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Sample records for precursor protein regulates

  1. Regulation of amyloid precursor protein processing by serotonin signaling.

    PubMed

    Pimenova, Anna A; Thathiah, Amantha; De Strooper, Bart; Tesseur, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the β- and γ-secretases releases the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which deposits in senile plaques and contributes to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The α-secretase cleaves APP in the Aβ peptide sequence to generate soluble APPα (sAPPα). Upregulation of α-secretase activity through the 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT4) receptor has been shown to reduce Aβ production, amyloid plaque load and to improve cognitive impairment in transgenic mouse models of AD. Consequently, activation of 5-HT4 receptors following agonist stimulation is considered to be a therapeutic strategy for AD treatment; however, the signaling cascade involved in 5-HT4 receptor-stimulated proteolysis of APP remains to be determined. Here we used chemical and siRNA inhibition to identify the proteins which mediate 5-HT4d receptor-stimulated α-secretase activity in the SH-SY5Y human neuronal cell line. We show that G protein and Src dependent activation of phospholipase C are required for α-secretase activity, while, unexpectedly, adenylyl cyclase and cAMP are not involved. Further elucidation of the signaling pathway indicates that inositol triphosphate phosphorylation and casein kinase 2 activation is also a prerequisite for α-secretase activity. Our findings provide a novel route to explore the treatment of AD through 5-HT4 receptor-induced α-secretase activation. PMID:24466315

  2. Calcium regulates the interaction of amyloid precursor protein with Homer3 protein.

    PubMed

    Kyratzi, Elli; Efthimiopoulos, Spiros

    2014-09-01

    Ca(2+) dysregulation is an important factor implicated in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. The mechanisms mediating the reciprocal regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, function, and protein interactions are not well known. We have previously shown that APP interacts with Homer proteins, which inhibit APP processing toward amyloid-β. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ca(2+) homeostasis alterations on APP/Homer3 interaction. Influx of extracellular Ca(2+) upon treatment of HEK293 cells with the ionophore A23187 or addition of extracellular Ca(2+) in cells starved of calcium specifically reduced APP/Homer3 but not APP/X11a interaction. Endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) store depletion by thapsigargin followed by store-operated calcium entry also decreased the interaction. Interestingly, application of a phospholipase C stimulator, which causes inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release, caused dissociation of APP/Homer3 complex. In human neuroblastoma cells, membrane depolarization also disrupted the interaction. This is the first study showing that changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis affect APP protein interactions. Our results suggest that Ca(2+) and Homers play a significant role in the development of Alzheimer's disease pathology. PMID:24792907

  3. Tetraspanin12 regulates ADAM10-dependent cleavage of amyloid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Daosong; Sharma, Chandan; Hemler, Martin E.

    2009-01-01

    Using mass spectrometry, we identified ADAM10 (a membrane-associated metalloproteinase) as a partner for TSPAN12, a tetraspanin protein. TSPAN12-ADAM10 interaction was confirmed by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation in multiple tumor cell lines. TSPAN12, to a greater extent than other tetraspanins (CD81, CD151, CD9, and CD82), associated with ADAM10 but not with ADAM17. Overexpression of TSPAN12 enhanced ADAM10-dependent shedding of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in MCF7 (breast cancer) and SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma) cell lines. Conversely, siRNA ablation of endogenous TSPAN12 markedly diminished APP proteolysis in both cell lines. Furthermore, TSPAN12 overexpression enhanced ADAM10 prodomain maturation, whereas TSPAN12 ablation diminished ADAM10 maturation. A palmitoylation-deficient TSPAN12 mutant failed to associate with ADAM10, inhibited ADAM10-dependent proteolysis of APP, and inhibited ADAM10 maturation, most likely by interfering with endogenous wild-type TSPAN12. In conclusion, TSPAN12 serves as a novel and robust partner for ADAM10 and promotes ADAM10 maturation, thereby facilitating ADAM10-dependent proteolysis of APP. This novel mode of regulating APP cleavage is of relevance to Alzheimer’s disease therapy.—Xu, D., Sharma, C., Hemler, M. E. Tetraspanin12 regulates ADAM10-dependent cleavage of amyloid precursor protein. PMID:19587294

  4. Regulation of the amyloid precursor protein ectodomain shedding by the 5-HT4 receptor and Epac.

    PubMed

    Robert, Sylvain; Maillet, Marjorie; Morel, Eric; Launay, Jean-Marie; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Mercken, Luc; Lezoualc'h, Frank

    2005-02-14

    The serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT4) receptor is of potential interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease because it increases memory and learning. In this study, we investigated the effect of zinc metalloprotease inhibitors on the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing induced by the serotonin 5-HT4 receptor in vitro. We show that secretion of the non-amyloidogenic form of APP, sAPPalpha induced by the 5-HT4(e) receptor isoform was not due to a general boost of the constitutive secretory pathway but rather to its specific effect on alpha-secretase activity. Although the h5-HT4(e) receptor increased IP3 production, inhibition of PKC did not modify its effect on sAPPalpha secretion. In addition, we found that alpha secretase activity is regulated by the cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Epac and the small GTPase Rac. PMID:15710402

  5. Presenilin/γ-secretase-dependent processing of β-amyloid precursor protein regulates EGF receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun-wu; Wang, Ruishan; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Han; Liao, Francesca-Fang; Xu, Huaxi

    2007-01-01

    Presenilins (PS, PS1/PS2) are necessary for the proteolytic activity of γ-secretase, which cleaves multiple type I transmembrane proteins including Alzheimer's β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), Notch, ErbB4, etc. Cleavage by PS/γ-secretase releases the intracellular domain (ICD) of its substrates. Notch ICD translocates into the nucleus to regulate expression of genes important for development. However, the patho/physiological role of other ICDs, especially APP ICD (AICD), in regulating gene expression remains controversial because evidence supporting this functionality stems mainly from studies performed under supraphysiological conditions. EGF receptor (EGFR) is up-regulated in a wide variety of tumors and hence is a target for cancer therapeutics. Abnormal expression/activation of EGFR contributes to keratinocytic carcinomas, and mice with reduced PS dosages have been shown to develop skin tumors. Here we demonstrate that the levels of PS and EGFR in the skin tumors of PS1+/−/ PS2−/− mice and the brains of PS1/2 conditional double knockout mice are inversely correlated. Deficiency in PS/γ-secretase activity or APP expression results in a significant increase of EGFR in fibroblasts. Importantly, we show that AICD mediates transcriptional regulation of EGFR. Furthermore, we provide in vivo evidence demonstrating direct binding of endogenous AICD to the EGFR promoter. Our results indicate an important role of PS/γ-secretase-generated APP metabolite AICD in gene transcription and in EGFR-mediated tumorigenesis. PMID:17556541

  6. Amyloid Precursor Protein Translation Is Regulated by a 3’UTR Guanine Quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Sharoni, Michal; Olson, Kalee; Sebastian, Neeraj P.; Ansaloni, Sara; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Akins, Michael R.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Saunders, Aleister J.

    2015-01-01

    A central event in Alzheimer’s disease is the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides generated by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP overexpression leads to increased Aβ generation and Alzheimer’s disease in humans and altered neuronal migration and increased long term depression in mice. Conversely, reduction of APP expression results in decreased Aβ levels in mice as well as impaired learning and memory and decreased numbers of dendritic spines. Together these findings indicate that therapeutic interventions that aim to restore APP and Aβ levels must do so within an ideal range. To better understand the effects of modulating APP levels, we explored the mechanisms regulating APP expression focusing on post-transcriptional regulation. Such regulation can be mediated by RNA regulatory elements such as guanine quadruplexes (G-quadruplexes), non-canonical structured RNA motifs that affect RNA stability and translation. Via a bioinformatics approach, we identified a candidate G-quadruplex within the APP mRNA in its 3’UTR (untranslated region) at residues 3008–3027 (NM_201414.2). This sequence exhibited characteristics of a parallel G-quadruplex structure as revealed by circular dichroism spectrophotometry. Further, as with other G-quadruplexes, the formation of this structure was dependent on the presence of potassium ions. This G-quadruplex has no apparent role in regulating transcription or mRNA stability as wild type and mutant constructs exhibited equivalent mRNA levels as determined by real time PCR. Instead, we demonstrate that this G-quadruplex negatively regulates APP protein expression using dual luciferase reporter and Western blot analysis. Taken together, our studies reveal post-transcriptional regulation by a 3’UTR G-quadruplex as a novel mechanism regulating APP expression. PMID:26618502

  7. The Aβ-clearance protein transthyretin, like neprilysin, is epigenetically regulated by the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Caroline; Belyaev, Nikolai D; Nalivaeva, Natalia N; Turner, Anthony J

    2014-08-01

    Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the successive actions of β- and γ-secretases generates several biologically active metabolites including the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). By analogy with the Notch signalling pathway, AICD has been proposed to play a role in transcriptional regulation. Among the cohort of genes regulated by AICD is the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin (NEP). AICD binds to the NEP promoter causing transcriptional activation by competitive replacement with histone deacetylases (HDACs) leading to increased levels of NEP activity and hence increased Aβ clearance. We now show that the Aβ-clearance protein transthyretin (TTR) is also epigenetically up-regulated by AICD. Like NEP regulation, AICD derived specifically from the neuronal APP isoform, APP695 , binds directly to the TTR promoter displacing HDAC1 and HDAC3. Cell treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gleevec (imatinib) or with the alkalizing agent NH4 Cl causes an accumulation of 'functional' AICD capable of up-regulating both TTR and NEP, leading to a reduction in total cellular Aβ levels. Pharmacological regulation of both NEP and TTR might represent a viable therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24528201

  8. Amyloid precursor protein expression and processing are differentially regulated during cortical neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Petra; Agholme, Lotta; Nazir, Faisal Hayat; Satir, Tugce Munise; Toombs, Jamie; Wellington, Henrietta; Strandberg, Joakim; Bontell, Thomas Olsson; Kvartsberg, Hlin; Holmström, Maria; Boreström, Cecilia; Simonsson, Stina; Kunath, Tilo; Lindahl, Anders; Blennow, Kaj; Hanse, Eric; Portelius, Erik; Wray, Selina; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its cleavage product amyloid β (Aβ) have been thoroughly studied in Alzheimer’s disease. However, APP also appears to be important for neuronal development. Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) towards cortical neurons enables in vitro mechanistic studies on human neuronal development. Here, we investigated expression and proteolytic processing of APP during differentiation of human iPSCs towards cortical neurons over a 100-day period. APP expression remained stable during neuronal differentiation, whereas APP processing changed. α-Cleaved soluble APP (sAPPα) was secreted early during differentiation, from neuronal progenitors, while β-cleaved soluble APP (sAPPβ) was first secreted after deep-layer neurons had formed. Short Aβ peptides, including Aβ1-15/16, peaked during the progenitor stage, while processing shifted towards longer peptides, such as Aβ1-40/42, when post-mitotic neurons appeared. This indicates that APP processing is regulated throughout differentiation of cortical neurons and that amyloidogenic APP processing, as reflected by Aβ1-40/42, is associated with mature neuronal phenotypes. PMID:27383650

  9. Rbfox proteins regulate microRNA biogenesis by sequence-specific binding to their precursors and target downstream Dicer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Zubovic, Lorena; Yang, Fan; Godin, Katherine; Pavelitz, Tom; Castellanos, Javier; Macchi, Paolo; Varani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Rbfox proteins regulate tissue-specific splicing by targeting a conserved GCAUG sequence within pre-mRNAs. We report here that sequence-specific binding of the conserved Rbfox RRM to miRNA precursors containing the same sequence motif in their terminal loops, including miR-20b and miR-107, suppresses their nuclear processing. The structure of the complex between precursor miR-20b and Rbfox RRM shows the molecular basis for recognition, and reveals changes in the stem-loop upon protein binding. In mammalian cells, Rbfox2 downregulates mature miR-20b and miR-107 levels and increases the expression of their downstream targets PTEN and Dicer, respectively, suggesting that Rbfox2 indirectly regulates many more cellular miRNAs. Thus, some of the widespread cellular functions of Rbfox2 protein are attributable to regulation of miRNA biogenesis, and might include the mis-regulation of miR-20b and miR-107 in cancer and neurodegeneration. PMID:27001519

  10. Rbfox proteins regulate microRNA biogenesis by sequence-specific binding to their precursors and target downstream Dicer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Zubovic, Lorena; Yang, Fan; Godin, Katherine; Pavelitz, Tom; Castellanos, Javier; Macchi, Paolo; Varani, Gabriele

    2016-05-19

    Rbfox proteins regulate tissue-specific splicing by targeting a conserved GCAUG sequence within pre-mRNAs. We report here that sequence-specific binding of the conserved Rbfox RRM to miRNA precursors containing the same sequence motif in their terminal loops, including miR-20b and miR-107, suppresses their nuclear processing. The structure of the complex between precursor miR-20b and Rbfox RRM shows the molecular basis for recognition, and reveals changes in the stem-loop upon protein binding. In mammalian cells, Rbfox2 downregulates mature miR-20b and miR-107 levels and increases the expression of their downstream targets PTEN and Dicer, respectively, suggesting that Rbfox2 indirectly regulates many more cellular miRNAs. Thus, some of the widespread cellular functions of Rbfox2 protein are attributable to regulation of miRNA biogenesis, and might include the mis-regulation of miR-20b and miR-107 in cancer and neurodegeneration. PMID:27001519

  11. Hsp90 is involved in the regulation of cytosolic precursor protein abundance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Bodo; Röth, Sascha; Bublak, Daniela; Sommer, Manuel; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    Cytosolic chaperones are involved in the regulation of cellular protein homeostasis in general. Members of the families of heat stress proteins 70 (Hsp70) and 90 (Hsp90) assist the transport of preproteins to organelles such as chloroplasts or mitochondria. In addition, Hsp70 was described to be involved in the degradation of chloroplast preproteins that accumulate in the cytosol. Because a similar function has not been established for Hsp90, we analyzed the influences of Hsp90 and Hsp70 on the protein abundance in the cellular context using an in vivo system based on mesophyll protoplasts. We observed a differential behavior of preproteins with respect to the cytosolic chaperone-dependent regulation. Some preproteins such as pOE33 show a high dependence on Hsp90, whereas the abundance of preproteins such as pSSU is more strongly dependent on Hsp70. The E3 ligase, C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (Chip), appears to have a more general role in the control of cytosolic protein abundance. We discuss why the different reaction modes are comparable with the cytosolic unfolded protein response. PMID:25619681

  12. Hsp90 is involved in the regulation of cytosolic precursor protein abundance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Bodo; Röth, Sascha; Bublak, Daniela; Sommer, Manuel; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico

    2014-10-20

    Cytosolic chaperones are involved in the regulation of cellular protein homeostasis in general. Members of the heat stress protein 70 and 90 (Hsp70 or Hsp90) families assist the transport of preproteins to organelles such as chloroplasts or mitochondria. In addition, Hsp70 was described to be involved in the degradation of chloroplast preproteins that accumulate in the cytosol. Because a similar function has not been established for Hsp90, we analyzed the influences of Hsp90 and Hsp70 on the protein abundance in the cellular context using an in vivo system based on mesophyll protoplasts. We observed a differential behavior of preproteins in respect to the cytosolic chaperone dependent regulation. Some preproteins like pOE33 show a high dependence on Hsp90, whereas the abundance of preproteins like pSSU is more strongly dependent on Hsp70. The E3 ligase Chip appears to have a more general role in the control of cytosolic protein abundance. We discuss why the different reaction modes are comparable to the cytosolic unfolded protein response. PMID:25336566

  13. Acute ER stress regulates amyloid precursor protein processing through ubiquitin-dependent degradation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Sun; Hong, HyunSeok; Kim, Chaeyoung; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2015-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ), a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by β-secretase and γ-secretase enzymes. APP is an integral membrane protein, and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD; however, the biological function of APP is still unclear. The present study shows that APP is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the CHO cell line in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, such as calcium ionophore, A23187, induced calcium influx. Increased levels of intracellular calcium by A23187 induces polyubiquitination of APP, causing its degradation. A23187-induced reduction of APP is prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Furthermore, an increase in levels of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) marker, E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, proteasome activity, and decreased levels of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP25 were observed during ER stress. In addition, we found that APP interacts with USP25. These findings suggest that acute ER stress induces degradation of full-length APP via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. PMID:25740315

  14. Delta-secretase cleaves amyloid precursor protein and regulates the pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhentao; Song, Mingke; Liu, Xia; Su Kang, Seong; Duong, Duc M.; Seyfried, Nicholas T.; Cao, Xuebing; Cheng, Liming; Sun, Yi E.; Ping Yu, Shan; Jia, Jianping; Levey, Allan I.; Ye, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    The age-dependent deposition of amyloid-β peptides, derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP), is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite age being the greatest risk factor for AD, the molecular mechanisms linking ageing to APP processing are unknown. Here we show that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP), a pH-controlled cysteine proteinase, is activated during ageing and mediates APP proteolytic processing. AEP cleaves APP at N373 and N585 residues, selectively influencing the amyloidogenic fragmentation of APP. AEP is activated in normal mice in an age-dependent manner, and is strongly activated in 5XFAD transgenic mouse model and human AD brains. Deletion of AEP from 5XFAD or APP/PS1 mice decreases senile plaque formation, ameliorates synapse loss, elevates long-term potentiation and protects memory. Blockade of APP cleavage by AEP in mice alleviates pathological and behavioural deficits. Thus, AEP acts as a δ-secretase, contributing to the age-dependent pathogenic mechanisms in AD. PMID:26549211

  15. Delta-secretase cleaves amyloid precursor protein and regulates the pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhentao; Song, Mingke; Liu, Xia; Su Kang, Seong; Duong, Duc M; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Cao, Xuebing; Cheng, Liming; Sun, Yi E; Ping Yu, Shan; Jia, Jianping; Levey, Allan I; Ye, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    The age-dependent deposition of amyloid-β peptides, derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP), is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite age being the greatest risk factor for AD, the molecular mechanisms linking ageing to APP processing are unknown. Here we show that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP), a pH-controlled cysteine proteinase, is activated during ageing and mediates APP proteolytic processing. AEP cleaves APP at N373 and N585 residues, selectively influencing the amyloidogenic fragmentation of APP. AEP is activated in normal mice in an age-dependent manner, and is strongly activated in 5XFAD transgenic mouse model and human AD brains. Deletion of AEP from 5XFAD or APP/PS1 mice decreases senile plaque formation, ameliorates synapse loss, elevates long-term potentiation and protects memory. Blockade of APP cleavage by AEP in mice alleviates pathological and behavioural deficits. Thus, AEP acts as a δ-secretase, contributing to the age-dependent pathogenic mechanisms in AD. PMID:26549211

  16. Amyloid precursor protein regulates migration and metalloproteinase gene expression in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • APP knockdown reduced proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells. • APP knockdown reduced expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. • APP overexpression promoted LNCaP cell migration. • APP overexpression increased expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. - Abstract: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type I transmembrane protein, and one of its processed forms, β-amyloid, is considered to play a central role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously showed that APP is a primary androgen-responsive gene in prostate cancer and that its increased expression is correlated with poor prognosis for patients with prostate cancer. APP has also been implicated in several human malignancies. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the pro-proliferative effects of APP on cancers is still not well-understood. In the present study, we explored a pathophysiological role for APP in prostate cancer cells using siRNA targeting APP (siAPP). The proliferation and migration of LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells were significantly suppressed by siAPP. Differentially expressed genes in siAPP-treated cells compared to control siRNA-treated cells were identified by microarray analysis. Notably, several metalloproteinase genes, such as ADAM10 and ADAM17, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, such as VIM, and SNAI2, were downregulated in siAPP-treated cells as compared to control cells. The expression of these genes was upregulated in LNCaP cells stably expressing APP when compared with control cells. APP-overexpressing LNCaP cells exhibited enhanced migration in comparison to control cells. These results suggest that APP may contribute to the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes.

  17. SorLA/LR11 regulates processing of amyloid precursor protein via interaction with adaptors GGA and PACS-1.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Sporbert, Anje; Rohe, Michael; Reimer, Tatjana; Rehm, Armin; Andersen, Olav M; Willnow, Thomas E

    2007-11-01

    SorLA has been recognized as a novel sorting receptor that regulates trafficking and processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and that represents a significant risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer disease. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms that control intracellular trafficking of sorLA and their relevance for APP processing. We demonstrate that sorLA acts as a retention factor for APP in trans-Golgi compartments/trans-Golgi network, preventing release of the precursor into regular processing pathways. Proper localization and activity of sorLA are dependent on functional interaction with GGA and PACS-1, adaptor proteins involved in protein transport to and from the trans-Golgi network. Aberrant targeting of sorLA to the recycling compartment or the plasma membrane causes faulty APP trafficking and imbalance in non-amyloidogenic and amyloidogenic processing fates. Thus, our findings identified altered routing of sorLA as a major cellular mechanism contributing to abnormal APP processing and enhanced amyloid beta-peptide formation. PMID:17855360

  18. Cholinergic agonists and interleukin 1 regulate processing and secretion of the Alzheimer beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, J D; Oishi, M; Chen, H I; Pinkas-Kramarski, R; Jaffe, E A; Gandy, S E; Greengard, P

    1992-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters is known to accelerate the processing and secretion of the beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor. We have now examined various first messengers that increase protein kinase C activity of target cells for their ability to affect beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor metabolism. Acetylcholine and interleukin 1, which are altered in Alzheimer disease, were shown to increase processing of the beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor via the secretory cleavage pathway. Cholinergic agonists stimulated secretion in human glioma and neuroblastoma cells as well as in PC12 cells transfected with the M1 receptor, while interleukin 1 stimulated secretion in human endothelial and glioma cells. Images PMID:1359534

  19. Novel Zinc-binding Site in the E2 Domain Regulates Amyloid Precursor-like Protein 1 (APLP1) Oligomerization*

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Magnus C.; Kaden, Daniela; Schauenburg, Linda; Hancock, Mark A.; Voigt, Philipp; Roeser, Dirk; Barucker, Christian; Than, Manuel E.; Schaefer, Michael; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the APP-like proteins 1 and 2 (APLP1 and APLP2) are a family of multidomain transmembrane proteins possessing homo- and heterotypic contact sites in their ectodomains. We previously reported that divalent metal ions dictate the conformation of the extracellular APP E2 domain (Dahms, S. O., Könnig, I., Roeser, D., Gührs, K.-H., Mayer, M. C., Kaden, D., Multhaup, G., and Than, M. E. (2012) J. Mol. Biol. 416, 438–452), but unresolved is the nature and functional importance of metal ion binding to APLP1 and APLP2. We found here that zinc ions bound to APP and APLP1 E2 domains and mediated their oligomerization, whereas the APLP2 E2 domain interacted more weakly with zinc possessing a less surface-exposed zinc-binding site, and stayed monomeric. Copper ions bound to E2 domains of all three proteins. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses examined the effect of metal ion binding to APP and APLPs in the cellular context in real time. Zinc ions specifically induced APP and APLP1 oligomerization and forced APLP1 into multimeric clusters at the plasma membrane consistent with zinc concentrations in the blood and brain. The observed effects were mediated by a novel zinc-binding site within the APLP1 E2 domain as APLP1 deletion mutants revealed. Based upon its cellular localization and its dominant response to zinc ions, APLP1 is mainly affected by extracellular zinc among the APP family proteins. We conclude that zinc binding and APP/APLP oligomerization are intimately linked, and we propose that this represents a novel mechanism for regulating APP/APLP protein function at the molecular level. PMID:24855651

  20. Four-way regulation of mosquito yolk protein precursor genes by juvenile hormone-, ecdysone-, nutrient-, and insulin-like peptide signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Immo A; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L

    2014-01-01

    Anautogenous mosquito females require a meal of vertebrate blood in order to initiate the production of yolk protein precursors by the fat body. Yolk protein precursor gene expression is tightly repressed in a state-of-arrest before blood meal-related signals activate it and expression levels rise rapidly. The best understood example of yolk protein precursor gene regulation is the vitellogenin-A gene (vg) of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Vg-A is regulated by (1) juvenile hormone signaling, (2) the ecdysone-signaling cascade, (3) the nutrient sensitive target-of-rapamycin signaling pathway, and (4) the insulin-like peptide (ILP) signaling pathway. A plethora of new studies have refined our understanding of the regulation of yolk protein precursor genes since the last review on this topic in 2005 (Attardo et al., 2005). This review summarizes the role of these four signaling pathways in the regulation of vg-A and focuses upon new findings regarding the interplay between them on an organismal level. PMID:24688471

  1. Nucleation precursors in protein crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Vekilov, Peter G.; Vorontsova, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystal nucleation is a central problem in biological crystallography and other areas of science, technology and medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that protein crystal nuclei form within crucial precursors. Here, methods of detection and characterization of the precursors are reviewed: dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and Brownian microscopy. Data for several proteins provided by these methods have demonstrated that the nucleation precursors are clusters consisting of protein-dense liquid, which are metastable with respect to the host protein solution. The clusters are several hundred nanometres in size, the cluster population occupies from 10−7 to 10−3 of the solution volume, and their properties in solutions supersaturated with respect to crystals are similar to those in homogeneous, i.e. undersaturated, solutions. The clusters exist owing to the conformation flexibility of the protein molecules, leading to exposure of hydrophobic surfaces and enhanced intermolecular binding. These results indicate that protein conformational flexibility might be the mechanism behind the metastable mesoscopic clusters and crystal nucleation. Investigations of the cluster properties are still in their infancy. Results on direct imaging of cluster behaviors and characterization of cluster mechanisms with a variety of proteins will soon lead to major breakthroughs in protein biophysics. PMID:24598910

  2. Constitutive shedding of the amyloid precursor protein ectodomain is up-regulated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Slack, B E; Ma, L K; Seah, C C

    2001-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease is a transmembrane protein that is cleaved within its extracellular domain, liberating a soluble N-terminal fragment (sAPP alpha). Putative mediators of this process include three members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family, ADAM9, ADAM10 and ADAM17/TACE (tumour necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha protease inhibitor (TAPI-1), an inhibitor of ADAMs, reduced constitutive and muscarinic receptor-stimulated sAPP alpha release in HEK-293 cells stably expressing M3 muscarinic receptors. However, the former was less sensitive to TAPI-1 (IC(50)=8.09 microM) than the latter (IC(50)=3.61 microM), suggesting that these processes may be mediated by different metalloproteases. Constitutive sAPP alpha release was increased several-fold in cells transiently transfected with TACE, and this increase was proportional to TACE expression. In contrast, muscarinic-receptor-activated sAPP alpha release was not altered in TACE transfectants. TACE-dependent constitutive release of co-transfected APP(695) was inhibited by TAPI-1 with an IC(50) of 0.92 microm, a value significantly lower than the IC(50)s for inhibition of either constitutive or receptor-regulated sAPP alpha shedding mediated by endogenous secretases. The results indicate that TACE is capable of catalysing constitutive alpha-secretory cleavage of APP, but it is likely that additional members of the ADAM family mediate endogenous constitutive and receptor-coupled release of sAPP alpha in HEK-293 cells. PMID:11463349

  3. Luteinizing hormone, a reproductive regulator that modulates the processing of amyloid-beta precursor protein and amyloid-beta deposition.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Richard L; Verdile, Giuseppe; Liu, Tianbing; Parlow, Albert F; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A; Martins, Ralph N; Atwood, Craig S

    2004-05-01

    Hormonal changes associated with the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis following menopause/andropause have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental support for this has come from studies demonstrating an increase in amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition following ovariectomy/castration. Because sex steroids and gonadotropins are both part of the HPG feedback loop, any loss in sex steroids results in a proportionate increase in gonadotropins. To assess whether Abeta generation was due to the loss of serum 17beta-estradiol or to the up-regulation of serum gonadotropins, we treated C57Bl/6J mice with the anti-gonadotropin leuprolide acetate, which suppresses both sex steroids and gonadotropins. Leuprolide acetate treatment resulted in a 3.5-fold (p < 0.0001) and a 1.5-fold (p < 0.024) reduction in total brain Abeta1-42 and Abeta1-40 concentrations, respectively, after 8 weeks of treatment. To further explore the role of gonadotropins in promoting amyloidogenesis, M17 neuroblastoma cells were treated with the gonadotropin luteinizing hormone (LH) at concentrations equivalent to early adulthood (10 mIU/ml) or post-menopause/andropause (30 mIU/ml). LH did not alter amyloid-beta precursor protein (AbetaPP) expression but did alter AbetaPP processing toward the amyloidogenic pathway as evidenced by increased secretion and insolubility of Abeta, decreased alphaAbetaPP secretion, and increased AbetaPP-C99 levels. These results suggest the marked increases in serum LH following menopause/andropause as a physiologically relevant signal that could promote Abeta secretion and deposition in the aging brain. Suppression of the age-related increase in serum gonadotropins using anti-gonadotropin agents may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for AD. PMID:14871891

  4. Amyloid precursor protein and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Poomy; Sliker, Bailee; Peters, Haley L.; Tuli, Amit; Herskovitz, Jonathan; Smits, Kaitlin; Purohit, Abhilasha; Singh, Rakesh K.; Dong, Jixin; Batra, Surinder K.; Coulter, Donald W.; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its family members amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) are type 1 transmembrane glycoproteins that are highly conserved across species. The transcriptional regulation of APP and APLP2 is similar but not identical, and the cleavage of both proteins is regulated by phosphorylation. APP has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease causation, and in addition to its importance in neurology, APP is deregulated in cancer cells. APLP2 is likewise overexpressed in cancer cells, and APLP2 and APP are linked to increased tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. In this present review, we discuss the unfolding account of these APP family members’ roles in cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:26840089

  5. Interleukin 1 regulates synthesis of amyloid beta-protein precursor mRNA in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Goldgaber, D; Harris, H W; Hla, T; Maciag, T; Donnelly, R J; Jacobsen, J S; Vitek, M P; Gajdusek, D C

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed the modulation of amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP) gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The level of the APP mRNA transcripts increased as HUVEC reached confluency. In confluent culture the half-life of the APP mRNA was 4 hr. Treatment of the cells with human-recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or heparin-binding growth factor 1 enhanced the expression of APP gene in these cells, but calcium ionophore A23187 and dexamethasone did not. The protein kinase C inhibitor 1-(isoquinolinsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7) inhibited IL-1-mediated increase of the level of APP transcripts. To map IL-1-responsive elements of the APP promoter, truncated portions of the APP promoter were fused to the human growth hormone reporter gene. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into mouse neuroblastoma cells, and the cell medium was assayed for the human growth hormone. A 180-base-pair region of the APP promoter located between position -485 and -305 upstream from the transcription start site was necessary for IL-1-mediated induction of the reporter gene. This region contains the upstream transcription factor AP-1 binding site. These results suggest that IL-1 upregulates APP gene expression in HUVEC through a pathway mediated by protein kinase C, utilizing the upstream AP-1 binding site of the APP promoter. Images PMID:2508093

  6. Retromer binds the FANSHY sorting motif in SorLA to regulate amyloid precursor protein sorting and processing.

    PubMed

    Fjorback, Anja W; Seaman, Matthew; Gustafsen, Camilla; Mehmedbasic, Arnela; Gokool, Suzanne; Wu, Chengbiao; Militz, Daniel; Schmidt, Vanessa; Madsen, Peder; Nyengaard, Jens R; Willnow, Thomas E; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Mobley, William B; Nykjær, Anders; Andersen, Olav M

    2012-01-25

    sorLA is a sorting receptor for amyloid precursor protein (APP) genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Retromer, an adaptor complex in the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval pathway, has been implicated in APP transport because retromer deficiency leads to aberrant APP sorting and processing and levels of retromer proteins are altered in AD. Here we report that sorLA and retromer functionally interact in neurons to control trafficking and amyloidogenic processing of APP. We have identified a sequence (FANSHY) in the cytoplasmic domain of sorLA that is recognized by the VPS26 subunit of the retromer complex. Accordingly, we characterized the interaction between the retromer complex and sorLA and determined the role of retromer on sorLA-dependent sorting and processing of APP. Mutations in the VPS26 binding site resulted in receptor redistribution to the endosomal network, similar to the situation seen in cells with VPS26 knockdown. The sorLA mutant retained APP-binding activity but, as opposed to the wild-type receptor, misdirected APP into a distinct non-Golgi compartment, resulting in increased amyloid processing. In conclusion, our data provide a molecular link between reduced retromer expression and increased amyloidogenesis as seen in patients with sporadic AD. PMID:22279231

  7. Arf6 controls beta-amyloid production by regulating macropinocytosis of the Amyloid Precursor Protein to lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihao; Tam, Joshua H K; Seah, Claudia; Chiu, Justin; Tyrer, Andrea; Cregan, Sean P; Meakin, Susan O; Pasternak, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of Beta-Amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Aβ peptides are generated by cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by the β - and γ - secretase enzymes. Although this process is tightly linked to the internalization of cell surface APP, the compartments responsible are not well defined. We have found that APP can be rapidly internalized from the cell surface to lysosomes, bypassing early and late endosomes. Here we show by confocal microscopy and electron microscopy that this pathway is mediated by macropinocytosis. APP internalization is enhanced by antibody binding/crosslinking of APP suggesting that APP may function as a receptor. Furthermore, a dominant negative mutant of Arf6 blocks direct transport of APP to lysosomes, but does not affect classical endocytosis to endosomes. Arf6 expression increases through the hippocampus with the development of Alzheimer's disease, being expressed mostly in the CA1 and CA2 regions in normal individuals but spreading through the CA3 and CA4 regions in individuals with pathologically diagnosed AD. Disruption of lysosomal transport of APP reduces both Aβ40 and Aβ42 production by more than 30 %. Our findings suggest that the lysosome is an important site for Aβ production and that altering APP trafficking represents a viable strategy to reduce Aβ production. PMID:26170135

  8. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain regulates translation of p44, a short isoform of p53, through an IRES-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Pehar, Mariana; Liu, Yan; Bhattacharyya, Anita; Zhang, Su-Chun; O'Riordan, Kenneth J; Burger, Corinna; D'Adamio, Luciano; Puglielli, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    p44 is a short isoform of the tumor suppressor protein p53 that is regulated in an age-dependent manner. When overexpressed in the mouse, it causes a progeroid phenotype that includes premature cognitive decline, synaptic defects, and hyperphosphorylation of tau. The hyperphosphorylation of tau has recently been linked to the ability of p44 to regulate transcription of relevant tau kinases. Here, we report that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD), which results from the processing of the APP, regulates translation of p44 through a cap-independent mechanism that requires direct binding to the second internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the p53 mRNA. We also report that AICD associates with nucleolin, an already known IRES-specific trans-acting factor that binds with p53 IRES elements and regulates translation of p53 isoforms. The potential biological impact of our findings was assessed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In conclusion, our study reveals a novel aspect of AICD and p53/p44 biology and provides a possible molecular link between APP, p44, and tau. PMID:26174856

  9. Multisite tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-terminus of Mint1/X11α by Src kinase regulates the trafficking of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Christopher J R; Black, Hannah L; Andrews, Katie L; Davenport, Elizabeth C; Conboy, Michael; Chawla, Sangeeta; Dowle, Adam A; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry R; Evans, Gareth J O

    2016-05-01

    Mint/X11 is one of the four neuronal trafficking adaptors that interact with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and are linked with its cleavage to generate β-amyloid peptide, a key player in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. How APP switches between adaptors at different stages of the secretory pathway is poorly understood. Here, we show that tyrosine phosphorylation of Mint1 regulates the destination of APP. A canonical SH2-binding motif ((202) YEEI) was identified in the N-terminus of Mint1 that is phosphorylated on tyrosine by C-Src and recruits the active kinase for sequential phosphorylation of further tyrosines (Y191 and Y187). A single Y202F mutation in the Mint1 N-terminus inhibits C-Src binding and tyrosine phosphorylation. Previous studies observed that co-expression of wild-type Mint1 and APP causes accumulation of APP in the trans-Golgi. Unphosphorylatable Mint1 (Y202F) or pharmacological inhibition of Src reduced the accumulation of APP in the trans-Golgi of heterologous cells. A similar result was observed in cultured rat hippocampal neurons where Mint1(Y202F) permitted the trafficking of APP to more distal neurites than the wild-type protein. These data underline the importance of the tyrosine phosphorylation of Mint1 as a critical switch for determining the destination of APP. The regulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking is poorly understood. We have discovered that the APP adapter, Mint1, is phosphorylated by C-Src kinase. Mint1 causes APP accumulation in the trans-Golgi network, whereas inhibition of Src or mutation of Mint1-Y202 permits APP recycling. The phosphorylation status of Mint1 could impact on the pathological trafficking of APP in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26865271

  10. Cytoplasmic Fragment of Alcadein α Generated by Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis Enhances Amyloid β-Protein Precursor (APP) Transport into the Late Secretory Pathway and Facilitates APP Cleavage*

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Norio; Sobu, Yuriko; Kimura, Ayano; Urano, Satomi; Piao, Yi; Araki, Yoichi; Taru, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Tohru; Hata, Saori; Nakaya, Tadashi; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    The neural type I membrane protein Alcadein α (Alcα), is primarily cleaved by amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) α-secretase to generate a membrane-associated carboxyl-terminal fragment (Alcα CTF), which is further cleaved by γ-secretase to secrete p3-Alcα peptides and generate an intracellular cytoplasmic domain fragment (Alcα ICD) in the late secretory pathway. By association with the neural adaptor protein X11L (X11-like), Alcα and APP form a ternary complex that suppresses the cleavage of both Alcα and APP by regulating the transport of these membrane proteins into the late secretory pathway where secretases are active. However, it has not been revealed how Alcα and APP are directed from the ternary complex formed largely in the Golgi into the late secretory pathway to reach a nerve terminus. Using a novel transgenic mouse line expressing excess amounts of human Alcα CTF (hAlcα CTF) in neurons, we found that expression of hAlcα CTF induced excess production of hAlcα ICD, which facilitated APP transport into the nerve terminus and enhanced APP metabolism, including Aβ generation. In vitro cell studies also demonstrated that excess expression of Alcα ICD released both APP and Alcα from the ternary complex. These results indicate that regulated intramembrane proteolysis of Alcα by γ-secretase regulates APP trafficking and the production of Aβ in vivo. PMID:25406318

  11. Cytoplasmic fragment of Alcadein α generated by regulated intramembrane proteolysis enhances amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) transport into the late secretory pathway and facilitates APP cleavage.

    PubMed

    Takei, Norio; Sobu, Yuriko; Kimura, Ayano; Urano, Satomi; Piao, Yi; Araki, Yoichi; Taru, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Tohru; Hata, Saori; Nakaya, Tadashi; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    The neural type I membrane protein Alcadein α (Alcα), is primarily cleaved by amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) α-secretase to generate a membrane-associated carboxyl-terminal fragment (Alcα CTF), which is further cleaved by γ-secretase to secrete p3-Alcα peptides and generate an intracellular cytoplasmic domain fragment (Alcα ICD) in the late secretory pathway. By association with the neural adaptor protein X11L (X11-like), Alcα and APP form a ternary complex that suppresses the cleavage of both Alcα and APP by regulating the transport of these membrane proteins into the late secretory pathway where secretases are active. However, it has not been revealed how Alcα and APP are directed from the ternary complex formed largely in the Golgi into the late secretory pathway to reach a nerve terminus. Using a novel transgenic mouse line expressing excess amounts of human Alcα CTF (hAlcα CTF) in neurons, we found that expression of hAlcα CTF induced excess production of hAlcα ICD, which facilitated APP transport into the nerve terminus and enhanced APP metabolism, including Aβ generation. In vitro cell studies also demonstrated that excess expression of Alcα ICD released both APP and Alcα from the ternary complex. These results indicate that regulated intramembrane proteolysis of Alcα by γ-secretase regulates APP trafficking and the production of Aβ in vivo. PMID:25406318

  12. microRNA regulation of neural precursor self-renewal and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hudish, Laura I; Appel, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    During early stages of development of the vertebrate central nervous system, neural precursors divide symmetrically to produce new precursors, thereby expanding the precursor population. During middle stages of neural development, precursors switch to an asymmetric division pattern whereby each mitosis produces one new precursor and one cell that differentiates as a neuron or glial cell. At late stages of development, most precursors stop dividing and terminally differentiate. Par complex proteins are associated with the apical membrane of neural precursors and promote precursor self-renewal. How Par proteins are down regulated to bring precursor self-renewal to an end has not been known. Our investigations of zebrafish neural development revealed that the microRNA miR-219 negatively regulates apical Par proteins, thereby promoting cessation of neural precursor division and driving terminal differentiation.

  13. Precursors of storage proteins in Lupinus angustifolius.

    PubMed Central

    Gayler, K R; Boadle, B G; Snook, M; Johnson, E D

    1984-01-01

    The proteins that are synthesized during differentiation and development in the cotyledons of Lupinus angustifolius L. were characterized both in situ and after purification. The proteins present in situ were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and subjected to 'Western'-blot analysis to identify immunologically related polypeptides. The major storage proteins of the lupin, conglutins alpha and beta, were both present in juvenile tissue only as higher Mr precursors. For conglutin beta, a family of at least three polypeptides of Mr 66 000-72 000 accumulated during the earliest phases of protein synthesis in the developing cotyledon (20-28 days after flowering). Later in development each of these polypeptides disappeared and there was the concurrent appearance in the cotyledon of the lower-Mr fragments characteristic of mature conglutin beta. For conglutin alpha, an equivalent family of precursor polypeptides of Mr 60 000-83 000 was detected. Multiple internal sites for proteolytic cleavage of all these precursors appeared to be present. However, processing of the precursors was sufficiently slow to allow them to accumulate to over 50% of total soluble protein in juvenile tissue. The precursors were purified by column chromatography under non-dissociating conditions and shown by ultracentrifugation to be multimeric proteins with Mr values in the range 150 000-200 000. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6548131

  14. Cytoplasmic domain of the beta-amyloid protein precursor of Alzheimer's disease: function, regulation of proteolysis, and implications for drug development.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Megan L; Small, David H

    2005-04-15

    The beta-amyloid protein precursor (APP) has been extensively studied for its role in amyloid production and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the normal function of APP and its biological interactions. In this Mini-Review, the role of the cytoplasmic domain of APP in APP trafficking and proteolysis is described. These studies suggest that proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic domain may be important targets for drug development in AD. PMID:15672415

  15. Mechanism of expression of the rat HCNP precursor protein gene.

    PubMed

    Tohdoh, N; Tojo, S; Kimura, M; Ishii, T; Ojika, K

    1997-04-01

    The hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide (HCNP), isolated from hippocampal tissue of 10- to 12-day-old rats, enhances the in vitro synthesis of acetylcholine in medial septal tissue explants. The HCNP precursor is a 21 kDa protein that binds hydrophobic ligands and Mg-ATP, and is associated with the opioid-binding protein. We employed an HCNP-precursor cDNA as probe to clone the genomic DNA, used for mapping of the exon-intron structure of the gene. We also determined the nucleotide structure of the promoter region of the rat HCNP precursor protein gene. By using S1 mapping and CAT as a reporter, we found multiple promoters that were aligned in the 5' untranslated region. In addition, the presence of several putative enhancer binding sequences were tested by electrophoresis mobility shift assays. Northern blot analysis revealed that the gene is expressed in a variety of rat tissues and various subregions of the brain. These results suggest that HCNP-precursor gene expression is regulated by a general transactivation factor such as SP1, and that the specific presence of the bioactive HCNP in certain tissues results from post-translational events such as proteolytic processing of the precursor protein, which takes place predominantly in the hippocampus of young rats. PMID:9105667

  16. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling and Olig1/2 Interact to Regulate the Differentiation and Maturation of Adult Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yaping; He, Qian; Qiu, Mengsheng; Whittemore, Scott R.; Cao, Qilin

    2009-01-01

    Promotion of remyelination is an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of the demyelinating neurological disorders. Adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which normally reside quiescently in the adult central nervous system (CNS), become activated and proliferative after demyelinating lesions. However, the extent of endogenous remyelination is limited because of the failure of adult OPCs to mature into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the demyelinated CNS. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate the differentiation of adult OPCs could lead to new therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders. In this study, we established a stable culture of adult spinal cord OPCs and developed a reliable in vitro protocol to induce their sequential differentiation. Adult OPCs expressed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type Ia, Ib, and II receptor subunits, which are required for BMP signal transduction. BMP2 and 4 promoted dose-dependent astrocyte differentiation of adult OPCs with concurrent suppression of OL differentiation. Treatment of OPCs with BMP2 and 4 increased ID4 expression and decreased the expression of olig1 and olig2. Overexpression of olig1 or olig2 blocked the astrocyte differentiation of adult OPCs induced by BMP2 and 4. Furthermore, overexpression of both olig1 and olig2, but not olig1 or olig2 alone, rescued OL differentiation from inhibition by BMP2 and 4. Our results demonstrated that downregulation of olig1 and olig2 is an important mechanism by which BMP2 and 4 inhibit OL differentiation of adult OPCs. These data suggest that blocking BMP signaling combined with olig1/2 overexpression could be a useful therapeutic strategy to enhance endogenous remyelination and facilitate functional recovery in CNS demyelinated disorders. PMID:17872503

  17. Muscarine enhances soluble amyloid precursor protein secretion in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y by a pathway dependent on protein kinase C(alpha), src-tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase but not phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Canet-Aviles, Rosa-Maria; Anderton, Mark; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J; Vaughan, Peter F T

    2002-06-15

    The signalling pathways by which muscarine and epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulate the secretion of the alpha-secretase cleavage product (sAPPalpha) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) were examined in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. Using specific inhibitors it was found that over 80% of sAPPalpha secretion, enhanced by muscarine, occurred via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and was dependent on protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and a member of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src-TK). In contrast the stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion by EGF was not affected by inhibitors of PKC nor Src-TK but was dependent on ERK1/2. In addition muscarine-enhanced sAPPalpha secretion and ERK1/2 activation were inhibited 60 and 80%, respectively, by micromolar concentrations of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor wortmannin. In comparison wortmannin decreased EGF stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion and ERK 1/2 activation by approximately 40%. Unexpectedly, U73122, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, did not inhibit muscarine enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion. These data are discussed in relation to a pathway for the enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion by muscarine which involves the activation of a Src-TK by G-protein beta/gamma-subunits leading to activation of PKCalpha, and ERK1/2 by a mechanism not involving phospholipase C. PMID:12191495

  18. Amyloid precursor protein and neural development.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Maya; Hassan, Bassem A

    2014-07-01

    Interest in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) has increased in recent years due to its involvement in Alzheimer's disease. Since its molecular cloning, significant genetic and biochemical work has focused on the role of APP in the pathogenesis of this disease. Thus far, however, these studies have failed to deliver successful therapies. This suggests that understanding the basic biology of APP and its physiological role during development might be a crucial missing link for a better comprehension of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we present an overview of some of the key studies performed in various model organisms that have revealed roles for APP at different stages of neuronal development. PMID:24961795

  19. Neuroprotective Secreted Amyloid Precursor Protein Acts by Disrupting Amyloid Precursor Protein Dimers*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Gralle, Matthias; Botelho, Michelle Gralle; Wouters, Fred S.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is implied both in cell growth and differentiation and in neurodegenerative processes in Alzheimer disease. Regulated proteolysis of APP generates biologically active fragments such as the neuroprotective secreted ectodomain sAPPα and the neurotoxic β-amyloid peptide. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the intact transmembrane APP plays a signaling role, which might be important for both normal synaptic plasticity and neuronal dysfunction in dementia. To understand APP signaling, we tracked single molecules of APP using quantum dots and quantitated APP homodimerization using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for the detection of Förster resonance energy transfer in living neuroblastoma cells. Using selective labeling with synthetic fluorophores, we show that the dimerization of APP is considerably higher at the plasma membrane than in intracellular membranes. Heparan sulfate significantly contributes to the almost complete dimerization of APP at the plasma membrane. Importantly, this technique for the first time structurally defines the initiation of APP signaling by binding of a relevant physiological extracellular ligand; our results indicate APP as receptor for neuroprotective sAPPα, as sAPPα binding disrupts APP dimers, and this disruption of APP dimers by sAPPα is necessary for the protection of neuroblastoma cells against starvation-induced cell death. Only cells expressing reversibly dimerized wild-type, but not covalently dimerized mutant APP are protected by sAPPα. These findings suggest a potentially beneficial effect of increasing sAPPα production or disrupting APP dimers for neuronal survival. PMID:19336403

  20. Ataxin-1 regulates proliferation of hippocampal neural precursors.

    PubMed

    Asher, M; Johnson, A; Zecevic, B; Pease, D; Cvetanovic, M

    2016-05-13

    Polyglutamine expansion in the protein ATAXIN-1 (ATXN1) causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor deficits, cognitive impairment and depression. Although ubiquitously expressed, mutant ATXN1 causes neurodegeneration primarily in the cerebellum, which is responsible for the observed motor deficits. The role of ATXN1 outside of the cerebellum and the causes of cognitive deficits and depression in SCA1 are less understood. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role of ATXN1 in the hippocampus as a regulator of adult neurogenesis. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process of generating new hippocampal neurons and is linked to cognition and mood. We found that loss of ATXN1 causes a decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis in ATXN1 null (Atxn1(-/-)) mice. This decrease was caused by reduced proliferation of neural precursors in the hippocampus of Atxn1(-/-) mice, and persisted even when Atxn1(-/-) hippocampal neural precursors were removed from their natural environment and grown in vitro, suggesting that ATXN1 affects proliferation in a cell-autonomous manner. Moreover, expression of ATXN1 with a pathological polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in wild-type neural precursor cells inhibited their proliferation. Our data establish a novel role for ATXN1 in the hippocampus as an intrinsic regulator of precursor cell proliferation, and suggest a mechanism by which polyQ expansion and loss of ATXN1 affect hippocampal function, potentially contributing to cognitive deficits and depression. These results indicate that while depletion of ATXN1 is a promising therapeutic approach to treat the cerebellar aspects of SCA1, this approach should be employed with caution given the potential for side effects on hippocampal function with loss of wild-type ATXN1. PMID:26876606

  1. Src Kinase Determines the Dynamic Exchange of the Docking Protein NEDD9 (Neural Precursor Cell Expressed Developmentally Down-regulated Gene 9) at Focal Adhesions*

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Peta; Bach, Cuc T.; Paul, Andre; O'Neill, Geraldine M.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic exchange of molecules between the cytoplasm and integrin-based focal adhesions provides a rapid response system for modulating cell adhesion. Increased residency time of molecules that regulate adhesion turnover contributes to adhesion stability, ultimately determining migration speed across two-dimensional surfaces. In the present study we test the role of Src kinase in regulating dynamic exchange of the focal adhesion protein NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L. Using either chemical inhibition or fibroblasts genetically null for Src together with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we find that Src significantly reduces NEDD9 exchange at focal adhesions. Analysis of NEDD9 mutant constructs with the two major Src-interacting domains disabled revealed the greatest effects were due to the NEDD9 SH2 binding domain. This correlated with a significant change in two-dimensional migratory speed. Given the emerging role of NEDD9 as a regulator of focal adhesion stability, the time of NEDD9 association at the focal adhesions is key in modulating rates of migration and invasion. Our study suggests that Src kinase activity determines NEDD9 exchange at focal adhesions and may similarly modulate other focal adhesion-targeted Src substrates to regulate cell migration. PMID:25059660

  2. MicroRNA-384 regulates both amyloid precursor protein and β-secretase expression and is a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Geng; Wang, Jin-Ling; Li, Lei; Wang, Pei-Chang

    2014-07-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE-1) play important roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, using bioinformatics analysis, we demonstrate that miR-384 is a microRNA (miRNA or miR) predicted to potentially target the 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of both APP and BACE-1. SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with miR-384 mimic oligonucleotide, miR-384 inhibitor oligonucleotide, or a non-specific control siRNA. We found that the overexpression of miR-384 suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of both APP and BACE-1. The miR-384 inhibitor oligonucleotide induced the upregulation of APP and BACE-1. The activity of BACE-1 was altered following the change in its protein expression. The binding sites of miR-384 on the 3'-UTRs of APP and BACE-1 were identified by luciferase assay. Furthermore, cells were treasted with amyloid-β (Aβ)42. Aβ42 downregulated miR-384 expression, leading to the continuous reduction in miR-384 expression. In addition, using a mouse model of AD, as well as patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT), we examined the levels of miR-384 in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Patients with MCI and DAT had lower blood miR-384 levels compared with the controls. In addition, patients with DAT had lower blood miR-384 levels in blood compared with the MCI group. We also found decreased miR-384 expression in the several cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of the patients with DAT. Negative correlations were observed between miR-384 and Aβ42 in the serum and CSF from patients with AD. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that miR-384 may plays a role in the development of AD and may be a potential non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of AD. PMID:24827165

  3. Endogenous microglia regulate development of embryonic cortical precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Antony, Joseph M; Paquin, Annie; Nutt, Stephen L; Kaplan, David R; Miller, Freda D

    2011-03-01

    Microglia play important roles in the damaged or degenerating adult nervous system. However, the role of microglia in embryonic brain development is still largely uncharacterized. Here we show that microglia are present in regions of the developing brain that contain neural precursors from E11 onward. To determine whether these microglia are important for neural precursor maintenance or self-renewal, we cultured embryonic neural precursors from the cortex of PU.1(-/-) mice, which we show lack resident microglia during embryogenesis. Cell survival and neurogenesis were similar in cultures from PU.1(-/-) vs. PU.1(+/+) mice, but precursor proliferation and astrogenesis were both reduced. Cortical precursors depleted of microglia also displayed decreased precursor proliferation and astrogenesis, and these deficits could be rescued when microglia were added back to the cultures. Moreover, when the number of microglia present in cortical precursor cultures was increased above normal levels, astrogenesis but not neurogenesis was increased. Together these results demonstrate that microglia present within the embryonic neural precursor niche can regulate neural precursor development and suggest that alterations in microglial number as a consequence of genetic or pathological events could perturb neural development by directly affecting embryonic neural precursors. PMID:21259316

  4. Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression Modulates Intestine Immune Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Kendra L.; Swigost, Adam J.; Zhou, Xudong; Sens, MaryAnn; Combs, Colin K.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is widely expressed across many tissue and cell types. Proteolytic processing of the protein gives rise to a plethora of protein fragments with varied biological activities. Although a large amount of data has been generated describing the metabolism of the protein in neurons, its role in regulating the phenotype of other cells remains unclear. Based upon prior work demonstrating that APP regulates the activation phenotype of monocytic lineage cells, we hypothesized that APP can regulate macrophage activation phenotype in tissues other than brain. Ileums of the small intestines from C57BL6/J wild type and APP−/− mice were compared as a representative tissue normally associated with abundant macrophage infiltration. APP−/− intestines demonstrated diminished CD68 immunoreactivity compared to wild type mice. This correlated with significantly less cycloxygenase-2 (cox-2), CD68, CD40, CD11c, and βIII-tubulin protein levels. Peritoneal macrophage from APP−/− mice demonstrated decreased in vitro migratory ability compared to wild type cells and diminished basal KC cytokine secretion. Whereas, APP−/− intestinal macrophage had an increase in basal KC cytokine secretion compared to wild type cells. Conversely, there was a significant decrease in multiple cytokine levels in APP−/− compared to wild type ileums. Finally, APP−/− mice demonstrated impaired absorption and increased motility compared to wild type mice. These data demonstrate the APP expression regulates immune cell secretions and phenotype and intestinal function. This data set describes a novel function for this protein or its metabolites that may be relevant not only for Alzheimer’s disease but a range of immune-related disorders. PMID:22124967

  5. Bioinformatic analysis of peptide precursor proteins.

    PubMed

    Baggerman, G; Liu, F; Wets, G; Schoofs, L

    2005-04-01

    Neuropeptides are among the most important signal molecules in animals. Traditional identification of peptide hormones through peptide purification is a tedious and time-consuming process. With the advent of the genome sequencing projects, putative peptide precursor can be mined from the genome. However, because bioactive peptides are usually quite short in length and because the active core of a peptide is often limited to only a few amino acids, using the BLAST search engine to identify neuropeptide precursors in the genome is difficult and sometimes impossible. To overcome these shortcomings, we subject the entire set of all known Drosophila melanogaster peptide precursor sequences to motif-finding algorithms in search of a motif that is common for all prepropeptides and that could be used in the search for new peptide precursors. PMID:15891006

  6. The amyloid precursor protein and postnatal neurogenesis/neuroregeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yanan; Tang, Bor Luen . E-mail: bchtbl@nus.edu.sg

    2006-03-03

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is the source of amyloid-beta (A{beta}) peptide, produced via its sequential cleavage {beta}- and {gamma}-secretases. Various biophysical forms of A{beta} (and the mutations of APP which results in their elevated levels) have been implicated in the etiology and early onset of Alzheimer's disease. APP's evolutionary conservation and the existence of APP-like isoforms (APLP1 and APLP2) which lack the A{beta} sequence, however, suggest that these might have important physiological functions that are unrelated to A{beta} production. Soluble N-terminal fragments of APP have been known to be neuroprotective, and the interaction of its cytoplasmic C-terminus with a myriad of proteins associates it with diverse processes such as axonal transport and transcriptional regulation. The notion for an essential postnatal function of APP has been demonstrated genetically, as mice deficient in both APP and APLP2 or all three APP isoforms exhibit early postnatal lethality and neuroanatomical abnormalities. Recent findings have also brought to light two possible functions of the APP family in Brain-regulation of neural progenitor cell proliferation and axonal outgrowth after injury. Interestingly, these two apparently related neurogenic/neuroregenerative functions of APP involve two separate domains of the molecule.

  7. Capacitative Ca2+ entry is involved in regulating soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) release mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Sinkyu; Jung, Ji-Eun; Roh, Eun-Jihn; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of phospholipase C-linked G-protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors, increases the release of the soluble form of amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha) by alpha-secretase cleavage. In this study, we examined the involvement of capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) in the regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR)-dependent sAPPalpha release in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells expressing abundant M3 mAChRs. The sAPPalpha release stimulated by mAChR activation was abolished by EGTA, an extracellular Ca2+ chelator, which abolished mAChR-mediated Ca2+ influx without affecting Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. However, mAChR-mediated sAPPalpha release was not inhibited by thapsigargin, which increases basal [Ca2+]i by depletion of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. While these results indicate that the mAChR-mediated increase in sAPPalpha release is regulated largely by Ca2+ influx rather than by Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores, we further investigated the Ca2+ entry mechanisms regulating this phenomenon. CCE inhibitors such as Gd3+, SKF96365, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB), dose dependently reduced both Ca2+ influx and sAPPalpha release stimulated by mAChR activation, whereas inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, or Na+-pumps was without effect. These results indicate that CCE plays an important role in the mAChR-mediated release of sAPPalpha. PMID:16524374

  8. Analysis of peripheral amyloid precursor protein in Angelman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Craig A; Wink, Logan K; Baindu, Bayon; Ray, Balmiki; Schaefer, Tori L; Pedapati, Ernest V; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2016-09-01

    Angelman Syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with significant developmental and communication delays, high risk for epilepsy, motor dysfunction, and a characteristic behavioral profile. While Angelman Syndrome is known to be associated with the loss of maternal expression of the ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A gene, the molecular sequelae of this loss remain to be fully understood. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is involved in neuronal development and APP dysregulation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of other developmental disorders including fragile X syndrome and idiopathic autism. APP dysregulation has been noted in preclinical model of chromosome 15q13 duplication, a disorder whose genetic abnormality results in duplication of the region that is epigenetically silenced in Angelman Syndrome. In this duplication model, APP levels have been shown to be significantly reduced leading to the hypothesis that enhanced ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A expression may be associated with this phenomena. We tested the hypothesis that ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A regulates APP protein levels by comparing peripheral APP and APP derivative levels in humans with Angelman Syndrome to those with neurotypical development. We report that APP total, APP alpha (sAPPα) and A Beta 40 and 42 are elevated in the plasma of humans with Angelman Syndrome compared to neurotypical matched human samples. Additionally, we found that elevations in APP total and sAPPα correlated positively with peripheral brain derived neurotrophic factor levels previously reported in this same patient cohort. Our pilot report on APP protein levels in Angelman Syndrome warrants additional exploration and may provide a molecular target of treatment for the disorder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27327493

  9. Cytotoxic Aggregation and Amyloid Formation by the Myostatin Precursor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Carlene S.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth, has been implicated in sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM). sIBM is the most common age-related muscle-wastage disease with a pathogenesis similar to that of amyloid disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Myostatin precursor protein (MstnPP) has been shown to associate with large molecular weight filamentous inclusions containing the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide in sIBM tissue, and MstnPP is upregulated following ER stress. The mechanism for how MstnPP contributes to disease pathogenesis is unknown. Here, we show for the first time that MstnPP is capable of forming amyloid fibrils in vitro. When MstnPP-containing Escherichia coli inclusion bodies are refolded and purified, a proportion of MstnPP spontaneously misfolds into amyloid-like aggregates as characterised by electron microscopy and binding of the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin T. When subjected to a slightly acidic pH and elevated temperature, the aggregates form straight and unbranched amyloid fibrils 15 nm in diameter and also exhibit higher order amyloid structures. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that the amyloid fibrils are dominated by β-sheet and that their formation occurs via a conformational change that occurs at a physiologically relevant temperature. Importantly, MstnPP aggregates and protofibrils have a negative effect on the viability of myoblasts. These novel results show that the myostatin precursor protein is capable of forming amyloid structures in vitro with implications for a role in sIBM pathogenesis. PMID:20161792

  10. Mechanisms Regulating Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Doetsch, Paul W; Corbett, Anita H

    2015-10-01

    Cellular functions are dictated by protein content and activity. There are numerous strategies to regulate proteins varying from modulating gene expression to post-translational modifications. One commonly used mode of regulation in eukaryotes is targeted localization. By specifically redirecting the localization of a pool of existing protein, cells can achieve rapid changes in local protein function. Eukaryotic cells have evolved elegant targeting pathways to direct proteins to the appropriate cellular location or locations. Here, we provide a general overview of these localization pathways, with a focus on nuclear and mitochondrial transport, and present a survey of the evolutionarily conserved regulatory strategies identified thus far. We end with a description of several specific examples of proteins that exploit localization as an important mode of regulation. PMID:26172624

  11. Amyloid protein precursor stimulates excitatory amino acid transport. Implications for roles in neuroprotection and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masliah, E; Raber, J; Alford, M; Mallory, M; Mattson, M P; Yang, D; Wong, D; Mucke, L

    1998-05-15

    Excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate are required for the normal functioning of the central nervous system but can trigger excitotoxic neuronal injury if allowed to accumulate to abnormally high levels. Their extracellular levels are controlled primarily by transmitter uptake into astrocytes. Here, we demonstrate that the amyloid protein precursor may participate in the regulation of this important process. The amyloid protein precursor has been well conserved through evolution, and a number of studies indicate that it may function as an endogenous excitoprotectant. However, the mechanisms underlying this neuroprotective capacity remain largely unknown. At moderate levels of expression, human amyloid protein precursors increased glutamate/aspartate uptake in brains of transgenic mice, with the 751-amino acid isoform showing greater potency than the 695-amino acid isoform. Cerebral glutamate/aspartate transporter protein levels were higher in transgenic mice than in non-transgenic controls, whereas transporter mRNA levels were unchanged. Amyloid protein precursor-dependent stimulation of aspartate uptake by cultured primary astrocytes was associated with increases in protein kinase A and C activity and could be blocked by inhibitors of these kinases. The stimulation of astroglial excitatory amino acid transport by amyloid protein precursors could protect the brain against excitotoxicity and may play an important role in neurotransmission. PMID:9575214

  12. Amyloid precursor protein cooperates with c-KIT mutation/overexpression to regulate cell apoptosis in AML1-ETO-positive leukemia via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guopan; Yin, Changxin; Jiang, Ling; Zheng, Zhongxin; Wang, Zhixiang; Wang, Chunli; Zhou, Hongsheng; Jiang, Xuejie; Liu, Qifa; Meng, Fanyi

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that amyloid precursor protein (APP) promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in various types of solid cancers. In our previous study, we showed that APP is highly expressed and regulates leukemia cell migration in AML1‑ETO-positive (AE) leukemia. Whether APP is involved in the regulation of AE leukemia cell proliferation or apoptosis is unclear. In the present study we focused on the correlation of APP with c-KIT mutation/overexpression and cell proliferation and apoptosis in AE leukemia. APP and c-KIT expression detected by quantitative real-time (qPCR) method, and c-KIT mutations screened using PCR in bone marrow cells from 65 patients with AE leukemia before their first chemotherapy, were simultaneously assessed. Furthermore, the Kasumi-1 cell line was chosen as the cell model, and the APP gene was knocked down using siRNA technology. The correlation of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis and c-Kit expression with APP expression levels, as well as the regulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by APP were analyzed in the Kasumi-1 cell line. The results showed that peripheral white blood cell counts (P=0.008) and bone marrow cellularity (P=0.031), but not bone marrow blasts, were correlated with APP expression. Moreover, the patients with APP high expression had a significantly higher incidence of c-KIT mutations (P<0.001) and increased levels of c-KIT expression (P=0.001) and poorer disease outcome. In the Kasumi-1 cell line, as compared with the wild-type and negative control cells, cell apoptosis, both early (P<0.001) and late (P<0.001), was significantly increased when the APP gene was knocked down, concomitant with reduced levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased levels of caspase-3 and -9, however, no apparent change was observed in the cell cycle distribution (P>0.05). Moreover, the knockdown of APP markedly decreased c-KIT expression at both the transcription (as evidenced by qPCR analysis) and translation

  13. Analysis of Amyloid Precursor Protein Function in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Cassar, Marlène; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has mainly been investigated in connection with its role in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) due to its cleavage resulting in the production of the Aβ peptides that accumulate in the plaques characteristic for this disease. However, APP is an evolutionary conserved protein that is not only found in humans but also in many other species, including Drosophila, suggesting an important physiological function. Besides Aβ, several other fragments are produced by the cleavage of APP; large secreted fragments derived from the N-terminus and a small intracellular C-terminal fragment. Although these fragments have received much less attention than Aβ, a picture about their function is finally emerging. In contrast to mammals, which express three APP family members, Drosophila expresses only one APP protein called APP-like or APPL. Therefore APPL functions can be studied in flies without the complication that other APP family members may have redundant functions. Flies lacking APPL are viable but show defects in neuronal outgrowth in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in addition to synaptic changes. Furthermore, APPL has been connected with axonal transport functions. In the adult nervous system, APPL, and more specifically its secreted fragments, can protect neurons from degeneration. APPL cleavage also prevents glial death. Lastly, APPL was found to be involved in behavioral deficits and in regulating sleep/activity patterns. This review, will describe the role of APPL in neuronal development and maintenance and briefly touch on its emerging function in circadian rhythms while an accompanying review will focus on its role in learning and memory formation. PMID:27507933

  14. Analysis of Amyloid Precursor Protein Function in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Cassar, Marlène; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2016-01-01

    The Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has mainly been investigated in connection with its role in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) due to its cleavage resulting in the production of the Aβ peptides that accumulate in the plaques characteristic for this disease. However, APP is an evolutionary conserved protein that is not only found in humans but also in many other species, including Drosophila, suggesting an important physiological function. Besides Aβ, several other fragments are produced by the cleavage of APP; large secreted fragments derived from the N-terminus and a small intracellular C-terminal fragment. Although these fragments have received much less attention than Aβ, a picture about their function is finally emerging. In contrast to mammals, which express three APP family members, Drosophila expresses only one APP protein called APP-like or APPL. Therefore APPL functions can be studied in flies without the complication that other APP family members may have redundant functions. Flies lacking APPL are viable but show defects in neuronal outgrowth in the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in addition to synaptic changes. Furthermore, APPL has been connected with axonal transport functions. In the adult nervous system, APPL, and more specifically its secreted fragments, can protect neurons from degeneration. APPL cleavage also prevents glial death. Lastly, APPL was found to be involved in behavioral deficits and in regulating sleep/activity patterns. This review, will describe the role of APPL in neuronal development and maintenance and briefly touch on its emerging function in circadian rhythms while an accompanying review will focus on its role in learning and memory formation. PMID:27507933

  15. MiR-144-3p and Its Target Gene β-Amyloid Precursor Protein Regulate 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2-3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kuo; Zhang, Junling; Ji, Chunxue; Wang, Lixuan

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. The present study focused on the role of hsa-miR-144-3p in one of the neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our study showed a remarkable down-regulation of miR-144-3p expression in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated SH-SY5Y cells. MiR-144-3p was then overexpressed and silenced in human SH-SY5Y cells by miRNA-mimics and miRNA-inhibitor transfections, respectively. Furthermore, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) was identified as a target gene of miR-144-3p via a luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-144-3p overexpression significantly inhibited the protein expression of APP. Since mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to be one of the major pathological events in PD, we also focused on the role of miR-144-3p and APP in regulating mitochondrial functions. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-144-3p increased expression of the key genes involved in maintaining mitochondrial function, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Moreover, there was also a significant increase in cellular ATP, cell viability and the relative copy number of mtDNA in the presence of miR-144-3p overexpression. In contrast, miR-144-3p silencing showed opposite effects. We also found that APP overexpression significantly decreased ATP level, cell viability, the relative copy number of mtDNA and the expression of these three genes, which reversed the effects of miR-144-3p overexpression. Taken together, these results show that miR-144-3p plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function, and its target gene APP is also involved in this process. PMID:27329039

  16. SomethiNG 2 talk about-Transcriptional regulation in embryonic and adult oligodendrocyte precursors.

    PubMed

    Küspert, Melanie; Wegner, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Glial cells that express the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 represent an inherently heterogeneous population. These so-called NG2-glia are present during development and in the adult CNS, where they are referred to as embryonic oligodendrocyte precursors and adult NG2-glia, respectively. They give rise to myelinating oligodendrocytes at all times of life. Over the years much has been learnt about the transcriptional network in embryonic oligodendrocyte precursors, and several transcription factors from the HLH, HMG-domain, zinc finger and homeodomain protein families have been identified as main constituents. Much less is known about the corresponding network in adult NG2-glia. Here we summarize and discuss current knowledge on functions of each of these transcription factor families in NG2-glia, and where possible compare transcriptional regulation in embryonic oligodendrocyte precursors and adult NG2-glia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:NG2-glia (Invited only). PMID:26232072

  17. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Affects Global Protein Synthesis in Dividing Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuang; Rambo, Brittany; Skucha, Sylvia; Weber, Megan J.; Alani, Sara; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is dependent on Notch-1 signaling for survival. Targeting Notch-1 by means of γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI) proved effective in killing hypoxic NSCLC. Post-mortem analysis of GSI-treated, NSCLC-burdened mice suggested enhanced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at threonines 37/46 in hypoxic tumor tissues. In vitro dissection of this phenomenon revealed that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) inhibition was responsible for a non-canonical 4E-BP1 phosphorylation pattern rearrangement—a process, in part, mediated by APP regulation of the pseudophosphatase Styx. Upon APP depletion we observed modifications of eIF-4F composition indicating increased recruitment of eIF-4A to the mRNA cap. This phenomenon was supported by the observation that cells with depleted APP were partially resistant to silvestrol, an antibiotic that interferes with eIF-4A assembly into eIF-4F complexes. APP downregulation in dividing human cells increased the rate of global protein synthesis, both cap- and IRES-dependent. Such an increase seemed independent of mTOR inhibition. After administration of Torin-1, APP downregulation and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC-1) inhibition affected 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and global protein synthesis in opposite fashions. Additional investigations indicated that APP operates independently of mTORC-1. Key phenomena described in this study were reversed by overexpression of the APP C-terminal domain. The presented data suggest that APP may be a novel regulator of protein synthesis in dividing human cells, both cancerous and primary. Furthermore, APP appears to affect translation initiation using mechanisms seemingly dissimilar to mTORC-1 regulation of cap-dependent protein synthesis. PMID:25283437

  18. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) affects global protein synthesis in dividing human cells.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Anna; Galluzzo, Paola; Liang, Shuang; Rambo, Brittany; Skucha, Sylvia; Weber, Megan J; Alani, Sara; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2015-05-01

    Hypoxic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is dependent on Notch-1 signaling for survival. Targeting Notch-1 by means of γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI) proved effective in killing hypoxic NSCLC. Post-mortem analysis of GSI-treated, NSCLC-burdened mice suggested enhanced phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at threonines 37/46 in hypoxic tumor tissues. In vitro dissection of this phenomenon revealed that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) inhibition was responsible for a non-canonical 4E-BP1 phosphorylation pattern rearrangement-a process, in part, mediated by APP regulation of the pseudophosphatase Styx. Upon APP depletion we observed modifications of eIF-4F composition indicating increased recruitment of eIF-4A to the mRNA cap. This phenomenon was supported by the observation that cells with depleted APP were partially resistant to silvestrol, an antibiotic that interferes with eIF-4A assembly into eIF-4F complexes. APP downregulation in dividing human cells increased the rate of global protein synthesis, both cap- and IRES-dependent. Such an increase seemed independent of mTOR inhibition. After administration of Torin-1, APP downregulation and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC-1) inhibition affected 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and global protein synthesis in opposite fashions. Additional investigations indicated that APP operates independently of mTORC-1. Key phenomena described in this study were reversed by overexpression of the APP C-terminal domain. The presented data suggest that APP may be a novel regulator of protein synthesis in dividing human cells, both cancerous and primary. Furthermore, APP appears to affect translation initiation using mechanisms seemingly dissimilar to mTORC-1 regulation of cap-dependent protein synthesis. PMID:25283437

  19. Senile plaque neurites in Alzheimer disease accumulate amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Cras, P; Kawai, M; Lowery, D; Gonzalez-DeWhitt, P; Greenberg, B; Perry, G

    1991-01-01

    Senile plaques are polymorphous beta-amyloid protein deposits found in the brain in Alzheimer disease and normal aging. This beta-amyloid protein is derived from a larger precursor molecule of which neurons are the principal producers in brain. We found that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-immunoreactive neurites were involved in senile plaques and that only a subset of these neurites showed markers for the abnormal filaments characteristic of neurofibrillary pathology. In the neocortex of nondemented individuals with senile plaques but spared of neurofibrillary pathology, dystrophic neurites in senile plaques showed only APP accumulation. In contrast, in the brains of Alzheimer patients, virtually all APP-immunoreactive neurites also showed immunoreactivity with ubiquitin, tau, and phosphorylated neurofilaments. The presence of tau and neurofilament epitopes in dystrophic neurites in senile plaques was correlated with the extent of neurofibrillary pathology in the surrounding brain tissue. Accumulation of APP and the formation of neurofibrillary pathology in senile plaque neurites are therefore distinct phenomena. Our findings suggest that APP accumulation in senile plaque neurites occurs prior to tau accumulation and is therefore more closely related to appearance of neuritic dystrophy. Images PMID:1652752

  20. Protein Regulation in Signal Transduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael J; Yaffe, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARYCells must respond to a diverse, complex, and ever-changing mix of signals, using a fairly limited set of parts. Changes in protein level, protein localization, protein activity, and protein-protein interactions are critical aspects of signal transduction, allowing cells to respond highly specifically to a nearly limitless set of cues and also to vary the sensitivity, duration, and dynamics of the response. Signal-dependent changes in levels of gene expression and protein synthesis play an important role in regulation of protein levels, whereas posttranslational modifications of proteins regulate their degradation, localization, and functional interactions. Protein ubiquitylation, for example, can direct proteins to the proteasome for degradation or provide a signal that regulates their interactions and/or location within the cell. Similarly, protein phosphorylation by specific kinases is a key mechanism for augmenting protein activity and relaying signals to other proteins that possess domains that recognize the phosphorylated residues. PMID:27252361

  1. Ubiquilin-1 Is a Molecular Chaperone for the Amyloid Precursor Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Stieren, Emily S.; El Ayadi, Amina; Xiao, Yao; Siller, Efraín; Landsverk, Megan L.; Oberhauser, Andres F.; Barral, José M.; Boehning, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with extracellular deposition of proteolytic fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Although mutations in APP and proteases that mediate its processing are known to result in familial, early onset forms of AD, the mechanisms underlying the more common sporadic, yet genetically complex forms of the disease are still unclear. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the ubiquilin-1 gene have been shown to be genetically associated with AD, implicating its gene product in the pathogenesis of late onset AD. However, genetic linkage between ubiquilin-1 and AD has not been confirmed in studies examining different populations. Here we show that regardless of genotype, ubiquilin-1 protein levels are significantly decreased in late onset AD patient brains, suggesting that diminished ubiquilin function may be a common denominator in AD progression. Our interrogation of putative ubiquilin-1 activities based on sequence similarities to proteins involved in cellular quality control showed that ubiquilin-1 can be biochemically defined as a bona fide molecular chaperone and that this activity is capable of preventing the aggregation of amyloid precursor protein both in vitro and in live neurons. Furthermore, we show that reduced activity of ubiquilin-1 results in augmented production of pathogenic amyloid precursor protein fragments as well as increased neuronal death. Our results support the notion that ubiquilin-1 chaperone activity is necessary to regulate the production of APP and its fragments and that diminished ubiquilin-1 levels may contribute to AD pathogenesis. PMID:21852239

  2. Insights into the physiological function of the β-amyloid precursor protein: beyond Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Dawkins, Edgar; Small, David H

    2014-01-01

    The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been extensively studied for its role as the precursor of the β-amyloid protein (Aβ) of Alzheimer's disease. However, the normal function of APP remains largely unknown. This article reviews studies on the structure, expression and post-translational processing of APP, as well as studies on the effects of APP in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that the published data provide strong evidence that APP has a trophic function. APP is likely to be involved in neural stem cell development, neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and neurorepair. However, the mechanisms by which APP exerts its actions remain to be elucidated. The available evidence suggests that APP interacts both intracellularly and extracellularly to regulate various signal transduction mechanisms. This article reviews studies on the structure, expression and post-translational processing of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), as well as studies on the effects of APP in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that the published data provide strong evidence that APP has a trophic function. APP is likely to be involved in neural stem cell development, neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and neurorepair. However, the mechanisms by which APP exerts its actions remain to be elucidated. The available evidence suggests that APP interacts both intracellularly and extracellularly to regulate various signal transduction mechanisms. PMID:24517464

  3. Mutational Analysis of the Rift Valley Fever Virus Glycoprotein Precursor Proteins for Gn Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Phoenix, Inaia; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Nishiyama, Shoko; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) M-segment encodes the 78 kD, NSm, Gn, and Gc proteins. The 1st AUG generates the 78 kD-Gc precursor, the 2nd AUG generates the NSm-Gn-Gc precursor, and the 3rd AUG makes the NSm’-Gn-Gc precursor. To understand biological changes due to abolishment of the precursors, we quantitatively measured Gn secretion using a reporter assay, in which a Gaussia luciferase (gLuc) protein is fused to the RVFV M-segment pre-Gn region. Using the reporter assay, the relative expression of Gn/gLuc fusion proteins was analyzed among various AUG mutants. The reporter assay showed efficient secretion of Gn/gLuc protein from the precursor made from the 2nd AUG, while the removal of the untranslated region upstream of the 2nd AUG (AUG2-M) increased the secretion of the Gn/gLuc protein. Subsequently, recombinant MP-12 strains encoding mutations in the pre-Gn region were rescued, and virological phenotypes were characterized. Recombinant MP-12 encoding the AUG2-M mutation replicated slightly less efficiently than the control, indicating that viral replication is further influenced by the biological processes occurring after Gn expression, rather than the Gn abundance. This study showed that, not only the abolishment of AUG, but also the truncation of viral UTR, affects the expression of Gn protein by the RVFV M-segment. PMID:27231931

  4. Mutational Analysis of the Rift Valley Fever Virus Glycoprotein Precursor Proteins for Gn Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Inaia; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Nishiyama, Shoko; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) M-segment encodes the 78 kD, NSm, Gn, and Gc proteins. The 1st AUG generates the 78 kD-Gc precursor, the 2nd AUG generates the NSm-Gn-Gc precursor, and the 3rd AUG makes the NSm'-Gn-Gc precursor. To understand biological changes due to abolishment of the precursors, we quantitatively measured Gn secretion using a reporter assay, in which a Gaussia luciferase (gLuc) protein is fused to the RVFV M-segment pre-Gn region. Using the reporter assay, the relative expression of Gn/gLuc fusion proteins was analyzed among various AUG mutants. The reporter assay showed efficient secretion of Gn/gLuc protein from the precursor made from the 2nd AUG, while the removal of the untranslated region upstream of the 2nd AUG (AUG2-M) increased the secretion of the Gn/gLuc protein. Subsequently, recombinant MP-12 strains encoding mutations in the pre-Gn region were rescued, and virological phenotypes were characterized. Recombinant MP-12 encoding the AUG2-M mutation replicated slightly less efficiently than the control, indicating that viral replication is further influenced by the biological processes occurring after Gn expression, rather than the Gn abundance. This study showed that, not only the abolishment of AUG, but also the truncation of viral UTR, affects the expression of Gn protein by the RVFV M-segment. PMID:27231931

  5. Porcine myofibrillar proteins as potential precursors of bioactive peptides - an in silico study.

    PubMed

    Kęska, Paulina; Stadnik, Joanna

    2016-06-15

    Selected porcine myofibrillar proteins have been assessed as potential precursors of bioactive peptides based on in silico analysis. The potential of protein sequences for releasing peptides was evaluated by determining the profile of their potential biological activity and the frequency of occurrence of fragments with a given activity using the BIOPEP database. Digestive enzymes: pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin have been used for the in silico proteolysis with the use of the "Enzyme(s) action" tool in BIOPEP. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion the tested sequences of pig myofibrillar proteins are a potential source of a total of 399 peptides with activities such as enzyme inhibition, antioxidative, hypotensive, stimulating or regulating various body functions and antiamnestic activities. Within the intact proteins and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory peptide sequences were the most frequently observed. The results indicate that pork myofibrillar proteins are a promising source of peptides with biological activity. PMID:27247979

  6. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  7. Natural Modulators of Amyloid-Beta Precursor Protein Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Can; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease and the primary cause of dementia, with no cure currently available. The pathogenesis of AD is believed to be primarily driven by Aβ, the principal component of senile plaques. Aβ is an ~4 kDa peptide generated from the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) through proteolytic secretases. Natural products, particularly those utilized in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), have a long history alleviating common clinical disorders, including dementia. However, the cell/molecular pathways mediated by these natural products are largely unknown until recently when the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disorders begin to be elucidated. Here, the mechanisms with which natural products modulate the pathogenesis of AD are discussed, in particular, by focusing on their roles in the processing of APP. PMID:22998566

  8. Biology and pathophysiology of the amyloid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease in large part due to the sequential proteolytic cleavages that result in the generation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ). Not surprisingly, the biological properties of APP have also been the subject of great interest and intense investigations. Since our 2006 review, the body of literature on APP continues to expand, thereby offering further insights into the biochemical, cellular and functional properties of this interesting molecule. Sophisticated mouse models have been created to allow in vivo examination of cell type-specific functions of APP together with the many functional domains. This review provides an overview and update on our current understanding of the pathobiology of APP. PMID:21527012

  9. Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer Disease: Role of Amyloid Precursor Protein and Presenilin 1 Intracellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nizzari, Mario; Thellung, Stefano; Corsaro, Alessandro; Villa, Valentina; Pagano, Aldo; Porcile, Carola; Russo, Claudio; Florio, Tullio

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by (1) progressive loss of synapses and neurons, (2) intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein, and (3) amyloid plaques. Genetically, AD is linked to mutations in few proteins amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2). The molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in AD as well as the physiological function of APP are not yet known. A recent theory has proposed that APP and PS1 modulate intracellular signals to induce cell-cycle abnormalities responsible for neuronal death and possibly amyloid deposition. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of a complex network of proteins, clearly involved in the regulation of signal transduction mechanisms that interact with both APP and PS1. In this review we discuss the significance of novel finding related to cell-signaling events modulated by APP and PS1 in the development of neurodegeneration. PMID:22496686

  10. Spatial regulation of a common precursor from two distinct genes generates metabolite diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Sun, Wei-Wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C.

    2015-07-13

    In secondary metabolite biosynthesis, core synthetic genes such as polyketide synthase genes or non-ribosomal peptide synthase genes usually encode proteins that generate various backbone precursors. These precursors are modified by other tailoring enzymes to yield a large variety of different secondary metabolites. The number of core synthesis genes in a given species correlates, therefore, with the number of types of secondary metabolites the organism can produce. In our study, heterologous expression of all the A. terreus NRPS-like genes showed that two NRPS-like proteins, encoded by atmelA and apvA, release the same natural product, aspulvinone E. More interestingly, further experiments revealed that the aspulvinone E produced by two different genes accumulates in different fungal compartments. And this spatial control of aspulvinone E production is likely to be regulated by their own specific promoters. Comparative genomics indicates that atmelA and apvA might share a same ancestral gene and the gene apvA is inserted in a highly conserved region in Aspergillus species that contains genes coding for life-essential proteins. The study also identified one trans-prenyltransferase AbpB which is capable of prenylating two different substrates aspulvinones and butyrolactones. In total, our study shows the first example in which the locally distribution of the same natural product could lead to its incorporation into different SM pathways.

  11. Snail Coordinately Regulates Downstream Pathways to Control Multiple Aspects of Mammalian Neural Precursor Development

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Mark A.; Burns, Sarah E.; Yang, Guang; Kaplan, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The Snail transcription factor plays a key role in regulating diverse developmental processes but is not thought to play a role in mammalian neural precursors. Here, we have examined radial glial precursor cells of the embryonic murine cortex and demonstrate that Snail regulates their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation into intermediate progenitors and neurons via two distinct and separable target pathways. First, Snail promotes cell survival by antagonizing a p53-dependent death pathway because coincident p53 knockdown rescues survival deficits caused by Snail knockdown. Second, we show that the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25b is regulated by Snail in radial precursors and that Cdc25b coexpression is sufficient to rescue the decreased radial precursor proliferation and differentiation observed upon Snail knockdown. Thus, Snail acts via p53 and Cdc25b to coordinately regulate multiple aspects of mammalian embryonic neural precursor biology. PMID:24719096

  12. Imipramine and citalopram facilitate amyloid precursor protein secretion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pákáski, Magdolna; Bjelik, Annamária; Hugyecz, Marietta; Kása, Péter; Janka, Zoltán; Kálmán, János

    2005-08-01

    Comorbid depression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common mood disorder in the elderly and a broad spectrum of antidepressants have been used for its treatment. Abeta peptides and other derivatives of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) have been implicated as central to the pathogenesis of AD. However, the functional relationship of APP and its proteolytic derivatives to antidepressant therapy is not known. In this study, Western blotting was used to test the ability of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) imipramine or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram to change the release of APP and the protein kinase C (PKC) content. Both antidepressants increased APP secretion in primary rat neuronal cultures. Imipramine or citalopram enhanced the level of secreted APP by 3.2- or 3.4-fold, respectively. Increases in PKC level were observed only after imipramine treatment. These in vitro data suggest that both TCA and SSRI are able to interfere with the APP metabolism. Imipramine promotes the non-amyloidogenic route of APP processing via stimulatory effects on PKC. We propose that PKC is not involved in the mechanism underlying the effects of citalopram on the APP metabolism. Since the secreted APP is not further available for the pathological cleavage of beta- and gamma-secretases, antidepressant medication might be beneficial in AD therapy. PMID:15955598

  13. The amyloid precursor protein represses expression of acetylcholinesterase in neuronal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hicks, David A; Makova, Natalia Z; Gough, Mallory; Parkin, Edward T; Nalivaeva, Natalia N; Turner, Anthony J

    2013-09-01

    The toxic role of amyloid β peptides in Alzheimer's disease is well documented. Their generation is via sequential β- and γ-secretase cleavage of the membrane-bound amyloid precursor protein (APP). Other APP metabolites include the soluble ectodomains sAPPα and sAPPβ and also the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (AICD). In this study, we examined whether APP is involved in the regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is a key protein of the cholinergic system and has been shown to accelerate amyloid fibril formation and increase their toxicity. Overexpression of the neuronal specific isoform, APP695, in the neuronal cell lines SN56 and SH-SY5Y substantially decreased levels of AChE mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity. Although similar decreases in mRNA levels were observed of the proline-rich anchor of AChE, PRiMA, no changes were seen in mRNA levels of the related enzyme, butyryl-cholinesterase, nor of the high-affinity choline transporter. A γ-secretase inhibitor did not affect AChE transcript levels or enzyme activity in SN56 (APP695) or SH-SY5Y (APP695) cells, showing that regulation of AChE by APP does not require the generation of AICD or amyloid β peptide. Treatment of wild-type SN56 cells with siRNA targeting APP resulted in a significant up-regulation in AChE mRNA levels. Mutagenesis studies suggest that the observed transcriptional repression of AChE is mediated by the E1 region of APP, specifically its copper-binding domain, but not the C-terminal YENTPY motif. In conclusion, AChE is regulated in two neuronal cell lines by APP in a manner independent of the generation of sAPPα, sAPPβ, and AICD. PMID:23897820

  14. The actin binding protein adseverin regulates osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Siavash; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W P; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  15. The Actin Binding Protein Adseverin Regulates Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W. P.; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  16. Lipid-linked cell wall precursors regulate membrane association of bacterial actin MreB

    PubMed Central

    Schirner, Kathrin; Eun, Ye-Jin; Dion, Mike; Luo, Yun; Helmann, John D.; Garner, Ethan C.; Walker, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary The bacterial actin homolog MreB, which is critical for rod shape determination, forms filaments that rotate around the cell width on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. What determines filament association with the membranes or with other cell wall elongation proteins is not known. Using specific chemical and genetic perturbations while following MreB filament motion, we find that MreB membrane association is an actively regulated process that depends on the presence of lipid-linked peptidoglycan precursors. When precursors are depleted, MreB filaments disassemble into the cytoplasm and peptidoglycan synthesis becomes disorganized. In cells that lack wall teichoic acids, but continue to make peptidoglycan, dynamic MreB filaments are observed, although their presence is not sufficient to establish a rod shape. We propose that the cell regulates MreB filament association with the membrane, allowing rapid and reversible inactivation of cell wall enzyme complexes in response to the inhibition of cell wall synthesis. PMID:25402772

  17. Neurotrophic effects of amyloid precursor protein peptide 165 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jie; Ma, Lina; Wang, Rong; Sheng, Shuli; Ji, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingyan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Our previous findings indicated that animals with diabetic encephalopathy exhibit learning and memory impairment in addition to hippocampal neurodegeneration, both of which are ameliorated with amyloid precursor protein (APP) 17-mer (APP17) peptide treatment. Although APP17 is neuroprotective, it is susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Derived from the active sequence structure of APP17, we have previously structurally transformed and modified several APP5-mer peptides (APP328-332 [RERMS], APP 5). We have developed seven different derivatives of APP5, including several analogs. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in the present study showed that P165 was the most neuroprotective APP5 derivative. Furthermore, we tested the effects of APP5 and P165 on the number of cells and the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Western immunoblot analyses were also performed. The digestion rates of P165 and APP5 were determined by the pepsin digestion test. P165 resisted pepsin digestion significantly more than APP5. Therefore, P165 may be optimal for oral administration. Overall, these findings suggest that P165 may be a potential drug for the treatment of diabetic encephalopathy. PMID:26551064

  18. Amyloid precursor protein at node of Ranvier modulates nodal formation.

    PubMed

    Xu, De-En; Zhang, Wen-Min; Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hong-Mei; Yan, Ke; Li, Shao; Bagnard, Dominique; Dawe, Gavin S; Ma, Quan-Hong; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP), commonly associated with Alzheimer disease, is upregulated and distributes evenly along the injured axons, and therefore, also known as a marker of demyelinating axonal injury and axonal degeneration. However, the physiological distribution and function of APP along myelinated axons was unknown. We report that APP aggregates at nodes of Ranvier (NOR) in the myelinated central nervous system (CNS) axons but not in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). At CNS NORs, APP expression co-localizes with tenascin-R and is flanked by juxtaparanodal potassium channel expression demonstrating that APP localized to NOR. In APP-knockout (KO) mice, nodal length is significantly increased, while sodium channels are still clustered at NORs. Moreover, APP KO and APP-overexpressing transgenic (APP TG) mice exhibited a decreased and an increased thickness of myelin in spinal cords, respectively, although the changes are limited in comparison to their littermate WT mice. The thickness of myelin in APP KO sciatic nerve also increased in comparison to that in WT mice. Our observations indicate that APP acts as a novel component at CNS NORs, modulating nodal formation and has minor effects in promoting myelination. PMID:25482638

  19. Amyloid precursor protein modulates β-catenin degradation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuzhi; Bodles, Angela M

    2007-01-01

    Background The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Elucidating the function of APP should help understand AD pathogenesis and provide insights into therapeutic designs against this devastating neurodegenerative disease. Results We demonstrate that APP expression in primary neurons induces β-catenin phosphorylation at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (S33/37/T41) residues, which is a prerequisite for β-catenin ubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation. APP-induced phosphorylation of β-catenin resulted in the reduction of total β-catenin levels, suggesting that APP expression promotes β-catenin degradation. In contrast, treatment of neurons with APP siRNAs increased total β-catenin levels and decreased β-catenin phosphorylation at residues S33/37/T41. Further, β-catenin was dramatically increased in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells from APP knockout animals. Acute expression of wild type APP or of familial AD APP mutants in primary neurons downregulated β-catenin in membrane and cytosolic fractions, and did not appear to affect nuclear β-catenin or β-catenin-dependent transcription. Conversely, in APP knockout CA1 pyramidal cells, accumulation of β-catenin was associated with the upregulation of cyclin D1, a downstream target of β-catenin signaling. Together, these data establish that APP downregulates β-catenin and suggest a role for APP in sustaining neuronal function by preventing cell cycle reactivation and maintaining synaptic integrity. Conclusion We have provided strong evidence that APP modulates β-catenin degradation in vitro and in vivo. Future studies may investigate whether APP processing is necessary for β-catenin downregulation, and determine if excessive APP expression contributes to AD pathogenesis through abnormal β-catenin downregulation. PMID:18070361

  20. Precursor protein of Alzheimer's disease A4 amyloid is encoded by 16 exons

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, H.G.; Kang, J.; Mueller-Hill, B. ); Salbaum, J.M.; Multhaup, G.; Beyreuther, K. ); Bayney, R.M.; Unterbeck, A. )

    1989-01-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the cerebral deposition of fibrillar aggregates of the amyloid A4 protein. Complementary DNA's coding for the precursor of the amyloid A4 protein have been described. In order to identify the structure of the precursor gene relevant clones from several human genomic libraries were isolated. Sequence analysis of the various clones revealed 16 exons to encode the 695 residue precursor protein (PreA4{sub 695}) of Alzheimer's disease amyloid A4 protein. The DNA sequence coding for the amyloid A4 protein is interrupted by an intron. This finding supports the idea that amyloid A4 protein arises by incomplete proteolysis of a larger precursor, and not by aberrant splicing.

  1. Spatial regulation of a common precursor from two distinct genes generates metabolite diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun -Jun; Sun, Wei -Wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2015-07-13

    In secondary metabolite biosynthesis, core synthetic genes such as polyketide synthase genes usually encode proteins that generate various backbone precursors. These precursors are modified by other tailoring enzymes to yield a large variety of different secondary metabolites. The number of core synthesis genes in a given species correlates, therefore, with the number of types of secondary metabolites the organism can produce. In our study, heterologous expression of all the A. terreus NRPSlike genes showed that two NRPS-like proteins, encoded by atmelA and apvA, release the same natural product, aspulvinone E. In hyphae this compound is converted to aspulvinones whereas in conidia it is converted to melanin. The genes are expressed in different tissues and this spatial control is probably regulated by their own specific promoters. Comparative genomics indicates that atmelA and apvA might share a same ancestral gene and the gene apvA is located in a highly conserved region in Aspergillus species that contains genes coding for life-essential proteins. Our data reveal the first case in secondary metabolite biosynthesis in which the tissue specific production of a single compound directs it into two separate pathways, producing distinct compounds with different functions. Our data also reveal that a single trans-prenyltransferase, AbpB, prenylates two substrates, aspulvinones and butyrolactones, revealing that genes outside of contiguous secondary metabolism gene clusters can modify more than one compound thereby expanding metabolite diversity. Our study raises the possibility of incorporation of spatial, cell-type specificity in expression of secondary metabolites of biological interest and provides new insight into designing and reconstituting their biosynthetic pathways.

  2. Spatial regulation of a common precursor from two distinct genes generates metabolite diversity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Chun -Jun; Sun, Wei -Wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2015-07-13

    In secondary metabolite biosynthesis, core synthetic genes such as polyketide synthase genes usually encode proteins that generate various backbone precursors. These precursors are modified by other tailoring enzymes to yield a large variety of different secondary metabolites. The number of core synthesis genes in a given species correlates, therefore, with the number of types of secondary metabolites the organism can produce. In our study, heterologous expression of all the A. terreus NRPSlike genes showed that two NRPS-like proteins, encoded by atmelA and apvA, release the same natural product, aspulvinone E. In hyphae this compound is converted to aspulvinones whereas inmore » conidia it is converted to melanin. The genes are expressed in different tissues and this spatial control is probably regulated by their own specific promoters. Comparative genomics indicates that atmelA and apvA might share a same ancestral gene and the gene apvA is located in a highly conserved region in Aspergillus species that contains genes coding for life-essential proteins. Our data reveal the first case in secondary metabolite biosynthesis in which the tissue specific production of a single compound directs it into two separate pathways, producing distinct compounds with different functions. Our data also reveal that a single trans-prenyltransferase, AbpB, prenylates two substrates, aspulvinones and butyrolactones, revealing that genes outside of contiguous secondary metabolism gene clusters can modify more than one compound thereby expanding metabolite diversity. Our study raises the possibility of incorporation of spatial, cell-type specificity in expression of secondary metabolites of biological interest and provides new insight into designing and reconstituting their biosynthetic pathways.« less

  3. Plasmodium vivax: a monoclonal antibody recognizes a circumsporozoite protein precursor on the sporozoite surface.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ceron, L; Rodriguez, M H; Wirtz, R A; Sina, B J; Palomeque, O L; Nettel, J A; Tsutsumi, V

    1998-11-01

    The major surface circumsporozoite (CS) proteins are known to play a role in malaria sporozoite development and invasion of invertebrate and vertebrate host cells. Plasmodium vivax CS protein processing during mosquito midgut oocyst and salivary gland sporozoite development was studied using monoclonal antibodies which recognize different CS protein epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies which react with the CS amino acid repeat sequences by ELISA recognized a 50-kDa precursor protein in immature oocyst and additional 47- and 42-kDa proteins in older oocysts. A 42-kDa CS protein was detected after initial sporozoite invasion of mosquito salivary glands and an additional 50-kDa precursor CS protein observed later in infected salivary glands. These data confirm previous results with other Plasmodium species, in which more CS protein precursors were detected in oocysts than in salivary gland sporozoites. A monoclonal antibody (PvPCS) was characterized which reacts with an epitope found only in the 50-kDa precursor CS protein. PvPCS reacted with all P. vivax sporozoite strains tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay, homogeneously staining the sporozoite periphery with much lower intensity than that produced by anti-CS repeat antibodies. Immunoelectron microscopy using PvPCS showed that the CS protein precursor was associated with peripheral cytoplasmic vacuoles and membranes of sporoblast and budding sporozoites in development oocysts. In salivary gland sporozoites, the CS protein precursor was primarily associated with micronemes and sporozoite membranes. Our results suggest that the 50-kDa CS protein precursor is synthesized intracellularly and secreted on the membrane surface, where it is proteolytically processed to form the 42-kDa mature CS protein. These data indicate that differences in CS protein processing in oocyst and salivary gland sporozoites development may occur. PMID:9806864

  4. Gc protein (vitamin D-binding protein): Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Okamura, Natsuko; Murakami, Aya; Kubo, Shinichi; Kirk, Kenneth L; Hori, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The Gc protein (human group-specific component (Gc), a vitamin D-binding protein or Gc globulin), has important physiological functions that include involvement in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5a for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation (mediated by a GalNAc-modified Gc protein (GcMAF)). In this review, the structure and function of the Gc protein is focused on especially with regard to Gc genotyping and GcMAF precursor activity. A discussion of the research strategy "GcMAF as a target for drug discovery" is included, based on our own research. PMID:16302727

  5. Regulation of proliferation and histone acetylation in embryonic neural precursors by CREB/CREM signaling

    PubMed Central

    Parlato, Rosanna; Mandl, Claudia; Hölzl-Wenig, Gabriele; Liss, Birgit; Tucker, Kerry L; Ciccolini, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein) regulates differentiation, migration, survival and activity-dependent gene expression in the developing and mature nervous system. However, its specific role in the proliferation of embryonic neural progenitors is still not completely understood. Here we investigated how CREB regulates proliferation of mouse embryonic neural progenitors by a conditional mutant lacking Creb gene in neural progenitors. In parallel, we explored possible compensatory effects by the genetic ablation of another member of the same gene family, the cAMP-responsive element modulator (Crem). We show that CREB loss differentially impaired the proliferation, clonogenic potential and self-renewal of precursors derived from the ganglionic eminence (GE), in comparison to those derived from the cortex. This phenotype was associated with a specific reduction of histone acetylation in the GE of CREB mutant mice, and this reduction was rescued in vivo by inhibition of histone deacetylation. These observations indicate that the impaired proliferation could be caused by a reduced acetyltransferase activity in Creb conditional knock-out mice. These findings support a crucial role of CREB in controlling embryonic neurogenesis and propose a novel mechanism by which CREB regulates embryonic neural development.

  6. Amyloid precursor protein enhances Nav1.6 sodium channel cell surface expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Tan, Francis Chee Kuan; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng; Dawe, Gavin S

    2015-05-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is commonly associated with Alzheimer disease, but its physiological function remains unknown. Nav1.6 is a key determinant of neuronal excitability in vivo. Because mouse models of gain of function and loss of function of APP and Nav1.6 share some similar phenotypes, we hypothesized that APP might be a candidate molecule for sodium channel modulation. Here we report that APP colocalized and interacted with Nav1.6 in mouse cortical neurons. Knocking down APP decreased Nav1.6 sodium channel currents and cell surface expression. APP-induced increases in Nav1.6 cell surface expression were Go protein-dependent, enhanced by a constitutively active Go protein mutant, and blocked by a dominant negative Go protein mutant. APP also regulated JNK activity in a Go protein-dependent manner. JNK inhibition attenuated increases in cell surface expression of Nav1.6 sodium channels induced by overexpression of APP. JNK, in turn, phosphorylated APP. Nav1.6 sodium channel surface expression was increased by T668E and decreased by T668A, mutations of APP695 mimicking and preventing Thr-668 phosphorylation, respectively. Phosphorylation of APP695 at Thr-668 enhanced its interaction with Nav1.6. Therefore, we show that APP enhances Nav1.6 sodium channel cell surface expression through a Go-coupled JNK pathway. PMID:25767117

  7. Munc13-1-mediated vesicle priming contributes to secretory amyloid precursor protein processing.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Steffen; Fuchsbrunner, Katrin; Lange-Dohna, Christine; Hartlage-Rübsamen, Maike; Bigl, Volker; Betz, Andrea; Reim, Kerstin; Brose, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) gives rise toc beta-amyloid peptides, which are the main constituents of senile plaques in brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Non-amyloidogenic processing of the APP can be stimulated by phorbol esters (PEs) and by intracellular diacylglycerol (DAG) generation. This led to the hypothesis that classical and novel protein kinase Cs (PKCs), which are activated by DAG/PEs, regulate APP processing. However, in addition to PKCs, there are other DAG/PE receptors present in neurons that may participate in the modulation of APP processing. Munc13-1, a presynaptic protein with an essential role in synaptic vesicle priming, represents such an alternative target of the DAG second messenger pathway. Using Munc13-1 knock-out mice and knock-in mice expressing a Munc13-1(H567K) variant deficient in DAG/PE binding, we determined the relative contributions of PKCs and Munc13-1 to PE-stimulated secretory APP processing. We establish that, in addition to PKC, Munc13-1 significantly contributes to the regulation of secretory APP metabolism. PMID:15123597

  8. Inflammatory Eicosanoids Increase Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression via Activation of Multiple Neuronal Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Herbst-Robinson, Katie J.; Liu, Li; James, Michael; Yao, Yuemang; Xie, Sharon X.; Brunden, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Senile plaques comprised of Aβ peptides are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, as are activated glia that release inflammatory molecules, including eicosanoids. Previous studies have demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ levels can be increased through activation of thromboxane A2-prostanoid (TP) receptors on neurons. We demonstrate that TP receptor regulation of APP expression depends on Gαq-signaling and conventional protein kinase C isoforms. Importantly, we discovered that Gαq-linked prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene D4 receptors also regulate APP expression. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2, as well as total APP levels, were found to be elevated in the brains of aged 5XFAD transgenic mice harboring Aβ plaques and activated glia, suggesting that increased APP expression resulted from eicosanoid binding to Gαq-linked neuronal receptors. Notably, inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis significantly lowered brain APP protein levels in aged 5XFAD mice. These results provide new insights into potential AD therapeutic strategies. PMID:26672557

  9. Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Runlai; Liu, Chunyan; Ahmad, Ayaz; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Falong; Cao, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two alternative precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing pathways coexist in yeast and mammals; however, how PRMT affects ribosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRMT3 (AtPRMT3) is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting pre-rRNA processing. Disruption of AtPRMT3 results in pleiotropic developmental defects, imbalanced polyribosome profiles, and aberrant pre-rRNA processing. We further identify an alternative pre-rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis and demonstrate that AtPRMT3 is required for the balance of these two pathways to promote normal growth and development. Our work uncovers a previously unidentified function of PRMT in posttranscriptional regulation of rRNA, revealing an extra layer of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:25352672

  10. High mobility group nucleosome-binding family proteins promote astrocyte differentiation of neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Motoshi; Lanjakornsiripan, Darin; Itoh, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Yusuke; Ogata, Toru; Gotoh, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the mammalian brain and are important for the functions of the central nervous system. Although previous studies have shown that the STAT signaling pathway or its regulators promote the generation of astrocytes from multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the developing mammalian brain, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the astrocytic fate decision have still remained largely unclear. Here, we show that the high mobility group nucleosome-binding (HMGN) family proteins, HMGN1, 2, and 3, promote astrocyte differentiation of NPCs during brain development. HMGN proteins were expressed in NPCs, Sox9(+) glial progenitors, and GFAP(+) astrocytes in perinatal and adult brains. Forced expression of either HMGN1, 2, or 3 in NPCs in cultures or in the late embryonic neocortex increased the generation of astrocytes at the expense of neurons. Conversely, knockdown of either HMGN1, 2, or 3 in NPCs suppressed astrocyte differentiation and promoted neuronal differentiation. Importantly, overexpression of HMGN proteins did not induce the phosphorylation of STAT3 or activate STAT reporter genes. In addition, HMGN family proteins did not enhance DNA demethylation and acetylation of histone H3 around the STAT-binding site of the gfap promoter. Moreover, knockdown of HMGN family proteins significantly reduced astrocyte differentiation induced by gliogenic signal ciliary neurotrophic factor, which activates the JAK-STAT pathway. Therefore, we propose that HMGN family proteins are novel chromatin regulatory factors that control astrocyte fate decision/differentiation in parallel with or downstream of the JAK-STAT pathway through modulation of the responsiveness to gliogenic signals. PMID:25069414

  11. Autophagy proteins regulate ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Nuria; Athonvarangkul, Diana; Mishall, Priti; Sahu, Srabani; Singh, Rajat

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved pathway that maintains cellular quality control. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) controls various aspects of cell physiology including proliferation. Multiple signalling cascades, including ERK, have been shown to regulate autophagy, however whether autophagy proteins (ATG) regulate cell signalling is unknown. Here we show that growth factor exposure increases the interaction of ERK cascade components with ATG proteins in the cytosol and nucleus. ERK and its upstream kinase MEK localize to the extra-luminal face of autophagosomes. ERK2 interacts with ATG proteins via its substrate-binding domains. Deleting Atg7 or Atg5 or blocking LC3 lipidation or ATG5–ATG12 conjugation decreases ERK phosphorylation. Conversely, increasing LC3-II availability by silencing the cysteine protease ATG4B or acute trehalose exposure increases ERK phosphorylation. Decreased ERK phosphorylation in Atg5−/− cells does not occur from overactive phosphatases. Our findings thus reveal an unconventional function of ATG proteins as cellular scaffolds in the regulation of ERK phosphorylation. PMID:24240988

  12. The intact Kunitz domain protects the amyloid precursor protein from being processed by matriptase-2.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Anna-Madeleine; Glebov, Konstantin; Walter, Jochen; Merkel, Olaf; Mangold, Martin; Schmidt, Frederike; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Gütschow, Michael; Stirnberg, Marit

    2016-08-01

    Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. So far, the mechanism of APP processing is insufficiently characterized at the molecular level. Whereas the knowledge of Aβ generation by several proteases has been expanded, the contribution of the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain (KPI) present in two major APP isoforms to the complex proteolytic processing of APP is poorly understood. In this study, we have identified KPI-containing APP as a very potent, slow-binding inhibitor for the membrane-bound proteolytic regulator of iron homeostasis matriptase-2 by forming stable complexes with its target protease in HEK cells. Inhibition and complex formation depend on the intact KPI domain. By inhibiting matriptase-2, KPI-containing APP is protected from matriptase-2-mediated proteolysis within the Aβ region, thus preventing the generation of N-terminally truncated Aβ. PMID:27078672

  13. Focally Elevated Creatine Detected in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice and Alzheimer Disease Brain Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant,M.; Rak, M.; Szeghalmi, A.; Del Bigio, M.; Westaway, D.; Yang, J.; Julian, R.; Gough, K.

    2006-01-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine system, regulated by creatine kinase, plays an important role in maintaining energy balance in the brain. Energy metabolism and the function of creatine kinase are known to be affected in Alzheimer diseased brain and in cells exposed to the {beta}-amyloid peptide. We used infrared microspectroscopy to examine hippocampal, cortical, and caudal tissue from 21-89-week-old transgenic mice expressing doubly mutant (K670N/M671L and V717F) amyloid precursor protein and displaying robust pathology from an early age. Microcrystalline deposits of creatine, suggestive of perturbed energetic status, were detected by infrared microspectroscopy in all animals with advanced plaque pathology. Relatively large creatine deposits were also found in hippocampal sections from post-mortem Alzheimer diseased human brain, compared with hippocampus from non-demented brain. We therefore speculate that this molecule is a marker of the disease process.

  14. Cellular regulation by protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Edmond H

    2013-01-11

    A historical account of the discovery of reversible protein phosphorylation is presented. This process was uncovered in the mid 1950s in a study undertaken with Edwin G. Krebs to elucidate the complex hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Contrary to the known activation of this enzyme by AMP which serves as an allosteric effector, its hormonal regulation results from a phosphorylation of the protein by phosphorylase kinase following the activation of the latter by Ca(2+) and ATP. The study led to the establishment of the first hormonal cascade of successive enzymatic reactions, kinases acting on kinases, initiated by cAMP discovered by Earl Sutherland. It also showed how two different physiological processes, carbohydrate metabolism and muscle contraction, could be regulated in concert. PMID:23058924

  15. Phosphorylation Regulates Id2 Degradation and Mediates the Proliferation of Neural Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Jaclyn M.; Havrda, Matthew C.; Kettenbach, Arminja N.; Paolella, Brenton R.; Zhang, Zhonghua; Gerber, Scott A.; Israel, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (Id1-Id4) function to inhibit differentiation and promote proliferation of many different cell types. Among the Id family members, Id2 has been most extensively studied in the central nervous system (CNS). Id2 contributes to cultured neural precursor cell (NPC) proliferation as well as to the proliferation of CNS tumors such as glioblastoma that are likely to arise from NPC-like cells. We identified three phosphorylation sites near the N-terminus of Id2 in NPCs. To interrogate the importance of Id2 phosphorylation, Id2−/− NPCs were modified to express wild type (WT) Id2 or an Id2 mutant protein that could not be phosphorylated at the identified sites. We observed that NPCs expressing this mutant lacking phosphorylation near the N-terminus had higher steady-state levels of Id2 when compared to NPCs expressing WT Id2. This elevated level was the result of a longer half-life and reduced proteasome-mediated degradation. Moreover, NPCs expressing constitutively de-phosphorylated Id2 proliferated more rapidly than NPCs expressing WT Id2, a finding consistent with the well-characterized function of Id2 in driving proliferation. Observing that phosphorylation of Id2 modulates the degradation of this important cell-cycle regulator, we sought to identify a phosphatase that would stabilize Id2 enhancing its activity in NPCs and extended our analysis to include human glioblastoma-derived stem cells (GSCs). We found that expression of the phosphatase PP2A altered Id2 levels. Our findings suggest that inhibition of PP2A may be a novel strategy to regulate the proliferation of normal NPCs and malignant GSCs by decreasing Id2 levels. PMID:26756672

  16. Phosphorylation Regulates Id2 Degradation and Mediates the Proliferation of Neural Precursor Cells.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jaclyn M; Havrda, Matthew C; Kettenbach, Arminja N; Paolella, Brenton R; Zhang, Zhonghua; Gerber, Scott A; Israel, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (Id1-Id4) function to inhibit differentiation and promote proliferation of many different cell types. Among the Id family members, Id2 has been most extensively studied in the central nervous system (CNS). Id2 contributes to cultured neural precursor cell (NPC) proliferation as well as to the proliferation of CNS tumors such as glioblastoma that are likely to arise from NPC-like cells. We identified three phosphorylation sites near the N-terminus of Id2 in NPCs. To interrogate the importance of Id2 phosphorylation, Id2(-/-) NPCs were modified to express wild type (WT) Id2 or an Id2 mutant protein that could not be phosphorylated at the identified sites. We observed that NPCs expressing this mutant lacking phosphorylation near the N-terminus had higher steady-state levels of Id2 when compared to NPCs expressing WT Id2. This elevated level was the result of a longer half-life and reduced proteasome-mediated degradation. Moreover, NPCs expressing constitutively de-phosphorylated Id2 proliferated more rapidly than NPCs expressing WT Id2, a finding consistent with the well-characterized function of Id2 in driving proliferation. Observing that phosphorylation of Id2 modulates the degradation of this important cell-cycle regulator, we sought to identify a phosphatase that would stabilize Id2 enhancing its activity in NPCs and extended our analysis to include human glioblastoma-derived stem cells (GSCs). We found that expression of the phosphatase PP2A altered Id2 levels. Our findings suggest that inhibition of PP2A may be a novel strategy to regulate the proliferation of normal NPCs and malignant GSCs by decreasing Id2 levels. Stem Cells 2016;34:1321-1331. PMID:26756672

  17. FMRP Mediates mGluR5-Dependent Translation of Amyloid Precursor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J; Malter, James S

    2007-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) facilitates synapse formation in the developing brain, while beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, which is associated with Alzheimer disease, results in synaptic loss and impaired neurotransmission. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is a cytoplasmic mRNA binding protein whose expression is lost in fragile X syndrome. Here we show that FMRP binds to the coding region of APP mRNA at a guanine-rich, G-quartet–like sequence. Stimulation of cortical synaptoneurosomes or primary neuronal cells with the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist DHPG increased APP translation in wild-type but not fmr-1 knockout samples. APP mRNA coimmunoprecipitated with FMRP in resting synaptoneurosomes, but the interaction was lost shortly after DHPG treatment. Soluble Aβ40 or Aβ42 levels were significantly higher in multiple strains of fmr-1 knockout mice compared to wild-type controls. Our data indicate that postsynaptic FMRP binds to and regulates the translation of APP mRNA through metabotropic glutamate receptor activation and suggests a possible link between Alzheimer disease and fragile X syndrome. PMID:17298186

  18. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  19. Determination of Dideoxyosone Precursors of AGEs in Human Lens Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Johar, Kaid; Meltretter, Jasmin; Padmanabha, Smitha; Parmar, Trilok; Vasavada, Abhay R.; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2011-01-01

    Dideoxyosones (DDOs) are intermediates in the synthesis of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), such as pentosidine and glucosepane. Although the formation of pentosidine and glucosepane in the human lens has been firmly established, the formation of DDOs has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to detect DDOs in lens proteins. A specific DDO trapping agent, biotinyl-diaminobenzene (3,4-diamino-N-(3-{[5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl]aminopropyl) benzamide) (BDAB) was added during in vitro protein glycation or during protein extraction from human lenses. In vitro glycated human lens protein showed strong reaction in monomeric and polymeric crosslinked proteins by western blot and ELISA. Glycation of BSA in the presence of BDAB resulted in covalent binding of BDAB to the protein and inhibited pentosidine formation. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysozyme glycated in the presence of BDAB showed the presence of quinoxalines at lysine residues at positions K1, K33, K96, and K116. The ELISA results indicated that cataractous lens proteins contain significantly higher levels of DDO than non-cataractous lenses (101.9±67.8 AU/mg protein vs. 31.7±19.5 AU/mg protein, p<0.0001). This study provides first direct evidence of DDO presence in human tissue proteins and establishes that AGE crosslink synthesis in the human lens occurs via DDO intermediates. PMID:21820400

  20. RGS Protein Regulation of Phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Kang Jason

    2015-01-01

    First identified in yeast and worm and later in other species, the physiological importance of regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) in mammals was first demonstrated at the turn of the century in mouse retinal photoreceptors, in which RGS9 is needed for timely recovery of rod phototransduction. The role of RGS in vision has been established a synapse away in retinal depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs), where RGS7 and RGS11 work redundantly and in a complex with Gβ5-S as GAPs for Goα in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 pathway at DBC dendritic tips. Much less is known on how RGS protein subserves vision in the rest of the visual system. The research into the roles of RGS proteins in vision holds great potential for many exciting new discoveries. PMID:26123301

  1. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) triplicated gene impairs neuronal precursor differentiation and neurite development through two different domains in the Ts65Dn mouse model for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Trazzi, Stefania; Fuchs, Claudia; Valli, Emanuele; Perini, Giovanni; Bartesaghi, Renata; Ciani, Elisabetta

    2013-07-19

    Intellectual disability in Down syndrome (DS) appears to be related to severe proliferation impairment during brain development. Recent evidence shows that it is not only cellular proliferation that is heavily compromised in DS, but also cell fate specification and dendritic maturation. The amyloid precursor protein (APP), a gene that is triplicated in DS, plays a key role in normal brain development by influencing neural precursor cell proliferation, cell fate specification, and neuronal maturation. APP influences these processes via two separate domains, the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the soluble secreted APP. We recently found that the proliferation impairment of neuronal precursors (NPCs) from the Ts65Dn mouse model for DS was caused by derangement of the Shh pathway due to overexpression of patched1(Ptch1), its inhibitory regulator. Ptch1 overexpression was related to increased levels within the APP/AICD system. The overall goal of this study was to determine whether APP contributes to neurogenesis impairment in DS by influencing in addition to proliferation, cell fate specification, and neurite development. We found that normalization of APP expression restored the reduced neuronogenesis, the increased astrogliogenesis, and the reduced neurite length of trisomic NPCs, indicating that APP overexpression underpins all aspects of neurogenesis impairment. Moreover, we found that two different domains of APP impair neuronal differentiation and maturation in trisomic NPCs. The APP/AICD system regulates neuronogenesis and neurite length through the Shh pathway, whereas the APP/secreted AP system promotes astrogliogenesis through an IL-6-associated signaling cascade. These results provide novel insight into the mechanisms underlying brain development alterations in DS. PMID:23740250

  2. Determination of dideoxyosone precursors of AGEs in human lens proteins.

    PubMed

    Linetsky, Mikhail; Kaid Johar, S R; Meltretter, Jasmin; Padmanabha, Smitha; Parmar, Trilok; Vasavada, Abhay R; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2011-10-01

    Dideoxyosones (DDOs) are intermediates in the synthesis of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), such as pentosidine and glucosepane. Although the formation of pentosidine and glucosepane in the human lens has been firmly established, the formation of DDOs has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to detect DDOs in lens proteins. A specific DDO trapping agent, biotinyl-diaminobenzene (3,4-diamino-N-(3-[5-(2-oxohexahydro-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazol-4-yl)pentanoyl]aminopropyl)benzamide) (BDAB) was added during in vitro protein glycation or during protein extraction from human lenses. In vitro glycated human lens protein showed strong reaction in monomeric and polymeric crosslinked proteins by Western blot and ELISA. Glycation of BSA in the presence of BDAB resulted in covalent binding of BDAB to the protein and inhibited pentosidine formation. Mass spectrometric analysis of lysozyme glycated in the presence of BDAB showed the presence of quinoxalines at lysine residues at positions K1, K33, K96, and K116. The ELISA results indicated that cataractous lens proteins contain significantly higher levels of DDO than non-cataractous lenses (101.9±67.8 vs. 31.7±19.5AU/mg protein, p<0.0001). This study provides first direct evidence of DDO presence in human tissue proteins and establishes that AGE crosslink synthesis in the human lens occurs via DDO intermediates. PMID:21820400

  3. Characterization of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Trafficking Reveals a Novel Lysosomal Targeting Mechanism via Amyloid Precursor-like Protein 2 (APLP2)

    PubMed Central

    DeVay, Rachel M.; Shelton, David L.; Liang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates low density lipoprotein receptor protein levels by diverting it to lysosomes. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics aimed to neutralize PCSK9 have been shown to successfully lower serum LDL levels; however, we previously found that such therapeutic antibodies are subject to PCSK9-mediated clearance. In this study, we discovered that PCSK9 interacts via its C-terminal domain directly and in a pH-dependent manner with amyloid precursor protein as well as its closely related family member, amyloid precursor protein-like protein 2. Furthermore, we determined that amyloid precursor protein-like protein-2, but not amyloid precursor protein, is involved in mediating postendocytic delivery of PCSK9 to lysosomes and is therefore important for PCSK9 function. Based on our data, we propose a model for a lysosomal transport complex by which a soluble protein can target another protein for degradation from the luminal side of the membrane by bridging it to a lysosomally targeted transmembrane protein. PMID:23430252

  4. Secreted beta-amyloid precursor protein stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase and enhances tau phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, S M; Koo, E H; Selkoe, D J; Qiu, W Q; Kosik, K S

    1994-01-01

    Biological effects related to cell growth, as well as a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, have been ascribed to the beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP). Little is known, however, about the intracellular cascades that mediate these effects. We report that the secreted form of beta-APP potently stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Brief exposure of PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells to beta-APP secreted by transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells stimulated the 43-kDa form of MAPK by > 10-fold. Induction of a dominant inhibitory form of ras in a PC12-derived cell line prevented the stimulation of MAPK by secreted beta-APP, demonstrating the dependence of the effect upon p21ras. Because the microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated in Alzheimer disease, we sought and found a 2-fold enhancement in tau phosphorylation associated with the beta-APP-induced MAPK stimulation. In the ras dominant inhibitory cell line, beta-APP failed to enhance phosphorylation of tau. The data presented here provide a link between secreted beta-APP and the phosphorylation state of tau. Images PMID:8041753

  5. UV Irradiation Accelerates Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Processing and Disrupts APP Axonal Transport

    PubMed Central

    Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Falzone, Tomas L.; Shen, Zhouxin; Lillo, Concepcion; Killian, Rhiannon L.; Arreola, Angela S.; Niederst, Emily D.; Ng, Kheng S.; Kim, Sonia N.; Briggs, Steven P.; Williams, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression and/or abnormal cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) are linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) development and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular levels of APP or its processing, and the physiological and pathological consequences of altered processing are not well understood. Here, using mouse and human cells, we found that neuronal damage induced by UV irradiation leads to specific APP, APLP1, and APLP2 decline by accelerating their secretase-dependent processing. Pharmacological inhibition of endosomal/lysosomal activity partially protects UV-induced APP processing implying contribution of the endosomal and/or lysosomal compartments in this process. We found that a biological consequence of UV-induced γ-secretase processing of APP is impairment of APP axonal transport. To probe the functional consequences of impaired APP axonal transport, we isolated and analyzed presumptive APP-containing axonal transport vesicles from mouse cortical synaptosomes using electron microscopy, biochemical, and mass spectrometry analyses. We identified a population of morphologically heterogeneous organelles that contains APP, the secretase machinery, molecular motors, and previously proposed and new residents of APP vesicles. These possible cargoes are enriched in proteins whose dysfunction could contribute to neuronal malfunction and diseases of the nervous system including AD. Together, these results suggest that damage-induced APP processing might impair APP axonal transport, which could result in failure of synaptic maintenance and neuronal dysfunction. PMID:24573290

  6. Nucleolin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C proteins specifically interact with the 3'-untranslated region of amyloid protein precursor mRNA.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S H; Malter, J S

    1995-07-21

    The central nervous system deposition by neurons and glia of beta A4 amyloid protein is an important contributing factor to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloidogenic cells overexpress amyloid precursor protein (APP) mRNAs suggesting a transcriptional or post-transcriptional defect may contribute to this process. We have previously shown that APP mRNAs display regulated stability which is dependent on a 29-base element within the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). This domain specifically interacted with several cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins. We have purified these APP RNA-binding proteins from a human T-cell leukemia and demonstrate that five cytoplasmic proteins of 70, 48, 47, 39, and 38 kDa form the previously observed APP RNA protein complexes. Amino acid sequence analyses showed that the 70-, 48-, and 47-kDa proteins were fragments of nucleolin and that the 39- and 38-kDa proteins were heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C protein. Northwestern and Western blot analyses of purified material further confirmed these data. Nucleolin protein is known to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm but hnRNP C has not been reported within the cytoplasm. This report of sequence specific, mRNA binding by nucleolin and hnRNP C suggests that these proteins participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of APP mRNA through 3'-UTR, site-specific interactions. PMID:7615529

  7. Osteocyte apoptosis regulates osteoclast precursor adhesion via osteocytic IL-6 secretion and endothelial ICAM-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Simmons, Craig A; You, Lidan

    2012-01-01

    Osteocyte apoptosis precedes osteoclast resorption, and may act as a critical signal to trigger bone remodeling. While osteoclast precursors are known to travel via the circulation, the specific mechanisms by which they accumulate at remodeling sites are unclear. We hypothesized that osteocyte apoptosis mediates osteoclast precursor adhesion to vascular endothelium by regulating osteocytic secretion of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) to promote endothelial ICAM-1 expression. We found that conditioned media from TNF-α-induced apoptotic MLO-Y4 osteocytes promoted RAW264.7 osteoclast precursor adhesion onto D4T endothelial cells (P<0.05). Blocking osteocyte apoptosis with a pan-caspase inhibitor (ZVAD-FMK) reduced osteoclast precursor adhesion to baseline levels (P<0.001). Endothelial cells treated with apoptotic osteocyte conditioned media had elevated surface expression of ICAM-1 (P<0.05), and blocking ICAM-1 abolished apoptosis-induced osteoclast precursor adhesion. Apoptotic osteocyte conditioned media contained more IL-6 (P<0.05) and sIL-6R (P<0.05) than non-apoptotic osteocyte conditioned media. When added exogenously, both IL-6 and sIL-6R were required for endothelial activation, and blocking IL-6 reduced apoptosis-induced osteoclast precursor adhesion to baseline levels (P<0.05). Therefore, we conclude that osteocyte apoptosis can promote osteoclast precursor adhesion to endothelial cells via ICAM-1; this is likely through increased osteocytic IL-6 and sIL-6R secretion, both of which are indispensible to endothelial activation. PMID:21986000

  8. Protein import into plant mitochondria: signals, machinery, processing, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Murcha, Monika W; Kmiec, Beata; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Teixeira, Pedro F; Glaser, Elzbieta; Whelan, James

    2014-12-01

    The majority of more than 1000 proteins present in mitochondria are imported from nuclear-encoded, cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins. This impressive feat of transport and sorting is achieved by the combined action of targeting signals on mitochondrial proteins and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. The mitochondrial protein import apparatus is composed of a number of multi-subunit protein complexes that recognize, translocate, and assemble mitochondrial proteins into functional complexes. While the core subunits involved in mitochondrial protein import are well conserved across wide phylogenetic gaps, the accessory subunits of these complexes differ in identity and/or function when plants are compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), the model system for mitochondrial protein import. These differences include distinct protein import receptors in plants, different mechanistic operation of the intermembrane protein import system, the location and activity of peptidases, the function of inner-membrane translocases in linking the outer and inner membrane, and the association/regulation of mitochondrial protein import complexes with components of the respiratory chain. Additionally, plant mitochondria share proteins with plastids, i.e. dual-targeted proteins. Also, the developmental and cell-specific nature of mitochondrial biogenesis is an aspect not observed in single-celled systems that is readily apparent in studies in plants. This means that plants provide a valuable model system to study the various regulatory processes associated with protein import and mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25324401

  9. P120-Catenin Regulates Early Trafficking Stages of the N-Cadherin Precursor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wehrendt, Diana P.; Carmona, Fernando; González Wusener, Ana E.; González, Ángela; Martínez, Juan M. Lázaro; Arregui, Carlos O.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that binding of p120 catenin to the cytoplasmic domain of surface cadherin prevents cadherin endocytosis and degradation, contributing to cell-cell adhesion. In the present work we show that p120 catenin bound to the N-cadherin precursor, contributes to its anterograde movement from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. In HeLa cells, depletion of p120 expression, or blocking its binding to N-cadherin, increased the accumulation of the precursor in the ER, while it decreased the localization of mature N-cadherin at intercellular junctions. Reconstitution experiments in p120-deficient SW48 cells with all three major isoforms of p120 (1, 3 and 4) had similar capacity to promote the processing of the N-cadherin precursor to the mature form, and its localization at cell-cell junctions. P120 catenin and protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B facilitated the recruitment of the N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), an ATPase involved in vesicular trafficking, to the N-cadherin precursor complex. Dominant negative NSF E329Q impaired N-cadherin trafficking, maturation and localization at cell-cell junctions. Our results uncover a new role for p120 catenin bound to the N-cadherin precursor ensuring its trafficking through the biosynthetic pathway towards the cell surface. PMID:27254316

  10. Nerve Growth Factor Increases mRNA Levels for the Prion Protein and the β -amyloid Protein Precursor in Developing Hamster Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, William C.; Neve, Rachael L.; Prusiner, Stanley B.; McKinley, Michael P.

    1988-12-01

    Deposition of amyloid filaments serves as a pathologic hallmark for some neurodegenerative disorders. The prion protein (PrP) is found in amyloid of animals with scrapie and humans with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; the β protein is present in amyloid deposits in Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome patients. These two proteins are derived from precursors that in the brain are expressed primarily in neurons and are membrane bound. We found that gene expression for PrP and the β -protein precursor (β -PP) is regulated in developing hamster brain. Specific brain regions showed distinct patterns of ontogenesis for PrP and β -PP mRNAs. The increases in PrP and β -PP mRNAs in developing basal forebrain coincided with an increase in choline acetyltransferase activity, raising the possibility that these markers might be coordinately controlled in cholinergic neurons and regulated by nerve growth factor (NGF). Injections of NGF into the brains of neonatal hamsters increased both PrP and β -PP mRNA levels. Increased PrP and β -PP mRNA levels induced by NGF were confined to regions that contain NGF-responsive cholinergic neurons and were accompanied by elevations in choline acetyltransferase. It remains to be established whether or not exogenous NGF acts to increase PrP and β -PP gene expression selectively in forebrain cholinergic neurons in the developing hamster and endogenous NGF regulates expression of these genes.

  11. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    SciTech Connect

    Klig, L.S.; Friedli, L.; Schmid, E. )

    1990-08-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed.

  12. Phosphorylation of Fe65 amyloid precursor protein-binding protein in response to neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koistinen, Niina A; Bacanu, Smaranda; Iverfeldt, Kerstin

    2016-02-01

    Fe65 is a brain enriched multi domain adaptor protein involved in diverse cellular functions. One of its binding partners is the amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein (APP), which after sequential proteolytic processing by secretases gives rise to the Alzheimer's Aβ peptide. Fe65 binds to the APP intracellular domain (AICD). Several studies have indicated that Fe65 binding promotes the amyloidogenic processing of APP. It has previously been shown that expression of APP increases concomitantly with a shift of its processing to the non-amyloidogenic pathway during neuronal differentiation. In this study we wanted to investigate the effects of neuronal differentiation on Fe65 expression. We observed that differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells induced by retinoic acid (RA), the phorbol ester PMA, or the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT resulted in an electrophoretic mobility shift of Fe65. Similar effects were observed in rat PC6.3 cells treated with nerve growth factor. The electrophoretic mobility shift was shown to be due to phosphorylation. Previous studies have shown that Fe65 phosphorylation can prevent the APP-Fe65 interaction. We propose that phosphorylation is a way to modify the functions of Fe65 and to promote the non-amyloidogenic processing of APP during neuronal differentiation. PMID:26742640

  13. Identification of European starling GnRH-I precursor mRNA and its seasonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Cadigan, Penelope A; Wang, Ariel; Liu, Jennifer; Bentley, George E

    2009-07-01

    Songbirds show dynamic seasonal changes in their reproductive activities during the year. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) is critical for the control of reproduction in vertebrates. The molecular mechanisms controlling reproduction are not well understood in songbirds, largely because the GnRH-I precursor polypeptide gene was unknown until now. Here, we report the complete sequence and seasonal regulation of GnRH-I precursor polypeptide mRNA in a songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). The translated starling GnRH-I precursor polypeptide contained an amino acid sequence that can be processed into chicken GnRH-I peptide (pEHWSYGLQPG-NH(2)). However, the overall homology of GnRH-I precursor polypeptide (including a 23 amino acid signal peptide, the decapeptide hormone and Gly-Lys-Arg cleavage site followed by 55 amino acid GnRH-associated peptide sequences) between starling and chicken was only 58%. GnRH-I mRNA and GnRH-I peptide were observed to be co-localized in the preoptic area of sexually mature birds using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. GnRH-I mRNA exhibited large variance in photosensitive birds, and converged to a high level in photostimulated birds. Subsequently, GnRH-I mRNA decreased to below detectability in most of the photorefractory birds. Changes were also observed in GnRH-I peptide levels, although changes in GnRH-I peptide were not as marked. Our data indicate that GnRH-I mRNA synthesis commences but is variable in photosensitive birds, stabilizes in photostimulated birds, then ceases when birds become photorefractory. Finer-scale investigation into temporal regulation of GnRH-I precursor polypeptide mRNA will provide insight into its regulation by environmental, social and physiological cues. PMID:19362556

  14. Analysis of the overall structure of the multi-domain amyloid precursor protein (APP).

    PubMed

    Coburger, Ina; Dahms, Sven O; Roeser, Dirk; Gührs, Karl-Heinz; Hortschansky, Peter; Than, Manuel E

    2013-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its processing by the α-, β- and γ-secretases is widely believed to play a central role during the development of Alzheimer´s disease. The three-dimensional structure of the entire protein, its physiologic function and the regulation of its proteolytic processing remain, however, largely unclear to date. To gain a deeper understanding of the structure of APP that underlies all of its functions, we first cloned and recombinantly expressed different constructs in E. coli. Using limited proteolysis followed by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation as well as analytical gel permeation chromatography coupled static light scattering, we experimentally analyzed the structural domain boundaries and determined that the large ectodomain of APP consists of exactly two rigidly folded domains - the E1-domain (Leu18-Ala190) and the E2-domain (Ser295-Asp500). Both, the acidic domain (AcD) connecting E1 and E2 as well as the juxtamembrane region (JMR) connecting E2 to the single transmembrane helix are highly flexible and extended. We identified in-between the E1-domain and the AcD an additional domain of conservation and partial flexibility that we termed extension domain (ED, Glu191-Glu227). Using Bio-layer interferometry, pull-down assays and analytical gel filtration experiments we demonstrated that the E1-domain does not tightly interact with the E2-domain, both in the presence and in the absence of heparin. APP hence forms an extended molecule that is flexibly tethered to the membrane. Its multi-domain architecture enables together with the many known functionalities the concomitant performance of several, independent functions, which might be regulated by cellular, compartment specific pH-changes. PMID:24324731

  15. Amyloid Precursor Protein Mediated Changes in Intestinal Epithelial Phenotype In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Kendra L.; Manocha, Gunjan D.; Combs, Colin K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although APP and its proteolytic metabolites have been well examined in the central nervous system, there remains limited information of their functions outside of the brain. For example, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (Aβ) immunoreactivity have both been demonstrated in intestinal epithelial cells. Based upon the critical role of these cells in absorption and secretion, we sought to determine whether APP or its metabolite amyloid β (Aβ), had a definable function in these cells. Methodology/Principal Findings The human colonic epithelial cell line, Caco-2 cells, were cultured to examine APP expression and Aβ secretion, uptake, and stimulation. Similar to human colonic epithelium stains, Caco-2 cells expressed APP. They also secreted Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42, with LPS stimulating higher concentrations of Aβ 1-40 secretion. The cells also responded to Aβ 1-40 stimulation by increasing IL-6 cytokine secretion and decreasing cholesterol uptake. Conversely, stimulation with a sAPP-derived peptide increased cholesterol uptake. APP was associated with CD36 but not FATP4 in co-IP pull down experiments from the Caco-2 cells. Moreover, stimulation of APP with an agonist antibody acutely decreased CD36-mediated cholesterol uptake. Conclusions/Significance APP exists as part of a multi-protein complex with CD36 in human colonic epithelial cells where its proteolytic fragments have complex, reciprocal roles in regulating cholesterol uptake. A biologically active peptide fragment from the N-terminal derived, sAPP, potentiated cholesterol uptake while the β secretase generated product, Aβ1-40, attenuated it. These data suggest that APP is important in regulating intestinal cholesterol uptake in a fashion dependent upon specific proteolytic pathways. Moreover, this biology may be applicable to cells beyond the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25742317

  16. Wnt signaling regulates smooth muscle precursor development in the mouse lung via a tenascin C/PDGFR pathway.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ethan David; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; Lu, Min Min; Panettieri, Reynold A; Jones, Peter Lloyd; Morrisey, Edward E

    2009-09-01

    Paracrine signaling from lung epithelium to the surrounding mesenchyme is important for lung SMC development and function and is a contributing factor in an array of pulmonary diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and asthma. Wnt7b, which is exclusively expressed in the lung epithelium, is important for lung vascular smooth muscle integrity, but the underlying mechanism by which Wnt signaling regulates lung SMC development is unclear. In this report, we have demonstrated that Wnt7b regulates a program of mesenchymal differentiation in the mouse lung that is essential for SMC development. Genetic loss-of-function studies showed that Wnt7b and beta-catenin were required for expression of Pdgfralpha and Pdgfrbeta and proliferation in pulmonary SMC precursors. In contrast, gain-of-function studies showed that activation of Wnt signaling increased the expression of both Pdgfralpha and Pdgfrbeta as well as the proliferation of SMC precursors. We further showed that the effect on Pdgfr expression was, in part, mediated by direct transcriptional regulation of the ECM protein tenascin C (Tnc), which was necessary and sufficient for Pdgfralpha/beta expression in lung explants. Moreover, this pathway was highly upregulated in a mouse model of asthma and in lung tissue from patients with pulmonary hypertension. Together, these data define a Wnt/Tnc/Pdgfr signaling axis that is critical for smooth muscle development and disease progression in the lung. PMID:19690384

  17. SorLA is a molecular link for retromer-dependent sorting of the Amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Fjorback, Anja W; Andersen, Olav M

    2012-11-01

    Deficiency in the retromer sorting pathway is known to be associated with the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), and has been suggested to involve regulation of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking. Absence of the APP sorting receptor sorLA is also associated to AD, as amyloidogenic processing of APP is increased due to missorting. Reduced activity of either retromer or sorLA thus both lead to enhanced amyloidogenic APP processing, and these pathways are therefore important factors for understanding the development of AD. It is therefore key to outline the neuronal APP trafficking in order to determine the mechanisms that influence AD onset. PMID:23740096

  18. Cloning and characterization of human liver cDNA encoding a protein S precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, J.; Norman, D.K.; Beckmann, R.J.; Long, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Human liver cDNA encoding a protein S precursor was isolated from two cDNA libraries by two different techniques. Based upon the frequency of positive clones, the abundance of mRNA for protein S is approx. = 0.01%. Blot hybridization of electrophoretically fractionated poly(A)/sup +/ RNA revealed a major mRNA approx. = 4 kilobases long and two minor forms of approx. = 3.1 and approx. = 2.6 kilobases. One of the cDNA clones contains a segment encoding a 676 amino acid protein S precursor, as well as 108 and 1132 nucleotides of 5' and 3' noncoding sequence, respectively, plus a poly(A) region at the 3' end. The cDNAs are adenosine plus thymidine-rich (60%) except for the 5' noncoding region, where 78% of the nucleotides are guanosine or cytosine. The protein precursor consists of a 41 amino acid leader peptide followed by 635 amino acids corresponding to mature protein S. Comparison of the mature protein region with homologous vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins shows that it is composed of the following domains: an amino-terminal ..gamma..-carboxyglutamic acid-rich region of 37 amino acids; a 36 amino acid linker region rich in hydroxy amino acids; four epidermal growth factor-like segments, each approx. = 45 amino acids long; and a 387 amino acid carboxyl-terminal domain of unrecognized structure and unknown function.

  19. Structural insights into a protein-bound iron-molybdenum cofactor precursor

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Mary C.; Hu, Yilin; Fay, Aaron W.; Ribbe, Markus W.; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.

    2006-01-01

    The iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMoco) of the nitrogenase MoFe protein is a highly complex metallocluster that provides the catalytically essential site for biological nitrogen fixation. FeMoco is assembled outside the MoFe protein in a stepwise process requiring several components, including NifB-co, an iron- and sulfur-containing FeMoco precursor, and NifEN, an intermediary assembly protein on which NifB-co is presumably converted to FeMoco. Through the comparison of Azotobacter vinelandii strains expressing the NifEN protein in the presence or absence of the nifB gene, the structure of a NifEN-bound FeMoco precursor has been analyzed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results provide physical evidence to support a mechanism for FeMoco biosynthesis. The NifEN-bound precursor is found to be a molybdenum-free analog of FeMoco and not one of the more commonly suggested cluster types based on a standard [4Fe–4S] architecture. A facile scheme by which FeMoco and alternative, non-molybdenum-containing nitrogenase cofactors are constructed from this common precursor is presented that has important implications for the biosynthesis and biomimetic chemical synthesis of FeMoco. PMID:16423898

  20. How does the TOM complex mediate insertion of precursor proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane?

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Doron

    2005-01-01

    A multisubunit translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) mediates both the import of mitochondrial precursor proteins into the internal compartments of the organelle and the insertion of proteins residing in the mitochondrial outer membrane. The proposed β-barrel structure of Tom40, the pore-forming component of the translocase, raises the question of how the apparent uninterrupted β-barrel topology can be compatible with a role of Tom40 in releasing membrane proteins into the lipid core of the bilayer. In this review, I discuss insertion mechanisms of proteins into the outer membrane and present alternative models based on the opening of a multisubunit β-barrel TOM structure or on the interaction of outer membrane precursors with the outer face of the Tom40 β-barrel structure. PMID:16260501

  1. Regulating the regulators: serine/arginine-rich proteins under scrutiny.

    PubMed

    Risso, Guillermo; Pelisch, Federico; Quaglino, Ana; Pozzi, Berta; Srebrow, Anabella

    2012-10-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are among the most studied splicing regulators. They constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that, apart from their initially identified and deeply studied role in splicing regulation, have been implicated in genome stability, chromatin binding, transcription elongation, mRNA stability, mRNA export and mRNA translation. Remarkably, this list of SR protein activities seems far from complete, as unexpected functions keep being unraveled. An intriguing aspect that awaits further investigation is how the multiple tasks of SR proteins are concertedly regulated within mammalian cells. In this article, we first discuss recent findings regarding the regulation of SR protein expression, activity and accessibility. We dive into recent studies describing SR protein auto-regulatory feedback loops involving different molecular mechanisms such asunproductive splicing, microRNA-mediated regulation and translational repression. In addition, we take into account another step of regulation of SR proteins, presenting new findings about a variety of post-translational modifications by proteomics approaches and how some of these modifications can regulate SR protein sub-cellular localization or stability. Towards the end, we focus in two recently revealed functions of SR proteins beyond mRNA biogenesis and metabolism, the regulation of micro-RNA processing and the regulation of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation. PMID:22941908

  2. Ceruloplasmin and β-amyloid precursor protein confer neuroprotection in traumatic brain injury and lower neuronal iron.

    PubMed

    Ayton, Scott; Zhang, Moses; Roberts, Blaine R; Lam, Linh Q; Lind, Monica; McLean, Catriona; Bush, Ashley I; Frugier, Tony; Crack, Peter J; Duce, James A

    2014-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is in part complicated by pro-oxidant iron elevation independent of brain hemorrhage. Ceruloplasmin (CP) and β-amyloid protein precursor (APP) are known neuroprotective proteins that reduce oxidative damage through iron regulation. We surveyed iron, CP, and APP in brain tissue from control and TBI-affected patients who were stratified according to time of death following injury. We observed CP and APP induction after TBI accompanying iron accumulation. Elevated APP and CP expression was also observed in a mouse model of focal cortical contusion injury concomitant with iron elevation. To determine if changes in APP or CP were neuroprotective we employed the same TBI model on APP(-/-) and CP(-/-) mice and found that both exhibited exaggerated infarct volume and iron accumulation postinjury. Evidence supports a regulatory role of both proteins in defence against iron-induced oxidative damage after TBI, which presents as a tractable therapeutic target. PMID:24509156

  3. Investigations on the in vitro import ability of mitochondrial precursor proteins synthesized in wheat germ transcription-translation extract.

    PubMed

    Dessi, Patrick; Pavlov, Pavel F; Wållberg, Fredrik; Rudhe, Charlotta; Brack, Simon; Whelan, James; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2003-05-01

    Mitochondrial precursor proteins synthesized in rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) are readily imported into mitochondria, whereas the same precursors synthesized in wheat germ extract (WGE) fail to be imported. We have investigated factors that render import incompetence from WGE. A precursor that does not require addition of extramitochondrial ATP for import, the F(A)d ATP synthase subunit, is imported from WGE. Import of chimeric constructs between precursors of the F(A)d protein and alternative oxidase (AOX) with switched presequences revealed that the mature domain of the F(A)d precursor defines the import competence in WGE as only the construct containing the presequence of AOX and mature portion of F(A)d (pAOX-mF(A)d) could be imported. Import competence of F(A)d and pAOX-mF(A)d correlated with solubility of these precursors in WGE, however, solubilization of import-incompetent precursors with urea did not restore import competence. Addition of RRL to WGE-synthesized precursors did not stimulate import but addition of WGE to the RRL-synthesized precursors or to the over-expressed mitochondrial precursor derived from the F1beta ATP synthase precursor inhibited import into mitochondria. The dual-targeted glutathione reductase precursor synthesized in WGE was imported into chloroplasts, but not into mitochondria. Antibodies against the 14-3-3 guidance complex characterized for chloroplast targeting were able to immunoprecipitate all of the precursors tested except the F(A)d ATP synthase precursor. Our results point to the conclusion that the import incompetence of WGE-synthesized mitochondrial precursors is not presequence dependent and is a result of interaction of WGE inhibitory factors with the mature portion of precursor proteins. PMID:12856934

  4. Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by an archaeal presenilin homologue PSH.

    PubMed

    Dang, Shangyu; Wu, Shenjie; Wang, Jiawei; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Min; He, Wei; Li, Yue-Ming; Wong, Catherine C L; Shi, Yigong

    2015-03-17

    Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by γ-secretase contributes to the development of Alzheimer's disease. More than 200 disease-derived mutations have been identified in presenilin (the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase), making modulation of γ-secretase activity a potentially attractive therapeutic opportunity. Unfortunately, the technical challenges in dealing with intact γ-secretase have hindered discovery of modulators and demand a convenient substitute approach. Here we report that, similar to γ-secretase, the archaeal presenilin homolog PSH faithfully processes the substrate APP C99 into Aβ42, Aβ40, and Aβ38. The molar ratio of the cleavage products Aβ42 over Aβ40 by PSH is nearly identical to that by γ-secretase. The proteolytic activity of PSH is specifically suppressed by presenilin-specific inhibitors. Known modulators of γ-secretase also modulate PSH similarly in terms of the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio. Structural analysis reveals association of a known γ-secretase inhibitor with PSH between its two catalytic aspartate residues. These findings identify PSH as a surrogate protease for the screening of agents that may regulate the protease activity and the cleavage preference of γ-secretase. PMID:25733893

  5. Proteolytic processing of Alzheimer’s β-amyloid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Ma, Qilin; Zhang, Yun-wu; Xu, Huaxi

    2011-01-01

    β–amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). APP undergoes posttranslational proteolysis/processing to generate the hydrophobic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Deposition of Aβ in the brain, forming oligomeric Aβ and plaques, is identified as one of the key pathological hallmarks of AD. The processing of APP to generate Aβ is executed by β- and γ-secretase and is highly regulated. Aβ toxicity can lead to synaptic dysfunction, neuronal cell death, impaired learning/memory and abnormal behaviors in AD models in vitro and in vivo. Aside from Aβ, proteolytic cleavages of APP can also give rise to the APP intracellular domain (AICD), reportedly involved in multiple types of cellular events such as gene transcription and apoptotic cell death. In addition to amyloidogenic processing, APP can also be cleaved by α-secretase to form a soluble or secreted APP ectodomain (sAPP-α) that has been shown to be mostly neuro-protective. In this review, we describe the mechanisms involved in APP metabolism and the likely functions of its various proteolytic products to give a better understanding of the patho/physiological functions of APP. PMID:22122372

  6. Sortilin and SorLA display distinct roles in processing and trafficking of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Gustafsen, Camilla; Glerup, Simon; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Olsen, Ditte; Andersen, Olav M; Nykjær, Anders; Madsen, Peder; Petersen, Claus Munck

    2013-01-01

    The development and progression of Alzheimer's disease is linked to excessive production of toxic amyloid-β peptide, initiated by β-secretase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). In contrast, soluble APPα (sAPPα) generated by the α-secretase is known to stimulate dendritic branching and enhance synaptic function. Regulation of APP processing, and the shift from neurotrophic to neurotoxic APP metabolism remains poorly understood, but the cellular localization of APP and its interaction with various receptors is considered important. We here identify sortilin as a novel APP interaction partner. Like the related APP receptor SorLA, sortilin is highly expressed in the CNS, but whereas SorLA mainly colocalizes with APP in the soma, sortilin interacts with APP in neurites. The presence of sortilin promotes α-secretase cleavage of APP, unlike SorLA, which inhibits the generation of all soluble products. Also, sortilin and SorLA both bind and mediate internalization of sAPP but to different cellular compartments. The interaction involves the 6A domain of APP, present in both neuronal and non-neuronal APP isoforms. This is important as sAPP receptors described so far only bind the non-neuronal isoforms, leaving SorLA and sortilin as the only receptors for sAPP generated by neurons. Together, our findings establish sortilin, as a novel APP interaction partner that influences both production and cellular uptake of sAPP. PMID:23283322

  7. Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by an archaeal presenilin homologue PSH

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Shangyu; Wu, Shenjie; Wang, Jiawei; Li, Hongbo; Huang, Min; He, Wei; Li, Yue-Ming; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Shi, Yigong

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by γ-secretase contributes to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. More than 200 disease-derived mutations have been identified in presenilin (the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase), making modulation of γ-secretase activity a potentially attractive therapeutic opportunity. Unfortunately, the technical challenges in dealing with intact γ-secretase have hindered discovery of modulators and demand a convenient substitute approach. Here we report that, similar to γ-secretase, the archaeal presenilin homolog PSH faithfully processes the substrate APP C99 into Aβ42, Aβ40, and Aβ38. The molar ratio of the cleavage products Aβ42 over Aβ40 by PSH is nearly identical to that by γ-secretase. The proteolytic activity of PSH is specifically suppressed by presenilin-specific inhibitors. Known modulators of γ-secretase also modulate PSH similarly in terms of the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio. Structural analysis reveals association of a known γ-secretase inhibitor with PSH between its two catalytic aspartate residues. These findings identify PSH as a surrogate protease for the screening of agents that may regulate the protease activity and the cleavage preference of γ-secretase. PMID:25733893

  8. Biogenesis of the preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane: protein kinase A phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40 and impairs its import.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sanjana; Schmidt, Oliver; Harbauer, Angelika B; Schönfisch, Birgit; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Meisinger, Chris

    2012-05-01

    The preprotein translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) functions as the main entry gate for the import of nuclear-encoded proteins into mitochondria. The major subunits of the TOM complex are the three receptors Tom20, Tom22, and Tom70 and the central channel-forming protein Tom40. Cytosolic kinases have been shown to regulate the biogenesis and activity of the Tom receptors. Casein kinase 2 stimulates the biogenesis of Tom22 and Tom20, whereas protein kinase A (PKA) impairs the receptor function of Tom70. Here we report that PKA exerts an inhibitory effect on the biogenesis of the β-barrel protein Tom40. Tom40 is synthesized as precursor on cytosolic ribosomes and subsequently imported into mitochondria. We show that PKA phosphorylates the precursor of Tom40. The phosphorylated Tom40 precursor is impaired in import into mitochondria, whereas the nonphosphorylated precursor is efficiently imported. We conclude that PKA plays a dual role in the regulation of the TOM complex. Phosphorylation by PKA not only impairs the receptor activity of Tom70, but it also inhibits the biogenesis of the channel protein Tom40. PMID:22419819

  9. Viral precursor protein P3 and its processed products perform discrete and essential functions in the poliovirus RNA replication complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differential use of protein precursors and their products is a key strategy used during poliovirus replication. To characterize the role of protein precursors during replication, we examined the complementation profiles of mutants that inhibited 3D polymerase or 3C-RNA binding activity. We showe...

  10. ISOLATION OF A PRECURSOR AND A NASCENT CHAIN FORM OF GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE FROM RAT UTERUS AND REGULATION OF PRECURSOR PROCESSING BY ESTRADIOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of anti-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase immunoprecipitates from radiolabeled uterine tissue extracts previously revealed three proteins: A, B and C, which were tentatively identified as a 60-64 kDa precursor form, a 57 kDa predominant form...

  11. The carboxyl-terminal processing of precursor D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kimiyuki; Yamamoto, Yumiko

    2007-01-01

    The D1 protein, a key subunit of photosystem II reaction center, is synthesized as a precursor form with a carboxyl-terminal extension, in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms with some exceptions. This part of the protein is removed by the action of an endopeptidase, and the proteolytic processing is indispensable for the manifestation of oxygen-evolving activity in photosynthesis. The carboxyl-terminus of mature D1 protein, which appears upon the cleavage, has recently been demonstrated to be a ligand for a manganese atom in the Mn(4)Ca-cluster, which is responsible for the water oxidation chemistry in photosystem II, based on the isotope-edited Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the X-ray crystallography. On the other hand, the structure of a peptidase involved in the cleavage of precursor D1 protein has been resolved at a higher resolution, and the enzyme-substrate interactions have extensively been analyzed both in vivo and in vitro. The present article briefly summarizes the history of research and the present state of our knowledge on the carboxyl-terminal processing of precursor D1 protein in the photosystem II reaction center. PMID:17551844

  12. Granulin-Epithelin Precursor Is an Oncofetal Protein Defining Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Phyllis Fung Yi; Cheng, Christine Kei Chin; Wong, Nicholas Chun Lim; Ho, Jenny Chung Yee; Yip, Chi Wai; Lui, Vincent Chi Hang; Cheung, Annie Nga Yin; Fan, Sheung Tat; Cheung, Siu Tim

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Increasing evidence has suggested that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) might originate from a distinct subpopulation called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are responsible for the limited efficacy of conventional therapies. We have previously demonstrated that granulin-epithelin precursor (GEP), a pluripotent growth factor, is upregulated in HCC but not in the adjacent non-tumor, and that GEP is a potential therapeutic target for HCC. Here, we characterized its expression pattern and stem cell properties in fetal and cancerous livers. Methods Protein expression of GEP in fetal and adult livers was examined in human and mouse models by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry. Liver cancer cell lines, isolated based on their GEP and/or ATP-dependent binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter ABCB5 expression, were evaluated for hepatic CSC properties in terms of colony formation, chemoresistance and tumorigenicity. Results We demonstrated that GEP was a hepatic oncofetal protein that expressed in the fetal livers, but not in the normal adult livers. Importantly, GEP+ fetal liver cells co-expressed the embryonic stem (ES) cell-related signaling molecules including β-catenin, Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and DLK1, and also hepatic CSC-markers CD133, EpCAM and ABCB5. Phenotypic characterization in HCC clinical specimens and cell lines revealed that GEP+ cancer cells co-expressed these stem cell markers similarly as the GEP+ fetal liver cells. Furthermore, GEP was shown to regulate the expression of ES cell-related signaling molecules β-catenin, Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. Isolated GEPhigh cancer cells showed enhanced colony formation ability and chemoresistance when compared with the GEPlow counterparts. Co-expression of GEP and ABCB5 better defined the CSC populations with enhanced tumorigenic ability in immunocompromised mice. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that GEP is a hepatic oncofetal protein regulating ES cell-related signaling molecules. Co

  13. S1pr2/Gα13 signaling regulates the migration of endocardial precursors by controlling endoderm convergence.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huaping; Ye, Ding; Sepich, Diane; Lin, Fang

    2016-06-15

    Formation of the heart tube requires synchronized migration of endocardial and myocardial precursors. Our previous studies indicated that in S1pr2/Gα13-deficient embryos, impaired endoderm convergence disrupted the medial migration of myocardial precursors, resulting in the formation of two myocardial populations. Here we show that endoderm convergence also regulates endocardial migration. In embryos defective for S1pr2/Gα13 signaling, endocardial precursors failed to migrate towards the midline, and the presumptive endocardium surrounded the bilaterally-located myocardial cells rather than being encompassed by them. In vivo imaging of control embryos revealed that, like their myocardial counterparts, endocardial precursors migrated with the converging endoderm, though from a more anterior point, then moved from the dorsal to the ventral side of the endoderm (subduction), and finally migrated posteriorly towards myocardial precursors, ultimately forming the inner layer of the heart tube. In embryos defective for endoderm convergence due to an S1pr2/Gα13 deficiency, both the medial migration and the subduction of endocardial precursors were impaired, and their posterior migration towards the myocardial precursors was premature. This placed them medial to the myocardial populations, physically blocking the medial migration of the myocardial precursors. Furthermore, contact between the endocardial and myocardial precursor populations disrupted the epithelial architecture of the myocardial precursors, and thus their medial migration; in embryos depleted of endocardial cells, the myocardial migration defect was partially rescued. Our data indicate that endoderm convergence regulates the medial migration of endocardial precursors, and that premature association of the endocardial and myocardial populations contributes to myocardial migration defects observed in S1pr2/Gα13-deficient embryos. The demonstration that endoderm convergence regulates the synchronized

  14. LPS induces KH-type splicing regulatory protein-dependent processing of microRNA-155 precursors in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Tina; Trabucchi, Michele; De Santa, Francesca; Zupo, Simona; Harfe, Brian D; McManus, Michael T; Rosenfeld, M Geoff; Briata, Paola; Gherzi, Roberto

    2009-09-01

    The importance of post-transcriptional mechanisms for the regulation of the homoeostasis of the immune system and the response to challenge by microorganisms is becoming increasingly appreciated. We investigated the contribution of microRNAs (miRNAs) to macrophage activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We first observed that Dicer knockout in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) increases the LPS-induced expression of some inflammation mediators. miRNA microarray analysis in BMDMs revealed that LPS significantly induces the expression of a single miRNA, miR-155, and this induction depends on enhanced miR-155 maturation from its precursors. The single-strand RNA-binding protein KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP) binds to the terminal loop of miR-155 precursors and promotes their maturation. Both inhibition of miR-155 and KSRP knockdown enhance the LPS-induced expression of select inflammation mediators, and the effect of KSRP knockdown is reverted by mature miR-155. Our studies unveil the existence of an LPS-dependent post-transcriptional regulation of miR-155 biogenesis. Once induced, miR-155 finely tunes the expression of select inflammation mediators in response to LPS. PMID:19423639

  15. Ablation of Prion Protein in Wild Type Human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice Does Not Alter The Proteolysis of APP, Levels of Amyloid-β or Pathologic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Baybutt, Herbert; Diack, Abigail B.; Kellett, Katherine A. B.; Piccardo, Pedro; Manson, Jean C.

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. In cellular models PrPC inhibited the action of the β-secretase BACE1 on wild type amyloid precursor protein resulting in a reduction in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Here we have assessed the effect of genetic ablation of PrPC in transgenic mice expressing human wild type amyloid precursor protein (line I5). Deletion of PrPC had no effect on the α- and β-secretase proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) nor on the amount of Aβ38, Aβ40 or Aβ42 in the brains of the mice. In addition, ablation of PrPC did not alter Aβ deposition or histopathology phenotype in this transgenic model. Thus using this transgenic model we could not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that PrPC regulates Aβ production. PMID:27447728

  16. Ablation of Prion Protein in Wild Type Human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Transgenic Mice Does Not Alter The Proteolysis of APP, Levels of Amyloid-β or Pathologic Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Isobel J; Brown, Deborah; Baybutt, Herbert; Diack, Abigail B; Kellett, Katherine A B; Piccardo, Pedro; Manson, Jean C; Hooper, Nigel M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In cellular models PrPC inhibited the action of the β-secretase BACE1 on wild type amyloid precursor protein resulting in a reduction in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Here we have assessed the effect of genetic ablation of PrPC in transgenic mice expressing human wild type amyloid precursor protein (line I5). Deletion of PrPC had no effect on the α- and β-secretase proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) nor on the amount of Aβ38, Aβ40 or Aβ42 in the brains of the mice. In addition, ablation of PrPC did not alter Aβ deposition or histopathology phenotype in this transgenic model. Thus using this transgenic model we could not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that PrPC regulates Aβ production. PMID:27447728

  17. Dynamic regulation of macroautophagy by distinctive, ubiquitin-like proteins

    PubMed Central

    Klionsky, Daniel J.; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy complements the ubiquitin-proteasome system in mediating protein turnover. Whereas the proteasome degrades individual proteins modified with ubiquitin chains, autophagy degrades many proteins and organelles en masse. Macromolecules destined for autophagic degradation are “selected” through sequestration within a specialized double-membrane compartment termed the “phagophore”, the precursor to an “autophagosome”, and then hydrolyzed in a lysosome/vacuole-dependent manner. Notably, a pair of distinctive ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs), Atg8 and Atg12, regulate degradation by autophagy in unique ways, by controlling autophagosome biogenesis and recruitment of specific cargos during selective autophagy. Here we review structural mechanisms underlying functions and conjugation of these UBLs that are specialized to provide interaction platforms linked to phagophore membranes. PMID:24699082

  18. A precursor-inducible zebrafish model of acute protoporphyria with hepatic protein aggregation and multiorganelle stress.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Jared S; Maitra, Dhiman; Liu, Yang; Lentz, Stephen I; Nelson, Bradley; Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Shavit, Jordan A; Omary, M Bishr

    2016-05-01

    Protoporphyria is a metabolic disease that causes excess production of protoporphyrin IX (PP-IX), the final biosynthetic precursor to heme. Hepatic PP-IX accumulation may lead to end-stage liver disease. We tested the hypothesis that systemic administration of porphyrin precursors to zebrafish larvae results in protoporphyrin accumulation and a reproducible nongenetic porphyria model. Retro-orbital infusion of PP-IX or the iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFO), with the first committed heme precursor α-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), generates high levels of PP-IX in zebrafish larvae. Exogenously infused or endogenously produced PP-IX accumulates preferentially in the liver of zebrafish larvae and peaks 1 to 3 d after infusion. Similar to patients with protoporphyria, PP-IX is excreted through the biliary system. Porphyrin accumulation in zebrafish liver causes multiorganelle protein aggregation as determined by mass spectrometry and immunoblotting. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and induction of autophagy were noted in zebrafish larvae and corroborated in 2 mouse models of protoporphyria. Furthermore, electron microscopy of zebrafish livers from larvae administered ALA + DFO showed hepatocyte autophagosomes, nuclear membrane ruffling, and porphyrin-containing vacuoles with endoplasmic reticulum distortion. In conclusion, systemic administration of the heme precursors PP-IX or ALA + DFO into zebrafish larvae provides a new model of acute protoporphyria with consequent hepatocyte protein aggregation and proteotoxic multiorganelle alterations and stress.-Elenbaas, J. S., Maitra, D., Liu, Y., Lentz, S. I., Nelson, B., Hoenerhoff, M. J., Shavit, J. A., Omary, M. B. A precursor-inducible zebrafish model of acute protoporphyria with hepatic protein aggregation and multiorganelle stress. PMID:26839379

  19. Off-flavor precursors in soy protein isolate and novel strategies for their removal.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Srinivasan; Arora, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    Off-flavors remain a major hurdle in expanding the use of soy protein isolate (SPI) in mainstream food applications. The complexity in solving this problem arises from the presence of protein-bound precursors in SPI. Among the most predominant sources of off-flavors in SPI is the residual amount of phospholipids that contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Autoxidation of PUFAs generates several classes of volatile compounds that contribute to the beany, grassy, or green odor of SPI. In addition, several polyphenolic compounds, such as isoflavones, saponins, phenolic acids, etc., impart bitter and astringent tastes to SPI. Traditional methods for removing protein-bound precursors from SPI and their limitations are reviewed. The most notable trade-off of conventional methods is the loss of protein functionality to some degree. Therefore, pursuit of gentler treatments to overcome SPI off-flavor has been the focus of industry and academia alike. Novel approaches that employ β-cyclodextrin to remove both SPI-bound precursors and volatile compounds are described. PMID:23297776

  20. Depletion of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) causes G0 arrest in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells

    PubMed Central

    Sobol, Anna; Galluzzo, Paola; Weber, Megan J.; Alani, Sara; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) regulates global protein synthesis in a variety of human dividing cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. More specifically, APP depletion causes an increase of both cap- and IRES-dependent translation. Since growth and proliferation are tightly coupled processes, here we asked what effects artificial downregulation of APP could have elicited in NSCLC cells proliferation. APP depletion caused a G0/G1 arrest through destabilization of the cyclin-C protein and reduced pRb phosphorylation at residues Ser802/811. siRNA to cyclin-C mirrored the cell cycle distribution observed when silencing APP. Cells arrested in G0/G1 (and with augmented global protein synthesis) increased their size and underwent a necrotic cell death due to cell membrane permeabilization. These phenotypes were reversed by overexpression of the APP C-terminal domain, indicating a novel role for APP in regulating early cell cycle entry decisions. It is seems that APP moderates the rate of protein synthesis before the cell clears growth factors- and nutrients-dependent checkpoint in mid G1. Our results raise questions on how such processes interact in the context of (at least) dividing NSCLC cells. The data presented here suggest that APP, although required for G0/G1 transitions, moderates the rate of protein synthesis before the cell fully commits to cell cycle progression following mechanisms, which seem additional to concurrent signals deriving from the PI3-K/Akt/mTORC-1 axis. APP appears to play a central role in regulating cell cycle entry with the rate of protein synthesis; and its loss-of-function causes cell size abnormalities and death. PMID:25502341

  1. Depletion of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) causes G0 arrest in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Anna; Galluzzo, Paola; Weber, Megan J; Alani, Sara; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    We recently reported that Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) regulates global protein synthesis in a variety of human dividing cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. More specifically, APP depletion causes an increase of both cap- and IRES-dependent translation. Since growth and proliferation are tightly coupled processes, here, we asked what effects artificial downregulation of APP could have elicited in NSCLC cells proliferation. APP depletion caused a G0/G1 arrest through destabilization of the cyclin-C protein and reduced pRb phosphorylation at residues Ser802/811. siRNA to cyclin-C mirrored the cell cycle distribution observed when silencing APP. Cells arrested in G0/G1 (and with augmented global protein synthesis) increased their size and underwent a necrotic cell death due to cell membrane permeabilization. These phenotypes were reversed by overexpression of the APP C-terminal domain, indicating a novel role for APP in regulating early cell cycle entry decisions. It is seems that APP moderates the rate of protein synthesis before the cell clears growth factors- and nutrients-dependent checkpoint in mid G1. Our results raise questions on how such processes interact in the context of (at least) dividing NSCLC cells. The data presented here suggest that APP, although required for G0/G1 transitions, moderates the rate of protein synthesis before the cell fully commits to cell cycle progression following mechanisms, which seem additional to concurrent signals deriving from the PI3-K/Akt/mTORC-1 axis. APP appears to play a central role in regulating cell cycle entry with the rate of protein synthesis; and its loss-of-function causes cell size abnormalities and death. PMID:25502341

  2. Novel neuritic clusters with accumulations of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 immunoreactivity in brain regions damaged by thiamine deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Calingasan, N. Y.; Gandy, S. E.; Baker, H.; Sheu, K. F.; Smith, J. D.; Lamb, B. T.; Gearhart, J. D.; Buxbaum, J. D.; Harper, C.; Selkoe, D. J.; Price, D. L.; Sisodia, S. S.; Gibson, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental thiamine deficiency (TD) is a classical model of a nutritional deficit associated with a generalized impairment of oxidative metabolism and selective cell loss in the brain. In rats, TD-induced cell degeneration is accompanied by an accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) immunoreactivity in abnormal neurites and perikarya along the periphery of, or scattered within, the lesion. Prompted by these data and our previous findings of a genetic variation in the development of TD symptoms, we extended our studies to mice. C57BL/6, ApoE knockout, and APP YAC transgenic mice received thiamine-deficient diet and pyrithiamine injections. Unlike rats, APP/APLP2-immunoreactive neurites in all strains of mice were sparsely scattered within damaged areas and did not delimit the thalamic lesion. In addition, abnormal clusters of intensely immunoreactive neurites occurred only in areas of damage including the thalamus, mammillary body, and inferior colliculus. The clusters appeared as either irregular clumps or round or oval rosettes that strikingly resembled the neuritic component of Alzheimer amyloid plaques. However, immunostaining using various antisera to synthetic amyloid beta-protein (A beta 1-40) and thioflavine S histochemistry failed to show evidence of a component of A beta Neither APP/APLP2-immunoreactive clusters nor amyloid plaques were observed in the brain from patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, the clinical manifestation of TD in man. Our results demonstrate species (i.e., genetic) differences in the response to TD-induced damage and support a role for APP and APLP2 in the response to brain injury. This is the first report that chronic oxidative deficits can lead to this novel pathology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8780408

  3. Regulation of coat protein polymerization by the scaffolding protein of bacteriophage P22

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.T.; King, J.

    1980-10-01

    In the morphogenesis of double stranded DNA phages, a precursor protein shell empty of DNA is first assembled and then filled with DNA. The assembly of the correctly dimensioned precursor shell (procapsid) of Salmonella bacteriophage P22 requires the interaction of some 420 coat protein subunits with approx. 200 scaffolding protein subunits to form a double shelled particle with the scaffolding protein on the inside. In the course of DNA packaging, all of the scaffolding protein subunits exit from the procapsid and participate in further rounds of procapsid assembly. To study the mechanism of shell assembly we have purified the coat and scaffolding protein subunits by selective dissociation of isolated procapsids. Both proteins can be obtained as soluble sununits in Tris buffer at near neutral pH. The coat protein sedimented in sucrose gradients as a roughly spherical monomer, while the scaffolding protein sedimented as if it were an elongated monomer. When the two proteins were mixed together in 1.5 M guanidine hydrochloride and dialyzed back to buffer at room temperature, procapsids formed which were very similar in morphology, sedimentation behavior, and protein composition to procapsids formed in vivo. Incubation of either protein alone under the same conditions did not yield any large structures. We interpret these results to mean that the assembly of the shell involves a switching of both proteins from their nonaggregating to their aggregating forms through their mutual interaction. The results are discussed in terms of the general problem of self-regulated assembly and the control of protein polymerization in morphogenesis.

  4. Selective overproduction of the proteasome inhibitor salinosporamide A via precursor pathway regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Anna; Eustáquio, Alessandra S.; Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Hafner, Mathias; Moore, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The chlorinated natural product salinosporamide A is a potent 20S proteasome inhibitor currently in clinical trials as an anticancer agent. To deepen our understanding of salinosporamide biosynthesis, we investigated the function of a LuxR-type pathway-specific regulatory gene, salR2, and observed a selective effect on the production of salinosporamide A over its less active aliphatic analogs. SalR2 was shown to specifically activate genes involved in the biosynthesis of the halogenated precursor chloroethylmalonyl-CoA, which is a dedicated precursor of salinosporamide A. Specifically, SalR2 activates transcription of two divergent operons – one of which contains the unique S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent chlorinase encoding gene salL. By applying this knowledge towards rational engineering, we were able to selectively double salinosporamide A production. This study exemplifies the specialized regulation of a polyketide precursor pathway and its application to the selective overproduction of a specific natural product congener. PMID:22195555

  5. Synthesis and assembly of membrane skeletal proteins in mammalian red cell precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Hanspal, M.; Palek, J.

    1987-09-01

    The synthesis of membrane skeletal proteins in avian nucleated red cells has been the subject of extensive investigation, whereas little is known about skeletal protein synthesis in bone marrow erythroblasts and peripheral blood reticulocytes in mammals. To address this question, we have isolated nucleated red cell precursors and reticulocytes from spleens and from the peripheral blood, respectively, of rats with phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia and pulse-labeled them with (/sup 35/S)methionine. Pulse-labeling of nucleated red cell precursors shows that the newly synthesized alpha- and beta-spectrins are present in the cytosol, with a severalfold excess of alpha-spectrin over beta-spectrin. However, in the membrane-skeletal fraction, newly synthesized alpha- and beta-spectrins are assembled in stoichiometric amounts, suggesting that the association of alpha-spectrin with the membrane skeleton may- be rate-limited by the amount of beta-spectrin synthesized, as has been shown recently in avian erythroid cells. Pulse-chase experiments in the rat nucleated red cell precursors show that the newly synthesized alpha- and beta-spectrin of the cytosol turn over coordinately and extremely rapidly. In contrast, in the membrane-skeletal fraction, the newly synthesized polypeptides of spectrin are stable. In contrast to nucleated erythroid cells, in reticulocytes the synthesis of alpha- and beta-spectrins is markedly diminished compared with the synthesis and assembly of proteins comigrating with bands 2.1 and 4.1 on SDS gels. Thus, in nucleated red cell precursors, the newly synthesized spectrin may be attached to the plasma membrane before proteins 2.1 and 4.1 are completely synthesized and incorporated in the membrane.

  6. A single amino acid difference between the intracellular domains of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid-like precursor protein 2 enables induction of synaptic depression and block of long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Trillaud-Doppia, Emilie; Paradis-Isler, Nicolas; Boehm, Jannic

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is initially characterized as a disease of the synapse that affects synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. While amyloid-beta and tau have been traditionally implicated in causing AD, recent studies suggest that other factors, such as the intracellular domain of the amyloid-precursor protein (APP-ICD), can also play a role in the development of AD. Here, we show that the expression of APP-ICD induces synaptic depression, while the intracellular domain of its homolog amyloid-like precursor protein 2 (APLP2-ICD) does not. We are able to show that this effect by APP-ICD is due to a single alanine vs. proline difference between APP-ICD and APLP2-ICD. The alanine in APP-ICD and the proline in APLP2-ICD lie directly behind a conserved caspase cleavage site. Inhibition of caspase cleavage of APP-ICD prevents the induction of synaptic depression. Finally, we show that the expression of APP-ICD increases and facilitates long-term depression and blocks induction of long-term potentiation. The block in long-term potentiation can be overcome by mutating the aforementioned alanine in APP-ICD to the proline of APLP2. Based on our results, we propose the emergence of a new APP critical domain for the regulation of synaptic plasticity and in consequence for the development of AD. PMID:26921470

  7. Role of regulator of G protein signaling proteins in bone

    PubMed Central

    Keinan, David; Yang, Shuying; Cohen, Robert E.; Yuan, Xue; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Yi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are a family with more than 30 proteins that all contain an RGS domain. In the past decade, increasing evidence has indicated that RGS proteins play crucial roles in the regulation of G protein coupling receptors (GPCR), G proteins, and calcium signaling during cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in a variety of tissues. In bone, those proteins modulate bone development and remodeling by influencing various signaling pathways such as GPCR-G protein signaling, Wnt, calcium oscillations and PTH. This review summarizes the recent advances in the understanding of the regulation of RGS genes expression, as well as the functions and mechanisms of RGS proteins, especially in regulating GPCR-G protein signaling, Wnt signaling, calcium oscillations signaling and PTH signaling during bone development and remodeling. This review also highlights the regulation of different RGS proteins in osteoblasts, chondrocytes and osteoclasts. The knowledge from the recent advances of RGS study summarized in the review would provide the insights into new therapies for bone diseases. PMID:24389209

  8. Physiological role for amyloid precursor protein in adult experience-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Marik, Sally A; Olsen, Olav; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Gilbert, Charles D

    2016-07-12

    Changes in neural circuits after experience-dependent plasticity are brought about by the formation of new circuits via axonal growth and pruning. Here, using a combination of electrophysiology, adeno-associated virus-delivered fluorescent proteins, analysis of mutant mice, and two-photon microscopy, we follow long-range horizontally projecting axons in primary somatosensory cortex before and after selective whisker plucking. Whisker plucking induces axonal growth and pruning of horizontal projecting axons from neurons located in the surrounding intact whisker representations. We report that amyloid precursor protein is crucial for axonal pruning and contributes in a cell autonomous way. PMID:27354516

  9. CBP regulates the differentiation of interneurons from ventral forebrain neural precursors during murine development.

    PubMed

    Tsui, David; Voronova, Anastassia; Gallagher, Denis; Kaplan, David R; Miller, Freda D; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-15

    The mechanisms that regulate appropriate genesis and differentiation of interneurons in the developing mammalian brain are of significant interest not only because interneurons play key roles in the establishment of neural circuitry, but also because when they are deficient, this can cause epilepsy. In this regard, one genetic syndrome that is associated with deficits in neural development and epilepsy is Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), where the transcriptional activator and histone acetyltransferase CBP is mutated and haploinsufficient. Here, we have asked whether CBP is necessary for the appropriate genesis and differentiation of interneurons in the murine forebrain, since this could provide an explanation for the epilepsy that is associated with RTS. We show that CBP is expressed in neural precursors within the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), an area that generates the vast majority of interneurons for the cortex. Using primary cultures of MGE precursors, we show that knockdown of CBP causes deficits in differentiation of these precursors into interneurons and oligodendrocytes, and that overexpression of CBP is by itself sufficient to enhance interneuron genesis. Moreover, we show that levels of the neurotransmitter synthesis enzyme GAD67, which is expressed in inhibitory interneurons, are decreased in the dorsal and ventral forebrain of neonatal CBP(+/-) mice, indicating that CBP plays a role in regulating interneuron development in vivo. Thus, CBP normally acts to ensure the differentiation of appropriate numbers of forebrain interneurons, and when its levels are decreased, this causes deficits in interneuron development, providing a potential explanation for the epilepsy seen in individuals with RTS. PMID:24247009

  10. Cytomegalovirus Assembly Protein Precursor and Proteinase Precursor Contain Two Nuclear Localization Signals That Mediate Their Own Nuclear Translocation and That of the Major Capsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Plafker, Scott M.; Gibson, Wade

    1998-01-01

    The cytomegalovirus (CMV) assembly protein precursor (pAP) interacts with the major capsid protein (MCP), and this interaction is required for nuclear translocation of the MCP, which otherwise remains in the cytoplasm of transfected cells (L. J. Wood et al., J. Virol. 71:179–190, 1997). We have interpreted this finding to indicate that the CMV MCP lacks its own nuclear localization signal (NLS) and utilizes the pAP as an NLS-bearing escort into the nucleus. The CMV pAP amino acid sequence has two clusters of basic residues (e.g., KRRRER [NLS1] and KARKRLK [NLS2], for simian CMV) that resemble the simian virus 40 large-T-antigen NLS (D. Kalderon et al., Cell 39:499–509, 1984) and one of these (NLS1) has a counterpart in the pAP homologs of other herpesviruses. The work described here establishes that NLS1 and NLS2 are mutually independent NLS that can act (i) in cis to translocate pAP and the related proteinase precursor (pNP1) into the nucleus and (ii) in trans to transport MCP into the nucleus. By using combinations of NLS mutants and carboxy-terminal deletion constructs, we demonstrated a self-interaction of pAP and cytoplasmic interactions of pAP with pNP1 and of pNP1 with itself. The relevance of these findings to early steps in capsid assembly, the mechanism of MCP nuclear transport, and the possible cytoplasmic formation of protocapsomeric substructures is discussed. PMID:9733808

  11. Regulation of betaine synthesis by precursor supply and choline monooxygenase expression in Amaranthus tricolor.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Nazmul H; Hamada, Akira; Yamada, Nana; Rai, Vandna; Hibino, Takashi; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2007-01-01

    In plants, betaine is synthesized upon abiotic stress via choline oxidation, in which choline monooxygenase (CMO) is a key enzyme. Although it had been thought that betaine synthesis is well regulated to protect abiotic stress, it is shown here that an exogenous supply of precursors such as choline, serine, and glycine in the betaine-accumulating plant Amaranthus tricolor further enhances the accumulation of betaine under salt stress, but not under normal conditions. Addition of isonicotinic acid hydrazide, an inhibitor of glycine decarboxylase, inhibited the salinity-induced accumulation of betaine. Salt-induced accumulation of A. tricolor CMO (AmCMO) and betaine was much slower in roots than in leaves, and a transient accumulation of proline was observed in the roots. Antisense expression of AmCMO mRNA suppressed the salt-induced accumulation of AmCMO and betaine, but increased the level of choline approximately 2- 3-fold. This indicates that betaine synthesis is highly regulated by AmCMO expression. The genomic DNA, including the upstream region (1.6 kbp), of AmCMO was isolated. Deletion analysis of the AmCMO promoter region revealed that the 410 bp fragment upstream of the translation start codon contains the sequence responsive to salt stress. These data reveal that the promoter sequence of CMO, in addition to precursor supply, is important for the accumulation of betaine in the betaine-accumulating plant A. tricolor. PMID:18182425

  12. Regulation of TET Protein Stability by Calpains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA methylation at the fifth position of cytosine (5mC) is an important epigenetic modification that affects chromatin structure and gene expression. Recent studies have established a critical function of the Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of proteins in regulating DNA methylation dynamics. Three Tet genes have been identified in mammals, and they all encode for proteins capable of oxidizing 5mC as part of the DNA demethylation process. While regulation of Tet expression at the transcriptional level is well documented, how TET proteins are regulated at post-translational level is poorly understood. In this study, we report that all three TET proteins are direct substrates of calpains, a family of calcium-dependent proteases. Specifically, calpain1 mediates TET1 and TET2 turnover in mouse ES cells, and calpain2 regulates TET3 level during differentiation. This study provides the first evidence that TET proteins are subject to calpain-mediated degradation. PMID:24412366

  13. Expression and distribution of amyloid precursor protein-like protein-2 in Alzheimer's disease and in normal brain.

    PubMed Central

    Crain, B. J.; Hu, W.; Sze, C. I.; Slunt, H. H.; Koo, E. H.; Price, D. L.; Thinakaran, G.; Sisodia, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Amyloid precursor-like protein-2 (APLP-2) belongs to a family of homologous amyloid precursor-like proteins. In the present study we report on the expression and distribution of APLP-2 in fetal and adult human brain and in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. We demonstrate that APLP-2 mRNAs encoding isoforms predicted to undergo post-translational modification by chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans are elevated in fetal and aging brains relative to the brains of young adults. Immunocytochemical labeling with APLP-2-specific antibodies demonstrates APLP-2 immunoreactivity in cytoplasmic compartments in neurons and astrocytes, in large part overlapping the distribution of the amyloid precursor protein. In Alzheimer's disease brain, APLP-2 antibodies also label a subset of neuritic plaques. APLP-2 immunoreactivity is particularly conspicuous in large dystrophic neurites that also label with antibodies specific for APP and chromogranin A. In view of the age-dependent increase in levels of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan-modified forms of APLP-2 in aging brain and the accumulation of APLP-2 in dystrophic presynaptic elements, we suggest that APLP-2 may play roles in neuronal sprouting or in the aggregation, deposition, and/or persistence of beta-amyloid deposits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8863657

  14. Effects of N-glycan precursor length diversity on quality control of protein folding and on protein glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, John; Robbins, Phillips W.

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) of medically important protists have much to tell us about the evolution of N-glycosylation and of N-glycan-dependent quality control (N-glycan QC) of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. While host N-glycans are built upon a dolichol-pyrophosphate-linked precursor with 14 sugars (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2), protist N-glycan precursors vary from Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 (Acanthamoeba) to Man9GlcNAc2 (Trypanosoma) to Glc3Man5GlcNAc2 (Toxoplasma) to Man5GlcNAc2 (Entamoeba, Trichomonas, and Eimeria) to GlcNAc2 (Plasmodium and Giardia) to zero (Theileria). As related organisms have differing N-glycan lengths (e.g. Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Plasmodium, and Theileria), the present N-glycan variation is based upon secondary loss of Alg genes, which encode enzymes that add sugars to the N-glycan precursor. An N-glycan precursor with Man5GlcNAc2 is necessary but not sufficient for N-glycan QC, which is predicted by the presence of the UDP-glucose:glucosyltransferase (UGGT) plus calreticulin and/or calnexin. As many parasites lack glucose in their N-glycan precursor, UGGT product may be identified by inhibition of glucosidase II. The presence of an armless calnexin in Toxoplasma suggests secondary loss of N-glycan QC from coccidia. Positive selection for N-glycan sites occurs in secreted proteins of organisms with NG-QC and is based upon an increased likelihood of threonine but not serine in the second position versus asparagine. In contrast, there appears to be selection against N-glycan length in Plasmodium and N-glycan site density in Toxoplasma. Finally, there is suggestive evidence for N-glycan-dependent ERAD in Trichomonas, which glycosylates and degrades the exogenous reporter mutant carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*). PMID:25475176

  15. Molecular characterization of six intermediate proteins in the processing of mouse protamine P2 precursor.

    PubMed

    Chauvière, M; Martinage, A; Debarle, M; Sautière, P; Chevaillier, P

    1992-03-01

    In mouse spermatozoa, DNA is compacted by two protamines mP1 and mP2. Protamine mP2 (63 residues) is synthesized in spermatid nuclei as a precursor pmP2 (106 residues) which is subsequently processed at the end of spermiogenesis [Yelick, P.C., Balhorn, R., Johnson, P.A., Corzett, M., Mazrimas, J.A., Kleene, K.C. & Hecht, N.B. (1987) Mol. Cell. Biol. 7, 2173-2179]. Six proteins, three of which were described earlier [Chauvière, M., Martinage, A., Debarle, M., Alimi, E., Sautière, P. & Chevaillier, Ph. (1991) C.R. Acad. Sci. 313, 107-112], have molecular and electrophoretic properties similar to those of pmP2. They were isolated from purified testis nuclei and characterized by amino acid composition, N-terminal sequence and peptide mapping. From the amino acid compositions, it appears that all six proteins are rich in arginine, cysteine and histidine and are closely related to pmP2 and mP2. The N-terminal sequence of each protein overlaps a distinct region of the N-terminal part of pmP2. The C-terminal part of protamine mP2 starting at arginine 15 is common to all proteins as assessed by amino acid compositions and peptide maps. All these structural data demonstrate that the six isolated proteins are products of pmP2 precursor processing. The six intermediate proteins pmP2/5, pmP2/11, pmP2/16, pmP2/20, pmP2/26 and pmP2/32 which contain 102, 96, 91, 87, 81 and 75 residues, respectively, are generated from the pmP2 precursor after N-terminal excision of 4, 10, 15, 19, 25 and 31 residues, respectively. The C-terminal sequence of protamine mP2 is strictly identical to that of its precursor; therefore, no maturation occurs in this part of the molecule. At the present time, the proteolytic pathway involved in the amino-terminal processing leading to the mature form of the protamine mP2 (63 residues) has not been elucidated. However, the different representation of six intermediates in the testis suggests that some stages of processing are faster than others or that some

  16. A multipurpose fusion tag derived from an unstructured and hyperacidic region of the amyloid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    Sangawa, Takeshi; Tabata, Sanae; Suzuki, Kei; Saheki, Yasushi; Tanaka, Keiji; Takagi, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Expression and purification of aggregation-prone and disulfide-containing proteins in Escherichia coli remains as a major hurdle for structural and functional analyses of high-value target proteins. Here, we present a novel gene-fusion strategy that greatly simplifies purification and refolding procedure at very low cost using a unique hyperacidic module derived from the human amyloid precursor protein. Fusion with this polypeptide (dubbed FATT for Flag-Acidic-Target Tag) results in near-complete soluble expression of variety of extracellular proteins, which can be directly refolded in the crude bacterial lysate and purified in one-step by anion exchange chromatography. Application of this system enabled preparation of functionally active extracellular enzymes and antibody fragments without the need for condition optimization. PMID:23526492

  17. A 127-kDa protein (UV-DDB) binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Sukegawa, J; Sukegawa, I; Tomita, S; Iijima, K; Oguchi, S; Suzuki, T; Nairn, A C; Greengard, P

    1999-02-01

    Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane protein with a short cytoplasmic domain of 47 amino acids. It is hoped that identification of proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain will provide new insights into the physiological function of APP and, in turn, into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. To identify proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of APP, we employed affinity chromatography using an immobilized synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 645-694 of APP695 and identified a protein of approximately 130 kDa in rat brain cytosol. Amino acid sequencing of the protein revealed the protein to be a rat homologue of monkey UV-DDB (UV-damaged DNA-binding protein, calculated molecular mass of 127 kDa). UV-DDB/p127 co-immunoprecipitated with APP using an anti-APP antibody from PC12 cell lysates. APP also co-immunoprecipitated with UV-DDB/p127 using an anti-UV-DDB/p127 antibody. These results indicate that UV-DDB/p127, which is present in the cytosolic fraction, forms a complex with APP through its cytoplasmic domain. In vitro binding experiments using a glutathione S-transferase-APP cytoplasmic domain fusion protein and several mutants indicated that the YENPTY motif within the APP cytoplasmic domain, which is important in the internalization of APP and amyloid beta protein secretion, may be involved in the interaction between UV-DDB/p127 and APP. PMID:9930726

  18. ORMDL proteins regulate ceramide levels during sterile inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Oyeniran, Clement; Biswas, Debolina D; Allegood, Jeremy; Milstien, Sheldon; Kordula, Tomasz; Maceyka, Michael; Spiegel, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, ceramide, regulates physiological processes important for inflammation and elevated levels of ceramide have been implicated in IL-1-mediated events. Although much has been learned about ceramide generation by activation of sphingomyelinases in response to IL-1, the contribution of the de novo pathway is not completely understood. Because yeast ORM1 and ORM2 proteins negatively regulate ceramide levels through inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase, the first committed step in ceramide biosynthesis, we examined the functions of individual mammalian ORM orthologs, ORM (yeast)-like (ORMDL)1-3, in regulation of ceramide levels. In HepG2 liver cells, downregulation of ORMDL3 markedly increased the ceramide precursors, dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramide, primarily from de novo biosynthesis based on [U-(13)C]palmitate incorporation into base-labeled and dual-labeled dihydroceramides, whereas downregulation of each isoform increased dihydroceramides [(13)C]labeled in only the amide-linked fatty acid. IL-1 and the IL-6 family cytokine, oncostatin M, increased dihydroceramide and ceramide levels in HepG2 cells and concomitantly decreased ORMDL proteins. Moreover, during irritant-induced sterile inflammation in mice leading to induction of the acute-phase response, which is dependent on IL-1, expression of ORMDL proteins in the liver was strongly downregulated and accompanied by increased ceramide levels in the liver and accumulation in the blood. Together, our results suggest that ORMDLs may be involved in regulation of ceramides during IL-1-mediated sterile inflammation. PMID:27313060

  19. Loss of E protein transcription factors E2A and HEB delays memory-precursor formation during the CD8+ T-cell immune response.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Louise M; Lind, Kristin Camfield; Wu, Bei Bei; Fujimoto, Jessica K; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2012-08-01

    The transcription factors E2A and HEB (members of the E protein family) have been shown to play essential roles in lymphocyte development, while their negative regulators, the Id proteins, have been implicated in both lymphocyte development and in the CD8(+) T-cell immune response. Here, we show that E proteins also influence CD8(+) T cells responding to infection. E protein expression was upregulated by CD8(+) T cells during the early stages of infection and increased E protein DNA-binding activity could be detected upon TCR stimulation. Deficiency in the E proteins, E2A and HEB, led to increased frequency of terminally differentiated effector KLRG1(hi) CD8(+) T cells in mice during infection, and decreased generation of longer-lived memory-precursor cells during the immune response. These data suggest a model whereby E protein transcription factor activity favors rapid memory-precursor T-cell formation while their negative regulators, Id2 and Id3, are both required for robust effector CD8(+) T-cell response during infection. PMID:22585759

  20. The Snail Transcription Factor Regulates the Numbers of Neural Precursor Cells and Newborn Neurons throughout Mammalian Life

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Mark A.; Cancino, Gonzalo I.; Gridley, Thomas; Kaplan, David R.; Miller, Freda D.

    2014-01-01

    The Snail transcription factor regulates diverse aspects of stem cell biology in organisms ranging from Drosophila to mammals. Here we have asked whether it regulates the biology of neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the forebrain of postnatal and adult mice, taking advantage of a mouse containing a floxed Snail allele (Snailfl/fl mice). We show that when Snail is inducibly ablated in the embryonic cortex, this has long-term consequences for cortical organization. In particular, when Snailfl/fl mice are crossed to Nestin-cre mice that express Cre recombinase in embryonic neural precursors, this causes inducible ablation of Snail expression throughout the postnatal cortex. This loss of Snail causes a decrease in proliferation of neonatal cortical neural precursors and mislocalization and misspecification of cortical neurons. Moreover, these precursor phenotypes persist into adulthood. Adult neural precursor cell proliferation is decreased in the forebrain subventricular zone and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and this is coincident with a decrease in the number of adult-born olfactory and hippocampal neurons. Thus, Snail is a key regulator of the numbers of neural precursors and newborn neurons throughout life. PMID:25136812

  1. Sall1 transiently marks undifferentiated heart precursors and regulates their fate.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yuika; Andersen, Peter; Hotta, Akitsu; Tsukahara, Yuko; Sasagawa, Noriko; Hayashida, Naoko; Koga, Chizuko; Nishikawa, Misato; Saga, Yumiko; Evans, Sylvia M; Koshiba-Takeuchi, Kazuko; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Kwon, Chulan; Takeuchi, Jun K

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are a crucial source of cells in cardiac development and regeneration. However, reported CPCs are heterogeneous, and no gene has been identified to transiently mark undifferentiated CPCs throughout heart development. Here we show that Spalt-like gene 1 (Sall1), a zing-finger transcription factor, is expressed in undifferentiated CPCs giving rise to both left and right ventricles. Sall1 was transiently expressed in precardiac mesoderm contributing to the first heart field (left ventricle precursors) but not in the field itself. Similarly, Sall1 expression was maintained in the second heart field (outflow tract/right ventricle precursors) but not in cardiac cells. In vitro, high levels of Sall1 at mesodermal stages enhanced cardiomyogenesis, whereas its continued expression suppressed cardiac differentiation. Our study demonstrates that Sall1 marks CPCs in an undifferentiated state and regulates cardiac differentiation. These findings provide fundamental insights into CPC maintenance, which can be instrumental for CPC-based regenerative medicine. PMID:26876450

  2. Identification of embryonic precursor cells that differentiate into thymic epithelial cells expressing autoimmune regulator.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Nobuko; Takizawa, Nobukazu; Miyauchi, Maki; Yanai, Hiromi; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Shinzawa, Miho; Yoshinaga, Riko; Kurihara, Masaaki; Demizu, Yosuke; Yasuda, Hisataka; Yagi, Shintaro; Wu, Guoying; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Sakamoto, Reiko; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Penninger, Josef M; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Jun-Ichiro; Akiyama, Taishin

    2016-07-25

    Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) expressing autoimmune regulator (Aire) are critical for preventing the onset of autoimmunity. However, the differentiation program of Aire-expressing mTECs (Aire(+) mTECs) is unclear. Here, we describe novel embryonic precursors of Aire(+) mTECs. We found the candidate precursors of Aire(+) mTECs (pMECs) by monitoring the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), which is required for Aire(+) mTEC differentiation. pMECs unexpectedly expressed cortical TEC molecules in addition to the mTEC markers UEA-1 ligand and RANK and differentiated into mTECs in reaggregation thymic organ culture. Introduction of pMECs in the embryonic thymus permitted long-term maintenance of Aire(+) mTECs and efficiently suppressed the onset of autoimmunity induced by Aire(+) mTEC deficiency. Mechanistically, pMECs differentiated into Aire(+) mTECs by tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6-dependent RANK signaling. Moreover, nonclassical nuclear factor-κB activation triggered by RANK and lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling promoted pMEC induction from progenitors exhibiting lower RANK expression and higher CD24 expression. Thus, our findings identified two novel stages in the differentiation program of Aire(+) mTECs. PMID:27401343

  3. Sall1 Transiently Marks Undifferentiated Heart Precursors and Regulates their Fate

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuika; Andersen, Peter; Hotta, Akitsu; Sasagawa, Noriko; Kurokawa, Junko; Tsukahara, Yuko; Hayashida, Naoko; Koga, Chizuko; Nishikawa, Misato; Evans, Sylvia M.; Furukawa, Tetsushi; Koshiba-Takeuchi, Kazuko; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Kwon, Chulan; Takeuchi, Jun K.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are a crucial source of cells in cardiac development and regeneration. However, reported CPCs are heterogeneous, and no gene has been identified to transiently mark undifferentiated CPCs throughout heart development. Here we show that Spalt-like gene 1 (Sall1), a zing-finger transcription factor, is expressed in undifferentiated CPCs giving rise to both left and right ventricles. Sall1 was transiently expressed in precardiac mesoderm contributing to the first heart field (left ventricle precursors) but not in the field itself. Similarly, Sall1 expression was maintained in the second heart field (outflow tract/right ventricle precursors) but not in cardiac cells. In vitro, high levels of Sall1 at mesodermal stages enhanced cardiomyogenesis, whereas its continued expression suppressed cardiac differentiation. Our study demonstrates that Sall1 marks CPCs in an undifferentiated state and regulates cardiac differentiation. These findings provide fundamental insights into CPC maintenance, which can be instrumental for CPC-based regenerative medicine. PMID:26876450

  4. Acute effect of protein or carbohydrate breakfasts on human cerebrospinal fluid monoamine precursor and metabolite levels.

    PubMed

    Teff, K L; Young, S N; Marchand, L; Botez, M I

    1989-01-01

    Patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus who had three lumbar punctures during 1 week ingested either water, a protein breakfast, or a carbohydrate breakfast 2.5 h before each of the lumbar punctures. The CSF was analyzed for biogenic amine precursors and metabolites. The protein meal raised CSF tyrosine levels, a finding consistent with animal data, but did not alter those of tryptophan or any of the biogenic amine metabolites. The carbohydrate meal increased CSF 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol, an unexplained finding. The carbohydrate meal did not affect CSF tryptophan, tyrosine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, or homovanillic acid. Our results support the idea that in humans protein or carbohydrate meals do not alter plasma amino acid levels sufficiently to cause appreciable changes in CNS tryptophan levels or 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis. PMID:2462018

  5. The Amyloid Precursor Protein Forms Plasmalemmal Clusters via Its Pathogenic Amyloid-β Domain

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Arne; Fischer, Sebastian; Lang, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a large, ubiquitous integral membrane protein with a small amyloid-β (Aβ) domain. In the human brain, endosomal processing of APP produces neurotoxic Aβ-peptides, which are involved in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show that the Aβ sequence exerts a physiological function when still present in the unprocessed APP molecule. From the extracellular site, Aβ concentrates APP molecules into plasmalemmal membrane protein clusters. Moreover, Aβ stabilization of clusters is a prerequisite for their targeting to endocytic clathrin structures. Therefore, we conclude that the Aβ domain directly mediates a central step in APP trafficking, driving its own conversion into neurotoxic peptides. PMID:22455924

  6. FET proteins regulate lifespan and neuronal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Martine; Rouleau, Guy A.; Dion, Patrick A.; Parker, J. Alex

    2016-01-01

    The FET protein family includes FUS, EWS and TAF15 proteins, all of which have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. Here, we show that a reduction of FET proteins in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans causes synaptic dysfunction accompanied by impaired motor phenotypes. FET proteins are also involved in the regulation of lifespan and stress resistance, acting partially through the insulin/IGF-signalling pathway. We propose that FET proteins are involved in the maintenance of lifespan, cellular stress resistance and neuronal integrity. PMID:27117089

  7. Citrus psorosis virus 24K protein interacts with citrus miRNA precursors, affects their processing and subsequent miRNA accumulation and target expression.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Carina A; Ocolotobiche, Eliana E; Marmisollé, Facundo E; Robles Luna, Gabriel; Borniego, María B; Bazzini, Ariel A; Asurmendi, Sebastian; García, María L

    2016-04-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, may suffer from disease symptoms induced by virus infections, thus resulting in dramatic economic losses. Here, we show that the infection of sweet orange plants with two isolates of Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) expressing different symptomatology alters the accumulation of a set of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs). Within these miRNAs, miR156, miR167 and miR171 were the most down-regulated, with almost a three-fold reduction in infected samples. This down-regulation led to a concomitant up-regulation of some of their targets, such as Squamosa promoter-binding protein-like 9 and 13, as well as Scarecrow-like 6. The processing of miRNA precursors, pre-miR156 and pre-miR171, in sweet orange seems to be affected by the virus. For instance, virus infection increases the level of unprocessed precursors, which is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in mature species accumulation. miR156a primary transcript accumulation remained unaltered, thus strongly suggesting a processing deregulation for this transcript. The co-immunoprecipitation of viral 24K protein with pre-miR156a or pre-miR171a suggests that the alteration in the processing of these precursors might be caused by a direct or indirect interaction with this particular viral protein. This result is also consistent with the nuclear localization of both miRNA precursors and the CPsV 24K protein. This study contributes to the understanding of the manner in which a virus can alter host regulatory mechanisms, particularly miRNA biogenesis and target expression. PMID:26033697

  8. Preparation of hydroxyapatite rod-like crystals by protein precursor method

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yingchao; Li Shipu . E-mail: zlhyc@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xinyu; Jia Li; He Jianhua

    2007-06-05

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) rod-like crystals were successfully prepared by thermolysis of bovine serum albumin (BSA)/calcium-phosphate (CaP) colloidal precursors. The precursors were obtained by precipitation method from Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Ca(OH){sub 2}, in which BSA was added as regulation additive and ultrasound irradiation was utilized as assistant technology. The properties of the precursors, such as size distribution, morphology, thermodynamic changes, were determined by DLS, SPM and TGA-DTA. The characterization results from DLS, SPM, TG-DTA, XRD and SEM indicated that BSA interacted with CaP particles and formed about 7-130 nm BSA/CaP hybrid colloidal particles between 2 and 4 g/L of BSA concentration. With the increasing of sintering temperature, BSA disintegrated and burned out, and rod-like HAP crystals formed at about 600 deg. C. With the increasing of BSA concentration, the phase composition of products did not change and the HAP crystals became more uniform and smaller. The ratio of length to width ranged from 7.6 to 12 at 4 g/L BSA concentration. This method provides for a controllable bottom-up fabrication of HAP rod-like crystals.

  9. Transport of proteins into chloroplasts. Import and maturation of precursors to the 33-, 23-, and 16-kDa proteins of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex.

    PubMed

    James, H E; Bartling, D; Musgrove, J E; Kirwin, P M; Herrmann, R G; Robinson, C

    1989-11-25

    The 33-, 23-, and 16-kDa proteins of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and transported into the thylakoid lumen of higher plant chloroplasts. In this report we have analyzed the import and maturation of these precursors, using reconstituted protein import assays and partially purified preparations of the processing peptidases involved. Precursors of the 33- and 23-kDa proteins from Spinacia and Triticum aestivum are processed by a stromal peptidase to intermediate forms; polypeptides of similar size are observed during the transport of these precursors and possibly that of the 16-kDa protein, into isolated chloroplasts. Complete maturation of the 33- and 23-kDa proteins is carried out by a thylakoidal peptidase shown previously to be involved in plastocyanin biogenesis. The data support an import mechanism involving successive cleavages by the stromal and thylakoidal processing peptidases. PMID:2684958

  10. Regulation of cardiac C-protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic responses were addressed by studying subcellular changes in protein phosphorylation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and protein phosphatase activity in frog hearts. B-adrenergic agonists increased and muscarinic cholinergic agonists decreased (/sup 32/P)phosphate incorporation into C-protein, a thick filament component. Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by Iso and methacholine (MCh) was assayed using extracts of drug treated frog hearts and (/sup 32/P)phospho-C-protein as substrate. Total phosphatase activity decreased 21% in extracts from hearts perfused with 0.1 ..mu..M Iso and 17% in hearts exposed to Iso plus 1 ..mu..M methacholine. This decrease reflected decreased phosphatase-2A activity. No changes in total phosphatase activity were measurable in broken cells treated with Iso or MCh. The results suggest adrenergic stimulation changes contractile activity in frog hearts by activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase associated with particulate cellular elements and inactivating soluble protein phosphatase-2A. This is the first demonstration of coordinated regulation of these enzymes by B-adrenergic agonists favoring phosphorylation of effector proteins. Coordinated regulation by methacholine in the presence of Iso was not observed.

  11. Co-localization of the amyloid precursor protein and the Notch intracellular domains in nuclear transcription factories

    PubMed Central

    Konietzko, Uwe; Goodger, Zoë V.; Meyer, Michelle; Kohli, Bernhard M.; Bosset, Jérôme; Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Nitsch, Roger M.

    2009-01-01

    The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a major role in Alzheimer’s disease. The APP intracellular domain (AICD), together with Fe65 and Tip60, localizes to spherical nuclear AFT complexes that might represent sites of transcription. We now show that endogenous AICD is targeted to similar nuclear spots. AFT complexes were closely associated with Cajal and PML bodies but did not localize to nucleoli or splicing speckles. Live imaging revealed that AFT complexes were highly mobile within nuclei. Following pharmacological inhibition of transcription AFT complexes merged into a few large assemblies. We have previously shown that AICD regulates the expression of its own precursor APP. Transfection of APP promoter plasmids as substrates resulted in cytosolic AFT complex formation at the labeled APP promoter plasmids. In addition, identification of chromosomal APP or KAI1 gene loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization showed their close association with nuclear AFT complexes. The transcriptional activator Notch intracellular domain (NICD) localized to the same nuclear spots as occupied by AFT complexes, suggesting that these nuclear compartments correspond to transcription factories. Fe65 and Tip60 also co-localized with APP in the neurites of primary neurons. Pre-assembled AFT complexes may serve to assist fast nuclear signaling upon endoproteolytic APP cleavage. PMID:18403052

  12. A role for amyloid precursor protein translation to restore iron homeostasis and ameliorate lead (Pb) neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jack T; Venkataramani, Vivek; Washburn, Cecilia; Liu, Yanyan; Tummala, Vinusha; Jiang, Hong; Smith, Ann; Cahill, Catherine M

    2016-08-01

    Iron supplementation ameliorates the neurotoxicity of the environmental contaminant lead (Pb); however, the mechanism remains undefined. Iron is an essential nutrient but high levels are toxic due to the catalytic generation of destructive hydroxyl radicals. Using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to model human neurons, we investigated the effect of Pb on proteins of iron homeostasis: the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP), which stabilizes the iron exporter ferroportin 1; and, the heavy subunit of the iron-storage protein, ferritin (FTH). Lead (Pb(II) and Pb(IV) inhibited APP translation and raised cytosolic iron(II). Lead also increased iron regulatory protein-1 binding to the cognate 5'untranslated region-specific iron-responsive element (IRE) of APP and FTH mRNAs. Concurrent iron treatment rescued cells from Pb toxicity by specifically restoring APP synthesis, i.e. levels of the APP-related protein, APLP-2, were unchanged. Significantly, iron/IRE-independent over-expression of APP695  protected SH-SY5Y cells from Pb toxicity, demonstrating that APP plays a key role in maintaining safe levels of intracellular iron. Overall, our data support a model of neurotoxicity where Pb enhances iron regulatory protein/IRE-mediated repression of APP and FTH translation. We propose novel treatment options for Pb poisoning to include chelators and the use of small molecules to maintain APP and FTH translation. We propose the following cascade for Lead (Pb) toxicity to neurons; by targeting the interaction between Iron regulatory protein-1 and Iron-responsive elements, Pb caused translational repression of proteins that control intracellular iron homeostasis, including the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP) that stabilizes the iron exporter ferroportin, and the ferroxidase heavy subunit of the iron-storage protein, ferritin. When unregulated, IRE-independent over-expression of APP695 protected SH-SY5Y neurons from Pb toxicity. There is a novel and key role

  13. A major protein precursor of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) byssus: deduced sequence and significance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K E; Waite, J H

    1998-04-01

    The zebra mussel is a nonindigenous invader of North American lakes and rivers and one of the few freshwater bivalve molluscs having a byssus--a sclerotized organ used by the mussel for opportunistic attachment to hard surfaces. We have sequenced a foot-specific cDNA whose composite protein sequence was deduced from a series of overlapping but occasionally nonidentical cDNA fragments. The overall deduced sequence matches tryptic peptides from a major byssal precursor protein--Dreissena polymorpha foot protein 1 (Dpfp1). The calculated mass of Dpfp1 is 49 kDa; but this is known to be extensively hydroxylated and O-glycosylated during maturation. Purified native Dpfp1 analyzed using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry with time-of-flight indicates that the protein occurs as at least two size variants with masses of 48.6 and 54.5 kDa. In all probability, the sequence variants reported in this study are related to the larger mass variant. Dpfp1 has a block copolymer-like structure defined by two consensus motifs that are sharply segregated into domains. The N-terminal side of Dpfp1 has 22 tandem repeats of a heptapeptide consensus (P-[V/E]-Y-P-[T/S/delta]-[K/Q]-X); the C-terminal side has 16 repeats of a tridecapeptide motif (K-P-G-P-Y-D-Y-D-G-P-Y-D-K). Both consensus repeats are unique, with some limited homology to other proteins functioning in tension: marine mussel adhesives, plant extensins, titin, and trematode eggshell precursors. PMID:9604314

  14. A Repressor Protein Complex Regulates Leaf Growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Nathalie; Pauwels, Laurens; Baekelandt, Alexandra; De Milde, Liesbeth; Van Leene, Jelle; Besbrugge, Nienke; Heyndrickx, Ken S.; Pérez, Amparo Cuéllar; Durand, Astrid Nagels; De Clercq, Rebecca; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Eeckhout, Dominique; Gevaert, Kris; Vandepoele, Klaas; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Cell number is an important determinant of final organ size. In the leaf, a large proportion of cells are derived from the stomatal lineage. Meristemoids, which are stem cell-like precursor cells, undergo asymmetric divisions, generating several pavement cells adjacent to the two guard cells. However, the mechanism controlling the asymmetric divisions of these stem cells prior to differentiation is not well understood. Here, we characterized PEAPOD (PPD) proteins, the only transcriptional regulators known to negatively regulate meristemoid division. PPD proteins interact with KIX8 and KIX9, which act as adaptor proteins for the corepressor TOPLESS. D3-type cyclin encoding genes were identified among direct targets of PPD2, being negatively regulated by PPDs and KIX8/9. Accordingly, kix8 kix9 mutants phenocopied PPD loss-of-function producing larger leaves resulting from increased meristemoid amplifying divisions. The identified conserved complex might be specific for leaf growth in the second dimension, since it is not present in Poaceae (grasses), which also lack the developmental program it controls. PMID:26232487

  15. Dietary (-)-epicatechin as a potent inhibitor of βγ-secretase amyloid precursor protein processing.

    PubMed

    Cox, Carla J; Choudhry, Fahd; Peacey, Eleanor; Perkinton, Michael S; Richardson, Jill C; Howlett, David R; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F; Francis, Paul T; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, a group of dietary polyphenols have been shown to possess cognitive health benefits. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that they could play a role in risk reduction in dementia. Amyloid precursor protein processing and the subsequent generation of amyloid beta (Aβ) are central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, as soluble, oligomeric Aβ is thought to be the toxic species driving disease progression. We undertook an in vitro screen to identify flavonoids with bioactivity at βγ-mediated amyloid precursor protein processing, which lead to identification of a number of flavonoids bioactive at 100 nM. Because of known bioavailability, we investigated the catechin family further and identified epigallocatechin and (-)-epicatechin as potent (nanomolar) inhibitors of amyloidogenic processing. Supporting this finding, we have shown reduced Aβ pathology and Aβ levels following short term, a 21-day oral delivery of (-)-epicatechin in 7-month-old TASTPM mice. Further, in vitro mechanistic studies suggest this is likely because of indirect BACE1 inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that orally delivered (-)-epicatechin may be a potential prophylactic for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25316600

  16. Structure of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid precursor protein copper-binding domain at atomic resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Geoffrey Kwai-Wai; Adams, Julian J.; Cappai, Roberto; Parker, Michael W.

    2007-10-01

    An atomic resolution structure of the copper-binding domain of the Alzheimer’s disease amyloid precursor protein is presented. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, as its cleavage generates the Aβ peptide that is toxic to cells. APP is able to bind Cu{sup 2+} and reduce it to Cu{sup +} through its copper-binding domain (CuBD). The interaction between Cu{sup 2+} and APP leads to a decrease in Aβ production and to alleviation of the symptoms of the disease in mouse models. Structural studies of CuBD have been undertaken in order to better understand the mechanism behind the process. Here, the crystal structure of CuBD in the metal-free form determined to ultrahigh resolution (0.85 Å) is reported. The structure shows that the copper-binding residues of CuBD are rather rigid but that Met170, which is thought to be the electron source for Cu{sup 2+} reduction, adopts two different side-chain conformations. These observations shed light on the copper-binding and redox mechanisms of CuBD. The structure of CuBD at atomic resolution provides an accurate framework for structure-based design of molecules that will deplete Aβ production.

  17. The Flavivirus Precursor Membrane-Envelope Protein Complex: Structure and Maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Long; Lok, Shee-Mei; Yu, I-Mei; Zhang, Ying; Kuhn, Richard J.; Chen, Jue; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2008-09-17

    Many viruses go through a maturation step in the final stages of assembly before being transmitted to another host. The maturation process of flaviviruses is directed by the proteolytic cleavage of the precursor membrane protein (prM), turning inert virus into infectious particles. We have determined the 2.2 angstrom resolution crystal structure of a recombinant protein in which the dengue virus prM is linked to the envelope glycoprotein E. The structure represents the prM-E heterodimer and fits well into the cryo-electron microscopy density of immature virus at neutral pH. The pr peptide {beta}-barrel structure covers the fusion loop in E, preventing fusion with host cell membranes. The structure provides a basis for identifying the stages of its pH-directed conformational metamorphosis during maturation, ending with release of pr when budding from the host.

  18. The influence of the amyloid ß-protein and its precursor in modulating cerebral hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Van Nostrand, William E

    2016-05-01

    Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are a significant cause of brain injury leading to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). These deleterious events largely result from disruption of cerebral hemostasis, a well-controlled and delicate balance between thrombotic and fibrinolytic pathways in cerebral blood vessels and surrounding brain tissue. Ischemia and hemorrhage are both commonly associated with cerebrovascular deposition of amyloid ß-protein (Aß). In this regard, Aß directly and indirectly modulates cerebral thrombosis and fibrinolysis. Further, major isoforms of the Aß precursor protein (AßPP) function as a potent inhibitor of pro-thrombotic proteinases. The purpose of this review article is to summarize recent research on how cerebral vascular Aß and AßPP influence cerebral hemostasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26519139

  19. The roles of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neurogenesis, implications to pathogenesis and therapy of Alzheimer disease (AD)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Quan-hong; Xu, Xiao-hong

    2011-01-01

    The amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide is the derivative of amyloid precursor protein (APP) generated through sequential proteolytic processing by β- and γ-secretases. Excessive accumulation of Aβ, the main constituent of amyloid plaques, has been implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). It was found recently that the impairments of neurogenesis in brain were associated with the pathogenesis of AD. Furthermore recent findings implicated that APP could function to influence proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPC) and might regulate transcriptional activity of various genes. Studies demonstrated that influence of neurogenesis by APP is conferred differently via its two separate domains, soluble secreted APPs (sAPPs, mainly sAPPα) and APP intracellular domain (AICD). The sAPPα was shown to be neuroprotective and important to neurogenesis, whereas AICD was found to negatively modulate neurogenesis. Furthermore, it was demonstrated recently that microRNA could function to regulate APP expression, APP processing, Aβ accumulation and subsequently influence neurotoxicity and neurogenesis related to APP, which was implicated to AD pathogenesis, especially for sporadic AD. Based on data accumulated, secretase balances were proposed. These secretase balances could influence the downstream balance related to regulation of neurogenesis by AICD and sAPPα as well as balance related to influence of neuron viability by Aβ and sAPPα. Disruption of these secretase balances could be culprits to AD onset. PMID:21785276

  20. Elevated Hippocampal Cholinergic Neurostimulating Peptide Precursor Protein (HCNP-pp) mRNA in the amygdala in major depression

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Sabrina; Seney, Marianne L.; Argibay, Pablo; Sibille, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala is innervated by the cholinergic system and is involved in major depressive disorder (MDD). Evidence suggests a hyper-activate cholinergic system in MDD. Hippocampal Cholinergic Neurostimulating Peptide (HCNP) regulates acetylcholine synthesis. The aim of the present work was to investigate expression levels of HCNP-precursor protein (HCNP-pp) mRNA and other cholinergic-related genes in the postmortem amygdala of MDD patients and matched controls (females: N=16 pairs; males: N=12 pairs), and in the mouse unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model that induced elevated anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors (females: N=6 pairs; males: N=6 pairs). Results indicate an up-regulation of HCNP-pp mRNA in the amygdala of women with MDD (p<0.0001), but not males, and of UCMS-exposed mice (males and females; p=0.037). HCNP-pp protein levels were investigated in the human female cohort, but no difference was found. There were no differences in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscarinic (mAChRs) or nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) between MDD subjects and controls or UCMS and control mice, except for an up-regulation of AChE in UCMS-exposed mice (males and females; p=0.044). Exploratory analyses revealed a baseline expression difference of cholinergic signaling-related genes between women and men (p<0.0001). In conclusion, elevated amygdala HCNP-pp expression may contribute to mechanisms of MDD in women, potentially independently from regulating the cholinergic system. The differential expression of genes between women and men could also contribute to the increased vulnerability of females to develop MDD. PMID:25819500

  1. Regulation of atrophin by both strands of the mir-8 precursor.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Mercedes; Montañez, Raúl; Perez, Lidia; Milan, Marco; Belles, Xavier

    2013-11-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, miR-8-3p regulates mRNA levels of atrophin, a factor involved in neuromotor coordination, and we found that Blattella germanica with suppressed atrophin showed motor problems. Bionformatic predictions and luciferase-reporter tests indicated that B. germanica atrophin mRNA contains target sites for miR-8-3p and miR-8-5p. Suppression of miR-8-3p or miR-8-5p appeared to increase atrophin mRNA. The effects of suppression of Argonaute (AGO) 1 or AGO2 expression on miR-8-3p and miR-8-5p suggested that miR-8-3-p might predominantly bind to AGO1, whereas miR-8-5p might bind to a moderate extent to both AGO1 and AGO2 in the respective RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). We propose that the interplay of miR-8-3p, miR-8-5p, AGO1 and AGO2, maintain the appropriate levels of atrophin mRNA. This would be the first example of two strands of the same miRNA precursor regulating a single transcript. PMID:23974011

  2. High expression of functional adenovirus DNA polymerase and precursor terminal protein using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Stunnenberg, H G; Lange, H; Philipson, L; van Miltenburg, R T; van der Vliet, P C

    1988-01-01

    Initiation of Adenovirus (Ad) DNA replication occurs by a protein-priming mechanism in which the viral precursor terminal protein (pTP) and DNA polymerase (pol) as well as two nuclear DNA-binding proteins from uninfected HeLa cells are required. Biochemical studies on the pTP and DNA polymerase proteins separately have been hampered due to their low abundance and their presence as a pTP-pol complex in Ad infected cells. We have constructed a genomic sequence containing the large open reading frame from the Ad5 pol gene to which 9 basepairs from a putative exon were ligated. When inserted behind a modified late promoter of vaccinia virus the resulting recombinant virus produced enzymatically active 140 kDa Ad DNA polymerase. The same strategy was applied to express the 80 kDa pTP gene in a functional form. Both proteins were overexpressed at least 30-fold compared to extracts from Adenovirus infected cells and, when combined, were fully active for initiation in an in vitro Adenovirus DNA replication system. Images PMID:3362670

  3. [RGS proteins (regulators of G protein signaling) and their roles in regulation of immune response].

    PubMed

    Lewandowicz, Anna M; Kowalski, Marek L; Pawliczak, Rafał

    2004-01-01

    RGS proteins (Regulators of G-protein Signaling) comprise a protein family responsible for regulating G proteins. By enhancing the GTPase activity of the a subunit, they speed up the reconstruction of the heterotrimeric structure of G protein, thus inhibiting its signal transduction. Sst2 protein in yeast Saccharomyces cervisiae, FlbA in fungus Aspergillus nidulans, and Egl-10 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are the first native G regulators with GTPase activity (GAPs:--GTPase-activating proteins). The existence of over 30 RGS human proteins has been confirmed thus far, and they have been grouped and classified into six subfamilies. In immunocompetent cells, RGS proteins are entangled in a complicate net of different interrelating signal pathways. They are connected with B- and T-cell chemokine susceptibility, efficient T cell proliferation, and the regulation of B cell maturation. They also take an essential part in inflammation. High hopes are held for drugs, which handle would be RGS proteins and which would further provide the possibility of modifying the pharmacokinetics of drugs acting through G protein- coupled receptors. The aim of this review is to discuss the new RGS protein family and explain the potential involvement of RGS proteins in the modulation of the immune response PMID:15459549

  4. Anosmin-1 over-expression regulates oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation, migration and myelin sheath thickness.

    PubMed

    Murcia-Belmonte, Verónica; Esteban, Pedro F; Martínez-Hernández, José; Gruart, Agnès; Luján, Rafael; Delgado-García, José María; de Castro, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    During development of the central nervous system, anosmin-1 (A1) works as a chemotropic cue contributing to axonal outgrowth and collateralization, as well as modulating the migration of different cell types, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) being the main receptor involved in all these events. To further understand the role of A1 during development, we have analysed the over-expression of human A1 in a transgenic mouse line. Compared with control mice during development and in early adulthood, A1 over-expressing transgenic mice showed an enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) proliferation and a higher number of OPCs in the subventricular zone and in the corpus callosum (CC). The migratory capacity of OPCs from the transgenic mice is increased in vitro due to a higher basal activation of ERK1/2 mediated through FGFR1 and they also produced more myelin basic protein (MBP). In vivo, the over-expression of A1 resulted in an elevated number of mature oligodendrocytes with higher levels of MBP mRNA and protein, as well as increased levels of activation of the ERK1/2 proteins, while electron microscopy revealed thicker myelin sheaths around the axons of the CC in adulthood. Also in the mature CC, the nodes of Ranvier were significantly longer and the conduction velocity of the nerve impulse in vivo was significantly increased in the CC of A1 over-expressing transgenic mice. Altogether, these data confirmed the involvement of A1 in oligodendrogliogenesis and its relevance for myelination. PMID:25662897

  5. NEDD4 Regulates PAX7 Levels Promoting Activation of the Differentiation Program in Skeletal Muscle Precursors.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Francisco; de la Vega, Eduardo; Cabezas, Felipe; Thompson, James; Cornelison, D D W; Olwin, Bradley B; Yates, John R; Olguín, Hugo C

    2015-10-01

    The transcription factor Pax7 regulates skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) specification and maintenance through various mechanisms, including repressing the activity of the muscle regulatory factor MyoD. Hence, Pax7-to-MyoD protein ratios can determine maintenance of the committed-undifferentiated state or activation of the differentiation program. Pax7 expression decreases sharply in differentiating myoblasts but is maintained in cells (re)acquiring quiescence, yet the mechanisms regulating Pax7 levels based on differentiation status are not well understood. Here we show that Pax7 levels are directly regulated by the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4. Our results indicate that Nedd4 is expressed in quiescent and activated satellite cells, that Nedd4 and Pax7 physically interact during early muscle differentiation-correlating with Pax7 ubiquitination and decline-and that Nedd4 loss of function prevented this effect. Furthermore, even transient nuclear accumulation of Nedd4 induced a drop in Pax7 levels and precocious muscle differentiation. Consequently, we propose that Nedd4 functions as a novel Pax7 regulator, which activity is temporally and spatially controlled to modulate the Pax7 protein levels and therefore satellite cell fate. PMID:26304770

  6. EH domain proteins regulate cardiac membrane protein targeting

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsson, Hjalti; Hund, Thomas J.; Wright, Patrick J.; Kline, Crystal F.; Snyder, Jedidiah S.; Qian, Lan; Koval, Olha M.; Cunha, Shane R.; George, Manju; Rainey, Mark A.; Kashef, Farshid E.; Dun, Wen; Boyden, Penelope A.; Anderson, Mark E.; Band, Hamid; Mohler, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Cardiac membrane excitability is tightly regulated by an integrated network of membrane-associated ion channels, transporters, receptors, and signaling molecules. Membrane protein dynamics in health and disease are maintained by a complex ensemble of intracellular targeting, scaffolding, recycling, and degradation pathways. Surprisingly, despite decades of research linking dysfunction in membrane protein trafficking with human cardiovascular disease, essentially nothing is known regarding the molecular identity or function of these intracellular targeting pathways in excitable cardiomyocytes. Objective We sought to discover novel pathways for membrane protein targeting in primary cardiomyocytes. Methods and Results We report the initial characterization of a large family of membrane trafficking proteins in human heart. We employed a tissue-wide screen for novel ankyrin-associated trafficking proteins and identified four members of a unique Eps15 homology (EH) domain-containing protein family (EHD1, EHD2, EHD3, EHD4) that serve critical roles in endosome-based membrane protein targeting in other cell types. We show that EHD1-4 directly associate with ankyrin, provide the first information on the expression and localization of these molecules in primary cardiomyocytes, and demonstrate that EHD1-4 are co-expressed with ankyrin-B in the myocyte perinuclear region. Notably, the expression of multiple EHD proteins is increased in animal models lacking ankyrin-B, and EHD3-deficient cardiomyocytes display aberrant ankyrin-B localization and selective loss of Na/Ca exchanger expression and function. Finally, we report significant modulation of EHD expression following myocardial infarction, suggesting that these proteins may play a key role in regulating membrane excitability in normal and diseased heart. Conclusions Our findings identify and characterize a new class of cardiac trafficking proteins, define the first group of proteins associated with the ankyrin

  7. BMP signaling and spadetail regulate exit of muscle precursors from the zebrafish tailbud.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Katelyn; Thorpe, Chris

    2013-03-15

    The tailbud is a population of stem cells in the posterior embryonic tail. During zebrafish development, these stem cells give rise to the main structures of the embryo's posterior body, including the tail somites. Progenitor cells reside in the tailbud for variable amounts of time before they exit and begin to differentiate. There must be a careful balance between cells that leave the tailbud and cells that are held back in order to give rise to later somites. However, this meticulous process is not well understood. A gene that has shed some light on this area is the t-box transcription factor spadetail (spt). When spt is mutated, embryos develop an enlarged tailbud and are only able to form roughly half of their somites. This phenotype is due to the fact that some of the somitic precursors are not able to leave the tailbud or differentiate. Another factor involved in tail morphogenesis is the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway. BMPs are important for many processes during early development, including cell migration. Chordino (chd) is a secreted protein that inhibits BMP signaling. BMPs are upregulated in chd mutants, however, these mutants are able to form organized somites. In embryos where chd and spt are mutated, somites are completely absent. These double mutants also develop a large tailbud due to the accumulation of progenitor cells that are never able to leave or differentiate. To study the dynamics of cells in the tailbud and their role in somite formation, we have analyzed the genetic factors and pathway interactions involved, conducted transplant experiments to look at behavior of mutant cells in different genetic backgrounds, and used time lapse microscopy to characterize cell movements and behavior in wild type and mutant tailbuds. These data suggest that spt expression and BMP inhibition are both required for somitic precursors to exit the tailbud. They also elucidate that chd;spt tailbud mesodermal progenitor cells (MPC) behave autonomously

  8. Enhanced sample multiplexing for nitrotyrosine-modified proteins using combined precursor isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Renã A S; Evans, Adam R

    2012-06-01

    Current strategies for identification and quantification of 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) post-translationally modified proteins (PTM) generally rely on biotin/avidin enrichment. Quantitative approaches have been demonstrated which employ isotopic labeling or isobaric tagging in order to quantify differences in the relative abundances of 3NT-modified proteins in two or potentially eight samples, respectively. Here, we present a novel strategy which uses combined precursor isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging (cPILOT) to increase the multiplexing capability of quantifying 3NT-modified proteins to 12 or 16 samples using commercially available tandem mass tags (TMT) or isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), respectively. This strategy employs "light" and "heavy" labeled acetyl groups to block both N-termini and lysine residues of tryptic peptides. Next, 3NT is reduced to 3-aminotyrosine (3AT) using sodium dithionite followed by derivatization of light and heavy labeled 3AT-peptides with either TMT or iTRAQ multiplex reagents. We demonstrate the proof-of-principle utility of cPILOT with in vitro nitrated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and mouse splenic proteins using TMT(0), TMT(6), and iTRAQ(8) reagents and discuss limitations of the strategy. PMID:22509719

  9. Biochemical and functional characterization of transiently expressed in neural precursor (TENP) protein in emu egg white.

    PubMed

    Maehashi, Kenji; Ueda, Megumi; Matano, Mami; Takeuchi, Junko; Uchino, Masataka; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2014-06-01

    A protein transiently expressed in the neural precursors of developing tissues (TENP) was found to be present in emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) egg white as one of the major proteins. Nucleotide analysis of its encoding cDNA revealed a sequence of 452 amino acids including a 19 amino acid peptide signal. Phylogenetic analysis determined that emu TENP was clustered within the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) superfamily together with other avian TENPs. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the emu TENP gene was highly expressed in the magnum of the oviduct, indicating that TENP is a major egg white component. Emu TENP was purified by anion exchange chromatography and ammonium sulfate fractionation. Unlike BPI, emu TENP exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but not against Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. The results suggest that emu TENP is a potent novel antibacterial protein with a spectrum distinct from that of BPI. PMID:24820544

  10. Sorting by the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid precursor protein binding receptor SorLA.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten S; Gustafsen, Camilla; Madsen, Peder; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hermey, Guido; Bakke, Oddmund; Mari, Muriel; Schu, Peter; Pohlmann, Regina; Dennes, André; Petersen, Claus M

    2007-10-01

    SorLA/LR11 (250 kDa) is the largest and most composite member of the Vps10p-domain receptors, a family of type 1 proteins preferentially expressed in neuronal tissue. SorLA binds several ligands, including neurotensin, platelet-derived growth factor-bb, and lipoprotein lipase, and via complex-formation with the amyloid precursor protein it downregulates generation of Alzheimer's disease-associated Abeta-peptide. The receptor is mainly located in vesicles, suggesting a function in protein sorting and transport. Here we examined SorLA's trafficking using full-length and chimeric receptors and find that its cytoplasmic tail mediates efficient Golgi body-endosome transport, as well as AP-2 complex-dependent endocytosis. Functional sorting sites were mapped to an acidic cluster-dileucine-like motif and to a GGA binding site in the C terminus. Experiments in permanently or transiently AP-1 mu1-chain-deficient cells established that the AP-1 adaptor complex is essential to SorLA's transport between Golgi membranes and endosomes. Our results further implicate the GGA proteins in SorLA trafficking and provide evidence that SNX1 and Vps35, as parts of the retromer complex or possibly in a separate context, are engaged in retraction of the receptor from endosomes. PMID:17646382

  11. Sorting of the Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid Precursor Protein Mediated by the AP-4 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Burgos, Patricia V.; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Rojas, Adriana L.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Prabhu, Yogikala; Hurley, James H.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2010-08-12

    Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes that mediate sorting of transmembrane cargo in post-Golgi compartments. Herein, we report the interaction of an YKFFE sequence from the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the {micro}4 subunit of AP-4. Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analyses reveal that the properties of the APP sequence and the location of the binding site on 4 are distinct from those of other signal-adaptor interactions. Disruption of the APP-AP-4 interaction decreases localization of APP to endosomes and enhances {gamma}-secretase-catalyzed cleavage of APP to the pathogenic amyloid-{beta} peptide. These findings demonstrate that APP and AP-4 engage in a distinct type of signal-adaptor interaction that mediates transport of APP from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes, thereby reducing amyloidogenic processing of the protein.

  12. Virus-specific interaction between the human cytomegalovirus major capsid protein and the C terminus of the assembly protein precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet-Miller, M; Zhang, R; Durkin, J; Gibson, W; Kwong, A D; Hong, Z

    1996-01-01

    We previously identified a minimal 12-amino-acid domain in the C terminus of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) scaffolding protein which is required for interaction with the HSV-1 major capsid protein. An alpha-helical structure which maximizes the hydropathicity of the minimal domain is required for the interaction. To address whether cytomegalovirus (CMV) utilizes the same strategy for capsid assembly, several glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins to the C terminus of the CMV assembly protein precursor were produced and purified from bacterial cells. The study showed that the glutathione S-transferase fusion containing 16 amino acids near the C-terminal end was sufficient to interact with the major capsid protein. Interestingly, no cross-interaction between HSV-1 and CMV could be detected. Mutation analysis revealed that a three-amino-acid region at the N-terminal side of the central Phe residue of the CMV interaction domain played a role in determining the viral specificity of the interaction. When this region was converted so as to correspond to that of HSV-1, the CMV assembly protein domain lost its ability to interact with the CMV major capsid protein but gained full interaction with the HSV-1 major capsid protein. To address whether the minimal interaction domain of the CMV assembly protein forms an alpha-helical structure similar to that in HSV-1, peptide competition experiments were carried out. The results showed that a cyclic peptide derived from the interaction domain with a constrained (alpha-helical structure competed for interaction with the major capsid protein much more efficiently than the unconstrained linear peptide. In contrast, a cyclic peptide containing an Ala substitution for the critical Phe residue did not compete for the interaction at all. The results of this study suggest that (i) CMV may have developed a strategy similar to that of HSV-1 for capsid assembly; (ii) the minimal interaction motif in the CMV assembly protein

  13. The gap junctional protein INX-14 functions in oocyte precursors to promote C. elegans sperm guidance

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Johnathan W.; McKinney, Shauna L.; Prasain, Jeevan K.; Miller, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Innexins are the subunits of invertebrate gap junctions. Here we show that the innexin INX-14 promotes sperm guidance to the fertilization site in the C. elegans hermaphrodite reproductive tract. inx-14 loss causes cell nonautonomous defects in sperm migration velocity and directional velocity. Results from genetic and immunocytochemical analyses provide strong evidence that INX-14 acts in transcriptionally active oocyte precursors in the distal gonad, not in transcriptionally inactive oocytes that synthesize prostaglandin sperm-attracting cues. Somatic gonadal sheath cell interaction is necessary for INX-14 function, likely via INX-8 and INX-9 expressed in sheath cells. However, electron microscopy has not identified gap junctions in oocyte precursors, suggesting that INX-14 acts in a channel-independent manner or INX-14 channels are difficult to document. INX-14 promotes prostaglandin signaling to sperm at a step after F-series prostaglandin synthesis in oocytes. Taken together, our results support the model that INX-14 functions in a somatic gonad/germ cell signaling mechanism essential for sperm function. We propose that this mechanism regulates the transcription of a factor(s) that modulates prostaglandin metabolism, transport, or activity in the reproductive tract. PMID:21889935

  14. Regulation of Axonal Transport by Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Katherine L; Greensmith, Linda; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2015-10-01

    The intracellular transport of organelles, proteins, lipids, and RNA along the axon is essential for neuronal function and survival. This process, called axonal transport, is mediated by two classes of ATP-dependent motors, kinesins, and cytoplasmic dynein, which carry their cargoes along microtubule tracks. Protein kinases regulate axonal transport through direct phosphorylation of motors, adapter proteins, and cargoes, and indirectly through modification of the microtubule network. The misregulation of axonal transport by protein kinases has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several nervous system disorders. Here, we review the role of protein kinases acting directly on axonal transport and discuss how their deregulation affects neuronal function, paving the way for the exploitation of these enzymes as novel drug targets. PMID:26410600

  15. Redox regulation of protein damage in plasma.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Helen R; Dias, Irundika H K; Willetts, Rachel S; Devitt, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The presence and concentrations of modified proteins circulating in plasma depend on rates of protein synthesis, modification and clearance. In early studies, the proteins most frequently analysed for damage were those which were more abundant in plasma (e.g. albumin and immunoglobulins) which exist at up to 10 orders of magnitude higher concentrations than other plasma proteins e.g. cytokines. However, advances in analytical techniques using mass spectrometry and immuno-affinity purification methods, have facilitated analysis of less abundant, modified proteins and the nature of modifications at specific sites is now being characterised. The damaging reactive species that cause protein modifications in plasma principally arise from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases (NOX), nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and oxygenase activities; reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from myeloperoxidase (MPO) and NOS activities; and hypochlorous acid from MPO. Secondary damage to proteins may be caused by oxidized lipids and glucose autooxidation. In this review, we focus on redox regulatory control of those enzymes and processes which control protein maturation during synthesis, produce reactive species, repair and remove damaged plasma proteins. We have highlighted the potential for alterations in the extracellular redox compartment to regulate intracellular redox state and, conversely, for intracellular oxidative stress to alter the cellular secretome and composition of extracellular vesicles. Through secreted, redox-active regulatory molecules, changes in redox state may be transmitted to distant sites. PMID:24624332

  16. Regulation of oligodendrocyte precursor migration during development, in adulthood and in pathology.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Fernando; Bribián, Ana; Ortega, Maria Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS). These cells originate from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) during development, and they migrate extensively from oligodendrogliogenic niches along the neural tube to colonise the entire CNS. Like many other such events, this migratory process is precisely regulated by a battery of positional and signalling cues that act via their corresponding receptors and that are expressed dynamically by OPCs. Here, we will review the cellular and molecular basis of this important event during embryonic and postnatal development, and we will discuss the relevance of the substantial number of OPCs existing in the adult CNS. Similarly, we will consider the behaviour of OPCs in normal and pathological conditions, especially in animal models of demyelination and of the demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. The spontaneous remyelination observed after damage in demyelinating pathologies has a limited effect. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the biology of OPCs, particularly adult OPCs, should help in the design of neuroregenerative strategies to combat multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases. PMID:23689590

  17. Peripheral Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Precursor Regulates Pain as an Inflammatory Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Cong; Zhong, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Fiona H.; Li, Jia-yi; Zhou, Pei; Xu, Jun-Mei; Song, Bo; Li, Chang-Qi; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Dai, Ru-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF), the unprocessed BDNF gene product, binds to its receptors and exerts the opposing biologic functions of mature BDNF. proBDNF is expressed in the peripheral tissues but the functions of peripheral proBDNF remain elusive. Here we showed that proBDNF and its predominant receptor, p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor were upregulated in the nerve fibers and inflammatory cells in the local tissue in inflammatory pain. Neutralization of proBDNF by polyclonal antibody attenuated pain in different models of inflammatory pain. Unilateral intra-plantar supplementation of proBDNF by injecting exogenous proBDNF or ectopic overexpression resulted in pain hypersensitivity and induced spinal phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Exogenous proBDNF injection induced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the activation of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that inflammatory reaction contributed to the pro-algesic effect of proBDNF. Finally, we generated monoclonal anti-proBDNF antibody that could biologically block proBDNF. Administration of monoclonal Ab-proBDNF attenuated various types of inflammatory pain and surgical pain. Thus, peripheral proBDNF is a potential pain mediator and anti-proBDNF pretreatment may alleviate the development of inflammatory pain. PMID:27251195

  18. Peripheral Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Precursor Regulates Pain as an Inflammatory Mediator.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cong; Zhong, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Fiona H; Li, Jia-Yi; Zhou, Pei; Xu, Jun-Mei; Song, Bo; Li, Chang-Qi; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Dai, Ru-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF), the unprocessed BDNF gene product, binds to its receptors and exerts the opposing biologic functions of mature BDNF. proBDNF is expressed in the peripheral tissues but the functions of peripheral proBDNF remain elusive. Here we showed that proBDNF and its predominant receptor, p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor were upregulated in the nerve fibers and inflammatory cells in the local tissue in inflammatory pain. Neutralization of proBDNF by polyclonal antibody attenuated pain in different models of inflammatory pain. Unilateral intra-plantar supplementation of proBDNF by injecting exogenous proBDNF or ectopic overexpression resulted in pain hypersensitivity and induced spinal phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Exogenous proBDNF injection induced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the activation of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that inflammatory reaction contributed to the pro-algesic effect of proBDNF. Finally, we generated monoclonal anti-proBDNF antibody that could biologically block proBDNF. Administration of monoclonal Ab-proBDNF attenuated various types of inflammatory pain and surgical pain. Thus, peripheral proBDNF is a potential pain mediator and anti-proBDNF pretreatment may alleviate the development of inflammatory pain. PMID:27251195

  19. The Kunitz-protease inhibitor domain in amyloid precursor protein reduces cellular mitochondrial enzymes expression and function.

    PubMed

    Chua, Li-Min; Lim, Mei-Li; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and this can be contributed by aberrant metabolic enzyme function. But, the mechanism causing this enzymatic impairment is unclear. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is known to be alternatively spliced to produce three major isoforms in the brain (APP695, APP751, APP770). Both APP770 and APP751 contain the Kunitz Protease Inhibitory (KPI) domain, but the former also contain an extra OX-2 domain. APP695 on the other hand, lacks both domains. In AD, up-regulation of the KPI-containing APP isoforms has been reported. But the functional contribution of this elevation is unclear. In the present study, we have expressed and compared the effect of the non-KPI containing APP695 and the KPI-containing APP751 on mitochondrial function. We found that the KPI-containing APP751 significantly decreased the expression of three major mitochondrial metabolic enzymes; citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase (COX IV). This reduction lowers the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, COX IV activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. Overall, this study demonstrated that up-regulation of the KPI-containing APP isoforms is likely to contribute to the impairment of metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial function in AD. PMID:23872114

  20. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation. PMID:26734569

  1. Nanolithography of Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleavage with β-Secretase by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Woong; Shin, Hoon-Kyu; Adachi, Taiji

    2016-03-01

    Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases is critical in neural cell processes including the pathway for neural cell proliferation and that underlying the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Understanding the mechanism of APP cleavage and development of a convenient tool for the accurate evaluation of APP cleavage intensity by secretases are very important in the development of new AD therapeutic targets. In this study, we developed a sophisticated technology to evaluate the APP cleavage mechanism at the nano-molecular level by atomic force microscopic (AFM) nanolithography. APP was modified on a glass substrate; nanolithography of APP cleavage by β-secretase-modified AFM probe scanning was achieved. APP cleavage was verified by the AFM imaging and the fluorescent immunostaining. The present method will be very useful in understanding the molecular level of the APP cleavage mechanism by β-secretase in vitro; this method will facilitate inhibitor screening for the therapeutic target of AD. PMID:27280252

  2. SUMOylation regulates the SNF1 protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Lavy, Kobi J.; Johnston, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major stress sensor of mammalian cells. AMPK’s homolog in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SNF1 protein kinase, is a central regulator of carbon metabolism that inhibits the Snf3/Rgt2-Rgt1 glucose sensing pathway and activates genes involved in respiration. We present evidence that glucose induces modification of the Snf1 catalytic subunt of SNF1 with the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO, catalyzed by the SUMO (E3) ligase Mms21. Our results suggest that SUMOylation of Snf1 inhibits its function in two ways: by interaction of SUMO attached to lysine 549 with a SUMO-interacting sequence motif located near the active site of Snf1, and by targeting Snf1 for destruction via the Slx5-Slx8 (SUMO-directed) ubiquitin ligase. These findings reveal another way SNF1 function is regulated in response to carbon source. PMID:24108357

  3. SorLA Complement-type Repeat Domains Protect the Amyloid Precursor Protein against Processing*

    PubMed Central

    Mehmedbasic, Arnela; Christensen, Sofie K.; Nilsson, Jonas; Rüetschi, Ulla; Gustafsen, Camilla; Poulsen, Annemarie Svane Aavild; Rasmussen, Rikke W.; Fjorback, Anja N.; Larson, Göran; Andersen, Olav M.

    2015-01-01

    SorLA is a neuronal sorting receptor that is genetically associated with Alzheimer disease. SorLA interacts directly with the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and affects the processing of the precursor, leading to a decreased generation of the amyloid-β peptide. The SorLA complement-type repeat (CR) domains associate in vitro with APP, but the precise molecular determinants of SorLA·APP complex formation and the mechanisms responsible for the effect of binding on APP processing have not yet been elucidated. Here, we have generated protein expression constructs for SorLA devoid of the 11 CR-domains and for two SorLA mutants harboring substitutions of the fingerprint residues in the central CR-domains. We generated SH-SY5Y cell lines that stably express these SorLA variants to study the binding and processing of APP using co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting/ELISAs, respectively. We found that the SorLA CR-cluster is essential for interaction with APP and that deletion of the CR-cluster abolishes the protection against APP processing. Mutation of identified fingerprint residues in the SorLA CR-domains leads to changes in the O-linked glycosylation of APP when expressed in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results provide novel information on the mechanisms behind the influence of SorLA activity on APP metabolism by controlling post-translational glycosylation in the Golgi, suggesting new strategies against amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer disease. PMID:25525276

  4. SorLA complement-type repeat domains protect the amyloid precursor protein against processing.

    PubMed

    Mehmedbasic, Arnela; Christensen, Sofie K; Nilsson, Jonas; Rüetschi, Ulla; Gustafsen, Camilla; Poulsen, Annemarie Svane Aavild; Rasmussen, Rikke W; Fjorback, Anja N; Larson, Göran; Andersen, Olav M

    2015-02-01

    SorLA is a neuronal sorting receptor that is genetically associated with Alzheimer disease. SorLA interacts directly with the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and affects the processing of the precursor, leading to a decreased generation of the amyloid-β peptide. The SorLA complement-type repeat (CR) domains associate in vitro with APP, but the precise molecular determinants of SorLA·APP complex formation and the mechanisms responsible for the effect of binding on APP processing have not yet been elucidated. Here, we have generated protein expression constructs for SorLA devoid of the 11 CR-domains and for two SorLA mutants harboring substitutions of the fingerprint residues in the central CR-domains. We generated SH-SY5Y cell lines that stably express these SorLA variants to study the binding and processing of APP using co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting/ELISAs, respectively. We found that the SorLA CR-cluster is essential for interaction with APP and that deletion of the CR-cluster abolishes the protection against APP processing. Mutation of identified fingerprint residues in the SorLA CR-domains leads to changes in the O-linked glycosylation of APP when expressed in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results provide novel information on the mechanisms behind the influence of SorLA activity on APP metabolism by controlling post-translational glycosylation in the Golgi, suggesting new strategies against amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer disease. PMID:25525276

  5. Regulation of the epithelial sodium channel by accessory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, Kelly; Dong, Yanbin; Sagnella, Giuseppe A

    2003-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is of fundamental importance in the control of sodium fluxes in epithelial cells. Modulation of sodium reabsorption through the distal nephron ENaC is an important component in the overall control of sodium balance, blood volume and thereby of blood pressure. This is clearly demonstrated by rare genetic disorders of sodium-channel activity (Liddle's syndrome and pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1), associated with contrasting effects on blood pressure. The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is a well-established modulator of sodium-channel activity. Considerable insight has now been gained into the intracellular signalling pathways linking aldosterone-mediated changes in gene transcription with changes in ion transport. Activating pathways include aldosterone-induced proteins and especially the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) and the small G-protein, K-Ras 2A. Targeting of the ENaC for endocytosis and degradation is now emerging as a major mechanism for the down-regulation of channel activity. Several proteins acting in concert are an intrinsic part of this process but Nedd4 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 4) is of central importance. Other mechanisms known to interact with ENaC and affect sodium transport include channel-activating protease 1 (CAP-1), a membrane-anchored protein, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator. The implications of research on accessory factors controlling ENaC activity are wide-ranging. Understanding cellular mechanisms controlling ENaC activity may provide a more detailed insight not only of ion-channel abnormalities in cystic fibrosis but also of the link between abnormal renal sodium transport and essential hypertension. PMID:12460120

  6. Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors: Phosphorylation and Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Browning

    2009-06-15

    The initiation of the synthesis of proteins is a fundamental process shared by all living organisms. Each organism has both shared and unique mechanisms for regulation of this vital process. Higher plants provide for a major amount of fixation of carbon from the environment and turn this carbon into food and fuel sources for our use. However, we have very little understanding of how plants regulate the synthesis of the proteins necessary for these metabolic processes. The research carried out during the grant period sought to address some of these unknowns in the regulation of protein synthesis initiation. Our first goal was to determine if phosphorylation plays a significant role in plant initiation of protein synthesis. The role of phosphorylation, although well documented in mammalian protein synthesis regulation, is not well studied in plants. We showed that several of the factors necessary for the initiation of protein synthesis were targets of plant casein kinase and showed differential phosphorylation by the plant specific isoforms of this kinase. In addition, we identified and confirmed the phosphorylation sites in five of the plant initiation factors. Further, we showed that phosphorylation of one of these factors, eIF5, affected the ability of the factor to participate in the initiation process. Our second goal was to develop a method to make initiation factor 3 (eIF3) using recombinant methods. To date, we successfully cloned and expressed 13/13 subunits of wheat eIF3 in E. coli using de novo gene construction methods. The final step in this process is to place the subunits into three different plasmid operons for co-expression. Successful completion of expression of eIF3 will be an invaluable tool to the plant translation community.

  7. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs stimulate secretion of non-amyloidogenic precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Avramovich, Yael; Amit, Tamar; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2002-08-30

    Chronic inflammatory processes are associated with the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it has been proposed that treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduces the risk for AD. Here we report that various NSAIDs, such as the cyclooxygenase inhibitors, nimesulide, ibuprofen and indomethacin, as well as thalidomide (Thal) and its non-teratogenic analogue, supidimide, significantly stimulated the secretion of the non-amyloidogenic alpha-secretase form of the soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP alpha) into the conditioned media of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and PC12 cells. These NSAIDs markedly reduced the levels of the cellular APP holoprotein, further accelerating non-amyloidogenic processes. sAPP alpha release, induced by nimesulide and Thal, was modulated by inhibitors of protein kinase C and Erk mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Furthermore, in results complementary to the inhibitor studies, we show for the first time that NSAIDs can activate the Erk MAP kinase signaling cascade, thus identifying a novel pharmacology mechanism of NSAIDs. Our findings suggest that NSAIDs and Thal might prove useful to favor non-amyloidogenic APP processing by enhancing alpha-secretase activity, thereby reducing the formation of amyloidogenic derivatives, and therefore are of potential therapeutic value in AD. PMID:12070143

  8. Structural Heterogeneity in Transmembrane Amyloid Precursor Protein Homodimer Is a Consequence of Environmental Selection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 99 amino acid C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein (C99), consisting of a single transmembrane (TM) helix, is known to form homodimers. Homodimers can be processed by γ-secretase to produce amyloid-β (Aβ) protein, which is implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While knowledge of the structure of C99 homodimers is of great importance, experimental NMR studies and simulations have produced varying structural models, including right-handed and left-handed coiled-coils. In order to investigate the structure of this critical protein complex, simulations of the C9915–55 homodimer in POPC membrane bilayer and DPC surfactant micelle environments were performed using a multiscale approach that blends atomistic and coarse-grained models. The C9915–55 homodimer adopts a dominant right-handed coiled-coil topology consisting of three characteristic structural states in a bilayer, only one of which is dominant in the micelle. Our structural study, which provides a self-consistent framework for understanding a number of experiments, shows that the energy landscape of the C99 homodimer supports a variety of slowly interconverting structural states. The relative importance of any given state can be modulated through environmental selection realized by altering the membrane or micelle characteristics. PMID:24926593

  9. Chondroitin Sulfate Accelerates Trans-Golgi-to-Surface Transport of Proteoglycan Amyloid Precursor Protein.

    PubMed

    Mihov, Deyan; Raja, Eva; Spiess, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a membrane protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. APP is a part-time proteoglycan, as splice variants lacking exon 15 are modified by a chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain. Investigating the effect of the GAG chain on the trafficking of APP in non-polarized cells, we found it to increase the steady-state surface-to-intracellular distribution, to reduce the rate of endocytosis and to accelerate transport kinetics from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane. Deletion of the cytosolic domain resulted in delayed surface arrival of GAG-free APP, but did not affect the rapid export kinetics of the proteoglycan form. Protein-free GAG chains showed the same TGN-to-cell surface transport kinetics as proteoglycan APP. Endosome ablation experiments were performed to distinguish between indirect endosomal and direct pathways to the cell surface. Surprisingly, TGN-to-cell surface transport of both GAG-free and proteoglycan APP was found to be indirect via transferrin-positive endosomes. Our results show that GAGs act as alternative sorting determinants in cellular APP transport that are dominant over cytoplasmic signals and involve distinct sorting mechanisms. PMID:25951880

  10. Amyloid-β Precursor Protein: Multiple fragments, numerous transport routes and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Muresan, Virgil; Muresan, Zoia Ladescu

    2015-01-01

    This review provides insight into the intraneuronal transport of the Amyloid-β Precursor Protein (APP), the prototype of an extensively posttranslationally modified and proteolytically cleaved transmembrane protein. Uncovering the intricacies of APP transport proves to be a challenging endeavor of cell biology research, deserving increased priority, since APP is at the core of the pathogenic process in Alzheimer’s disease. After being synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum in the neuronal soma, APP enters the intracellular transport along the secretory, endocytic, and recycling routes. Along these routes, APP undergoes cleavage into defined sets of fragments, which themselves are transported – mostly independently – to distinct sites in neurons, where they exert their functions. We review the currently known routes and mechanisms of transport of full-length APP, and of APP fragments, commenting largely on the experimental challenges posed by studying transport of extensively cleaved proteins. The review emphasizes the interrelationships between the proteolytic and posttranslational modifications, the intracellular transport, and the functions of the APP species. A goal remaining to be addressed in the future is the incorporation of the various views on APP transport into a coherent picture. In this review, the disease context is only marginally addressed; the focus is on the basic biology of APP transport in normal conditions. As shown, the studies of APP transport uncovered numerous mechanisms of transport, some of them conventional, and others, novel, awaiting exploration. PMID:25573596

  11. Role of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Pakaski, M; Kasa, P

    2003-06-01

    Potentiation of central cholinergic activity has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for improving the cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing the acetylcholine concentration in the brain by modulating acetylcholine-sterase (AChE) activity is among the most promising therapeutic strategies. Efforts to treat the underlying pathology based on the modulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in order to decrease the accumulation of beta-amyloid are also very important. Alterations in APP metabolism have recently been proposed to play a key role in the long-lasting effects of AChE inhibitors. This review surveys recent data from in vivo and in vitro studies that have contributed to our understanding of the role of AChE inhibitors in APP processing. The regulatory mechanisms relating to the muscarinic agonist effect, protein kinase C activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, involving the alpha-secretase or the 5 -UTR region of the APP gene, are also discussed. Further work is warranted to elucidate the exact roles in APP metabolism of the AChE inhibitors used in AD therapy at present. PMID:12769797

  12. Extracellular and intracellular regulation of oligodendrocyte development: roles of Sonic hedgehog and expression of E proteins.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Caroline R; Davies, Jeannette E; Miller, Robert H

    2002-10-01

    Recent advances in understanding oligodendrocyte development have revealed the importance of both extra- and intracellular molecules in regulating the induction, survival, and proliferation of early oligodendrocyte progenitors. The signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is critical for normal development of oligodendrocytes, although the precise influences of Shh on cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage are unclear. The present study shows that Shh increased the number of oligodendrocyte precursors in both pure cultures of oligodendrocyte precursors and mixed cultures from embryonic rat spinal cord. In pure precursor cultures Shh increased cell survival. In mixed cultures, Shh increased both the survival and proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors in a concentration dependent manner. One intracellular consequence of exposure to Shh is the activation of transcription factors in oligodendrocyte lineage cells, which are critical for oligodendrocyte development, helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors, Olig1 and 2. In many cases, HLH proteins such as Olig1 and Olig2 heterodimerize with other HLH proteins, such as members of the E subfamily, which are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Immature (A2B5(+)) and more mature (O4(+)) rat oligodendrocyte precursors in dissociated cell culture expressed Olig1 as well as E proteins, HEB and E2A. Similarly, cells bearing the morphology of oligodendrocyte precursors expressed both Olig1 and HEB or E2A. We propose that E2A and/or HEB, possibly in combination with Olig1 and 2, are critical components of oligodendrogenesis and may regulate cell survival, proliferation, and fate decisions in the oligodendrocyte lineage. PMID:12237843

  13. The beta-amyloid domain is essential for axonal sorting of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tienari, P J; De Strooper, B; Ikonen, E; Simons, M; Weidemann, A; Czech, C; Hartmann, T; Ida, N; Multhaup, G; Masters, C L; Van Leuven, F; Beyreuther, K; Dotti, C G

    1996-01-01

    We have analysed the axonal sorting signals of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Wild-type and mutant versions of human APP were expressed in hippocampal neurons using the Semliki forest virus system. We show that wild-type APP and mutations implicated in Alzheimer's disease and another brain beta-amyloidosis are sorted to the axon. By analysis of deletion mutants we found that the membrane-inserted APP ectodomain but not the cytoplasmic tail is required for axonal sorting. Systematic deletions of the APP ectodomain identified two regions required for axonal delivery: one encoded by exons 11-15 in the carbohydrate domain, the other encoded by exons 16-17 in the juxtamembraneous beta-amyloid domain. Treatment of the cells with the N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin induced missorting of wild-type APP, supporting the importance of glycosylation in axonal sorting of APP. The data revealed a hierarchy of sorting signals on APP: the beta-amyloid-dependent membrane proximal signal was the major contributor to axonal sorting, while N-glycosylation had a weaker effect. Furthermore, recessive somatodendritic signals, most likely in the cytoplasmic tail, directed the protein to the dendrites when the ectodomain was deleted. Analysis of detergent solubility of APP and another axonally delivered protein, hemagglutinin, demonstrated that only hemagglutinin formed CHAPS-insoluble complexes, suggesting distinct mechanisms of axonal sorting for these two proteins. This study is the first delineation of sorting requirements of an axonally targeted protein in polarized neurons and indicates that the beta-amyloid domain plays a major role in axonal delivery of APP. Images PMID:8895567

  14. The deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase SAMHD1 is a major regulator of DNA precursor pools in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Franzolin, Elisa; Pontarin, Giovanna; Rampazzo, Chiara; Miazzi, Cristina; Ferraro, Paola; Palumbo, Elisa; Reichard, Peter; Bianchi, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Sterile alpha motif and HD-domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a triphosphohydrolase converting deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) to deoxynucleosides. The enzyme was recently identified as a component of the human innate immune system that restricts HIV-1 infection by removing dNTPs required for viral DNA synthesis. SAMHD1 has deep evolutionary roots and is ubiquitous in human organs. Here we identify a general function of SAMHD1 in the regulation of dNTP pools in cultured human cells. The protein was nuclear and variably expressed during the cell cycle, maximally during quiescence and minimally during S-phase. Treatment of lung or skin fibroblasts with specific siRNAs resulted in the disappearence of SAMHD1 accompanied by loss of the cell-cycle regulation of dNTP pool sizes and dNTP imbalance. Cells accumulated in G1 phase with oversized pools and stopped growing. Following removal of the siRNA, the pools were normalized and cell growth restarted, but only after SAMHD1 had reappeared. In quiescent cultures SAMHD1 down-regulation leads to a marked expansion of dNTP pools. In all cases the largest effect was on dGTP, the preferred substrate of SAMHD1. Ribonucleotide reductase, responsible for the de novo synthesis of dNTPs, is a cytosolic enzyme maximally induced in S-phase cells. Thus, in mammalian cells the cell cycle regulation of the two main enzymes controlling dNTP pool sizes is adjusted to the requirements of DNA replication. Synthesis by the reductase peaks during S-phase, and catabolism by SAMHD1 is maximal during G1 phase when large dNTP pools would prevent cells from preparing for a new round of DNA replication. PMID:23858451

  15. Characterization of the beta amyloid precursor protein-like gene in the central nervous system of the crab Chasmagnathus. Expression during memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human β-amyloid, the main component in the neuritic plaques found in patients with Alzheimer's disease, is generated by cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein. Beyond the role in pathology, members of this protein family are synaptic proteins and have been associated with synaptogenesis, neuronal plasticity and memory, both in vertebrates and in invertebrates. Consolidation is necessary to convert a short-term labile memory to a long-term and stable form. During consolidation, gene expression and de novo protein synthesis are regulated in order to produce key proteins for the maintenance of plastic changes produced during the acquisition of new information. Results Here we partially cloned and sequenced the beta-amyloid precursor protein like gene homologue in the crab Chasmagnathus (cappl), showing a 37% of identity with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster homologue and 23% with Homo sapiens but with much higher degree of sequence similarity in certain regions. We observed a wide distribution of cappl mRNA in the nervous system as well as in muscle and gills. The protein localized in all tissues analyzed with the exception of muscle. Immunofluorescence revealed localization of cAPPL in associative and sensory brain areas. We studied gene and protein expression during long-term memory consolidation using a well characterized memory model: the context-signal associative memory in this crab species. mRNA levels varied at different time points during long-term memory consolidation and correlated with cAPPL protein levels Conclusions cAPPL mRNA and protein is widely distributed in the central nervous system of the crab and the time course of expression suggests a role of cAPPL during long-term memory formation. PMID:20809979

  16. Overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human Fe65-PTB2 in complex with the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain

    SciTech Connect

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-05-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which releases the aggregation-prone amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and liberates the intracellular domain (AICD) that interacts with various adaptor proteins. The crystallized AICD–Fe65-PTB2 complex is of central importance for APP translocation, nuclear signalling, processing and Aβ generation. Alzheimer’s disease is associated with typical brain deposits (senile plaques) that mainly contain the neurotoxic amyloid β peptide. This peptide results from proteolytic processing of the type I transmembrane protein amyloid precursor protein (APP). During this proteolytic pathway the APP intracellular domain (AICD) is released into the cytosol, where it associates with various adaptor proteins. The interaction of the AICD with the C-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding domain of Fe65 (Fe65-PTB2) regulates APP translocation, signalling and processing. Human AICD and Fe65-PTB2 have been cloned, overproduced and purified in large amounts in Escherichia coli. A complex of Fe65-PTB2 with the C-terminal 32 amino acids of the AICD gave well diffracting hexagonal crystals and data have been collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Initial phases obtained by the molecular-replacement method are of good quality and revealed well defined electron density for the substrate peptide.

  17. Dynamic regulation of lipid-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Martfeld, Ashley N; Rajagopalan, Venkatesan; Greathouse, Denise V; Koeppe, Roger E

    2015-09-01

    We review the importance of helix motions for the function of several important categories of membrane proteins and for the properties of several model molecular systems. For voltage-gated potassium or sodium channels, sliding, tilting and/or rotational movements of the S4 helix accompanied by a swapping of cognate side-chain ion-pair interactions regulate the channel gating. In the seven-helix G protein-coupled receptors, exemplified by the rhodopsins, collective helix motions serve to activate the functional signaling. Peptides which initially associate with lipid-bilayer membrane surfaces may undergo dynamic transitions from surface-bound to tilted-transmembrane orientations, sometimes accompanied by changes in the molecularity, formation of a pore or, more generally, the activation of biological function. For single-span membrane proteins, such as the tyrosine kinases, an interplay between juxtamembrane and transmembrane domains is likely to be crucial for the regulation of dimer assembly that in turn is associated with the functional responses to external signals. Additionally, we note that experiments with designed single-span transmembrane helices offer fundamental insights into the molecular features that govern protein-lipid interactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. PMID:25666872

  18. Subcellular trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein gene family and its pathogenic role in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kins, Stefan; Lauther, Nadine; Szodorai, Anita; Beyreuther, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the intracellular transport of amyloid precursor protein (APP) affect the extent to which APP is exposed to alpha- or beta-secretase in a common subcellular compartment and therefore directly influence the degree to which APP undergoes the amyloidogenic pathway leading to generation of beta-amyloid. As the presynaptic regions of neurons are thought to be the main source of beta-amyloid in the brain, attention has been focused on axonal APP trafficking. APP is transported along axons by a fast, kinesin-dependent anterograde transport mechanism. Despite the wealth of in vivo and in vitro data that have accumulated regarding the connection of APP to kinesin transport, it is not yet clear if APP is coupled to its specific motor protein via an intracellular interaction partner, such as the c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein, or by yet another unknown molecular mechanism. The cargo proteins that form a functional complex with APP are also unknown. Due to the long lifespan, and vast extent, of neurons, in particular axons, neurons are highly sensitive to changes in subcellular transport. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that variations in APP or tau affect mitochondrial and synaptic vesicle transport. Further, it was shown that this axonal dysfunction might lead to impaired synaptic plasticity, which is crucial for neuronal viability and function. Thus, changes in APP and tau expression may cause perturbed axonal transport and changes in APP processing, contributing to cognitive decline and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17047360

  19. Regulation of Pluripotency by RNA Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Julia; Blelloch, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Establishment, maintenance, and exit from pluripotency require precise coordination of a cell’s molecular machinery. Substantial headway has been made in deciphering many aspects of this elaborate system, particularly with respect to epigenetics, transcription, and noncoding RNAs. Less attention has been paid to posttranscriptional regulatory processes such as alternative splicing, RNA processing and modification, nuclear export, regulation of transcript stability, and translation. Here, we introduce the RNA binding proteins that enable the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, summarizing current and ongoing research on their roles at different regulatory points and discussing how they help script the fate of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25192462

  20. Dosage of amyloid precursor protein affects axonal contact guidance in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Lucas J; Postma, Nienke L; Estrada-Bernal, Adriana; Hanna, M; Guo, R; Busciglio, Jorge; Pfenninger, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP), encoded on Hsa21, functions as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in axonal growth cones (GCs) of the developing brain. We show here that axonal GCs of human fetal Down syndrome (DS) neurons (and of a DS mouse model) overexpress APP protein relative to euploid controls. We investigated whether DS neurons generate an abnormal, APP-dependent GC phenotype in vitro. On laminin, which binds APP and β1 integrins (Itgb1), DS neurons formed enlarged and faster-advancing GCs compared to controls. On peptide matrices that bind APP only, but not on those binding exclusively Itgb1 or L1CAM, DS GCs were significantly enlarged (2.0-fold), formed increased close adhesions (1.8-fold), and advanced faster (1.4-fold). In assays involving alternating stripes of monospecific matrices, human control GCs exhibited no preference for any of the substrates, whereas DS GCs preferred the APP-binding matrix (cross-over decreased significantly from 48.2 to 27.2%). Reducing APP expression in DS GCs with siRNA normalized most measures of the phenotype, including substrate choice. These experiments show that human DS neurons exhibit an APP-dependent, abnormal GC phenotype characterized by increased adhesion and altered contact guidance. The results suggest that APP overexpression may perturb axonal pathfinding and circuit formation in developing DS brain. PMID:24036883

  1. Knockdown of Amyloid Precursor Protein in Zebrafish Causes Defects in Motor Axon Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ping; Pimplikar, Sanjay W.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis, but its normal physiological functions are less clear. Combined deletion of the APP and APP-like protein 2 (APLP2) genes in mice results in post-natal lethality, suggesting that APP performs an essential, if redundant, function during embryogenesis. We previously showed that injection of antisense morpholino to reduce APP levels in zebrafish embryos caused convergent-extension defects. Here we report that a reduction in APP levels causes defective axonal outgrowth of facial branchiomotor and spinal motor neurons, which involves disorganized axonal cytoskeletal elements. The defective outgrowth is caused in a cell-autonomous manner and both extracellular and intracellular domains of human APP are required to rescue the defective phenotype. Interestingly, wild-type human APP rescues the defective phenotype but APPswe mutation, which causes familial AD, does not. Our results show that the zebrafish model provides a powerful system to delineate APP functions in vivo and to study the biological effects of APP mutations. PMID:22545081

  2. Silencing of Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression Using a New Engineered Delta Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Ben Aissa, Manel; April, Marie-Claude; Bergeron, Lucien-Junior; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Levesque, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) etiological studies suggest that an elevation in amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) level contributes to aggregations of the peptide and subsequent development of the disease. The major constituent of these amyloid peptides is the 1 to 40–42 residue peptide (Aβ40−42) derived from amyloid protein precursor (APP). Most likely, reducing Aβ levels in the brain may block both its aggregation and neurotoxicity and would be beneficial for patients with AD. Among the several possible ways to lower Aβ accumulation in the cells, we have selectively chosen to target the primary step in the Aβ cascade, namely, to reduce APP gene expression. Toward this end, we engineered specific SOFA-HDV ribozymes, a new generation of catalytic RNA tools, to decrease APP mRNA levels. Additionally, we demonstrated that APP-ribozymes are effective at decreasing APP mRNA and protein levels as well as Aβ levels in neuronal cells. Our results could lay the groundwork for a new protective treatment for AD. PMID:22482079

  3. Metalloprotease Meprin β Generates Nontoxic N-terminal Amyloid Precursor Protein Fragments in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Tamara; Čaušević, Mirsada; auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Schilling, Oliver; Isbert, Simone; Geyer, Rebecca; Maier, Wladislaw; Tschickardt, Sabrina; Jumpertz, Thorsten; Weggen, Sascha; Bond, Judith S.; Overall, Christopher M.; Pietrzik, Claus U.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Identification of physiologically relevant substrates is still the most challenging part in protease research for understanding the biological activity of these enzymes. The zinc-dependent metalloprotease meprin β is known to be expressed in many tissues with functions in health and disease. Here, we demonstrate unique interactions between meprin β and the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Although APP is intensively studied as a ubiquitously expressed cell surface protein, which is involved in Alzheimer disease, its precise physiological role and relevance remain elusive. Based on a novel proteomics technique termed terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS), APP was identified as a substrate for meprin β. Processing of APP by meprin β was subsequently validated using in vitro and in vivo approaches. N-terminal APP fragments of about 11 and 20 kDa were found in human and mouse brain lysates but not in meprin β−/− mouse brain lysates. Although these APP fragments were in the range of those responsible for caspase-induced neurodegeneration, we did not detect cytotoxicity to primary neurons treated by these fragments. Our data demonstrate that meprin β is a physiologically relevant enzyme in APP processing. PMID:21646356

  4. The profile of β-amyloid precursor protein expression of rats induced by aluminum.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Yin, Li-Hong; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2012-03-01

    The environmental agent aluminum has been extensively investigated for a potential relationship with amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression. Despite many investigations, there is at present no definite proof from which to draw a conclusion. Since APP is an integral membrane protein expressed in different tissues and capable of fluxes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which may ultimately affect APP level in brain, it is necessary to assess the expression profile among vital body organs. The present study compared aluminum oxide and aluminum chloride injected rats with control rats (saline treated) to observe if aluminum affected APP expression patterns in different organs by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of APP was observed in the brain of aluminum chloride treated rats and in the liver of aluminum oxide injected group. Results of double IHC staining showed that it is Kupffer cells, which are located in liver sinus and expressed APP after aluminum oxide treatment. Oxidative stress is suggested as the potential pathway that aluminum chloride exert effects in brain. These results suggest that different aluminum compounds may impact the expression of APP in brain and liver tissues. The mechanism that aluminum induced liver APP expression still needs further investigation. PMID:22209725

  5. Mutations of the precursor to the terminal protein of adenovirus serotypes 2 and 5.

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, S C; Horwitz, M S; Engler, J A

    1989-01-01

    Using a series of transient expression plasmids and adenovirus-specific DNA replication assays for both initiation and elongation, we measured the relative activities of mutant polypeptides of the precursor to the terminal protein (pTP) in vitro. Mutations that removed two to six amino acids of the amino terminus gradually decreased pTP activity; a deletion of 18 amino acids was completely inactive. Replacement of cysteine at residue 8 with a serine had little effect on pTP activity. Two amino-terminal in-frame linker insertion mutant polypeptides previously characterized in vivo as either replication defective or temperature sensitive had considerable activity at the permissive temperature in vitro. For one mutant pTP with a temperature-sensitive phenotype in vivo, elongation activity was decreased more than initiation in vitro, suggesting a role for this protein after the initiation step. Replacement mutations of serine 580, the site of covalent attachment of dCTP, completely abolished pTP function for both initiation and elongation. Images PMID:2511338

  6. LINGO-1 promotes lysosomal degradation of amyloid-β protein precursor

    PubMed Central

    de Laat, Rian; Meabon, James S.; Wiley, Jesse C.; Hudson, Mark P.; Montine, Thomas J.; Bothwell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sequential proteolytic cleavages of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase generate amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which are thought to contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Much of this processing occurs in endosomes following endocytosis of AβPP from the plasma membrane. However, this pathogenic mode of processing AβPP may occur in competition with lysosomal degradation of AβPP, a common fate of membrane proteins trafficking through the endosomal system. Following up on published reports that LINGO-1 binds and promotes the amyloidogenic processing of AβPP we have examined the consequences of LINGO-1/AβPP interactions. We report that LINGO-1 and its paralogs, LINGO-2 and LINGO-3, decrease processing of AβPP in the amyloidogenic pathway by promoting lysosomal degradation of AβPP. We also report that LINGO-1 levels are reduced in AD brain, representing a possible pathogenic mechanism stimulating the generation of Aβ peptides in AD. PMID:25758563

  7. Regulation of gene transcription by Polycomb proteins

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Sergi; Mas, Gloria; Di Croce, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins defines a subset of factors that physically associate and function to maintain the positional identity of cells from the embryo to adult stages. PcG has long been considered a paradigmatic model for epigenetic maintenance of gene transcription programs. Despite intensive research efforts to unveil the molecular mechanisms of action of PcG proteins, several fundamental questions remain unresolved: How many different PcG complexes exist in mammalian cells? How are PcG complexes targeted to specific loci? How does PcG regulate transcription? In this review, we discuss the diversity of PcG complexes in mammalian cells, examine newly identified modes of recruitment to chromatin, and highlight the latest insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of PcGs in transcription regulation and three-dimensional chromatin conformation. PMID:26665172

  8. Fed-batch production of recombinant human calcitonin precursor fusion protein using Staphylococcus carnosus as an expression-secretion system.

    PubMed

    Dilsen, S; Paul, W; Sandgathe, A; Tippe, D; Freudl, R; Thömmes, J; Kula, M R; Takors, R; Wandrey, C; Weuster-Botz, D

    2000-09-01

    A pH-auxostatic fed-batch process was developed for the secretory production of a fusion protein consisting of the pro-part of Staphylococcus hyicus lipase and two synthetic human calcitonin (hCT) precursor repeats under the control of a xylose-inducible promotor from Staphylococcus xylosus. Using glycerol as the energy source and pH-controlled addition of yeast extract resulted in the production of 2000 mg 1(-1) of the fusion protein (420 mg 1(-1) of the recombinant hCT precursor) within 14 h, reaching 45 g 1(-1) cell dry mass with Staphylococcus carnosus in a stirred-tank reactor. Product titer and space-time yield (30 mg calcitonin precursor 1(-1) h(-1)) were thus improved by a factor of 2, and 4.5, respectively, compared to Escherichia coli expression-secretion systems for the production of calcitonin precursors. Two hundred grams of the fusion protein was secreted by the recombinant S. carnosus on a 150-1 scale (scale-up factor of 50) with a minimum use of technical-grade yeast extract (40 mg fusion protein g(-1) yeast extract). PMID:11030573

  9. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in oat mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, C.; Kopeck, K.; Sceppa, E. )

    1989-04-01

    We sought to identify phosphorylated proteins in isolated oat mitocchondria and to characterize the enzymatic and regulatory properties of the protein kinase(s). Mitochondria from oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) were purified on Percoll gradients. Mitochondria were incubated with {sup 32}P-{gamma}-ATP; proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. A small number of bands was detected on autoradiograms, most prominently at 70 kD and 42 kD; the latter band has been tentatively identified as a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a well-known phosphoprotein. The protein kinase(s) could also phosphorylate casein, but not histone. Spermine enhanced the phosphorylation of casein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the 42 kD band. These studies were carried out on both intact and burst mitochondria. Control by calcium and other ions was investigated. The question of the action of regulators on protein kinase or protein phosphatase was studied by the use of {sup 35}S-adenosine thiotriphosphate.

  10. Intramembrane proteolysis in regulated protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lemberg, Marius K

    2011-09-01

    Regulated intramembrane proteolysis is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which membrane-anchored bioactive molecules are released from cellular membranes. In eukaryotic cells, intramembrane proteases are found in different cellular organelles ranging from the endosomal system to mitochondria and chloroplasts. These proteases function in diverse processes such as transcription control, regulated growth factor secretion and recently even a role in the control of mitophagy has been suggested. Genomic annotation has predicted 13 different intramembrane proteases in humans. Apart from few studied examples, very little is known about their function. This review describes emerging principles of how intramembrane proteases contribute to the regulation of cellular protein trafficking in eukaryotic cells and raises the important question of how their activity is controlled. PMID:21585636

  11. Manipulations of amyloid precursor protein cleavage disrupt the circadian clock in aging Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Blake, Matthew R; Holbrook, Scott D; Kotwica-Rolinska, Joanna; Chow, Eileen S; Kretzschmar, Doris; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2015-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe cognitive deterioration. While causes of AD pathology are debated, a large body of evidence suggests that increased cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) producing the neurotoxic Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plays a fundamental role in AD pathogenesis. One of the detrimental behavioral symptoms commonly associated with AD is the fragmentation of sleep-activity cycles with increased nighttime activity and daytime naps in humans. Sleep-activity cycles, as well as physiological and cellular rhythms, which may be important for neuronal homeostasis, are generated by a molecular system known as the circadian clock. Links between AD and the circadian system are increasingly evident but not well understood. Here we examined whether genetic manipulations of APP-like (APPL) protein cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster affect rest-activity rhythms and core circadian clock function in this model organism. We show that the increased β-cleavage of endogenous APPL by the β-secretase (dBACE) severely disrupts circadian behavior and leads to reduced expression of clock protein PER in central clock neurons of aging flies. Our data suggest that behavioral rhythm disruption is not a product of APPL-derived Aβ production but rather may be caused by a mechanism common to both α and β-cleavage pathways. Specifically, we show that increased production of the endogenous Drosophila Amyloid Intracellular Domain (dAICD) caused disruption of circadian rest-activity rhythms, while flies overexpressing endogenous APPL maintained stronger circadian rhythms during aging. In summary, our study offers a novel entry point toward understanding the mechanism of circadian rhythm disruption in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25766673

  12. Glial expression of the {beta}-Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) in global ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Banati, R.B.; Gehrmann, J.; Kreutzberg, G.W. ||

    1995-07-01

    The {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP) bears characteristics of an acute-phase protein and therefore is likely to be involved in the glial response to brain injury. In the brain, APP is rapidly synthesized by activated glial cells in response to comparatively mild neuronal lesions, e.g., a remote peripheral nerve injury. Perfusion deficits in the brain result largely in neuronal necrosis and are a common condition in elderly patients. This neuronal necrosis is accompanied by a pronounced reaction of astrocytes and microglia, which can also be observed in animal models. We have therefore studied in the rat, immunocytochemically, the induction of APP after 30 min of global ischemia caused by four-vessel occlusion. The postischemic brain injuries were examined at survival times from 12 h to 7 days. From day 3 onward, APP immunoreactivity was strongly induced in the CA{sub 1} and CA{sub 4} regions of the rat dorsal hippocampus as well as in the dorsolateral striatum. In these areas, the majority of APP-immunoreactive cells were reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes, as shown by double-immunofluorescence labeling for GFAP and APP. Additionally, small ramified cells, most likely activated microglia, expressed APP immunoreactivity. In contrast, in the parietal cortex, APP immunoreactivity occurred focally in clusters of activated microglia rather than in astrocytes, as demonstrated by double-immunofluorescence labeling for APP and the microglia-binding lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B{sub 4}. In conclusion, following global ischemia, APP is induced in reactive glial cells with spatial differences in the distribution pattern of APP induction in actrocytes and microglia. 51 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Rare variants in β-Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Eva C; Fukumori, Akio; Mollenhauer, Brit; Hor, Hyun; Arzberger, Thomas; Perneczky, Robert; Kurz, Alexander; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Hüll, Michael; Lichtner, Peter; Eckstein, Gertrud; Zimprich, Alexander; Haubenberger, Dietrich; Pirker, Walter; Brücke, Thomas; Bereznai, Benjamin; Molnar, Maria J; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Pastor, Pau; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Estivill, Xavier; Meitinger, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Haass, Christian; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2015-10-01

    Many individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop cognitive deficits, and a phenotypic and molecular overlap between neurodegenerative diseases exists. We investigated the contribution of rare variants in seven genes of known relevance to dementias (β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), PSEN1/2, MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau), fused in sarcoma (FUS), granulin (GRN) and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)) to PD and PD plus dementia (PD+D) in a discovery sample of 376 individuals with PD and followed by the genotyping of 25 out of the 27 identified variants with a minor allele frequency <5% in 975 individuals with PD, 93 cases with Lewy body disease on neuropathological examination, 613 individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 182 cases with frontotemporal dementia and 1014 general population controls. Variants identified in APP were functionally followed up by Aβ mass spectrometry in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. PD+D cases harbored more rare variants across all the seven genes than PD individuals without dementia, and rare variants in APP were more common in PD cases overall than in either the AD cases or controls. When additional controls from publically available databases were added, one rare variant in APP (c.1795G>A(p.(E599K))) was significantly associated with the PD phenotype but was not found in either the PD cases or controls of an independent replication sample. One of the identified rare variants (c.2125G>A (p.(G709S))) shifted the Aβ spectrum from Aβ40 to Aβ39 and Aβ37. Although the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated, our data suggest a possible role for APP in modifying the PD phenotype as well as a general contribution of genetic factors to the development of dementia in individuals with PD. PMID:25604855

  14. Eya protein phosphatase activity regulates Six1-Dach-Eya transcriptional effects in mammalian organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Oghi, Kenneth A; Zhang, Jie; Krones, Anna; Bush, Kevin T; Glass, Christopher K; Nigam, Sanjay K; Aggarwal, Aneel K; Maas, Richard; Rose, David W; Rosenfeld, Michael G

    2003-11-20

    The precise mechanistic relationship between gene activation and repression events is a central question in mammalian organogenesis, as exemplified by the evolutionarily conserved sine oculis (Six), eyes absent (Eya) and dachshund (Dach) network of genetically interacting proteins. Here, we report that Six1 is required for the development of murine kidney, muscle and inner ear, and that it exhibits synergistic genetic interactions with Eya factors. We demonstrate that the Eya family has a protein phosphatase function, and that its enzymatic activity is required for regulating genes encoding growth control and signalling molecules, modulating precursor cell proliferation. The phosphatase function of Eya switches the function of Six1-Dach from repression to activation, causing transcriptional activation through recruitment of co-activators. The gene-specific recruitment of a co-activator with intrinsic phosphatase activity provides a molecular mechanism for activation of specific gene targets, including those regulating precursor cell proliferation and survival in mammalian organogenesis. PMID:14628042

  15. The loss of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activity prevents the amyloidogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and the formation of amyloid plaques in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Sonia; Xu, Ping; Ferrer, Isidre; Davis, Roger J; Tournier, Cathy

    2011-11-23

    Phosphorylation plays a central role in the dynamic regulation of the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the production of amyloid-β (Aβ), one of the clinically most important factors that determine the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This has led to the hypothesis that aberrant Aβ production associated with AD results from regulatory defects in signal transduction. However, conflicting findings have raised a debate over the identity of the signaling pathway that controls APP metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) is essential for mediating the apoptotic response of neurons to Aβ. Furthermore, we discovered that the functional loss of JNK signaling in neurons significantly decreased the number of amyloid plaques present in the brain of mice carrying familial AD-linked mutant genes. This correlated with a reduction in Aβ production. Biochemical analyses indicate that the phosphorylation of APP at threonine 668 by JNK is required for γ-mediated cleavage of the C-terminal fragment of APP produced by β-secretase. Overall, this study provides genetic evidence that JNK signaling is required for the formation of amyloid plaques in vivo. Therefore, inhibition of increased JNK activity associated with aging or with a pathological condition constitutes a potential strategy for the treatment of AD. PMID:22114267

  16. High Fat Diet Enhances β-Site Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) via Promoting β-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1/Adaptor Protein 2/Clathrin Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Maiko; Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Noda, Yasuha; Ueda, Karin; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Kubota, Masakazu; Okawa, Katsuya; Ihara, Masafumi; Shimohama, Shun; Uemura, Kengo; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported that a high fat diet (HFD) promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) without increasing BACE1 levels in APP transgenic mice. However, the detailed mechanism had remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that HFD promotes BACE1/Adaptor protein-2 (AP-2)/clathrin complex formation by increasing AP-2 levels in APP transgenic mice. In Swedish APP overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of AP-2 promoted the formation of BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, increasing the level of the soluble form of APP β (sAPPβ). On the other hand, mutant D495R BACE1, which inhibits formation of this trimeric complex, was shown to decrease the level of sAPPβ. Overexpression of AP-2 promoted the internalization of BACE1 from the cell surface, thus reducing the cell surface BACE1 level. As such, we concluded that HFD may induce the formation of the BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, which is followed by its transport of BACE1 from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments. These events might be associated with the enhancement of β-site cleavage of APP in APP transgenic mice. Here we present evidence that HFD, by regulation of subcellular trafficking of BACE1, promotes APP cleavage. PMID:26414661

  17. Neuron-specific splicing of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein gene in a mini-gene system.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Goto, I; Sakaki, Y

    1993-08-31

    Several forms of Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) mRNA are generated by alternative splicing. Among them, the APP695 mRNA skipping the exon 7 and 8 is expressed specifically in neurons, suggesting that this alternative splicing is regulated in a neuron-specific manner. As the first step for investigating the mechanism of the neuron-specific splicing, a mini-gene system was developed, in which mini-APP genes consisting of the exon 6, 7, 8, 9 and their flanking regions were introduced into neuronal and nonneuronal cultured cell lines to see their expression profiles. In the system the exon 7 and 8 of the mini-gene were significantly skipped in the neuronal cell, and the deletion study indicated that cis-acting elements for skipping the exons existed in the corresponding skipped-exon and its flanking regions. A small deletion upstream of the exon 8 suppressed the skipping of the exon 8 in the neuronal cell, suggesting that one of the regulatory sequence(s) for the exon skipping exists in a small region upstream of the skipped exon. PMID:8363619

  18. Restraint stress increases neuroinflammation independently of amyloid β levels in amyloid precursor protein/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Perez Nievas, Beatriz G; Hammerschmidt, Thea; Kummer, Markus P; Terwel, Dick; Leza, Juan C; Heneka, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Both hypercortisolemia and hippocampal damage are features found in patients diagnosed of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epidemiological evidence supports a role for stress as a risk factor for AD. It is known that immobilization stress is followed by accumulation of oxidative/nitrosative mediators in brain after the release of proinflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B activation, nitric oxide synthase-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Long-term exposure to elevated corticosteroid levels is known to affect the hippocampus which plays a central role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore studied the effect of chronic immobilization stress on amyloid precursor protein/PS1 mice. Stress exposure increased AD-induced neuroinflammation characterized by astrogliosis, increased inflammatory gene transcription and lipid peroxidation. Importantly, immobilization stress did not increase the soluble or insoluble amyloid β levels suggesting that increased cortisol levels lower the threshold for a neuroinflammatory response, independently from amyloid β. Since inflammation may act as a factor that contributes disease progression, the stress-inflammation relation described here may be relevant to understand the initial mechanisms in underlying the risk enhancing action of stress on AD. PMID:21044080

  19. Validation of soluble amyloid-β precursor protein assays as diagnostic CSF biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    van Waalwijk van Doorn, Linda J C; Koel-Simmelink, Marleen J; Haußmann, Ute; Klafki, Hans; Struyfs, Hanne; Linning, Philipp; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Twaalfhoven, Harry; Kuiperij, H Bea; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Scheltens, Philip; Verbeek, Marcel M; Vanmechelen, Eugeen; Wiltfang, Jens; Teunissen, Charlotte E

    2016-04-01

    Analytical validation of a biomarker assay is essential before implementation in clinical practice can occur. In this study, we analytically validated the performance of assays detecting soluble amyloid-β precursor protein (sAPP) α and β in CSF in two laboratories according to previously standard operating procedures serving this goal. sAPPα and sAPPβ ELISA assays from two vendors (IBL-international, Meso Scale Diagnostics) were validated. The performance parameters included precision, sensitivity, dilutional linearity, recovery, and parallelism. Inter-laboratory variation, biomarker comparison (sAPPα vs. sAPPβ) and clinical performance was determined in three laboratories using 60 samples of patients with subjective memory complaints, Alzheimer's disease, or frontotemporal dementia. All performance parameters of the assays were similar between labs and within predefined acceptance criteria. The only exceptions were minor out-of-range results for recovery at low concentrations and, despite being within predefined acceptance criteria, non-comparability of the results for evaluation of the dilutional linearity and hook-effect. Based on the inter-laboratory correlation between Lab #1 and Lab #2, the IBL-international assays were more robust (sAPPα: r(2) = 0.92, sAPPβ: r(2) = 0.94) than the Meso Scale Diagnostics (MSD) assay (sAPPα: r(2) = 0.70, sAPPβ: r(2) = 0.80). Specificity of assays was confirmed using assay-specific peptide competitors. Clinical validation showed consistent results across the clinical groups in the different laboratories for all assays. The validated sAPP assays appear to be of sufficient technical quality and perform well. Moreover, the study shows that the newly developed standard operating procedures provide highly useful tools for the validation of new biomarker assays. A recommendation was made for renewed instructions to evaluate the dilutional linearity and hook-effect. We analytically validated the performance of assays

  20. Astroglial β-Arrestin1-mediated Nuclear Signaling Regulates the Expansion of Neural Precursor Cells in Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yezheng; Ma, Li; Liao, Zhaohui; Le, Qiumin; Yu, Jialing; Liu, Xing; Li, Haohong; Chen, Yuejun; Zheng, Ping; Yang, Zhengang; Ma, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is crucial for preserving normal brain function, but how it is regulated by niche cells is uncertain. Here we show that β-arrestin 1 (β-arr1) in dentate gyrus (DG) regulates neural precursor proliferation. β-arr1 knockout (KO) mice show reduced neural precursor proliferation in subgranular zone (SGZ) which could be rescued by selective viral expression of β-arr1 but not its nuclear-function-deficient mutants under control of hGFAP promotor in DG. Compared with wild type astrocytes, β-arr1 KO astrocytes nurture less neurospheres, and this may be attributed to changed activity of soluble, heat-sensitive excretive factors, such as BMP2. RNA-sequencing reveals that β-arr1 KO DG astrocytes exhibit an aberrant gene expression profile of niche factors, including elevated transcription of Bmp2. Taken together, our data suggest that β-arr1 mediated nuclear signaling regulates the production of excretive factors derived from niche astrocytes and expansion of neural precursors in DG, thus maintaining homeostasis of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:26500013

  1. Distribution of precursor amyloid-. beta. -protein messenger RNA in human cerebral cortex: relationship to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.A.; Higgins, G.A.; Young, W.G.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Wilson, M.C.; Morrison, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP), two neuropathological markers of Alzheimer disease, may both contain peptide fragments derived from the human amyloid ..beta.. protein. However, the nature of the relationship between NFT and NP and the source of the amyloid ..beta.. proteins found in each have remained unclear. The authors used in situ hybridization techniques to map the anatomical distribution of precursor amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA in the neocortex of brains from three subjects with no known neurologic disease and from five patients with Alzheimer disease. In brains from control subjects, positively hybridizing neurons were present in cortical regions and layers that contain a high density of neuropathological markers in Alzheimer disease, as well as in those loci that contain NP but few NFT. Quantitative analyses of in situ hybridization patterns within layers III and V of the superior frontal cortex revealed that the presence of high numbers of NFT in Alzheimer-diseased brains was associated with a decrease in the number of positively hybridizing neurons compared to controls and Alzheimer-diseased brains with few NFT. These findings suggest that the expression of precursor amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA may be a necessary but is clearly not a sufficient prerequisite for NFT formation. In addition, these results may indicate that the amyloid ..beta.. protein, present in NP in a given region or layer of cortex, is not derived from the resident neuronal cell bodies that express the mRNA for the precursor protein.

  2. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. PMID:27072891

  3. Quantitative Proteomics of Caveolin-1-regulated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Alberto; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Sowa, Grzegorz; Derakhshan, Behrad; Lin, Michelle I.; Lee, Ji Y.; Zhao, Hongyu; Luo, Ruiyan; Colangelo, Christopher; Sessa, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Caveolae are organelles abundant in the plasma membrane of many specialized cells including endothelial cells (ECs), epithelial cells, and adipocytes, and in these cells, caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the major coat protein essential for the formation of caveolae. To identify proteins that require Cav-1 for stable incorporation into membrane raft domains, a quantitative proteomics analysis using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification was performed on rafts isolated from wild-type and Cav-1-deficient mice. In three independent experiments, 117 proteins were consistently identified in membrane rafts with the largest differences in the levels of Cav-2 and in the caveola regulatory proteins Cavin-1 and Cavin-2. Because the lung is highly enriched in ECs, we validated and characterized the role of the newly described protein Cavin-1 in several cardiovascular tissues and in ECs. Cavin-1 was highly expressed in ECs lining blood vessels and in cultured ECs. Knockdown of Cavin-1 reduced the levels of Cav-1 and -2 and weakly influenced the formation of high molecular weight oligomers containing Cav-1 and -2. Cavin-1 silencing enhanced basal nitric oxide release from ECs but blocked proangiogenic phenotypes such as EC proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis in vitro. Thus, these data support an important role of Cavin-1 as a regulator of caveola function in ECs. PMID:20585024

  4. A signal sequence is sufficient for green fluorescent protein to be routed to regulated secretory granules.

    PubMed

    El Meskini, R; Jin, L; Marx, R; Bruzzaniti, A; Lee, J; Emeson, R; Mains, R

    2001-02-01

    To investigate trafficking in neuroendocrine cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tags were fused to various portions of the preproneuropeptide Y (NPY) precursor. Two neuroendocrine cell lines, AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells and PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells, along with primary anterior pituitary cells, were examined. Expression of chimeric constructs did not disrupt trafficking or regulated secretion of endogenous ACTH and prohormone convertase 1 in AtT-20 cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated that the chimeric constructs remained intact, as long as the Lys-Arg cleavage site within preproNPY was deleted. GFP was stored in, and released from, regulated granules in cells expressing half of the NPY precursor fused to GFP, and also in cells in which only the signal sequence of preproNPY was fused to GFP. Thus, in neuroendocrine cells, entering the lumen of the secretory pathway is sufficient to target GFP to regulated secretory granules. PMID:11159860

  5. Dual-specificity phosphatase 26 (DUSP26) stimulates Aβ42 generation by promoting amyloid precursor protein axonal transport during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunmin; Nah, Jihoon; Han, Jonghee; Choi, Seon-Guk; Kim, Hyunjoo; Park, Jaesang; Pyo, Ha-Kyung; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is generated through the sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases. Hypoxia is a known risk factor for AD and stimulates Aβ generation by γ-secretase; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that dual-specificity phosphatase 26 (DUSP26) regulates Aβ generation through changes in subcellular localization of the γ-secretase complex and its substrate C99 under hypoxic conditions. DUSP26 was identified as a novel γ-secretase regulator from a genome-wide functional screen using a cDNA expression library. The phosphatase activity of DUSP26 was required for the increase in Aβ42 generation through γ-secretase, but this regulation did not affect the amount of the γ-secretase complex. Interestingly, DUSP26 induced the accumulation of C99 in the axons by stimulating anterograde transport of C99-positive vesicles. Additionally, DUSP26 induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation for APP processing and axonal transport of C99. Under hypoxic conditions, DUSP26 expression levels were elevated together with JNK activation, and treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125, or the DUSP26 inhibitor NSC-87877, reduced hypoxia-induced Aβ generation by diminishing vesicle trafficking of C99 to the axons. Finally, we observed enhanced DUSP26 expression and JNK activation in the hippocampus of AD patients. Our results suggest that DUSP26 mediates hypoxia-induced Aβ generation through JNK activation, revealing a new regulator of γ-secretase-mediated APP processing under hypoxic conditions. We propose the role of phosphatase dual-specificity phosphatase 26 (DUSP26) in the selective regulation of Aβ42 production in neuronal cells under hypoxic stress. Induction of DUSP26 causes JNK-dependent shift in the subcellular localization of γ-secretase and C99 from the cell body to axons for Aβ42 generation. These findings provide a

  6. Lost region in amyloid precursor protein (APP) through TALEN-mediated genome editing alters mitochondrial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajie; Wu, Fengyi; Pan, Haining; Zheng, Wenzhong; Feng, Chi; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Aβ plaques are produced through sequential β/γ cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), of which there are three main APP isoforms: APP695, APP751 and APP770. KPI-APPs (APP751 and APP770) are known to be elevated in AD, but the reason remains unclear. Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) induce mutations with high efficiency at specific genomic loci, and it is thus possible to knock out specific regions using TALENs. In this study, we designed and expressed TALENs specific for the C-terminus of APP in HeLa cells, in which KPI-APPs are predominantly expressed. The KPI-APP mutants lack a 12-aa region that encompasses a 5-aa trans-membrane (TM) region and 7-aa juxta-membrane (JM) region. The mutated KPI-APPs exhibited decreased mitochondrial localization. In addition, mitochondrial morphology was altered, resulting in an increase in spherical mitochondria in the mutant cells through the disruption of the balance between fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased ATP levels, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation and impaired mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, was also found. These results suggest that specific regions of KPI-APPs are important for mitochondrial localization and function. PMID:26924205

  7. Accumulation of amyloid precursor protein in neurons after intraventricular injection of colchicine.

    PubMed Central

    Shigematsu, K.; McGeer, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    To study a possible relationship between inhibition of axonal flow and amyloidogenesis, the authors examined amyloid precursor protein (APP) immunoreactivity in rat brain treated with colchicine. After intraventricular injection of colchicine, the proximal axons of exposed neurons became swollen and showed a large increase in APP immunoreactivity, whereas the cytoplasm and dendritic processes showed lesser increases. These changes were seen in ipsilateral neurons of the hippocampus, lateral septal nucleus, amygdala, and entorhinal, parietal and temporal cortices, as well as bilaterally in the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus. The increase of APP immunoreactivity appeared as early as 3 hours after the injection. It peaked at around 24 hours, and began to clear after about 4 days. A few strongly APP-positive dystrophic neurons remained. In serial sections at these later time periods, some strongly argentophilic neurons and Alz-50 positive neurons, each with abnormal neurities, could be demonstrated. The result suggests that APP may undergo fast axoplasmic flow in rat brain and that argentophilic changes of Alz-50 immunoproduction may follow APP accumulation caused by inhibition of axoplasmic flow. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1373270

  8. Beta-secretase-cleaved amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer brain: a morphologic study.

    PubMed

    Sennvik, Kristina; Bogdanovic, N; Volkmann, Inga; Fastbom, J; Benedikz, E

    2004-01-01

    beta-amyloid (Abeta) is the main constituent of senile plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease. Abeta is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via proteolytic cleavage by proteases beta- and gamma-secretase. In this study, we examined content and localization of beta-secretase-cleaved APP (beta-sAPP) in brain tissue sections from the frontal, temporal and occipital lobe. Strong granular beta-sAPP staining was found throughout the gray matter of all three areas, while white matter staining was considerably weaker. beta-sAPP was found to be localized in astrocytes and in axons. We found the beta-sAPP immunostaining to be stronger and more extensive in gray matter in Alzheimer disease (AD) cases than controls. The axonal beta-sAPP staining was patchy and unevenly distributed for the AD cases, indicating impaired axonal transport. beta-sAPP was also found surrounding senile plaques and cerebral blood vessels. The results presented here show altered beta-sAPP staining in the AD brain, suggestive of abnormal processing and transport of APP. PMID:15090268

  9. Lost region in amyloid precursor protein (APP) through TALEN-mediated genome editing alters mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Wu, Fengyi; Pan, Haining; Zheng, Wenzhong; Feng, Chi; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Aβ plaques are produced through sequential β/γ cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), of which there are three main APP isoforms: APP695, APP751 and APP770. KPI-APPs (APP751 and APP770) are known to be elevated in AD, but the reason remains unclear. Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) induce mutations with high efficiency at specific genomic loci, and it is thus possible to knock out specific regions using TALENs. In this study, we designed and expressed TALENs specific for the C-terminus of APP in HeLa cells, in which KPI-APPs are predominantly expressed. The KPI-APP mutants lack a 12-aa region that encompasses a 5-aa trans-membrane (TM) region and 7-aa juxta-membrane (JM) region. The mutated KPI-APPs exhibited decreased mitochondrial localization. In addition, mitochondrial morphology was altered, resulting in an increase in spherical mitochondria in the mutant cells through the disruption of the balance between fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased ATP levels, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation and impaired mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, was also found. These results suggest that specific regions of KPI-APPs are important for mitochondrial localization and function. PMID:26924205

  10. Synergic interaction between amyloid precursor protein and neural cell adhesion molecule promotes neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Keping; Lu, Huixia; Gao, Tianli; Xue, Xiulei; Wang, Chunling; Miao, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. The main features of AD are the pathological changes of density and distribution of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques. The processing of amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) to β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is one of the critical events in the pathogenesis of AD. In this study, we evaluated the role of the interaction of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and APP in neurite outgrowth using two different experimental systems: PC12E2 cells and hippocampal neurons that were isolated from wild type, APP knock-in and APP knock-out mice. PC12E2 cells or hippocampal neurons were co-cultured with NCAM-negative or NCAM-positive fibroblasts L929 cells. We found that APP promoted neurite outgrowth of PC12E2 cells and hippocampal neurons in either the presence or absence of NCAM. Secreted APP can rescue the neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons from APP knock-out mice. The interaction of APP and NCAM had synergic effect in promoting neurite outgrowth in both PC12E2 cells and hippocampal neurons. Our results suggested that the interaction of APP with NCAM played an important role in AD development and therefore could be a potential therapeutic target for AD treatment. PMID:26883101