limiting forms are then combined into a single function that smoothly merges into the physical time derivatives at high speeds so that the equations are left unchanged at transonic, high Reynolds number conditions. The effectiveness of the resulting preconditioning procedures for the Navier-Stokes equations is demonstrated for a wide speed and Reynolds number ranges by means of stability results and computational solutions. Nevertheless, the preconditioned equations sometimes fail to provide a solution for applications for which the non-preconditioned equations converge. Often this is because the reduced dissipation in the preconditioned equations results in an unsteady solution while the more dissipative non-preconditioned equations result in a steady state. Problems of this type represent a computational challenge; it is important to distinguish between non-convergence of algorithms, and the non-existence of steady state solutions.

  13. Short-term hypoxic preconditioning improved survival following cardiac arrest and resuscitation in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kui; Lamanna, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest and resuscitation produces delayed mortality and hippocampal neuronal death in rats. Hypoxic preconditioning has been to shown to protect the brain from ischemic insults. We have previously reported that with chronic hypobaric hypoxia, the accumulation of hypoxic-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) and its target genes was increased for the first several days of hypoxic exposure, and returned to baseline level by 3 weeks when angiogenesis is completed. In this study, we investigated the effect of short-term (3 days) and long-term (21 days) hypoxic preconditioning on recovery from cardiac arrest and resuscitation in rats. Our data showed that the overall survival rate was considerably improved in the short-term hypoxic preconditioning group compared to the non-preconditioned controls (86 %, 6/7 vs. 54 %, 7/13); however, the survival rate in the long-term hypoxic preconditioning group was decreased. Our data suggest that hypoxic preconditioning provides protection after cardiac arrest and resuscitation more likely through increased accumulation of HIF-1? and its target genes rather than through successful vascular adaptation as a result of hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. PMID:24729248

  14. Isoflurane preconditioning reduces mouse microglial activation and injury induced by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Xu^, Xuebing; Kim, Jie Ae; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2008-01-01

    Activation and injury of microglial cells are involved in a broad range of brain diseases including stroke, brain infection and neurodegenerative diseases. However, there is very little information regarding how to reduce microglial reaction and preserve these cells to provide neuroprotection. Here, we showed that the incubation of C8-B4 mouse microglial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFNγ) for 24 hr decreased the viability of these cells. Pretreatment of these cells with 1%, 2% or 3% isoflurane, a commonly used volatile anesthetic, for 1 hr at 30 min before the exposure to LPS plus IFNγ attenuated the reduction of cell viability (preconditioning effect). LPS plus IFNγ also activated these microglial cells to express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and to induce accumulation of nitrite, a stable oxidation product of nitric oxide, in the incubation medium. Isoflurane preconditioning attenuated these LPS plus IFNγ effects on the iNOS expression and nitrite accumulation. Aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, attenuated the LPS plus IFNγ-induced glutamate release and decrease of microglial viability. Isoflurane preconditioning also reduced LPS plus IFNγ-induced glutamate release. Exogenous glutamate decreased microglial viability. Finally, the isoflurane preconditioning-induced protection was abolished by chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor. These results suggest that LPS plus IFNγ activates the iNOS-nitric oxide-glutamate pathway to induce microglial injury and that this activation is attenuated by isoflurane preconditioning. Protein kinase C may be involved in the isoflurane preconditioning effects. PMID:18495358

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells preconditioned with trimetazidine promote neovascularization of hearts under hypoxia/reoxygenation injury

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaowu; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Ying; Zhang, You; Ii, Masaaki; Shen, Zhenya; Hui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cell-based angiogenesis is a promising treatment for ischemic diseases; however, survival of implanted cells is impaired by the ischemic microenvironment. In this study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cell transplantation were preconditioned with trimetazidine (TMZ). We hypothesized that TMZ enhances the survival rate of MSCs under hypoxic stimuli through up-regulation of HIF1-α. Methods and results: Bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cells were preconditioned with 10 μM TMZ for 6 h. TMZ preconditioning of MSCs remarkably increased cell viability and the expression of HIF1-α and Bcl-2, when cells were under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) stimuli. But the protective effects of TMZ were abolished after knocking down of HIF-1α. Three days after implantation of the cells into the peri-ischemic zone of rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model, survival of the TMZ-preconditioned MSCs was high. Furthermore, capillary density and cardiac function were significantly better in the rats implanted with TMZ-preconditioned MSCs 28 days after cell injection. Conclusions: TMZ preconditioning increased the survival rate of MSCs, through up-regulation of HIF1-α, thus contributing to neovascularization and improved cardiac function of rats subjected to myocardial I/R injury. PMID:26629255

  16. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) Modifies Plasma Proteome in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hepponstall, Michele; Ignjatovic, Vera; Binos, Steve; Monagle, Paul; Jones, Bryn; Cheung, Michael H. H.; d’Udekem, Yves; Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2012-01-01

    Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) induced by brief episodes of ischemia of the limb protects against multi-organ damage by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Although it has been demonstrated that RIPC affects gene expression, the proteomic response to RIPC has not been determined. This study aimed to examine RIPC induced changes in the plasma proteome. Five healthy adult volunteers had 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia alternating with 5 min reperfusion of the forearm. Blood samples were taken from the ipsilateral arm prior to first ischaemia, immediately after each episode of ischemia as well as, at 15 min and 24 h after the last episode of ischemia. Plasma samples from five individuals were analysed using two complementary techniques. Individual samples were analysed using 2Dimensional Difference in gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Pooled samples for each of the time-points underwent trypsin digestion and peptides generated were analysed in triplicate using Liquid Chromatography and MS (LC-MS). Six proteins changed in response to RIPC using 2D DIGE analysis, while 48 proteins were found to be differentially regulated using LC-MS. The proteins of interest were involved in acute phase response signalling, and physiological molecular and cellular functions. The RIPC stimulus modifies the plasma protein content in blood taken from the ischemic arm in a cumulative fashion and evokes a proteomic response in peripheral blood. PMID:23139772

  17. Cerenkov luminescence tomography based on preconditioning orthogonal matching pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haixiao; Hu, Zhenhua; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie; Yang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a novel optical imaging method and has been proved to be a potential substitute of the traditional radionuclide imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This imaging method inherits the high sensitivity of nuclear medicine and low cost of optical molecular imaging. To obtain the depth information of the radioactive isotope, Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) is established and the 3D distribution of the isotope is reconstructed. However, because of the strong absorption and scatter, the reconstruction of the CLT sources is always converted to an ill-posed linear system which is hard to be solved. In this work, the sparse nature of the light source was taken into account and the preconditioning orthogonal matching pursuit (POMP) method was established to effectively reduce the ill-posedness and obtain better reconstruction accuracy. To prove the accuracy and speed of this algorithm, a heterogeneous numerical phantom experiment and an in vivo mouse experiment were conducted. Both the simulation result and the mouse experiment showed that our reconstruction method can provide more accurate reconstruction result compared with the traditional Tikhonov regularization method and the ordinary orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) method. Our reconstruction method will provide technical support for the biological application for Cerenkov luminescence.

  18. Prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction injuries.

    PubMed

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Shaseb, Elnaz; Ghaffary, Saba; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    Potential protective effects of prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with honey (1%, 2% and 4%) for 45 days then their hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia fallowed by 120 min reperfusion. Two important indexes of ischemia-induced damage (infarction size and arrhythmias) were determined by computerized planimetry and ECG analysis, respectively. Honey (1% and 2%) reduced infarct size from 23±3.1% (control) to 9.7±2.4 and 9.5±2.3%, respectively (P<0.001). At the ischemia, honey (1%) significantly reduced (P<0.05) the number and duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Honey (1% and 2%) also significantly decreased number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). In addition, incidence and duration of reversible ventricular fibrillation (Rev VF) were lowered by honey 2% (P<0.05). During reperfusion, honey produced significant reduction in the incidences of VT, total and Rev VF, duration and number of VT. The results showed cardioprotective effects of prolonged pre-treatment of rats with honey following myocardial infarction. Maybe, the existence of antioxidants and energy sources (glucose and fructose) in honey composition and improvement of hemodynamic functions may involve in those protective effects. PMID:23811442

  19. Intestinal ischemic preconditioning reduces liver ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    XUE, TONG-MIN; TAO, LI-DE; ZHANG, JIE; ZHANG, PEI-JIAN; LIU, XIA; CHEN, GUO-FENG; ZHU, YI-JIA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether intestinal ischemic preconditioning (IP) reduces damage to the liver during hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR). Sprague Dawley rats were used to model liver IR injury, and were divided into the sham operation group (SO), IR group and IP group. The results indicated that IR significantly increased Bax, caspase 3 and NF-κBp65 expression levels, with reduced expression of Bcl-2 compared with the IP group. Compared with the IR group, the levels of AST, ALT, MPO, MDA, TNF-α and IL-1 were significantly reduced in the IP group. Immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2 and Bax indicated that Bcl-2 expression in the IP group was significantly increased compared with the IR group. In addition, IP reduced Bax expression compared with the IR group. The average liver injury was worsened in the IR group and improved in the IP group, as indicated by the morphological evaluation of liver tissues. The present study suggested that IP may alleviates apoptosis, reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, ameloriate reductions in liver function and reduce liver tissue injury. To conclude, IP provided protection against hepatic IR injury. PMID:26821057

  20. Isoflurane Preconditioning Confers Cardioprotection by Activation of ALDH2

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Xiao-E; Wang, Xiong; Zhang, Ke-Rang; Lv, Ji-Yuan; Jin, Jian-Hua; Li, Qing-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The volatile anesthetic, isoflurane, protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is thought to be an endogenous mechanism against ischemia-reperfusion injury possibly through detoxification of toxic aldehydes. We investigated whether cardioprotection by isoflurane depends on activation of ALDH2.Anesthetized rats underwent 40 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion and were randomly assigned to the following groups: untreated controls, isoflurane preconditioning with and without an ALDH2 inhibitor, the direct activator of ALDH2 or a protein kinase C (PKCε) inhibitor. Pretreatment with isoflurane prior to ischemia reduced LDH and CK-MB levels and infarct size, while it increased phosphorylation of ALDH2, which could be blocked by the ALDH2 inhibitor, cyanamide. Isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes were treated with hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and injury which were attenuated by isoflurane and forced the activation of ALDH2. In contrast, the effect of isoflurane-induced protection was almost abolished by knockdown of ALDH2. Activation of ALDH2 and cardioprotection by isoflurane were substantially blocked by the PKCε inhibitor. Activation of ALDH2 by mitochondrial PKCε plays an important role in the cardioprotection of isoflurane in myocardium I/R injury. PMID:23468836

  1. Preconditioning with levosimendan before implantation of left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Hans D; Grabmaier, Ulrich; Kreissl, Nicole; Hagl, Christian; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Sodian, Ralf; Franz, Wolfgang-M; Kaczmarek, Ingo

    2014-03-01

    In this retrospective study, we investigated the impact of preconditioning of the right ventricle with the calcium sensitizer levosimendan immediately before left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation on outcome and survival. Nine consecutive LVAD patients (seven suffering from dilative cardiomyopathy and two from ischemic cardiomyopathy) with echocardiographic and invasive evidence of right heart insufficiency received levosimendan with 0.1 μg/kg body weight/min for 24 h before implantation of the assist device (seven HeartWare and two Jarvik 2000). Administration of levosimendan was safe and had not to be discontinued in any patient. We observed no relevant side effects. Twelve-month survival after implantation of the LVAD was 89% representing a superior outcome compared with the fifth INTERMACS registry data with 75% survival. Two temporary extracorporeal membrane-oxygenation implantations were necessary due to intraoperative right ventricular dysfunction. Only one patient died 5 weeks after LVAD implantation of multiorgan failure, five patients were successfully transplanted, and three patients underwent LVAD implantation for destination therapy. Levosimendan might improve clinical outcome and survival when used as pretreatment in patients with right heart insufficiency prior to LVAD implantation. However, we recommend a larger controlled trial in the future to confirm our preliminary results. PMID:24147881

  2. Protection of the ischaemic heart: investigations into the phenomenon of ischaemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Lochner, A; Marais, E; Genade, S; Huisamen, B; du Toit, E F; Moolman, J A

    2009-01-01

    Exposure of the heart to one or more short episodes of ischaemia/reperfusion protects the heart against a subsequent prolonged period of ischaemia, as evidenced by a reduction in infarct size and an improvement in functional recovery during reperfusion. Elucidation of the mechanism of this endogenous protection could lead to the development of pharmacological mimetics to be used in the clinical setting. The aim of our studies was therefore to gain more information regarding the mechanism of ischaemic preconditioning, using the isolated perfused working rat heart as model. A preconditioning protocol of 1 x 5 or 3 x 5 min of ischaemia, interspersed with 5 min of reperfusion was found to protect hearts exposed to 25 min of global ischaemia or 35-45 min of regional ischaemia. These models were used throughout our studies. In view of the release of catecholamines by ischaemic tissue, our first aim was to evaluate the role of the alphaadrenergic receptor in ischaemic preconditioning. However, using a multi-cycle ischaemic preconditioning protocol, we could not find any evidence for alpha-1 adrenergic or PKC activation in the mechanism of preconditioning. Cyclic increases in the tissue cyclic nucleotides, cAMP and cGMP were found, however, to occur during a multi-cycle preconditioning protocol, suggesting roles for the beta-adrenergic signalling pathway and nitric oxide (NO) as triggers of cardioprotection. This was substantiated by the findings that (1) administration of the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or the NO donors SNAP or SNP before sustained ischaemia also elicited cardioprotection similar to ischaemic preconditioning; (2) beta-adrenergic blockade or nitric oxide synthase inhibition during an ischaemic preconditioning protocol abolished protection. Effectors downstream of cAMP, such as p38MAPK and CREB, were also demonstrated to be involved in the triggering process. Our next step was to evaluate intracellular signalling during sustained ischaemia and reperfusion. Our results showed that ischaemic preconditioned-induced cardioprotection was associated with a significant reduction in tissue cAMP, attenuation of p38MAPK activation and increased tissue cGMP levels and HSP27 activation, compared to non-preconditioned hearts. The role of the stress kinase p38MAPK was further investigated by using the inhibitor SB203580. Our results suggested that injury by necrosis and apoptosis share activation of p38MAPK as a common signal transduction pathway and that pharmacological targeting of this kinase offers a tenable option to manipulate both these processes during ischaemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:19287816

  3. Expression profiling and ontology analysis of long noncoding RNAs in post-ischemic heart and their implied roles in ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youbin; Li, Guangnan; Lu, Huimin; Li, Wei; Li, Xianglu; Liu, Huimin; Li, Xingda; Li, Tianyu; Yu, Bo

    2014-06-10

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important regulatory roles in cellular physiology. The contributions of lncRNAs to ischemic heart disease remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of myocardial lncRNAs and their potential roles at early stage of reperfusion. lncRNAs and mRNAs were profiled by microarray and the expression of some highly-dysregulated lncRNAs was further validated using polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 64 lncRNAs were up-regulated and 87 down-regulated, while 50 mRNAs were up-regulated and 60 down-regulated in infarct region at all reperfusion sampled. Gene ontology analysis indicated that dysregulated transcripts were associated with immune response, spermine catabolic process, taxis, chemotaxis, polyamine catabolic process, spermine metabolic process, chemokine activity and chemokine receptor binding. Target gene-related pathway analysis showed significant changes in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, the chemokine signaling pathway and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor signaling pathway which have a close relationship with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI). Besides, a gene co-expression network was constructed to identify correlated targets of 10 highly-dysregulated lncRNAs. These lncRNAs may play their roles by this network in post-ischemic heart. Such results provide a foundation for understanding the roles and mechanisms of myocardial lncRNAs at early stage of reperfusion. PMID:24726549

  4. Ephrin-B2–Activated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From Diabetic Patients Restore Diabetes-Induced Impairment of Postischemic Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Broquères-You, Dong; Leré-Déan, Carole; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatiana; Mantsounga, Chris S.; Allanic, David; Hainaud, Patricia; Contrères, Jean-Olivier; Wang, Yu; Vilar, José; Virally, Marie; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Guillausseau, Pierre-Jean; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Lévy, Bernard I.

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that in vitro treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs) from diabetic patients with ephrin-B2/Fc (EFNB2) improves their proangiogenic therapeutic potential in diabetic ischemic experimental models. Diabetes was induced in nude athymic mice by streptozotocin injections. At 9 weeks after hyperglycemia, 105 PB-MNCs from diabetic patients, pretreated by EFNB2, were intravenously injected in diabetic mice with hindlimb ischemia. Two weeks later, the postischemic neovascularization was evaluated. The mechanisms involved were investigated by flow cytometry analysis and in vitro cell biological assays. Paw skin blood flow, angiographic score, and capillary density were significantly increased in ischemic leg of diabetic mice receiving EFNB2-activated diabetic PB-MNCs versus those receiving nontreated diabetic PB-MNCs. EFNB2 bound to PB-MNCs and increased the adhesion and transmigration of PB-MNCs. Finally, EFNB2-activated PB-MNCs raised the number of circulating vascular progenitor cells in diabetic nude mice and increased the ability of endogenous bone marrow MNCs to differentiate into cells with endothelial phenotype and enhanced their proangiogenic potential. Therefore, EFNB2 treatment of PB-MNCs abrogates the diabetes-induced stem/progenitor cell dysfunction and opens a new avenue for the clinical development of an innovative and accessible strategy in diabetic patients with critical ischemic diseases. PMID:22596048

  5. Forced Exercise Preconditioning Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis by Altering Th1 Lymphocyte Composition and Egress.

    PubMed

    Calik, Michael W; Shankarappa, Sahadev A; Langert, Kelly A; Stubbs, Evan B

    2015-01-01

    A short-term exposure to moderately intense physical exercise affords a novel measure of protection against autoimmune-mediated peripheral nerve injury. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which forced exercise attenuates the development and progression of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), an established animal model of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Adult male Lewis rats remained sedentary (control) or were preconditioned with forced exercise (1.2 km/day × 3 weeks) prior to P2-antigen induction of EAN. Sedentary rats developed a monophasic course of EAN beginning on postimmunization day 12.3 ± 0.2 and reaching peak severity on day 17.0 ± 0.3 (N = 12). By comparison, forced-exercise preconditioned rats exhibited a similar monophasic course but with significant (p < .05) reduction of disease severity. Analysis of popliteal lymph nodes revealed a protective effect of exercise preconditioning on leukocyte composition and egress. Compared with sedentary controls, forced exercise preconditioning promoted a sustained twofold retention of P2-antigen responsive leukocytes. The percentage distribution of pro-inflammatory (Th1) lymphocytes retained in the nodes from sedentary EAN rats (5.1 ± 0.9%) was significantly greater than that present in nodes from forced-exercise preconditioned EAN rats (2.9 ± 0.6%) or from adjuvant controls (2.0 ± 0.3%). In contrast, the percentage of anti-inflammatory (Th2) lymphocytes (7-10%) and that of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (∼20%) remained unaltered by forced exercise preconditioning. These data do not support an exercise-inducible shift in Th1:Th2 cell bias. Rather, preconditioning with forced exercise elicits a sustained attenuation of EAN severity, in part, by altering the composition and egress of autoreactive proinflammatory (Th1) lymphocytes from draining lymph nodes. PMID:26186926

  6. Effects of sevoflurane preconditioning and postconditioning on rat myocardial stunning in ischemic reperfusion injury*

    PubMed Central

    Dai, An-lu; Fan, Li-hua; Zhang, Feng-jiang; Yang, Mei-juan; Yu, Jing; Wang, Jun-kuan; Fang, Tao; Chen, Gang; Yu, Li-na; Yan, Min

    2010-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning distinctly attenuate ventricular arrhythmia after ischemia without affecting the severity of myocardial stunning. Therefore, we report the effects of sevoflurane preconditioning and postconditioning on stunned myocardium in isolated rat hearts. Isolated rat hearts were underwent 20 min of global ischemia and 40 min of reperfusion. After an equilibration period (20 min), the hearts in the preconditioning group were exposed to sevoflurane for 5 min and next washout for 5 min before ischemia. Hearts in the sevoflurane postconditioning group underwent equilibration and ischemia, followed immediately by sevoflurane exposure for the first 5 min of reperfusion. The control group received no treatment before and after ischemia. Left ventricular pressure, heart rate, coronary flow, electrocardiogram, and tissue histology were measured as variables of ventricular function and cellular injury, respectively. There was no significant difference in the duration of reperfusion ventricular arrhythmias between control and sevoflurane preconditioning group (P=0.195). The duration of reperfusion ventricular arrhythmias in the sevoflurane postconditioning group was significantly shorter than that in the other two groups (P<0.05). ±(dP/dt)max in the sevoflurane preconditioning group at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after reperfusion was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), and there were no significant differences at 40 min after reperfusion among the three groups (P>0.05). As expected, for a 20-min general ischemia, infarct size in heart slices determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining among the groups was not obvious. Sevoflurane postconditioning reduces reperfusion arrhythmias without affecting the severity of myocardial stunning. In contrast, sevoflurane preconditioning has no beneficial effects on reperfusion arrhythmias, but it is in favor of improving ventricular function and recovering myocardial stunning. Sevoflurane preconditioning and postconditioning may be useful for correcting the stunned myocardium. PMID:20349523

  7. Ischemic preconditioning reduces hemodynamic response during metaboreflex activation.

    PubMed

    Mulliri, Gabriele; Sainas, Gianmarco; Magnani, Sara; Palazzolo, Girolamo; Milia, Nicola; Orrù, Andrea; Roberto, Silvana; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Milia, Raffaele; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been shown to improve exercise performance and to delay fatigue. However, the precise mechanisms through which IP operates remain elusive. It has been hypothesized that IP lowers the sensation of fatigue by reducing the discharge of group III and IV nerve endings, which also regulate hemodynamics during the metaboreflex. We hypothesized that IP reduces the blood pressure response during the metaboreflex. Fourteen healthy males (age between 25 and 48 yr) participated in this study. They underwent the following randomly assigned protocol: postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) test, during which the metaboreflex was elicited after dynamic handgrip; control exercise recovery session (CER) test; and PEMI after IP (IP-PEMI) test. IP was obtained by occluding forearm circulation for three cycles of 5 min spaced by 5 min of reperfusion. Hemodynamics were evaluated by echocardiography and impedance cardiography. The main results were that after IP the mean arterial pressure response was reduced compared with the PEMI test (means ± SD +3.37 ± 6.41 vs. +9.16 ± 7.09 mmHg, respectively). This was the consequence of an impaired venous return that impaired the stroke volume during the IP-PEMI more than during the PEMI test (-1.43 ± 15.35 vs. +10.28 ± 10.479 ml, respectively). It was concluded that during the metaboreflex, IP affects hemodynamics mainly because it impairs the capacity to augment venous return and to recruit the cardiac preload reserve. It was hypothesized that this is the consequence of an increased nitric oxide production, which reduces the possibility to constrict venous capacity vessels. PMID:26936782

  8. Analysis and modeling of neural processes underlying sensory preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Hirashima, Daisuke; Mizunami, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    Sensory preconditioning (SPC) is a procedure to demonstrate learning to associate between relatively neutral sensory stimuli in the absence of an external reinforcing stimulus, the underlying neural mechanisms of which have remained obscure. We address basic questions about neural processes underlying SPC, including whether neurons that mediate reward or punishment signals in reinforcement learning participate in association between neutral sensory stimuli. In crickets, we have suggested that octopaminergic (OA-ergic) or dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons participate in memory acquisition and retrieval in appetitive or aversive conditioning, respectively. Crickets that had been trained to associate an odor (CS2) with a visual pattern (CS1) (phase 1) and then to associate CS1 with water reward or quinine punishment (phase 2) exhibited a significantly increased or decreased preference for CS2 that had never been paired with the US, demonstrating successful SPC. Injection of an OA or DA receptor antagonist at different phases of the SPC training and testing showed that OA-ergic or DA-ergic neurons do not participate in learning of CS2-CS1 association in phase 1, but that OA-ergic neurons participate in learning in phase 2 and memory retrieval after appetitive SPC training. We also obtained evidence suggesting that association between CS2 and US, which should underlie conditioned response of crickets to CS2, is formed in phase 2, contrary to the standard theory of SPC assuming that it occurs in the final test. We propose models of SPC to account for these findings, by extending our model of classical conditioning. PMID:23380289

  9. Glaciations in response to climate variations preconditioned by evolving topography.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Vivi Kathrine; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2013-01-10

    Landscapes modified by glacial erosion show a distinct distribution of surface area with elevation (hypsometry). In particular, the height of these regions is influenced by climatic gradients controlling the altitude where glacial and periglacial processes are the most active, and as a result, surface area is focused just below the snowline altitude. Yet the effect of this distinct glacial hypsometric signature on glacial extent and therefore on continued glacial erosion has not previously been examined. Here we show how this topographic configuration influences the climatic sensitivity of Alpine glaciers, and how the development of a glacial hypsometric distribution influences the intensity of glaciations on timescales of more than a few glacial cycles. We find that the relationship between variations in climate and the resulting variation in areal extent of glaciation changes drastically with the degree of glacial modification in the landscape. First, in landscapes with novel glaciations, a nearly linear relationship between climate and glacial area exists. Second, in previously glaciated landscapes with extensive area at a similar elevation, highly nonlinear and rapid glacial expansions occur with minimal climate forcing, once the snowline reaches the hypsometric maximum. Our results also show that erosion associated with glaciations before the mid-Pleistocene transition at around 950,000 years ago probably preconditioned the landscape--producing glacial landforms and hypsometric maxima--such that ongoing cooling led to a significant change in glacial extent and erosion, resulting in more extensive glaciations and valley deepening in the late Pleistocene epoch. We thus provide a mechanism that explains previous observations from exposure dating and low-temperature thermochronology in the European Alps, and suggest that there is a strong topographic control on the most recent Quaternary period glaciations. PMID:23302860

  10. An overview of NSPCG: A nonsymmetric preconditioned conjugate gradient package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppe, Thomas C.; Joubert, Wayne D.; Kincaid, David R.

    1989-05-01

    The most recent research-oriented software package developed as part of the ITPACK Project is called "NSPCG" since it contains many nonsymmetric preconditioned conjugate gradient procedures. It is designed to solve large sparse systems of linear algebraic equations by a variety of different iterative methods. One of the main purposes for the development of the package is to provide a common modular structure for research on iterative methods for nonsymmetric matrices. Another purpose for the development of the package is to investigate the suitability of several iterative methods for vector computers. Since the vectorizability of an iterative method depends greatly on the matrix structure, NSPCG allows great flexibility in the operator representation. The coefficient matrix can be passed in one of several different matrix data storage schemes. These sparse data formats allow matrices with a wide range of structures from highly structured ones such as those with all nonzeros along a relatively small number of diagonals to completely unstructured sparse matrices. Alternatively, the package allows the user to call the accelerators directly with user-supplied routines for performing certain matrix operations. In this case, one can use the data format from an application program and not be required to copy the matrix into one of the package formats. This is particularly advantageous when memory space is limited. Some of the basic preconditioners that are available are point methods such as Jacobi, Incomplete LU Decomposition and Symmetric Successive Overrelaxation as well as block and multicolor preconditioners. The user can select from a large collection of accelerators such as Conjugate Gradient (CG), Chebyshev (SI, for semi-iterative), Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES), Biconjugate Gradient Squared (BCGS) and many others. The package is modular so that almost any accelerator can be used with almost any preconditioner.

  11. Nox1 NADPH oxidase is necessary for late but not early myocardial ischaemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuxia; Streeter, Jennifer; Schickling, Brandon M.; Zimmerman, Kathy; Weiss, Robert M.; Miller, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) is an adaptive mechanism that renders the myocardium resistant to injury from subsequent hypoxia. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to both the early and late phases of IPC, their enzymatic source and associated signalling events have not yet been understood completely. Our objective was to investigate the role of the Nox1 NADPH oxidase in cardioprotection provided by IPC. Methods and results Wild-type (WT) and Nox1-deficient mice were treated with three cycles of brief coronary occlusion and reperfusion, followed by prolonged occlusion either immediately (early IPC) or after 24 h (late IPC). Nox1 deficiency had no impact on the cardioprotection afforded by early IPC. In contrast, deficiency of Nox1 during late IPC resulted in a larger infarct size, cardiac remodelling, and increased myocardial apoptosis compared with WT hearts. Furthermore, expression of Nox1 in WT hearts increased in response to late IPC. Deficiency of Nox1 abrogated late IPC-mediated activation of cardiac nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and induction of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the heart and circulation. Finally, knockdown of Nox1 in cultured cardiomyocytes prevented TNF-α induction of NF-κB and the protective effect of IPC on hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Conclusions Our data identify a critical role for Nox1 in late IPC and define a previously unrecognized link between TNF-α and NF-κB in mediating tolerance to myocardial injury. These findings have clinical significance considering the emergence of Nox1 inhibitors for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24501329

  12. Long-term, regular remote ischemic preconditioning improves endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Y.; Li, Y.P.; He, F.; Liu, X.Q.; Zhang, J.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPre) can prevent myocardial injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the beneficial effects of long-term regular RIPre on human arteries. Forty patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were assigned randomly to a RIPre group (n=20) or coronary heart disease (CHD) group (n=20). Twenty patients scheduled for mastectomy were enrolled as a control group. RIPre was achieved by occluding arterial blood flow 5 min with a mercury sphygmomanometer followed by a 5-min reperfusion period, and this was repeated 4 times. The RIPre procedure was repeated 3 times a day for 20 days. In all patients, arterial fragments discarded during surgery were collected to evaluate endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), CD34+ monocyte count, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression). Phosphorylation levels of STAT-3 and Akt were also assayed to explore the underlying mechanisms. Compared with the CHD group, long-term regular RIPre significantly improved FMD after 20 days (8.5±2.4 vs 4.9±4.2%, P<0.05) and significantly reduced troponin after CABG surgery (0.72±0.31 and 1.64±0.19, P<0.05). RIPre activated STAT-3 and increased CD34+ endothelial progenitor cell counts found in arteries. Long-term, regular RIPre improved endothelial function in patients with CHD, possibly due to STAT-3 activation, and this may have led to an increase in endothelial progenitor cells. PMID:25923462

  13. Long-term, regular remote ischemic preconditioning improves endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y; Li, Y P; He, F; Liu, X Q; Zhang, J Y

    2015-06-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPre) can prevent myocardial injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the beneficial effects of long-term regular RIPre on human arteries. Forty patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were assigned randomly to a RIPre group (n=20) or coronary heart disease (CHD) group (n=20). Twenty patients scheduled for mastectomy were enrolled as a control group. RIPre was achieved by occluding arterial blood flow 5 min with a mercury sphygmomanometer followed by a 5-min reperfusion period, and this was repeated 4 times. The RIPre procedure was repeated 3 times a day for 20 days. In all patients, arterial fragments discarded during surgery were collected to evaluate endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), CD34(+) monocyte count, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression). Phosphorylation levels of STAT-3 and Akt were also assayed to explore the underlying mechanisms. Compared with the CHD group, long-term regular RIPre significantly improved FMD after 20 days (8.5±2.4 vs 4.9±4.2%, P<0.05) and significantly reduced troponin after CABG surgery (0.72±0.31 and 1.64±0.19, P<0.05). RIPre activated STAT-3 and increased CD34(+) endothelial progenitor cell counts found in arteries. Long-term, regular RIPre improved endothelial function in patients with CHD, possibly due to STAT-3 activation, and this may have led to an increase in endothelial progenitor cells. PMID:25923462

  14. Exercise Training Preserves Ischemic Preconditioning in Aged Rat Hearts by Restoring the Myocardial Polyamine Pool

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Hao; Xue, Guo; Zhang, Weihua; Wang, Lina; Lu, Fanghao; Li, Hongzhu; Bai, Shuzhi; Lin, Yan; Lou, Yu; Xu, Changqing; Zhao, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    Background. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) strongly protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, IPC protection is ineffective in aged hearts. Exercise training reduces the incidence of age-related cardiovascular disease and upregulates the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)/polyamine pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exercise can reestablish IPC protection in aged hearts and whether IPC protection is linked to restoration of the cardiac polyamine pool. Methods. Rats aging 3 or 18 months perform treadmill exercises with or without gradient respectively for 6 weeks. Isolated hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes were exposed to an IR and IPC protocol. Results. IPC induced an increase in myocardial polyamines by regulating ODC and spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT) in young rat hearts, but IPC did not affect polyamine metabolism in aged hearts. Exercise training inhibited the loss of preconditioning protection and restored the polyamine pool by activating ODC and inhibiting SSAT in aged hearts. An ODC inhibitor, α-difluoromethylornithine, abolished the recovery of preconditioning protection mediated by exercise. Moreover, polyamines improved age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro. Conclusion. Exercise appears to restore preconditioning protection in aged rat hearts, possibly due to an increase in intracellular polyamines and an improvement in mitochondrial function in response to a preconditioning stimulus. PMID:25404991

  15. Super-low Dose Endotoxin Pre-conditioning Exacerbates Sepsis Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Keqiang; Geng, Shuo; Yuan, Ruoxi; Diao, Na; Upchurch, Zachary; Li, Liwu

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditioning with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). This is in contrast to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks. PMID:26029736

  16. Hypoxic Preconditioning Suppresses Glial Activation and Neuroinflammation in Neonatal Brain Insults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Sun, Wei-Zen; Kang, Kai-Hsiang; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Tsao, Po-Nien; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal insults and subsequent neuroinflammation are the major mechanisms of neonatal brain injury, but there have been only scarce reports on the associations between hypoxic preconditioning and glial activation. Here we use neonatal hypoxia-ischemia brain injury model in 7-day-old rats and in vitro hypoxia model with primary mixed glial culture and the BV-2 microglial cell line to assess the effects of hypoxia and hypoxic preconditioning on glial activation. Hypoxia-ischemia brain insult induced significant brain weight reduction, profound cell loss, and reactive gliosis in the damaged hemisphere. Hypoxic preconditioning significantly attenuated glial activation and resulted in robust neuroprotection. As early as 2 h after the hypoxia-ischemia insult, proinflammatory gene upregulation was suppressed in the hypoxic preconditioning group. In vitro experiments showed that exposure to 0.5% oxygen for 4 h induced a glial inflammatory response. Exposure to brief hypoxia (0.5 h) 24 h before the hypoxic insult significantly ameliorated this response. In conclusion, hypoxic preconditioning confers strong neuroprotection, possibly through suppression of glial activation and subsequent inflammatory responses after hypoxia-ischemia insults in neonatal rats. This might therefore be a promising therapeutic approach for rescuing neonatal brain injury. PMID:26273140

  17. Research on the Changes to the Lipid/Polymer Membrane Used in the Acidic Bitterness Sensor Caused by Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yuhei; Noda, Junpei; Yatabe, Rui; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A taste sensor that uses lipid/polymer membranes can evaluate aftertastes felt by humans using Change in membrane Potential caused by Adsorption (CPA) measurements. The sensor membrane for evaluating bitterness, which is caused by acidic bitter substances such as iso-alpha acid contained in beer, needs an immersion process in monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution, called "MSG preconditioning". However, what happens to the lipid/polymer membrane during MSG preconditioning is not clear. Therefore, we carried out three experiments to investigate the changes in the lipid/polymer membrane caused by the MSG preconditioning, i.e., measurements of the taste sensor, measurements of the amount of the bitterness substance adsorbed onto the membrane and measurements of the contact angle of the membrane surface. The CPA values increased as the preconditioning process progressed, and became stable after 3 d of preconditioning. The response potentials to the reference solution showed the same tendency of the CPA value change during the preconditioning period. The contact angle of the lipid/polymer membrane surface decreased after 7 d of MSG preconditioning; in short, the surface of the lipid/polymer membrane became hydrophilic during MSG preconditioning. The amount of adsorbed iso-alpha acid was increased until 5 d preconditioning, and then it decreased. In this study, we revealed that the CPA values increased with the progress of MSG preconditioning in spite of the decrease of the amount of iso-alpha acid adsorbed onto the lipid/polymer membrane, and it was indicated that the CPA values increase because the sensor sensitivity was improved by the MSG preconditioning. PMID:26891299

  18. Major Ozonated Autohemotherapy Preconditioning Ameliorates Kidney Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Sancak, Eyup Burak; Turkön, Hakan; Çukur, Selma; Erimsah, Sevilay; Akbas, Alpaslan; Gulpinar, Murat Tolga; Toman, Huseyin; Sahin, Hasan; Uzun, Metehan

    2016-02-01

    Medical ozone has therapeutic properties as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, modulator of antioxidant defense system. Major ozonated autohemotherapy (MOA) is a new therapeutic approach that is widely used in the treatment of many diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine whether preischemic application of MOA would attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rabbits. Twenty-four male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups, each including six animals: (1) Sham-operated group, (2) Ozone group (the MOA group without IRI), (3) IR group (60 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion), and (4) IR + MOA group (MOA group). The effects of MOA were examined by use of hematologic and biochemical parameters consisting of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI). In addition, the histopathological changes including the tubular brush border loss (TBBL), tubular cast (TC), tubular necrosis (TN), intertubular hemorrhage and congestion (IHC), dilatation of bowman space (DBS), and interstitial inflammatory cells infiltration (IECI) were evaluated. In the IR group, compared to the Sham group, biochemical parameters indicating oxidative stress, NLR, IL-6, TNF-α, IMA, TOS, and OSI have increased. MOA reduced inflammation and oxidative stress parameters. Although TAS values have decreased in the IR group and increased in the MOA-pretreated group, no significant changes in TAS values were detected between the IR and MOA groups. The total score was obtained by summing all the scores from morphological kidney damage markers. The total score has increased with IR damage when compared with the Sham group (13.83 ± 4.30 vs 1.51 ± 1.71; p = 0.002). But, the total score has decreased significantly after application of MOA (5.01 ± 1.49; p = 0.002; compared with the IR group). MOA preconditioning is effective in reducing tissue damage induced in kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. The protective effect of MOA is mediated via reducing inflammatory response and regulating of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Renal histology also showed convincing evidence regarding MOA's protective nature against kidney injury induced renal ischemia-reperfusion. Consequently, MOA might be helpful in protecting the kidneys from IR-induced damage in humans, probably through the anti-inflammatory effect and reducing the total oxidant status. PMID:26282390

  19. Hypoxic preconditioning: effect, mechanism and clinical implication (Part 1).

    PubMed

    Lu, Guo-wei; Shao, Guo

    2014-11-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) refers to exposure of organisms, systems, organs, tissues or cells to moderate hypoxia/ischemia that is able to result in a resistance to subsequent severe hypoxia/ischemia in tissues and cells. The effects exerted by HPC are well documented. The original local in situ (LiHPC) is now broadened to remote ectopic organs-tissues (ReHPC) and extended crossly to cross pluripotential HPC(CpHPC) induced by a variety of stresses other than hypoxia/ischemia, including cancer, for example. We developed a unique animal model of repetitive autohypoxia in adult mice, and studied systematically on the effects and mechanisms of HPC on the model in our laboratory since the early 1960s. The tolerances to hypoxia and protection from injury increased significantly in this model. The adult mice behave like hypoxia-intolerant mammalian newborns and hypoxia-tolerant adult animals during their exposure to repetitive autohypoxia. The overall energy supply and demand decreased, the microorganization of the brain maintained and the spacial learning and memory ability improved but not impaired, the detrimental neurochemicals such as free radicals down-regulated and the beneficial neurochemicals such as adenosine(ADO) and antihypoxic gene(s)/factor(s) (AHGs/AHFs) up-regulated. Accordingly, we hypothesize that mechanisms for the tolerance/protective effects of HPC are fundamentally depending on energy saving and brain plasticity in particular. It is thought that these two major mechanisms are triggered by exposure to hypoxia/ischemia via oxygen sensing-transduction pathways and HIF-1 initiation cascades. We suggest that HPC is an intrinsic mechanism developed in biological evolution and is a novel potential strategy for fighting against hypoxia-ischemia and other stresses. Motivation of endogenous antihypoxic potential, activation of oxygen sensing--signal transduction systems and supplement of exogenous antihypoxic substances as well as development of HPC appliances and HPC medicines such as AHFs are encouraged based on our basic research on HPC. HPC may result in therapeutic augmentation of the endogenous cytoprotection in hypoxic-ischemic or suffering from other diseases' patients. Evolutionary consideration of HPC and clinical implications of HPC are both discussed to guide future research. The product of AHF is expected to be one of the most effective first aid medicines to rescue patients in critical condition. HPC is beginning to be used in surgery and is expected to be developed into a feasible adaptive medicine in the near future. PMID:26016357

  20. Peripheral Vascular Disease as Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Mark; Bilgin-Freiert, Arzu; Ellingson, Benjamin; Dusick, Joshua R.; Liebeskind, David; Saver, Jeff; Gonzalez, Nestor R.

    2013-01-01

    Obectives Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a powerful endogenous mechanism whereby a brief period of ischemia is capable of protecting remote tissues from subsequent ischemic insult. While this phenomenon has been extensively studied in the heart and brain in animal models, little work has been done to explore the effects of RIPC in human patients with acute cerebral ischemia. This study investigates whether chronic peripheral hypoperfusion, in the form of pre-existing arterial peripheral vascular disease (PVD) that has not been surgically treated, is capable of inducing neuroprotective effects for acute ischemic stroke. Methods Individuals with PVD who had not undergone prior surgical treatment were identified from a registry of stroke patients. A control group within the same database was identified by matching patient’s demographics and risk factors. The two groups were compared in terms of outcome by NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), mortality, and volume of infarcted tissue at presentation and at discharge. Results The matching algorithm identified 26 pairs of PVD-control patients (9 pairs were female and 17 pairs were male). Age range was 20 to 93 years (mean 73). The PVD group was found to have significantly lower NIHSS scores at admission (NIHSS ≤ 4: PVD 47.1%, Control 4.35%, p < 0.003), significantly more favorable outcomes at discharge (mRS ≤ 2: PVD 30.8%, Control 3.84%, p < 0.012), and a significantly lower mortality rate (PVD 26.9%, Control 57.7% p=0.024). Mean acute stroke volume at admission and at discharge were significantly lower for the PVD group (Admission: PVD 39.6mL, Control 148.3mL, p < 0.005 and Discharge: PVD 111.7mL, Control 275mL, p < 0.001). Conclusion Chronic limb hypoperfusion induced by PVD can potentially produce a neuroprotective effect in acute ischemic stroke. This effect resembles the neuroprotection induced by RIPC in preclinical models. PMID:23958050

  1. Preconditioning for the Navier-Stokes equations with finite-rate chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.; Walters, Robert W.; Van Leer, Bram

    1993-01-01

    The preconditioning procedure for generalized finite-rate chemistry and the proper preconditioning for the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are presented. Eigenvalue stiffness is resolved and convergence-rate acceleration is demonstrated over the entire Mach-number range from the incompressible to the hypersonic. Specific benefits are realized at low and transonic flow speeds. The extended preconditioning matrix accounts for thermal and chemical non-equilibrium and its implementation is explained for both explicit and implicit time marching. The effect of higher-order spatial accuracy and various flux splittings is investigated. Numerical analysis reveals the possible theoretical improvements from using proconditioning at all Mach numbers. Numerical results confirm the expectations from the numerical analysis. Representative test cases include flows with previously troublesome embedded high-condition-number regions.

  2. Novel Genes Critical for Hypoxic Preconditioning in Zebrafish Are Regulators of Insulin and Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Manchenkov, Tania; Pasillas, Martina P.; Haddad, Gabriel G.; Imam, Farhad B.

    2015-01-01

    Severe hypoxia is a common cause of major brain, heart, and kidney injury in adults, children, and newborns. However, mild hypoxia can be protective against later, more severe hypoxia exposure via “hypoxic preconditioning,” a phenomenon that is not yet fully understood. Accordingly, we have established and optimized an embryonic zebrafish model to study hypoxic preconditioning. Using a functional genomic approach, we used this zebrafish model to identify and validate five novel hypoxia-protective genes, including irs2, crtc3, and camk2g2, which have been previously implicated in metabolic regulation. These results extend our understanding of the mechanisms of hypoxic preconditioning and affirm the discovery potential of this novel vertebrate hypoxic stress model. PMID:25840431

  3. Wide-field fluorescence molecular tomography with compressive sensing based preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruoyang; Pian, Qi; Intes, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Wide-field optical tomography based on structured light illumination and detection strategies enables efficient tomographic imaging of large tissues at very fast acquisition speeds. However, the optical inverse problem based on such instrumental approach is still ill-conditioned. Herein, we investigate the benefit of employing compressive sensing-based preconditioning to wide-field structured illumination and detection approaches. We assess the performances of Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) when using such preconditioning methods both in silico and with experimental data. Additionally, we demonstrate that such methodology could be used to select the subset of patterns that provides optimal reconstruction performances. Lastly, we compare preconditioning data collected using a normal base that offers good experimental SNR against that directly acquired with optimal designed base. An experimental phantom study is provided to validate the proposed technique. PMID:26713202

  4. Wide-field fluorescence molecular tomography with compressive sensing based preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ruoyang; Pian, Qi; Intes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Wide-field optical tomography based on structured light illumination and detection strategies enables efficient tomographic imaging of large tissues at very fast acquisition speeds. However, the optical inverse problem based on such instrumental approach is still ill-conditioned. Herein, we investigate the benefit of employing compressive sensing-based preconditioning to wide-field structured illumination and detection approaches. We assess the performances of Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) when using such preconditioning methods both in silico and with experimental data. Additionally, we demonstrate that such methodology could be used to select the subset of patterns that provides optimal reconstruction performances. Lastly, we compare preconditioning data collected using a normal base that offers good experimental SNR against that directly acquired with optimal designed base. An experimental phantom study is provided to validate the proposed technique. PMID:26713202

  5. Analysis of a Lipid/Polymer Membrane for Bitterness Sensing with a Preconditioning Process

    PubMed Central

    Yatabe, Rui; Noda, Junpei; Tahara, Yusuke; Naito, Yoshinobu; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    It is possible to evaluate the taste of foods or medicines using a taste sensor. The taste sensor converts information on taste into an electrical signal using several lipid/polymer membranes. A lipid/polymer membrane for bitterness sensing can evaluate aftertaste after immersion in monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is called “preconditioning”. However, we have not yet analyzed the change in the surface structure of the membrane as a result of preconditioning. Thus, we analyzed the change in the surface by performing contact angle and surface zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and gas cluster ion beam time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-TOF-SIMS). After preconditioning, the concentrations of MSG and tetradodecylammonium bromide (TDAB), contained in the lipid membrane were found to be higher in the surface region than in the bulk region. The effect of preconditioning was revealed by the above analysis methods. PMID:26404301

  6. Peri-operative anaesthetic myocardial preconditioning and protection - cellular mechanisms and clinical relevance in cardiac anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kunst, G; Klein, A A

    2015-04-01

    Preconditioning has been shown to reduce myocardial damage caused by ischaemia-reperfusion injury peri-operatively. Volatile anaesthetic agents have the potential to provide myocardial protection by anaesthetic preconditioning and, in addition, they also mediate renal and cerebral protection. A number of proof-of-concept trials have confirmed that the experimental evidence can be translated into clinical practice with regard to postoperative markers of myocardial injury; however, this effect has not been ubiquitous. The clinical trials published to date have also been too small to investigate clinical outcome and mortality. Data from recent meta-analyses in cardiac anaesthesia are also not conclusive regarding intra-operative volatile anaesthesia. These inconclusive clinical results have led to great variability currently in the type of anaesthetic agent used during cardiac surgery. This review summarises experimentally proposed mechanisms of anaesthetic preconditioning, and assesses randomised controlled clinical trials in cardiac anaesthesia that have been aimed at translating experimental results into the clinical setting. PMID:25764404

  7. The pre-conditions for "building capacity" in an ethics program.

    PubMed

    Mills, Ann E; Rorty, Mary V

    2010-12-01

    Most organizations and/or their sub-units like ethics programs want to acquire the knowledge, skills and other resources needed to achieve their goals efficiently and effectively. Thus, they want to acquire or develop needed "capacity." But there are pre-conditions to building capacity that are often overlooked or forgotten, but which nevertheless, must be in place before capacity can be developed. This essay identifies these pre-conditions and discusses why they are necessary before attempts are made to enhance the capacity of any ethics program. The essay closes by offering a series of questions that ethics program leaders/and or members can asked themselves to assess whether or not these pre-conditions exist. PMID:21210184

  8. Efficient Multi-Stage Time Marching for Viscous Flows via Local Preconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.; Wood, William A.; vanLeer, Bram

    1999-01-01

    A new method has been developed to accelerate the convergence of explicit time-marching, laminar, Navier-Stokes codes through the combination of local preconditioning and multi-stage time marching optimization. Local preconditioning is a technique to modify the time-dependent equations so that all information moves or decays at nearly the same rate, thus relieving the stiffness for a system of equations. Multi-stage time marching can be optimized by modifying its coefficients to account for the presence of viscous terms, allowing larger time steps. We show it is possible to optimize the time marching scheme for a wide range of cell Reynolds numbers for the scalar advection-diffusion equation, and local preconditioning allows this optimization to be applied to the Navier-Stokes equations. Convergence acceleration of the new method is demonstrated through numerical experiments with circular advection and laminar boundary-layer flow over a flat plate.

  9. Preconditioning bandgap eigenvalue problems in three-dimensional photonic crystals simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Wei-Jen; Huang, Yin-Liang; Lin, Wen-Wei; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Weichung

    2010-11-01

    To explore band structures of three-dimensional photonic crystals numerically, we need to solve the eigenvalue problems derived from the governing Maxwell equations. The solutions of these eigenvalue problems cannot be computed effectively unless a suitable combination of eigenvalue solver and preconditioner is chosen. Taking eigenvalue problems due to Yee's scheme as examples, we propose using Krylov-Schur method and Jacobi-Davidson method to solve the resulting eigenvalue problems. For preconditioning, we derive several novel preconditioning schemes based on various preconditioners, including a preconditioner that can be solved by Fast Fourier Transform efficiently. We then conduct intensive numerical experiments for various combinations of eigenvalue solvers and preconditioning schemes. We find that the Krylov-Schur method associated with the Fast Fourier Transform based preconditioner is very efficient. It remarkably outperforms all other eigenvalue solvers with common preconditioners like Jacobi, Symmetric Successive Over Relaxation, and incomplete factorizations. This promising solver can benefit applications like photonic crystal structure optimization.

  10. Failure and rescue of preconditioning-induced neuroprotection in severe stroke-like insults.

    PubMed

    Tauskela, Joseph S; Aylsworth, Amy; Hewitt, Melissa; Brunette, Eric; Blondeau, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Preconditioning is a well established neuroprotective modality. However, the mechanism and relative efficacy of neuroprotection between diverse preconditioners is poorly defined. Cultured neurons were preconditioned by 4-aminopyridine and bicuculline (4-AP/bic), rendering neurons tolerant to normally lethal (sufficient to kill most neurons) oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or a chemical OGD-mimic, ouabain/TBOA, by suppression of extracellular glutamate (glutamateex) elevations. However, subjecting preconditioned neurons to longer-duration supra-lethal insults caused neurotoxic glutamateex elevations, thereby identifying a 'ceiling' to neuroprotection. Neuroprotective 'rescue' of neurons could be obtained by administration of an NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, just before glutamateex rose during these supra-lethal insults. Next, we evaluated if these concepts of glutamateex suppression during lethal OGD, and a neuroprotective ceiling requiring MK-801 rescue under supra-lethal OGD, extended to the preconditioning field. In screening a panel of 42 diverse putative preconditioners, neuroprotection against normally lethal OGD was observed in 12 cases, which correlated with glutamateex suppression, both of which could be reversed, either by the inclusion of a glutamate uptake inhibitor (TBOA, to increase glutamateex levels) during OGD or by exposure to supra-lethal OGD. Administrating MK-801 during the latter stages of supra-lethal OGD again rescued neurons, although to varying degrees dependent on the preconditioning agent. Thus, 'stress-testing' against the harshest ischemic-like insults yet tested identifies the most efficacious preconditioners, which dictates how early MK-801 needs to be administered during the insult in order to maintain neuroprotection. Preconditioning delays a neurotoxic rise in glutamateex levels, thereby 'buying time' for acute anti-excitotoxic pharmacologic rescue. PMID:26867506

  11. Delayed post-ischemic administration of CDP-choline increases EAAT2 association to lipid rafts and affords neuroprotection in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, O; Pradillo, J M; Fernández-López, D; Morales, J R; Sobrino, T; Castillo, J; Alborch, E; Moro, M A; Lizasoain, I

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate transport is the only mechanism for maintaining extracellular glutamate concentrations below excitotoxic levels. Among glutamate transporters, EAAT2 is responsible for up to 90% of all glutamate transport and has been reported to be associated to lipid rafts. In this context, we have recently shown that CDP-choline induces EAAT2 translocation to the membrane. Since CDP-choline preserves membrane stability by recovering levels of sphingomyelin, a glycosphingolipid present in lipid rafts, we have decided to investigate whether CDP-choline increases association of EAAT2 transporter to lipid rafts. Flotillin-1 was used as a marker of lipid rafts due to its known association to these microdomains. After gradient centrifugation, we have found that flotillin-1 appears mainly in fractions 2 and 3 and that EAAT2 protein is predominantly found colocalised with flotillin-1 in fraction 2. We have also demonstrated that CDP-choline increased EAAT2 levels in fraction 2 at both times examined (3 and 6 h after 1 g/kg CDP-choline administration). In agreement with this, [(3)H] glutamate uptake was also increased in flotillin-associated vesicles obtained from brain homogenates of animals treated with CDP-choline. Exposure to middle cerebral artery occlusion also increased EAAT2 levels in lipid rafts, an effect which was further enhanced in those animals receiving 2 g/kg CDP-choline 4 h after the occlusion. Infarct volume measured at 48 h after ischemia showed a reduction in the group treated with CDP-choline 4 h after occlusion. In summary, we have demonstrated that CDP-choline redistributes EAAT2 to lipid raft microdomains and improves glutamate uptake. This effect is also found after experimental stroke, when CDP-choline is administered 4 h after the ischemic occlusion. Since we have also shown that this delayed post-ischemic administration of CDP-choline induces a potent neuroprotection, our data provides a novel target for neuroprotection in stroke. PMID:17884513

  12. Propulsion-related flowfields using the preconditioned Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, S.; Weiss, J. M.; Merkle, C. L.; Choi, Y.-H.

    1992-01-01

    A previous time-derivative preconditioning procedure for solving the Navier-Stokes is extended to the chemical species equations. The scheme is implemented using both the implicit ADI and the explicit Runge-Kutta algorithms. A new definition for time-step is proposed to enable grid-independent convergence. Several examples of both reacting and non-reacting propulsion-related flowfields are considered. In all cases, convergence that is superior to conventional methods is demonstrated. Accuracy is verified using the example of a backward facing step. These results demonstrate that preconditioning can enhance the capability of density-based methods over a wide range of Mach and Reynolds numbers.

  13. Role of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase in ischaemic preconditioning in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Bell, James R; Eaton, Philip; Shattock, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    1. Activation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been implicated in the signalling cascade leading to protection by ischaemic preconditioning. This, however, is controversial and there is a plethora of conflicting data in the literature. Although many experimental differences may contribute to this, two in particular may be confounding: (i) the failure to account for p38-MAPK activation during aerobic perfusion; and (ii) the use of the anti-oxidant dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) as the vehicle for the commonly used p38-MAPK inhibitor SB203580. We have investigated the effects of aerobic perfusion, ischaemia and preconditioning on p38-MAPK activation. In addition, we have used water-soluble SB203580 hydrochloride (SB203580.HCl) and DMSO to probe the role of p38-MAPK in preconditioning and ischaemic injury. 2. Activation of p38-MAPK in rat isolated hearts was assessed using a dual phosphospecific antibody during cannulation, aerobic perfusion and index, autolytic and preconditioned ischaemia. The effect of SB203580.HCl (10 mmol/L) in ischaemic preconditioning and ischaemia/reperfusion was tested using recovery of function and tetrazolium (TTC) staining as end-points. 3. Aerobic perfusion induced rapid activation (34% of maximal ischaemia-induced increase; P < 0.05) of p38-MAPK after 2 min that returned to baseline after 30 min. Index, autolytic and preconditioned ischaemia activated p38-MAPK, with index ischaemia peaking after 15 min (520% of basal; P < 0.05) before declining. SB203580.HCl blocked p38-MAPK activity, but did not block ischaemic preconditioning when bracketing the trigger phase and was not protective when given during ischaemia. 4. In the rat isolated heart, activation of p38-MAPK is neither a unique feature of preconditioning nor a prerequisite. Previous studies using SB203580 may have been complicated by failure to account for the activation of p38-MAPK by the protocol itself and the anti-oxidant properties of the most commonly used vehicle DMSO. PMID:17892505

  14. Preconditioned upwind methods to solve 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Chen, Y.-M.; Liu, C. H.

    1990-01-01

    A computational method for calculating low-speed viscous flowfields is developed. The method uses the implicit upwind-relaxation finite-difference algorithm with a nonsingular eigensystem to solve the preconditioned, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinates. The technique of local time stepping is incorporated to accelerate the rate of convergence to a steady-state solution. An extensive study of optimizing the preconditioned system is carried out for two viscous flow problems. Computed results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental data.

  15. Solving nonlinear heat conduction problems with multigrid preconditioned Newton-Krylov methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.

    1997-09-01

    Our objective is to investigate the utility of employing multigrid preconditioned Newton-Krylov methods for solving initial value problems. Multigrid based method promise better performance from the linear scaling associated with them. Our model problem is nonlinear heat conduction which can model idealized Marshak waves. Here we will investigate the efficiency of using a linear multigrid method to precondition a Krylov subspace method. In effect we will show that a fixed point nonlinear iterative method provides an effective preconditioner for the nonlinear problem.

  16. Preconditioning electromyographic data for an upper extremity model using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, D. J.; Fernjallah, M.; Barr, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    A back propagation neural network has been employed to precondition the electromyographic signal (EMG) that drives a computational model of the human upper extremity. This model is used to determine the complex relationship between EMG and muscle activation, and generates an optimal muscle activation scheme that simulates the actual activation. While the experimental and model predicted results of the ballistic muscle movement are very similar, the activation function between the start and the finish is not. This neural network preconditions the signal in an attempt to more closely model the actual activation function over the entire course of the muscle movement.

  17. Preconditioning for the Navier-Stokes equations with finite-rate chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Andrew G.

    1993-01-01

    The extension of Van Leer's preconditioning procedure to generalized finite-rate chemistry is discussed. Application to viscous flow is begun with the proper preconditioning matrix for the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Eigenvalue stiffness is resolved and convergence-rate acceleration is demonstrated over the entire Mach-number range from nearly stagnant flow to hypersonic. Specific benefits are realized at the low and transonic flow speeds typical of complete propulsion-system simulations. The extended preconditioning matrix necessarily accounts for both thermal and chemical nonequilibrium. Numerical analysis reveals the possible theoretical improvements from using a preconditioner for all Mach number regimes. Numerical results confirm the expectations from the numerical analysis. Representative test cases include flows with previously troublesome embedded high-condition-number areas. Van Leer, Lee, and Roe recently developed an optimal, analytic preconditioning technique to reduce eigenvalue stiffness over the full Mach-number range. By multiplying the flux-balance residual with the preconditioning matrix, the acoustic wave speeds are scaled so that all waves propagate at the same rate, an essential property to eliminate inherent eigenvalue stiffness. This session discusses a synthesis of the thermochemical nonequilibrium flux-splitting developed by Grossman and Cinnella and the characteristic wave preconditioning of Van Leer into a powerful tool for implicitly solving two and three-dimensional flows with generalized finite-rate chemistry. For finite-rate chemistry, the state vector of unknowns is variable in length. Therefore, the preconditioning matrix extended to generalized finite-rate chemistry must accommodate a flexible system of moving waves. Fortunately, no new kind of wave appears in the system. The only existing waves are entropy and vorticity waves, which move with the fluid, and acoustic waves, which propagate in Mach number dependent directions. The nonequilibrium vibrational energies and species densities in the unknown state vector act strictly as convective waves. The essential concept for extending the preconditioning to generalized chemistry models is determining the differential variables which symmetrize the flux Jacobians. The extension is then straight-forward. This algorithm research effort will be released in a future version of the production level computational code coined the General Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), developed by Walters, Slack, and McGrory.

  18. Pharmacological evidence that inducible nitric oxide synthase is a mediator of delayed preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Imagawa, J; Yellon, D M; Baxter, G F

    1999-01-01

    Brief periods of myocardial ischaemia preceding a subsequent more prolonged ischaemic period 24–72 h later confer protection against myocardial infarction (‘delayed preconditioning' or the ‘second window' of preconditioning). In the present study, we examined the effects of pharmacological modifiers of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction and activity on delayed protection conferred by ischaemic preconditioning 48 h later in an anaesthetized rabbit model of myocardial infarction. Rabbits underwent a myocardial preconditioning protocol (four 5 min coronary artery occlusions) or were sham-operated. Forty-eight hours later they were subjected to a sustained 30 min coronary occlusion and 120 min reperfusion. Infarct size was determined with triphenyltetrazolium staining. In rabbits receiving no pharmacological intervention, the percentage of myocardium infarcted within the risk zone was 43.9±5.0% in sham-operated animals and this was significantly reduced 48 h after ischaemic preconditioning with four 5 min coronary occlusions to 18.5±5.6% (P<0.01). Administration of the iNOS expression inhibitor dexamethasone (4 mg kg−1 i.v) 60 min before ischaemic preconditioning completely blocked the infarct-limiting effect of ischaemic preconditioning (infarct size 48.6±6.1%). Furthermore, administration of aminoguanidine (300 mg kg−1, s.c.), a relatively selective inhibitor of iNOS activity, 60 min before sustained ischaemia also abolished the delayed protection afforded by ischaemic preconditioning (infarct size 40.0±6.0%). Neither aminoguanidine nor dexamethasone per se had significant effect on myocardial infarct size. Myocardial risk zone volume during coronary ligation, a primary determinant of infarct size in this non-collateralized species, was not significantly different between intervention groups. There were no differences in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, arterial blood pH or rectal temperature between groups throughout the experimental period. These data provide pharmacological evidence that the induction of iNOS, following brief periods of coronary occlusion, is associated with increased myocardial tolerance to infarction 48 h later. PMID:10188982

  19. Preconditioned Bi-conjugate Gradient Method for Radiative Transfer in Spherical Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N.; Paletou, F.; Léger, L.

    2009-10-01

    A robust numerical method called the Preconditioned Bi-Conjugate Gradient (Pre-BiCG) method is proposed for the solution of the radiative transfer equation in spherical geometry. A variant of this method called Stabilized Preconditioned Bi-Conjugate Gradient (Pre-BiCG-STAB) is also presented. These are iterative methods based on the construction of a set of bi-orthogonal vectors. The application of the Pre-BiCG method in some benchmark tests shows that the method is quite versatile, and can handle difficult problems that may arise in astrophysical radiative transfer theory.

  20. Effect of local and remote ischemic preconditioning on endothelial function in young people and healthy or hypertensive elderly people.

    PubMed

    Moro, L; Pedone, C; Mondì, A; Nunziata, E; Antonelli Incalzi, R

    2011-12-01

    To verify whether age affects remote preconditioning, we compared healthy young people (mean age = 28.0 years, SD: 7.2), healthy elderly people (age = 69.2 years, SD: 5.0), and hypertensive elderly people (group 3, age = 72.8 years, SD: 3.9). Each group included 10 participants. The flow-mediated-dilation (FMD) was measured after local (same arm) and remote (leg) ischemic preconditioning. Healthy elderly people had the greatest increase of FMD after ischemic preconditioning compared to baseline (173% after local and 181% after remote preconditioning) and young participants the smallest increase (77% after local and 69% after remote preconditioning) while hypertensive elderly had an intermediate increase (P for comparison across groups: 0.347 for local and 0.064 for remote preconditioning). However, absolute values of FMD after preconditioning were much lower in elderly hypertensive than in healthy young adults. Remote preconditioning increases endothelial reactivity in healthy and hypertensive elderly. The potential clinical relevance of this finding deserves consideration. PMID:21945497

  1. Hypoxic Preconditioning Increases Survival and Pro-Angiogenic Capacity of Human Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Andreas Matthäus; Klose, Kristin; Bieback, Karen; Korinth, Dirk; Schneider, Maria; Seifert, Martina; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Kurtz, Andreas; Falk, Volkmar; Stamm, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning was shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) upon transplantation in ischemic tissue. Given the interest in clinical applications of umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs, we developed a specific hypoxic preconditioning protocol and investigated its anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic effects on cord blood MSCs undergoing simulated ischemia in vitro by subjecting them to hypoxia and nutrient deprivation with or without preceding hypoxic preconditioning. Cell number, metabolic activity, surface marker expression, chromosomal stability, apoptosis (caspases-3/7 activity) and necrosis were determined, and phosphorylation, mRNA expression and protein secretion of selected apoptosis and angiogenesis-regulating factors were quantified. Then, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were subjected to simulated ischemia in co-culture with hypoxically preconditioned or naïve cord blood MSCs, and HUVEC proliferation was measured. Migration, proliferation and nitric oxide production of HUVECs were determined in presence of cord blood MSC-conditioned medium. Cord blood MSCs proved least sensitive to simulated ischemia when they were preconditioned for 24 h, while their basic behavior, immunophenotype and karyotype in culture remained unchanged. Here, “post-ischemic” cell number and metabolic activity were enhanced and caspase-3/7 activity and lactate dehydrogenase release were reduced as compared to non-preconditioned cells. Phosphorylation of AKT and BAD, mRNA expression of BCL-XL, BAG1 and VEGF, and VEGF protein secretion were higher in preconditioned cells. Hypoxically preconditioned cord blood MSCs enhanced HUVEC proliferation and migration, while nitric oxide production remained unchanged. We conclude that hypoxic preconditioning protects cord blood MSCs by activation of anti-apoptotic signaling mechanisms and enhances their angiogenic potential. Hence, hypoxic preconditioning might be a translationally relevant strategy to increase the tolerance of cord blood MSCs to ischemia and improve their therapeutic efficacy in clinical applications. PMID:26380983

  2. Research on the Changes to the Lipid/Polymer Membrane Used in the Acidic Bitterness Sensor Caused by Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Yuhei; Noda, Junpei; Yatabe, Rui; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A taste sensor that uses lipid/polymer membranes can evaluate aftertastes felt by humans using Change in membrane Potential caused by Adsorption (CPA) measurements. The sensor membrane for evaluating bitterness, which is caused by acidic bitter substances such as iso-alpha acid contained in beer, needs an immersion process in monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution, called “MSG preconditioning”. However, what happens to the lipid/polymer membrane during MSG preconditioning is not clear. Therefore, we carried out three experiments to investigate the changes in the lipid/polymer membrane caused by the MSG preconditioning, i.e., measurements of the taste sensor, measurements of the amount of the bitterness substance adsorbed onto the membrane and measurements of the contact angle of the membrane surface. The CPA values increased as the preconditioning process progressed, and became stable after 3 d of preconditioning. The response potentials to the reference solution showed the same tendency of the CPA value change during the preconditioning period. The contact angle of the lipid/polymer membrane surface decreased after 7 d of MSG preconditioning; in short, the surface of the lipid/polymer membrane became hydrophilic during MSG preconditioning. The amount of adsorbed iso-alpha acid was increased until 5 d preconditioning, and then it decreased. In this study, we revealed that the CPA values increased with the progress of MSG preconditioning in spite of the decrease of the amount of iso-alpha acid adsorbed onto the lipid/polymer membrane, and it was indicated that the CPA values increase because the sensor sensitivity was improved by the MSG preconditioning. PMID:26891299

  3. 40 CFR 86.132-96 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 86.085-2 or § 86.1803-01 as applicable, two Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedules, found in 40 CFR... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... to prevent entry of water or other contaminants into the fuel tank. During storage in the test...

  4. 40 CFR 86.132-96 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 86.085-2 or § 86.1803-01 as applicable, two Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedules, found in 40 CFR... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... to prevent entry of water or other contaminants into the fuel tank. During storage in the test...

  5. 40 CFR 86.132-96 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 86.085-2 or § 86.1803-01 as applicable, two Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedules, found in 40 CFR... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete... to prevent entry of water or other contaminants into the fuel tank. During storage in the test...

  6. A load of mice to hypergravity causes AMPKα repression with liver injury, which is overcome by preconditioning loads via Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Gil; Lee, Chan Gyu; Wu, Hong Min; Oh, Choong Sik; Chung, So Won; Kim, Sang Geon

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the effects of hypergravity on energy homeostasis is necessary in managing proper physiological countermeasures for aerospace missions. This study investigated whether a single or multiple load(s) of mice to hypergravity has an effect on molecules associated with energy metabolism. In the liver, AMPKα level and its signaling were repressed 6 h after a load to +9 Gz hypergravity for 1 h, and then gradually returned toward normal. AMPKα level was restored after 3 loads to +9 Gz, suggestive of preconditioning adaptation. In cDNA microarray analyses, 221 genes were differentially expressed by +9 Gz, and the down-regulated genes included Nrf2 targets. Nrf2 gene knockout abrogated the recovery of AMPKα elicited by 3 loads to +9 Gz, indicating that Nrf2 plays a role in the adaptive increase of AMPKα. In addition, +9 Gz stress decreased STAT3, FOXO1/3 and CREB levels, which was attenuated during the resting time. Similarly, apoptotic markers were enhanced in the liver, indicating that the liver may be vulnerable to hypergravity stress. Preconditioning loads prevented hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall, a load of mice to +9 Gz hypergravity causes AMPKα repression with liver injury, which may be overcome by multiple loads to hypergravity as mediated by Nrf2. PMID:26493041

  7. 40 CFR 85.2219 - Idle test with loaded preconditioning-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Idle test with loaded preconditioning-EPA 91. 85.2219 Section 85.2219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control...

  8. 40 CFR 85.2218 - Preconditioned idle test-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preconditioned idle test-EPA 91. 85.2218 Section 85.2218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty...

  9. 40 CFR 85.2220 - Preconditioned two speed idle test-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preconditioned two speed idle test-EPA 91. 85.2220 Section 85.2220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System...

  10. Using Chebyshev polynomials and approximate inverse triangular factorizations for preconditioning the conjugate gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaporin, I. E.

    2012-02-01

    In order to precondition a sparse symmetric positive definite matrix, its approximate inverse is examined, which is represented as the product of two sparse mutually adjoint triangular matrices. In this way, the solution of the corresponding system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE) by applying the preconditioned conjugate gradient method (CGM) is reduced to performing only elementary vector operations and calculating sparse matrix-vector products. A method for constructing the above preconditioner is described and analyzed. The triangular factor has a fixed sparsity pattern and is optimal in the sense that the preconditioned matrix has a minimum K-condition number. The use of polynomial preconditioning based on Chebyshev polynomials makes it possible to considerably reduce the amount of scalar product operations (at the cost of an insignificant increase in the total number of arithmetic operations). The possibility of an efficient massively parallel implementation of the resulting method for solving SLAEs is discussed. For a sequential version of this method, the results obtained by solving 56 test problems from the Florida sparse matrix collection (which are large-scale and ill-conditioned) are presented. These results show that the method is highly reliable and has low computational costs.

  11. 40 CFR 92.125 - Pre-test procedures and preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-test procedures and preconditioning. 92.125 Section 92.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.125 Pre-test procedures and...

  12. Cognitive Preconditions of Early Reading and Spelling: A Latent-Variable Approach with Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preßler, Anna-Lena; Könen, Tanja; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Krajewski, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to empirically disentangle the interdependencies of the impact of nonverbal intelligence, working memory capacities, and phonological processing skills on early reading decoding and spelling within a latent variable approach. In a sample of 127 children, these cognitive preconditions were assessed before the onset…

  13. Prolongated survival of osteoblast-like cells on biodegradable scaffolds by heat shock preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Tavassol, Frank; Kampmann, Andreas; Lindhorst, Daniel; Schumann, Paul; Kokemüller, Horst; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The implantation of tissue-engineered constructs leads to hypoxic and physical stress to the seeded cells until they were reached by a functional microvascular system. Preconditioning of cells with heat shock induced heat shock proteins, which can support the cells to survive a subsequent episode of stress that would otherwise be lethal. Preconditioning of tissue-engineered constructs resulted in significantly higher number of surviving osteoblast-like cells (OLC). At the 6th and 10th day, angiogenic response was found comparative to poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds vitalized with either unconditioned or preconditioned OLC. However, they were significantly enhanced compared with the nonvitalized collagen-labeled PLGA scaffolds. This study demonstrates that vitalization of PLGA scaffolds with OLC accelerates the angiogenic response induced by the surrounding host tissue. In addition, heat shock preconditioning significantly enhances the survival rate of the OLC that are seeded on these scaffolds. Thus, vitalization of substitutes with adequately pretreated OLC may promise biologically adequate osseous restorations. PMID:21417712

  14. An M-step preconditioned conjugate gradient method for parallel computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a preconditioned conjugate gradient method that can be effectively implemented on both vector machines and parallel arrays to solve sparse symmetric and positive definite systems of linear equations. The implementation on the CYBER 203/205 and on the Finite Element Machine is discussed and results obtained using the method on these machines are given.

  15. Myocardial protection by ischemic preconditioning: the influence of the composition of myocardial phospholipids.

    PubMed

    al Makdessi, S; Brändle, M; Ehrt, M; Sweidan, H; Jacob, R

    1995-04-12

    It was the aim of this study to investigate (1) whether preconditioning modifies the fatty acid (FA) composition of myocardial phospholipids (PL), (2) whether a previous modification of membrane PL composition by the administration of coconut oil or fish oil influences the preconditioning, and (3) to compare the protective effects of preconditioning to those of dietary fish oil. To this end, three groups of rats were given during 10 weeks either a standard diet, or a standard diet + 10% coconut oil, or a standard diet + 10% fish oil. The preconditioning was performed in situ in the anesthetized open-chest rats by 2 cycles of 3 min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 10 min reperfusion. It was followed by a 40 min ischemia and a 60 min reperfusion. ECG was recorded and used for the continuous count of the salves of extrasystoles, ventricular flutter and fibrillation. These rhythm disturbances were subsequently added and evaluated as total arrhythmias. The FA of tissue PL were analyzed in a sample of the ischemic zone the size of which was determined by means of malachite green. Coconut oil diet (rich in saturated FA) modified slightly the myocardial PL by increasing oleic acid and decreasing linoleic acid and resulted in the highest incidence of arrhythmias. Fish oil diet had the opposite effect in modifying drastically the PLFA (replacement of the n-6 FA by the n-3 FA) and minimizing significantly the arrhythmias in comparison with the standard diet group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7659079

  16. 40 CFR 85.2220 - Preconditioned two speed idle test-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preconditioned two speed idle test-EPA 91. 85.2220 Section 85.2220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2220...

  17. Analysis of Off-Board Powered Thermal Preconditioning in Electric Drive Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.; Rugh , J.; Smith, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Following a hot or cold thermal soak, vehicle climate control systems (air conditioning or heat) are required to quickly attain a cabin temperature comfortable to the vehicle occupants. In a plug-in hybrid electric or electric vehicle (PEV) equipped with electric climate control systems, the traction battery is the sole on-board power source. Depleting the battery for immediate climate control results in reduced charge-depleting (CD) range and additional battery wear. PEV cabin and battery thermal preconditioning using off-board power supplied by the grid or a building can mitigate the impacts of climate control. This analysis shows that climate control loads can reduce CD range up to 35%. However, cabin thermal preconditioning can increase CD range up to 19% when compared to no thermal preconditioning. In addition, this analysis shows that while battery capacity loss over time is driven by ambient temperature rather than climate control loads, concurrent battery thermal preconditioning can reduce capacity loss up to 7% by reducing pack temperature in a high ambient temperature scenario.

  18. 40 CFR 86.153-98 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test. 86.153-98 Section 86.153-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and...

  19. 40 CFR 86.153-98 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test. 86.153-98 Section 86.153-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and...

  20. 40 CFR 85.2220 - Preconditioned two speed idle test-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preconditioned two speed idle test-EPA 91. 85.2220 Section 85.2220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2220...

  1. Progress Toward a Stabilization and Preconditioning Protocol for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Deline, C. A.; Rummel, S. R.; Anderberg, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can exhibit substantial variation in measured performance depending on prior exposure history. This study examines the metastable performance changes in these PV modules with the goal of establishing standard preconditioning or stabilization exposure procedures to mitigate measured variations prior to current-voltage (IV) measurements.

  2. 40 CFR 92.125 - Pre-test procedures and preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system flow rates and pressures. Note the values of gauges for reference during the test. ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Pre-test procedures and preconditioning... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures §...

  3. Resistance of the myocardium to ischemia and the efficacy of ischemic preconditioning in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Galagudza, M M; Nekrasova, M K; Syrenskii, A V; Nifontov, E M

    2007-06-01

    Data on the influences of diabetes mellitus on the severity of ischemic damage to the myocardium are contradictory. We report here experiments using a model based on in vivo myocardial infarcts resulting from coronary occlusion to study the resistance of the myocardium in rats with alloxan-induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to prolonged ischemia, along with studies of the infarct-limiting efficacy of ischemic preconditioning. The results showed that after diabetes mellitus for six weeks, the relative size of infarcts was significantly less than in controls (39.8 +/- 8.8 and 62.3 +/- 6.6% of the size of the anatomical risk zone respectively, p < 0.01). In addition, animals with diabetes mellitus developed ischemic ventricular tachyarrhythmia significantly less often than controls. A single episode of ischemic preconditioning in animals with diabetes mellitus had a less marked infarct-limiting effect than the same procedure in controls. Thus, these data support the existence of an endogenous cardioprotective phenotype (metabolic preconditioning) in experimental diabetes. On the other hand, the efficacy of ischemic preconditioning was sharply decreased in diabetes. PMID:17505800

  4. 40 CFR 85.2219 - Idle test with loaded preconditioning-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Idle test with loaded preconditioning-EPA 91. 85.2219 Section 85.2219 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2219 Idle...

  5. Professors' and Trainees' Perceptions of Educational Quality as Related to Preconditions of Deep Learning in "Musikdidaktik"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferm, Cecilia; Johansen, Geir

    2008-01-01

    Interview-based case studies, involving two institutions, four professors and 11 music teacher trainees were conducted in order to investigate the preconditions for deep learning in the subject of higher music education called "musikdidaktik". Analysis was based on the "didaktiktriangle" which is a theoretical model that…

  6. Effects of ischemic preconditioning in a pig model of large-for-size liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Antonio José Gonçalves; Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Belon, Alessandro Rodrigo; Guimarães, Raimundo Renato Nunes; Coelho, Maria Cecília Mendonça; de Oliveira Gonçalves, Josiane; Serafini, Suellen; de Melo, Evandro Sobroza; Tannuri, Uenis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In most cases of pediatric liver transplantation, the clinical scenario of large-for-size transplants can lead to hepatic dysfunction and a decreased blood supply to the liver graft. The objective of the present experimental investigation was to evaluate the effects of ischemic preconditioning on this clinical entity. METHODS: Eighteen pigs were divided into three groups and underwent liver transplantation: a control group, in which the weights of the donors were similar to those of the recipients, a large-for-size group, and a large-for-size + ischemic preconditioning group. Blood samples were collected from the recipients to evaluate the pH and the sodium, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. In addition, hepatic tissue was sampled from the recipients for histological evaluation, immunohistochemical analyses to detect hepatocyte apoptosis and proliferation and molecular analyses to evaluate the gene expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic), Bcl-XL (anti-apoptotic), c-Fos and c-Jun (immediate-early genes), ischemia-reperfusion-related inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-alpha and IL-6, which is also a stimulator of hepatocyte regeneration), intracellular adhesion molecule, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (a mediator of the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning) and TGF-beta (a pro-fibrogenic cytokine). RESULTS: All animals developed acidosis. At 1 hour and 3 hours after reperfusion, the animals in the large-for-size and large-for-size + ischemic preconditioning groups had decreased serum levels of Na and increased serum levels of K and aspartate aminotransferase compared with the control group. The molecular analysis revealed higher expression of the Bax, TNF-alpha, I-CAM and TGF-beta genes in the large-for-size group compared with the control and large-for-size + ischemic preconditioning groups. Ischemic preconditioning was responsible for an increase in c-Fos, IL-1, IL-6 and e-NOS gene expression. CONCLUSION: Ischemia-reperfusion injury in this model of large-for-size liver transplantation could be partially attenuated by ischemic preconditioning. PMID:25789522

  7. Ischemic preconditioning and infarct mass: the effect of hypercholesterolemia and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jung, O; Jung, W; Malinski, T; Wiemer, G; Schoelkens, B A; Linz, W

    2000-02-01

    In an experimental model of atherosclerosis we investigated whether rabbits fed an atherogenic diet (0.25% cholesterol, 3% coconut oil) develop endothelial dysfunction accompanied with increased infarct mass compared to normal fed rabbits and, whether hypercholesterolemia would interfere with the beneficial outcome of ischemic preconditioning observed in normal rabbits. After four weeks on either a normal or an atherogenic diet, New Zealand White rabbits (n=7 in each group) were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia by occlusion of a branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) followed by 2 hours of reperfusion (infarct studies). For ischemic preconditioning experiments, LAD was additionally occluded twice for 5 min followed by 10 min reperfusion before the long-lasting (30 min) ischemia. Infarct mass was evaluated by triphenyl-tetrazolium staining. Besides the assessment of aortic endothelium-dependent function and NO-release, aortic and cardiac vessels were inspected for atherosclerotic lesions. Total cholesterol serum levels in rabbits on an atherogenic diet were significantly higher (15.3+/-2.7 mmol/L) than those on a standard diet (0.65+/-0.08 mmol/L). The aortas and heart vessels were without any histological evidence of atherosclerosis, whereas endothelial dysfunction and significantly reduced calcium-ionophore stimulated endothelial NO-release were found in isolated aortic rings of hypercholesterolemic animals. Rabbits on a standard diet showed an infarct mass (related to the area at risk) of 41+/-33%, which was reduced to 21+/-2% by ischemic preconditioning (49% decrease, p<0.05). In rabbits on an atherogenic diet, infarct mass was significantly increased to 63+/-3% (52% increase versus standard diet). Interestingly, hypercholesterolemia did not affect the beneficial influence of ischemic preconditioning; infarct mass (21+/-3%, p<0.05 vs hypercholesterolemia) was similar to rabbits on a standard diet with ischemic preconditioning. Our results show that experimental hypercholesterolemia increases infarct mass in nonpreconditioned hearts but it does not interfere with the reduction of infarct mass elicited by preconditioning. This may suggest that NO produced by the endothelium is not a prime factor in the cardioprotective mechanism of preconditioning. PMID:10744357

  8. Cardiac AAV9-S100A1 gene therapy rescues postischemic heart failure in a preclinical large animal model

    PubMed Central

    Pleger, Sven T.; Shan, Changguang; Ksienzyk, Jan; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Boekstegers, Peter; Hinkel, Rabea; Schinkel, Stefanie; Leuchs, Barbara; Ludwig, Jochen; Qiu, Gang; Weber, Christophe; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A.; Raake, Philip; Koch, Walter J.; Katus, Hugo A.; Müller, Oliver J.; Most, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    As a prerequisite to clinical application, we determined the long-term therapeutic effectiveness and safety of adeno-associated viral (AAV) S100A1 gene therapy in a preclinical, large animal model of heart failure. S100A1, a positive inotropic regulator of myocardial contractility, becomes depleted in failing cardiomyocytes in humans and various animal models, and myocardial-targeted S100A1 gene transfer rescues cardiac contractile function by restoring sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium Ca2+ handling in acutely and chronically failing hearts in small animal models. We induced heart failure in domestic pigs by balloon-occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery, resulting in myocardial infarction. After 2 weeks, when the pigs displayed significant left ventricular contractile dysfunction, we administered through retrograde coronary venous delivery, AAV9-S100A1 to the left ventricular non-infarcted myocardium. AAV9-luciferase and saline treatment served as control. At 14 weeks, both control groups showed significantly decreased myocardial S100A1 protein expression along with progressive deterioration of cardiac performance and left ventricular remodeling. AAV9-S100A1 treatment prevented and reversed this phenotype by restoring cardiac S100A1 protein levels. S100A1 treatment normalized cardiomyocyte Ca2+ cycling, sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling and energy homeostasis. Transgene expression was restricted to cardiac tissue and extra-cardiac organ function was uncompromised indicating a favorable safety profile. This translational study shows the pre-clinical feasibility, long-term therapeutic effectiveness and a favorable safety profile of cardiac AAV9-S100A1 gene therapy in a preclinical model of heart failure. Our study presents a strong rational for a clinical trial of S100A1 gene therapy for human heart failure that could potentially complement current strategies to treat end-stage heart failure. PMID:21775667

  9. Protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on the jejunal graft mucosa injury during cold preservation.

    PubMed

    Jonecova, Zuzana; Toth, Stefan; Maretta, Milan; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Varga, Jan; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Protection of intestinal graft mucosa during cold preservation is still an unmet need in clinical practice, thus affecting the success of transplantation. The present study investigates the ability of two ischemic preconditioning (IPC) procedures to limit cold preservation injury. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were recruited (n=11 each) as follows: the short IPC (SIPC) performed through 4 cycles of mesenteric ischemia of 4 min each followed by 10 min of reperfusion, the long IPC (LIPC) obtained by 2 ischemic cycles of 12 min each followed by 10 min of reperfusion, and the control group (C) without IPC. Grafts were then stored in cold histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution and samples were taken at 0, 3, 6 and 9 h lasting preservation. Both IPC groups showed an advanced degree of preservation with delayed development of graft mucosa damage, mainly in the crypt region. At the beginning of preservation, the graft mucosa in both IPC groups showed lower degree of mucosal injury index (MII) by 50% in comparison with C group. Specifically, a significant improvement of MII was observed after 3h of preservation in the LIPC group (p<0.05) in comparison with untreated C grafts. Significant atrophy of the intestinal mucosa in C group was found after 3h of preservation (p<0.01), in SIPC group the progress of atrophy was delayed to 6 h (p<0.001), and in LIPC group only moderate decrease in that was found. A parallel increase of laminin expression with the MII rate after 6 and 9h of preservation in comparison with the level at time 0 was observed in all grafts (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). In both IPC groups the apoptotic cell (AC) rate was significantly reduced at the beginning of cold preservation (p<0.05 both). Moreover, in both the SIPC and C groups, the progressive increase in MII rate connected with AC rate decrease was due to a predominance of necrosis. By contrast in the LIPC group, after an increase of nearly 50% in the AC rate at the 3rd hour, its level remained fairly constant during the further 6 h of preservation, thus probably preventing necrosis and improving graft viability. PMID:26123930

  10. Both Na+-K+ ATPase and Na +-H+ exchanger are immediately active upon post-ischemic reperfusion in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Van Emous, J G; Schreur, J H; Ruigrok, T J; Van Echteld, C J

    1998-02-01

    Limited time resolution has hampered proper evaluation of changes in intracellular Na+ (Na+i) in whole hearts upon post-ischemic reperfusion. In isolated rat hearts perfused at 37 degrees C, we studied the contribution of the Na+-K+ ATPase and the Na+-H+ exchanger to control of Na+i during reperfusion using 23Na NMR and the shift reagent Tm(DOTP)5- with a time resolution of 5 s. To assess activities of the Na +-K+ ATPase and the Na+-H+ exchanger, 250 micro mol/l ouabain and/or 3 micro mol/l EIPA, respectively, was added to the perfusate during the first 5 min of reperfusion, following 20 min of ischemia. When used, ouabain was also present for 2 min prior to ischemia. Na+i increased during ouabain perfusion prior to ischemia (132+/-5 and 133+/-4% of the pre-ischemic control value after 2 min, in ouabain and ouabain+EIPA hearts, respectively; mean+/-s.e.m.; n=6 per group) resulting in higher end-ischemic values in ouabain and ouabain+EIPA hearts (249+/-9 and 267+/-17% of the pre-ischemic control value, respectively) than in control and EIPA hearts (207+/-21 and 199+/-10% of the pre-ischemic control value, respectively). In ouabain, hearts Na+i started to rise directly upon reperfusion and amounted to 117+/-6% of the end-ischemic value after 60 s of reperfusion. In control hearts, however, Na+i dropped immediately and was 87+/-5% of the end-ischemic value after 60 s, indicating that the Na+-K+ ATPase resumed function directly upon reperfusion. The initial steep increase of Na+i upon reperfusion in ouabain hearts, which diminished after approximately 40 s to the rate of increase observed during ischemia, was absent in ouabain + EIPA hearts. This indicates the existence, although masked by Na+-K+ ATPase activity, of a Na+-H + exchange mediated Na+ influx upon reperfusion. If only EIPA was present during reperfusion the initial decrease in Na+i was faster than in control hearts, corroborating this finding. PMID:9515010

  11. Catestatin Increases the Expression of Anti-Apoptotic and Pro-Angiogenetic Factors in the Post-Ischemic Hypertrophied Heart of SHR

    PubMed Central

    Penna, Claudia; Pasqua, Teresa; Amelio, Daniela; Perrelli, Maria-Giulia; Angotti, Carmelina; Tullio, Francesca; Mahata, Sushil K.; Tota, Bruno; Pagliaro, Pasquale; Cerra, Maria C.; Angelone, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Background In the presence of comorbidities the effectiveness of many cardioprotective strategies is blunted. The goal of this study was to assess in a hypertensive rat model if the early reperfusion with anti-hypertensive and pro-angiogenic Chromogranin A-derived peptide, Catestatin (CST:hCgA352–372; CST-Post), protects the heart via Reperfusion-Injury-Salvage-Kinases (RISK)-pathway activation, limiting infarct-size and apoptosis, and promoting angiogenetic factors (e.g., hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1α, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, eNOS, expression). Methods and Results The effects of CST-Post on infarct-size, apoptosis and pro-angiogenetic factors were studied in isolated hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which underwent the following protocols: (a) 30-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion (I/R); (b) 30-min ischemia and 20-min reperfusion (I/R-short), both with and without CST-Post (75 nM for 20-min at the beginning of reperfusion). In unprotected Wistar-Kyoto hearts, used as normal counterpart, infarct-size resulted smaller than in SHR. CST-Post reduced significantly infarct-size and improved post-ischemic cardiac function in both strains. After 20-min reperfusion, CST-Post induced S-nitrosylation of calcium channels and phosphorylation of RISK-pathway in WKY and SHR hearts. Yet specific inhibitors of the RISK pathway blocked the CST-Post protective effects against infarct in the 120-min reperfusion groups. Moreover, apoptosis (evaluated by TUNEL, ARC and cleaved caspase) was reduced by CST-Post. Importantly, CST-Post increased expression of pro-angiogenetic factors (i.e., HIF-1α and eNOS expression) after two-hour reperfusion. Conclusions CST-Post limits reperfusion damages and reverses the hypertension-induced increase of I/R susceptibility. Moreover, CST-Post triggers antiapoptotic and pro-angiogenetic factors suggesting that CST-Post can be used as an anti-maladaptive remodeling treatment. PMID:25099124

  12. Neuronal K(ATP) channels mediate hypoxic preconditioning and reduce subsequent neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Shuo; Xu, Baofeng; Chen, Wenliang; Xiao, Aijiao; Turlova, Ekaterina; Alibraham, Ammar; Barszczyk, Andrew; Bae, Christine Y J; Quan, Yi; Liu, Baosong; Pei, Lin; Sun, Christopher L F; Deurloo, Marielle; Feng, Zhong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and its related illness hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are major causes of nervous system damage and neurological morbidity in children. Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) is known to be neuroprotective in cerebral ischemic brain injury. K(ATP) channels are involved in ischemic preconditioning in the heart; however the involvement of neuronal K(ATP) channels in HPC in the brain has not been fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the role of HPC in hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced brain injury in postnatal seven-day-old (P7) CD1 mouse pups. Specifically, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride) staining was used to assess the infarct volume, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling) to detect apoptotic cells, Western blots to evaluate protein level, and patch-clamp recordings to measure K(ATP) channel current activities. Behavioral tests were performed to assess the functional recovery after hypoxic-ischemic insults. We found that hypoxic preconditioning reduced infarct volume, decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells, and improved neurobehavioral functional recovery in neonatal mice following hypoxic-ischemic insults. Pre-treatment with a K(ATP) channel blocker, tolbutamide, inhibited hypoxic preconditioning-induced neuroprotection and augmented neurodegeneration following hypoxic-ischemic injury. Pre-treatment with a K(ATP) channel opener, diazoxide, reduced infarct volume and mimicked hypoxic preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Hypoxic preconditioning induced upregulation of the protein level of the Kir6.2 isoform and enhanced current activities of K(ATP) channels. Hypoxic preconditioning restored the HI-reduced PKC and pAkt levels, and reduced caspase-3 level, while tolbutamide inhibited the effects of hypoxic preconditioning. We conclude that K(ATP) channels are involved in hypoxic preconditioning-induced neuroprotection in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. K(ATP) channel openers may therefore have therapeutic effects in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. PMID:25448006

  13. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells precondition lung monocytes/macrophages to produce tolerance against allo- and autoimmunity in the eye.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang; Yoon, Sun-Ok; Choi, Hosoon; Prockop, Darwin J; Oh, Joo Youn

    2016-01-01

    Intravenously administered mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) engraft only transiently in recipients, but confer long-term therapeutic benefits in patients with immune disorders. This suggests that MSCs induce immune tolerance by long-lasting effects on the recipient immune regulatory system. Here, we demonstrate that i.v. infusion of MSCs preconditioned lung monocytes/macrophages toward an immune regulatory phenotype in a TNF-α-stimulated gene/protein (TSG)-6-dependent manner. As a result, mice were protected against subsequent immune challenge in two models of allo- and autoimmune ocular inflammation: corneal allotransplantation and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). The monocytes/macrophages primed by MSCs expressed high levels of MHC class II, B220, CD11b, and IL-10, and exhibited T-cell-suppressive activities independently of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. Adoptive transfer of MSC-induced B220(+)CD11b(+) monocytes/macrophages prevented corneal allograft rejection and EAU. Deletion of monocytes/macrophages abrogated the MSC-induced tolerance. However, MSCs with TSG-6 knockdown did not induce MHC II(+)B220(+)CD11b(+) cells, and failed to attenuate EAU. Therefore, the results demonstrate a mechanism of the MSC-mediated immune modulation through induction of innate immune tolerance that involves monocytes/macrophages. PMID:26699483

  14. Protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury by allopurinol is dependent on aldehyde oxidase-mediated liver preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Lebofsky, Margitta; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe and occasionally fatal liver injury. Numerous drugs that attenuate APAP toxicity have been described. However these compounds frequently protect by cytochrome P450 inhibition, thereby preventing the initiating step of toxicity. We have previously shown that pretreatment with allopurinol can effectively protect against APAP toxicity, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, C3HeB/FeJ mice were administered allopurinol 18 h or 1 h prior to an APAP overdose. Administration of allopurinol 18 h prior to APAP overdose resulted in an 88% reduction in liver injury (serum ALT) 6 h after APAP; however, 1 h pretreatment offered no protection. APAP-cysteine adducts and glutathione depletion kinetics were similar with or without allopurinol pretreatment. The phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of c-jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK) have been implicated in the progression of APAP toxicity. In our study we showed equivalent early JNK activation (2 h) however late JNK activation (6 h) was attenuated in allopurinol treated mice, which suggests that later JNK activation is more critical for the toxicity. Additional mice were administered oxypurinol (primary metabolite of allopurinol) 18 h or 1 h pre-APAP, but neither treatment protected. This finding implicated an aldehyde oxidase (AO)-mediated metabolism of allopurinol, so mice were treated with hydralazine to inhibit AO prior to allopurinol/APAP administration, which eliminated the protective effects of allopurinol. We evaluated potential targets of AO-mediated preconditioning and found increased hepatic metallothionein 18 h post-allopurinol. These data show metabolism of allopurinol occurring independent of P450 isoenzymes preconditions the liver and renders the animal less susceptible to an APAP overdose. - Highlights: • 18 h allopurinol pretreatment protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. • 1 h allopurinol pretreatment does not protect from APAP-induced injury. • 18 h or 1 h oxypurinol pretreatment does not alter APAP-induced injury. • Inhibiting aldehyde oxidase eliminates protection from 18 h allopurinol pretreatment. • 18 h allopurinol induces metallothionein which protects the liver against APAP injury.

  15. S{sub 2}SA preconditioning for the S{sub n} equations with strictly non negative spatial discretization

    SciTech Connect

    Bruss, D. E.; Morel, J. E.; Ragusa, J. C.

    2013-07-01

    Preconditioners based upon sweeps and diffusion-synthetic acceleration have been constructed and applied to the zeroth and first spatial moments of the 1-D S{sub n} transport equation using a strictly non negative nonlinear spatial closure. Linear and nonlinear preconditioners have been analyzed. The effectiveness of various combinations of these preconditioners are compared. In one dimension, nonlinear sweep preconditioning is shown to be superior to linear sweep preconditioning, and DSA preconditioning using nonlinear sweeps in conjunction with a linear diffusion equation is found to be essentially equivalent to nonlinear sweeps in conjunction with a nonlinear diffusion equation. The ability to use a linear diffusion equation has important implications for preconditioning the S{sub n} equations with a strictly non negative spatial discretization in multiple dimensions. (authors)

  16. A Prospective Randomized Study in 100 Consecutive Patients Undergoing Major Liver Resection With Versus Without Ischemic Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Selzner, Markus; Rüdiger, Hannes A.; Graf, Rolf; Kadry, Zakiyah; Rousson, Valentin; Jochum, Wolfram

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning in a prospective randomized study involving a large population of unselected patients and to identify factors affecting the protective effects. Summary Background Data: Ischemic preconditioning is an effective protective strategy in several animal models. Protection has also been suggested in a small series of patients undergoing a hemihepatectomy with 30 minutes of inflow occlusion. Whether preconditioning confers protection in other types of liver resection and longer periods of ischemia is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a prospective randomized study to evaluate the impact of ischemic preconditioning in liver surgery. Methods: A total of 100 unselected patients undergoing major liver resection (> bisegmentectomy) under inflow occlusion for at least 30 minutes were randomized during surgery to either receive or not receive an ischemic preconditioning protocol (10 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent factors affecting the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning. ATP contents in liver were measured as a possible mechanism of protection. Results: Both groups (n = 50 in each) were comparable regarding age, gender, duration of inflow occlusion, and resected liver volumes. Postoperative serum transaminase levels were significantly lower in preconditioned than in control patients (median peak AST 364 U/L vs. 520 U/L, P = 0.028; ALT 406 vs. 519 U/L, P = 0.049). Regression multivariate analysis revealed an increased benefit of ischemic preconditioning in younger patients, in patients with longer duration of inflow occlusion (up to 60 minutes), and in cases of lower resected liver volume (<50%). Patients with steatosis were also particularly protected by ischemic preconditioning. ATP content in liver tissue was preserved by ischemic preconditioning in young but not older patients. Conclusions: This study establishes ischemic preconditioning as a protective strategy against hepatic ischemia in humans. The strategy is particularly effective in young patients requiring a prolonged period of inflow occlusion, and in the presence of steatosis, and is possibly related to preservation of ATP content in liver tissue. Other strategies are needed in older patients. PMID:14631221

  17. Preconditioning Vaccine Sites for mRNA-Transfected Dendritic Cell Therapy and Antitumor Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Batich, Kristen A; Swartz, Adam M; Sampson, John H

    2016-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA)-transfected dendritic cell (DC) vaccines have been shown to be a powerful modality for eliciting antitumor immune responses in mice and humans; however, their application has not been fully optimized since many of the factors that contribute to their efficacy remain poorly understood. Work stemming from our laboratory has recently demonstrated that preconditioning the vaccine site with a recall antigen prior to the administration of a dendritic cell vaccine creates systemic recall responses and resultantly enhances dendritic cell migration to the lymph nodes with improved antitumor efficacy. This chapter describes the generation of murine mRNA-transfected DC vaccines, as well as a method for vaccine site preconditioning with protein antigen formulations that create potent recall responses. PMID:27076169

  18. The P2X4 receptor is required for neuroprotection via ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Tomohiko; Muramatsu, Rieko; Sasai, Miwa; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kubota, Yoshiaki; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), a procedure consisting of transient ischemia and subsequent reperfusion, provides ischemic tolerance against prolonged ischemia in the brain. Although the blood flow changes mediated by IPC are primarily perceived by vascular endothelial cells, the role of these cells in ischemic tolerance has not been fully clarified. In this study, we found that the P2X4 receptor, which is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, is required for ischemic tolerance following middle artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. Mechanistically, the P2X4 receptor was stimulated by fluid shear stress, which mimics reperfusion, thus promoting the increased expression of osteopontin, a neuroprotective molecule. Furthermore, we found that the intracerebroventricular administration of osteopontin was sufficient to exert a neuroprotective effect mediated by preconditioning-stimulated P2X4 receptor activation. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby vascular endothelial cells are involved in ischemic tolerance. PMID:27173846

  19. Preconditioning strategies to enhance physical performance on the day of competition.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Liam P; Finn, Charlotte V; Baker, Julien S; Cook, Christian J; West, Daniel J

    2013-11-01

    Sports scientists and strength and conditioning professionals spend the majority of the competition season trying to ensure that their athletes' training and recovery strategies are appropriate to ensure optimal performance on competition day. However, there is an additional window on the day of competition where performance can be acutely enhanced with a number of preconditioning strategies. These strategies include appropriately designed warm-up, passive heat maintenance, postactivation potentiation, remote ischemic preconditioning, and, more recently, prior exercise and hormonal priming. The aim of this review was to explore the potential practical use of these strategies and propose a theoretical timeline outlining how they may be incorporated into athlete's precompetition routine to enhance performance. For the purpose of this review the discussion is confined to strategies that may enhance performance of short-duration, high-intensity sports (eg, sprinting, jumping, throwing). PMID:23689163

  20. On linearization and preconditioning for radiation diffusion coupled to material thermal conduction equations

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Tao; Graduate School of China Academy Engineering Physics, Beijing 100083 ; An, Hengbin; Yu, Xijun; Li, Qin; Zhang, Rongpei

    2013-03-01

    Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK) method is an effective algorithm for solving large scale nonlinear equations. One of the most important advantages of JFNK method is that there is no necessity to form and store the Jacobian matrix of the nonlinear system when JFNK method is employed. However, an approximation of the Jacobian is needed for the purpose of preconditioning. In this paper, JFNK method is employed to solve a class of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion coupled to material thermal conduction equations, and two preconditioners are designed by linearizing the equations in two methods. Numerical results show that the two preconditioning methods can improve the convergence behavior and efficiency of JFNK method.

  1. Role of Al, Ti, and Zr in Gray Iron Preconditioning/Inoculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riposan, Iulian; Chisamera, Mihai; Stan, Stelian; Ecob, Chris; Wilkinson, David

    2009-02-01

    A research was done to investigate the effect of strong deoxidizing elements, such as Al, Zr, and Ti, in gray irons in laboratory experiments. The conclusions drawn were based mainly on thermal analysis, chill (carbides) sensitivity, graphite characteristics, and SEM analysis. Al and Zr have visible beneficial effects in preconditioning of gray irons, by favoring lower undercooling during solidification. Ti has an inconclusive role, with limited influence, but promotes undercooled graphite formation. Complex (Mn,X)S compounds, nucleated on the previously formed small oxide-based sites, were found as the major nucleation sites for graphite in gray irons, with specific distribution of Al, Ti, and Zr. Al,Zr-FeSi preconditioning of electrically melted and Sr-FeSi inoculated gray irons avoided type D graphite and carbides in 3 mm sections castings.

  2. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.

    2010-04-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

  3. Hypoxic preconditioning increases the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHILIN; FANG, BO; TAN, ZHIBIN; ZHANG, DONG; MA, HONG

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) protect against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury (SCIRI). However, a large number of transplanted BMSCs often undergo apoptosis, which severely affects the treatment outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning effectively increases the survival rate of BMSCs following transplantation, and increases their protective effect on injured tissues. However, there have been few reports regarding roles of hypoxic preconditioning in SCIRI. The present study isolated rat BMSCs and separately transplanted hypoxia- and non-hypoxia-preconditioned BMSCs into the spinal cord tissues of rats with SCIRI. The role of hypoxic preconditioning in the promotion of the protective effect of BMSCs on SCIRI was investigated using neurological function scores, Evans blue staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and to investigate its possible underlying mechanism of action. The results indicated that hypoxic preconditioning effectively increased the protective effects of BMSCs on neurological function, blood spinal cord barrier and tissue damage following SCIRI, and inhibited apoptosis. Furthermore, hypoxic preconditioned BMSCs upregulated the expression of HIF-1α in spinal cord tissues. Therefore, hypoxic preconditioning effectively increased the protective effect of BMSCs on SCIRI and may be associated with upregulation of the expression of HIF-1α. Hypoxic preconditioning may serve as an effective means of increasing the protective effect of BMSCs on SCIRI. PMID:26783161

  4. Preconditioning Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with a Low Concentration of BMP2 Stimulates Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baatrup, Anette; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Bünger, Cody

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinical trials using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) for bone reconstruction have shown promising results. However, the relatively high concentration needed to be effective raises concerns for efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic effect of an alternative treatment strategy in which human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are preconditioned with low concentrations of BMP2 for a short time in vitro. hMSCs in suspension were stimulated for 15 min with 10 and 20 ng/mL of BMP2. After the BMP2 was removed, the cells were seeded and cultured in osteogenic medium. The effects of preconditioning were analyzed with regard to proliferation and expression of osteogenic markers at both gene and protein level. The results were compared to those from cultures with continuous BMP2 stimulation. A significant increase in proliferation was seen with both precondition and continuous stimulation with BMP2, with no difference between the treatments. Preconditioning with BMP2 significantly increased gene expression of RUNX2, COLI, ALP, and OC, and protein levels of COLI and ALP. This was not found with continuous stimulation. The role of preconditioning with BMP2 in osteogenesis was validated by findings of increased gene expression of SMAD1 and an increase in dual phosphorylation of ser 463 and ser 465 in the SMAD 1/5/8 pathway. We concluded that preconditioning hMSCs with BMP2 stimulates osteogenesis: proliferation with matrix secretion and matrix maturation of hMSCs. This implies that preconditioning with BMP2 might be more effective at inducing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs than continuous stimulation. Preconditioning with BMP2 could benefit the clinical application of BMP2 since side effects from high-dose treatments could be avoided. PMID:25469313

  5. Preconditioning Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with a Low Concentration of BMP2 Stimulates Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lysdahl, Helle; Baatrup, Anette; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Bünger, Cody

    2014-12-01

    Clinical trials using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) for bone reconstruction have shown promising results. However, the relatively high concentration needed to be effective raises concerns for efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic effect of an alternative treatment strategy in which human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are preconditioned with low concentrations of BMP2 for a short time in vitro. hMSCs in suspension were stimulated for 15 min with 10 and 20 ng/mL of BMP2. After the BMP2 was removed, the cells were seeded and cultured in osteogenic medium. The effects of preconditioning were analyzed with regard to proliferation and expression of osteogenic markers at both gene and protein level. The results were compared to those from cultures with continuous BMP2 stimulation. A significant increase in proliferation was seen with both precondition and continuous stimulation with BMP2, with no difference between the treatments. Preconditioning with BMP2 significantly increased gene expression of RUNX2, COLI, ALP, and OC, and protein levels of COLI and ALP. This was not found with continuous stimulation. The role of preconditioning with BMP2 in osteogenesis was validated by findings of increased gene expression of SMAD1 and an increase in dual phosphorylation of ser 463 and ser 465 in the SMAD 1/5/8 pathway. We concluded that preconditioning hMSCs with BMP2 stimulates osteogenesis: proliferation with matrix secretion and matrix maturation of hMSCs. This implies that preconditioning with BMP2 might be more effective at inducing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs than continuous stimulation. Preconditioning with BMP2 could benefit the clinical application of BMP2 since side effects from high-dose treatments could be avoided. PMID:25469313

  6. Progressive Evaluation of Apoptosis, Proliferation, and Angiogenesis in Fresh Rat Ovarian Autografts Under Remote Ischemic Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Damous, Luciana Lamarão; Silva, Sônia Maria da; Carbonel, Adriana Aparecida Ferraz; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Montero, Edna Frasson de Souza

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the remote ischemic preconditioning (R-IPC) early and late repercussion on fresh ovarian transplants, aiming to assess a probable protective effect in ovarian follicular pool. Sixty Wistar EPM-1 rats were used, divided in 2 study groups: ovarian transplantation (Tx) and Tx + R-IPC, submitted to ovary transplant with or without R-IPC, respectively. These groups were subdivided according to the date for euthanasia: 4th, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 30th days of the postoperatory period. Morphology, morphometry, neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]), proliferative activity (Ki-67), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) were evaluated. Remote ischemic preconditioning was performed in the common iliac artery. Fresh autologous ovarian tissue was implanted integrally in the retroperitoneum. All animals showed resumption of estrous phase after ovary transplantation. Remote ischemic preconditioning attenuated the lesions progressively from the 7th day, with greater number of the immature follicles (14 days, P < .05), but didn't affect mature follicles and corpora lutea (P > .05). Immunohistochemical analyzes, taken as a whole, show that R-IPC benefic effect is more evident in the later periods of evaluation, when a greater proliferative activity (14, 21, and 30 days, P < .05) and lesser cell apoptotic activity (21 and 30 days, P < .05). The VEGF expression was similar in all times (P > .05). Remote ischemic preconditioning could have a benefic effect in the progressive evaluation of freshly grafted ovarian, especially on the latest phases of the posttransplant period. The 14th day was a landmark in the recuperation of the graft. Further investigations are necessary to determine the role of R-IPC in this scenario and its effect in frozen-thawed ovarian tissue. PMID:26674322

  7. Possible role of thromboxane A2 in remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Roohani; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Remote hind limb preconditioning (RIPC) is a protective strategy in which short episodes of ischemia and reperfusion in a remote organ (hind limb) protects the target organ (heart) against sustained ischemic reperfusion injury. The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of thromboxane A2 in RIPC-induced cardioprotection in rats. Remote hind limb preconditioning was performed by four episodes of 5 min of inflation and 5 min of deflation of pressure cuff. Occlusion of the hind limb with blood pressure cuff is most feasible, non-invasive, clinically relevant, and safe method for inducing RIPC. Isolated rat hearts were perfused on Langendorff apparatus and were subjected to global ischemia for 30 min followed by 120-min reperfusion. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured in coronary effluent to assess the degree of myocardial injury. The extent of myocardial infarct size along with the functional parameters including left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), dp/dtmax, and dp/dtmin were also measured. Ozagrel (thromboxane synthase inhibitor) and seratrodast (thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist) were employed as pharmacological modulators of thromboxane A2. Remote hind limb preconditioning significantly attenuated ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial injury and produced cardioprotective effects. However, administration of ozagrel and seratrodast completely abolished the cardioprotective effects of RIPC suggesting the key role of thromboxane A2 in RIPC-induced cardioprotection. It may be concluded that brief episodes of preconditioning ischemia and reperfusion activates the thromboxane synthase enzyme that produces thromboxane A2, which may elicit cardioprotection either involving humoral or neurogenic pathway. PMID:26531833

  8. Improvement in neuronal survival after ischemic preconditioning in hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Ping; Dave, Kunjan R; Vivero, Richard; Schmidt-Kastner, Rainald; Sick, Thomas J; Pérez-Pinzón, Miguel A

    2002-10-18

    The main goals of the current study were to assess: (a) whether a sublethal ischemic insult could protect the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus in organotypic slices against a lethal ischemic insult; and (b) whether this protection is long lasting as determined with an accurate immunohistochemical neuronal marker, NeuN. Hippocampal slice cultures were grown for 12-14 days in vitro. Slices were exposed either to oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) for 45 min (ischemia), or OGD for 15 min (ischemic preconditioning), 48 h prior to 45 min OGD, or were untreated (sham). Cell death was estimated by propidium iodide fluorescence 1 day after OGD and by NeuN immunohistochemistry 7 days after OGD. Image analysis was employed to measure the relative optical density of the NeuN-signal in all groups. After ischemia, damaged neurons were shrunken or lost and NeuN immunoreactivity was reduced. Relative optical density of NeuN (ROD [NeuN]) was 0.193+/-0.015 in control (sham) (n=9). In slices that underwent ischemia, ROD [NeuN] declined to 0.108+/-0.018 (n=5) in CA1 (*P<0.05 ROD [NeuN] in preconditioned slice cultures was 0.190+/-0.037 (76% higher than the ischemia group). Similar results were found after measuring PI fluorescence. In the CA1 sub-region, PI fluorescence was about 13, 47 and 17% in the sham, ischemic and IPC groups, respectively. We suggest that the immunohistochemical approach validates the dye uptake method used in slice cultures and yields quantitative data specific for neurons. We also conclude that the organotypic hippocampal slice model is useful for studying delayed ischemic preconditioning that is maintained for hours or days after the preconditioning event. PMID:12376175

  9. Impact of preconditioning pulse on lesion formation during high-intensity focused ultrasound histotripsy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Bigelow, Timothy A; Riesberg, Grant M

    2012-11-01

    Therapeutic applications with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fall into two classifications-one using thermal effect for coagulation or ablation while generally avoiding cavitation and the other using cavitation-mediated mechanical effects while suppressing heating. Representative of the latter, histotripsy uses HIFU at low duty factor to create energetic bubble clouds inside tissue to liquefy a region and has the advantages in real-time monitoring and lesion fidelity to treatment planning. We explored the impact of a preconditioning/heating pulse on histotripsy lesion formation in porcine muscle samples. During sonication, a targeted square region 9 mm wide (lateral to the focal plane) was scanned in a raster pattern with a step size of 0.75 mm. The 20-s exposure at each treatment location consisted of a 5-s duration preconditioning burst at spatial-peak intensities from 0-1386 W/cm² followed by 5000 tone bursts at high intensity (with spatial-peak pulse-average intensity of 47.34 kW/cm², spatial-peak temporal-average intensity of 284 W/cm², peak compressional pressure of 102 MPa and peak rarefactional pressure of 17 MPa). The temperature increase for all exposures was measured using a thermal imager immediately after each exposure. Lesion volume increased with increasing amplitude of the preconditioning pulse until coagulation was observed, but lesion width/area did not change significantly with the amplitude. In addition, the lesion dimensions became smaller when the global tissue temperature was raised before applying the histotripsy pulsing sequence. Therefore, the benefit of the preconditioning pulse was not caused by global heating. PMID:22929656

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent activation of ATF3 mediates the late phase of ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Alan C.; Singh, Mahavir; Guo, Yiru; McCracken, James; Xuan, Yu-Ting; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bolli, Roberto; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2015-01-01

    Aims Ischemic preconditioning (PC) is an adaptive response to transient myocardial ischemia that protects the heart from subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanisms underlying its cardioprotective effects remain unclear. Methods and results Myocardium of adult male C57/BL6 mice, preconditioned by 6 cycles of 4 minutes coronary occlusion and reperfusion, showed nuclear translocation of ATF3, and ATF6 and PERK phosphorylation 30 min after PC. The abundance of ER proteins, ATF3 and ATF4 was increased 24 h after PC; however, there was no evidence of IRE-1 activation in WT or ER-stress activated indicator (ERAI) mice expressing XBP-1-Venus fusion protein. PC-induced nuclear translocation of ATF3 was attenuated in transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of inducible ATF6. Ischemic PC increased the abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, heme oxygenase-1 and aldose reductase to levels similar between WT and ATF3-null hearts; however, the increase in IL-6 and ICAM-1 was exaggerated in ATF3-null hearts. Genetic deletion of ATF3 did not increase infarct size in non-preconditioned hearts but abolished the cardioprotective effects of PC. Larger infarct size in preconditioned ATF3-null hearts was associated with greater neutrophil infiltration in the myocardium, but no ATF3-dependent changes in the total or relative abundance of inflammatory monocytes were observed. Conclusion Ischemic PC activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the activation of ATF3 by ER stress is essential for the cardioprotective effects of late PC. PMID:25151953

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent activation of ATF3 mediates the late phase of ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Alan C; Guo, Yiru; Singh, Mahavir; McCracken, James; Xuan, Yu-Ting; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bolli, Roberto; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-11-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (PC) is an adaptive response to transient myocardial ischemia that protects the heart from subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanisms underlying its cardioprotective effects remain unclear. Myocardium of adult male C57/BL6 mice, preconditioned by 6 cycles of 4 minute coronary occlusion and reperfusion, showed nuclear translocation of ATF3 and ATF6 and PERK phosphorylation 30 min after PC. The abundance of ER proteins, ATF3 and ATF4 was increased 24h after PC; however, there was no evidence of IRE-1 activation in WT or ER-stress activated indicator (ERAI) mice expressing XBP-1-Venus fusion protein. PC-induced nuclear translocation of ATF3 was attenuated in transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of inducible ATF6. Ischemic PC increased the abundance of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, heme oxygenase-1 and aldose reductase to levels similar between WT and ATF3-null hearts; however, the increase in IL-6 and ICAM-1 was exaggerated in ATF3-null hearts. Genetic deletion of ATF3 did not increase infarct size in non-preconditioned hearts but abolished the cardioprotective effects of PC. Larger infarct size in preconditioned ATF3-null hearts was associated with greater neutrophil infiltration in the myocardium, but no ATF3-dependent changes in the total or relative abundance of inflammatory monocytes were observed. Ischemic PC activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the activation of ATF3 by ER stress is essential for the cardioprotective effects of late PC. PMID:25151953

  12. GPU-based Power Flow Analysis with Incomplete LU Preconditioning and Conjugate Gradient Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingru; Zhou, Gan; Qin, Chengming; Feng, Yanjun; Zhang, Xu; Jia, Yupei; Lin, Jinghuai

    Recently, iterative methods are used in the power system to solve large linear equations. This work implemented the conjugate gradient method with preconditioners on GPU in parallel for speedup. Meanwhile, in order to improve convergence rate and reduce the number of iterative steps required for convergence, we tested different preconditioners and ultimately the incomplete LU preconditioning was chosen. In the numerical experiment, result shows the conjugate gradient method with ILU preconditioner on GPU can achieve 2.46× speedup than CPU.

  13. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  14. Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats: The Role of Local Ischemic Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Ozbilgin, Sule; Ozkardesler, Sevda; Akan, Mert; Boztas, Nilay; Ozbilgin, Mucahit; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Derici, Serhan; Guneli, Mehmet Ensari; Meseri, Reci

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local ischemic preconditioning using biochemical markers and histopathologically in the diabetic rat renal IR injury model. Methods. DM was induced using streptozotocin. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I, nondiabetic sham group (n = 7), Group II, diabetic sham group (n = 6), Group III, diabetic IR group (diabetic IR group, n = 6), and Group IV, diabetic IR + local ischemic preconditioning group (diabetic IR + LIPC group, n = 6). Ischemic renal injury was induced by clamping the bilateral renal artery for 45 min. 4 h following ischemia, clearance protocols were applied to assess biochemical markers and histopathologically in rat kidneys. Results. The histomorphologic total cell injury scores of the nondiabetic sham group were significantly lower than diabetic sham, diabetic IR, and diabetic IR + LIPC groups. Diabetic IR group scores were not significantly different than the diabetic sham group. But diabetic IR + LIPC group scores were significantly higher than the diabetic sham and diabetic IR groups. Conclusion. Local ischemic preconditioning does not reduce the risk of renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion in diabetic rat model. PMID:26925416

  15. Contribution of tropical cyclone for the preconditioning of the Madden-Julian Oscillation during CINDY2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, H.; Yoneyama, K.; Hamada, J.

    2012-12-01

    During the international field experiment "Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011)", three Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) were generated over the Indian Ocean. In this study, the preconditioning process of the third MJO is investigated. After the second active phase of MJO reached maritime continent in early December 2011, its eastward propagation became unclear. Different convections were activated over the maritime continent in mid-December and third MJO was generated in late December over the Indian Ocean. During the preconditioning stage of the third MJO, westward propagating disturbances were observed from Sumatera Island to the central Indian Ocean and moistened the atmosphere. Convections over the Sumatera Island were activated from December 15th when the moist air mass reached from South China Sea. The origin of the moist air mass was tropical cyclone which was formed in South China Sea in December 10th. The high moisture associated with tropical cyclone activated the convection over Sumatera Island, promoted westward propagating disturbances, and acted a favorable environment for the preconditioning of the MJO.

  16. The protective effect of intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on hepatotoxicity induced by methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Aslaner, Arif; Çakır, Tuğrul; Çelik, Betül; Doğan, Uğur; Akyüz, Cebrail; Baştürk, Ahmet; Polat, Cemal; Gündüz, Umut; Mayir, Burhan; Şehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on the methotrexate acute induced hepatotoxicity in rats that has not reports elsewhere. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned into three equal groups; control, Mtx and Mtx with ozone. Hepatotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx to group 2 and group 3 at the fifteenth day. The medical ozone preconditioning was administered intraperitonealy in group 3 for fifteen days and more five days after inducing Mtx. The other rats of the group 1 and 2 received saline injection. At the twentyfirst day the blood and the liver tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of liver enzymes ALT and AST, proinflamatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. And the histolopatological examination was evaluated for injury score. In our study Mtx administration caused a significant increase on the liver enzymes ALT and AST, the tissue MDA and MPO activity and significant decrease in the tissue GSH. Moreover the both pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in the Mtx group. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment reversed all these biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of the hepatotoxicity induced by Mtx. We conclude that medical ozone ameliorates Mtx induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:26550257

  17. Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats: The Role of Local Ischemic Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Ozbilgin, Sule; Ozkardesler, Sevda; Akan, Mert; Boztas, Nilay; Ozbilgin, Mucahit; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Derici, Serhan; Guneli, Mehmet Ensari; Meseri, Reci

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local ischemic preconditioning using biochemical markers and histopathologically in the diabetic rat renal IR injury model. Methods. DM was induced using streptozotocin. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I, nondiabetic sham group (n = 7), Group II, diabetic sham group (n = 6), Group III, diabetic IR group (diabetic IR group, n = 6), and Group IV, diabetic IR + local ischemic preconditioning group (diabetic IR + LIPC group, n = 6). Ischemic renal injury was induced by clamping the bilateral renal artery for 45 min. 4 h following ischemia, clearance protocols were applied to assess biochemical markers and histopathologically in rat kidneys. Results. The histomorphologic total cell injury scores of the nondiabetic sham group were significantly lower than diabetic sham, diabetic IR, and diabetic IR + LIPC groups. Diabetic IR group scores were not significantly different than the diabetic sham group. But diabetic IR + LIPC group scores were significantly higher than the diabetic sham and diabetic IR groups. Conclusion. Local ischemic preconditioning does not reduce the risk of renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion in diabetic rat model. PMID:26925416

  18. Acute bioenergetic intervention or pharmacological preconditioning protects neuron against ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shimin; Zhen, Gehua; Li, Rung-chi; Dor, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Although acute ischemic stroke has high mortality and morbidity rate but yet still has very limited treatment. In this study we have tested the concept of neuron protection by acute bioenergetic intervention or by pharmacological preconditioning with natural antioxidants. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), pentobarbital, and suramin were encapsulated in pH-sensitive liposomes and used as bioenergy stabilizer. We induced ATP depletion model by incubating cells with media added with ATP-depleting agents for 2 hours. Treatment with bioenergy stabilizer started 10-min post inducing of ATP-depletion. The acute treatment with bioenergy stabilizer significantly increased cell viability in neuro-2a cells. In searching for a pharmacological preconditioning candidate for reducing ischemic injury, we tested cocoa-derived flavanols using bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). We pretreated mice with cocoa-derived flavanols (75 mg/kg) or water orally for 7 days and subjected mice for 12 minutes BCCAO. At 7 days post-ischemia, the number of surviving hippocampal CA1 neurons was significantly higher in the treated mice than in the water-treated controls. The protection from cocoa-derived flavanols was found associated with increased total antioxidant capacity in the brain. Our results indicate that for reducing acute ischemic injury bioenergetic intervention using advanced drug delivery tools is conceptually feasible, and for reducing reperfusion related secondary injury pharmacological preconditioning may provide significant protection. PMID:24285991

  19. Precondition Inference from Intermittent Assertions and Application to Contracts on Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousot, Patrick; Cousot, Radhia; Logozzo, Francesco

    Programmers often insert assertions in their code to be optionally checked at runtime, at least during the debugging phase. In the context of design by contracts, these assertions would better be given as a precondition of the method/procedure which can detect that a caller has violated the procedure's contract in a way which definitely leads to an assertion violation (e.g., for separate static analysis). We define precisely and formally the contract inference problem from intermittent assertions inserted in the code by the programmer. Our definition excludes no good run even when a non-deterministic choice (e.g., an interactive input) could lead to a bad one (so this is not the weakest precondition, nor its strengthening by abduction, since a terminating successful execution is not guaranteed). We then introduce new abstract interpretation-based methods to automatically infer both the static contract precondition of a method/procedure and the code to check it at runtime on scalar and collection variables.

  20. The natural olive constituent oleuropein induces nutritional cardioprotection in normal and cholesterol-fed rabbits: comparison with preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Andreadou, Ioanna; Benaki, Dimitra; Efentakis, Panagiotis; Bibli, Sofia-Iris; Milioni, Alkistis-Ioanna; Papachristodoulou, Anastasia; Zoga, Anastasia; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K

    2015-06-01

    Ischemic preconditioning, which is mediated by cell signaling molecules, protects the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury by limiting the infarct size. Oleuropein, the main polyphenolic constituent of olives, reduced the infarct size in normal and cholesterol-fed rabbits when it was administered at a nutritional dose. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of oleuropein and preconditioning in terms of the cell signaling and metabolism pathways underlying myocardial protection. Rabbits were randomly divided into six groups: the control group received 5 % dextrose for six weeks, the preconditioning group was subjected to two cycles of preconditioning with 5 min ischemia/10 min reperfusion, the O6 group was treated with oleuropein for six weeks, the Chol group was fed a cholesterol-enriched diet and 5 % dextrose for six weeks, and the CholO6 and CholO3 groups were treated with cholesterol and oleuropein for six and three weeks, respectively; oleuropein was dissolved in 5 % dextrose solution and was administered orally at a dose of 20 mg × kg(-1) × day(-1). All animals were subsequently subjected to 30 min myocardial ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion. At that time, myocardial biopsies were taken from the ischemic areas for the assessment of oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde and nitrotyrosine), and determination of phosphorylation of signaling molecules involved in the mechanism of preconditioning (PI3K, Akt, eNOS, AMPK, STAT3). The tissue extracts NMR metabolic profile was recorded and further analyzed by multivariate statistics. Oxidative biomarkers were significantly reduced in the O6, CholO6, and CholO3 groups compared to the control, preconditioning, and Chol groups. Considering the underlying signaling cascade, the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, eNOS, AMPK, and STAT-3 was significantly higher in the preconditioning and all oleuropein-treated groups compared to the control and Chol groups. The NMR-based metabonomic study, performed through the analysis of spectroscopic data, depicted differences in the metabolome of the various groups with significant alterations in purine metabolism. In conclusion, the addition of oleuropein to a normal or hypercholesterolemic diet results in a preconditioning-like intracellular effect, eliminating the deleterious consequences of ischemia and hypercholesterolemia, followed by a decrease of oxidative stress biomarkers. This effect is exerted through inducing preconditioning-involved signaling transduction. Nutritional preconditioning may support the low cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the consumption of olive products. PMID:25473920

  1. Ischemic preconditioning ameliorates intestinal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Dong; Wang, Shu-Feng; Wang, Bao-Tai; Yang, Zheng-An; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Lei, Ni-Na; Yue, Wei-Na

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate preventative effects of ischemic preconditioning (IP) in a rat model of intestinal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were fasted for 24 h with free access to water prior to the operation. Eighteen rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: S group (n = 6), rats were subjected to isolation of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 40 min, then the abdomen was closed; IR group (n = 6), rats were subjected to clamping the SMA 40 min, and the abdomen was closed followed by a 4-h reperfusion; IP group (n = 6) rats underwent three cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion, then clamping of the SMA for 40 min, then the abdomen was closed and a 4-h reperfusion followed. All animals were euthanized by barbiturate overdose (150 mg/kg pentobarbital sodium, i.v.) for tissue collection, and the SMA was isolated via median abdominal incision. Intestinal histologic injury was observed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations in intestinal tissue were measured. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression, as well as nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and expression in intestinal tissue were also determined. RESULTS: Compared with the IR group, IP reduced IR-induced histologic injury of the intestine in rats (2.00 ± 0.71 vs 3.60 ± 0.84, P < 0.05). IP significantly inhibited the increase in MDA content (5.6 ± 0.15 μmol/L vs 6.84 ± 0.18 μmol/L, P < 0.01), MPO activity (0.13 ± 0.01 U/L vs 0.24 ± 0.01 U/L, P < 0.01), and TNF-α levels (7.79 ± 2.35 pg/mL vs 10.87 ± 2.48 pg/mL, P < 0.05) in the intestinal tissue of rats. IP also markedly ameliorated the increase in ICAM-1 (204.67 ± 53.27 vs 353.33 ± 45.19, P < 0.05) and VCAM-1 (256.67 ± 58.59 vs 377.33 ± 41.42, P < 0.05) protein expression in the intestinal tissues. Additionally, IP remarkably decreased NF-κB activity (0.48 ± 0.16 vs 0.76 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) and protein expression (320.23 ± 38.16 vs 520.76 ± 40.53, P < 0.01) in rat intestinal tissue. CONCLUSION: IP may protect against IR-induced intestinal injury by attenuation of the neutrophil-endothelial adhesion cascade via reducing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling pathway activity. PMID:26185379

  2. Attenuation of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by oleanolic acid preconditioning via its antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, and anti‑apoptotic activities.

    PubMed

    Long, Chengmei; Yang, Jinran; Yang, Hua; Li, Xinchang; Wang, Gongxian

    2016-06-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)‑associated acute kidney injury is a major clinical problem in both native and transplanted kidneys. Renal I/R, and subsequent renal injury, may be attributed to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Oleanolic acid (OA) is a natural product, which possesses antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, and anti‑apoptotic activities. The present study aimed to examine the effects of OA preconditioning on renal I/R and the possible underlying mechanisms. In a renal I/R model, rats were administered OA (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days prior to bilateral renal I/R induction. Serum samples and kidneys were then collected and stored for subsequent determination. The results of the present study demonstrated that OA significantly and dose‑dependently attenuated I/R‑induced renal damage. OA prevented renal I/R injury, as evidenced by decreased levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, kidney injury molecule‑1 and lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, OA defended against oxidative stress, as reflected by decreased levels of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and increased glutathione (GSH) levels. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interferon‑γ, interleukin (IL)‑6) and myeloperoxidase, were also reduced by OA, whereas the anti‑inflammatory cytokine IL‑10 was increased. Furthermore, OA prevented I/R‑induced apoptotic cell death, and prevented decreases in the mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) and γ‑glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLc). Conversely, buthionine sulphoximine attenuated the protective effects of OA on renal I/R injury. These results indicated that OA preconditioning may prevent I/R‑induced renal damage via antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, and anti‑apoptotic activities. Stabilization of Nrf2/GCLc signaling and subsequent maintenance of the GSH pool is critical for the protective effects of OA against renal I/R injury. The present study reported a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of renal I/R injury. PMID:27082705

  3. Sulforaphane preconditioning of the Nrf2/HO-1 defense pathway protects the cerebral vasculature against blood-brain barrier disruption and neurological deficits in stroke.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Alessio; Srivastava, Salil; Siow, Richard C M; Cash, Diana; Modo, Michel; Duchen, Michael R; Fraser, Paul A; Williams, Steven C R; Mann, Giovanni E

    2013-12-01

    Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral edema are the major pathogenic mechanisms leading to neurological dysfunction and death after ischemic stroke. The brain protects itself against infarction via activation of endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms, and we here report the first evidence that sulforaphane-mediated preactivation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream target heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cerebral vasculature protects the brain against stroke. To induce ischemic stroke, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 70 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 4, 24, or 72 h reperfusion. Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression was upregulated in cerebral microvessels of peri-infarct regions after 4-72 h, with HO-1 preferentially associated with perivascular astrocytes rather than the cerebrovascular endothelium. In naïve rats, treatment with sulforaphane increased Nrf2 expression in cerebral microvessels after 24h. Upregulation of Nrf2 by sulforaphane treatment prior to transient MCAo (1h) was associated with increased HO-1 expression in perivascular astrocytes in peri-infarct regions and cerebral endothelium in the infarct core. BBB disruption, lesion progression, as analyzed by MRI, and neurological deficits were reduced by sulforaphane pretreatment. As sulforaphane pretreatment led to a moderate increase in peroxynitrite generation, we suggest that hormetic preconditioning underlies sulforaphane-mediated protection against stroke. In conclusion, we propose that pharmacological or dietary interventions aimed to precondition the brain via activation of the Nrf2 defense pathway in the cerebral microvasculature provide a novel therapeutic approach for preventing BBB breakdown and neurological dysfunction in stroke. PMID:24017972

  4. Zinc preconditioning protects against neuronal apoptosis through the mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated induction of heat shock protein 70.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Ki-Ryeong; Im, Hana; Kim, Yang-Hee

    2015-04-01

    During brain ischemic preconditioning (PC), mild bursts of ischemia render neurons resistant to subsequent strong ischemic injuries. Previously, we reported that zinc plays a key role in PC-induced neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. Zinc-triggered p75(NTR) induction transiently activates caspase-3, which cleaves poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Subsequently, the PARP-1 over-activation-induced depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) after exposures to lethal doses of zinc or N-methyl-D-aspartate is significantly attenuated in cortical neuronal cultures. In the present study, zinc-mediated preconditioning (Zn PC) reduced apoptotic neuronal death that was caused by N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), etoposide, or staurosporine in mouse cortical cells. We focused on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) because NAD(+)/ATP depletion does not directly cause apoptosis, and HSP70 can inhibit the activation of caspase-9 or caspase-3 by preventing apoptosome formation or cytochrome C release. Zn PC-mediated HSP70 induction was required for neuroprotection against neuronal apoptosis, and geldanamycin-induced HSP70 induction sufficiently blocked neuronal apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, Zn PC-mediated HSP70 induction was blocked by chemical inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, but not c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase. Similarly, neuroprotection by Zn PC against TPEN-induced apoptosis was almost completely reversed by the blockade of ERK or p38 MAPK signaling. Our findings suggest that the ERK- or p38 MAPK-mediated induction of HSP70 plays a key role in inhibiting caspase-3 activation during Zn PC. PMID:25712525

  5. Neuroprotection by hypoxic preconditioning involves upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in a prenatal model of acute hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Sebastián; Fiszer de Plazas, Sara

    2012-02-01

    The molecular pathways underlying the neuroprotective effects of preconditioning are promising, potentially drugable targets to promote cell survival. However, these pathways are complex and are not yet fully understood. In this study we have established a paradigm of hypoxic preconditioning based on a chick embryo model of normobaric acute hypoxia previously developed by our group. With this model, we analyzed the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) stabilization during preconditioning in HIF-1 signaling after the hypoxic injury and in the development of a neuroprotective effect against the insult. To this end, we used a pharmacological approach, based on the in vivo administration of positive (Fe(2+), ascorbate) and negative (CoCl(2)) modulators of the activity of HIF-prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), the main regulators of HIF-1. We have found that preconditioning has a reinforcing effect on HIF-1 accumulation during the subsequent hypoxic injury. In addition, we have also demonstrated that HIF-1 induction during hypoxic preconditioning is necessary to obtain an enhancement in HIF-1 accumulation and to develop a tolerance against a subsequent hypoxic injury. We provide in vivo evidence that administration of Fe(2+) and ascorbate modulates HIF accumulation, suggesting that PHDs might be targets for neuroprotection in the CNS. PMID:21953610

  6. CpG preconditioning regulates miRNA expression that modulates genomic reprogramming associated with neuroprotection against ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Vartanian, Keri B; Mitchell, Hugh D; Stevens, Susan L; Conrad, Valerie K; McDermott, Jason E; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) preconditioning reprograms the genomic response to stroke to protect the brain against ischemic injury. The mechanisms underlying genomic reprogramming are incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression; however, their role in modulating gene responses produced by CpG preconditioning is unknown. We evaluated brain miRNA expression in response to CpG preconditioning before and after stroke using microarray. Importantly, we have data from previous gene microarrays under the same conditions, which allowed integration of miRNA and gene expression data to specifically identify regulated miRNA gene targets. CpG preconditioning did not significantly alter miRNA expression before stroke, indicating that miRNA regulation is not critical for the initiation of preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. However, after stroke, differentially regulated miRNAs between CpG- and saline-treated animals associated with the upregulation of several neuroprotective genes, implicating these miRNAs in genomic reprogramming that increases neuroprotection. Statistical analysis revealed that the miRNA targets were enriched in the gene population regulated in the setting of stroke, implying that miRNAs likely orchestrate this gene expression. These data suggest that miRNAs regulate endogenous responses to stroke and that manipulation of these miRNAs may have the potential to acutely activate novel neuroprotective processes that reduce damage. PMID:25388675

  7. Effect of Air Abrasion Preconditioning on Microleakage in Class V Restorations Under Cyclic Loading: An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dharmani, Charan Kamal Kaur; Singh, Shamsher; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microleakage in class V Glass Ionomer Cement(GIC) or composite restorations at enamel or cementum margins has been cited as a reason for their failure. Air abrasion has been used to precondition tooth surface for increasing retention of such restorations. This study is done to evaluate the effect of preconditioning with air abrasion on microleakage in class V GIC and composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared in 40 freshly extracted teeth. They were categorised into following four groups (n=10) depending on cavity preconditioning and restoration. Group I: 10% polyacrylic acid and GI (Ketac molar TM 3M ESPE); Group II: AA and GI; Group III: 35% Phosphoric acid and micro filled composite (MC) (Heliomolar, Ivoclar Vivadent); Group IV: AA and MC. Each group was further divided into subgroups A (no loading) & B (cyclic loading). Microleakage at occlusal and gingival margins was evaluated using methylene blue dye penetration method. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Microleakage at cementum margins was higher than at enamel margins in all the groups. Preconditioning with AA resulted in increased micro leakage. Conclusion: AA as a preconditioning agent was ineffective in producing superior tooth-restoration bonding. PMID:24995240

  8. Effects of sevoflurane preconditioning on lung injury during one lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hao; Wang, Gong-Ming; Qiao, Yong; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Dong-Yi; Ding, Yin-Lu; Liu, Zhong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: To study the lung protective effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and sevoflurane preconditioning in patients with lobectomy. Methods: 30 patients receiving lobectomy were divided into two groups: propofol intravenous anesthesia group (Pro group) and sevoflurane preconditioning group (Sev group). In Pro group, propofol was used for intravenous anesthetic. In Sev group, 1%-2% sevoflurane was used during anesthesia induction to one lung ventilation (OLV). Venous blood was taken before OLV (T1), at the end of OLV (T2) and at 30 min after lung ventilation (T3) to measure the concentration of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in two groups. HO-1 protein and mRNA expression in resected lung tissue were measured with PT-PCR and Western blot technique. Oxygenation index was detected at 2 hours after operation. Results: HO-1 protein (2.88±0.23 ng/ml) and mRNA expression in Sev group were significantly higher compared to protein (1.89±0.12 ng/ml)and mRNA expression in Pro group (P<0.05). Difference was not found in MDA concentration at T1 compared to T2 (P>0.05), however, at T3, MDA concentration was higher in Pro group than that in Sev group (P<0.05). oxygenation index in Sev group was 380±67 mmHg, which was significantly different from that in Pro group (290±56 mmHg) (P<0.05). Conclusion: Sevoflurane preconditioning can reduce oxidative stress injury induced by OLV and protect lung tissue by increasing HO-1 expression in lung tissue. PMID:26550306

  9. Preconditioned conjugate-gradient methods for low-speed flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Ng, Wing-Fai; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1993-01-01

    An investigation is conducted into the viability of using a generalized Conjugate Gradient-like method as an iterative solver to obtain steady-state solutions of very low-speed fluid flow problems. Low-speed flow at Mach 0.1 over a backward-facing step is chosen as a representative test problem. The unsteady form of the two dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations is integrated in time using discrete time-steps. The Navier-Stokes equations are cast in an implicit, upwind finite-volume, flux split formulation. The new iterative solver is used to solve a linear system of equations at each step of the time-integration. Preconditioning techniques are used with the new solver to enhance the stability and convergence rate of the solver and are found to be critical to the overall success of the solver. A study of various preconditioners reveals that a preconditioner based on the Lower-Upper Successive Symmetric Over-Relaxation iterative scheme is more efficient than a preconditioner based on Incomplete L-U factorizations of the iteration matrix. The performance of the new preconditioned solver is compared with a conventional Line Gauss-Seidel Relaxation (LGSR) solver. Overall speed-up factors of 28 (in terms of global time-steps required to converge to a steady-state solution) and 20 (in terms of total CPU time on one processor of a CRAY-YMP) are found in favor of the new preconditioned solver, when compared with the LGSR solver.

  10. CBF changes associated with focal ischemic preconditioning in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Nowak, Thaddeus S

    2006-09-01

    Experimental stroke models exhibit robust protection after prior preconditioning (PC) insults. This study comprehensively examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses to permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats preconditioned by noninjurious transient focal ischemia, using [(14)C]iodoantipyrine autoradiography at varied occlusion intervals. Preconditioning was produced by 10-min occlusion of the MCA and ipsilateral common carotid artery under halothane anesthesia. These vessels were permanently coagulated 24 h later in naïve, PC, and sham-operated rats. Infarct volumes were determined from hematoxylin-eosin-stained frozen sections after 1 or 3 days. Edema-corrected infarct volume was reduced from 127+/-21 in naïve rats to 101+/-31 and 52+/-28 mm(3) in sham and PC groups, respectively, at 1 day, with similar results at 3 days. All animals exhibited a consistent CBF threshold for infarction (approximately 30 mL/100 g/min). Tissue volumes below this threshold were identical in naïve and PC groups after 15-min occlusion. However, by 3 h the volume of ischemic cortex decreased in the PC group but remained unchanged in naïve rats, predicting final infarct volumes. Cerebral blood flow recovery was confirmed in brains of individual rats evaluated by repeated laser Doppler perfusion imaging during the same 3-h interval. Modest sham protection correlated with better-maintained global perfusion, detectable also in the contralateral cortex, apparently reflecting the PC effects of prior anesthesia. These results establish that timely reperfusion of penumbra, achieved by synergistic mechanisms, is a primary determinant of PC-induced protection in experimental stroke. PMID:16407854

  11. Effective matrix-free preconditioning for the augmented immersed interface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jianlin; Li, Zhilin; Ye, Xin

    2015-12-01

    We present effective and efficient matrix-free preconditioning techniques for the augmented immersed interface method (AIIM). AIIM has been developed recently and is shown to be very effective for interface problems and problems on irregular domains. GMRES is often used to solve for the augmented variable(s) associated with a Schur complement A in AIIM that is defined along the interface or the irregular boundary. The efficiency of AIIM relies on how quickly the system for A can be solved. For some applications, there are substantial difficulties involved, such as the slow convergence of GMRES (particularly for free boundary and moving interface problems), and the inconvenience in finding a preconditioner (due to the situation that only the products of A and vectors are available). Here, we propose matrix-free structured preconditioning techniques for AIIM via adaptive randomized sampling, using only the products of A and vectors to construct a hierarchically semiseparable matrix approximation to A. Several improvements over existing schemes are shown so as to enhance the efficiency and also avoid potential instability. The significance of the preconditioners includes: (1) they do not require the entries of A or the multiplication of AT with vectors; (2) constructing the preconditioners needs only O (log ⁡ N) matrix-vector products and O (N) storage, where N is the size of A; (3) applying the preconditioners needs only O (N) flops; (4) they are very flexible and do not require any a priori knowledge of the structure of A. The preconditioners are observed to significantly accelerate the convergence of GMRES, with heuristical justifications of the effectiveness. Comprehensive tests on several important applications are provided, such as Navier-Stokes equations on irregular domains with traction boundary conditions, interface problems in incompressible flows, mixed boundary problems, and free boundary problems. The preconditioning techniques are also useful for several other problems and methods.

  12. Ischemic Preconditioning Mediates Neuroprotection against Ischemia in Mouse Hippocampal CA1 Neurons by Inducing Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuebin; Huang, Huiling; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yajing; Tong, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jinhuan; Wu, Jialing

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal CA1 region is sensitive to hypoxic and ischemic injury but can be protected by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). However, the mechanism through which IPC protects hippocampal CA1 neurons is still under investigation. Additionally, the role of autophagy in determining the fate of hippocampal neurons is unclear. Here, we examined whether IPC induced autophagy to alleviate hippocampal CA1 neuronal death in vitro and in vivo with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) models. Survival of hippocampal neurons increased from 51.5% ± 6.3% in the non-IPC group (55 min of OGD) to 77.3% ± 7.9% in the IPC group (15 min of OGD, followed by 55 min of OGD 24 h later). The number of hippocampal CA1 layer neurons increased from 182 ± 26 cells/mm2 in the non-IPC group (20 min of BCCAO) to 278 ± 55 cells/mm2 in the IPC group (1 min × 3 BCCAO, followed by 20 min of BCCAO 24 h later). Akt phosphorylation and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I expression were increased in the preconditioning group. Moreover, the protective effects of IPC were abolished only by inhibiting the activity of autophagy, but not by blocking the activation of Akt in vitro. Using in vivo experiments, we found that LC3 expression was upregulated, accompanied by an increase in neuronal survival in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the preconditioning group. The neuroprotective effects of IPC on hippocampal CA1 neurons were completely inhibited by treatment with 3-MA. In contrast, hippocampal CA3 neurons did not show changes in autophagic activity or beneficial effects of IPC. These data suggested that IPC may attenuate ischemic injury in hippocampal CA1 neurons through induction of Akt-independent autophagy. PMID:26325184

  13. Females transplanted with ovaries subjected to hypoxic preconditioning show impair of ovarian function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryopreservation of the ovarian tissue has shown promising results. However, there remain controversial issues such as the short half-life of grafts. In this aspect, there are some evidences that preconditioning the ovarian tissue before transplantation is beneficial. Objective To determine the effect of hypoxic preconditioning in vitro on ovarian tissue prior to transplantation. Methods Eighteen female adult Wistar rats, were sorted into three experimental groups. Ovaries were maintained in DMEM low glucose serum free at 37°C with 5% CO2, at atmospheric oxigen concentration (normoxia) or 1% O2 (hypoxia) for 16 hours. Oxigen concentration was determined by injection of nitrogen in the incubator. Animals submitted to ovarian transplantation immediately after oophorectomy were the Control Group (C). After this, the ovaries were implanted in the retroperitoneum with nonabsorbable suture and animals evaluated for thirty days after transplantation. Beginning on postoperative (PO) day 11, a daily collection of vaginal smear was carried out. Analyses comprised morphological, morphometric (counting ovarian follicles and corpora lutea) and immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase-3 (apoptosis). Results In normoxia and control groups all animals recovered their estrous cycles, while in the hypoxia group, two animals did not ovulate but, among those which did, resumption took longer than in the other groups (p < 0.05). The number of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea decreased significantly in the hypoxia group when compared to the other two groups (p < 0.001) and apoptosis was increased in the few ovarian follicles which remained viable (p < 0.001). Conclusion The hypoxic preconditioning in vitro was not beneficial to the graft and worsened their viability, compromising its functionality or delaying the return of this. PMID:24655551

  14. Simultaneous optical flow and source estimation: Space–time discretization and preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, R.; Scherzer, O.; Zulehner, W.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the simultaneous estimation of an optical flow field and an illumination source term in a movie sequence. The particular optical flow equation is obtained by assuming that the image intensity is a conserved quantity up to possible sources and sinks which represent varying illumination. We formulate this problem as an energy minimization problem and propose a space–time simultaneous discretization for the optimality system in saddle-point form. We investigate a preconditioning strategy that renders the discrete system well-conditioned uniformly in the discretization resolution. Numerical experiments complement the theory. PMID:26435561

  15. Non-preconditioned conjugate gradient on cell and FPCA-based hybrid supercomputer nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, David H; Dubois, Andrew J; Boorman, Thomas M; Connor, Carolyn M

    2009-03-10

    This work presents a detailed implementation of a double precision, Non-Preconditioned, Conjugate Gradient algorithm on a Roadrunner heterogeneous supercomputer node. These nodes utilize the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture{trademark} in conjunction with x86 Opteron{trademark} processors from AMD. We implement a common Conjugate Gradient algorithm, on a variety of systems, to compare and contrast performance. Implementation results are presented for the Roadrunner hybrid supercomputer, SRC Computers, Inc. MAPStation SRC-6 FPGA enhanced hybrid supercomputer, and AMD Opteron only. In all hybrid implementations wall clock time is measured, including all transfer overhead and compute timings.

  16. Non-preconditioned conjugate gradient on cell and FPGA based hybrid supercomputer nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, David H; Dubois, Andrew J; Boorman, Thomas M; Connor, Carolyn M

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a detailed implementation of a double precision, non-preconditioned, Conjugate Gradient algorithm on a Roadrunner heterogeneous supercomputer node. These nodes utilize the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture{sup TM} in conjunction with x86 Opteron{sup TM} processors from AMD. We implement a common Conjugate Gradient algorithm, on a variety of systems, to compare and contrast performance. Implementation results are presented for the Roadrunner hybrid supercomputer, SRC Computers, Inc. MAPStation SRC-6 FPGA enhanced hybrid supercomputer, and AMD Opteron only. In all hybrid implementations wall clock time is measured, including all transfer overhead and compute timings.

  17. Graph Embedding Techniques for Bounding Condition Numbers of Incomplete Factor Preconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guattery, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    We extend graph embedding techniques for bounding the spectral condition number of preconditioned systems involving symmetric, irreducibly diagonally dominant M-matrices to systems where the preconditioner is not diagonally dominant. In particular, this allows us to bound the spectral condition number when the preconditioner is based on an incomplete factorization. We provide a review of previous techniques, describe our extension, and give examples both of a bound for a model problem, and of ways in which our techniques give intuitive way of looking at incomplete factor preconditioners.

  18. A semi-implicit Hall-MHD solver using whistler wave preconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Lukas; Dreher, Jürgen; Grauer, Rainer

    2008-04-01

    The dispersive character of the Hall-MHD solutions, in particular the whistler waves, is a strong restriction to numerical treatments of this system. Numerical stability demands a time step dependence of the form Δt∝( for explicit calculations. A new semi-implicit scheme for integrating the induction equation is proposed and applied to a reconnection problem. It is based on a fix point iteration with a physically motivated preconditioning. Due to its convergence properties, short wavelengths converge faster than long ones, thus it can be used as a smoother in a nonlinear multigrid method.

  19. Preconditioning with Cations Increases the Attachment of Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus Species to Stainless Steel

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Steve; Palmer, Jon; Brooks, John; Lindsay, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Preconditioning of Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 with cations prior to attachment often significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) the number of viable cells that attached to stainless steel (by up to 1.5 log CFU/cm2) compared with unconditioned bacteria. It is proposed that the transition of A. flavithermus and Geobacillus spp. from milk formulations to stainless steel product contact surfaces in milk powder manufacturing plants is mediated predominantly by bacterial physiological factors (e.g., surface-exposed adhesins) rather than the concentrations of cations in milk formulations surrounding bacteria. PMID:23645192

  20. Efficient preconditioning strategies for finite element discretisations of variable viscosity Stokes flow. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, D.

    2009-12-01

    Many geodynamic processes such as mantle convection, slab subduction and the deformation of the lithoshpere may be represented by the evolution of a very viscous, incompressible fluid - i.e. Stokes flow. For geodynamic applications, the flow equations are complicated through the introduction of a viscosity which may vary spatially. Such variations may arise due to simply having different material layers, or because the viscosity exhibits a very strong temperature dependence and or a stress/strain-rate dependence. It should be emphasized that in such applications, the ratio between the largest and smallest viscosity values in the problem domain may vary from O(10) to O(10^20). In terms of computation, the solution of the discrete Stokes flow problem is the most time consuming component of many geodynamic simulations. Combined with the ubiquitous nature of variable viscosity Stokes flow, numerous studies relevant to geodynamics have been conducted to develop efficient solution techniques for this problem. Whilst the ever increasing availability and affordability of high performance computers continues to motivate researchers in computational geodynamics to perform higher resolution numerical simulations, the efficiency of such codes crucially depends on solution methods adopted. To harness the full potential of these resources to solve the discrete Stokes flow problem, Krylov methods combined with multilevel preconditioners are advocated. Effective preconditioning is the most important aspect of the approach. The main challenge is to devise preconditioners which i) yield convergence rates which are independent of the grid resolution and are independent of the structure of the viscosity field, ii) yield solution times which scale linearly with respect to the number of unknowns and iii) exhibit good overall parallel scalability on large distributed memory clusters. In this talk I will outline a number of scalable preconditioning approaches that have successfully been used to solve variable viscosity Stokes flow. With a particular emphasis on finite element discretisations, several preconditioning strategies will be described which are suitable for classical mixed finite elements and the polynomial pressure stabilised discretisations. The preconditioners discussed utilise approximate commutator methods and block component splittings. These preconditioners are composed from simpler sub-problems for which efficient, scalable and robust mutilevel methods exist - hence collectively the entire preconditioning approach is optimal. A collection of idealised problems characterising the structure and magnitude of viscosity variations typical of geodynamic problems are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed preconditioners.

  1. Preconditioning of Navier-Stokes equations in the computation of free convective flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, K. N.; Emel'yanov, V. N.; Karpenko, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Specific features of simulation of free convective flows of viscous compressible fluids based on the full Navier-Stokes equations are considered. The finite volume discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations in the case of low Mach numbers is discussed. To stabilize the numerical computations, preconditioning, which is based on the use of physical variables, and the dual time stepping method, which introduces internal iterations on pseudotime, are employed. The capabilities of the proposed approach are demonstrated on the example of simulation of free convection in a gap between coaxial cylinders.

  2. Preconditioning mesenchymal stem cells with the mood stabilizers lithium and valproic acid enhances therapeutic efficacy in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Linares, Gabriel R; Chiu, Chi-Tso; Scheuing, Lisa; Leng, Yan; Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Maric, Dragan; Chuang, De-Maw

    2016-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions in the huntingtin gene. Although, stem cell-based therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, limitations remain, including optimizing delivery to the brain and donor cell loss after transplantation. One strategy to boost cell survival and efficacy is to precondition cells before transplantation. Because the neuroprotective actions of the mood stabilizers lithium and valproic acid (VPA) induce multiple pro-survival signaling pathways, we hypothesized that preconditioning bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with lithium and VPA prior to intranasal delivery to the brain would enhance their therapeutic efficacy, and thereby facilitate functional recovery in N171-82Q HD transgenic mice. MSCs were treated in the presence or absence of combined lithium and VPA, and were then delivered by brain-targeted single intranasal administration to eight-week old HD mice. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of MSCs in the brain. Open-field test revealed that ambulatory distance and mean velocity were significantly improved in HD mice that received preconditioned MSCs, compared to HD vehicle-control and HD mice transplanted with non-preconditioned MSCs. Greater benefits on motor function were observed in HD mice given preconditioned MSCs, while HD mice treated with non-preconditioned MSCs showed no functional benefits. Moreover, preconditioned MSCs reduced striatal neuronal loss and huntingtin aggregates in HD mice. Gene expression profiling of preconditioned MSCs revealed a robust increase in expression of genes involved in trophic effects, antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, cytokine/chemokine receptor, migration, mitochondrial energy metabolism, and stress response signaling pathways. Consistent with this finding, preconditioned MSCs demonstrated increased survival after transplantation into the brain compared to non-preconditioned cells. Our results suggest that preconditioning stem cells with the mood stabilizers lithium and VPA before transplantation may serve as an effective strategy for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell-based therapies. PMID:27085395

  3. A Robust Locally Preconditioned Semi-Coarsening Multigrid Algorithm for the 2-D Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to develop an efficient and robust locally preconditioned semi-coarsening multigrid algorithm for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This thesis examines the performance of the multigrid algorithm with local preconditioning for an upwind-discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations. A block Jacobi iterative scheme is used because of its high frequency error mode damping ability. At low Mach numbers, the performance of a flux preconditioner is investigated. The flux preconditioner utilizes a new limiting technique based on local information that was developed by Siu. Full-coarsening and-semi-coarsening are examined as well as the multigrid V-cycle and full multigrid. The numerical tests were performed on a NACA 0012 airfoil at a range of Mach numbers. The tests show that semi-coarsening with flux preconditioning is the most efficient and robust combination of coarsening strategy, and iterative scheme - especially at low Mach numbers.

  4. Peri-operative anaesthetic myocardial preconditioning and protection – cellular mechanisms and clinical relevance in cardiac anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kunst, G; Klein, A A

    2015-01-01

    Preconditioning has been shown to reduce myocardial damage caused by ischaemia–reperfusion injury peri-operatively. Volatile anaesthetic agents have the potential to provide myocardial protection by anaesthetic preconditioning and, in addition, they also mediate renal and cerebral protection. A number of proof-of-concept trials have confirmed that the experimental evidence can be translated into clinical practice with regard to postoperative markers of myocardial injury; however, this effect has not been ubiquitous. The clinical trials published to date have also been too small to investigate clinical outcome and mortality. Data from recent meta-analyses in cardiac anaesthesia are also not conclusive regarding intra-operative volatile anaesthesia. These inconclusive clinical results have led to great variability currently in the type of anaesthetic agent used during cardiac surgery. This review summarises experimentally proposed mechanisms of anaesthetic preconditioning, and assesses randomised controlled clinical trials in cardiac anaesthesia that have been aimed at translating experimental results into the clinical setting. PMID:25764404

  5. Effect of preconditioning and stress relaxation on local collagen fiber re-alignment: inhomogeneous properties of rat supraspinatus tendon.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristin S; Edelstein, Lena; Connizzo, Brianne K; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2012-03-01

    Repeatedly and consistently measuring the mechanical properties of tendon is important but presents a challenge. Preconditioning can provide tendons with a consistent loading history to make comparisons between groups from mechanical testing experiments. However, the specific mechanisms occurring during preconditioning are unknown. Previous studies have suggested that microstructural changes, such as collagen fiber re-alignment, may be a result of preconditioning. Local collagen fiber re-alignment is quantified throughout tensile mechanical testing using a testing system integrated with a polarized light setup, consisting of a backlight, 90 deg-offset rotating polarizer sheets on each side of the test sample, and a digital camera, in a rat supraspinatus tendon model, and corresponding mechanical properties are measured. Local circular variance values are compared throughout the mechanical test to determine if and where collagen fiber re-alignment occurred. The inhomogeneity of the tendon is examined by comparing local circular variance values, optical moduli and optical transition strain values. Although the largest amount of collagen fiber re-alignment was found during preconditioning, significant re-alignment was also demonstrated in the toe and linear regions of the mechanical test. No significant changes in re-alignment were seen during stress relaxation. The insertion site of the supraspinatus tendon demonstrated a lower linear modulus and a more disorganized collagen fiber distribution throughout all mechanical testing points compared to the tendon midsubstance. This study identified a correlation between collagen fiber re-alignment and preconditioning and suggests that collagen fiber re-alignment may be a potential mechanism of preconditioning and merits further investigation. In particular, the conditions necessary for collagen fibers to re-orient away from the direction of loading and the dependency of collagen reorganization on its initial distribution must be examined. PMID:22482687

  6. Preconditioning method for condensate fluid and solid coupling problems in general curvilinear coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Satoru

    2005-07-01

    A preconditioned flux-vector splitting (PFVS) scheme in general curvilinear coordinates which can be applied to condensate fluid and solid coupling problems is presented and some typical calculated results are shown to prove the availability of the present method. This method is based on the preconditioning method applied to compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations with additional equations and source terms for condensate flows. Since the present PFVS terms composed of the convective and pressure terms of the NS equations are completely reduced to only the pressure terms when the velocities are set to zero, the present scheme can further applied to the calculation not only for a dynamic field but also for a static field including a transitional field from the dynamic region to the static region. In this paper, as a first stage of the present study, coupling problems between a condensate flow in a flow field and heat conduction in a solid structure are simultaneously calculated by using the present method. As numerical examples, transonic and low speed flows around the NACA0012 airfoil, nonequilibrium condensate flows in a nozzle, and natural convection with condensation around a pipe at 1g and zero gravity are simulated with heat conduction in the solid structure.

  7. Ameliorative Effect of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin and Ischemic Preconditioning on Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshiekh, Mohammed; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Seifi, Behjat; Ranjbaran, Mina; Ahghari, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is one of the most common causes of renal dysfunction. There is increasing evidence about the role of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these injuries and endogenous antioxidants seem to have an important role in decreasing the renal tissue injury. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on renal IR injury. Materials and Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were allocated into four experimental groups: sham-operated, IR, EPO + IR, and IPC + IR. Rats were underwent 50 minutes bilateral ischemia followed by 24 hours reperfusion. Erythropoietin (5000 IU/kg, i.p) was administered 30 minutes before onset of ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning was performed by three cycles of 3 minutes ischemia followed by 3 minutes reperfusion. Plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine were measured. Kidney samples were taken for reactive oxidative species (ROS) measurement including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) contents, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Results: Compared to the sham group, IR led to renal dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher plasma urea and creatinine. Treatment with EPO or IPC decreased urea, creatinine, and renal MDA levels and increased SOD activity and GSH contents in the kidney. Conclusions: Pretreatment with EPO and application of IPC significantly ameliorated the renal injury induced by bilateral renal IR. However, both treatments attenuated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in kidney tissues. There were no significant differences between pretreatment with EPO or application of IPC. PMID:26866008

  8. Role of MicroRNAs in innate neuroprotection mechanisms due to preconditioning of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Insults to the brain that are sub-threshold for damage activate endogenous protective pathways, which can temporarily protect the brain against a subsequent harmful episode. This mechanism has been named as tolerance and its protective effects have been shown in experimental models of ischemia and epilepsy. The preconditioning-stimulus can be a short period of ischemia or mild seizures induced by low doses of convulsant drugs. Gene-array profiling has shown that both ischemic and epileptic tolerance feature large-scale gene down-regulation but the mechanism are unknown. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs of ~20–22 nucleotides length which regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level via mRNA degradation or inhibition of protein translation. MicroRNAs have been shown to be regulated after non-harmful and harmful stimuli in the brain and to contribute to neuroprotective mechanisms. This review focuses on the role of microRNAs in the development of tolerance following ischemic or epileptic preconditioning. PMID:25954143

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress preconditioning attenuates methylmercury-induced cellular damage by inducing favorable stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Usuki, Fusako; Fujimura, Masatake; Yamashita, Akio

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that methylmercury (MeHg)-susceptible cells preconditioned with an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase, thapsigargin, showed resistance to MeHg cytotoxicity through favorable stress responses, which included phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (Eif2α), accumulation of activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), upregulation of stress-related proteins, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway. In addition, ER stress preconditioning induced suppression of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) mainly through the phospho-Eif2α-mediated general suppression of translation initiation and possible combined effects of decreased several NMD components expression. Atf4 accumulation was not mediated by NMD inhibition but translation inhibition of its upstream open reading frame (uORF) and translation facilitation of its protein-coding ORF by the phospho-Eif2α. These results suggested that ER stress plays an important role in MeHg cytotoxicity and that the modulation of ER stress has therapeutic potential to attenuate MeHg cytotoxicity, the underlying mechanism being the induction of integrated stress responses. PMID:23907635

  10. Remote ischemic preconditioning to reduce contrast-induced nephropathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing use of pre- and posthydration protocols and low-osmolar instead of high-osmolar iodine-containing contrast media, the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is still significant. There is evidence that contrast media cause ischemia-reperfusion injury of the medulla. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive, safe, and low-cost method to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The RIPCIN study is a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial in which 76 patients at risk of CIN will receive standard hydration combined with RIPC or hydration with sham preconditioning. RIPC will be applied by four cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion of the forearm by inflating a blood pressure cuff at 50 mmHg above the actual systolic pressure. The primary outcome measure will be the change in serum creatinine from baseline to 48 to 72 h after contrast administration. Discussion A recent pilot study reported that RIPC reduced the incidence of CIN after coronary angioplasty. The unusual high incidence of CIN in this study is of concern and limits its generalizability. Therefore, we propose a randomized controlled trial to study whether RIPC reduces contrast-induced kidney injury in patients at risk for CIN according to the Dutch guidelines. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76496973 PMID:24721127

  11. Analysis of the retinal gene expression profile after hypoxic preconditioning identifies candidate genes for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Thiersch, Markus; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Frigg, Rico; Samardzija, Marijana; Wenzel, Andreas; Poch, Olivier; Grimm, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Retinal degeneration is a main cause of blindness in humans. Neuroprotective therapies may be used to rescue retinal cells and preserve vision. Hypoxic preconditioning stabilizes the transcription factor HIF-1? in the retina and strongly protects photoreceptors in an animal model of light-induced retinal degeneration. To address the molecular mechanisms of the protection, we analyzed the transcriptome of the hypoxic retina using microarrays and real-time PCR. Results Hypoxic exposure induced a marked alteration in the retinal transcriptome with significantly different expression levels of 431 genes immediately after hypoxic exposure. The normal expression profile was restored within 16 hours of reoxygenation. Among the differentially regulated genes, several candidates for neuroprotection were identified like metallothionein-1 and -2, the HIF-1 target gene adrenomedullin and the gene encoding the antioxidative and cytoprotective enzyme paraoxonase 1 which was previously not known to be a hypoxia responsive gene in the retina. The strongly upregulated cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was excluded from being essential for neuroprotection. Conclusion Our data suggest that neuroprotection after hypoxic preconditioning is the result of the differential expression of a multitude of genes which may act in concert to protect visual cells against a toxic insult. PMID:18261226

  12. Subcellular mechanisms of adaptation in the diabetic myocardium: Relevance to ischemic preconditioning in the nondiseased heart

    PubMed Central

    Ravingerová, T; Adameová, A; Matejíková, J; Kelly, T; Nemčeková, M; Kucharská, J; Pecháňová, O; Lazou, A

    2010-01-01

    Although hyperglycemia is one factor that determines the outcome of myocardial ischemic insult, it is still not clear whether it is causally related to decreased ischemic tolerance in diabetic patients. In contrast to clinical and epidemiological studies demonstrating a higher risk of cardiovascular disorders in diabetic patients, experimental data are not unequivocal and suggest that, aside from higher myocardial vulnerability, diabetes mellitus may be associated with the triggering of adaptive processes leading to paradoxically lower susceptibility to ischemia. It has been proposed that this phenomenon shares some molecular pathways with short-term preconditioning and other forms of endogenous protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in the nondiseased heart. The present article reviews some controversial findings of enhanced resistance to ischemia in the diabetic heart that stem from experimental studies in different models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Specifically, it addresses the issue of potential mechanisms of increased resistance to ischemia in an experimental model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, particularly with respect to the role of reactive oxygen species, hyperglycemia as one of the stress factors, and cell-signalling mechanisms mediated by ‘prosurvival’ cascades of protein kinases in relation to the mechanisms of classical ischemic preconditioning. Finally, mechanisms involved in the suppression of protection in the diabetic myocardium including the effect of concomitant pathology, such as hypercholesterolemia, are discussed. PMID:21264077

  13. Investigations on the role of leukotrienes in remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljeet; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-05-01

    The cardioprotective effects of remote hind limb preconditioning (RIPC) are well established, but its mechanisms still remain to be explored. Therefore, the present study was aimed to explore the possible involvement of 5-lipoxygenase-derived leukotrienes in RIPC. The hind limb was tied by a pressure cuff and was subjected to four episodes of inflation and deflation (5min each) to induce remote hind-limb preconditioning. Thereafter, the hearts were isolated and were subjected to global ischemia (30min) followed by reperfusion (120min) on the Langendorff apparatus. The extent of myocardial injury was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels in the coronary effluent; the infarct size using TTC staining, and the hemodynamic parameters including LVDP, dp/dtmax and dp/dtmin. RIPC significantly decreased ischemia and reperfusion-induced increase in LDH, CK release, infarct size and improved LVDP, dp/dtmax and dp/dtmin. Administration of montelukast, leukotriene receptor antagonist (10 and 20mg/kg) and zileuton, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, (2.5 and 5mg/kg) abolished RIPC-induced cardioprotection. It may be concluded that hind limb ischemia stimulates 5-lipoxygenase to release leukotrienes which may elicit cardioprotection by humoral or neurogenic pathway. PMID:27058978

  14. Overlapping Schwarz for Nonlinear Problems. An Element Agglomeration Nonlinear Additive Schwarz Preconditioned Newton Method for Unstructured Finite Element Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, X C; Marcinkowski, L; Vassilevski, P S

    2005-02-10

    This paper extends previous results on nonlinear Schwarz preconditioning ([4]) to unstructured finite element elliptic problems exploiting now nonlocal (but small) subspaces. The non-local finite element subspaces are associated with subdomains obtained from a non-overlapping element partitioning of the original set of elements and are coarse outside the prescribed element subdomain. The coarsening is based on a modification of the agglomeration based AMGe method proposed in [8]. Then, the algebraic construction from [9] of the corresponding non-linear finite element subproblems is applied to generate the subspace based nonlinear preconditioner. The overall nonlinearly preconditioned problem is solved by an inexact Newton method. Numerical illustration is also provided.

  15. Using preconditioned adaptive step size Runge-Kutta methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Jean Christophe; Carrington, Tucker

    2004-12-15

    If the Hamiltonian is time dependent it is common to solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation by dividing the propagation interval into slices and using an (e.g., split operator, Chebyshev, Lanczos) approximate matrix exponential within each slice. We show that a preconditioned adaptive step size Runge-Kutta method can be much more efficient. For a chirped laser pulse designed to favor the dissociation of HF the preconditioned adaptive step size Runge-Kutta method is about an order of magnitude more efficient than the time sliced method. PMID:15634118

  16. Hormesis in Cholestatic Liver Disease; Preconditioning with Low Bile Acid Concentrations Protects against Bile Acid-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Verhaag, Esther M.; Buist-Homan, Manon; Koehorst, Martijn; Groen, Albert K.; Moshage, Han; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cholestasis is characterized by accumulation of bile acids and inflammation, causing hepatocellular damage. Still, liver damage markers are highest in acute cholestasis and drop when this condition becomes chronic, indicating that hepatocytes adapt towards the hostile environment. This may be explained by a hormetic response in hepatocytes that limits cell death during cholestasis. Aim To investigate the mechanisms that underlie the hormetic response that protect hepatocytes against experimental cholestatic conditions. Methods HepG2.rNtcp cells were preconditioned (24 h) with sub-apoptotic concentrations (0.1–50 μM) of various bile acids, the superoxide donor menadione, TNF-α or the Farsenoid X Receptor agonist GW4064, followed by a challenge with the apoptosis-inducing bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA; 200 μM for 4 h), menadione (50 μM, 6 h) or cytokine mixture (CM; 6 h). Levels of apoptotic and necrotic cell death, mRNA expression of the bile salt export pump (ABCB11) and bile acid sensors, as well as intracellular GCDCA levels were analyzed. Results Preconditioning with the pro-apoptotic bile acids GCDCA, taurocholic acid, or the protective bile acids (tauro)ursodeoxycholic acid reduced GCDCA-induced caspase-3/7 activity in HepG2.rNtcp cells. Bile acid preconditioning did not induce significant levels of necrosis in GCDCA-challenged HepG2.rNtcp cells. In contrast, preconditioning with cholic acid, menadione or TNF-α potentiated GCDCA-induced apoptosis. GCDCA preconditioning specifically reduced GCDCA-induced cell death and not CM- or menadione-induced apoptosis. The hormetic effect of GCDCA preconditioning was concentration- and time-dependent. GCDCA-, CDCA- and GW4064- preconditioning enhanced ABCB11 mRNA levels, but in contrast to the bile acids, GW4064 did not significantly reduce GCDCA-induced caspase-3/7 activity. The GCDCA challenge strongly increased intracellular levels of this bile acid, which was not lowered by GCDCA-preconditioning. Conclusions Sub-toxic concentrations of bile acids in the range that occur under normal physiological conditions protect HepG2.rNtcp cells against GCDCA-induced apoptosis, which is independent of FXR-controlled changes in bile acid transport. PMID:26950211

  17. (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning induces a late phase protection against nervous injury induced by transient cerebral ischemia and oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Qian; Wang, Xuliang; Ji, Hui; Zhang, Yihua

    2014-07-01

    (S)-ZJM-289, a novel nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of 3-n-butylphthalide, induces the neuroprotection in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). However, much is unknown about the late phase effect in the neuroprotection of (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning. The purpose of this study is to explore the late phase neuroprotection of (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning, as well as underlying mechanisms involved. Preconditioning with 40-160 mg/kg, (S)-ZJM-289 significantly reduces brain damage after I/R. (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning is effective when applied 1-3 days before I/R. Moreover, the degrees of neuroprotection offered by (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning and ischemic preconditioning are virtually identical. (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning also protects primary cultured cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation and recovery-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning significantly increases the generation of NO, but has no effect on the nitric oxide synthase activities. Additionally, (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning promotes the dissociation between nuclear-factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2) and kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, and induces Nrf2 nuclear localization. The neuroprotection of (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning is blocked by Nrf2-siRNA in vitro. (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning up-regulates antioxidant enzymes against nervous injury. (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning significantly activates extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) and inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinases signaling cascade. The neuroprotection is abolished by the ERK inhibitor PD98059 in vitro. Subsequently, (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning increases the levels of anti-apoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and inhibited the translocation of Bcl-2 associated X to the mitochondria, thus attenuating the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and the activation of downstream caspase. These results suggest that (S)-ZJM-289 preconditioning exerts the late phase protection against nervous injury induced by transient cerebral ischemia and oxygen-glucose deprivation. PMID:24277159

  18. Effect of ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning of lower limb muscle tissue on tissue oxygenation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ischemic or volatile anesthetic preconditioning is defined as tissue protection from impending ischemic cell damage by repetitive short periods of tissue exposure to ischemia or volatile anesthetics. Objective of this study was to elucidate, if ischemic preconditioning and pharmacological preconditioning with sevoflurane have effects on muscle tissue oxygen saturation in patients undergoing surgical revascularization of the lower limb. Methods In this prospective randomized pilot study ischemic and pharmacological (sevoflurane) preconditioning was performed in 40 patients with lower limb arterial occlusive disease undergoing surgical revascularization. Sevoflurane preconditioning was performed in one group (N = 20) by repetitive application of sevoflurane for six minutes interspersed by six minutes of washout. Thereafter, ischemic preconditioning was performed in all patients (N = 40) by repetitive clamping of the femoral artery for six minutes interspersed by six minutes of reperfusion. The effect of both procedures on leg muscle tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during both procedures and during surgery and reperfusion (INVOS® 5100C Oxymeter with Small Adult SomaSensor® SAFB-SM, Somanetics, Troy, Michigan, USA). Results Repetitive clamping and reperfusion of the femoral artery resulted in significant cyclic decrease and increase of muscle rSO2 (p < 0.0001). Pharmacological preconditioning with sevoflurane resulted in a faster and higher increase of rSO2 during postoperative reperfusion (Maximal 111% baseline ± 20 versus 103% baseline ± 14, p = 0.008) consistent with an additional effect of pharmacological preconditioning on leg perfusion. Conclusions Ischemic preconditioning of lower limb muscle tissue and pharmacological preconditioning with sevoflurane have an effect on tissue oxygenation in patients with lower limb occlusive arterial disease. Trial registration The trial has been registrated at http://www.ClinicalTrial.gov, Trial Number: NCT02038062 at 14 January 2014. PMID:25132803

  19. Plague Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics Info for Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook ...

  20. Preventing Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  1. Augmentation of aerobic respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by hypoxia preconditioning with cobalt chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Saurabh; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju

    2012-11-01

    High altitude/hypoxia training is known to improve physical performance in athletes. Hypoxia induces hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its downstream genes that facilitate hypoxia adaptation in muscle to increase physical performance. Cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), a hypoxia mimetic, stabilizes HIF-1, which otherwise is degraded in normoxic conditions. We studied the effects of hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation on physical performance, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial biogenesis using rodent model. The results showed significant increase in physical performance in cobalt supplemented rats without (two times) or with training (3.3 times) as compared to control animals. CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats augmented the biological activities of enzymes of TCA cycle, glycolysis and cytochrome c oxidase (COX); and increased the expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) in muscle showing increased glucose metabolism by aerobic respiration. There was also an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle observed by increased mRNA expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis markers which was further confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, nitric oxide production increased in skeletal muscle in cobalt supplemented rats, which seems to be the major reason for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) induction and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, we state that hypoxia preconditioning by CoCl{sub 2} supplementation in rats increases mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose uptake and metabolism by aerobic respiration in skeletal muscle, which leads to increased physical performance. The significance of this study lies in understanding the molecular mechanism of hypoxia adaptation and improvement of work performance in normal as well as extreme conditions like hypoxia via hypoxia preconditioning. -- Highlights: ► We supplemented rats with CoCl{sub 2} for 15 days along with training. ► CoCl{sub 2} supplementation augmented endurance performance and aerobic respiration. ► It increased glucose uptake and metabolism in muscle. ► It enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in red gastrocnemius muscle.

  2. Age-related loss of cardiac preconditioning: impact of protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Huhn, Ragnar; Weber, Nina C; Preckel, Benedikt; Schlack, Wolfgang; Bauer, Inge; Hollmann, Markus W; Heinen, André

    2012-01-01

    Helium induces preconditioning (He-PC) by mitochondrial calcium-sensitive potassium (mK(Ca)) channel-activation, but this effect is lost in the aged myocardium. Both, the upstream signalling pathway of He-PC and the underlying mechanisms for an age-related loss of preconditioning are unknown. A possible candidate as upstream regulator of mK(Ca) channels is protein kinase A (PKA). We investigated whether 1) regulation of PKA is involved in He-PC and 2) regulation of PKA is age-dependent. Young (2-3 months) and aged (22-24 months) Wistar rats were randomised to eight groups (each n=8). All animals underwent 25 min regional myocardial ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Control (Con, Age Con) animals were not further treated. Young rats inhaled 70% helium for 3×5 min (He-PC). The PKA-blocker H-89 (10 μg/kg) was administered with and without helium (He-PC+H-89, H-89). Furthermore, we tested the effect of direct activation of mK(Ca) channels with NS1619. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin (For) was administered in young (300 μg/kg) and aged animals (300 and 1000 μg/kg). He-PC reduced infarct size from 60±4% (Con) to 37±10% (p<0.05). Infarct size reduction was completely abolished by H-89 (58±5%; p<0.05), but H-89 alone had no effect (57±2%). NS1619 reduced infarct size in the same concentration in both, young and aged rats (35±6%; p<0.05 vs. Con and 34±8%; p<0.05 vs. Age Con). Forskolin in a concentration of 300 μg/kg reduced infarct size in young (37±6%; p<0.05) but not in aged rats (48±13%; n.s.). In contrast, 1000 μg/kg Forskolin reduced infarct size also in aged rats (28±3%; p<0.05). He-PC is mediated by activation of PKA. Alterations in PKA regulation might be an underlying mechanism for the age-dependent loss of preconditioning. PMID:22100641

  3. Suspended sediment behavior in a coastal dry-summer subtropical catchment: Effects of hydrologic preconditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A. B.; Warrick, J. A.; Pasternack, G. B.; Watson, E. B.; Goñi, M. A.

    2014-06-01

    Variation in fluvial suspended sediment-discharge behavior is generally thought to be the product of changes in processes governing the delivery of sediment and water to the channel. The objective of this study was to infer sediment supply dynamics from the response of suspended sediment behavior to antecedent hydrologic factors. The Salinas River (California) is seasonally active, moderately sized, and potentially susceptible to lasting impacts of hydrologic event history because of aridity, high discharge variability, and in-channel terminating flows. Forty-five years of suspended sediment data from the lower Salinas and 80 years of hydrologic data were used to construct hydrologic descriptors of basin preconditioning and to test the effects of these preconditions on suspended sediment behavior. Hydrologic precondition factors - including change in mean daily discharge and increasing elapsed time since the last moderate discharge event (~ 10-20 times mean discharge (Qmean)) - were found to have significant positive effects on discharge-corrected, fine suspended-sediment concentrations. Conversely, increased elapsed time since the last low discharge event (~ 0.1-0.4 times Qmean), and the sum of low flow conditions over interannual time scales were found to cause significant negative trends in fine suspended sediment concentration residuals. Suspended sand concentrations are suppressed by increased elapsed time after threshold discharges of ~ 0.1-2 and 5-100 times Qmean, and increased low to no flow days over time scales from 1 to 2000 days. Current and previous year water yield and precipitation magnitudes correlate positively with sand concentration. Addition of fine sediment from lower Salinas hillslope or channel sources on the rising limb of the hydrograph is the major mechanism behind an overall positive hysteretic pattern, which was forensically supported by the annual occurrence of in-channel suspended sediment deposition by early season, channel terminating flows and by the flushing function of moderate hydrologic events found in this study. The importance of hillslope and/or channel fine sediment contributions proximal to the lower Salinas are further highlighted by the lack of control exerted by upper subbasin water provenance on fine suspended sediment concentration, while sand behavior is differentiated by upper basin water provenance. Investigation of suspension of bed-sized sediment showed that the channel bed could exert significant effects on fine and sand-sized suspended sediment dynamics, but this mediation for fine sediment was most likely small in terms of decadal-scale sediment budgets. The magnitude of the effects of hydrologic variables on sediment dynamics remains uncertain, but the factors identified here may play a significant role in water quality, if not long-term sediment flux to the ocean.

  4. Ischemic Preconditioning Increases the Tolerance of Fatty Liver to Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Serafín, Anna; Roselló-Catafau, Joan; Prats, Neus; Xaus, Carme; Gelpí, Emilio; Peralta, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor in ischemia-reperfusion. The present study evaluates whether preconditioning, demonstrated to be effective in normal livers, could also confer protection in the presence of steatosis and investigates the potential underlying protective mechanisms. Fatty rats had increased hepatic injury and decreased survival after 60 minutes of ischemia compared with lean rats. Fatty livers showed a degree of neutrophil accumulation and microcirculatory alterations similar to that of normal livers. However, in presence of steatosis, an increased lipid peroxidation that could be reduced with glutathione-ester pretreatment was observed after hepatic reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning reduced hepatic injury and increased animal survival. Both in normal and fatty livers, this endogenous protective mechanism was found to control lipid peroxidation, hepatic microcirculation failure, and neutrophil accumulation, reducing the subsequent hepatic injury. These beneficial effects could be mediated by nitric oxide, because the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis and nitric oxide donor pretreatment abolished and simulated, respectively, the benefits of preconditioning. Thus, ischemic preconditioning could be an effective surgical strategy to reduce the hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in normal and fatty livers under normothermic conditions, including hepatic resections, and liver transplantation. PMID:12163383

  5. TARGETED DELETION OF INDUCIBLE HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 ABROGATES THE LATE INFARCT-SPARING EFFECT OF MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract submitted for 82nd annual meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, May 4-8, 2002 in Washington D.C.

    Targeted Deletion of Inducible Heat Shock Protein 70 Abrogates the Late Infarct-Sparing Effect of Myocardial Ischemic Preconditioning

    Craig...

  6. Exercise Preconditioning Protects against Spinal Cord Injury in Rats by Upregulating Neuronal and Astroglial Heat Shock Protein 72

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Chou, Willy; Lin, Hung-Jung; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tang, Ling-Yu; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Chang, Ching-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72) is a universal marker of stress protein whose expression can be induced by physical exercise. Here we report that, in a localized model of spinal cord injury (SCI), exercised rats (given pre-SCI exercise) had significantly higher levels of neuronal and astroglial HSP 72, a lower functional deficit, fewer spinal cord contusions, and fewer apoptotic cells than did non-exercised rats. pSUPER plasmid expressing HSP 72 small interfering RNA (SiRNA-HSP 72) was injected into the injured spinal cords. In addition to reducing neuronal and astroglial HSP 72, the (SiRNA-HSP 72) significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of exercise preconditioning in reducing functional deficits as well as spinal cord contusion and apoptosis. Because exercise preconditioning induces increased neuronal and astroglial levels of HSP 72 in the gray matter of normal spinal cord tissue, exercise preconditioning promoted functional recovery in rats after SCI by upregulating neuronal and astroglial HSP 72 in the gray matter of the injured spinal cord. We reveal an important function of neuronal and astroglial HSP 72 in protecting neuronal and astroglial apoptosis in the injured spinal cord. We conclude that HSP 72-mediated exercise preconditioning is a promising strategy for facilitating functional recovery from SCI. PMID:25334068

  7. 41 CFR 102-72.68 - What preconditions must be satisfied before an Executive agency may exercise the delegated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What preconditions must be satisfied before an Executive agency may exercise the delegated authority to perform an individual... satisfied before an Executive agency may exercise the delegated authority to perform an individual...

  8. 41 CFR 102-72.68 - What preconditions must be satisfied before an Executive agency may exercise the delegated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What preconditions must be satisfied before an Executive agency may exercise the delegated authority to perform an individual... satisfied before an Executive agency may exercise the delegated authority to perform an individual...

  9. Cell transplantation after oxidative hepatic preconditioning with radiation and ischemia-reperfusion leads to extensive liver repopulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhi, Harmeet; Gorla, Giridhar R.; Irani, Adil N.; Annamaneni, Pallavi; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2002-10-01

    The inability of transplanted cells to proliferate in the normal liver hampers cell therapy. We considered that oxidative hepatic DNA damage would impair the survival of native cells and promote proliferation in transplanted cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase-deficient F344 rats were preconditioned with whole liver radiation and warm ischemia-reperfusion followed by intrasplenic transplantation of syngeneic F344 rat hepatocytes. The preconditioning was well tolerated, although serum aminotransferase levels rose transiently and hepatic injury was observed histologically, along with decreased catalase activity and 8-hydroxy adducts of guanine, indicating oxidative DNA damage. Transplanted cells did not proliferate in the liver over 3 months in control animals and animals preconditioned with ischemia-reperfusion alone. Animals treated with radiation alone showed some transplanted cell proliferation. In contrast, the liver of animals preconditioned with radiation plus ischemia-reperfusion was replaced virtually completely over 3 months. Transplanted cells integrated in the liver parenchyma and liver architecture were preserved normally. These findings offer a paradigm for repopulating the liver with transplanted cells. Progressive loss of cells experiencing oxidative DNA damage after radiation and ischemia-reperfusion injury could be of significance for epithelial renewal in additional organs.

  10. Preconditioning with PEP-1-SOD1 fusion protein attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmia in isolated rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    KE, ZUNPING; GAO, AIMEI; XU, PENG; WANG, JIANING; JI, LIJUAN; YANG, JIANYE

    2015-01-01

    PEP 1-Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (PEP-1-SOD1) fusion protein preconditioning has been reported to protect the myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury by decreasing the infarct size, reducing levels of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reducing the release of myocardial-specific biomarkers. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of PEP-1-SOD1 pretreatment on I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmias in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. The isolated rat hearts were pretreated with PEP-1-SOD1 prior to I/R, and the I/R-induced hemodynamic parameters, infarct size and ventricular arrhythmias were then assessed. Compared with the unprotected hearts, PEP-1-SOD1 preconditioning significantly improved the hemodynamic parameters, decreased the cardiac lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels, reduced the infarct size and attenuated the ventricular arrhythmia. Further investigation showed that PEP-1-SOD1 preconditioning reduced both the incidence and duration of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. In addition, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were decreased. The results of the present study suggest that PEP-1-SOD1 preconditioning can protect the heart against I/R injury and attenuate I/R-induced arrhythmia by downregulating the generation of ROS. PMID:26170961

  11. Molecular Imaging-Assisted Optimization of Hsp70 Expression during Laser-Induced Thermal Preconditioning for Wound Repair Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Opalenik, Susan R.; Beckham, Joshua T.; Abraham, Alexander A.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Jansen, E. Duco

    2013-01-01

    Patients at risk for impaired healing may benefit from prophylactic measures aimed at improving wound repair. Several photonic devices claim to enhance repair by thermal and photochemical mechanisms. We hypothesized that laser-induced thermal preconditioning would enhance surgical wound healing that was correlated with hsp70 expression. Using a pulsed diode laser (λ =1.85 μm, τp=2 ms, 50 Hz, H =7.64 mJcm−2), the skin of transgenic mice that contain an hsp70 promoter-driven luciferase was preconditioned 12 hours before surgical incisions were made. Laser protocols were optimized in vitro and in vivo using temperature, blood flow, and hsp70-mediated bioluminescence measurements as benchmarks. Biomechanical properties and histological parameters of wound healing were evaluated for up to 14 days. Bioluminescent imaging studies indicated that an optimized laser protocol increased hsp70 expression by 10-fold. Under these conditions, laser-preconditioned incisions were two times stronger than control wounds. Our data suggest that this molecular imaging approach provides a quantitative method for optimization of tissue preconditioning and that mild laser-induced heat shock may be a useful therapeutic intervention prior to surgery. PMID:18580963

  12. Limb Ischemic Preconditioning Protects Endothelium from Oxidative Stress by Enhancing Nrf2 Translocation and Upregulating Expression of Antioxidases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Zhang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Xuanping; Li, Jie; Wang, Yan; Fan, Yanying; Shi, Ruizan

    2015-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning is often performed by limb ischemic preconditioning (LIPC), which has been demonstrated to be beneficial to various cells, including endothelial cells. The mechanisms underlying the protection have not been well clarified. The present study was designed to observe the effects of sera derived from rats after LIPC on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injured by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -induced oxidative stress and explore the involvement of redox state in the protection. Incubation with 1 mM H2O2 for 2 h induced a significant reduction in HUVECs viability with increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Preincubation with early preconditioning serum (EPS) or delayed preconditioning serum (DPS) derived from rats subjected to LIPC alleviated these changes. Both EPS and DPS increased the nuclear translocation of transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the expression of antioxidases. The protective effects of EPS and DPS were blocked neither by MEK/ERK inhibitors U0126 nor by PI3K/Akt inhibitors LY294002. In conclusion, the present study provides the evidence that LIPC protects the HUVECs from H2O2-induced injury by, at least partially, enhancement of Nrf2 translocation and upregulation of antioxidases via signaling pathways independent of MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt. PMID:26029932

  13. Local fisheries management at the Swedish coast: biological and social preconditions.

    PubMed

    Bruckmeier, Karl; Neuman, Erik

    2005-03-01

    Most of the Swedish coastal fisheries are not sustainable from either a social, economic or ecological point of view. We propose the introduction of local fisheries management (LFM) as a tool for restructuring the present large-scale management system in order to achieve sustainability. To implement LFM two questions need to be answered: How to distribute the resource fish among different resource user groups? How to restructure present fisheries management to meet the criteria of sustainability? Starting from these questions we describe possible forms of LFM for Swedish coastal fishery supported by recent research. The biological and social preconditions for restructuring fisheries management are derived from an analysis of the ecological and managerial situation in Swedish fishery. Three types of LFM--owner based, user based, and community based management--are analyzed with regard to the tasks to be carried outin LFM, the roles of management groups, and the definition and optimal size of management areas. PMID:15865305

  14. Preconditioning of Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models for Stabilisation of Variance-Covariance Matrix Computations.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yasunori; Nordgren, Rikard; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-03-01

    As the importance of pharmacometric analysis increases, more and more complex mathematical models are introduced and computational error resulting from computational instability starts to become a bottleneck in the analysis. We propose a preconditioning method for non-linear mixed effects models used in pharmacometric analyses to stabilise the computation of the variance-covariance matrix. Roughly speaking, the method reparameterises the model with a linear combination of the original model parameters so that the Hessian matrix of the likelihood of the reparameterised model becomes close to an identity matrix. This approach will reduce the influence of computational error, for example rounding error, to the final computational result. We present numerical experiments demonstrating that the stabilisation of the computation using the proposed method can recover failed variance-covariance matrix computations, and reveal non-identifiability of the model parameters. PMID:26857397

  15. Lipid compositional changes during low-temperature pre-conditioning against SO sub 2 in coleus

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, H.A.; Krizek, D.T.; Mirecki, R.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Short periods of temperature preconditioning at 13{degrees}C. were found to provide protection against SO{sub 2} injury in coleus. The present study was conducted to determine whether changes in lipid metabolism and membrane fluidity might contribute to this phytoprotection. After 5 days of hardening at 13{degrees}C, there were significant differences in polar lipid composition and free fatty acid (FA) levels between SO{sub 2}-sensitive cultivar Buckley Supreme and SO{sub 2}-insensitive Marty. Molecular species of chloroplast lipids in Marty contained increased levels of linolenic acid. Differences were also found in total FA pools. At 20{degrees}C, palmitic acid and stearic acid were the major components. After temperature hardening at 13{degrees}C, total FA levels decreased in Marty but increased in Buckley Supreme. These modifications in lipid composition suggest a possible mechanism for cultivar differences in response in SO{sub 2}.

  16. Fluid preconditioning for Newton–Krylov-based, fully implicit, electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.; Chacón, L.; Leibs, C.A.; Knoll, D.A.; Taitano, W.

    2014-02-01

    A recent proof-of-principle study proposes an energy- and charge-conserving, nonlinearly implicit electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in one dimension [9]. The algorithm in the reference employs an unpreconditioned Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov method, which ensures nonlinear convergence at every timestep (resolving the dynamical timescale of interest). Kinetic enslavement, which is one key component of the algorithm, not only enables fully implicit PIC as a practical approach, but also allows preconditioning the kinetic solver with a fluid approximation. This study proposes such a preconditioner, in which the linearized moment equations are closed with moments computed from particles. Effective acceleration of the linear GMRES solve is demonstrated, on both uniform and non-uniform meshes. The algorithm performance is largely insensitive to the electron–ion mass ratio. Numerical experiments are performed on a 1D multi-scale ion acoustic wave test problem.

  17. Some Experiences with Nonoverlapping Schur Complement Parallel Preconditioning for CFD Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chan, Tony F.; Tang, Wei-Pai; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In this work we consider solving matrices which arise from the discretization of advection-diffusion field equations on arbitrary triangulated domains using stabilized numerical methods. The talk will discuss several candidate matrix preconditioning algorithms based on the 2 x 2 block factorization induced by an apriori partitioning of the triangulated domain. Application of the 2 x 2 block preconditioner requires the formation and inversion of the Schur complement submatrix. We consider several strategies for simplifying this task: incomplete Schur complement factorizations, drop tolerance element filling, Schur complement probing, and localized Schur complement inversion. Numerical results will be shown comparing performance and efficiency of these approximations. The matrix preconditioner has also been embedded into a Newton algorithm for solving the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations governing compressible flow. The remainder of the talk will show numerous examples in CFD to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the techniques.

  18. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-06-28

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling's iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step. PMID:26133420

  19. Effect of bovine respiratory disease during preconditioning on subsequent feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef attributes.

    PubMed

    Holland, B P; Burciaga-Robles, L O; VanOverbeke, D L; Shook, J N; Step, D L; Richards, C J; Krehbiel, C R

    2010-07-01

    Heifers with expected increased risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD; n = 360; initial BW = 241.3 +/- 16.6 kg) were assembled at a Kentucky order-buyer facility and delivered to Stillwater, OK, in September 2007 to determine the effects of clinical BRD observed during preconditioning on subsequent feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat attributes. During a 63-d preconditioning period, morbidity and mortality attributed to BRD were 57.6 and 8.6%, respectively. Immediately after preconditioning, heifers were grouped according to health outcome category and allotted to finishing pens (5 to 7 heifers/pen). Heifers were never treated for BRD (0X; n = 9 pens), treated 1 time (1X; n = 9 pens), 2 times (2X; n = 6 pens), 3 times (3X; n = 6 pens), or designated as chronically ill (CI; n = 2 pens). Arrival BW was not different (P = 0.21) among treatment categories. However, disease incidence during preconditioning decreased (P < 0.001) growth, resulting in BW of 318, 305, 294, 273, and 243 kg for 0X, 1X, 2X, 3X, and CI, respectively, at the start of the finishing phase. Estimates on the LM, taken by ultrasound on d 65 and 122, were combined with BW and visual appraisal to target common average endpoint within category and block. On average, heifers were slaughtered on d 163 for 0X, 1X, and 2X, d 182 for 3X, and d 189 for CI (P < 0.01). Final BW was similar (P > or = 0.18) for heifers treated 0, 1, 2, or 3 times, but heifers deemed CI weighed less (P = 0.01) than 3X heifers. Considering the finishing phase only, ADG was linearly increased (P < 0.001) with increasing BRD treatments, but was linearly decreased (P = 0.003) as BRD treatments increased from arrival to slaughter. Therefore, G:F was greater (P = 0.007) for CI than 3X and linearly increased (P = 0.002) from 0X to 3X. Similar to BW, HCW was less (P = 0.03) for CI than 3X. Marbling score tended (P = 0.06) to decrease linearly as the number of treatments increased, but no other differences (P > or = 0.24) in carcass traits were detected. No differences were observed in beef tenderness (P = 0.65), and no consistent trends were noted in retail display or palatability data. Less than 20 additional days on feed were required for heifers treated 3 times to have similar BW and carcass characteristics to heifers never treated for BRD. Segregating animals with multiple BRD treatments and feeding them to an acceptable carcass endpoint may be a viable strategy for increasing value of animals treated for BRD. PMID:20190167

  20. Effects of diabetes on myocardial infarct size and cardioprotection by preconditioning and postconditioning

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the current optimal therapy, the mortality of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains high, particularly in cases with diabetes mellitus (DM) as a co-morbidity. Myocardial infarct size is a major determinant of prognosis in IHD patients, and development of a novel strategy to limit infarction is of great clinical importance. Ischemic preconditioning (PC), postconditioning (PostC) and their mimetic agents have been shown to reduce infarct size in experiments using healthy animals. However, a variety of pharmacological agents have failed to demonstrate infarct size limitation in clinical trials. One of the possible reasons for the discrepancy between the results of animal experiments and clinical trials is that co-morbidities, including DM, modified myocardial responses to ischemia/reperfusion and to cardioprotective agents. Here we summarize observations of the effects of DM on myocardial infarct size and ischemic PC and PostC and discuss perspectives for protection of DM hearts. PMID:22694800

  1. Krylov methods preconditioned with incompletely factored matrices on the CM-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berryman, Harry; Saltz, Joel; Gropp, William; Mirchandaney, Ravi

    1989-01-01

    The performance is measured of the components of the key interative kernel of a preconditioned Krylov space interative linear system solver. In some sense, these numbers can be regarded as best case timings for these kernels. Sweeps were timed over meshes, sparse triangular solves, and inner products on a large 3-D model problem over a cube shaped domain discretized with a seven point template. The performance of the CM-2 is highly dependent on the use of very specialized programs. These programs mapped a regular problem domain onto the processor topology in a careful manner and used the optimized local NEWS communications network. The rather dramatic deterioration in performance was documented when these ideal conditions no longer apply. A synthetic workload generator was developed to produce and solve a parameterized family of increasingly irregular problems.

  2. A projected preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm for computing many extreme eigenpairs of a Hermitian matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Vecharynski, Eugene; Yang, Chao; Pask, John E.

    2015-06-01

    We present an iterative algorithm for computing an invariant subspace associated with the algebraically smallest eigenvalues of a large sparse or structured Hermitian matrix A. We are interested in the case in which the dimension of the invariant subspace is large (e.g., over several hundreds or thousands) even though it may still be small relative to the dimension of A. These problems arise from, for example, density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations for complex materials. The key feature of our algorithm is that it performs fewer Rayleigh–Ritz calculations compared to existing algorithms such as the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient or the Davidson algorithm. It is a block algorithm, and hence can take advantage of efficient BLAS3 operations and be implemented with multiple levels of concurrency. We discuss a number of practical issues that must be addressed in order to implement the algorithm efficiently on a high performance computer.

  3. Matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2013-11-05

    Mechanisms for performing matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. A load and splat operation is performed to load an element of a second vector operand and replicating the element to each of a plurality of elements of a second target vector register. A multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the matrix multiplication operation. The partial product of the matrix multiplication operation is accumulated with other partial products of the matrix multiplication operation.

  4. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-06-01

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling's iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step.

  5. Fluid preconditioning for Newton-Krylov-based, fully implicit, electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Chacón, L.; Leibs, C. A.; Knoll, D. A.; Taitano, W.

    2014-02-01

    A recent proof-of-principle study proposes an energy- and charge-conserving, nonlinearly implicit electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm in one dimension [9]. The algorithm in the reference employs an unpreconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, which ensures nonlinear convergence at every timestep (resolving the dynamical timescale of interest). Kinetic enslavement, which is one key component of the algorithm, not only enables fully implicit PIC as a practical approach, but also allows preconditioning the kinetic solver with a fluid approximation. This study proposes such a preconditioner, in which the linearized moment equations are closed with moments computed from particles. Effective acceleration of the linear GMRES solve is demonstrated, on both uniform and non-uniform meshes. The algorithm performance is largely insensitive to the electron-ion mass ratio. Numerical experiments are performed on a 1D multi-scale ion acoustic wave test problem.

  6. Novel sensory preconditioning procedures identify a specific role for the hippocampus in pattern completion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ching E; Dumigan, Natasha M; Good, Mark; Honey, Robert C

    2016-04-01

    Successful retrieval of a memory for an entire pattern of stimulation by the presentation of a fragment of that pattern is a critical facet of memory function. We examined processes of pattern completion using novel sensory preconditioning procedures in rats that had either received sham lesions (group Sham) or lesions of the hippocampus (group HPC). After exposure to two audio-visual patterns (AX and BY) rats received fear conditioning with X (but not Y). Subsequent tests assessed fear to stimulus compounds (e.g., AX versus BX; Experiment 1) or elements (A versus B; Experiment 2). There was more fear to AX than BX in group Sham but not group HPC, while there was more fear to A than B in group HPC, but not in group Sham. This double dissociation suggests that pattern completion can be based upon separable processes that differ in their reliance on the hippocampus. PMID:26911788

  7. Novel sensory preconditioning procedures identify a specific role for the hippocampus in pattern completion

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu-Ching E.; Dumigan, Natasha M.; Good, Mark; Honey, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Successful retrieval of a memory for an entire pattern of stimulation by the presentation of a fragment of that pattern is a critical facet of memory function. We examined processes of pattern completion using novel sensory preconditioning procedures in rats that had either received sham lesions (group Sham) or lesions of the hippocampus (group HPC). After exposure to two audio-visual patterns (AX and BY) rats received fear conditioning with X (but not Y). Subsequent tests assessed fear to stimulus compounds (e.g., AX versus BX; Experiment 1) or elements (A versus B; Experiment 2). There was more fear to AX than BX in group Sham but not group HPC, while there was more fear to A than B in group HPC, but not in group Sham. This double dissociation suggests that pattern completion can be based upon separable processes that differ in their reliance on the hippocampus. PMID:26911788

  8. Regular Alcohol Consumption Mimics Cardiac Preconditioning by Protecting against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamae, Masami; Diamond, Ivan; Weiner, Michael W.; Camacho, S. Albert; Figueredo, Vincent M.

    1997-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that long-term alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of coronary disease and may improve outcome after myocardial infarction. Attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury after myocardial infarction improves survival. This study investigates the possibility that alcohol consumption can improve survival after myocardial infarction by reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hearts were isolated from guinea pigs after drinking ethanol for 3-12 weeks and subjected to global ischemia and reperfusion. Hearts from animals drinking ethanol showed improved functional recovery and decreased myocyte damage when compared with controls. Adenosine A1 receptor blockade abolished the protection provided by ethanol consumption. These findings indicate that long-term alcohol consumption reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and that adenosine A1 receptors are required for this protective effect of ethanol. This cardioprotective effect of long-term alcohol consumption mimics preconditioning and may, in part, account for the beneficial effect of moderate drinking on cardiac health.

  9. Second window of preconditioning normalizes palmitate use for oxidation and improves function during low-flow ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Kudej, Raymond K.; Fasano, Mathew; Zhao, Xin; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Fischer, Susan K.; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Vatner, Stephen F.; Lewandowski, E. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Aims Although a major mechanism for cardioprotection is altered metabolism, little is known regarding metabolic changes in ischaemic preconditioning and subsequent ischaemia. Our objective was to examine the effects of the second window of preconditioning (SWOP), the delayed phase of preconditioning against infarction and stunning, on long-chain free fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation during ischaemia in chronically instrumented, conscious pigs. Methods and results We studied three groups: (i) normal baseline perfusion (n = 5); (ii) coronary artery stenosis (CAS; n = 5); (iii) CAS 24 h following 2 × 10 min coronary occlusions and 10 min reperfusion (n = 7). Ischaemia was induced by a left anterior descending (LAD) stenosis (40% flow reduction) for 90 min, dropping systolic wall thickening by 72%. LCFA oxidation was assessed following LAD infusion of 13C palmitate, i.e. during control or stenosis, by in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance of the sampled myocardium. Stenosis reduced subendocardial blood flow subendocardially, but not subepicardial, yet induced transmural reductions in LCFA oxidation and increased non-oxidative glycolysis. During stenosis, preconditioned hearts showed normalized contributions of LCFA to oxidative ATP synthesis, despite increased lactate accumulation. SWOP induced a shift towards LCFA oxidation during stenosis, despite increased malonyl-CoA, and marked protection of contractile function with a significant improvement in systolic wall thickening. Conclusion Thus, the second window of preconditioning normalized oxidative metabolism of LCFA during subsequent ischaemia despite elevated non-oxidative glycolysis and malonyl-CoA and was linked to protection of regional contractile function resulting in improved mechanical performance. Interestingly, the metabolic responses occurred transmurally while ischaemia was restricted solely to the subendocardium. PMID:21835931

  10. Fatigue preconditioning increases fatigue resistance in mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscles with non-functioning K(ATP) channels.

    PubMed

    Boudreault, Louise; Cifelli, Carlo; Bourassa, Franois; Scott, Kyle; Renaud, Jean-Marc

    2010-11-15

    The objective of this study was to determine how an initial fatigue bout (FAT1 at 37C) affects free myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration and force ([Ca(2+)](i)/force) during a subsequent fatigue bout (FAT2) in mouse flexor digitorum brevis (FDB). During FAT1, both tetanic [Ca(2+)](i)/force decreased; however, they decreased to significantly lower levels when FAT1 was carried out in the presence of glibenclamide, a sarcolemmal K(ATP) (sK(ATP)) channel blocker. Glibenclamide also elicited greater increases in unstimulated [Ca(2+)](i)/force, which occurred when fibres failed to fully relax between contractions during FAT1. Finally, glibenclamide impaired force recovery after FAT1. The decreases in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i)/force and increases in unstimulated [Ca(2+)](i)/force were slower during FAT2 elicited 60 min after FAT1. Under control conditions, the effects were small with very few significant differences. In the presence of glibenclamide, on the other hand, the differences between FAT1 and FAT2 were very large. Unexpectedly, the differences in unstimulated and tetanic [Ca(2+)](i)/force between control and glibenclamide conditions observed during FAT1 were no longer observed during FAT2. The lack of differences was not related to a failure of glibenclamide to block K(ATP) channels during FAT2 because the effects of FAT1 on FAT2 were also observed using Kir6.2(-/-) mouse FDB, which lack sK(ATP) channel activity. The differences in [Ca(2+)](i)/force between FAT1 and FAT2 could be observed with FAT1 duration of just 30 s and a FAT1-FAT2 interval of at least 30 min. A modulation of factors involved in ischaemic pre-conditioning, i.e. A1-adenosine receptors, sK(ATP) and mitochondrial K(ATP) (mK(ATP)) channels, PKC and reactive oxygen species, during FAT1 had no effect on FAT2 fatigue kinetics. It is concluded that a preceding fatigue bout triggers an acute physiological process that prevents the contractile dysfunction induced by non-functioning K(ATP) channels. PMID:20855438

  11. Identifying the Source of a Humoral Factor of Remote (Pre)Conditioning Cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Mastitskaya, Svetlana; Basalay, Marina; Hosford, Patrick S; Ramage, Andrew G; Gourine, Andrey; Gourine, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Signalling pathways underlying the phenomenon of remote ischaemic preconditioning (RPc) cardioprotection are not completely understood. The existing evidence agrees that intact sensory innervation of the remote tissue/organ is required for the release into the systemic circulation of preconditioning factor(s) capable of protecting a transplanted or isolated heart. However, the source and molecular identities of these factors remain unknown. Since the efficacy of RPc cardioprotection is critically dependent upon vagal activity and muscarinic mechanisms, we hypothesized that the humoral RPc factor is produced by the internal organ(s), which receive rich parasympathetic innervation. In a rat model of myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury we determined the efficacy of limb RPc in establishing cardioprotection after denervation of various visceral organs by sectioning celiac, hepatic, anterior and posterior gastric branches of the vagus nerve. Electrical stimulation was applied to individually sectioned branches to determine whether enhanced vagal input to a particular target area is sufficient to establish cardioprotection. It was found that RPc cardioprotection is abolished in conditions of either total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, gastric vagotomy or sectioning of the posterior gastric branch. The efficacy of RPc cardioprotection was preserved when hepatic, celiac or anterior gastric vagal branches were cut. In the absence of remote ischaemia/reperfusion, electrical stimulation of the posterior gastric branch reduced infarct size, mimicking the effect of RPc. These data suggest that the circulating factor (or factors) of RPc are produced and released into the systemic circulation by the visceral organ(s) innervated by the posterior gastric branch of the vagus nerve. PMID:26918777

  12. Hypoxic preconditioning with cobalt attenuates hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative damage in rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dhananjay; Saxena, Saurabh; Jayamurthy, Purushotman; Sairam, Mustoori; Singh, Mrinalini; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Bansal, Anju; Ilavazaghan, Govindaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Shukla, Dhananjay, Saurabh Saxena, Purushotman Jayamurthy, Mustoori Sairam, Mrinalini, Singh, Swatantra Kumar Jain, Anju Bansal, and Govindaswamy Ilavazaghan. High Alt. Med. Biol. 10:57-69, 2009.-Hypoxic preco759nditioning (HPC) provides robust protection against injury from subsequent prolonged hypobaric hypoxia, which is a characteristic of high altitude and is known to induce oxidative injury in lung by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing the effectiveness of the antioxidant defense system. We hypothesize that HPC with cobalt might protect the lung from subsequent hypobaric hypoxia-induced lung injury. HPC with cobalt can be achieved by oral feeding of CoCl(2) (12.5 mg kg(-1)) in rats for 7 days. Nonpreconditioned rats responded to hypobaric hypoxia (7619 m) by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio. They also showed a marked increase in lipid peroxidation, heat-shock proteins (HSP32, HSP70), metallothionins (MT), levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, MCP-1), and SOD, GPx, and GST enzyme activity. In contrast, rats preconditioned with cobalt were far less impaired by severe hypobaric hypoxia, as observed by decreased ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokine release and an inceased GSH/GSSG ratio. Increased expression of antioxidative proeins Nrf-1, HSP-32, and MT was also observed in cobalt- preconditioned animals. A marked increase in the protein expression and DNA binding activity of hypoxia-inducible transcriptional factor (HIF-1alpha) and its regulated genes, such as erythropoietin (EPO) and glucose transporter-1 (glut-1), was observed after HPC with cobalt. We conclude that HPC with cobalt enhances antioxidant status in the lung and protects from subsequent hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19278353

  13. CCL2 Mediates Neuron-Macrophage Interactions to Drive Proregenerative Macrophage Activation Following Preconditioning Injury.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min Jung; Shin, Hae Young; Cui, Yuexian; Kim, Hyosil; Thi, Anh Hong Le; Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Eun Young; Hwang, Dong Hoon; Kim, Byung Gon

    2015-12-01

    CNS neurons in adult mammals do not spontaneously regenerate axons after spinal cord injury. Preconditioning peripheral nerve injury allows the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory axons to regenerate beyond the injury site by promoting expression of regeneration-associated genes. We have previously shown that peripheral nerve injury increases the number of macrophages in the DRGs and that the activated macrophages are critical to the enhancement of intrinsic regeneration capacity. The present study identifies a novel chemokine signal mediated by CCL2 that links regenerating neurons with proregenerative macrophage activation. Neutralization of CCL2 abolished the neurite outgrowth activity of conditioned medium obtained from neuron-macrophage cocultures treated with cAMP. The neuron-macrophage interactions that produced outgrowth-promoting conditioned medium required CCL2 in neurons and CCR2/CCR4 in macrophages. The conditioning effects were abolished in CCL2-deficient mice at 3 and 7 d after sciatic nerve injury, but CCL2 was dispensable for the initial growth response and upregulation of GAP-43 at the 1 d time point. Intraganglionic injection of CCL2 mimicked conditioning injury by mobilizing M2-like macrophages. Finally, overexpression of CCL2 in DRGs promoted sensory axon regeneration in a rat spinal cord injury model without harmful side effects. Our data suggest that CCL2-mediated neuron-macrophage interaction plays a critical role for amplification and maintenance of enhanced regenerative capacity by preconditioning peripheral nerve injury. Manipulation of chemokine signaling mediating neuron-macrophage interactions may represent a novel therapeutic approach to promote axon regeneration after CNS injury. PMID:26631474

  14. Effect of a prior bout of preconditioning exercise on muscle damage from downhill walking.

    PubMed

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Ochi, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated whether reduced-duration downhill walking (DW) would confer a protective effect against muscle damage induced by a subsequent bout of longer duration DW performed 1 week or 4 weeks later. Healthy young adults were allocated to a control or one of the preconditioning exercise (PRE-1wk or PRE-4wk) groups (10 men and 4 women per group). PRE-1wk and PRE-4wk groups performed 20-min DW (-28% slope, 5 km/h, 10% body mass added to a backpack) 1 week and 4 weeks before 40-min DW, respectively, and the control group performed 40-min DW only. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) knee extension torque, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, and muscle soreness (100-mm visual analog scale) were measured before, immediately after, and 24, 48, and 72 h after DW, and the changes in these variables were compared among groups. The control group showed symptoms of muscle damage (e.g., prolonged decrease in MVC: -14% 10% at 48 h post-DW) after 40-min DW. Changes in all variables after 40-min DW of PRE-1wk and PRE-4wk groups were 54%-61% smaller (P < 0.05) than the control group, without significant differences between PRE-1wk and PRE-4wk groups for MVC and plasma CK activity. Importantly, changes after the preconditioning exercise (20-min DW) were 67%-69% smaller (P < 0.05) than those after the 40-min DW of the control group. These findings suggest that 20-min DW resulting in minor muscle damage conferred a protective effect against subsequent 40-min DW, and its effect could last for more than 4 weeks. PMID:25693898

  15. Preconditioning of model biocarriers by soluble pollutants: a QCM-D study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Ding, Li-li; Ren, Hong-qiang; Geng, Jin-ju; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Preconditioning of a biocarrier surface is the first step in triggering biofilm formation in attached-growth bioreactors. However, the quantification and control of this step as influenced by solution conditions and biocarrier properties have been rarely explored. In this paper, deposition behaviors of soluble pollutants on the model biocarriers polystyrene (PS) and polyamide (PA) were performed using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Three types of wastewater from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and 12 synthetic wastewaters with different configurations of model macromolecules (bovine serum albumin and sodium alginate) and ionic compositions (Na(+) and Ca(2+)) were prepared. Results showed that high organic contents (protein and humic acid) in real wastewater increased deposition compared to the impact of ions on the two types of carriers. For synthetic wastewater, an interesting phenomenon was observed in that the presence of Ca(2+) can transform a thin and rigid adlayer into a denser and viscoelastic one on the surface of PS with low organic contents, yet a viscoelastic adlayer can directly form on PS and an increase in the ionic strength hinders deposition in the presence of high organic contents. The deposition of solutes on PA produces a thicker and viscoelastic adlayer that is strengthened an elevated concentration of organic materials. Additionally, a weakening effect of Ca(2+) on deposition was revealed under high ionic strength. This is the first demonstration of control strategies for preconditioning hydrophilic and hydrophobic biocarriers under different water quality conditions and has important implications for the design of a start-up process for biofilm formation in attached-growth bioreactors. PMID:25785553

  16. Cardiac preconditioning with sphingosine-1-phosphate requires activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Laubscher, Roisin F; King, Jonathan C; Hacking, Damian; Somers, Sarin; Hastie, Samantha; Stewart, Tessa; Imamdin, Aqeela; Maarman, Gerald; Pedretti, Sarah; Lecour, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aims Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a cardioprotective agent. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) is a key mediator of many cardioprotective agents. We aimed to explore whether STAT-3 is a key mediator in S1P-induced preconditioning. Methods Langendorff-perfused hearts from Wistar rats and wild-type or cardiomyocyte-specific STAT-3 knockout mice were pre-treated with S1P (10 nmol/l), with or without the STAT-3 pathway inhibitor AG490, before an ischaemiareperfusion insult. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride and Evans blue staining were used for the determination of infarct size. Western blot analysis was carried out on the S1P pre-treated hearts for detection of cytosolic, nuclear and mitochondrial phosphorylated and total STAT-3 proteins. Results Pre-treatment with S1P decreased the infarct size in isolated rat (5 3% vs control 26 8%, p < 0.01) and wild-type mouse hearts (13 1% vs control 33 3%, p < 0.05). This protective effect was abolished in the rat hearts pre-treated with AG490 (30 10%, p = ns vs control) and in the hearts from STAT-3 knockout mice (35 4% vs control 30 3%, p = ns). Levels of phosphorylated STAT-3 were significantly increased in both the nuclear (p < 0.05 vs control) and mitochondrial (p < 0.05 vs control) fractions in the S1P pre-treated hearts, but remained unchanged in the cytosolic fraction (p = ns vs control). Conclusion These novel results demonstrate that pharmacological preconditioning with S1P in the isolated heart is mediated by activation of mitochondrial and nuclear STAT-3, therefore suggesting that S1P may be a novel therapeutic target to modulate mitochondrial and nuclear function in cardiovascular disease in order to protect the heart against ischaemiareperfusion. PMID:25000441

  17. The Protective Effect of Remote Renal Preconditioning Against Hippocampal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Role of KATP Channels.

    PubMed

    Mehrjerdi, Fatemeh Zare; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Ajami, Marjan; Khaksari, Mehdi; Safari, Fatemeh; Habibey, Rouhollah

    2015-12-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), which consists of several brief ischemia/reperfusion applied at the remote site of lethal ischemia reperfusion, can, through activating different mechanisms, increase the ability of the body's endogenous protection against prolonged ischemia/reperfusion. Recent studies have shown that RIPC has neuroprotective effects, but its mechanisms are not well elucidated. The present study aimed to determine whether activation of KATP channels in remote renal preconditioning decreases hippocampus damage induced by global cerebral ischemia. RIPC was induced by ischemia of the left renal artery (IPC); 24 h later, global cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) was induced by common carotid arteries occlusion. 5hydroxydecanoate (5HD) and glibenclamide (Gli) were injected before of IPC. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) activity were assessed in hippocampus. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was assessed to detect apoptotic cells in hippocampus. RIPC inhibited apoptosis by decreasing positive TUNEL cells (P < 0.05). KATP channels blocking with 5HD and Gli markedly increased apoptosis in hippocampal cells in RIPC group (P < 0.001). RIPC decreased MDA level and increased CAT activity in ischemic hippocampus (P < 0.01). Also, 5HD and Gli inhibited the effect of RIPC on MDA level and CAT activity (P < 0.05). The present study shows that RIPC can effectively attenuate programmed cell death, increase activity of CAT, and reduce MDA levels. Blocking of KATP channels inhibited the protective effects of RIPC. PMID:26254913

  18. Cardiac-specific overexpression of caveolin-3 induces endogenous cardiac protection by mimicking ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Yasuo M.; Horikawa, Yousuke T.; Jennings, Michelle M.; Kidd, Michael W.; Niesman, Ingrid R.; Yokoyama, Utako; Head, Brian P.; Hagiwara, Yasuko; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Patel, Piyush M.; Insel, Paul A.; Patel, Hemal H.; Roth, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Caveolae, lipid-rich microdomains of the sarcolemma, localize and enrich cardiac protective signaling molecules. Caveolin-3 (Cav-3), the dominant isoform in cardiac myocytes, is a determinant of caveolae formation. We hypothesized that cardiac myocyte-specific overexpression of Cav-3 would enhance the formation of caveolae and augment cardiac protection in vivo. Methods and Results Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in vivo increased formation of caveolae. Adenovirus for Cav-3 increased caveolar formation and phosphorylation of survival kinases in cardiac myocytes. A transgenic (TG) mouse with cardiac myocyte-specific overexpression of Cav-3 (Cav-3 OE) showed enhanced formation of caveolae on the sarcolemma. Cav-3 OE mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury had a significantly reduced infarct size relative to TGneg mice. Endogenous cardiac protection in Cav-3 OE mice was similar to wild-type mice undergoing IPC; no increased protection was observed in preconditioned Cav-3 OE mice. Cav-3 knockout mice did not show endogenous protection and showed no protection in response to IPC. Cav-3 OE mouse hearts had increased basal Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation comparable to wild-type mice exposed to IPC. Wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, attenuated basal phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β and blocked cardiac protection in Cav-3 OE mice. Cav-3 OE mice had improved functional recovery and reduced apoptosis at 24 h of reperfusion. Conclusion Expression of caveolin-3 is both necessary and sufficient for cardiac protection, a conclusion that unites long-standing ultrastructural and molecular observations in the ischemic heart. The current results indicate that increased expression of caveolins, apparently via actions that depend on PI3K, has the potential to protect hearts exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:18936328

  19. Role of Endogenous Opioid System in Ischemic-Induced Late Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Fraessdorf, Jan; Hollmann, Markus W.; Hanschmann, Iris; Heinen, André; Weber, Nina C.; Preckel, Benedikt; Huhn, Ragnar

    2015-01-01

    Background Opioid receptors (OR) are involved in myocardial late preconditioning (LPC) induced by morphine and δ1-opioid receptor (δ1-OR) agonists. The role of OR in ischemic-induced LPC is unknown. We investigated whether 1) OR are involved in the trigger and/or mediation phase of LPC and 2) a time course effect on the expression of different opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands exists. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups (each group n = 8). Awake animals were ischemic preconditioned by a 5 minutes coronary occlusion. 24 hours later, anesthetized animals underwent 25 minutes coronary occlusion followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. The role of OR was investigated by treatment with intraperitoneal naloxone (Nal) 10 minutes prior to LPC (Nal-LPC; trigger phase) or 10 min prior to sustained ischemia (LPC-Nal; mediation phase). Results LPC reduced infarct size from 61±10% in controls to 25±9% (P<0.001). Naloxone during trigger or mediation phase completely abolished LPC-induced cardioprotection (59±9% and 62±9%; P<0.001 vs. LPC). 8, 12 and 24 hours after the ischemic stimulus, expression of δ-OR in the heart was increased, whereas μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR) and κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR) were not. Plasma concentrations of β-endorphin and leu-enkephalin but not dynorphin were increased by LPC. Conclusion Ischemic LPC is triggererd and mediated by OR. Expression of δ-OR and plasma levels of endogenous opioid peptides are increased after ischemic LPC. PMID:26226627

  20. Environmental and Genetic Preconditioning for Long-Term Anoxia Responses Requires AMPK in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    LaRue, Bobby L.; Padilla, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Preconditioning environments or therapeutics, to suppress the cellular damage associated with severe oxygen deprivation, is of interest to our understanding of diseases associated with oxygen deprivation. Wildtype C. elegans exposed to anoxia enter into a state of suspended animation in which energy-requiring processes reversibly arrest. C. elegans at all developmental stages survive 24-hours of anoxia exposure however, the ability of adult hermaphrodites to survive three days of anoxia significantly decreases. Mutations in the insulin-like signaling receptor (daf-2) and LIN-12/Notch (glp-1) lead to an enhanced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we show that the combined growth environment of 25°C and a diet of HT115 E. coli will precondition adult hermaphrodites to survive long-term anoxia; many of these survivors have normal movement after anoxia treatment. Animals fed the drug metformin, which induces a dietary-restriction like state in animals and activates AMPK in mammalian cell culture, have a higher survival rate when exposed to long-term anoxia. Mutations in genes encoding components of AMPK (aak-2, aakb-1, aakb-2, aakg-2) suppress the environmentally and genetically induced long-term anoxia survival phenotype. We further determine that there is a correlation between the animals that survive long-term anoxia and increased levels of carminic acid staining, which is a fluorescent dye that incorporates in with carbohydrates such as glycogen. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that small changes in growth conditions such as increased temperature and food source can influence the physiology of the animal thus affecting the responses to stress such as anoxia. Furthermore, this supports the idea that metformin should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for treatment of oxygen-deprived tissues. Finally, the capacity for an animal to survive long bouts of severe oxygen deprivation is likely dependent on specific subunits of the heterotrimeric protein AMPK and energy stores such as carbohydrates. PMID:21304820

  1. Tumor cell hyperresistance to photodynamic killing arising from nitric oxide preconditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niziolek-Kierecka, Magdalena; Korytowski, Witold; Girotti, Albert W.

    2007-02-01

    Relatively little is known about how nitric oxide (NO) generated by tumor vascular cells or tumor cells themselves might affect the outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Using a breast tumor epithelial line (COH-BR1) metabolically sensitized with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) by pre-treating with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), we have recently shown that NO from chemical donors can elicit both an immediate (NO-now) and delayed (NO-then) hyperresistance to photokilling. Cell death was mainly apoptotic when PpIX was confined to mitochondria, but mainly necrotic when it was allowed to diffuse to the cell periphery. We found that NO-now operates primarily by scavenging lipid-derived free radicals, whereas NO-then "preconditions" cells by some other mechanism. In addressing this, we have used a biologically relevant NO donor/tumor target model, viz. RAW 264.7 macrophages grown on microporous membrane inserts and COH-BR1 cells grown in culture plate wells. The RAW cells were activated with lipopolysaccharide, and 15 h later (when NO output was ~ 2 μM/h) placed over the tumor cells for 20 h, after which the latter were ALA-treated and then irradiated. Prior exposure to activated RAW macrophages reduced tumor cell photokilling by >50 %. This effect was completely lost when the RAW cells were pre-treated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, confirming that NO was involved in the hyperresistance. Results from other experiments suggest that heme oxygenase-1 and ferritin play a role in the preconditioning effect described. These studies provide new insights into how NO might modulate PDT efficacy.

  2. Quantification of neurovascular protection following repetitive hypoxic preconditioning and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Poinsatte, Katherine; Selvaraj, Uma Maheswari; Ortega, Sterling B; Plautz, Erik J; Kong, Xiangmei; Gidday, Jeffrey M; Stowe, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    Experimental animal models of stroke are invaluable tools for understanding stroke pathology and developing more effective treatment strategies. A 2 week protocol for repetitive hypoxic preconditioning (RHP) induces long-term protection against central nervous system (CNS) injury in a mouse model of focal ischemic stroke. RHP consists of 9 stochastic exposures to hypoxia that vary in both duration (2 or 4 hr) and intensity (8% and 11% O2). RHP reduces infarct volumes, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and the post-stroke inflammatory response for weeks following the last exposure to hypoxia, suggesting a long-term induction of an endogenous CNS-protective phenotype. The methodology for the dual quantification of infarct volume and BBB disruption is effective in assessing neurovascular protection in mice with RHP or other putative neuroprotectants. Adult male Swiss Webster mice were preconditioned by RHP or duration-equivalent exposures to 21% O2 (i.e. room air). A 60 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) was induced 2 weeks following the last hypoxic exposure. Both the occlusion and reperfusion were confirmed by transcranial laser Doppler flowmetry. Twenty-two hr after reperfusion, Evans Blue (EB) was intravenously administered through a tail vein injection. 2 hr later, animals were sacrificed by isoflurane overdose and brain sections were stained with 2,3,5- triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). Infarcts volumes were then quantified. Next, EB was extracted from the tissue over 48 hr to determine BBB disruption after tMCAo. In summary, RHP is a simple protocol that can be replicated, with minimal cost, to induce long-term endogenous neurovascular protection from stroke injury in mice, with the translational potential for other CNS-based and systemic pro-inflammatory disease states. PMID:25993394

  3. Muscle ischemic preconditioning does not improve performance during self-paced exercise.

    PubMed

    Tocco, F; Marongiu, E; Ghiani, G; Sanna, I; Palazzolo, G; Olla, S; Pusceddu, M; Sanna, P; Corona, F; Concu, A; Crisafulli, A

    2015-01-01

    Muscle ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been found to improve exercise performance in laboratory tests. This investigation aims at verifying whether performance is improved by IP during self-paced exercise (SPE) in the field. 11 well-trained male runners performed 3 randomly assigned 5 000 m self-paced running tests on an outdoor track. One was the reference (RT) test, while the others were performed following muscle IP (IPT) and a control sham test (ST). Average speeds were measured during each test. Mean values in oxygen uptake (VO2), aerobic energy cost (AEC) during race and post-race blood lactate (BLa) were gathered. Data showed that none of the studied variables were affected by IPT or ST with respect to the RT test. Average speeds were 4.63±0.31, 4.62±0.31 and 4.60±0.25 m·s(-1) for the RT, the ST and the IPT tests, respectively. Moreover, there was no difference among tests in speed reached during each lap. VO2 was 3.5±0.69, 3.74±0.85 and 3.62±1.19 l·min(-1). AEC was 1.04±0.15, 1.08±0.1 and 1.09±0.15 kcal·kg(-1)·km(-1). Finally, post-race BLa levels reached 12.85±3.54, 11.88±4.74 and 12.82±3.6 mmol·l(-1). These findings indicate that performance during SPE is not ameliorated by ischemic preconditioning, thereby indicating that IP is not suitable as an ergogenic aid. PMID:25264861

  4. A pre-conditioned implicit direct forcing based immersed boundary method for incompressible viscous flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunwook; Pan, Xiaomin; Lee, Changhoon; Choi, Jung-Il

    2016-06-01

    A novel immersed boundary (IB) method based on an implicit direct forcing (IDF) scheme is developed for incompressible viscous flows. The key idea for the present IDF method is to use a block LU decomposition technique in momentum equations with Taylor series expansion to construct the implicit IB forcing in a recurrence form, which imposes more accurate no-slip boundary conditions on the IB surface. To accelerate the IB forcing convergence during the iterative procedure, a pre-conditioner matrix is introduced in the recurrence formulation of the IB forcing. A Jacobi-type parameter is determined in the pre-conditioner matrix by minimizing the Frobenius norm of the matrix function representing the difference between the IB forcing solution matrix and the pre-conditioner matrix. In addition, the pre-conditioning parameter is restricted due to the numerical stability in the recurrence formulation. Consequently, the present pre-conditioned IDF (PIDF) enables accurate calculation of the IB forcing within a few iterations. We perform numerical simulations of two-dimensional flows around a circular cylinder and three-dimensional flows around a sphere for low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The result shows that PIDF yields a better imposition of no-slip boundary conditions on the IB surfaces for low Reynolds number with a fairly larger time step than IB methods with different direct forcing schemes due to the implicit treatment of the diffusion term for determining the IB forcing. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of the present PIDF scheme by numerical simulations of flow around a circular array of cylinders, flows around a falling sphere, and two sedimenting spheres in gravity.

  5. Sulforaphane Preconditioning Sensitizes Human Colon Cancer Cells towards the Bioreductive Anticancer Prodrug PR-104A.

    PubMed

    Erzinger, Melanie M; Bovet, Cédric; Hecht, Katrin M; Senger, Sabine; Winiker, Pascale; Sobotzki, Nadine; Cristea, Simona; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Shay, Jerry W; Marra, Giancarlo; Wollscheid, Bernd; Sturla, Shana J

    2016-01-01

    The chemoprotective properties of sulforaphane (SF), derived from cruciferous vegetables, are widely acknowledged to arise from its potent induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes. However, much less is known about the impact of SF on the efficacy of cancer therapy through the modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes. To identify proteins modulated by a low concentration of SF, we treated HT29 colon cancer cells with 2.5 μM SF. Protein abundance changes were detected by stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture. Among 18 proteins found to be significantly up-regulated, aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3), bioactivating the DNA cross-linking prodrug PR-104A, was further characterized. Preconditioning HT29 cells with SF reduced the EC50 of PR-104A 3.6-fold. The increase in PR-104A cytotoxicity was linked to AKR1C3 abundance and activity, both induced by SF in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was reproducible in a second colon cancer cell line, SW620, but not in other colon cancer cell lines where AKR1C3 abundance and activity were absent or barely detectable and could not be induced by SF. Interestingly, SF had no significant influence on PR-104A cytotoxicity in non-cancerous, immortalized human colonic epithelial cell lines expressing either low or high levels of AKR1C3. In conclusion, the enhanced response of PR-104A after preconditioning with SF was apparent only in cancer cells provided that AKR1C3 is expressed, while its expression in non-cancerous cells did not elicit such a response. Therefore, a subset of cancers may be susceptible to combined food-derived component and prodrug treatments with no harm to normal tissues. PMID:26950072

  6. Identifying the Source of a Humoral Factor of Remote (Pre)Conditioning Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Mastitskaya, Svetlana; Basalay, Marina; Hosford, Patrick S.; Ramage, Andrew G.; Gourine, Andrey; Gourine, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Signalling pathways underlying the phenomenon of remote ischaemic preconditioning (RPc) cardioprotection are not completely understood. The existing evidence agrees that intact sensory innervation of the remote tissue/organ is required for the release into the systemic circulation of preconditioning factor(s) capable of protecting a transplanted or isolated heart. However, the source and molecular identities of these factors remain unknown. Since the efficacy of RPc cardioprotection is critically dependent upon vagal activity and muscarinic mechanisms, we hypothesized that the humoral RPc factor is produced by the internal organ(s), which receive rich parasympathetic innervation. In a rat model of myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury we determined the efficacy of limb RPc in establishing cardioprotection after denervation of various visceral organs by sectioning celiac, hepatic, anterior and posterior gastric branches of the vagus nerve. Electrical stimulation was applied to individually sectioned branches to determine whether enhanced vagal input to a particular target area is sufficient to establish cardioprotection. It was found that RPc cardioprotection is abolished in conditions of either total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, gastric vagotomy or sectioning of the posterior gastric branch. The efficacy of RPc cardioprotection was preserved when hepatic, celiac or anterior gastric vagal branches were cut. In the absence of remote ischaemia/reperfusion, electrical stimulation of the posterior gastric branch reduced infarct size, mimicking the effect of RPc. These data suggest that the circulating factor (or factors) of RPc are produced and released into the systemic circulation by the visceral organ(s) innervated by the posterior gastric branch of the vagus nerve. PMID:26918777

  7. Subcutaneous preconditioning increases invasion and metastatic dissemination in mouse colorectal cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Alamo, Patricia; Gallardo, Alberto; Pavón, Miguel A.; Casanova, Isolda; Trias, Manuel; Mangues, Maria A.; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio; Mangues, Ramon; Céspedes, Maria V.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse colorectal cancer (CRC) models generated by orthotopic microinjection of human CRC cell lines reproduce the pattern of lymphatic, haematological and transcoelomic spread but generate low metastatic efficiency. Our aim was to develop a new strategy that could increase the metastatic efficiency of these models. We used subcutaneous implantation of the human CRC cell lines HCT116 or SW48 prior to their orthotopic microinjection in the cecum of nude mice (SC+ORT). This subcutaneous preconditioning significantly enhanced metastatic dissemination. In the HCT116 model it increased the number and size of metastatic foci in lymph nodes, lung, liver and peritoneum, whereas, in the SW48 model, it induced a shift from non-metastatic to metastatic. In both models the number of apoptotic bodies in the primary tumour in the SC+ORT group was significantly reduced compared with that in the direct orthotopic injection (ORT) group. Moreover, in HCT116 tumours the number of keratin-positive tumour buddings and single epithelial cells increased at the invasion front in SC+ORT mice. In the SW48 tumour model, we observed a trend towards a higher number of tumour buds and single cells in the SC+ORT group but this did not reach statistical significance. At a molecular level, the enhanced metastatic efficiency observed in the HCT116 SC+ORT model was associated with an increase in AKT activation, VEGF-A overexpression and downregulation of β1 integrin in primary tumour tissue, whereas, in SW48 SC+ORT mice, the level of expression of these proteins remained unchanged. In summary, subcutaneous preconditioning increased the metastatic dissemination of both orthotopic CRC models by increasing tumour cell survival and invasion at the tumour invasion front. This approach could be useful to simultaneously study the mechanisms of metastases and to evaluate anti-metastatic drugs against CRC. PMID:24487410

  8. Sulforaphane Preconditioning Sensitizes Human Colon Cancer Cells towards the Bioreductive Anticancer Prodrug PR-104A

    PubMed Central

    Erzinger, Melanie M.; Bovet, Cédric; Hecht, Katrin M.; Senger, Sabine; Winiker, Pascale; Sobotzki, Nadine; Cristea, Simona; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Shay, Jerry W.; Marra, Giancarlo; Wollscheid, Bernd; Sturla, Shana J.

    2016-01-01

    The chemoprotective properties of sulforaphane (SF), derived from cruciferous vegetables, are widely acknowledged to arise from its potent induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes. However, much less is known about the impact of SF on the efficacy of cancer therapy through the modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes. To identify proteins modulated by a low concentration of SF, we treated HT29 colon cancer cells with 2.5 μM SF. Protein abundance changes were detected by stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture. Among 18 proteins found to be significantly up-regulated, aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3), bioactivating the DNA cross-linking prodrug PR-104A, was further characterized. Preconditioning HT29 cells with SF reduced the EC50 of PR-104A 3.6-fold. The increase in PR-104A cytotoxicity was linked to AKR1C3 abundance and activity, both induced by SF in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was reproducible in a second colon cancer cell line, SW620, but not in other colon cancer cell lines where AKR1C3 abundance and activity were absent or barely detectable and could not be induced by SF. Interestingly, SF had no significant influence on PR-104A cytotoxicity in non-cancerous, immortalized human colonic epithelial cell lines expressing either low or high levels of AKR1C3. In conclusion, the enhanced response of PR-104A after preconditioning with SF was apparent only in cancer cells provided that AKR1C3 is expressed, while its expression in non-cancerous cells did not elicit such a response. Therefore, a subset of cancers may be susceptible to combined food-derived component and prodrug treatments with no harm to normal tissues. PMID:26950072

  9. Tuberculosis Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Tuberculosis > Understanding TB Tuberculosis Understanding TB Overview What is TB? TB in History Cause Transmission and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention TB ...

  10. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  11. Preventing stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk factors that you can control will help you live a longer, healthier life. This is called preventive care. An important way to help prevent stroke is to see your doctor for regular ... will want to see you at least once a year. Ask your doctor ...

  12. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  13. Preventing ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Beitler, Jeremy R.; Schoenfeld, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in critical care practice have led to a substantial decline in the incidence of ARDS over the past several years. Low tidal volume ventilation, timely resuscitation and antimicrobial administration, restrictive transfusion practices, and primary prevention of aspiration and nosocomial pneumonia have likely contributed to this reduction. Despite decades of research, there is no proven pharmacologic treatment of ARDS, and mortality from ARDS remains high. Consequently, recent initiatives have broadened the scope of lung injury research to include targeted prevention of ARDS. Prediction scores have been developed to identify patients at risk for ARDS, and clinical trials testing aspirin and inhaled budesonide/formoterol for ARDS prevention are ongoing. Future trials aimed at preventing ARDS face several key challenges. ARDS has not been validated as an end point for pivotal clinical trials, and caution is needed when testing toxic therapies that may prevent ARDS yet potentially increase mortality. PMID:25288000

  14. Comparison of feed additive technologies for preconditioning of weaned beef calves.

    PubMed

    Hersom, M; Imler, A; Thrift, T; Yelich, J; Arthington, J

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the response of weaned calves to different supplemental feed additives in a supplement to affect calf performance and mitigate stress response observed during weaning and preconditioning. At weaning in each of 2 yr, 160 Angus and Brangus calves (203 and 227 ± 2.3 and 2.5 kg) were stratified by BW, sex, and breed and were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments ( = 40 calves/treatment): 1) supplement without feed additives (control, CON), 2) supplemented with chlortetracycline, 350 mg/d (CTC), 3) supplemented with monensin, 175 mg/d (RUM), and 4) supplemented with rumen modifier, 5 g/d (ACT). Calves were held by treatment in 1 of 4 drylot pens for 7 d after weaning and were offered ad libitum access to hay and 2.27 kg/d of supplement before placement in one of thirty-two 0.8-ha pastures (5 calves/pasture). On pasture calves were supplemented with 2.27 kg/d (yr 1) or supplemented at 1.0% BW (yr 2). Calf BW and blood samples were collected following weaning (d 0, 1, 4, 7, 11 in yr 1; d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 in yr 2), at the conclusion of the preconditioning period (d 50, 51 in yr 2), and after transportation (d 52, 55, 59, 65 in yr 2) for analysis of acute phase protein (APP) concentrations. In yr 2, after 44 d on pasture, calves were loaded on 2 semitrucks and transported for 24 h. On return, calves were placed in 4 pastures with hay and fed their respective supplements for 14 d. For each year, data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the main effect of treatment, and pasture was the experimental unit. All variables quantified by day were analyzed using repeated measures. In yr 1, ACT and CTC had greater (P <0.05) 52-d ADG than RUM, whereas CON was intermediate. However, in yr 2, over the 50-d postweaning period there was no difference (P = 0.20; 0.52 kg/d) in ADG response among treatments. After transportation, 7- and 14-d ADG were improved (P < 0.05) for ACT and CTC compared with CON and RUM. In both years, postweaning plasma concentrations of haptoglobin were similar (P > 0.05) among treatments; however an effect of day after transport (P < 0.001) was observed. Feed cost of gain and income over production cost (P ≥ 0.15; mean = $0.51/kg and $73.51, respectively) were not different among treatments. Use of supplemental additives may improve calf performance during a preconditioning period of this duration, but no additive was effective at mitigating stress postweaning. Additives were equally effective in supporting calf growth performance during a posttransportation period. PMID:26115303

  15. Melatonin inhibits postischemic matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation via dual modulation of plasminogen/plasmin system and endogenous MMP inhibitor in mice subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tai, Shih-Huang; Chen, Hung-Yi; Lee, E-Jian; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Hung, Yu-Chang; Huang, Sheng-Yang; Chen, Ying-Hsin; Lee, Wei-Ting; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2010-11-01

    We have shown that melatonin attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the risk of hemorrhagic transformation following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Herein, we investigate the possible involvement of the plasminogen/plasmin system and endogenous MMPs inhibitor underlying the melatonin-mediated MMP-9 inhibition. Mice were subjected to 1-hr ischemia and 48-hr reperfusion of the right middle cerebral artery. Melatonin (5 mg/kg) or vehicle was intravenously injected upon reperfusion. Brain infarction and hemorrhagic transformation were measured. Extracellular matrix damage was determined by Western immunoblot analysis for laminin protein. The activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by gelatin zymography, in situ zymography, and Western immunoblot analysis. In addition, the activities of tissue and urokinase plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA) were evaluated by plasminogen-dependent casein zymography. Endogenous plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1) were investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western immunoblot analysis, respectively. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced increased MMP-9 activity and expression at 12-48 hr after reperfusion onset. Relative to controls, melatonin-treated animals had significantly decreased MMP-9 activity and expression (P<0.05), in addition to reduced brain infarction and hemorrhagic transformation as well as improved laminin protein preservation. This melatonin-mediated MMP-9 inhibition was accompanied by reduced uPA activity (P<0.05), as well as increased TIMP-1 expression and PAI activity (P<0.05, respectively). These results demonstrate the melatonin's pluripotent mechanisms for attenuating postischemic MMP-9 activation and neurovascular damage, and further support it as an add-on to thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke patients. PMID:20663046

  16. Roles in Suicide Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Native Colleges and Universities Suicide Prevention Basics Share Suicide Prevention Basics Scope of the Problem Suicide Prevention ... Prevention Basics » Roles in Suicide Prevention Roles in Suicide Prevention Suicide prevention can—and should—take place ...

  17. Nonlinear preconditioning for efficient and accurate interface capturing in simulation of multicomponent compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ratnesh K.

    2014-11-01

    Single fluid schemes that rely on an interface function for phase identification in multicomponent compressible flows are widely used to study hydrodynamic flow phenomena in several diverse applications. Simulations based on standard numerical implementation of these schemes suffer from an artificial increase in the width of the interface function owing to the numerical dissipation introduced by an upwind discretization of the governing equations. In addition, monotonicity requirements which ensure that the sharp interface function remains bounded at all times necessitate use of low-order accurate discretization strategies. This results in a significant reduction in accuracy along with a loss of intricate flow features. In this paper we develop a nonlinear transformation based interface capturing method which achieves superior accuracy without compromising the simplicity, computational efficiency and robustness of the original flow solver. A nonlinear map from the signed distance function to the sigmoid type interface function is used to effectively couple a standard single fluid shock and interface capturing scheme with a high-order accurate constrained level set reinitialization method in a way that allows for oscillation-free transport of the sharp material interface. Imposition of a maximum principle, which ensures that the multidimensional preconditioned interface capturing method does not produce new maxima or minima even in the extreme events of interface merger or breakup, allows for an explicit determination of the interface thickness in terms of the grid spacing. A narrow band method is formulated in order to localize computations pertinent to the preconditioned interface capturing method. Numerical tests in one dimension reveal a significant improvement in accuracy and convergence; in stark contrast to the conventional scheme, the proposed method retains its accuracy and convergence characteristics in a shifted reference frame. Results from the test cases in two dimensions show that the nonlinear transformation based interface capturing method outperforms both the conventional method and an interface capturing method without nonlinear transformation in resolving intricate flow features such as sheet jetting in the shock-induced cavity collapse. The ability of the proposed method in accounting for the gravitational and surface tension forces besides compressibility is demonstrated through a model fully three-dimensional problem concerning droplet splash and formation of a crownlike feature.

  18. Effect of salinity barrier layer in the preconditioning and onset of El Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, C.; Picaut, J.; Belamari, S.

    2002-12-01

    Specific salinity stratification of the western Pacific warm pool known as the barrier layer has been proposed to be important in the coupling between sea surface temperature (SST) and winds leading to El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Thick barrier layer maintains surface waters warmer than 28C (the threshold for organized atmospheric convection) by reducing the entrainment cooling from below the ocean mixed layer. This mechanism allows an accumulation of heat in the upper ocean layers prior to El Nino. It also confines the forcing of westerly wind burst (WWB), the most accepted process as a trigger of El Nino, in a shallow mixed layer thus increasing the eastward displacement of the eastern edge of the warm pool. The importance of salinity barrier layer in the preconditioning phase characterized by high ocean heat content and in the onset phase characterized by high WWB activity is investigated using a general circulation coupled model of the tropical Pacific. coupled to a general circulation model. The Meteo-France/ARPEGE global atmospheric model coupled to the LODYC/OPA ocean model is able to reproduce self-sustained El Nino events together with WWBs. The methodology consists of removing the stratification effect of salinity in the vertical mixing parameterization. This cutoff is restricted to the western side of the equatorial band (4N-4S) where SST is larger than 28C. By removing the barrier layer, the main effect is to reduce the ocean heat content in the preconditioning period and to modify the ocean dynamics in response to WWBs in the onset period. Considering three El Nino events of different intensities, hindcasts show that interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere over the warm pool do not amplify and each El Nino is weakened or even aborted. A detailed analysis confirms that the physics of the warm pool such as vertical diffusion and horizontal advection is essential to set up the favorable conditions for the development of El Nino. For each event, a 5 additional members ensemble confirms that salinity stratification play a crucial and significant role during these initial phases of El Nino and that it should be considered in coupled models in order to improve El Nino forecasts.

  19. Pre-conditioning procedure suitable for internal-RF-antenna of J-PARC RF-driven H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, A.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Oguri, H.

    2016-02-01

    The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) cesiated RF-driven H- ion source has been successfully operated for about 1 yr. By the world brightest level beam, the J-PARC design beam power of 1 MW was successfully demonstrated. Although no internal-RF-antenna failure, except for the once caused by an excess cesium due to a misoperation, occurred in the operation, many antennas failed in pre-conditionings for the first hundred days. The antenna failure rate was drastically decreased by using an antenna with coating thicker than a standard value and the pre-conditioning procedure repeating 15 min 25 kW RF-power operation and impurity-gas evacuation a few times, before the full power (50 kW) operation.

  20. Pre-conditioning procedure suitable for internal-RF-antenna of J-PARC RF-driven H(-) ion source.

    PubMed

    Ueno, A; Ohkoshi, K; Ikegami, K; Takagi, A; Asano, H; Oguri, H

    2016-02-01

    The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) cesiated RF-driven H(-) ion source has been successfully operated for about 1 yr. By the world brightest level beam, the J-PARC design beam power of 1 MW was successfully demonstrated. Although no internal-RF-antenna failure, except for the once caused by an excess cesium due to a misoperation, occurred in the operation, many antennas failed in pre-conditionings for the first hundred days. The antenna failure rate was drastically decreased by using an antenna with coating thicker than a standard value and the pre-conditioning procedure repeating 15 min 25 kW RF-power operation and impurity-gas evacuation a few times, before the full power (50 kW) operation. PMID:26932011

  1. Involvement of GSK-3β in attenuation of the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in diabetic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Harlokesh Narayan; Singh, Manjeet; Sharma, P L

    2010-10-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) produces cardioprotection by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) that inhibits the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). The activity of glycogen GSK-3β is elevated during diabetes mellitus (DM). This study investigated the role of GSK-3β in attenuation of cardioprotective effect of IPC in diabetic rat. DM was induced by single administration of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg, i.p.). Isolated perfused heart was subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was estimated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) was analyzed in coronary effluent. IPC significantly decreased myocardial infarct size and release of LDH and CK-MB from normal rat heart. The cardioprotective effect of IPC was significantly attenuated in diabetic rat. Four episodes of preconditioning by either of GSK-3β inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl, 20 mM), indirubin-3 monooxime (1 μM), and SB216763 (3 μM) significantly reduced the LDH and CK-MB release and decreased infarct size in diabetic rat heart. Perfusion of atractyloside, an opener of MPTP, significantly attenuated, the cardioprotective effect of IPC in normal rat heart, and of GSK-3β inhibitor induced preconditioning in the DM rat heart. Our results suggest that preconditioning with GSK-3β inhibitors in diabetic rat heart may provide a more consistent cardioprotection, as compared to IPC. Also, the mechanism of diabetes mellitus-induced attenuation of cardioprotective effect of IPC involves activation of GSK-3β, due to impaired protective upstream signaling pathways and opening of MPTP during reperfusion. PMID:20512612

  2. Reactive oxygen species are not a required trigger for exercise-induced late preconditioning in the rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to play a primary role in triggering the cardioprotective adaptations by some preconditioning procedures, but whether they are required for exercise-induced preconditioning is unclear. Thus in this study we used the free radical scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (MPG) to test the hypothesis that ROS is the trigger for exercise-induced preconditioning of the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Male F344 rats were assigned to four groups: sedentary (SED, n = 7), SED/MPG (100 mg/kg ip daily for 2 days, n = 12), exercised on a treadmill for 2 days at 20 m/min, 6° grade, for 60 min (RUN, n = 7), and RUN/MPG with 100 mg/kg MPG injected 15 min before exercise (n = 10). Preliminary experiments verified that MPG administration maintained myocardial redox status during the exercise bout. Twenty-four hours postexercise or MPG treatment isolated perfused working hearts were subjected to global ischemia for 22.5 min followed by reperfusion for 30 min. Recovery of myocardial external work (percentage of preischemic systolic pressure times cardiac output) for SED (50.4 ± 4.5) and SED/RUN (54.7 ± 6.6) was similar and improved in both exercise groups (P < 0.05) to 77.9 ± 3.0 in RUN and 76.7 ± 4.5 in RUN/MPG. A 2 × 2 ANOVA also revealed that exercise decreased lactate dehydrogenase release from the heart during reperfusion (marker of cell damage) without MPG effects or interactions. Expression of the cytoprotective protein inducible heat shock protein 70 increased by similar amounts in the left ventricles of RUN and RUN/MPG compared with sedentary groups (P < 0.05). We conclude that ROS are not a necessary trigger for exercise-induced preconditioning in rats. PMID:22955056

  3. Successive overrelaxation, multigrid, and preconditioned conjugate gradients algorithms for solving a diffusion problem on a vector computer

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, J.; Mccormick, S.; Sweet, R.

    1983-11-01

    The authors discuss the treatment of three numerical algorithms: successive overrelaxation, multigrid and conjugate gradients preconditioned by a fast poisson solver for solving large but mildly behaved diffusion problems on a vector computer with memory-to-memory architecture. The problem is a symmetric nonnegative definite matrix equation arising from a cell-centered finite difference approximation of a 3-d diffusion equation with full Neumann boundary conditions. 9 references.

  4. Cardiac sodium/calcium exchanger preconditioning promotes anti-arrhythmic and cardioprotective effects through mitochondrial calcium-activated potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ying; Cheng, Kang; Lai, Dong; Kong, Ling-Heng; Shen, Min; Yi, Fu; Liu, Bing; Wu, Feng; Zhou, Jing-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reverse-mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) stimulation provides cardioprotective effects for the ischemic/reperfused heart during ischemic preconditioning (IP). This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pretreatment with an inhibitor of cardiac delayed-rectifying K+ channel (IKr), E4031, increases reverse-mode of NCX activity, and triggers preconditioning against infarct size (IS) and arrhythmias caused by ischemia/reperfusion injury through mitoKCa channels. Materials and methods: In the isolated perfused rat heart, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was created by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 120 min reperfusion. Two cycles of coronary occlusion for 5 min and reperfusion were performed, or pretreatment with E4031 or sevoflurane (Sevo) before the 30 min occlusion with the reversed-mode of NCX inhibitor (KB-R7943) or not. Results: E4031 or Sevo preconditioning not only markedly decreased IS but also reduced arrhythmias, which was significantly blunted by KB-R7943. Furthermore, these effects of E4031 preconditioning on IS and arrhythmias were abolished by inhibition of the mitoKCa channels. Similarly, pretreatment with NS1619, an opener of the mitoKCa channels, for 10 min before occlusion reduced both the infarct size and arrhythmias caused by ischemia/reperfusion. However, these effects werent affected by blockade of the NCX with KB-R7943. Conclusion: Taken together, these preliminary results conclude that pretreatment with E4031 reduces infarct size and produces anti-arrhythmic effect via stimulating the reverse-mode NCX, and that the mitoKCa channels mediate the protective effects. PMID:26617732

  5. The neuroprotective effects of preconditioning exercise on brain damage and neurotrophic factors after focal brain ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shotaro; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Sumizono, Megumi; Takada, Seiya; Terashi, Takuto; Yoshida, Yoshihiro

    2016-04-15

    Preconditioning exercise can exert neuroprotective effects after stroke. However, the mechanism underlying these neuroprotective effects by preconditioning exercise remains unclear. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of preconditioning exercise on brain damage and the expression levels of the midkine (MK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after brain ischemia. Animals were assigned to one of 4 groups: exercise and ischemia (Ex), no exercise and ischemia (No-Ex), exercise and no ischemia (Ex-only), and no exercise and intact (Control). Rats ran on a treadmill for 30min once a day at a speed of 25m/min for 5days a week for 3 weeks. After the exercise program, stroke was induced by a 60min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. The infarct volume, motor function, neurological deficits, and the cellular expressions levels of MK, BDNF, GFAP, PECAM-1, caspase 3, and nitrotyrosine (NT) were evaluated 48h after the induction of ischemia. The infarct volume, neurological deficits and motor function in the Ex group were significantly improved compared to that of the No-Ex group. The expression levels of MK, BDNF, GFAP, and PECAM-1 were enhanced in the Ex group compared to the expression levels in the No-Ex group after brain ischemia, while the expression levels of activated caspase 3 and NT were reduced in the area surrounding the necrotic lesion. Our findings suggest that preconditioning exercise reduced the infract volume and ameliorated motor function, enhanced expression levels of MK and BDNF, increased astrocyte proliferation, increased angiogenesis, and reduced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress. PMID:26808606

  6. ILUBCG2-11: Solution of 11-banded nonsymmetric linear equation systems by a preconditioned biconjugate gradient routine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-M.; Koniges, A. E.; Anderson, D. V.

    1989-10-01

    The biconjugate gradient method (BCG) provides an attractive alternative to the usual conjugate gradient algorithms for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations with nonsymmetric and indefinite matrix operators. A preconditioned algorithm is given, whose form resembles the incomplete L-U conjugate gradient scheme (ILUCG2) previously presented. Although the BCG scheme requires the storage of two additional vectors, it converges in a significantly lesser number of iterations (often half), while the number of calculations per iteration remains essentially the same.

  7. Prevent Shingles

    MedlinePlus

    ... will develop chickenpox, not shingles. Disease of the Week App "Want to know more about shingles? Download CDC's mobile app now . See "Disease of the Week," highlighting disease facts and prevention tips. Find "Shingles" ...

  8. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, Lamb SE, Gates S, Cumming RG, Rowe BH. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue ...

  9. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stay physically active. Regular exercise makes you stronger. Weight-bearing activities, such as walking or climbing stairs, may slow bone loss from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid ...

  10. Intermittent hypoxia preconditioning-induced epileptic tolerance by up