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Sample records for predict attentional modulation

  1. Spatial Attention and Temporal Expectation Under Timed Uncertainty Predictably Modulate Neuronal Responses in Monkey V1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jitendra; Sugihara, Hiroki; Katz, Yarden; Schummers, James; Tenenbaum, Joshua; Sur, Mriganka

    2015-09-01

    The brain uses attention and expectation as flexible devices for optimizing behavioral responses associated with expected but unpredictably timed events. The neural bases of attention and expectation are thought to engage higher cognitive loci; however, their influence at the level of primary visual cortex (V1) remains unknown. Here, we asked whether single-neuron responses in monkey V1 were influenced by an attention task of unpredictable duration. Monkeys covertly attended to a spot that remained unchanged for a fixed period and then abruptly disappeared at variable times, prompting a lever release for reward. We show that monkeys responded progressively faster and performed better as the trial duration increased. Neural responses also followed monkey's task engagement-there was an early, but short duration, response facilitation, followed by a late but sustained increase during the time monkeys expected the attention spot to disappear. This late attentional modulation was significantly and negatively correlated with the reaction time and was well explained by a modified hazard function. Such bimodal, time-dependent changes were, however, absent in a task that did not require explicit attentional engagement. Thus, V1 neurons carry reliable signals of attention and temporal expectation that correlate with predictable influences on monkeys' behavioral responses. PMID:24836689

  2. Effect of temporal predictability on exogenous attentional modulation of feedforward processing in the striate cortex.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Tharaka L; Michie, Patricia T; Fulham, Ross

    2016-07-01

    Non-informative peripheral visual cues facilitate extrastriate processing of targets [as indexed by enhanced amplitude of contralateral P1 event-related potential (ERP) component] presented at the cued location as opposed to those presented at uncued locations, at short cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). Recently, two lines of research are emerging to suggest that the locus of attentional modulation is flexible and depends on 1) perceptual load and 2) temporal predictability of visual stimuli. We aimed to examine the effect of temporal predictability on attentional modulation of feed-forward activation of the striate cortex (as indexed by the C1 ERP component) by high-perceptual-load (HPL) stimuli. We conducted two ERP experiments where exogenously-cued HPL targets were presented under two temporal predictability conditions. In Experiment 1 [high-temporal-predictability (HTP) condition], 17 healthy subjects (age 18-26years) performed a line-orientation discrimination task on HPL targets presented in the periphery of the left upper or diagonally opposite right lower visual field, validly or invalidly cued by peripheral cues. SOA was fixed at 160ms. In Experiment 2 [low-temporal-predictability (LTP) condition], (n=10, age 19-36years) we retained HPL stimuli but randomly intermixed short-SOA trials with long-SOA (1000ms) trials in the task-blocks. In Experiment 1 and the short-SOA condition of the Experiment 2, validly-cued targets elicited significantly faster reaction times and larger contralateral P1, consistent with previous literature. A significant attentional enhancement of C1 amplitude was also observed in the HTP, but not LTP condition. The findings suggest that exogenous visual attention can facilitate the earliest stage of cortical processing under HTP conditions. PMID:27114044

  3. Unconscious attention modulates the silencing effect of top-down predictions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Ran, Guangming; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Tianqiang

    2015-07-01

    The brain is considered to be proactive in that it continuously generates predictions about external environment stimuli. Recent Bayesian models of perception have demonstrated that prediction and attention operate synergistically to optimize stimulus processing. However, the relation between prediction and unconscious attention remains unclear given the relative neglect of unconscious attention in scholarly literatures. To investigate this issue, twenty participants (12 women) performed an orientation identification task in which a circular grating appeared either in the left or in the right visual field in a single 30-40min session, during which 64-channel EEG data were acquired. Behavioral results showed an unconscious-attended effect and a facilitated effect. Importantly, prediction-related P1 and N1 silencing effects were observed in the unconscious-attended condition, probably reflecting that unconscious attention improves the precision of top-down predictions at an early stage of processing, thereby increasing the synaptic gain of predictor neurons. Moreover, unlike the early ERP components, P3 revealed a reversed pattern of results, which displayed a silencing effect of prediction only in the unattended condition, suggesting that the influence of unconscious attention on the silencing effect may change over time. PMID:25841210

  4. Optimal attentional modulation of a neural population

    PubMed Central

    Borji, Ali; Itti, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Top-down attention has often been separately studied in the contexts of either optimal population coding or biasing of visual search. Yet, both are intimately linked, as they entail optimally modulating sensory variables in neural populations according to top-down goals. Designing experiments to probe top-down attentional modulation is difficult because non-linear population dynamics are hard to predict in the absence of a concise theoretical framework. Here, we describe a unified framework that encompasses both contexts. Our work sheds light onto the ongoing debate on whether attention modulates neural response gain, tuning width, and/or preferred feature. We evaluate the framework by conducting simulations for two tasks: (1) classification (discrimination) of two stimuli sa and sb and (2) searching for a target T among distractors D. Results demonstrate that all of gain, tuning, and preferred feature modulation happen to different extents, depending on stimulus conditions and task demands. The theoretical analysis shows that task difficulty (linked to difference Δ between sa and sb, or T, and D) is a crucial factor in optimal modulation, with different effects in discrimination vs. search. Further, our framework allows us to quantify the relative utility of neural parameters. In easy tasks (when Δ is large compared to the density of the neural population), modulating gains and preferred features is sufficient to yield nearly optimal performance; however, in difficult tasks (smaller Δ), modulating tuning width becomes necessary to improve performance. This suggests that the conflicting reports from different experimental studies may be due to differences in tasks and in their difficulties. We further propose future electrophysiology experiments to observe different types of attentional modulation in a same neuron. PMID:24723881

  5. Attention modulates emotional expression processing.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Eligiusz; Walentowska, Wioleta

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the time course of emotional expression processing, we recorded ERPs to facial stimuli. The first task was to discriminate emotional expressions. Enhanced negativity of the face-specific N170 was elicited by emotional as opposed to neutral faces, followed by the occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). The second task was to classify face gender. Here, N170 was unaffected by the emotional expression. However, emotional expression effect was expressed in the anterior positivity (160-250 ms poststimulus) and subsequent occipital negativity (240-340 ms poststimulus). Results support the thesis that structural encoding relevant to gender recognition and simultaneous expression analysis are independent processes. Attention modulates facial emotion processing 140-185 ms poststimulus. Involuntary differentiation of facial expression was observed later (160-340 ms poststimulus), suggesting unintentional attention capture. PMID:21332489

  6. Difficulty of Discrimination Modulates Attentional Capture by Regulating Attentional Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Risa; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Attentional capture for distractors is enhanced by increasing the difficulty of discrimination between the standard and the target in the three-stimulus oddball paradigm. In this study, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of this modulation of attentional capture. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from participants while they…

  7. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  8. Attentional modulation of perceptual stabilization.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Ryota; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2006-05-22

    Perceptual priming is generally regarded as a passive and automatic process, as it is obtained even without awareness of the prime. Recent studies have introduced a more active form of perceptual priming in which priming for a subsequent ambiguous stimulus is triggered by the subjective percept, that is, interpretation of a previous ambiguous stimulus. This phenomenon known as stabilization does not require a conscious effort to actively maintain one perceptual interpretation. In this study, we show that distraction of attention, during and even after the prime presentation, interferes with the build-up of perceptual memory for stabilization. This implies that despite the apparent automaticity, stabilization involves an active attentional process for encoding and retention. The disruption during the encoding can be attributed to the reduction in sensory signals for the prime. However, the disruption during the retention suggests that the implicit memory trace of the prime necessitates the attentional resource to fully develop. The active nature of the build-up of perceptual memory for stabilization is consistent with the idea that perceptual memory increases its strength gradually over a few seconds. These findings suggest that seemingly automatic and effortless cognitive processes can compete with online perceptual processing for common attentional resources. PMID:16720394

  9. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

  10. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. PMID:23454431

  11. Attention to individual identities modulates face processing.

    PubMed

    Ruz, María; Aranda, Clara; Sarmiento, Beatriz R; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The ability of attention to apply in a flexible manner to several types of information at various stages of processing has been studied extensively. However, the susceptibility of these effects to the nature of the idiosyncratic items being attended is less understood. In the current study, we used symbolic cues to orient the attention of participants to the subsequent appearance of the face of a famous person (the former king of Spain) or an unfamiliar face. These were matched in perceptual characteristics. Behavioral effects showed that face-specific attention optimized response speed in an orthogonal task when the target matched the cue (valid trials) compared to when it did not (invalid trials). According to topographical analyses of the electrophysiological data, the famous and unfamiliar faces engaged dissociable brain circuits in two different temporal windows, from 144 to 300 ms after target processing, and at a later 456-492 ms epoch. In addition, orienting attention to specific faces modulated the perceptual stages reflected in the P1 and N170 potentials but with a different laterality pattern that depended on the familiarity of the faces. Whereas only attention to the famous face enhanced the P1 potential at left posterior electrodes, with no corresponding effect for the unfamiliar face at this stage, the N170 was modulated at left posterior sites for the famous item and at right homologous electrodes for the unfamiliar face. Intermediate processing stages, previously linked to facial identity processing indexed by the P2 and N2 potentials, reflected item familiarity but were not affected by the cueing manipulation. At the P3 level, attention influenced again item processing but did so in an equivalent manner for the famous and unfamiliar face. Our results, showing that identity-specific attention modulates perceptual stages of facial processing at different locations depending on idiosyncratic stimulus familiarity, may inform comparison of studies

  12. Hemispheric modulations of the attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Spagna, Alfredo; Martella, Diana; Fuentes, Luis J; Marotta, Andrea; Casagrande, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Although several recent studies investigated the hemispheric contributions to the attentional networks using the Attention Network Test (ANT), the role of the cerebral hemispheres in modulating the interaction among them remains unclear. In this study, two lateralized versions of this test (LANT) were used to investigate theal effects on the attentional networks under different conflict conditions. One version, the LANTI-A, presented arrows as target and flankers, while the other version, the LANTI-F, had fruits as target and flankers. Data collected from forty-seven participants confirmed well-known results on the efficiency and interactions among the attentional networks. Further, a left visual field advantage was found when a target occurred in an unattended location (e.g. invalid trials), only with the LANTI-F, but not with LANTI-A. The present study adds more evidence to the hemispheric asymmetry of the orienting of attention, and further reveals patterns of interactions between the attentional networks and the visual fields across different conflicting conditions, underlying the dynamic control of attention in complex environments. PMID:27566000

  13. Attentional awakening: gradual modulation of temporal attention in rapid serial visual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Atsunori; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    Orienting attention to a point in time facilitates processing of an item within rapidly changing surroundings. We used a one-target RSVP task to look for differences in accuracy in reporting a target related to when the target temporally appeared in the sequence. The results show that observers correctly report a target early in the sequence less frequently than later in the sequence. Previous RSVP studies predicted equivalently accurate performances for one target wherever it appeared in the sequence. We named this new phenomenon attentional awakening, which reflects a gradual modulation of temporal attention in a rapid sequence. PMID:17106706

  14. Interaural attention modulates outer hair cell function.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Keil, Andreas; Stratis, Kyle; Osborne, Aaron F; Cerwonka, Colin; Wong, Jennifer; Rieger, Brenda L; Polcz, Valerie; Smith, David W

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that auditory attention tasks may modulate the sensitivity of the cochlea by way of the corticofugal and the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent pathways. Here, we studied the extent to which a separate efferent tract, the 'uncrossed' MOC, which functionally connects the two ears, mediates inter-aural selective attention. We compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in one ear with binaurally presented primaries, using an intermodal target detection task in which participants were instructed to report the occurrence of brief target events (visual changes, tones). Three tasks were compared under identical physical stimulation: (i) report brief tones in the ear in which DPOAE responses were recorded; (ii) report brief tones presented to the contralateral, non-recorded ear; and (iii) report brief phase shifts of a visual grating at fixation. Effects of attention were observed as parallel shifts in overall DPOAE contour level, with DPOAEs relatively higher in overall level when subjects ignored the auditory stimuli and attended to the visual stimulus, compared with both of the auditory-attending conditions. Importantly, DPOAE levels were statistically lowest when attention was directed to the ipsilateral ear in which the DPOAE recordings were made. These data corroborate notions that top-down mechanisms, via the corticofugal and medial efferent pathways, mediate cochlear responses during intermodal attention. New findings show attending to one ear can significantly alter the physiological response of the contralateral, unattended ear, probably through the uncrossed-medial olivocochlear efferent fibers connecting the two ears. PMID:25302959

  15. Attentional Modulation of Eye Torsion Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Scott B.; Mahadevan, Madhumitha S.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movements generally have both reflexive and voluntary aspects, but torsional eye movements are usually thought of as a reflexive response to image rotation around the line of sight (torsional OKN) or to head roll (torsional VOR). In this study we asked whether torsional responses could be modulated by attention in a case where two stimuli rotated independently, and whether attention would influence the latency of responses. The display consisted of rear-projected radial "pinwheel" gratings, with an inner annulus segment extending from the center to 22 degrees eccentricity, and an outer annulus segment extending from 22 degrees out to 45 degrees eccentricity. The two segments rotated around the center in independent random walks, stepping randomly 4 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise at 60 Hz. Subjects were asked to attend to one or the other while keeping fixation steady at the center of the display. To encourage attention on one or the other segment of the display, subjects were asked to move a joystick in synchrony with the back and forth rotations of one part of the image while ignoring the other. Eye torsion was recorded with the scleral search coil technique, sampled at 500 Hz. All four subjects showed roughly 50% stronger torsion responses to the attended compared to unattended segments. Latency varied from 100 to 150 msec across subjects and was unchanged by attention. These findings suggest that attention can influence eye movement responses that are not typically under voluntary control.

  16. Expectation and Attention in Hierarchical Auditory Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Noreika, Valdas; Gueorguiev, David; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Kochen, Silvia; Ibáñez, Agustín; Owen, Adrian M.; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding suggests that attention in humans emerges from increased precision in probabilistic inference, whereas expectation biases attention in favor of contextually anticipated stimuli. We test these notions within auditory perception by independently manipulating top-down expectation and attentional precision alongside bottom-up stimulus predictability. Our findings support an integrative interpretation of commonly observed electrophysiological signatures of neurodynamics, namely mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV), as manifestations along successive levels of predictive complexity. Early first-level processing indexed by the MMN was sensitive to stimulus predictability: here, attentional precision enhanced early responses, but explicit top-down expectation diminished it. This pattern was in contrast to later, second-level processing indexed by the P300: although sensitive to the degree of predictability, responses at this level were contingent on attentional engagement and in fact sharpened by top-down expectation. At the highest level, the drift of the CNV was a fine-grained marker of top-down expectation itself. Source reconstruction of high-density EEG, supported by intracranial recordings, implicated temporal and frontal regions differentially active at early and late levels. The cortical generators of the CNV suggested that it might be involved in facilitating the consolidation of context-salient stimuli into conscious perception. These results provide convergent empirical support to promising recent accounts of attention and expectation in predictive coding. PMID:23825422

  17. Tough doughnuts: affect and the modulation of attention

    PubMed Central

    Dhinakaran, Janani; De Vos, Maarten; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Braun, Niclas; Janson, Jolanda; Kranczioch, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Positive affect has been associated with improvement in performance in various attentional domains. Negative affect has been associated with narrowing of attention and lowering of performance in attentional tasks. Previous behavioral studies have put forth the diffuse mental state idea as the mechanism of these effects, where attentional resources are more evenly distributed during positive affect and more focused during negative affect. To explore neural correlates of this mechanism, a two-stream rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm with centrally presented, overlapping streams was used. Participants attended one of the streams at a time and steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEP) in response to the attended and unattended streams were recorded in a positive, negative or neutral affect state. We predicted that in the positive affect condition, ssVEP responses to the attended and the unattended stream would be more alike than in a neutral condition. In the negative affect condition, as an expression of a less diffuse mental state, ssVEP responses were predicted to be more dissimilar. Self-assessments confirmed the effectiveness of the emotional manipulation. In the negative affect condition power was found to be higher than in the neutral condition. However, the modulations in the ssVEP did not reflect the predicted neural correlate of the diffuse mental state mechanism. Thus, the results provide evidence for negative affect modulating attention but suggest that the diffuse mental state is not a spatially oriented phenomenon. PMID:24391570

  18. Multiple measures of visual attention predict novice motor skill performance when attention is focused externally.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Ryan W; Elliott, James C; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2012-10-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the control of attention and motor skill performance are related. Athletes of various skill levels differ in terms of their control over the focus of attention and directing athletes to adopt an internal or external focus of attention modulates performance. However, it is unclear (a) whether the relationship between skill level and attentional control arises from preexisting individual differences in attention or from practice of the motor skill and (b) whether the effect of adopting an internal or external focus of attention on motor performance is influenced by individual differences in attention. To address these issues, individuals were measured on three distinct attention functions - orienting, alerting, and executive - prior to engaging in a novel golf-putting task performed with either external or internal focus instructions. The results indicated that, on average, attentional functioning and putting performance were related but that the strong relationships with orienting and executive attention were only present in the group given external focus instructions. These findings suggest that individual differences in attentional abilities are predictive of novel skill performance under an external focus of attention and they shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effects of focus instructions during motor performance. PMID:22516836

  19. Noradrenergic Genotype Predicts Lapses in Sustained Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ciara M.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Gill, Michael; Robertson, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Sustained attention is modulated by the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. The balance of dopamine and noradrenaline in the cortex is controlled by the DBH gene. The principal variant in this gene is a C/T change at position-1021, and the T allele at this locus is hypothesised to result in a slower rate of dopamine to noradrenaline conversion than…

  20. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

  1. Musical Meter Modulates the Allocation of Attention across Time.

    PubMed

    Fitzroy, Ahren B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic attending theory predicts that attention is allocated hierarchically across time during processing of hierarchical rhythmic structures such as musical meter. ERP research demonstrates that attention to a moment in time modulates early auditory processing as evidenced by the amplitude of the first negative peak (N1) approximately 100 msec after sound onset. ERPs elicited by tones presented at times of high and low metric strength in short melodies were compared to test the hypothesis that hierarchically structured rhythms direct attention in a manner that modulates early perceptual processing. A more negative N1 was observed for metrically strong beats compared with metrically weak beats; this result provides electrophysiological evidence that hierarchical rhythms direct attention to metrically strong times during engaged listening. The N1 effect was observed only on fast tempo trials, suggesting that listeners more consistently invoke selective processing based on hierarchical rhythms when sounds are presented rapidly. The N1 effect was not modulated by musical expertise, indicating that the allocation of attention to metrically strong times is not dependent on extensive training. Additionally, changes in P2 amplitude and a late negativity were associated with metric strength under some conditions, indicating that multiple cognitive processes are associated with metric perception. PMID:26284995

  2. Notational usage modulates attention networks in binumerates

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Atesh; Tyagi, Vaibhav; Singh, Nandini C.

    2014-01-01

    Multicultural environments require learning multiple number notations wherein some are encountered more frequently than others. This leads to differences in exposure and consequently differences in usage between notations. We find that differential notational usage imposes a significant neurocognitive load on number processing. Despite simultaneous acquisition, twenty four adult binumerates, familiar with two positional writing systems namely Hindu Nagari digits and Hindu Arabic digits, reported significantly lower preference and usage for Nagari as compared to Arabic. Twenty-four participants showed significantly increased reaction times and reduced accuracy while performing magnitude comparison tasks in Nagari with respect to Arabic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that processing Nagari elicited significantly greater activity in number processing and attention networks. A direct subtraction of networks for Nagari and Arabic notations revealed a neural circuit comprising of bilateral Intra-parietal Sulcus (IPS), Inferior and Mid Frontal Gyri, Fusiform Gyrus and the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (FDR p < 0.005). Additionally, whole brain correlation analysis showed that activity in the left inferior parietal region was modulated by task performance in Nagari. We attribute the increased activation in Nagari to increased task difficulty due to infrequent exposure and usage. Our results reiterate the role of left IPS in modulating performance in numeric tasks and highlight the role of the attention network for monitoring symbolic notation mode in binumerates. PMID:24904366

  3. Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters. PMID:25068851

  4. Attention modulation by proportion congruency: the asymmetrical list shifting effect.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, Elger L; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim; Risko, Evan F

    2013-09-01

    Proportion congruency effects represent hallmark phenomena in current theorizing about cognitive control. This is based on the notion that proportion congruency determines the relative levels of attention to relevant and irrelevant information in conflict tasks. However, little empirical evidence exists that uniquely supports such an attention modulation account; moreover, a rivaling account was recently proposed that attributes the effect of proportion congruency to mere contingency learning. In the present study, the influences of shifts in list-wide (Experiment 1) or item-specific (Experiment 2) proportion congruency were investigated. As predicted by attention modulation but not by contingency learning, strong asymmetries were observed in such shifting: An increase in the proportion of congruent trials had only limited impact on the size of the congruency effect when participants were initially trained with a mostly incongruent list, but the impact was substantial for an equivalent increase of incongruent trials when participants were initially trained with a mostly congruent list. This asymmetrical list shifting effect directly supports attention modulation by proportion congruency manipulations and as such provides a novel tool for exploring cognitive control. Implications of our findings for existing theories of cognitive control are discussed. PMID:23565794

  5. Spatial attention modulates early face processing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenfeng; Martinez, Antigona; Pitts, Michael; Luo, Yue-Jia; Hillyard, Steven A

    2012-12-01

    It is widely reported that inverting a face dramatically affects its recognition. Previous studies have shown that face inversion increases the amplitude and delays the latency of the face-specific N170 component of the event-related potential (ERP) and also enhances the amplitude of the occipital P1 component (latency 100-132 ms). The present study investigates whether these effects of face inversion can be modulated by visual spatial attention. Participants viewed two streams of visual stimuli, one to the left and one to the right of fixation. One stream consisted of a sequence of alphanumeric characters at 6.67 Hz, and the other stream consisted of a series of upright and inverted images of faces and houses presented in randomized order. The participants' task was to attend selectively to one or the other of the streams (during different blocks) in order to detect infrequent target stimuli. ERPs elicited by inverted faces showed larger P1 amplitudes compared to upright faces, but only when the faces were attended. In contrast, the N170 amplitude was larger to inverted than to upright faces only when the faces were not attended. The N170 peak latency was delayed to inverted faces regardless of attention condition. These inversion effects were face specific, as similar effects were absent for houses. These results suggest that early stages of face-specific processing can be enhanced by attention, but when faces are not attended the onset of face-specific processing is delayed until the latency range of the N170. PMID:23017595

  6. Attention and prediction in human audition: a lesson from cognitive psychophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Schröger, Erich; Marzecová, Anna; SanMiguel, Iria

    2015-01-01

    Attention is a hypothetical mechanism in the service of perception that facilitates the processing of relevant information and inhibits the processing of irrelevant information. Prediction is a hypothetical mechanism in the service of perception that considers prior information when interpreting the sensorial input. Although both (attention and prediction) aid perception, they are rarely considered together. Auditory attention typically yields enhanced brain activity, whereas auditory prediction often results in attenuated brain responses. However, when strongly predicted sounds are omitted, brain responses to silence resemble those elicited by sounds. Studies jointly investigating attention and prediction revealed that these different mechanisms may interact, e.g. attention may magnify the processing differences between predicted and unpredicted sounds. Following the predictive coding theory, we suggest that prediction relates to predictions sent down from predictive models housed in higher levels of the processing hierarchy to lower levels and attention refers to gain modulation of the prediction error signal sent up to the higher level. As predictions encode contents and confidence in the sensory data, and as gain can be modulated by the intention of the listener and by the predictability of the input, various possibilities for interactions between attention and prediction can be unfolded. From this perspective, the traditional distinction between bottom-up/exogenous and top-down/endogenous driven attention can be revisited and the classic concepts of attentional gain and attentional trace can be integrated. PMID:25728182

  7. Endogenous attention modulates attentional and motor interference from distractors: evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological results

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Arévalo, Elisa; Lupiáñez, Juan; Botta, Fabiano; Chica, Ana B.

    2015-01-01

    Selective visual attention enhances the processing of relevant stimuli and filters out irrelevant stimuli and/or distractors. However, irrelevant information is sometimes processed, as demonstrated by the Simon effect (Simon and Rudell, 1967). We examined whether fully irrelevant distractors (task and target-irrelevant) produce interference (measured as the Simon effect), and whether endogenous orienting modulated this interference. Despite being fully irrelevant, distractors were attentionally coded (as reflected by the distractor-related N2pc component), and interfered with the processing of the target response (as reflected by the target-related lateralized readiness potential component). Distractors’ attentional capture depended on endogenous attention, and their interference with target responses was modulated by both endogenous attention and distractor location repetition. These results demonstrate both endogenous attentional and motor modulations over the Simon effect produced by fully irrelevant distractors. PMID:25750629

  8. Attentional Modulation of the Mere Exposure Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagi, Yoshihiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The "mere exposure effect" refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increase participants' subsequent affective preference for those stimuli. This study explored the effect of selective attention on the mere exposure effect. The experiments manipulated the to-be-attended drawings in the exposure period (either red or green…

  9. Components of Attention Modulated by Temporal Expectation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is…

  10. Modulation of visual attention by object affordance.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Vásquez, Patricia; Schubö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Some objects in our environment are strongly tied to motor actions, a phenomenon called object affordance. A cup, for example, affords us to reach out to it and grasp it by its handle. Studies indicate that merely viewing an affording object triggers motor activations in the brain. The present study investigated whether object affordance would also result in an attention bias, that is, whether observers would rather attend to graspable objects within reach compared to non-graspable but reachable objects or to graspable objects out of reach. To this end, we conducted a combined reaction time and motion tracking study with a table in a virtual three-dimensional space. Two objects were positioned on the table, one near, the other one far from the observer. In each trial, two graspable objects, two non-graspable objects, or a combination of both was presented. Participants were instructed to detect a probe appearing on one of the objects as quickly as possible. Detection times served as indirect measure of attention allocation. The motor association with the graspable object was additionally enhanced by having participants grasp a real object in some of the trials. We hypothesized that visual attention would be preferentially allocated to the near graspable object, which should be reflected in reduced reaction times in this condition. Our results confirm this assumption: probe detection was fastest at the graspable object at the near position compared to the far position or to a non-graspable object. A follow-up experiment revealed that in addition to object affordance per se, immediate graspability of an affording object may also influence this near-space advantage. Our results suggest that visuospatial attention is preferentially allocated to affording objects which are immediately graspable, and thus establish a strong link between an object' s motor affordance and visual attention. PMID:24567725

  11. Feature-based attention modulates surround suppression

    PubMed Central

    Flevaris, Anastasia V.; Murray, Scott O.

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli appearing in the surround of the classical receptive field (CRF) can reduce neuronal firing and perceived contrast of a preferred stimulus in the CRF, a phenomenon referred to as surround suppression. Suppression is greatest when the surrounding stimulus has the same orientation and spatial frequency (SF) as the central target. Although spatial attention has been shown to influence surround suppression, the effects of feature-based attention have yet to be characterized. Using behavioral contrast adaptation in humans, we examined center-surround interactions between SF and orientation, and asked whether attending to one feature dimension versus the other influenced suppression. A center-surround triplet comprised of a central target Gabor and two flanking Gabors were used for adaptation. The flankers could have the same SF and orientation as the target, or differ in one or both of the feature dimensions. Contrast thresholds were measured for the target before and after adapting to center-surround triplets, and postadaptation thresholds were taken as an indirect measure of surround suppression. Both feature dimensions contributed to surround suppression and did not summate. Moreover, when center and surround had the same feature value in one dimension (e.g., same orientation) but had different values in the other dimension (e.g., different SF), there was more suppression when attention was directed to the feature dimension that matched between center and surround than when attention was directed to the feature dimension that differed. These results demonstrate that feature-based attention can influence center-surround interactions by enhancing the effects of the attended dimension. PMID:25630380

  12. Observing Shared Attention Modulates Gaze Following

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockler, Anne; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Humans' tendency to follow others' gaze is considered to be rather resistant to top-down influences. However, recent evidence indicates that gaze following depends on prior eye contact with the observed agent. Does observing two people engaging in eye contact also modulate gaze following? Participants observed two faces looking at each other or…

  13. Target Predictability, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Leonie; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed a number detection task for 37.3 min using either a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a more traditionally formatted vigilance task (TFT; high No-Go low Go) response…

  14. Individual differences in attentional modulation of cortical responses correlate with selective attention performance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inyong; Wang, Le; Bharadwaj, Hari; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Many studies have shown that attention modulates the cortical representation of an auditory scene, emphasizing an attended source while suppressing competing sources. Yet, individual differences in the strength of this attentional modulation and their relationship with selective attention ability are poorly understood. Here, we ask whether differences in how strongly attention modulates cortical responses reflect differences in normal-hearing listeners' selective auditory attention ability. We asked listeners to attend to one of three competing melodies and identify its pitch contour while we measured cortical electroencephalographic responses. The three melodies were either from widely separated pitch ranges ("easy trials"), or from a narrow, overlapping pitch range ("hard trials"). The melodies started at slightly different times; listeners attended either the leading or lagging melody. Because of the timing of the onsets, the leading melody drew attention exogenously. In contrast, attending the lagging melody required listeners to direct top-down attention volitionally. We quantified how attention amplified auditory N1 response to the attended melody and found large individual differences in the N1 amplification, even though only correctly answered trials were used to quantify the ERP gain. Importantly, listeners with the strongest amplification of N1 response to the lagging melody in the easy trials were the best performers across other types of trials. Our results raise the possibility that individual differences in the strength of top-down gain control reflect inherent differences in the ability to control top-down attention. PMID:24821552

  15. Attentional Modulation and Selection – An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rothenstein, Albert L.; Tsotsos, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Various models of the neural mechanisms of attentional modulation in the visual cortex have been proposed. In general, these models assume that an ‘attention’ parameter is provided separately. Its value as well as the selection of neuron(s) to which it applies are assumed, but its source and the selection mechanism are unspecified. Here we show how the Selective Tuning model of visual attention can account for the modulation of the firing rate at the single neuron level, and for the temporal pattern of attentional modulations in the visual cortex, in a self-contained formulation that simultaneously determines the stimulus elements to be attended while modulating the relevant neural processes. PMID:24963827

  16. Module coupling and predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, B.; Held, H.

    2003-04-01

    Successive coupling of several nonlinear submodules seems to be the implicit master strategy of the current world-wide modelling endeavour. The process of coupling is investigated by using different methods of examining low order coupled atmosphere-ocean systems. As a first step, a coupled atmosphere-ocean system, based on the Lorenz84 atmosphere is considered, operated in a forced versus the truly coupled mode. In [1] it is shown that forcing cannot emulate the fully coupled system, yet quite the contrary, generates time series of intermittently high predictability ("locking"). Standard linear stability analysis is incapable to explain the locking phenomenon. While regions of linear asymptotic stability can be evaluated, it turns out that this criterion is too conservative and does not explain the standard locking situation, as the trajectory periodically leaves the region of stability during a locking phase. We therefore propose that the locking phenomenon needs to be analysed in the framework of non-linear dynamics. Preliminary analysis of the statistic of locking-periods displays a similarity to type III intermittency. Bifurcation diagrams obtained from the continuation software AUTO indicate a rich phase space structure which makes the interpretation of the locking phenomenon intricate. Systematic variation of coupling constants appears to be a promising task as the key effects could be followed into parameter regimes of more transparent phase space structure. begin{thebibliography}{0} bibitem{Wittenberg98}A. T. Wittenberg, J. L. Anderson. Dynamical implications of prescribing part of a coupled system: Results from a low order model. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 5: 167-179, 1998.

  17. Degraded attentional modulation of cortical neural populations in strabismic amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chuan; Kim, Yee-Joon; Lai, Xin Jie; Verghese, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral studies have reported reduced spatial attention in amblyopia, a developmental disorder of spatial vision. However, the neural populations in the visual cortex linked with these behavioral spatial attention deficits have not been identified. Here, we use functional MRI-informed electroencephalography source imaging to measure the effect of attention on neural population activity in the visual cortex of human adult strabismic amblyopes who were stereoblind. We show that compared with controls, the modulatory effects of selective visual attention on the input from the amblyopic eye are substantially reduced in the primary visual cortex (V1) as well as in extrastriate visual areas hV4 and hMT+. Degraded attentional modulation is also found in the normal-acuity fellow eye in areas hV4 and hMT+ but not in V1. These results provide electrophysiological evidence that abnormal binocular input during a developmental critical period may impact cortical connections between the visual cortex and higher level cortices beyond the known amblyopic losses in V1 and V2, suggesting that a deficit of attentional modulation in the visual cortex is an important component of the functional impairment in amblyopia. Furthermore, we find that degraded attentional modulation in V1 is correlated with the magnitude of interocular suppression and the depth of amblyopia. These results support the view that the visual suppression often seen in strabismic amblyopia might be a form of attentional neglect of the visual input to the amblyopic eye. PMID:26885628

  18. Degraded attentional modulation of cortical neural populations in strabismic amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chuan; Kim, Yee-Joon; Lai, Xin Jie; Verghese, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral studies have reported reduced spatial attention in amblyopia, a developmental disorder of spatial vision. However, the neural populations in the visual cortex linked with these behavioral spatial attention deficits have not been identified. Here, we use functional MRI–informed electroencephalography source imaging to measure the effect of attention on neural population activity in the visual cortex of human adult strabismic amblyopes who were stereoblind. We show that compared with controls, the modulatory effects of selective visual attention on the input from the amblyopic eye are substantially reduced in the primary visual cortex (V1) as well as in extrastriate visual areas hV4 and hMT+. Degraded attentional modulation is also found in the normal-acuity fellow eye in areas hV4 and hMT+ but not in V1. These results provide electrophysiological evidence that abnormal binocular input during a developmental critical period may impact cortical connections between the visual cortex and higher level cortices beyond the known amblyopic losses in V1 and V2, suggesting that a deficit of attentional modulation in the visual cortex is an important component of the functional impairment in amblyopia. Furthermore, we find that degraded attentional modulation in V1 is correlated with the magnitude of interocular suppression and the depth of amblyopia. These results support the view that the visual suppression often seen in strabismic amblyopia might be a form of attentional neglect of the visual input to the amblyopic eye. PMID:26885628

  19. Social comparison modulates reward-driven attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jun; Du, Feng; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Kan

    2015-10-01

    It is well established that attention can be captured by task irrelevant and non-salient objects associated with value through reward learning. However, it is unknown whether social comparison influences reward-driven attentional capture. The present study created four social contexts to examine whether different social comparisons modulate the reward-driven capture of attention. The results showed that reward-driven attentional capture varied with different social comparison conditions. Most prominently, reward-driven attentional capture is dramatically reduced in the disadvantageous social comparison context, in which an individual is informed that the other participant is earning more monetary reward for performing the same task. These findings suggest that social comparison can affect the reward-driven capture of attention. PMID:25711184

  20. Emotional Modulation of the Attentional Blink Is Awareness-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wenli; Meng, Qianli; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Ke

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that emotion can modulate attentional processes. Previous studies have shown that even under restricted awareness, emotional facial expressions (especially threat-related) can guide the direction of spatial attention. However, it remains unclear whether emotional facial expressions under restricted awareness can affect temporal attention. To address this issue, we used a modified attentional blink (AB) paradigm in which masked (Experiment 1) or unmasked (Experiment 2) emotional faces (fearful or neutral) were presented before the AB sequence. We found that, in comparison with neutral faces, masked fearful faces significantly decreased the AB magnitude (Experiment 1), whereas unmasked fearful faces significantly increased the AB magnitude (Experiment 2). These results indicate that effects of emotional expression on the AB are modulated by the level of awareness. PMID:23029507

  1. Attention modulation of stimulus rivalry under swapping paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Doualot, Audrey; Simard, Mathieu; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Stimulus rivalry refers to the sustained periods of perceptual dominance that occur when different visual stimuli are swapped at a regular rate between eyes. This phenomenon is thought to involve mainly eye-independent mechanisms. Although several studies have reported that attention can increase image predominance in conventional binocular rivalry, it is unknown whether attention can specifically modulate stimulus rivalry. We addressed this question and manipulated the spatial characteristic of the stimuli to assess whether such an attention modulation could depend on visual processing hierarchy. The results showed that selective attention of stimulus rivalry significantly increased the predominance of the attended stimulus, regardless of the stimulus' spatial characteristics. No effect was observed on the swapping percept. The findings are discussed in the context of recent models attempting to characterize stimulus rivalry between eye-dependent and eye-independent levels. PMID:25469220

  2. Emotional modulation of the attentional blink is awareness-dependent.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wenli; Meng, Qianli; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Ke

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that emotion can modulate attentional processes. Previous studies have shown that even under restricted awareness, emotional facial expressions (especially threat-related) can guide the direction of spatial attention. However, it remains unclear whether emotional facial expressions under restricted awareness can affect temporal attention. To address this issue, we used a modified attentional blink (AB) paradigm in which masked (Experiment 1) or unmasked (Experiment 2) emotional faces (fearful or neutral) were presented before the AB sequence. We found that, in comparison with neutral faces, masked fearful faces significantly decreased the AB magnitude (Experiment 1), whereas unmasked fearful faces significantly increased the AB magnitude (Experiment 2). These results indicate that effects of emotional expression on the AB are modulated by the level of awareness. PMID:23029507

  3. Deficient attention modulation of lateralized alpha power in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kustermann, Thomas; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Kienle, Johanna; Miller, Gregory A; Popov, Tzvetan

    2016-06-01

    Modulation of 8-14 Hz (alpha) activity in posterior brain regions is associated with covert attention deployment in visuospatial tasks. Alpha power decrease contralateral to to-be-attended stimuli is believed to foster subsequent processing, such as retention of task-relevant input. Degradation of this alpha-regulation mechanism may reflect an early stage of disturbed attention regulation contributing to impaired attention and working memory commonly found in schizophrenia. The present study tested this hypothesis of early disturbed attention regulation by examining alpha power modulation in a lateralized cued delayed response task in 14 schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 25 healthy controls (HC). Participants were instructed to remember the location of a 100-ms saccade-target cue in the left or right visual hemifield in order to perform a delayed saccade to that location after a retention interval. As expected, alpha power decrease during the retention interval was larger in contralateral than ipsilateral posterior regions, and SZ showed less of this lateralization than did HC. In particular, SZ failed to show hemifield-specific alpha modulation in posterior right hemisphere. Results suggest less efficient modulation of alpha oscillations that are considered critical for attention deployment and item encoding and, hence, may affect subsequent spatial working memory performance. PMID:26854181

  4. Attentional Bias Predicts Outcome in Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Andrew J.; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A.; Paty, Jean A.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Balabanis, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    Most attempts to quit smoking end in failure, with many quitters relapsing in the first few days. Responses to smoking-related cues may precipitate relapse. A modified emotional Stroop task—which measures the extent to which smoking-related words disrupt performance on a reaction time (RT) task—was used to index the distracting effects of smoking-related cues. Smokers (N = 158) randomized to a high-dose nicotine patch (35 mg) or placebo patch completed the Stroop task on the 1st day of a quit attempt. Smokers using an active patch exhibited less attentional bias, making fewer errors on smoking-related words. Smokers who showed greater attentional bias (slowed RT on the first block of smoking words) were significantly more likely to lapse in the short-term, even when controlling for self-reported urges at the test session. Attentional bias measures may tap an important component of dependence. PMID:12940394

  5. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  6. Evidence against attentional state modulating scalp-recorded auditory brainstem steady-state responses.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Leonard; Bharadwaj, Hari M; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2015-11-11

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and their steady-state counterpart (subcortical steady-state responses, SSSRs) are generally thought to be insensitive to cognitive demands. However, a handful of studies report that SSSRs are modulated depending on the subject׳s focus of attention, either towards or away from an auditory stimulus. Here, we explored whether attentional focus affects the envelope-following response (EFR), which is a particular kind of SSSR, and if so, whether the effects are specific to which sound elements in a sound mixture a subject is attending (selective auditory attentional modulation), specific to attended sensory input (inter-modal attentional modulation), or insensitive to attentional focus. We compared the strength of EFR-stimulus phase locking in human listeners under various tasks: listening to a monaural stimulus, selectively attending to a particular ear during dichotic stimulus presentation, and attending to visual stimuli while ignoring dichotic auditory inputs. We observed no systematic changes in the EFR across experimental manipulations, even though cortical EEG revealed attention-related modulations of alpha activity during the task. We conclude that attentional effects, if any, on human subcortical representation of sounds cannot be observed robustly using EFRs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:26187756

  7. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

    2014-10-01

    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. PMID:24922613

  8. Attentional Modulation of Perceptual Comparison for Feature Binding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Rotshtein, Pia; Yeh, Yei-Yu

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the neural correlates of attentional modulation in the perceptual comparison process for detecting feature-binding changes in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Participants performed a variant of a cued change detection task. They viewed a memory array, a spatial retro-cue, and later a probe…

  9. Top-down modulation: Bridging selective attention and working memory

    PubMed Central

    Gazzaley, Adam; Nobre, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Selective attention, the ability to focus our cognitive resources on information relevant to our goals, influences working memory (WM) performance. Indeed, attention and working memory are increasingly viewed as overlapping constructs. Here, we review recent evidence from human neurophysiological studies demonstrating that top-down modulation serves as a common neural mechanism underlying these two cognitive operations. The core features include activity modulation in stimulus-selective sensory cortices with concurrent engagement of prefrontal and parietal control regions that function as sources of top-down signals. Notably, top-down modulation is engaged during both stimulus-present and stimulus-absent stages of WM tasks, i.e., expectation of an ensuing stimulus to be remembered, selection and encoding of stimuli, maintenance of relevant information in mind and memory retrieval. PMID:22209601

  10. How does visuospatial attention modulate motor preparation during gait initiation?

    PubMed

    Tard, Céline; Dujardin, Kathy; Girard, Amandine; Debaughrien, Marion; Derambure, Philippe; Defebvre, Luc; Delval, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Gait initiation is an automatized motor program that is preceded by anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). These adjustments create the propulsive forces required to reach the steady-state gait at the end of the first step and can be studied by the displacement of the centre of pressure. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that APAs can be modulated by visuospatial attentional processes prior to motor execution. An adaptation of the Posner paradigm was used to assess attention during step initiation. Twelve healthy subjects performed a gait initiation task under three conditions: a no-cue condition (the control experiment), a double-cue condition (alerting attention) and a single-cue condition (orienting attention). The kinetic and kinematic parameters of the APAs and step initiation were recorded. The time to step initiation was significantly shorter in the alerting condition than in the control condition. This effect was associated with the earlier occurrence of APAs. Orienting condition also had an effect and was associated with the modulation of APA errors (defined as a contralateral shift of the CoP on the cue side before corrective shifting to the target side). Behavioural measurements (such as postural preparation of step initiation) may reflect the interaction between attention and locomotion. Our results show that the different components of attention each have a specific influence on step initiation parameters. PMID:26358126

  11. Distribution of attention modulates salience signals in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Mulckhuyse, Manon; Belopolsky, Artem V; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Talsma, Durk; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the extent to which people spread attention across the visual field plays a crucial role in visual selection and the occurrence of bottom-up driven attentional capture. Consistent with previous findings, we show that when attention was diffusely distributed across the visual field while searching for a shape singleton, an irrelevant salient color singleton captured attention. However, while using the very same displays and task, no capture was observed when observers initially focused their attention at the center of the display. Using event-related fMRI, we examined the modulation of retinotopic activity related to attentional capture in early visual areas. Because the sensory display characteristics were identical in both conditions, we were able to isolate the brain activity associated with exogenous attentional capture. The results show that spreading of attention leads to increased bottom-up exogenous capture and increased activity in visual area V3 but not in V2 and V1. PMID:21637812

  12. Strategic allocation of attention reduces temporally predictable stimulus conflict

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, L. Gregory; Boehler, Carsten N.; Won, Robert; Davis, Lauren; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are able to continuously monitor environmental situations and adjust their behavioral strategies to optimize performance. Here we investigate the behavioral and brain adjustments that occur when conflicting stimulus elements are, or are not, temporally predictable. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected while manual-response variants of the Stroop task were performed in which the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the relevant-color and irrelevant-word stimulus components were either randomly intermixed, or held constant, within each experimental run. Results indicated that the size of both the neural and behavioral effects of stimulus incongruency varied with the temporal arrangement of the stimulus components, such that the random-SOA arrangements produced the greatest incongruency effects at the earliest irrelevant-first SOA (−200 ms) and the constant-SOA arrangements produced the greatest effects with simultaneous presentation. These differences in conflict processing were accompanied by rapid (~150 ms) modulations of the sensory ERPs to the irrelevant distracter components when they occurred consistently first. These effects suggest that individuals are able to strategically allocate attention in time to mitigate the influence of a temporally predictable distracter. As these adjustments are instantiated by the subjects without instruction, they reveal a form of rapid strategic learning for dealing with temporally predictable stimulus incongruency. PMID:22360623

  13. An Evaluation of the Response Modulation Hypothesis in Relation to Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Richard F.; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    Several hypotheses related to Newman's (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993) response modulation hypothesis were examined among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 18) and normal controls (n = 23). Consistent with predictions, youth with ADHD committed more passive avoidance errors (PAEs) than controls during the latter…

  14. Category-selective attention modulates unconscious processes in the middle occipital gyrus.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shen; Qiu, Jiang; Martens, Ulla; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have revealed the top-down modulation (spatial attention, attentional load, etc.) on unconscious processing. However, there is little research about how category-selective attention could modulate the unconscious processing. In the present study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the results showed that category-selective attention modulated unconscious face/tool processing in the middle occipital gyrus (MOG). Interestingly, MOG effects were of opposed direction for face and tool processes. During unconscious face processing, activation in MOG decreased under the face-selective attention compared with tool-selective attention. This result was in line with the predictive coding theory. During unconscious tool processing, however, activation in MOG increased under the tool-selective attention compared with face-selective attention. The different effects might be ascribed to an interaction between top-down category-selective processes and bottom-up processes in the partial awareness level as proposed by Kouider, De Gardelle, Sackur, and Dupoux (2010). Specifically, we suppose an "excessive activation" hypothesis. PMID:23518233

  15. The Interplay of Attention and Emotion: Top-down Attention Modulates Amygdala Activation in Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christine L.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Stout, Daniel M.; Balderston, Nicholas L.; Curtin, John J.; Schultz, Douglas H.; Kiehl, Kent A.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathic behavior has long been attributed to a fundamental deficit in fear that arises from impaired amygdala function. Growing evidence demonstrates that fear potentiated startle (FPS) and other psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by focus of attention but, to date, no work on adult psychopathy has examined attentional modulation of the amygdala, or concomitant recruitment of relevant attention-related circuitry. Consistent with previous FPS findings, here we report that psychopathy-related differences in amygdala activation appear and disappear as a function of goal-directed attention. Specifically, decreased amygdala activity was observed in psychopathic offenders only when attention was engaged in an alternative goal-relevant task prior to presenting threat-relevant information. Under this condition, psychopaths also exhibited greater activation in selective attention regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) than non-psychopaths, and this increased LPFC activation mediated psychopathy’s association with decreased amygdala activation. In contrast, when explicitly attending to threat, amygdala activation in psychopaths did not differ from non-psychopaths. This pattern of amygdala activation highlights the potential role of LPFC in mediating the failure of psychopathic individuals to process fear and other important information when it is peripheral to the primary focus of goal-directed attention. PMID:23712665

  16. Attention modulates beta oscillations during prolonged tactile stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bardouille, T.; Picton, T. W.; Ross, B.

    2016-01-01

    The inter-play between changes in beta-band (14–30-Hz) cortical rhythms and attention during somatosensation informs us about where and when relevant processes occur in the brain. As such, we investigated the effects of attention on somatosensory evoked and induced responses using vibrotactile stimulation and magnetoencephalographic recording. Subjects received trains of vibration at 23 Hz to the right index finger while watching a movie and ignoring the somatosensory stimuli or paying attention to the stimuli to detect a change in the duration of the stimulus. The amplitude of the evoked 23-Hz steady-state response in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) was enhanced by attention and the underlying dipole source was located 2 mm more medially, indicating top-down recruitment of additional neuronal populations for the functionally relevant stimulus. Attentional modulation of the somatosensory evoked response indicates facilitation of early processing of the tactile stimulus. Beta-band activity increased after vibration offset in the contralateral primary motor cortex (MI) [event-related synchronization (ERS)] and this increase was larger for attended than ignored stimuli. Beta-band activity decreased in the ipsilateral SI prior to stimulus offset [event-related desynchronization (ERD)] for attended stimuli only. Whereas attention modulation of the evoked response was confined to the contralateral SI, event-related changes of beta-band activity involved contralateral SI–MI and inter-hemispheric SI–SI connections. Modulation of neural activity in such a large sensorimotor network indicates a role for beta activity in higher-order processing. PMID:20384818

  17. The time course of attentional modulation on emotional conflict processing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pingyan; Yang, Guochun; Nan, Weizhi; Liu, Xun

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive conflict resolution is critical to human survival in a rapidly changing environment. However, emotional conflict processing seems to be particularly important for human interactions. This study examined whether the time course of attentional modulation on emotional conflict processing was different from cognitive conflict processing during a flanker task. Results showed that emotional N200 and P300 effects, similar to colour conflict processing, appeared only during the relevant task. However, the emotional N200 effect preceded the colour N200 effect, indicating that emotional conflict can be identified earlier than cognitive conflict. Additionally, a significant emotional N100 effect revealed that emotional valence differences could be perceived during early processing based on rough aspects of input. The present data suggest that emotional conflict processing is modulated by top-down attention, similar to cognitive conflict processing (reflected by N200 and P300 effects). However, emotional conflict processing seems to have more time advantages during two different processing stages. PMID:25809920

  18. Object-based attentional selection modulates anticipatory alpha oscillations.

    PubMed

    Knakker, Balázs; Weiss, Béla; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Visual cortical alpha oscillations are involved in attentional gating of incoming visual information. It has been shown that spatial and feature-based attentional selection result in increased alpha oscillations over the cortical regions representing sensory input originating from the unattended visual field and task-irrelevant visual features, respectively. However, whether attentional gating in the case of object based selection is also associated with alpha oscillations has not been investigated before. Here we measured anticipatory electroencephalography (EEG) alpha oscillations while participants were cued to attend to foveal face or word stimuli, the processing of which is known to have right and left hemispheric lateralization, respectively. The results revealed that in the case of simultaneously displayed, overlapping face and word stimuli, attending to the words led to increased power of parieto-occipital alpha oscillations over the right hemisphere as compared to when faces were attended. This object category-specific modulation of the hemispheric lateralization of anticipatory alpha oscillations was maintained during sustained attentional selection of sequentially presented face and word stimuli. These results imply that in the case of object-based attentional selection-similarly to spatial and feature-based attention-gating of visual information processing might involve visual cortical alpha oscillations. PMID:25628554

  19. Surprise? Early visual novelty processing is not modulated by attention

    PubMed Central

    Tarbi, Elise C.; Sun, Xue; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of direction of attention on the early detection of visual novelty, as indexed by the anterior N2. The anterior N2 was measured in young subjects (n=32) under an Attend and Ignore condition. Subjects were presented standard, target/rare, and perceptually novel visual stimuli under both conditions, but under the Ignore condition, attention was directed towards an auditory n-back task. The size of the anterior N2 to novel stimuli did not differ between conditions and was significantly larger than the anterior N2 to all other stimulus types. Furthermore, under the Ignore condition, the anterior N2 to visual novel stimuli was not affected by the level of difficulty of the auditory n-back task (3-back vs. 2-back). Our findings suggest that the early processing of visual novelty, as measured by the size of the anterior N2, is not strongly modulated by direction of attention. PMID:20880260

  20. Lateralization in Alpha-Band Oscillations Predicts the Locus and Spatial Distribution of Attention.

    PubMed

    Ikkai, Akiko; Dandekar, Sangita; Curtis, Clayton E

    2016-01-01

    Attending to a task-relevant location changes how neural activity oscillates in the alpha band (8-13Hz) in posterior visual cortical areas. However, a clear understanding of the relationships between top-down attention, changes in alpha oscillations in visual cortex, and attention performance are still poorly understood. Here, we tested the degree to which the posterior alpha power tracked the locus of attention, the distribution of attention, and how well the topography of alpha could predict the locus of attention. We recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data while subjects performed an attention demanding visual discrimination task that dissociated the direction of attention from the direction of a saccade to indicate choice. On some trials, an endogenous cue predicted the target's location, while on others it contained no spatial information. When the target's location was cued, alpha power decreased in sensors over occipital cortex contralateral to the attended visual field. When the cue did not predict the target's location, alpha power again decreased in sensors over occipital cortex, but bilaterally, and increased in sensors over frontal cortex. Thus, the distribution and the topography of alpha reliably indicated the locus of covert attention. Together, these results suggest that alpha synchronization reflects changes in the excitability of populations of neurons whose receptive fields match the locus of attention. This is consistent with the hypothesis that alpha oscillations reflect the neural mechanisms by which top-down control of attention biases information processing and modulate the activity of neurons in visual cortex. PMID:27144717

  1. The modulation of spatial congruency by object-based attention: analysing the "locus" of the modulation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunming; Lupiáñez, Juan; Funes, María Jesús; Fu, Xiaolan

    2011-12-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that spatial cueing differentially reduces stimulus-stimulus congruency (e.g., spatial Stroop) interference but not stimulus-response congruency (e.g., Simon; e.g., Lupiáñez & Funes, 2005). This spatial cueing modulation over spatial Stroop seems to be entirely attributable to object-based attention (e.g., Luo, Lupiáñez, Funes, & Fu, 2010). In the present study, two experiments were conducted to further explore whether the cueing modulation of spatial Stroop is object based and/or space based and to analyse the "locus" of this modulation. In Experiment 1, we found that the cueing modulation over spatial Stroop is entirely object based, independent of stimulus-response congruency. In Experiment 2, we observed that the modulation of object-based attention over the spatial Stroop only occurred at a short cue-target interval (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony; SOA), whereas the stimulus-response congruency effect was not modulated either by object-based or by location-based attentional cueing. The overall pattern of results suggests that the spatial cueing modulation over spatial Stroop arises from object-based attention and occurs at the perceptual stage of processing. PMID:21923623

  2. Attentional Bias towards Positive Emotion Predicts Stress Resilience.

    PubMed

    Thoern, Hanna A; Grueschow, Marcus; Ehlert, Ulrike; Ruff, Christian C; Kleim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence for an association between an attentional bias towards emotionally negative stimuli and vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Less is known about whether selective attention towards emotionally positive stimuli relates to mental health and stress resilience. The current study used a modified Dot Probe task to investigate if individual differences in attentional biases towards either happy or angry emotional stimuli, or an interaction between these biases, are related to self-reported trait stress resilience. In a nonclinical sample (N = 43), we indexed attentional biases as individual differences in reaction time for stimuli preceded by either happy or angry (compared to neutral) face stimuli. Participants with greater attentional bias towards happy faces (but not angry faces) reported higher trait resilience. However, an attentional bias towards angry stimuli moderated this effect: The attentional bias towards happy faces was only predictive for resilience in those individuals who also endorsed an attentional bias towards angry stimuli. An attentional bias towards positive emotional stimuli may thus be a protective factor contributing to stress resilience, specifically in those individuals who also endorse an attentional bias towards negative emotional stimuli. Our findings therefore suggest a novel target for prevention and treatment interventions addressing stress-related psychopathology. PMID:27008475

  3. Attentional Bias towards Positive Emotion Predicts Stress Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Ehlert, Ulrike; Ruff, Christian C.; Kleim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence for an association between an attentional bias towards emotionally negative stimuli and vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Less is known about whether selective attention towards emotionally positive stimuli relates to mental health and stress resilience. The current study used a modified Dot Probe task to investigate if individual differences in attentional biases towards either happy or angry emotional stimuli, or an interaction between these biases, are related to self-reported trait stress resilience. In a nonclinical sample (N = 43), we indexed attentional biases as individual differences in reaction time for stimuli preceded by either happy or angry (compared to neutral) face stimuli. Participants with greater attentional bias towards happy faces (but not angry faces) reported higher trait resilience. However, an attentional bias towards angry stimuli moderated this effect: The attentional bias towards happy faces was only predictive for resilience in those individuals who also endorsed an attentional bias towards angry stimuli. An attentional bias towards positive emotional stimuli may thus be a protective factor contributing to stress resilience, specifically in those individuals who also endorse an attentional bias towards negative emotional stimuli. Our findings therefore suggest a novel target for prevention and treatment interventions addressing stress-related psychopathology. PMID:27008475

  4. Dynamic filtering improves attentional state prediction with fNIRS.

    PubMed

    Harrivel, Angela R; Weissman, Daniel H; Noll, Douglas C; Huppert, Theodore; Peltier, Scott J

    2016-03-01

    Brain activity can predict a person's level of engagement in an attentional task. However, estimates of brain activity are often confounded by measurement artifacts and systemic physiological noise. The optimal method for filtering this noise - thereby increasing such state prediction accuracy - remains unclear. To investigate this, we asked study participants to perform an attentional task while we monitored their brain activity with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We observed higher state prediction accuracy when noise in the fNIRS hemoglobin [Hb] signals was filtered with a non-stationary (adaptive) model as compared to static regression (84% ± 6% versus 72% ± 15%). PMID:27231602

  5. Dynamic filtering improves attentional state prediction with fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Weissman, Daniel H.; Noll, Douglas C.; Huppert, Theodore; Peltier, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity can predict a person’s level of engagement in an attentional task. However, estimates of brain activity are often confounded by measurement artifacts and systemic physiological noise. The optimal method for filtering this noise – thereby increasing such state prediction accuracy – remains unclear. To investigate this, we asked study participants to perform an attentional task while we monitored their brain activity with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We observed higher state prediction accuracy when noise in the fNIRS hemoglobin [Hb] signals was filtered with a non-stationary (adaptive) model as compared to static regression (84% ± 6% versus 72% ± 15%). PMID:27231602

  6. Eye Movements during Auditory Attention Predict Individual Differences in Dorsal Attention Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Rodrigo M.; Fu, Richard Z.; Seemungal, Barry M.; Wise, Richard J. S.; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting auditory attention are not fully understood. A dorsal frontoparietal network of brain regions is thought to mediate the spatial orienting of attention across all sensory modalities. Key parts of this network, the frontal eye fields (FEF) and the superior parietal lobes (SPL), contain retinotopic maps and elicit saccades when stimulated. This suggests that their recruitment during auditory attention might reflect crossmodal oculomotor processes; however this has not been confirmed experimentally. Here we investigate whether task-evoked eye movements during an auditory task can predict the magnitude of activity within the dorsal frontoparietal network. A spatial and non-spatial listening task was used with on-line eye-tracking and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). No visual stimuli or cues were used. The auditory task elicited systematic eye movements, with saccade rate and gaze position predicting attentional engagement and the cued sound location, respectively. Activity associated with these separate aspects of evoked eye-movements dissociated between the SPL and FEF. However these observed eye movements could not account for all the activation in the frontoparietal network. Our results suggest that the recruitment of the SPL and FEF during attentive listening reflects, at least partly, overt crossmodal oculomotor processes during non-visual attention. Further work is needed to establish whether the network’s remaining contribution to auditory attention is through covert crossmodal processes, or is directly involved in the manipulation of auditory information. PMID:27242465

  7. The Predictive Brain State: Asynchrony in Disorders of Attention?

    PubMed Central

    Ghajar, Jamshid; Ivry, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    It is postulated that a key function of attention in goal-oriented behavior is to reduce performance variability by generating anticipatory neural activity that can be synchronized with expected sensory information. A network encompassing the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and cerebellum may be critical in the maintenance and timing of such predictive neural activity. Dysfunction of this temporal process may constitute a fundamental defect in attention, causing working memory problems, distractibility, and decreased awareness. PMID:19074688

  8. Flexible establishment of functional brain networks supports attentional modulation of unconscious cognition.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Martin; Adams, Sarah C; Kiefer, Markus

    2014-11-01

    In classical theories of attention, unconscious automatic processes are thought to be independent of higher-level attentional influences. Here, we propose that unconscious processing depends on attentional enhancement of task-congruent processing pathways implemented by a dynamic modulation of the functional communication between brain regions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested our model with a subliminally primed lexical decision task preceded by an induction task preparing either a semantic or a perceptual task set. Subliminal semantic priming was significantly greater after semantic compared to perceptual induction in ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) and inferior frontal cortex, brain areas known to be involved in semantic processing. The functional connectivity pattern of vOT varied depending on the induction task and successfully predicted the magnitude of behavioral and neural priming. Together, these findings support the proposal that dynamic establishment of functional networks by task sets is an important mechanism in the attentional control of unconscious processing. PMID:24954512

  9. Attentional Bias toward Suicide-Related Stimuli Predicts Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Christine B.; Najmi, Sadia; Park, Jennifer M.; Finn, Christine T.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    A long-standing challenge for scientific and clinical work on suicidal behavior is that people often are motivated to deny or conceal suicidal thoughts. We proposed that people considering suicide would possess an objectively measurable attentional bias toward suicide-related stimuli, and that this bias would predict future suicidal behavior. Participants were 124 adults presenting to a psychiatric emergency department who were administered a modified emotional Stroop task and followed for six months. Suicide attempters showed an attentional bias toward suicide-related words relative to neutral words, and this bias was strongest among those who had made a more recent attempt. Importantly, this suicide-specific attentional bias predicted which people made a suicide attempt over the next six months, above and beyond other clinical predictors. Attentional bias toward more general negatively-valenced words did not predict any suicide-related outcomes, supporting the specificity of the observed effect. These results suggest that suicide-specific attentional bias can serve as a behavioral marker for suicidal risk, and ultimately improve scientific and clinical work on suicide-related outcomes. PMID:20677851

  10. Infants' Joint Attention Skills Predict Toddlers' Emerging Mental State Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Thoermer, Claudia; Perst, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    To assess predictive relations between joint attention skills, intention understanding, and mental state vocabulary, 88 children were tested with measures of comprehension of gaze and referential pointing, as well as the production of declarative gestures and the comprehension and production of imperative gestures, at the ages of 7-18 months.…

  11. Anxiety modulates the effects of emotion and attention on early vision.

    PubMed

    Ferneyhough, Emma; Kim, Min K; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    At attended locations emotion and attention interact to benefit contrast sensitivity, a basic visual dimension. Whether there are associated costs at unattended locations is unknown. Furthermore, emotion and attention affect response time, and anxiety modulates these effects. We investigated how trait-anxiety influences the interaction of emotion and attention on contrast sensitivity. On each trial, non-predictive pre-cues (neutral or fearful faces) directed exogenous attention to four contrast-varying, tilted stimuli (Gabor patches). Attention was cued toward the target (valid), a distracter (invalid), or distributed over all locations. Observers discriminated target orientation, and completed self-report measures of anxiety. Effects of fearful expressions were mediated by trait anxiety. Only high-trait-anxious individuals showed decreased target contrast sensitivity after attention was diverted to a distracter by a fearful cue, and anxiety score correlated with degree of impairment across participants. This indicates that increasing anxiety exacerbates threat-related attentional costs to visual perception, hampering processing at non-threat-related locations. PMID:22784014

  12. Attention effects on vicarious modulation of nociception and pain.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Ali; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Schrooten, Martien; Vlaeyen, Johan; Rainville, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The observation of others' facial expressions of pain has been shown to facilitate the observer's nociceptive responses and to increase pain perception. We investigated how this vicarious facilitation effect is modulated by directing the observer's attention toward the meaning of pain expression or the facial movements. In separate trials, participants were instructed to assess the "intensity of the pain expression"(meaning) or to "discriminate the facial movements" in the upper vs lower part of the face shown in 1-second dynamic clips displaying mild, moderate, or strong pain expressions or a neutral control. In 50% of the trials, participants received a painful electrical stimulation to the sural nerve immediately after the presentation of the expression. Low-level nociceptive reactivity was measured with the RIII-response, and pain perception was assessed using pain ratings. Pain induced by the electrical stimulation increased after viewing stronger pain expressions in both tasks, but the RIII-response showed this vicarious facilitation effect only in the movement discrimination task at the strongest expression intensity. These findings are consistent with the notion that vicarious processes facilitate self-pain and may prime automatic nociceptive responses. However, this priming effect is influenced by top-down attentional processes. These results provide another case of dissociation between reflexive and perceptual processes, consistent with the involvement of partly separate brain networks in the regulation of cortical and lower-level nociceptive responses. Combined with previous results, these findings suggest that vicarious pain facilitation is an automatic process that may be diminished by top-down attentional processes directed at the meaning of the expression. PMID:25016217

  13. Attentional modulation of the carry over of eye-movements between tasks.

    PubMed

    Hills, Peter J; Thompson, Catherine; Jones, Scott P; Piech, Richard M; Painter, Lee; Pake, J Michael

    2016-06-01

    Task demands that influence scanning behaviour in one task can cause that behaviour to persist to a second unrelated task (carry over). This can also affect performance on a second task (e.g., hazard perception ratings), and has been attributed to a process of attentional bias that is modulated by top-down influences (Thompson & Crundall, 2011). In a series of experiments we explored how these top-down influences impact upon carry over. In all experiments, participants searched letters that were presented horizontally, vertically, or in a random array. They were then presented with a driving scene and rated the hazardousness of the scene. Carry over of eye-movements from the letter search to the scene was observed in all experiments. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that this carry over effect influenced hazard perception accuracy. The magnitude of carry over was correlated with task switching abilities, attentional conflicting, and attentional orienting (Experiment 1), and was affected by predictability of the primary task (Experiment 2). Furthermore, direct current stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal areas affected the magnitude of the effect (Experiment 3). These results indicate that carry over is modulated by the specific ability to orient attention and disengage from this orientation. Over orienting leads to increased carry over and insufficient task switching is detrimental to task performance. As a result the current experiments provide evidence that the carry over effect is strongly influenced by attentional processes, namely orienting, inhibition, and task switching. PMID:27065011

  14. Lateralization in Alpha-Band Oscillations Predicts the Locus and Spatial Distribution of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Ikkai, Akiko; Dandekar, Sangita; Curtis, Clayton E.

    2016-01-01

    Attending to a task-relevant location changes how neural activity oscillates in the alpha band (8–13Hz) in posterior visual cortical areas. However, a clear understanding of the relationships between top-down attention, changes in alpha oscillations in visual cortex, and attention performance are still poorly understood. Here, we tested the degree to which the posterior alpha power tracked the locus of attention, the distribution of attention, and how well the topography of alpha could predict the locus of attention. We recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data while subjects performed an attention demanding visual discrimination task that dissociated the direction of attention from the direction of a saccade to indicate choice. On some trials, an endogenous cue predicted the target’s location, while on others it contained no spatial information. When the target’s location was cued, alpha power decreased in sensors over occipital cortex contralateral to the attended visual field. When the cue did not predict the target’s location, alpha power again decreased in sensors over occipital cortex, but bilaterally, and increased in sensors over frontal cortex. Thus, the distribution and the topography of alpha reliably indicated the locus of covert attention. Together, these results suggest that alpha synchronization reflects changes in the excitability of populations of neurons whose receptive fields match the locus of attention. This is consistent with the hypothesis that alpha oscillations reflect the neural mechanisms by which top-down control of attention biases information processing and modulate the activity of neurons in visual cortex. PMID:27144717

  15. Attention Modulates TMS-Locked Alpha Oscillations in the Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Herring, Jim D; Thut, Gregor; Jensen, Ole; Bergmann, Til O

    2015-10-28

    Cortical oscillations, such as 8-12 Hz alpha-band activity, are thought to subserve gating of information processing in the human brain. While most of the supporting evidence is correlational, causal evidence comes from attempts to externally drive ("entrain") these oscillations by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Indeed, the frequency profile of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) closely resembles that of oscillations spontaneously emerging in the same brain region. However, it is unclear whether TMS-locked and spontaneous oscillations are produced by the same neuronal mechanisms. If so, they should react in a similar manner to top-down modulation by endogenous attention. To test this prediction, we assessed the alpha-like EEG response to TMS of the visual cortex during periods of high and low visual attention while participants attended to either the visual or auditory modality in a cross-modal attention task. We observed a TMS-locked local oscillatory alpha response lasting several cycles after TMS (but not after sham stimulation). Importantly, TMS-locked alpha power was suppressed during deployment of visual relative to auditory attention, mirroring spontaneous alpha amplitudes. In addition, the early N40 TEP component, located at the stimulation site, was amplified by visual attention. The extent of attentional modulation for both TMS-locked alpha power and N40 amplitude did depend, with opposite sign, on the individual ability to modulate spontaneous alpha power at the stimulation site. We therefore argue that TMS-locked and spontaneous oscillations are of common neurophysiological origin, whereas the N40 TEP component may serve as an index of current cortical excitability at the time of stimulation. PMID:26511236

  16. Selective attention modulates early human evoked potentials during emotional face-voice processing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hao Tam; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-04-01

    Recent findings on multisensory integration suggest that selective attention influences cross-sensory interactions from an early processing stage. Yet, in the field of emotional face-voice integration, the hypothesis prevails that facial and vocal emotional information interacts preattentively. Using ERPs, we investigated the influence of selective attention on the perception of congruent versus incongruent combinations of neutral and angry facial and vocal expressions. Attention was manipulated via four tasks that directed participants to (i) the facial expression, (ii) the vocal expression, (iii) the emotional congruence between the face and the voice, and (iv) the synchrony between lip movement and speech onset. Our results revealed early interactions between facial and vocal emotional expressions, manifested as modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 amplitude by incongruent emotional face-voice combinations. Although audiovisual emotional interactions within the N1 time window were affected by the attentional manipulations, interactions within the P2 modulation showed no such attentional influence. Thus, we propose that the N1 and P2 are functionally dissociated in terms of emotional face-voice processing and discuss evidence in support of the notion that the N1 is associated with cross-sensory prediction, whereas the P2 relates to the derivation of an emotional percept. Essentially, our findings put the integration of facial and vocal emotional expressions into a new perspective-one that regards the integration process as a composite of multiple, possibly independent subprocesses, some of which are susceptible to attentional modulation, whereas others may be influenced by additional factors. PMID:25269113

  17. Infant attention to intentional action predicts preschool theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Henry M; Lopez-Duran, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Hamilton, Betsy

    2008-03-01

    This research examines whether there are continuities between infant social attention and later theory of mind. Forty-five children were studied as infants and then again as 4-year-olds. Measures of infant social attention (decrement of attention during habituation to displays of intentional action) significantly predicted later theory of mind (false-belief understanding). Possibly, this longitudinal association could have been explained by more general developments in IQ, verbal competence, or executive function (rather than continuities in the realm of social cognition). However, the association remained significant and undiminished even when IQ, verbal competence, and executive function were controlled. The findings thus provide strong support for an important continuity in social cognition separable from continuities in more general information processing. PMID:18331149

  18. Humans are sensitive to attention control when predicting others' actions.

    PubMed

    Pesquita, Ana; Chapman, Craig S; Enns, James T

    2016-08-01

    Studies of social perception report acute human sensitivity to where another's attention is aimed. Here we ask whether humans are also sensitive to how the other's attention is deployed. Observers viewed videos of actors reaching to targets without knowing that those actors were sometimes choosing to reach to one of the targets (endogenous control) and sometimes being directed to reach to one of the targets (exogenous control). Experiments 1 and 2 showed that observers could respond more rapidly when actors chose where to reach, yet were at chance when guessing whether the reach was chosen or directed. This implicit sensitivity to attention control held when either actor's faces or limbs were masked (experiment 3) and when only the earliest actor's movements were visible (experiment 4). Individual differences in sensitivity to choice correlated with an independent measure of social aptitude. We conclude that humans are sensitive to attention control through an implicit kinematic process linked to empathy. The findings support the hypothesis that social cognition involves the predictive modeling of others' attentional states. PMID:27436897

  19. Impairment in Emotional Modulation of Attention and Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Ramirez, Paul Michael; Wong, Philip; Antonius, Daniel; Aujero, Nicole; McMahon, Kevin; Opler, Lewis A.; Malaspina, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Emotion plays a critical role in cognition and goal-directed behavior via complex interconnections between the emotional and motivational systems. It has been hypothesized that the impairment in goal-directed behavior widely noted in schizophrenia may result from defects in the interaction between the neural (ventral) emotional system and (rostral) cortical processes. The present study examined the impact of emotion on attention and memory in schizophrenia. Twenty-five individuals with schizophrenia related psychosis and 25 healthy control subjects were administered a computerized task in which they were asked to search for target images during a rapid serial visual presentation of pictures. Target stimuli were either positive, negative, or neutral images presented at either 200ms or 700ms lag. Additionally, a visual hedonics task was used to assess differences between the schizophrenia group and controls on ratings of valence and arousal from the picture stimuli. Compared to controls, individuals with schizophrenia detected fewer emotional images under both the 200ms and 700ms lag conditions. Multivariate analyses showed that the schizophrenia group also detected fewer positive images under the 700 lag condition and fewer negative images under the 200 lag condition. Individuals with schizophrenia reported higher pleasantness and unpleasantness ratings than controls in response to neutral stimuli, while controls reported higher arousal ratings for neutral and positive stimuli compared to the schizophrenia group. These results highlight dysfunction in the neural modulation of emotion, attention, and cortical processing in schizophrenia, adding to the growing but mixed body of literature on emotion processing in the disorder. PMID:24910446

  20. [Independent resource of each hemisphere modulates selective attention].

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Ritsuko

    2008-06-01

    Based on the load theory and the assumption that each hemisphere has independent resources, we examined the effects of perceptual load in each hemisphere on the compatibility effect. In Experiments 1, and 2ab, two letter-strings were presented to the left and right visual-fields with a distracter, which was presented on the center of the screen. Two conditions were prepared by pairing a letter-string which contained a target with one which did not. Right-handed participants were asked to identify the target in the letter-strings while ignoring the distracter. The results showed that the compatibility effect was larger when the perceptual load of the letter-string which did not contain a target was low. This suggests that the residual resources of the hemisphere where the target was not projected facilitated the processing of the distracter. In Experiment 3, two letter-strings were presented to both hemispheres. The results showed that the compatibility effect was constant, irrespective of the perceptual load of the letter-string. Our findings suggested that selective attention is modulated by the resources of each hemisphere. PMID:18678063

  1. Silent Expectations: Dynamic Causal Modeling of Cortical Prediction and Attention to Sounds That Weren't

    PubMed Central

    Noreika, Valdas; Gueorguiev, David; Shtyrov, Yury; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.; Henson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human perception is realized by a hierarchy of neural processes in which predictions sent backward from higher levels result in prediction errors that are fed forward from lower levels, to update the current model of the environment. Moreover, the precision of prediction errors is thought to be modulated by attention. Much of this evidence comes from paradigms in which a stimulus differs from that predicted by the recent history of other stimuli (generating a so-called “mismatch response”). There is less evidence from situations where a prediction is not fulfilled by any sensory input (an “omission” response). This situation arguably provides a more direct measure of “top-down” predictions in the absence of confounding “bottom-up” input. We applied Dynamic Causal Modeling of evoked electromagnetic responses recorded by EEG and MEG to an auditory paradigm in which we factorially crossed the presence versus absence of “bottom-up” stimuli with the presence versus absence of “top-down” attention. Model comparison revealed that both mismatch and omission responses were mediated by increased forward and backward connections, differing primarily in the driving input. In both responses, modeling results suggested that the presence of attention selectively modulated backward “prediction” connections. Our results provide new model-driven evidence of the pure top-down prediction signal posited in theories of hierarchical perception, and highlight the role of attentional precision in strengthening this prediction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Human auditory perception is thought to be realized by a network of neurons that maintain a model of and predict future stimuli. Much of the evidence for this comes from experiments where a stimulus unexpectedly differs from previous ones, which generates a well-known “mismatch response.” But what happens when a stimulus is unexpectedly omitted altogether? By measuring the brain

  2. Electrocortical indices of selective attention predict adolescent executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Christine L; Santesso, Diane L; Dywan, Jane; Wade, Terrance J; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2013-05-01

    Executive functioning is considered a powerful predictor of behavioral and mental health outcomes during adolescence. Our question was whether executive functioning skills, normally considered "top-down" processes, are related to automatic aspects of selective attention. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from typically-developing 12-14-year-old adolescents as they responded to tones presented in attended and unattended channels in an auditory selective attention task. Examining these ERPs in relation to parental reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) revealed that an early frontal positivity (EFP) elicited by to-be-ignored/unattended tones was larger in those with poorer executive functions, driven by scores on the BRIEF Metacognition Index. As is traditionally found, N1 amplitudes were more negative for the to-be-attended rather than unattended tones. Additionally, N1 latencies to unattended tones correlated with parent-ratings on the BRIEF Behavior Regulation Index, where shorter latencies predicted better executive functions. Results suggest that the ability to disengage attention from distractor information in the early stages of stimulus processing is associated with adolescent executive functioning skills. PMID:23528784

  3. Context Modulates Attention to Social Scenes in Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Macari, Suzanne; Shic, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Background: In typical development, the unfolding of social and communicative skills hinges upon the ability to allocate and sustain attention toward people, a skill present moments after birth. Deficits in social attention have been well documented in autism, though the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods: In order to parse the…

  4. Attention Modulates TMS-Locked Alpha Oscillations in the Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Jim D.; Thut, Gregor; Jensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Cortical oscillations, such as 8–12 Hz alpha-band activity, are thought to subserve gating of information processing in the human brain. While most of the supporting evidence is correlational, causal evidence comes from attempts to externally drive (“entrain”) these oscillations by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Indeed, the frequency profile of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) closely resembles that of oscillations spontaneously emerging in the same brain region. However, it is unclear whether TMS-locked and spontaneous oscillations are produced by the same neuronal mechanisms. If so, they should react in a similar manner to top-down modulation by endogenous attention. To test this prediction, we assessed the alpha-like EEG response to TMS of the visual cortex during periods of high and low visual attention while participants attended to either the visual or auditory modality in a cross-modal attention task. We observed a TMS-locked local oscillatory alpha response lasting several cycles after TMS (but not after sham stimulation). Importantly, TMS-locked alpha power was suppressed during deployment of visual relative to auditory attention, mirroring spontaneous alpha amplitudes. In addition, the early N40 TEP component, located at the stimulation site, was amplified by visual attention. The extent of attentional modulation for both TMS-locked alpha power and N40 amplitude did depend, with opposite sign, on the individual ability to modulate spontaneous alpha power at the stimulation site. We therefore argue that TMS-locked and spontaneous oscillations are of common neurophysiological origin, whereas the N40 TEP component may serve as an index of current cortical excitability at the time of stimulation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a promising tool to experimentally “entrain” cortical activity. If TMS-locked oscillatory responses actually recruit the same neuronal mechanisms as spontaneous cortical

  5. Can emotion modulate attention? Evidence for reciprocal links in the attentional network test.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noga; Henik, Avishai; Mor, Nilly

    2011-01-01

    Evolution theory suggests that adaptive behavior depends on our ability to give preferential attention to emotional information when it is necessary for our survival, and to down-regulate irrelevant emotional influence. However, empirical work has shown that the interaction between emotion and attention varies, based on the attentional network in question. The aim of the current research was to examine the influence of stimulus emotionality on attention in three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive functions. In two studies, using negative and neutral cues in a modified version of the Attention Network Test, it was found that negative cues impaired task performance in the absence of executive conflict, but not when executive processes were activated. Moreover, it was found that the influence of negative cues on task performance in a given trial was attenuated following activation of executive processes in the previous trial. These results suggest that when executive resources are required, inhibitory mechanisms are recruited to decrease the disruptive effect of emotional stimuli. More importantly, these findings indicate that the effect of emotional stimuli on attention is down-regulated both during cognitive conflict and after the conflict has already ended. PMID:20705545

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of early spatial and category-specific attentional modulations.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Poghosyan, Vahe

    2012-04-15

    Different attention types select and focus brain resources on relevant sensory information. However, key questions remain unresolved: when and where cortical visual processing is first modulated by different types of attention? How do such modulatory effects spread thereafter? Here, we address these issues for spatial and category-specific types of attention using magnetoencephalography (MEG). First we identified the dynamics of visual attention-independent sensory processing to serve as a baseline framework for the attentional modulations of interest. We found that visual information is processed through the entire hierarchy of visual areas in at least two phases, in the 40-130 ms and 130-230 ms periods respectively. Spatial attention modulations were identified from the beginning of the initial stimulus-evoked response in the primary visual cortex ~70 ms post-stimulus. Category-specific attention modulated face processing beginning from the first face-specific response in high-level object-related areas ~100 ms post-stimulus, substantially earlier than previously reported for face-directed attention. Thus both attention types modulated responses during the first processing phase, beginning at the earliest brain area capable of coding the attentional target. Thereafter attentional effects propagated through the visual cortex together with the stimulus-evoked activity. Category-specific attention did not affect the first-phase responses in low-level strongly retinotopic visual areas, while the second-phase responses were enhanced when the stimulus was the response target and reduced when it was a distractor. Responses during both phases in high-level object-related areas were enhanced by category-specific attention independent of their target/distractor status. Spatial attention effects were stronger in low-level areas, whereas category-specific attention effects were stronger in high-level object-related areas. PMID:22342803

  7. GRIN2B predicts attention problems among disadvantaged children.

    PubMed

    Riva, Valentina; Battaglia, Marco; Nobile, Maria; Cattaneo, Francesca; Lazazzera, Claudio; Mascheretti, Sara; Giorda, Roberto; Mérette, Chantal; Émond, Claudia; Maziade, Michel; Marino, Cecilia

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that adversities and GRIN2B (coding an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit) are independently associated with behavioral and cognitive impairments in childhood. However, a high proportion of children exposed to adversities have good, long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that among children exposed to adversities, GRIN2B variants would predict the worst cognitive and behavioral outcomes. 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms of GRIN2B were genotyped in 625 children aged 6-11 years from an Italian community-based sample. The interacting effect of GRIN2B variants with 4 measures of adversities [low socioeconomic status (SES), preterm delivery, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and absence of breastfeeding] was investigated upon blindly assessed cognitive abilities (vocabulary, block design, digit spans of Wechsler's Intelligence Scale, and Rey complex figure) and parents-rated behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist/6-18). Rs2268119 × SES interaction (Hotelling's Trace = 0.07; F(12,1154) = 3.53; p = 0.00004) influenced behavior, with more attention problems among children in the 'either A/T or T/T genotype and low SES' group, compared to all other groups. This interaction effect was not significant in an independent, replication sample of 475 subjects from an Italian community-based sample. GRIN2B variants predict children with the worst outcome in attention functioning among children exposed to low SES. Our findings, if replicated, could help in the identification of children with the highest risk and may prompt cost-effective preventive/treatment strategies. PMID:25316095

  8. Temporal cuing modulates alpha oscillations during auditory attentional blink.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dawei; Ross, Bernhard; Alain, Claude

    2016-07-01

    Attentional blink (AB) refers to the phenomenon whereby the correct identification of a visual or auditory target impairs processing of a subsequent probe. Although it has been shown that knowing in advance, when the probe would be presented, reduces the attentional blink and increases the amplitude of event-related potential (ERP) elicited by the probe, the neural mechanism by which attention mitigates the AB remains unclear. Here, we used time-frequency analysis to further explore the mechanism of the auditory attentional blink. Participants were presented a series of rapid auditory stimuli and asked to indicate whether a target and a probe were present in the sequence. In half of the trials, participants were cued to the probe position relative to the target ('Early' or 'Late'). Probe detection and ERP amplitude elicited by the probe decreased when the probe was presented shortly after the target compared to when it was presented later after the target. Importantly, the behavioral and ERP correlates of probe discrimination significantly improved when the 'Early' cue was presented. The improvement in processing the probe in the cued condition was accompanied by the decrease in alpha activity (8-13 Hz) after the time when the probe was expected; suggesting that successfully directing attention to time window where the probe would likely occur reduces the processing resources needed to suppress distractors. This in turn freed up available processing resources for the target and probe at the short-term consolidation stage, which ultimately reduced the auditory attentional blink. PMID:27152668

  9. Disgust-specific modulation of early attention processes.

    PubMed

    van Hooff, Johanna C; van Buuringen, Melanie; El M'rabet, Ihsane; de Gier, Margot; van Zalingen, Lilian

    2014-10-01

    Although threatening images are known to attract and keep our attention, little is known about the existence of emotion-specific attention effects. In this study (N=46), characteristics of an anticipated, disgust-specific effect were investigated by means of a covert orienting paradigm incorporating pictures that were either disgust-evoking, fear-evoking, happiness-evoking or neutral. Attention adhesion to these pictures was measured by the time necessary to identify a peripheral target, presented 100, 200, 500, or 800 ms after picture onset. Main results showed that reaction times were delayed for targets following the disgust-evoking pictures by 100 and 200 ms, suggesting that only these pictures temporarily grabbed hold of participants' attention. These delays were similar for ignore- and attend-instructions, and they were not affected by the participants' anxiety levels or disgust sensitivity. The disgust-specific influence on early attention processes thus appeared very robust, occurring in the majority of participants and without contribution of voluntary- and strategic-attention processes. In contrast, a smaller and less reliable effect of all emotional (arousing) pictures was present in the form of delayed responding in the 100 ms cue-target interval. This effect was more transitory and apparent only in participants with relatively high state-anxiety scores. Practical and theoretical consequences of these findings are discussed. PMID:25226546

  10. Emotion Modulation of Visual Attention: Categorical and Temporal Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielski, Bethany G.; Armstrong, Thomas; Zald, David H.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Experimental research has shown that emotional stimuli can either enhance or impair attentional performance. However, the relative effects of specific emotional stimuli and the specific time course of these differential effects are unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, participants (n = 50) searched for a single target within a rapid serial visual presentation of images. Irrelevant fear, disgust, erotic or neutral images preceded the target by two, four, six, or eight items. At lag 2, erotic images induced the greatest deficits in subsequent target processing compared to other images, consistent with a large emotional attentional blink. Fear and disgust images also produced a larger attentional blinks at lag 2 than neutral images. Erotic, fear, and disgust images continued to induce greater deficits than neutral images at lag 4 and 6. However, target processing deficits induced by erotic, fear, and disgust images at intermediate lags (lag 4 and 6) did not consistently differ from each other. In contrast to performance at lag 2, 4, and 6, enhancement in target processing for emotional stimuli was observed in comparison to neutral stimuli at lag 8. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that task-irrelevant emotion information, particularly erotica, impairs intentional allocation of attention at early temporal stages, but at later temporal stages, emotional stimuli can have an enhancing effect on directed attention. These data suggest that the effects of emotional stimuli on attention can be both positive and negative depending upon temporal factors. PMID:21079773

  11. Attention to Faces Modulates Early Face Processing during Low but not High Face Discriminability

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Kartik K.; Goldstein, Jonathan M.; Lustig, Audrey G.; Rivas, Luis R.; Jha, Amishi P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated if attention to faces results in sensory gain modulation. Participants were cued to attend to faces or scenes in superimposed face-scene images while face discriminability was parametrically manipulated across images. The face-sensitive N170 event-related potential component was used as a measure of early face processing. Attention to faces modulated N170 amplitude, but only when faces were not highly discriminable. Additionally, directing attention to faces modulated later processing (~230–300 msec) for all discriminability levels. These results demonstrate that attention to faces can modulate perceptual processing of faces at multiple stages of processing, including early sensory levels. Critically, the early attentional benefit is present only when the “face signal” (i.e., the perceptual quality of the face) in the environment is suboptimal. PMID:19429962

  12. Emotional prosody modulates attention in schizophrenia patients with hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Alba-Ferrara, L; de Erausquin, G A; Hirnstein, M; Weis, S; Hausmann, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that emotional prosody (EP) attracts attention involuntarily (Grandjean et al., 2008). The automat shift of attention toward emotionally salient stimuli can be overcome by attentional control (Hahn et al., 2010). Attentional control is impaired in schizophrenia, especially in schizophrenic patients with hallucinations because the "voices" capture attention increasing the processing load and competing for top-down resources. The present study investigates how involuntary attention is driven by implicit EP in schizophrenia with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and without (NAVH). Fifteen AVH patients, 12 NAVH patients and 16 healthy controls (HC) completed a dual-task dichotic listening paradigm, in which an emotional vocal outburst was paired with a neutral vocalization spoken in male and female voices. Participants were asked to report the speaker's gender while attending to either the left or right ear. NAVH patients and HC revealed shorter response times for stimuli presented to the attended left ear than the attended right ear. This laterality effect was not present in AVH patients. In addition, NAVH patients and HC showed faster responses when the EP stimulus was presented to the unattended ear, probably because of less interference between the attention-controlled gender voice identification task and involuntary EP processing. AVH patients did not benefit from presenting emotional stimuli to the unattended ear. The findings suggest that similar to HC, NAVH patients show a right hemispheric bias for EP processing. AVH patients seem to be less lateralized for EP and therefore might be more susceptible to interfering involuntary EP processing; regardless which ear/hemisphere receives the bottom up input. PMID:23459397

  13. The Spatial Attention Network Interacts with Limbic and Monoaminergic Systems to Modulate Motivation-Induced Attention Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Gitelman, Darren R.; Small, Dana M.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    2008-01-01

    How does the human brain integrate information from multiple domains to guide spatial attention according to motivational needs? To address this question, we measured hemodynamic responses to central cues predicting locations of peripheral attentional targets (food or tool images) in a novel covert spatial attention paradigm. The motivational relevance of food-related attentional targets was experimentally manipulated via hunger and satiety. Amygdala, posterior cingulate, locus coeruleus, and substantia nigra showed selective sensitivity to food-related cues when hungry but not when satiated, an effect that did not generalize to tools. Posterior parietal cortex (PPC), including intraparietal sulcus, posterior cingulate, and the orbitofrontal cortex displayed correlations with the speed of attentional shifts that were sensitive not just to motivational state but also to the motivational value of the target. Stronger functional coupling between PPC and posterior cingulate occurred during attentional biasing toward motivationally relevant food targets. These results reveal conjoint limbic and monoaminergic encoding of motivational salience in spatial attention. They emphasize the interactive role of posterior parietal and cingulate cortices in integrating motivational information with spatial attention, a process that is critical for selective allocation of attentional resources in an environment where target position and relevance can change rapidly. PMID:18308706

  14. Early auditory evoked potential is modulated by selective attention and related to individual differences in visual working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Karns, Christina M; Neville, Helen J; Hillyard, Steven A

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the predictive power of working memory (WM) capacity for measures of intellectual aptitude is due to the ability to control attention and select relevant information. Crucially, attentional mechanisms implicated in controlling access to WM are assumed to be domain-general, yet reports of enhanced attentional abilities in individuals with larger WM capacities are primarily within the visual domain. Here, we directly test the link between WM capacity and early attentional gating across sensory domains, hypothesizing that measures of visual WM capacity should predict an individual's capacity to allocate auditory selective attention. To address this question, auditory ERPs were recorded in a linguistic dichotic listening task, and individual differences in ERP modulations by attention were correlated with estimates of WM capacity obtained in a separate visual change detection task. Auditory selective attention enhanced ERP amplitudes at an early latency (ca. 70-90 msec), with larger P1 components elicited by linguistic probes embedded in an attended narrative. Moreover, this effect was associated with greater individual estimates of visual WM capacity. These findings support the view that domain-general attentional control mechanisms underlie the wide variation of WM capacity across individuals. PMID:25000526

  15. Attention Modulation by Proportion Congruency: The Asymmetrical List Shifting Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim; Risko, Evan F.

    2013-01-01

    Proportion congruency effects represent hallmark phenomena in current theorizing about cognitive control. This is based on the notion that proportion congruency determines the relative levels of attention to relevant and irrelevant information in conflict tasks. However, little empirical evidence exists that uniquely supports such an attention…

  16. Central Inhibition Ability Modulates Attention-Induced Motion Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milders, Maarten; Hay, Julia; Sahraie, Arash; Niedeggen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Impaired motion perception can be induced in normal observers in a rapid serial visual presentation task. Essential for this effect is the presence of motion distractors prior to the motion target, and we proposed that this attention-induced motion blindness results from high-level inhibition produced by the distractors. To investigate this, we…

  17. Self-Attributed Body-Shadows Modulate Tactile Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavani, Francesco; Galfano, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Our body-shadows are special stimuli in the visual world. They often have anatomical resemblance with our own body-parts and move as our body moves, with spatio-temporal correlation. Here, we show that self-attributed body-shadows cue attention to the body-part they refer to, rather than the location they occupy. Using speeded spatial…

  18. Attention modulates ‘speech-tracking’ at a Cocktail Party

    PubMed Central

    Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings by Mesgarani and Chang demonstrate that signals in auditory cortex can reconstruct the spectrotemporal patterns of attended speech tokens better than those of ignored ones. These results help extend the study of attention into the domain of natural speech, posing numerous questions and challenges for future research. PMID:22651956

  19. Social exclusion modulates priorities of attention allocation in cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Zhang, Lijie; Yuan, Jiajin; Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated how exclusion affects cognitive control and have reported inconsistent results. However, these studies usually treated cognitive control as a unitary concept, whereas it actually involved two main sub-processes: conflict detection and response implementation. Furthermore, existing studies have focused primarily on exclusion's effects on conscious cognitive control, while recent studies have shown the existence of unconscious cognitive control. Therefore, the present study investigated whether and how exclusion affects the sub-processes underlying conscious and unconscious cognitive control differently. The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion and participants subsequently performed a masked Go/No-Go task during which event-related potentials were measured. For conscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a larger N2 but smaller P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest more attention in conscious conflict detection, but less in conscious inhibition of impulsive responses. However, for unconscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a smaller N2 but larger P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest less attention in unconscious conflict detection, but more in unconscious inhibition of impulsive responses. Together, these results suggest that exclusion causes people to rebalance attention allocation priorities for cognitive control according to a more flexible and adaptive strategy. PMID:27511746

  20. Social exclusion modulates priorities of attention allocation in cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Zhang, Lijie; Yuan, Jiajin; Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated how exclusion affects cognitive control and have reported inconsistent results. However, these studies usually treated cognitive control as a unitary concept, whereas it actually involved two main sub-processes: conflict detection and response implementation. Furthermore, existing studies have focused primarily on exclusion’s effects on conscious cognitive control, while recent studies have shown the existence of unconscious cognitive control. Therefore, the present study investigated whether and how exclusion affects the sub-processes underlying conscious and unconscious cognitive control differently. The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion and participants subsequently performed a masked Go/No-Go task during which event-related potentials were measured. For conscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a larger N2 but smaller P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest more attention in conscious conflict detection, but less in conscious inhibition of impulsive responses. However, for unconscious cognitive control, excluded participants showed a smaller N2 but larger P3 effects than included participants, suggesting that excluded people invest less attention in unconscious conflict detection, but more in unconscious inhibition of impulsive responses. Together, these results suggest that exclusion causes people to rebalance attention allocation priorities for cognitive control according to a more flexible and adaptive strategy. PMID:27511746

  1. Mindfulness starts with the body: somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Catherine E.; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Lazar, Sara W.; Moore, Christopher I.; Jones, Stephanie R.

    2013-01-01

    Using a common set of mindfulness exercises, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness's somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7–14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information in the brain. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI). The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness “de-biases” alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness's somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (including working memory) rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with “mindfulness of the body.” Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness' top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an important early stage of mindfulness training that leads to enhanced cognitive regulation and metacognition. PMID:23408771

  2. Mindfulness starts with the body: somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Catherine E; Sacchet, Matthew D; Lazar, Sara W; Moore, Christopher I; Jones, Stephanie R

    2013-01-01

    Using a common set of mindfulness exercises, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness's somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information in the brain. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI). The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness "de-biases" alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness's somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (including working memory) rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with "mindfulness of the body." Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness' top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an important early stage of mindfulness training that leads to enhanced cognitive regulation and metacognition. PMID:23408771

  3. Selective Attention Modulates Human Auditory Brainstem Responses: Relative Contributions of Frequency and Spatial Cues

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Alexandre; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one’s attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues. PMID:24454869

  4. Modulation of Automatic Semantic Priming by Feature-Specific Attention Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan; Hermans, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the semantic analysis of task-irrelevant stimuli is modulated by feature-specific attention allocation. In line with this hypothesis, we found semantic priming of pronunciation responses to depend upon the extent to which participants focused their attention upon specific semantic stimulus dimensions. In Experiment 1, we examined the…

  5. Nonverbal communicative signals modulate attention to object properties.

    PubMed

    Marno, Hanna; Davelaar, Eddy J; Csibra, Gergely

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether the social context in which an object is experienced influences the encoding of its various properties. We hypothesized that when an object is observed in a communicative context, its intrinsic features (such as its shape) would be preferentially encoded at the expense of its extrinsic properties (such as its location). In 3 experiments, participants were presented with brief movies, in which an actor either performed a noncommunicative action toward 1 of 5 different meaningless objects, or communicatively pointed at 1 of them. A subsequent static image, in which either the location or the identity of an object changed, tested participants' attention to these 2 kinds of information. Throughout the 3 experiments we found that communicative cues tended to facilitate identity change detection and to impede location change detection, whereas in the noncommunicative contexts we did not find such a bidirectional effect of cueing. The results also revealed that the effect of the communicative context was a result the presence of ostensive-communicative signals before the object-directed action, and not to the pointing gesture per se. We propose that such an attentional bias forms an inherent part of human communication, and function to facilitate social learning by communication. PMID:24294871

  6. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Predicts Attentional Asymmetry in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel P.; O'Connell, Redmond G.; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent studies suggest that DNA variation in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) influences spatial attention asymmetry in clinical populations such as ADHD, but confirmation in non-clinical samples is required. Since non-spatial factors such as attentional load have been shown to influence spatial biases in clinical conditions, here…

  7. Sustained Attention and Age Predict Inhibitory Control during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2011-01-01

    Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory…

  8. Attentional modulation of external speech attribution in patients with hallucinations and delusions.

    PubMed

    Ilankovic, Lana Marija; Allen, Paul P; Engel, Rolf; Kambeitz, Joseph; Riedel, Michael; Müller, Norbert; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    A range of psychological theories have been proposed to account for the experience of auditory hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenic patients. Most influential theories are those implicating the defective self-monitoring of inner speech. Some recent studies measured response bias independently of self-monitoring and found the results inconsistent with the defective self-monitoring model, but explained by an externalizing response bias. We aimed to investigate the role of attentional bias in external misattribution of source by modulating participant's endogenous expectancies. Comparisons were made between patients with paranoid schizophrenia (N=23) and matched healthy controls (N=23) who participated in two different versions of an audio-visual task, which differed based upon level of the cue predictiveness. The acoustic characteristic of voice was altered in half of the trials by shifting the pitch (distortion). Participants passively listened to recordings of single adjectives spoken in their own and another person's voice (alien) preceded by their own or another person's (alien) face and made self/non self judgments about the source. The patients showed increased error rates comparing to controls, when listening to the distorted self spoken words, misidentifying their own speech as produced by others. Importantly, patients made significantly more errors across all the invalid cue conditions. This suggests not only the presence of pathological misattribution bias, but also an inadequate balance between top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the patients, which could be responsible for misattribution of the ambiguous sensory material. PMID:21241719

  9. Neuronal modulations in visual cortex are associated with only one of multiple components of attention

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Thomas Zhihao; Maunsell, John H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal signals related to visual attention are found in widespread brain regions, and these signals are generally assumed to participate in a common mechanism of attention. However, the behavioral effects of attention in detection can be separated into two distinct components: spatially selective shifts in either the criterion or sensitivity of the subject. Here we show that a paradigm used by many single-neuron studies of attention conflates behavioral changes in the subject’s criterion and sensitivity. Then, using a task designed to dissociate these two components, we found that multiple aspects of attention-related neuronal modulations in area V4 of monkey visual cortex corresponded to behavioral shifts in sensitivity but not criterion. This result suggests that separate components of attention are associated with signals in different brain regions, and that attention is not a unitary process in the brain but instead consists of distinct neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:26050038

  10. Attentional Requirements on Feature Search Are Modulated by Stimulus Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ettwig, Janne F.; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2013-01-01

    We report a series of dual-task experiments, in which a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task was combined with a visual search task. Orientation, motion, and color were used as the defining target features in the search task. Lag between target onsets was manipulated and interference between the two tasks was quantified by measuring detection scores for the search task as a function of lag. While simultaneous performance of an orientation detection task with an RSVP letter identification task resulted in a performance decrease for lags up to 320 ms, no such decrease was detected for highly salient motion- and color-defined targets. Subsequently, detectability of the motion and color feature was matched to that of the orientation-feature resulting in the reintroduction of a (smaller) performance decrease, but only during simultaneous performance (lag 0 ms). The results suggest that there are two causes for the impaired search performance occurring when a feature search task is combined with an RSVP task. The first is short-lasting interference probably due to attentional competition; the second, which plays a role only when targets for both tasks share features, is interference that may be attributed to a central processing bottleneck. PMID:23308145

  11. Followers are not followed: Observed group interactions modulate subsequent social attention.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Francesca; Becchio, Cristina; Willemse, Cesco; Bayliss, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    We asked whether previous observations of group interactions modulate subsequent social attention episodes. Participants first completed a learning phase with 2 conditions. In the "leader" condition 1 of 3 identities turned her gaze first, followed by the 2 other faces. In the "follower" condition, 1 of the identities turned her gaze after the 2 other faces had first shifted their gaze. Thus, participants observed that some individuals were consistently leaders and others followers of others' attention. In the test phase, the faces of leaders and followers were presented in a gaze cueing paradigm. Remarkably, the followers did not elicit gaze cueing. Our data demonstrate that individuals who do not guide group attention in exploring the environment are ineffective social attention directors in later encounters. Thus, the role played in previous group social attention interactions modulates the relative weight assigned to others' gaze: we ignore the gaze of group followers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27031224

  12. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. PMID:23097247

  13. Meditation-induced states predict attentional control over time.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Baas, Matthijs; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    Meditation is becoming an increasingly popular topic for scientific research and various effects of extensive meditation practice (ranging from weeks to several years) on cognitive processes have been demonstrated. Here we show that extensive practice may not be necessary to achieve those effects. Healthy adult non-meditators underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing an Attentional Blink (AB) task - which assesses the efficiency of allocating attention over time. The size of the AB was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM, which suggests that engaging in meditation immediately creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on how people allocate their attention over time. PMID:26320866

  14. Prediction and perception: Defensive startle modulation.

    PubMed

    Sege, Christopher T; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Previous research indicates that predictive cues can dampen subsequent defensive reactions. The present study investigated whether effects of cuing are specific to aversive stimuli, using modulation of the blink startle reflex as a measure of emotional reactivity. Participants viewed pictures depicting violence, romance/erotica, or mundane content. On half of all trials, a cue (color) predicted the content of the upcoming picture; on the remaining trials, scenes were presented without a cue. Acoustic startle probes were presented during picture viewing on trials with predictive cues and trials without a cue. Replicating previous studies, blink reflexes elicited when viewing violent pictures that had not been preceded by a cue were potentiated compared to uncued mundane scenes, and reflexes were attenuated when viewing scenes of erotica/romance that had not been cued. On the other hand, reflex potentiation when viewing scenes of violence (relative to mundane scenes) was eliminated when these pictures were preceded by a predictive cue, whereas scenes of romance prompted reliable reflex attenuation regardless of whether pictures were cued or not. Taken together, the data suggest that cuing elicits an anticipatory coping process that is specific to aversive stimuli. PMID:26399464

  15. Cannabinoid Modulation of Functional Connectivity within Regions Processing Attentional Salience

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Falkenberg, Irina; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Atakan, Zerrin; Crippa, Jose A; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Mick; McGuire, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that psychotic symptoms are the result of abnormal salience attribution, and that the attribution of salience is largely mediated through the prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus. Although these areas show differential activation under the influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the two major derivatives of cannabis sativa, little is known about the effects of these cannabinoids on the functional connectivity between these regions. We investigated this in healthy occasional cannabis users by employing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following oral administration of delta-9-THC, CBD, or a placebo capsule. Employing a seed cluster-based functional connectivity analysis that involved using the average time series from each seed cluster for a whole-brain correlational analysis, we investigated the effect of drug condition on functional connectivity between the seed clusters and the rest of the brain during an oddball salience processing task. Relative to the placebo condition, delta-9-THC and CBD had opposite effects on the functional connectivity between the dorsal striatum, the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Delta-9-THC reduced fronto-striatal connectivity, which was related to its effect on task performance, whereas this connection was enhanced by CBD. Conversely, mediotemporal-prefrontal connectivity was enhanced by delta-9-THC and reduced by CBD. Our results suggest that the functional integration of brain regions involved in salience processing is differentially modulated by single doses of delta-9-THC and CBD and that this relates to the processing of salient stimuli. PMID:25249057

  16. Cannabinoid modulation of functional connectivity within regions processing attentional salience.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Falkenberg, Irina; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Atakan, Zerrin; Crippa, Jose A; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Mick; McGuire, Philip

    2015-05-01

    There is now considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that psychotic symptoms are the result of abnormal salience attribution, and that the attribution of salience is largely mediated through the prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus. Although these areas show differential activation under the influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the two major derivatives of cannabis sativa, little is known about the effects of these cannabinoids on the functional connectivity between these regions. We investigated this in healthy occasional cannabis users by employing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following oral administration of delta-9-THC, CBD, or a placebo capsule. Employing a seed cluster-based functional connectivity analysis that involved using the average time series from each seed cluster for a whole-brain correlational analysis, we investigated the effect of drug condition on functional connectivity between the seed clusters and the rest of the brain during an oddball salience processing task. Relative to the placebo condition, delta-9-THC and CBD had opposite effects on the functional connectivity between the dorsal striatum, the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Delta-9-THC reduced fronto-striatal connectivity, which was related to its effect on task performance, whereas this connection was enhanced by CBD. Conversely, mediotemporal-prefrontal connectivity was enhanced by delta-9-THC and reduced by CBD. Our results suggest that the functional integration of brain regions involved in salience processing is differentially modulated by single doses of delta-9-THC and CBD and that this relates to the processing of salient stimuli. PMID:25249057

  17. Attentional modulation of the inner ear: a combined otoacoustic emission and EEG study.

    PubMed

    Wittekindt, Anna; Kaiser, Jochen; Abel, Cornelius

    2014-07-23

    Attending to a single stimulus in a complex multisensory environment requires the ability to select relevant information while ignoring distracting input. The underlying mechanism and involved neuronal levels of this attentional gain control are still a matter of debate. Here, we investigated the influence of intermodal attention on different levels of auditory processing in humans. It is known that the activity of the cochlear amplifier can be modulated by efferent neurons of the medial olivocochlear complex. We used distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements to monitor cochlear activity during an intermodal cueing paradigm. Simultaneously, central auditory processing was assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) with a steady-state paradigm targeting early cortical responses and analysis of alpha oscillations reflecting higher cognitive control of attentional modulation. We found effects of selective attention at all measured levels of the auditory processing: DPOAE levels differed significantly between periods of visual and auditory attention, showing a reduction during visual attention, but no change during auditory attention. Primary auditory cortex activity, as measured by the auditory steady-state response (ASSR), differed between conditions, with higher ASSRs during auditory than visual attention. Furthermore, the analysis of cortical oscillatory activity revealed increased alpha power over occipitoparietal and frontal regions during auditory compared with visual attention, putatively reflecting suppression of visual processing. In conclusion, this study showed both enhanced processing of attended acoustic stimuli in early sensory cortex and reduced processing of distracting input, both at higher cortical levels and at the most peripheral level of the hearing system, the cochlea. PMID:25057201

  18. Modulation of early cortical processing during divided attention to non-contiguous locations.

    PubMed

    Frey, Hans-Peter; Schmid, Anita M; Murphy, Jeremy W; Molholm, Sophie; Lalor, Edmund C; Foxe, John J

    2014-05-01

    We often face the challenge of simultaneously attending to multiple non-contiguous regions of space. There is ongoing debate as to how spatial attention is divided under these situations. Whereas, for several years, the predominant view was that humans could divide the attentional spotlight, several recent studies argue in favor of a unitary spotlight that rhythmically samples relevant locations. Here, this issue was addressed by the use of high-density electrophysiology in concert with the multifocal m-sequence technique to examine visual evoked responses to multiple simultaneous streams of stimulation. Concurrently, we assayed the topographic distribution of alpha-band oscillatory mechanisms, a measure of attentional suppression. Participants performed a difficult detection task that required simultaneous attention to two stimuli in contiguous (undivided) or non-contiguous parts of space. In the undivided condition, the classic pattern of attentional modulation was observed, with increased amplitude of the early visual evoked response and increased alpha amplitude ipsilateral to the attended hemifield. For the divided condition, early visual responses to attended stimuli were also enhanced, and the observed multifocal topographic distribution of alpha suppression was in line with the divided attention hypothesis. These results support the existence of divided attentional spotlights, providing evidence that the corresponding modulation occurs during initial sensory processing time-frames in hierarchically early visual regions, and that suppressive mechanisms of visual attention selectively target distracter locations during divided spatial attention. PMID:24606564

  19. Modulation of early cortical processing during divided attention to non-contiguous locations

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Hans-Peter; Schmid, Anita M.; Murphy, Jeremy W.; Molholm, Sophie; Lalor, Edmund C.; Foxe, John J.

    2015-01-01

    We often face the challenge of simultaneously attending to multiple non-contiguous regions of space. There is ongoing debate as to how spatial attention is divided under these situations. While for several years the predominant view was that humans could divide the attentional spotlight, several recent studies argue in favor of a unitary spotlight that rhythmically samples relevant locations. Here, this issue was addressed using high-density electrophysiology in concert with the multifocal m-sequence technique to examine visual evoked responses to multiple simultaneous streams of stimulation. Concurrently, we assayed the topographic distribution of alpha-band oscillatory mechanisms, a measure of attentional suppression. Participants performed a difficult detection task that required simultaneous attention to two stimuli in contiguous (undivided) or non-contiguous parts of space. In the undivided condition, the classical pattern of attentional modulation was observed, with increased amplitude of the early visual evoked response and increased alpha amplitude ipsilateral to the attended hemifield. For the divided condition, early visual responses to attended stimuli were also enhanced and the observed multifocal topographic distribution of alpha suppression was in line with the divided attention hypothesis. These results support the existence of divided attentional spotlights, providing evidence that the corresponding modulation occurs during initial sensory processing timeframes in hierarchically early visual regions and that suppressive mechanisms of visual attention selectively target distracter locations during divided spatial attention. PMID:24606564

  20. Autonomic arousal and attentional orienting to visual threat are predicted by awareness.

    PubMed

    Hedger, Nicholas; Adams, Wendy J; Garner, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    The rapid detection and evaluation of threat is of fundamental importance for survival. Theories suggest that this evolutionary pressure has driven functional adaptations in a specialized visual pathway that evaluates threat independently of conscious awareness. This is supported by evidence that threat-relevant stimuli rendered invisible by backward masking can induce physiological fear responses and modulate spatial attention. The validity of these findings has since been questioned by research using stringent, objective measures of awareness. Here, we use a modified continuous flash suppression paradigm to ask whether threatening images induce adaptive changes in autonomic arousal, attention, or perception when presented outside of awareness. In trials where stimuli broke suppression to become visible, threatening stimuli induced a significantly larger skin conductance response than nonthreatening stimuli and attracted spatial attention over scrambled images. However, these effects were eliminated in trials where observers were unaware of the stimuli. In addition, concurrent behavioral data provided no evidence that threatening images gained prioritized access to awareness. Taken together, our data suggest that the evaluation and spatial detection of visual threat are predicted by awareness. PMID:25867508

  1. Intermodal auditory, visual, and tactile attention modulates early stages of neural processing

    PubMed Central

    Karns, Christina M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and gamma band oscillatory responses (GBRs) to examine whether intermodal attention operates early in the auditory, visual, and tactile modalities. To control for the effects of spatial attention, we spatially coregistered all stimuli and varied the attended modality across counterbalanced blocks in an intermodal selection task. In each block participants selectively responded to either auditory, visual, or vibrotactile stimuli from the stream of intermodal events. Auditory and visual ERPs were modulated at the latencies of early cortical processing, but attention manifested later for tactile ERPs. For ERPs, auditory processing was modulated at the latency of the Na (29 ms) which indexes early cortical or thalamocortical processing and the subsequent P1 (90 ms) ERP components. Visual processing was modulated at the latency of the early phase of the C1 (62-72 ms) thought to be generated in primary visual cortex and the subsequent P1 and N1 (176 ms). Tactile processing was modulated at the latency of the N160 (165 ms) likely generated in secondary association cortex. Intermodal attention enhanced early sensory GBRs for all three modalities: auditory (onset 57 ms), visual (onset 47 ms) and tactile (onset 27 ms). Together, these results suggest that intermodal attention enhances neural processing relatively early in the sensory stream independent from differential effects of spatial and intramodal selective attention. PMID:18564047

  2. Dissociation predicts later attention problems in sexually abused children

    PubMed Central

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Hall, Erin; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective The goals of this research are to develop and test a prospective model of attention problems in sexually abused children that includes fixed variables (e.g., gender), trauma, and disclosure-related pathways. Methods At Time 1, fixed variables, trauma variables, and stress reactions upon disclosure were assessed in 156 children aged 8 to 13 years. At the Time 2 follow-up (8 to 36 months following the initial interview), 56 of the children were assessed for attention problems. Results A path analysis involving a series of hierarchically-nested, ordinary least squares multiple regression analyses indicated two direct paths to attention problems including the child’s relationship to the perpetrator (β = .23) and dissociation measured immediately after disclosure (β = .53), while controlling for concurrent externalizing behavior (β = .43). Posttraumatic stress symptoms were only indirectly associated with attention problems via dissociation. Taken together, these pathways accounted for approximately 52% of the variance in attention problems and provided an excellent fit to the data. Conclusions Children who report dissociative symptoms upon disclosure of CSA and/or were sexually abused by someone within their family are at an increased risk of developing attention problems. Practice Implications: Findings from this study indicate that children who experienced sexual abuse at an earlier age, by someone within their family, and/or report symptoms of dissociation during disclosure are especially likely to benefit from intervention. Effective interventions should involve (1) providing emotion regulation and coping skills; and (2) helping children to process traumatic aspects of the abuse to reduce the cyclic nature of traumatic reminders leading to unmanageable stress and dissociation. PMID:18308391

  3. Do Intelligence and Sustained Attention Interact in Predicting Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Ziegler, Mattias; Trauble, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Research in clinical samples suggests that the relationship between intelligence and academic achievement might be moderated by sustained attention. The present study aimed to explore whether this interaction could be observed in a non-clinical sample. We investigated a sample of 11th and 12th grade students (N = 231). An overall performance score…

  4. Dissociation Predicts Later Attention Problems in Sexually Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Hall, Erin; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goals of this research are to develop and test a prospective model of attention problems in sexually abused children that includes fixed variables (e.g., gender), trauma, and disclosure-related pathways. Methods: At Time 1, fixed variables, trauma variables, and stress reactions upon disclosure were assessed in 156 children aged…

  5. Attention modulates earliest responses in the primary auditory and visual cortices.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Vahe; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2008-06-12

    A fundamental question about the neural correlates of attention concerns the earliest sensory processing stage that it can affect. We addressed this issue by recording magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals while subjects performed detection tasks, which required employment of spatial or nonspatial attention, in auditory or visual modality. Using distributed source analysis of MEG signals, we found that, contrary to previous studies that used equivalent current dipole (ECD) analysis, spatial attention enhanced the initial feedforward response in the primary visual cortex (V1) at 55-90 ms. We also found attentional modulation of the putative primary auditory cortex (A1) activity at 30-50 ms. Furthermore, we reproduced our findings using ECD modeling guided by the results of distributed source analysis and suggest a reason why earlier studies using ECD analysis failed to identify the modulation of earliest V1 activity. PMID:18549790

  6. Attention modulates spatial priority maps in the human occipital, parietal and frontal cortices

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Thomas C.; Serences, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Computational theories propose that attention modulates the topographical landscape of spatial ‘priority’ maps in regions of visual cortex so that the location of an important object is associated with higher activation levels. While single-unit recording studies have demonstrated attention-related increases in the gain of neural responses and changes in the size of spatial receptive fields, the net effect of these modulations on the topography of region-level priority maps has not been investigated. Here, we used fMRI and a multivariate encoding model to reconstruct spatial representations of attended and ignored stimuli using activation patterns across entire visual areas. These reconstructed spatial representations reveal the influence of attention on the amplitude and size of stimulus representations within putative priority maps across the visual hierarchy. Our results suggest that attention increases the amplitude of stimulus representations in these spatial maps, particularly in higher visual areas, but does not substantively change their size. PMID:24212672

  7. Noise Prediction Module for Offset Stream Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2011-01-01

    A Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) analysis of data acquired for an offset stream technology was presented. The data acquisition and concept development were funded under a Supersonics NRA NNX07AC62A awarded to Dimitri Papamoschou at University of California, Irvine. The technology involved the introduction of airfoils in the fan stream of a bypass ratio (BPR) two nozzle system operated at transonic exhaust speeds. The vanes deflected the fan stream relative to the core stream and resulted in reduced sideline noise for polar angles in the peak jet noise direction. Noise prediction models were developed for a range of vane configurations. The models interface with an existing ANOPP module and can be used or future system level studies.

  8. Learned Predictiveness Influences Rapid Attentional Capture: Evidence from the Dot Probe Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Pelley, Mike E.; Vadillo, Miguel; Luque, David

    2013-01-01

    Attentional theories of associative learning and categorization propose that learning about the predictiveness of a stimulus influences the amount of attention that is paid to that stimulus. Three experiments tested this idea by looking at the extent to which stimuli that had previously been experienced as predictive or nonpredictive in a…

  9. Attentional modulation of medial olivocochlear inhibition: evidence for immaturity in children.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K

    2014-12-01

    Efferent feedback shapes afferent auditory processing. Auditory attention has been shown to modulate medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent activity in human adults. Since auditory attention continues to develop throughout childhood, the present study explored whether attentional control of medial-efferent inhibition in 5-10 year-old children is adult-like. MOC inhibition was measured in adults (n = 14) and children (n = 12) during no-task (contralateral broadband noise), passive (contralateral noise with tone-pips) and active listening conditions (attended tone-pips embedded in contralateral broadband noise). A stronger MOC inhibition was observed when measured during the active listening condition for adults which is consistent with past work. However, the effect of auditory attention on MOC inhibition in children was not robust and was significantly lower compared to that observed for adults. These findings suggest the potential immaturity of the attentional mediation of MOC inhibition in tested children. PMID:25445819

  10. Top-down and bottom-up attention cause the ventriloquism effect with distinct electroencephalography modulations

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The ventriloquism effect is a critical phenomenon for understanding the underlying mechanisms of multisensory integration. Cross-modal spatial attention causes a distortion of sound localization, although the neural basis of the effect remains an unanswered question. We hypothesized that top-down and bottom-up visual-spatial attention causes the ventriloquism effect with different modulations of ongoing neural oscillation. To test this hypothesis, human scalp electroencephalography (EEG) was measured during a sound localization task. Top-down attention suppressed the EEG amplitude in the alpha frequency (10 Hz) over the contralateral temporal electrode sites to visual cue hemifields. Bottom-up attention shifted the EEG phase to the theta frequency (7 Hz), rather than suppressing the amplitude. Two different neural mechanisms of ongoing neural oscillation contributed toward the ventriloquism effect, with different spatial attention. PMID:27128725

  11. Top-down and bottom-up attention cause the ventriloquism effect with distinct electroencephalography modulations.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Toshihiro; Mizuhara, Hiroaki

    2016-06-15

    The ventriloquism effect is a critical phenomenon for understanding the underlying mechanisms of multisensory integration. Cross-modal spatial attention causes a distortion of sound localization, although the neural basis of the effect remains an unanswered question. We hypothesized that top-down and bottom-up visual-spatial attention causes the ventriloquism effect with different modulations of ongoing neural oscillation. To test this hypothesis, human scalp electroencephalography (EEG) was measured during a sound localization task. Top-down attention suppressed the EEG amplitude in the alpha frequency (10 Hz) over the contralateral temporal electrode sites to visual cue hemifields. Bottom-up attention shifted the EEG phase to the theta frequency (7 Hz), rather than suppressing the amplitude. Two different neural mechanisms of ongoing neural oscillation contributed toward the ventriloquism effect, with different spatial attention. PMID:27128725

  12. Dynamic attentional modulation of vision across space and time after right hemisphere stroke and in ageing

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Charlotte; Malhotra, Paresh; Deidda, Cristiana; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Attention modulates the availability of sensory information to conscious perception. In particular, there is evidence of pathological, spatial constriction of the effective field of vision in patients with right hemisphere damage when a central task exhausts available attentional capacity. In the current study we first examined whether this constriction might be modulated across both space and time in right hemisphere stroke patients without neglect. Then we tested healthy elderly people to determine whether non-pathological ageing also leads to spatiotemporal impairments of vision under conditions of high attention load. Methods Right hemisphere stroke patients completed a task at fixation while attempting to discriminate letters appearing in the periphery. Attentional load of the central task was modulated by increasing task difficulty. Peripheral letters appeared simultaneously with the central task or at different times (stimulus onset asynchronies, SOAs) after it. In a second study healthy elderly volunteers were tested with a modified version of this paradigm. Results Under conditions of high attention load right hemisphere stroke patients have a reduced effective visual field, over a significantly extended ‘attentional blink’, worse for items presented to their left. In the second study, older participants were unable to discriminate otherwise salient items across the visual field (left or right) when their attention capacity was loaded on the central task. This deficit extended temporally, with peripheral discrimination ability not returning to normal for up to 450 msec. Conclusions Dynamically tying up attention resources on a task at fixation can have profound effects in patient populations and in normal ageing. These results demonstrate that items can escape conscious detection across space and time, and can thereby impact significantly on visual perception in these groups. PMID:23245427

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  14. Attentional modulations of the early and later stages of the neural processing of visual completion

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiang; Zhou, Liang; Qian, Cheng; Gan, Lingyu; Zhang, Daren

    2015-01-01

    The brain effortlessly recognizes objects even when the visual information belonging to an object is widely separated, as well demonstrated by the Kanizsa-type illusory contours (ICs), in which a contour is perceived despite the fragments of the contour being separated by gaps. Such large-range visual completion has long been thought to be preattentive, whereas its dependence on top-down influences remains unclear. Here, we report separate modulations by spatial attention and task relevance on the neural activities in response to the ICs. IC-sensitive event-related potentials that were localized to the lateral occipital cortex were modulated by spatial attention at an early processing stage (130–166 ms after stimulus onset) and modulated by task relevance at a later processing stage (234–290 ms). These results not only demonstrate top-down attentional influences on the neural processing of ICs but also elucidate the characteristics of the attentional modulations that occur in different phases of IC processing. PMID:25666450

  15. Feature- and object-based attentional modulation in the human auditory "where" pathway.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Katrin; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R

    2007-10-01

    Attending to a visual stimulus feature, such as color or motion, enhances the processing of that feature in the visual cortex. Moreover, the processing of the attended object's other, unattended, features is also enhanced. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to show that attentional modulation in the auditory system may also exhibit such feature- and object-specific effects. Specifically, we found that attending to auditory motion increases activity in nonprimary motion-sensitive areas of the auditory cortical "where" pathway. Moreover, activity in these motion-sensitive areas was also increased when attention was directed to a moving rather than a stationary sound object, even when motion was not the attended feature. An analysis of effective connectivity revealed that the motion-specific attentional modulation was brought about by an increase in connectivity between the primary auditory cortex and nonprimary motion-sensitive areas, which, in turn, may have been mediated by the paracingulate cortex in the frontal lobe. The current results indicate that auditory attention can select both objects and features. The finding of feature-based attentional modulation implies that attending to one feature of a sound object does not necessarily entail an exhaustive processing of the object's unattended features. PMID:18271742

  16. Modulation of the spatial attention network by incentives in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Bagurdes, Lisa A; Mesulam, Marsel M; Gitelman, Darren R; Weintraub, Sandra; Small, Dana M

    2008-10-01

    Impairments of spatial attention are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but may develop earlier in the course of the disease, a condition referred to as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a previous experiment, we showed that emotional content overcame the AD-related decline in selective attention to novel events [LaBar, K. S., Mesulam, M., Gitelman, D. R., & Weintraub, S. (2000). Emotional curiosity: Modulation of visuospatial attention by arousal is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia, 38(13), 1734-1740]. The current experiment examined the influence of secondary reinforcers upon selective spatial attention in MCI and healthy aging (EC). Subjects performed a covert attention task while undergoing fMRI. They won money for fast responses and lost money for slow responses. In young subjects, this task had shown that the influence of incentive upon spatial attention is mediated by the posterior cingulate (PCC) and orbitofrontal cortices (OFC) [Small, D. M., Gitelman, D., Simmons, K., Bloise, S. M., Parrish, T., & Mesulam, M. M. (2005). Monetary incentives enhance processing in brain regions mediating top-down control of attention. Cerebral Cortex, 15(12), 1855-1865]. Both groups were able to use spatial cues to generate an anticipatory attentional shift towards the cued location. The prospect of winning (but not losing) money enhanced attentional shifts in EC subjects, an effect that was mediated by OFC activation. In contrast, only the prospect of losing money enhanced attentional shifts in MCI subjects, an effect that correlated with PCC activation. Behavioral effects of incentive upon spatial attention are only partially maintained in EC and MCI with corresponding modifications in the underlying neural circuitry. These results suggest a reorganization of the relationships between the limbic system and spatial attention network in healthy aging and MCI. PMID:18602410

  17. Frontal Eye Fields Control Attentional Modulation of Alpha and Gamma Oscillations in Contralateral Occipitoparietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, Jacinta; Jensen, Ole; Bergmann, Til O.

    2015-01-01

    Covertly directing visuospatial attention produces a frequency-specific modulation of neuronal oscillations in occipital and parietal cortices: anticipatory alpha (8–12 Hz) power decreases contralateral and increases ipsilateral to attention, whereas stimulus-induced gamma (>40 Hz) power is boosted contralaterally and attenuated ipsilaterally. These modulations must be under top-down control; however, the control mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Here we investigated the causal contribution of the human frontal eye field (FEF) by combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with subsequent magnetoencephalography. Following inhibitory theta burst stimulation to the left FEF, right FEF, or vertex, participants performed a visual discrimination task requiring covert attention to either visual hemifield. Both left and right FEF TMS caused marked attenuation of alpha modulation in the occipitoparietal cortex. Notably, alpha modulation was consistently reduced in the hemisphere contralateral to stimulation, leaving the ipsilateral hemisphere relatively unaffected. Additionally, right FEF TMS enhanced gamma modulation in left visual cortex. Behaviorally, TMS caused a relative slowing of response times to targets contralateral to stimulation during the early task period. Our results suggest that left and right FEF are causally involved in the attentional top-down control of anticipatory alpha power in the contralateral visual system, whereas a right-hemispheric dominance seems to exist for control of stimulus-induced gamma power. These findings contrast the assumption of primarily intrahemispheric connectivity between FEF and parietal cortex, emphasizing the relevance of interhemispheric interactions. The contralaterality of effects may result from a transient functional reorganization of the dorsal attention network after inhibition of either FEF. PMID:25632139

  18. Self-construal priming selectively modulates the scope of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuozhuo; Cheng, Menxue; Peng, Kaiping; Zhang, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept is one of the major factors to explain the cultural differences between East Asians and Westerners. In the field of visual attention, most studies have focused on the modulation of visual spatial-based attention, whereas possible influences of culture or self-concept on other types of visual attention remain largely unexplored. The present study investigated the possible modulation of visual feature-based attention by self-concept, using a within-group self-construal priming design. The experiment paradigm employed visual stimuli consisted of two intermixing random dot clouds presented in the focal visual field with red and green colors. After primed with an interdependent, independent, or neutral self-construal, the participants were instructed to attend to one of the focally presented dot cloud and respond to occasional luminance decrement events of the attended dot cloud. The detection of the focal events was found to be significantly faster when exogenously cued by a peripheral dot cloud of either the same or different colors as the attended focal dot cloud (congruent/incongruent), compared to the uncued condition. More importantly, the self-construal priming took effect only on the reaction time (RT) differences between the congruent and incongruent cued conditions: the participants responded much slower to incongruent cued events than congruent cued events under interdependent self-construal priming, while the RT difference was significantly smaller under independent self-construal priming. A closer look on the results suggests that the attention scope is selectively modulated by self-construal priming, and the modulation is mainly reflected by varying the degree of suppression on the processing of the incongruent contextual stimuli that do not share visual features with the focal object. Our findings provide new evidences that could possibly extend the current understanding on the cultural influence on visual attention. PMID:26483747

  19. Temporal Expectation and Attention Jointly Modulate Auditory Oscillatory Activity in the Beta Band

    PubMed Central

    Todorovic, Ana; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; van Ede, Freek; Maris, Eric; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    The neural response to a stimulus is influenced by endogenous factors such as expectation and attention. Current research suggests that expectation and attention exert their effects in opposite directions, where expectation decreases neural activity in sensory areas, while attention increases it. However, expectation and attention are usually studied either in isolation or confounded with each other. A recent study suggests that expectation and attention may act jointly on sensory processing, by increasing the neural response to expected events when they are attended, but decreasing it when they are unattended. Here we test this hypothesis in an auditory temporal cueing paradigm using magnetoencephalography in humans. In our study participants attended to, or away from, tones that could arrive at expected or unexpected moments. We found a decrease in auditory beta band synchrony to expected (versus unexpected) tones if they were unattended, but no difference if they were attended. Modulations in beta power were already evident prior to the expected onset times of the tones. These findings suggest that expectation and attention jointly modulate sensory processing. PMID:25799572

  20. Dissociable Modulation of Overt Visual Attention in Valence and Arousal Revealed by Topology of Scan Path

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianguang; Jiang, Huihui; Jin, Yixiang; Chen, Nanhui; Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Zhengbo; Luo, Yuejia; Ma, Yuanye; Hu, Xintian

    2011-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion), have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low). Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal) elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence) elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal. PMID:21494331

  1. Spatial attention does not modulate holistic face processing, even when multiple faces are present.

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Tokarev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The perception of faces is often considered to be unique in comparison with that of other objects in the world. The fact that faces are processed not by their constituent components but by the spatial configuration between those components (holistic face processing--HFP) is often used to support this. Despite two decades of research, however, there is no consensus as to whether or not HFP is a process that is subject to attentional modulation. Here, in two experiments, we used a method to direct spatial attention not previously used in studies of HFP--an exogenous spatial cue--as it offers a robust, rapid, and involuntary method of directing attention. In one experiment we demonstrate that the degree of HFP afforded to a face is not reduced when attention is directed away from that face. In a second experiment we replicate this finding even when the face is simultaneously flanked by other faces--a condition under which a face-specific processing module would, hypothetically, be more sensitive to attentional guidance. These results add to the argument that HFP is carried out independently of attention. PMID:25669051

  2. How Prediction Errors Shape Perception, Attention, and Motivation

    PubMed Central

    den Ouden, Hanneke E. M.; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction errors (PE) are a central notion in theoretical models of reinforcement learning, perceptual inference, decision-making and cognition, and prediction error signals have been reported across a wide range of brain regions and experimental paradigms. Here, we will make an attempt to see the forest for the trees and consider the commonalities and differences of reported PE signals in light of recent suggestions that the computation of PE forms a fundamental mode of brain function. We discuss where different types of PE are encoded, how they are generated, and the different functional roles they fulfill. We suggest that while encoding of PE is a common computation across brain regions, the content and function of these error signals can be very different and are determined by the afferent and efferent connections within the neural circuitry in which they arise. PMID:23248610

  3. Somatosensory spatial attention modulates amplitudes, latencies, and latency jitter of laser-evoked brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Marcel; Nickel, Moritz M.; Ritter, Alexander; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies provided evidence that the amplitudes of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) are modulated by attention. However, previous reports were based on across-trial averaging of LEP responses at the expense of losing information about intertrial variability related to attentional modulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of somatosensory spatial attention on single-trial parameters (i.e., amplitudes, latencies, and latency jitter) of LEP components (N2 and P2). Twelve subjects participated in a sustained spatial attention paradigm while noxious laser stimuli (left hand) and noxious electrical stimuli (right hand) were sequentially delivered to the dorsum of the respective hand with nonnoxious air puffs randomly interspersed within the sequence of noxious stimuli. Participants were instructed to mentally count all stimuli (i.e., noxious and nonnoxious) applied to the attended location. Laser stimuli, presented to the attended hand (ALS), elicited larger single-trial amplitudes of the N2 component compared with unattended laser stimuli (ULS). In contrast, single-trial amplitudes of the P2 component were not significantly affected by spatial attention. Single-trial latencies of the N2 and P2 were significantly smaller for ALS vs. ULS. Additionally, the across-trial latency jitter of the N2 component was reduced for ALS. Conversely, the latency jitter of the P2 component was smaller for ULS compared with ALS. With the use of single-trial analysis, the study provided new insights into brain dynamics of LEPs related to spatial attention. Our results indicate that single-trial parameters of LEP components are differentially modulated by spatial attention. PMID:25673731

  4. Evidence of strategic effects in the modulation of orienting of attention.

    PubMed

    Nougier, V; Rossi, B; Alain, C; Taddei, F

    1996-09-01

    Two models of visual orienting of attention are frequently described. Voluntary orienting is usually induced by central cues that direct subjects' attention to a given location in the visual space. Automatic orienting is provoked by presentation of peripheral cues. It is shown that automatic orienting induces greater attentional costs and benefits, and is less under a subject's control (Jonides 1981). Furthermore, it is not similarly affected by factors such as signal eccentricity (Umiltà et al. 1991). The present experiment was undertaken to investigate how sensitive automatic orienting produced by peripheral cues is to voluntary modulations of attention. In experiment 1, subjects facing situations daily in which attentional requirements are high, were compared to non-practiced ones. In experiment 2, other groups of practiced subjects facing high or low attentional-demanding situations were tested. In both experiments, subjects were asked to respond to signals, presented in rapid succession, in one of two possible locations in space, on each side of central fixation point. The cue signal automatically oriented attention to one of the two locations in which a first stimulus was presented with 100% probability; 100 ms after the first response (RT1), a second response signal (RT2) was delivered either in the same location (valid condition) or in the opposite location (invalid condition). Four cue probabilities were manipulated for this second stimulus: 100%/0%, 80%/20%, 50%/50%, and 20%/80%. Two eccentricities of 3 degrees and 6 degrees were tested. RT2 data demonstrated that (1) there was no eccentricity effect; (2) the higher the cue probability, the greater were the attentional costs; (3) the attentional effects were smaller in the practiced subjects who faced attention-demanding situations daily, than in the other groups. Put together, these data suggest that automatic orienting of attention can be modulated by voluntary attentional processes, according to cue

  5. Reward expectation differentially modulates attentional behavior and activity in visual area V4

    PubMed Central

    Baruni, Jalal K.; Lau, Brian; Salzman, C. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Neural activity in visual area V4 is enhanced when attention is directed into neuronal receptive fields. However, the source of this enhancement is unclear since most physiological studies have manipulated attention by changing the absolute reward associated with a particular location as well as its value relative to other locations. We trained monkeys to discriminate the orientation of two stimuli presented simultaneously in different hemifields while independently varying the reward magnitude associated with correct discrimination at each location. Behavioral measures of attention were controlled by the relative value of each location. By contrast, neurons in V4 were consistently modulated by absolute reward value, exhibiting increased activity, increased gamma-band power, and decreased trial-to-trial variability whenever receptive field locations were associated with large rewards. These data challenge the notion that the perceptual benefits of spatial attention rely on increased signal-to-noise in V4. Instead, these benefits likely derive from downstream selection mechanisms. PMID:26479590

  6. Reward expectation differentially modulates attentional behavior and activity in visual area V4.

    PubMed

    Baruni, Jalal K; Lau, Brian; Salzman, C Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Neural activity in visual area V4 is enhanced when attention is directed into neuronal receptive fields. However, the source of this enhancement is unclear, as most physiological studies have manipulated attention by changing the absolute reward associated with a particular location as well as its value relative to other locations. We trained monkeys to discriminate the orientation of two stimuli presented simultaneously in different hemifields while we independently varied the reward magnitude associated with correct discrimination at each location. Behavioral measures of attention were controlled by the relative value of each location. By contrast, neurons in V4 were consistently modulated by absolute reward value, exhibiting increased activity, increased gamma-band power and decreased trial-to-trial variability whenever receptive field locations were associated with large rewards. These data challenge the notion that the perceptual benefits of spatial attention rely on increased signal-to-noise in V4. Instead, these benefits likely derive from downstream selection mechanisms. PMID:26479590

  7. The availability of attentional resources modulates the inhibitory strength related to weakly activated priming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongchun; Wang, Yonghui; Liu, Peng; Dai, Dongyang; Di, Meilin; Chen, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    The current study investigated the role of attention in inhibitory processes (the inhibitory processes described in the current study refer only to those associated with masked or flanked priming) using a mixed paradigm involving the negative compatibility effect (NCE) and object-based attention. Accumulating evidence suggests that attention can be spread more easily within the same object, which increases the availability of attentional resources, than across different objects. Accordingly, we manipulated distractor location (with primes presented in the same object versus presented in different objects) together with prime/target compatibility (compatible versus incompatible) and prime-distractor stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, 23 ms vs 70 ms). The aim was to investigate whether inhibitory processes related to weakly activated priming, which have been previously assumed to be automatic, depend on the availability of attentional resources. The results of Experiment 1 showed a significant NCE for the 70-ms SOA when the prime and distractor were presented in the same object (greater attentional resource availability); however, reversed NCEs were obtained for all other conditions. Experiment 2 was designed to disentangle whether the results of Experiment 1 were affected by the prime position, and the results indicated that the prime position did not modulate the NCE in Experiment 1. Together, these results are consistent with the claim that the availability of attentional resources modulates the inhibitory strength related to weakly activated priming. Specifically, if attentional resources are assigned to the distractor when it is presented in the same object as the prime, the strength of the inhibition elicited by the distractor may increase and reverse the activation elicited by the prime, which could lead to a significant NCE. PMID:27198916

  8. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2014-08-15

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may

  9. Quantifying attentional modulation of auditory-evoked cortical responses from single-trial electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Inyong; Rajaram, Siddharth; Varghese, Lenny A.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2013-01-01

    Selective auditory attention is essential for human listeners to be able to communicate in multi-source environments. Selective attention is known to modulate the neural representation of the auditory scene, boosting the representation of a target sound relative to the background, but the strength of this modulation, and the mechanisms contributing to it, are not well understood. Here, listeners performed a behavioral experiment demanding sustained, focused spatial auditory attention while we measured cortical responses using electroencephalography (EEG). We presented three concurrent melodic streams; listeners were asked to attend and analyze the melodic contour of one of the streams, randomly selected from trial to trial. In a control task, listeners heard the same sound mixtures, but performed the contour judgment task on a series of visual arrows, ignoring all auditory streams. We found that the cortical responses could be fit as weighted sum of event-related potentials evoked by the stimulus onsets in the competing streams. The weighting to a given stream was roughly 10 dB higher when it was attended compared to when another auditory stream was attended; during the visual task, the auditory gains were intermediate. We then used a template-matching classification scheme to classify single-trial EEG results. We found that in all subjects, we could determine which stream the subject was attending significantly better than by chance. By directly quantifying the effect of selective attention on auditory cortical responses, these results reveal that focused auditory attention both suppresses the response to an unattended stream and enhances the response to an attended stream. The single-trial classification results add to the growing body of literature suggesting that auditory attentional modulation is sufficiently robust that it could be used as a control mechanism in brain–computer interfaces (BCIs). PMID:23576968

  10. Selective attention modulates high-frequency activity in the face-processing network.

    PubMed

    Müsch, Kathrin; Hamamé, Carlos M; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe; Engel, Andreas K; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Schneider, Till R

    2014-11-01

    Face processing depends on the orchestrated activity of a large-scale neuronal network. Its activity can be modulated by attention as a function of task demands. However, it remains largely unknown whether voluntary, endogenous attention and reflexive, exogenous attention to facial expressions equally affect all regions of the face-processing network, and whether such effects primarily modify the strength of the neuronal response, the latency, the duration, or the spectral characteristics. We exploited the good temporal and spatial resolution of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) and recorded from depth electrodes to uncover the fast dynamics of emotional face processing. We investigated frequency-specific responses and event-related potentials (ERP) in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC), ventral temporal cortex (VTC), anterior insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and amygdala when facial expressions were task-relevant or task-irrelevant. All investigated regions of interest (ROI) were clearly modulated by task demands and exhibited stronger changes in stimulus-induced gamma band activity (50-150 Hz) when facial expressions were task-relevant. Observed latencies demonstrate that the activation is temporally coordinated across the network, rather than serially proceeding along a processing hierarchy. Early and sustained responses to task-relevant faces in VOTC and VTC corroborate their role for the core system of face processing, but they also occurred in the anterior insula. Strong attentional modulation in the OFC and amygdala (300 msec) suggests that the extended system of the face-processing network is only recruited if the task demands active face processing. Contrary to our expectation, we rarely observed differences between fearful and neutral faces. Our results demonstrate that activity in the face-processing network is susceptible to the deployment of selective attention. Moreover, we show that endogenous attention operates along the whole

  11. Mini-review: Prediction errors, attention and associative learning.

    PubMed

    Holland, Peter C; Schiffino, Felipe L

    2016-05-01

    Most modern theories of associative learning emphasize a critical role for prediction error (PE, the difference between received and expected events). One class of theories, exemplified by the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) model, asserts that PE determines the effectiveness of the reinforcer or unconditioned stimulus (US): surprising reinforcers are more effective than expected ones. A second class, represented by the Pearce-Hall (1980) model, argues that PE determines the associability of conditioned stimuli (CSs), the rate at which they may enter into new learning: the surprising delivery or omission of a reinforcer enhances subsequent processing of the CSs that were present when PE was induced. In this mini-review we describe evidence, mostly from our laboratory, for PE-induced changes in the associability of both CSs and USs, and the brain systems involved in the coding, storage and retrieval of these altered associability values. This evidence favors a number of modifications to behavioral models of how PE influences event processing, and suggests the involvement of widespread brain systems in animals' responses to PE. PMID:26948122

  12. Top-down modulation: the crossroads of perception, attention and memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzaley, Adam

    2010-02-01

    Research in our laboratory focuses on understanding the neural mechanisms that serve at the crossroads of perception, memory and attention, specifically exploring how brain region interactions underlie these abilities. To accomplish this, we study top-down modulation, the process by which we enhance neural activity associated with relevant information and suppress activity for irrelevant information, thus establishing a neural basis for all higher-order cognitive operations. We also study alterations in top-down modulation that occur with normal aging. Our experiments are performed on human participants, using a multimodal approach that integrates functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG).

  13. Predictive Validity of Attentional Functions in Differentiating Children with and without ADHD: A Componential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Zieren, Nikola; Zotter, Sibylle; Karall, Daniela; Scholl-Burgi, Sabine; Haberlandt, Edda; Fimm, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate which attentional components are of predictive utility in differentiating children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-C) from their peers without ADHD. Methods: Thirty-four children participated in the study: 17 males with ADHD-C (mean age 10y 4mo, SD 1y 9mo) and…

  14. Predicting the Early Developmental Course of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Campbell, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were examined to test whether: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remain stable from 54 months through early elementary school; behavioral inhibition and attention deficits assessed at 54 months predict ADHD symptoms in elementary…

  15. Multisensory perception of the six basic emotions is modulated by attentional instruction and unattended modality

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Sachiko; Hiramatsu, Saori; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the perception of facial and vocal affective expressions interacts with each other. Facial expressions usually dominate vocal expressions when we perceive the emotions of face–voice stimuli. In most of these studies, participants were instructed to pay attention to the face or voice. Few studies compared the perceived emotions with and without specific instructions regarding the modality to which attention should be directed. Also, these studies used combinations of the face and voice which expresses two opposing emotions, which limits the generalizability of the findings. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the emotion perception is modulated by instructions to pay attention to the face or voice using the six basic emotions. Also we examine the modality dominance between the face and voice for each emotion category. Before the experiment, we recorded faces and voices which expresses the six basic emotions and orthogonally combined these faces and voices. Consequently, the emotional valence of visual and auditory information was either congruent or incongruent. In the experiment, there were unisensory and multisensory sessions. The multisensory session was divided into three blocks according to whether an instruction was given to pay attention to a given modality (face attention, voice attention, and no instruction). Participants judged whether the speaker expressed happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, or surprise. Our results revealed that instructions to pay attention to one modality and congruency of the emotions between modalities modulated the modality dominance, and the modality dominance is differed for each emotion category. In particular, the modality dominance for anger changed according to each instruction. Analyses also revealed that the modality dominance suggested by the congruency effect can be explained in terms of the facilitation effect and the interference effect. PMID:25698945

  16. Temporally Dissociable Mechanisms of Self-Control: Early Attentional Filtering Versus Late Value Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Todd; Rangel, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Optimal decision-making often requires exercising self-control. A growing fMRI literature has implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in successful self-control, but due to the limitations inherent in BOLD measures of brain activity, the neurocomputational role of this region has not been resolved. Here we exploit the high temporal resolution and whole-brain coverage of event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that dlPFC affects dietary self-control through two different mechanisms: attentional filtering and value modulation. Whereas attentional filtering of sensory input should occur early in the decision process, value modulation should occur later on, after the computation of stimulus values begins. Hungry human subjects were asked to make food choices while we measured neural activity using ERP in a natural condition, in which they responded freely and did not exhibit a tendency to regulate their diet, and in a self-control condition, in which they were given a financial incentive to lose weight. We then measured various neural markers associated with the attentional filtering and value modulation mechanisms across the decision period to test for changes in neural activity during the exercise of self-control. Consistent with the hypothesis, we found evidence for top-down attentional filtering early on in the decision period (150–200 ms poststimulus onset) as well as evidence for value modulation later in the process (450–650 ms poststimulus onset). We also found evidence that dlPFC plays a role in the deployment of both mechanisms. PMID:24285897

  17. Temporally dissociable mechanisms of self-control: early attentional filtering versus late value modulation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alison; Hare, Todd; Rangel, Antonio

    2013-11-27

    Optimal decision-making often requires exercising self-control. A growing fMRI literature has implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in successful self-control, but due to the limitations inherent in BOLD measures of brain activity, the neurocomputational role of this region has not been resolved. Here we exploit the high temporal resolution and whole-brain coverage of event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that dlPFC affects dietary self-control through two different mechanisms: attentional filtering and value modulation. Whereas attentional filtering of sensory input should occur early in the decision process, value modulation should occur later on, after the computation of stimulus values begins. Hungry human subjects were asked to make food choices while we measured neural activity using ERP in a natural condition, in which they responded freely and did not exhibit a tendency to regulate their diet, and in a self-control condition, in which they were given a financial incentive to lose weight. We then measured various neural markers associated with the attentional filtering and value modulation mechanisms across the decision period to test for changes in neural activity during the exercise of self-control. Consistent with the hypothesis, we found evidence for top-down attentional filtering early on in the decision period (150-200 ms poststimulus onset) as well as evidence for value modulation later in the process (450-650 ms poststimulus onset). We also found evidence that dlPFC plays a role in the deployment of both mechanisms. PMID:24285897

  18. How disgust facilitates avoidance: an ERP study on attention modulation by threats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunzhe; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the attention modulation of disgust in comparison with anger in a dot-probe task. Results indicated a two-stage processing of attention modulation by threats. When participants viewed the cues that were represented by Chinese faces (i.e. the in-group condition), it was found at the early processing stage that an angry face elicited a larger occipital P1 component whereas a disgusted face elicited a smaller P1 for validly than for invalidly cued targets. However, the result pattern was reversed at the later processing stage: the P3 amplitudes were larger for valid disgust cues but were smaller for valid angry cues, when both were compared with invalid cue conditions. In addition, when participants viewed the cues that were represented by foreign faces (i.e. the out-group condition), the attention modulation of disgust/anger diminished at the early stage, whereas enhanced P3 amplitudes were observed in response to validly cued targets in both disgusting and angry conditions at the later stage. The current result implied that although people can perceptually differentiate the emotional categories of out-group faces as accurately as in-group faces, they may still be not able to psychologically understand the subtle differences behind different categories of out-group facial expressions. PMID:24974395

  19. How disgust facilitates avoidance: an ERP study on attention modulation by threats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the attention modulation of disgust in comparison with anger in a dot-probe task. Results indicated a two-stage processing of attention modulation by threats. When participants viewed the cues that were represented by Chinese faces (i.e. the in-group condition), it was found at the early processing stage that an angry face elicited a larger occipital P1 component whereas a disgusted face elicited a smaller P1 for validly than for invalidly cued targets. However, the result pattern was reversed at the later processing stage: the P3 amplitudes were larger for valid disgust cues but were smaller for valid angry cues, when both were compared with invalid cue conditions. In addition, when participants viewed the cues that were represented by foreign faces (i.e. the out-group condition), the attention modulation of disgust/anger diminished at the early stage, whereas enhanced P3 amplitudes were observed in response to validly cued targets in both disgusting and angry conditions at the later stage. The current result implied that although people can perceptually differentiate the emotional categories of out-group faces as accurately as in-group faces, they may still be not able to psychologically understand the subtle differences behind different categories of out-group facial expressions. PMID:24974395

  20. Modulation of Neuronal Responses by Exogenous Attention in Macaque Primary Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Chen, Minggui; Yan, Yin; Zhaoping, Li; Li, Wu

    2015-09-30

    Visual perception is influenced by attention deployed voluntarily or triggered involuntarily by salient stimuli. Modulation of visual cortical processing by voluntary or endogenous attention has been extensively studied, but much less is known about how involuntary or exogenous attention affects responses of visual cortical neurons. Using implanted microelectrode arrays, we examined the effects of exogenous attention on neuronal responses in the primary visual cortex (V1) of awake monkeys. A bright annular cue was flashed either around the receptive fields of recorded neurons or in the opposite visual field to capture attention. A subsequent grating stimulus probed the cue-induced effects. In a fixation task, when the cue-to-probe stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was <240 ms, the cue induced a transient increase of neuronal responses to the probe at the cued location during 40-100 ms after the onset of neuronal responses to the probe. This facilitation diminished and disappeared after repeated presentations of the same cue but recurred for a new cue of a different color. In another task to detect the probe, relative shortening of monkey's reaction times for the validly cued probe depended on the SOA in a way similar to the cue-induced V1 facilitation, and the behavioral and physiological cueing effects remained after repeated practice. Flashing two cues simultaneously in the two opposite visual fields weakened or diminished both the physiological and behavioral cueing effects. Our findings indicate that exogenous attention significantly modulates V1 responses and that the modulation strength depends on both novelty and task relevance of the stimulus. Significance statement: Visual attention can be involuntarily captured by a sudden appearance of a conspicuous object, allowing rapid reactions to unexpected events of significance. The current study discovered a correlate of this effect in monkey primary visual cortex. An abrupt, salient, flash enhanced neuronal

  1. Right hand presence modulates shifts of exogenous visuospatial attention in near perihand space.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Donna M; Azañón, Elena; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2010-07-01

    To investigate attentional shifting in perihand space, we measured performance on a covert visual orienting task under different hand positions. Participants discriminated visual shapes presented on a screen and responded using footpedals placed under their right foot. With the right hand positioned by the right side of the screen, mean cueing effects were significantly greater for targets presented on the right compared to the left side, at the shortest stimulus onset asynchrony. The right hand still affected attention when the left foot was used to respond and when the right hand was crossed over the midline, indicating that this effect is not restricted to the right hemifield and cannot be accounted for by greater stimulus-response compatibility with the right (responding) foot. These experiments provide preliminary evidence that the presence of the right hand can modulate shifts of visual attention but emphasise the importance of stimulus-response compatibility effects in such investigations. PMID:20403655

  2. Selective Attention to Semantic and Syntactic Features Modulates Sentence Processing Networks in Anterior Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rogalsky, Corianne

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified an anterior temporal lobe (ATL) region that responds preferentially to sentence-level stimuli. It is unclear, however, whether this activity reflects a response to syntactic computations or some form of semantic integration. This distinction is difficult to investigate with the stimulus manipulations and anomaly detection paradigms traditionally implemented. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study addresses this question via a selective attention paradigm. Subjects monitored for occasional semantic anomalies or occasional syntactic errors, thus directing their attention to semantic integration, or syntactic properties of the sentences. The hemodynamic response in the sentence-selective ATL region (defined with a localizer scan) was examined during anomaly/error-free sentences only, to avoid confounds due to error detection. The majority of the sentence-specific region of interest was equally modulated by attention to syntactic or compositional semantic features, whereas a smaller subregion was only modulated by the semantic task. We suggest that the sentence-specific ATL region is sensitive to both syntactic and integrative semantic functions during sentence processing, with a smaller portion of this area preferentially involved in the later. This study also suggests that selective attention paradigms may be effective tools to investigate the functional diversity of networks involved in sentence processing. PMID:18669589

  3. Modulation of attention network activation under antidepressant agents in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Graf, Heiko; Abler, Birgit; Hartmann, Antonie; Metzger, Coraline D; Walter, Martin

    2013-07-01

    While antidepressants are supposed to exert similar effects on mood and drive via various mechanisms of action, diverging effects are observed regarding side-effects and accordingly on neural correlates of motivation, emotion, reward and salient stimuli processing as a function of the drugs impact on neurotransmission. In the context of erotic stimulation, a unidirectional modulation of attentional functioning despite opposite effects on sexual arousal has been suggested for the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine and the selective dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake-inhibitor (SDNRI) bupropion. To further elucidate the effects of antidepressant-related alterations of neural attention networks, we investigated 18 healthy males under subchronic administration (7 d) of paroxetine (20 mg), bupropion (150 mg) and placebo within a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over double-blind functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design during an established preceding attention task. Neuropsychological effects beyond the fMRI-paradigm were assessed by measuring alertness and divided attention. Comparing preceding attention periods of salient vs. neutral pictures, we revealed congruent effects of both drugs vs. placebo within the anterior midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, anterior insula and the thalamus. Relatively decreased activation in this network was paralleled by slower reaction times in the divided attention task in both verum conditions compared to placebo. Our results suggest similar effects of antidepressant treatments on behavioural and neural attentional functioning by diverging neurochemical pathways. Concurrent alterations of brain regions within a fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular attention network for top-down control could point to basic neural mechanisms of antidepressant action irrespective of receptor profiles. PMID:23200084

  4. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Yoncheva; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason; McCandliss, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective atten tion to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by ma nipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data- driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater re cruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings support the key role of selective attention to phonology in the development of literacy and motivate future research on the neural bases of the interaction between phonological

  5. Attention to Faces Expressing Negative Emotion at 7 Months Predicts Attachment Security at 14 Months.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Mikko J; Forssman, Linda; Puura, Kaija; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate potential infant-related antecedents characterizing later attachment security, this study tested whether attention to facial expressions, assessed with an eye-tracking paradigm at 7 months of age (N = 73), predicted infant-mother attachment in the Strange Situation Procedure at 14 months. Attention to fearful faces at 7 months predicted attachment security, with a smaller attentional bias to fearful expressions associated with insecure attachment. Attachment disorganization in particular was linked to an absence of the age-typical attentional bias to fear. These data provide the first evidence linking infants' attentional bias to negative facial expressions with attachment formation and suggest reduced sensitivity to facial expressions of negative emotion as a testable trait that could link attachment disorganization with later behavioral outcomes. PMID:26011101

  6. Individual Differences in Anterior Cingulate Activation Associated with Attentional Bias Predict Cocaine Use After Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Marhe, Reshmi; Luijten, Maartje; van de Wetering, Ben J M; Smits, Marion; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2013-01-01

    Drug-dependent patients often relapse into drug use after treatment. Behavioral studies show that enhanced attentional bias to drug cues is a precursor of relapse. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined whether brain regions involved in attentional bias are predictive of cocaine use after treatment. Attentional bias-related brain activity was measured—with a cocaine Stroop task—in cocaine-dependent patients during their first week in detoxification treatment and was used to predict cocaine use at 3-month follow-up. The predictive value of attentional bias-related brain activity in a priori defined regions of interest, in addition to other measures such as self-reports of substance severity, craving, and behavioral attentional bias were examined. The results show that craving in the week before treatment and individual variability in attentional bias-related activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) were significant predictors of days of cocaine use at 3-month follow-up and accounted for 45% in explained variance. Brain activity in the dACC uniquely contributed 22% of explained variance to the prediction model. These findings suggest that hyperactive attentional bias-related brain activity in the dACC might be a biomarker of relapse vulnerability as early as in the first week of detoxification treatment. Ultimately, this may help to develop individually tailored treatment interventions to reduce relapse risk. PMID:23303067

  7. Temporal trade-off effects in sustained attention: Dynamics in visual cortex predict the target detection performance during distraction

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Matthias J.; Keil, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Models of visual selective attention have suggested that the representation of specific features characterizing a target object is enhanced in the visual cortex, at the cost of competing task-irrelevant information. In psychophysical studies however, such attentional enhancement has been shown to result in reduced perceptual sensitivity when maintained over periods of several seconds. Two experiments examined the relationship between target detection behavior and electrocortical facilitation in human visual cortex during sustained attention under competition, in near real-time. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were used in a change detection paradigm, in which a stream of flickering grating stimuli containing target events was fully overlapping with distractor faces (experiment 1) or competing complex scenes (experiment 2), covering the same part of the visual field. Beamformer source localization was used to test plausibility of lower-tier visual cortex involvement in modulation of the ssVEP signal. Results of both experiments suggest that early over-allocation of visual cortical resources to the attended stimulus stream is associated with rapid reduction of electrocortical facilitation and poor change detection across the entire trial. By contrast, temporally balanced dynamics in visual cortex predicted accurate change detection. Taken together, the present results support models of sustained selective attention that emphasize competition for resources in lower-tier visual cortex. These models can be extended by a temporal dimension, on which attentive behavior is characterized by frugal resource sharing across the viewing time. PMID:21613491

  8. Attention modulates cortical processing of pitch feedback errors in voice control.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huijing; Liu, Ying; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence has shown that unexpected alterations in auditory feedback elicit fast compensatory adjustments in vocal production. Although generally thought to be involuntary in nature, whether these adjustments can be influenced by attention remains unknown. The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to examine whether neurobehavioral processing of auditory-vocal integration can be affected by attention. While sustaining a vowel phonation and hearing pitch-shifted feedback, participants were required to either ignore the pitch perturbations, or attend to them with low (counting the number of perturbations) or high attentional load (counting the type of perturbations). Behavioral results revealed no systematic change of vocal response to pitch perturbations irrespective of whether they were attended or not. At the level of cortex, there was an enhancement of P2 response to attended pitch perturbations in the low-load condition as compared to when they were ignored. In the high-load condition, however, P2 response did not differ from that in the ignored condition. These findings provide the first neurophysiological evidence that auditory-motor integration in voice control can be modulated as a function of attention at the level of cortex. Furthermore, this modulatory effect does not lead to a general enhancement but is subject to attentional load. PMID:25589447

  9. Attention Modulates Cortical Processing of Pitch Feedback Errors in Voice Control

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huijing; Liu, Ying; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence has shown that unexpected alterations in auditory feedback elicit fast compensatory adjustments in vocal production. Although generally thought to be involuntary in nature, whether these adjustments can be influenced by attention remains unknown. The present event-related potential (ERP) study aimed to examine whether neurobehavioral processing of auditory-vocal integration can be affected by attention. While sustaining a vowel phonation and hearing pitch-shifted feedback, participants were required to either ignore the pitch perturbations, or attend to them with low (counting the number of perturbations) or high attentional load (counting the type of perturbations). Behavioral results revealed no systematic change of vocal response to pitch perturbations irrespective of whether they were attended or not. At the level of cortex, there was an enhancement of P2 response to attended pitch perturbations in the low-load condition as compared to when they were ignored. In the high-load condition, however, P2 response did not differ from that in the ignored condition. These findings provide the first neurophysiological evidence that auditory-motor integration in voice control can be modulated as a function of attention at the level of cortex. Furthermore, this modulatory effect does not lead to a general enhancement but is subject to attentional load. PMID:25589447

  10. The Primary Visual Cortex Is Differentially Modulated by Stimulus-Driven and Top-Down Attention

    PubMed Central

    Bekisz, Marek; Bogdan, Wojciech; Ghazaryan, Anaida; Waleszczyk, Wioletta J.; Kublik, Ewa; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention can be focused either volitionally, by top-down signals derived from task demands, or automatically, by bottom-up signals from salient stimuli. Because the brain mechanisms that underlie these two attention processes are poorly understood, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from primary visual cortical areas of cats as they performed stimulus-driven and anticipatory discrimination tasks. Consistent with our previous observations, in both tasks, we found enhanced beta activity, which we have postulated may serve as an attention carrier. We characterized the functional organization of task-related beta activity by (i) cortical responses (EPs) evoked by electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm and (ii) intracortical LFP correlations. During the anticipatory task, peripheral stimulation that was preceded by high-amplitude beta oscillations evoked large-amplitude EPs compared with EPs that followed low-amplitude beta. In contrast, during the stimulus-driven task, cortical EPs preceded by high-amplitude beta oscillations were, on average, smaller than those preceded by low-amplitude beta. Analysis of the correlations between the different recording sites revealed that beta activation maps were heterogeneous during the bottom-up task and homogeneous for the top-down task. We conclude that bottom-up attention activates cortical visual areas in a mosaic-like pattern, whereas top-down attentional modulation results in spatially homogeneous excitation. PMID:26730705

  11. Attention modulations on the perception of social hierarchy at distinct temporal stages: an electrophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunliang; Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-04-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the preferential processing of superior-hierarchy cues. However, it remains poorly understood whether top-down controlled mechanisms modulate temporal dynamics of neurocognitive substrates underlying the preferential processing of these biologically and socially relevant cues. This was investigated in the current study by recording event-related potentials from participants who were presented with superior or inferior social hierarchy. Participants performed a hierarchy-judgment task that required attention to hierarchy cues or a gender-judgment task that withdrew their attention from these cues. Superior-hierarchy cues evoked stronger neural responses than inferior-hierarchy cues at both early (N170/N200) and late (late positive potential, LPP) temporal stages. Notably, the modulations of top-down attention were identified on the LPP component, such that superior-hierarchy cues evoked larger LPP amplitudes than inferior-hierarchy cues only in the attended condition; whereas the modulations of the N170/N200 component by hierarchy cues were evident in both attended and unattended conditions. These findings suggest that the preferential perception of superior-hierarchy cues involves both relatively automatic attentional bias at the early temporal stage as well as flexible and voluntary cognitive evaluation at the late temporal stage. Finally, these hierarchy-related effects were absent when participants were shown the same stimuli which, however, were not associated with social-hierarchy information in a non-hierarchy task (Experiment 2), suggesting that effects of social hierarchy at early and late temporal stages could not be accounted for by differences in physical attributes between these social cues. PMID:25681738

  12. Post-perceptual processing during the attentional blink is modulated by inter-trial task expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Jocelyn L.; Elliott, James C.; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2013-01-01

    The selective processing of goal-relevant information depends on an attention system that can flexibly adapt to changing task demands and expectations. Evidence from visual search tasks indicates that the perceptual selectivity of attention increases when the bottom-up demands of the task increase and when the expectations about task demands engendered by trial history are violated. Evidence from studies of the attentional blink (AB), which measures the temporal dynamics of attention, also indicates that perceptual selectivity during the AB is increased if the bottom-up task demands are increased. The present work tested whether expectations about task demands engendered by trial history also modulate perceptual selectivity during the AB. Two experiments tested the extent to which inter-trial switches in task demands reduced post-perceptual processing of targets presented during the AB. Experiment 1 indexed post-perceptual processing using the event-related potential (ERP) technique to isolate the context sensitive N400 ERP component evoked by words presented during the AB. Experiment 2 indexed post-perceptual processing using behavioral performance to determine the extent to which personal names survive the AB. The results of both experiments revealed that both electrophysiological (Exp. 1) and behavioral (Exp. 2) indices of post-perceptual processing were attenuated when consecutive trials differed in terms of their perceptual demands. The results are consistent with the notion that the selectivity of attention during the AB is modulated not only by within-trial task demands, but also can be flexibly determined by trial-by-trial expectations. PMID:24115924

  13. Infants' Temperament and Mothers', and Fathers' Depression Predict Infants' Attention to Objects Paired with Emotional Faces.

    PubMed

    Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others' emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants' attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations of unfamiliar objects alone, before-and-after being paired with emotional (happy, sad, fearful vs. neutral) faces gazing towards (vs. away) from objects. Additionally, the associations of infants' temperament, and parents' negative affect/depression/anxiety with infants' pupil responses were explored. Both mothers and fathers of participating infants completed questionnaires about their negative affect, depression and anxiety symptoms and their infants' negative temperament. Infants allocated more attention (larger pupils) to negative vs. neutral faces when the faces were presented alone, while they allocated less attention to objects paired with emotional vs. neutral faces independent of head/gaze direction. Sad (but not fearful) temperament predicted more attention to emotional faces. Infants' sad temperament moderated the associations of mothers' depression (but not anxiety) with infants' attention to objects. Maternal depression predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions in infants low in sad temperament, while it predicted less attention in infants high in sad temperament. Fathers' depression (but not anxiety) predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions independent of infants' temperament. We conclude that infants' own temperamental dispositions for sadness, and their exposure to mothers' and fathers' depressed moods may influence infants' attention to emotion-object associations in social learning contexts. PMID

  14. The spider does not always win the fight for attention: Disengagement from threat is modulated by goal set.

    PubMed

    Vromen, Joyce M G; Lipp, Ottmar V; Remington, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus-driven preferential attention to threat can be modulated by goal-driven attention. However, it remains unclear how this goal-driven modulation affects specific attentional components implied in threat interference. We hypothesise that goal-driven modulation most strongly impacts delayed disengagement from threat. A spatial cueing task was used that disentangles delayed disengagement from attentional capture by tightly manipulating the locus of attention at the time of target onset. Different top-down goals were induced by instructing participants to identify bird/fish targets (Experiment 1) or spider/cat targets (Experiment 2) among animal non-targets. Delayed disengagement from a non-target spider was observed only when the spider was part of the target set, not when it was task-irrelevant. This corroborates evidence that threat stimuli do not necessarily override goal-driven attentional control and that extended processing of threatening distractors is not obligatory. PMID:25329044

  15. A New Test of Attention in Listening (TAIL) Predicts Auditory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Barry, Johanna G.; Moore, David R.; Amitay, Sygal

    2012-01-01

    Attention modulates auditory perception, but there are currently no simple tests that specifically quantify this modulation. To fill the gap, we developed a new, easy-to-use test of attention in listening (TAIL) based on reaction time. On each trial, two clearly audible tones were presented sequentially, either at the same or different ears. The frequency of the tones was also either the same or different (by at least two critical bands). When the task required same/different frequency judgments, presentation at the same ear significantly speeded responses and reduced errors. A same/different ear (location) judgment was likewise facilitated by keeping tone frequency constant. Perception was thus influenced by involuntary orienting of attention along the task-irrelevant dimension. When information in the two stimulus dimensions were congruent (same-frequency same-ear, or different-frequency different-ear), response was faster and more accurate than when they were incongruent (same-frequency different-ear, or different-frequency same-ear), suggesting the involvement of executive control to resolve conflicts. In total, the TAIL yielded five independent outcome measures: (1) baseline reaction time, indicating information processing efficiency, (2) involuntary orienting of attention to frequency and (3) location, and (4) conflict resolution for frequency and (5) location. Processing efficiency and conflict resolution accounted for up to 45% of individual variances in the low- and high-threshold variants of three psychoacoustic tasks assessing temporal and spectral processing. Involuntary orientation of attention to the irrelevant dimension did not correlate with perceptual performance on these tasks. Given that TAIL measures are unlikely to be limited by perceptual sensitivity, we suggest that the correlations reflect modulation of perceptual performance by attention. The TAIL thus has the power to identify and separate contributions of different components of attention

  16. Emotional attentional control predicts changes in diurnal cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial stressor.

    PubMed

    Lenaert, Bert; Barry, Tom J; Schruers, Koen; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis irregularities have been associated with several psychological disorders. Hence, the identification of individual difference variables that predict variations in HPA-axis activity represents an important challenge for psychiatric research. We investigated whether self-reported attentional control in emotionally demanding situations prospectively predicted changes in diurnal salivary cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial stressor. Low ability to voluntarily control attention has previously been associated with anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Attentional control was assessed using the Emotional Attentional Control Scale. In students who were preparing for academic examination, salivary cortisol was assessed before (time 1) and after (time 2) examination. Results showed that lower levels of self-reported emotional attentional control at time 1 (N=90) predicted higher absolute diurnal cortisol secretion and a slower decline in cortisol throughout the day at time 2 (N=71). Difficulty controlling attention during emotional experiences may lead to chronic HPA-axis hyperactivity after prolonged exposure to stress. These results indicate that screening for individual differences may foster prediction of HPA-axis disturbances, paving the way for targeted disorder prevention. PMID:26539967

  17. Anxiety type modulates immediate versus delayed engagement of attention-related brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; De Leon, Angeline A; Bredemeier, Keith; Heller, Wendy; Engels, Anna S; Warren, Stacie L; Crocker, Laura D; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Background Habituation of the fear response, critical for the treatment of anxiety, is inconsistently observed during exposure to threatening stimuli. One potential explanation for this inconsistency is differential attentional engagement with negatively valenced stimuli as a function of anxiety type. Methods The present study tested this hypothesis by examining patterns of neural habituation associated with anxious arousal, characterized by panic symptoms and immediate engagement with negatively valenced stimuli, versus anxious apprehension, characterized by engagement in worry to distract from negatively valenced stimuli. Results As predicted, the two anxiety types evidenced distinct patterns of attentional engagement. Anxious arousal was associated with immediate activation in attention-related brain regions that habituated over time, whereas anxious apprehension was associated with delayed activation in attention-related brain regions that occurred only after habituation in a worry-related brain region. Conclusions Results further elucidate mechanisms involved in attention to negatively valenced stimuli and indicate that anxiety is a heterogeneous construct with regard to attention to such stimuli. PMID:24392275

  18. Modulation of electrocortical brain activity by attention in individuals with and without tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Paul, Brandon T; Bruce, Ian C; Bosnyak, Daniel J; Thompson, David C; Roberts, Larry E

    2014-01-01

    Age and hearing-level matched tinnitus and control groups were presented with a 40 Hz AM sound using a carrier frequency of either 5 kHz (in the tinnitus frequency region of the tinnitus subjects) or 500 Hz (below this region). On attended blocks subjects pressed a button after each sound indicating whether a single 40 Hz AM pulse of variable increased amplitude (target, probability 0.67) had or had not occurred. On passive blocks subjects rested and ignored the sounds. The amplitude of the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) localizing to primary auditory cortex (A1) increased with attention in control groups probed at 500 Hz and 5 kHz and in the tinnitus group probed at 500 Hz, but not in the tinnitus group probed at 5 kHz (128 channel EEG). N1 amplitude (this response localizing to nonprimary cortex, A2) increased with attention at both sound frequencies in controls but at neither frequency in tinnitus. We suggest that tinnitus-related neural activity occurring in the 5 kHz but not the 500 Hz region of tonotopic A1 disrupted attentional modulation of the 5 kHz ASSR in tinnitus subjects, while tinnitus-related activity in A1 distributing nontonotopically in A2 impaired modulation of N1 at both sound frequencies. PMID:25024849

  19. Rhythm and Attention: Does the Beat Position of a Visual or Auditory Regular Pulse Modulate T2 Detection in the Attentional Blink?

    PubMed Central

    Bermeitinger, Christina; Frings, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is one impressive demonstration of limited attentional capacities in time: a second target (T2) is often missed when it should be detected within 200–600 ms after a first target. According to the dynamic attending theory, attention cycles oscillatory. Regular rhythms (i.e., pulses) should evoke expectations regarding the point of the next occurrence of a tone/element in the rhythm. At this point, more attentional resources should be provided. Thus, if rhythmic information can be used to optimize attentional release, we assume a modulation of the AB when an additional rhythm is given. We tested this idea in two experiments with a visual (Experiment 1) or an auditory (Experiment 2) rhythm. We found large AB effects. However, the rhythm did not modulate the AB. If the rhythm had an influence at all, then Experiment 2 showed that an auditory rhythm (or stimulus) falling on T2 might generally boost visual processing, irrespective of attentional resources as indexed by the AB paradigm. Our experiments suggest that oscillatory cycling attention does not affect temporal selection as tapped in the AB paradigm. PMID:26648899

  20. Visual attention modulates the asymmetric influence of each cerebral hemisphere on spatial perception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meijian; Wang, Xiuhai; Xue, Lingyan; Huang, Dan; Chen, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Although the allocation of brain functions across the two cerebral hemispheres has aroused public interest over the past century, asymmetric interhemispheric cooperation under attentional modulation has been scarcely investigated. An example of interhemispheric cooperation is visual spatial perception. During this process, visual information from each hemisphere is integrated because each half of the visual field predominantly projects to the contralateral visual cortex. Both egocentric and allocentric coordinates can be employed for visual spatial representation, but they activate different areas in primate cerebral hemispheres. Recent studies have determined that egocentric representation affects the reaction time of allocentric perception; furthermore, this influence is asymmetric between the two visual hemifields. The egocentric-allocentric incompatibility effect and its asymmetry between the two hemispheres can produce this phenomenon. Using an allocentric position judgment task, we found that this incompatibility effect was reduced, and its asymmetry was eliminated on an attentional task rather than a neutral task. Visual attention might activate cortical areas that process conflicting information, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, and balance the asymmetry between the two hemispheres. Attention may enhance and balance this interhemispheric cooperation because this imbalance may also be caused by the asymmetric cooperation of each hemisphere in spatial perception. PMID:26758349

  1. Visual attention modulates the asymmetric influence of each cerebral hemisphere on spatial perception

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meijian; Wang, Xiuhai; Xue, Lingyan; Huang, Dan; Chen, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Although the allocation of brain functions across the two cerebral hemispheres has aroused public interest over the past century, asymmetric interhemispheric cooperation under attentional modulation has been scarcely investigated. An example of interhemispheric cooperation is visual spatial perception. During this process, visual information from each hemisphere is integrated because each half of the visual field predominantly projects to the contralateral visual cortex. Both egocentric and allocentric coordinates can be employed for visual spatial representation, but they activate different areas in primate cerebral hemispheres. Recent studies have determined that egocentric representation affects the reaction time of allocentric perception; furthermore, this influence is asymmetric between the two visual hemifields. The egocentric-allocentric incompatibility effect and its asymmetry between the two hemispheres can produce this phenomenon. Using an allocentric position judgment task, we found that this incompatibility effect was reduced, and its asymmetry was eliminated on an attentional task rather than a neutral task. Visual attention might activate cortical areas that process conflicting information, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, and balance the asymmetry between the two hemispheres. Attention may enhance and balance this interhemispheric cooperation because this imbalance may also be caused by the asymmetric cooperation of each hemisphere in spatial perception. PMID:26758349

  2. Right ear advantage for vocal communication in frogs results from both structural asymmetry and attention modulation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guangzhan; Xue, Fei; Yang, Ping; Cui, Jianguo; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong

    2014-06-01

    Right-ear/left-hemisphere advantage (REA) in processing species-specific vocalizations has been demonstrated in mammals including humans. Two models for REA are typically proposed, a structural model and an attentional model. These hypotheses were tested in an anuran species, the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina) in which females strongly prefer male calls produced from inside mud-retuse burrows (high sexual attractiveness or HSA calls) to those produced in open fields (low sexual attractiveness or LSA calls). Isochronic playbacks were used to control for attention to stimuli presented to either the left or right sides of female subjects while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded from the left and right midbrain and telencephalon. The results show that relative EEG power in the delta band declined while those of the alpha and beta bands increased with time in the left but not the right midbrain. Since the anuran midbrain receives auditory information derived primarily from the contralateral auditory nerve, these results support the idea that REA occurs in frogs because communication sounds are processed preferentially in the left midbrain. Furthermore, though differences in the dynamic changes of the delta, alpha and beta bands in the left midbrain between acoustic stimuli were not statistically significant, these changes were stronger during the playback of HSA calls toward which females tend to allocate greater attentional resources. These results imply that REA in frogs results from the combined effects of structural asymmetry and attention modulation. PMID:24613236

  3. Spatial scale, rather than nature of task or locomotion, modulates the spatial reference frame of attention

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Won, Bo-Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Visuospatial attention is strongly biased to locations that frequently contained a search target before. However, the function of this bias depends on the reference frame in which attended locations are coded. Previous research has shown a striking difference between tasks administered on a computer monitor and in a large environment, with the former inducing viewer-centered learning and the latter environment-centered learning. Why does environment-centered learning fail on a computer? Here we tested three possibilities: differences in spatial scale, nature of task, and locomotion may influence the reference frame of attention. Participants searched for a target on a monitor placed flat on a stand. On each trial they stood at a different location around the monitor. The target was frequently located in a fixed area of the monitor, but changes in participants’ perspective rendered this area random relative to the participants. Under incidental learning conditions participants failed to acquire environment-centered learning even when (i) the task and display resembled the large-scale task, and (ii) the search task required locomotion. The difficulty in inducing environment-centered learning on a computer underscores the egocentric nature of visual attention. It supports the idea that spatial scale modulates the reference frame of attention. PMID:25867510

  4. Body region dissatisfaction predicts attention to body regions on other women.

    PubMed

    Lykins, Amy D; Ferris, Tamara; Graham, Cynthia A

    2014-09-01

    The proliferation of "idealized" (i.e., very thin and attractive) women in the media has contributed to increasing rates of body dissatisfaction among women. However, it remains relatively unknown how women attend to these images: does dissatisfaction predict greater or lesser attention to these body regions on others? Fifty healthy women (mean age=21.8 years) viewed images of idealized and plus-size models; an eye-tracker recorded visual attention. Participants also completed measures of satisfaction for specific body regions, which were then used as predictors of visual attention to these regions on models. Consistent with an avoidance-type process, lower levels of satisfaction with the two regions of greatest reported concern (mid, lower torso) predicted less attention to these regions; greater satisfaction predicted more attention to these regions. While this visual attention bias may aid in preserving self-esteem when viewing idealized others, it may preclude the opportunity for comparisons that could improve self-esteem. PMID:25047004

  5. A Candidate for the Attentional Bottleneck: Set-Size Specific Modulation of the Right TPJ during Attentive Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Petra; Butterworth, Brian; Bahrami, Bahador

    2011-01-01

    Several recent behavioral studies have shown that the enumeration of a small number of items (a process termed "subitizing") depends on the availability of attentional resources and is not a preattentive process as previously thought. Here we studied the neural correlates of visual enumeration under different attentional loads in a dual-task…

  6. Modulation of auditory spatial attention by visual emotional cues: differential effects of attentional engagement and disengagement for pleasant and unpleasant cues.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Neil R; Woodhouse, Rob

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that threatening, compared to neutral pictures, can bias attention towards non-emotional auditory targets. Here we investigated which subcomponents of attention contributed to the influence of emotional visual stimuli on auditory spatial attention. Participants indicated the location of an auditory target, after brief (250 ms) presentation of a spatially non-predictive peripheral visual cue. Responses to targets were faster at the location of the preceding visual cue, compared to at the opposite location (cue validity effect). The cue validity effect was larger for targets following pleasant and unpleasant cues compared to neutral cues, for right-sided targets. For unpleasant cues, the crossmodal cue validity effect was driven by delayed attentional disengagement, and for pleasant cues, it was driven by enhanced engagement. We conclude that both pleasant and unpleasant visual cues influence the distribution of attention across modalities and that the associated attentional mechanisms depend on the valence of the visual cue. PMID:26842012

  7. Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues. PMID:25681293

  8. Mental workload prediction based on attentional resource allocation and information processing.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xu; Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload is an important component in complex human-machine systems. The limited applicability of empirical workload measures produces the need for workload modeling and prediction methods. In the present study, a mental workload prediction model is built on the basis of attentional resource allocation and information processing to ensure pilots' accuracy and speed in understanding large amounts of flight information on the cockpit display interface. Validation with an empirical study of an abnormal attitude recovery task showed that this model's prediction of mental workload highly correlated with experimental results. This mental workload prediction model provides a new tool for optimizing human factors interface design and reducing human errors. PMID:26406085

  9. Attention, working memory, and phenomenal experience of WM content: memory levels determined by different types of top-down modulation

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Jane; Jacobs, Christianne; Silvanto, Juha

    2015-01-01

    What is the role of top-down attentional modulation in consciously accessing working memory (WM) content? In influential WM models, information can exist in different states, determined by allocation of attention; placing the original memory representation in the center of focused attention gives rise to conscious access. Here we discuss various lines of evidence indicating that such attentional modulation is not sufficient for memory content to be phenomenally experienced. We propose that, in addition to attentional modulation of the memory representation, another type of top-down modulation is required: suppression of all incoming visual information, via inhibition of early visual cortex. In this view, there are three distinct memory levels, as a function of the top-down control associated with them: (1) Nonattended, nonconscious associated with no attentional modulation; (2) attended, phenomenally nonconscious memory, associated with attentional enhancement of the actual memory trace; (3) attended, phenomenally conscious memory content, associated with enhancement of the memory trace and top-down suppression of all incoming visual input. PMID:26539145

  10. Trait Mindfulness Predicts Efficient Top-Down Attention to and Discrimination of Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Quaglia, Jordan T; Goodman, Robert J; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2016-06-01

    In social situations, skillful regulation of emotion and behavior depends on efficiently discerning others' emotions. Identifying factors that promote timely and accurate discernment of facial expressions can therefore advance understanding of social emotion regulation and behavior. The present research examined whether trait mindfulness predicts neural and behavioral markers of early top-down attention to, and efficient discrimination of, socioemotional stimuli. Attention-based event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral responses were recorded while participants (N = 62; White; 67% female; Mage = 19.09 years, SD = 2.14 years) completed an emotional go/no-go task involving happy, neutral, and fearful facial expressions. Mindfulness predicted larger (more negative) N100 and N200 ERP amplitudes to both go and no-go stimuli. Mindfulness also predicted faster response time that was not attributable to a speed-accuracy trade-off. Significant relations held after accounting for attentional control or social anxiety. This study adds neurophysiological support for foundational accounts that mindfulness entails moment-to-moment attention with lower tendencies toward habitual patterns of responding. Mindfulness may enhance the quality of social behavior in socioemotional contexts by promoting efficient top-down attention to and discrimination of others' emotions, alongside greater monitoring and inhibition of automatic response tendencies. PMID:25676934

  11. Emotional modulation of the attentional blink and the relation to interpersonal reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Kanske, Philipp; Schönfelder, Sandra; Wessa, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    The extent of the attentional blink effect on detection rates in rapid serial visual presentations is modulated by the emotionality of the stimuli. Emotionally salient stimuli are detected more often, even if presented in the attentional blink period, and elicit an enlarged P3 response, which has been interpreted as enhanced consolidation. This effect correlates with individual differences in trait affectivity such as anxiety or dysphoria. Here, we ask if it is also related to the capacity to detect emotions in others, i.e., to interpersonal social traits. We therefore presented emotional and neutral images depicting social scenes as targets in an attentional blink design and measured detection rates and event-related potentials. In addition, we recorded self-reports of empathy as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. The results show enhanced performance for emotional stimuli and increased P3 amplitudes, which correlated with individual differences in empathy. The data suggest that self-reported empathy goes along with enhanced processing of emotion in social stimuli, even under stimulus conditions that are suboptimal for conscious target detection. PMID:24130525

  12. Attention selectively modulates cortical entrainment in different regions of the speech spectrum.

    PubMed

    Baltzell, Lucas S; Horton, Cort; Shen, Yi; Richards, Virginia M; D'Zmura, Michael; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have uncovered a neural response that appears to track the envelope of speech, and have shown that this tracking process is mediated by attention. It has been argued that this tracking reflects a process of phase-locking to the fluctuations of stimulus energy, ensuring that this energy arrives during periods of high neuronal excitability. Because all acoustic stimuli are decomposed into spectral channels at the cochlea, and this spectral decomposition is maintained along the ascending auditory pathway and into auditory cortex, we hypothesized that the overall stimulus envelope is not as relevant to cortical processing as the individual frequency channels; attention may be mediating envelope tracking differentially across these spectral channels. To test this we reanalyzed data reported by Horton et al. (2013), where high-density EEG was recorded while adults attended to one of two competing naturalistic speech streams. In order to simulate cochlear filtering, the stimuli were passed through a gammatone filterbank, and temporal envelopes were extracted at each filter output. Following Horton et al. (2013), the attended and unattended envelopes were cross-correlated with the EEG, and local maxima were extracted at three different latency ranges corresponding to distinct peaks in the cross-correlation function (N1, P2, and N2). We found that the ratio between the attended and unattended cross-correlation functions varied across frequency channels in the N1 latency range, consistent with the hypothesis that attention differentially modulates envelope-tracking activity across spectral channels. PMID:27195825

  13. Hallucinations predict attentional improvements with rivastigmine in dementia with lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    McKeith, Ian G; Wesnes, Keith A; Perry, Elaine; Ferrara, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this analysis of the effects of cholinergic therapy in dementia with Lewy bodies was to determine whether rivastigmine-induced benefits in attention and memory could be predicted by the presence of visual hallucinations. At study entry, 74% of patients were hallucinators and 26% were non-hallucinators. The population was analyzed for two-factor scores: power of attention (PoA) and quality of memory (QoM). A significant effect over placebo on PoA was observed in hallucinators at weeks 12 (p = 0.023) and 20 (p = 0.0019), while no treatment effects were seen in non-hallucinators. Significant treatment effects on QoM were not observed in either subgroup. Visual hallucinations predicted greater improvements in PoA, but not QoM. This may reflect the greater cholinergic deficits in areas of the brain responsible for visual hallucinations, offering greater potential for attentional improvement. PMID:15087584

  14. Attention deficits predict phenotypic outcomes in syndrome-specific and domain-specific ways.

    PubMed

    Cornish, K; Steele, A; Monteiro, C Rondinelli Cobra; Karmiloff-Smith, A; Scerif, G

    2012-01-01

    Attentional difficulties, both at home and in the classroom, are reported across a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, exactly how attention influences early socio-cognitive learning remains unclear. We addressed this question both concurrently and longitudinally in a cross-syndrome design, with respect to the communicative domain of vocabulary and to the cognitive domain of early literacy, and then extended the analysis to social behavior. Participants were young children (aged 4-9 years at Time 1) with either Williams syndrome (WS, N = 26) or Down syndrome (DS, N = 26) and typically developing controls (N = 103). Children with WS displayed significantly greater attentional deficits (as indexed by teacher report of behavior typical of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than children with DS, but both groups had greater attentional problems than the controls. Despite their attention differences, children with DS and those with WS were equivalent in their cognitive abilities of reading single words, both at Time 1 and 12 months later, at Time 2, although they differed in their early communicative abilities in terms of vocabulary. Greater ADHD-like behaviors predicted poorer subsequent literacy for children with DS, but not for children with WS, pointing to syndrome-specific attentional constraints on specific aspects of early development. Overall, our findings highlight the need to investigate more precisely whether and, if so, how, syndrome-specific profiles of behavioral difficulties constrain learning and socio-cognitive outcomes across different domains. PMID:22798954

  15. Foundational Tuning: How Infants' Attention to Speech Predicts Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Curtin, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Orienting biases for speech may provide a foundation for language development. Although human infants show a bias for listening to speech from birth, the relation of a speech bias to later language development has not been established. Here, we examine whether infants' attention to speech directly predicts expressive vocabulary. Infants…

  16. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  17. Threat Related Selective Attention Predicts Treatment Success in Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Kallen, Victor L.; Dieleman, Gwen C.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Threat-related selective attention was found to predict the success of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders through administering a pictorial dot-probe task to 131 children with anxiety disorders prior to cognitive behavioral therapy. The diagnostic status of the subjects was evaluated with a semistructured clinical interview at both pre-…

  18. Speed of Inhibition Predicts Teacher--Rated Medication Response in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheres, Anouk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating whether one of the key deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), slow response inhibition, predicted the response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. In order to address this issue, we used Stop Signal Reaction Times (SSRTs) measured at baseline in 20 medication-naive boys with ADHD as…

  19. Sustained and transient attentional processes modulate neural predictors of memory encoding in consecutive time periods

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Eckstein, Doris; Perrig, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    Memory formation is commonly thought to rely on brain activity following an event. Yet, recent research has shown that even brain activity previous to an event can predict later recollection (subsequent memory effect, SME). In order to investigate the attentional sources of the SME, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task cues preceding target words were recorded in a switched task paradigm that was followed by a surprise recognition test. Stay trials, that is, those with the same task as the previous trial, were contrasted with switch trials, which included a task switch compared to the previous trial. The underlying assumption was that sustained attention would be dominant in stay trials and that transient attentional reconfiguration processes would be dominant in switch trials. To determine the SME, local and global statistics of scalp electric fields were used to identify differences between subsequently remembered and forgotten items. Results showed that the SME in stay trials occurred in a time window from 2 to 1 sec before target onset, whereas the SME in switch trials occurred subsequently, in a time window from 1 to 0 sec before target onset. Both SMEs showed a frontal negativity resembling the topography of previously reported effects, which suggests that sustained and transient attentional processes contribute to the prestimulus SME in consecutive time periods. PMID:24381815

  20. Sustained and transient attentional processes modulate neural predictors of memory encoding in consecutive time periods.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Eckstein, Doris; Perrig, Walter J

    2013-07-01

    Memory formation is commonly thought to rely on brain activity following an event. Yet, recent research has shown that even brain activity previous to an event can predict later recollection (subsequent memory effect, SME). In order to investigate the attentional sources of the SME, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task cues preceding target words were recorded in a switched task paradigm that was followed by a surprise recognition test. Stay trials, that is, those with the same task as the previous trial, were contrasted with switch trials, which included a task switch compared to the previous trial. The underlying assumption was that sustained attention would be dominant in stay trials and that transient attentional reconfiguration processes would be dominant in switch trials. To determine the SME, local and global statistics of scalp electric fields were used to identify differences between subsequently remembered and forgotten items. Results showed that the SME in stay trials occurred in a time window from 2 to 1 sec before target onset, whereas the SME in switch trials occurred subsequently, in a time window from 1 to 0 sec before target onset. Both SMEs showed a frontal negativity resembling the topography of previously reported effects, which suggests that sustained and transient attentional processes contribute to the prestimulus SME in consecutive time periods. PMID:24381815

  1. Losses as modulators of attention: review and analysis of the unique effects of losses over gains.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown that in certain situations losses exert a stronger effect on behavior than respective gains, and this has been commonly explained by the argument that losses are given more weight in people's decisions than respective gains. However, although much is understood about the effect of losses on cognitive processes and behavior, 2 major inconsistencies remain. First, recent empirical evidence fails to demonstrate that people avoid incentive structures that carry equivalent gains and losses. Second, findings in experience-based decision tasks indicate that following losses, increased arousal is observed simultaneously with no behavioral loss aversion. To account for these findings, we developed an attention-allocation model as a comprehensive framework for the effect of losses. According to this model losses increase on-task attention, thereby enhancing the sensitivity to the reinforcement structure. In the current article we examine whether this model can account for a broad range of empirical phenomena involving losses. We show that as predicted by the attentional model, asymmetric effects of losses on behavior emerge where gains and losses are presented separately but not concurrently. Yet, even in the absence of loss aversion, losses have distinct effects on performance, arousal, frontal cortical activation, and behavioral consistency. The attentional model of losses thus explains some of the main inconsistencies in previous studies of the effect of losses. PMID:22823738

  2. Attention attraction in an ophthalmic diagnostic device using sound-modulated fixation targets.

    PubMed

    Gramatikov, Boris I; Rangarajan, Shreya; Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L

    2016-08-01

    This study relates to eye fixation systems with combined optical and audio systems. Many devices for eye diagnostics and some devices for eye therapeutics require the patient to fixate on a small target for a certain period of time, during which the eyes do not move and data from substructures of one or both eyes are acquired and analyzed. With young pediatric patients, a monotonously blinking target is not sufficient to retain attention steadily. We developed a method for modulating the intensity of a point fixation target using sounds appropriate to the child's age and preference. The method was realized as a subsystem of a Pediatric Vision Screener which employs retinal birefringence scanning for detection of central fixation. Twenty-one children, age 2-18, were studied. Modulation of the fixation target using sounds ensured the eye fixated on the target, and with appropriate choice of sounds, performed significantly better than a monotonously blinking target accompanied by a plain beep. The method was particularly effective with children of ages up to 10, after which its benefit disappeared. Typical applications of target modulation would be as supplemental subsystems in pediatric ophthalmic diagnostic devices, such as scanning laser ophthalmoscopes, optical coherence tomography units, retinal birefringence scanners, fundus cameras, and perimeters. PMID:27245750

  3. Attentional selection of location and modality in vision and touch modulates low-frequency activity in associated sensory cortices

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Steffan; Driver, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Selective attention allows us to focus on particular sensory modalities and locations. Relatively little is known about how attention to a sensory modality may relate to selection of other features, such as spatial location, in terms of brain oscillations, although it has been proposed that low-frequency modulation (α- and β-bands) may be key. Here, we investigated how attention to space (left or right) and attention to modality (vision or touch) affect ongoing low-frequency oscillatory brain activity over human sensory cortex. Magnetoencephalography was recorded while participants performed a visual or tactile task. In different blocks, touch or vision was task-relevant, whereas spatial attention was cued to the left or right on each trial. Attending to one or other modality suppressed α-oscillations over the corresponding sensory cortex. Spatial attention led to reduced α-oscillations over both sensorimotor and occipital cortex contralateral to the attended location in the cue-target interval, when either modality was task-relevant. Even modality-selective sensors also showed spatial-attention effects for both modalities. The visual and sensorimotor results were generally highly convergent, yet, although attention effects in occipital cortex were dominant in the α-band, in sensorimotor cortex, these were also clearly present in the β-band. These results extend previous findings that spatial attention can operate in a multimodal fashion and indicate that attention to space and modality both rely on similar mechanisms that modulate low-frequency oscillations. PMID:22323628

  4. Effects of Spectral Degradation on Attentional Modulation of Cortical Auditory Responses to Continuous Speech.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Somarowthu, Ala; Ding, Nai

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of spectral degradation on cortical speech encoding in complex auditory scenes. Young normal-hearing listeners were simultaneously presented with two speech streams and were instructed to attend to only one of them. The speech mixtures were subjected to noise-channel vocoding to preserve the temporal envelope and degrade the spectral information of speech. Each subject was tested with five spectral resolution conditions (unprocessed speech, 64-, 32-, 16-, and 8-channel vocoder conditions) and two target-to-masker ratio (TMR) conditions (3 and 0 dB). Ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) responses and speech comprehension were measured in each spectral and TMR condition for each subject. Neural tracking of each speech stream was characterized by cross-correlating the EEG responses with the envelope of each of the simultaneous speech streams at different time lags. Results showed that spectral degradation and TMR both significantly influenced how top-down attention modulated the EEG responses to the attended and unattended speech. That is, the EEG responses to the attended and unattended speech streams differed more for the higher (unprocessed, 64 ch, and 32 ch) than the lower (16 and 8 ch) spectral resolution conditions, as well as for the higher (3 dB) than the lower TMR (0 dB) condition. The magnitude of differential neural modulation responses to the attended and unattended speech streams significantly correlated with speech comprehension scores. These results suggest that severe spectral degradation and low TMR hinder speech stream segregation, making it difficult to employ top-down attention to differentially process different speech streams. PMID:26362546

  5. Rejection positivity predicts trial-to-trial reaction times in an auditory selective attention task: a computational analysis of inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sufen; Melara, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    A series of computer simulations using variants of a formal model of attention (Melara and Algom, 2003) probed the role of rejection positivity (RP), a slow-wave electroencephalographic (EEG) component, in the inhibitory control of distraction. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded as participants performed auditory selective attention tasks. Simulations that modulated processes of distractor inhibition accounted well for reaction-time (RT) performance, whereas those that modulated target excitation did not. A model that incorporated RP from actual EEG recordings in estimating distractor inhibition was superior in predicting changes in RT as a function of distractor salience across conditions. A model that additionally incorporated momentary fluctuations in EEG as the source of trial-to-trial variation in performance precisely predicted individual RTs within each condition. The results lend support to the linking proposition that RP controls the speed of responding to targets through the inhibitory control of distractors. PMID:25191244

  6. Attention Modulates Neural Responses to Unpredictable Emotional Faces in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Guangming; Chen, Xu; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Yuanxiao; Zhang, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Unpredictability about upcoming emotional events disrupts our ability to prepare for them and ultimately results in anxiety. Here, we investigated how attention modulates the neural responses to unpredictable emotional events. Brain activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants performed a variation of the emotional task. Behaviorally, we reported a fear-unpredictable effect and a happy-unpredictable effect. The fMRI results showed increased activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) for unpredictable fear faces (Experiment 1) and decreased activity in the left dlPFC for unpredictable happy faces (Experiment 2) when these faces were unattended, probably reflecting that unpredictability amplifies the negative impact of fear faces and reduces the positive impact of happy faces. More importantly, it was found that the right dlPFC activity to unpredictable fear faces was diminished (Experiment 1) and the left dlPFC activity to unpredictable happy faces was enhanced (Experiment 2) when these faces were attended. These results suggest that attention may contribute to reducing the unpredictability about future emotional events. PMID:27445769

  7. Attentional Modulation of Source Attribution in First-Episode Psychosis: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana

    2013-01-01

    Background: In patients with schizophrenia, the misattribution of self-generated events to an external source is associated with the presence of psychotic symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate how this misattribution is influenced by dysfunction of attentional processing, which is also impaired in schizophrenia. Methods: Participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while listening to prerecorded speech. Their expectancies were manipulated using visual cues that were either congruent (valid) or incongruent (invalid) with the speech. The source (self/other) and the acoustic quality (undistorted/distorted) of the speech were also manipulated. Twenty patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 20 matched healthy controls (HC) were tested. Results: When listening to self-generated speech preceded by an invalid (other speech) cue, relative to HC, FEP patients showed a trend to misidentify their own speech as that of another person. Analysis of fMRI data showed that FEP patients had reduced activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and left precuneus (Pc) relative to HC. Within the FEP group, the level of activation in the right MTG was negatively correlated with the severity of their positive psychotic symptoms. Conclusions: Impaired attentional modulation in schizophrenia may contribute to the tendency for FEP patients to misattribute the source of self-generated material, and this may be mediated by the right MTG and Pc, regions that are involved in both self-referential processing and the integration of sensory information. PMID:22987297

  8. Frontolimbic neural circuitry at 6 months predicts individual differences in joint attention at 9 months.

    PubMed

    Elison, Jed T; Wolff, Jason J; Heimer, Debra C; Paterson, Sarah J; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    Elucidating the neural basis of joint attention in infancy promises to yield important insights into the development of language and social cognition, and directly informs developmental models of autism. We describe a new method for evaluating responding to joint attention performance in infancy that highlights the 9- to 10-month period as a time interval of maximal individual differences. We then demonstrate that fractional anisotropy in the right uncinate fasciculus, a white matter fiber bundle connecting the amygdala to the ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and anterior temporal pole, measured in 6-month-olds predicts individual differences in responding to joint attention at 9 months of age. The white matter microstructure of the right uncinate was not related to receptive language ability at 9 months. These findings suggest that the development of core nonverbal social communication skills in infancy is largely supported by preceding developments within right lateralized frontotemporal brain systems. PMID:23432829

  9. Frontolimbic Neural Circuitry at 6 Months Predicts Individual Differences in Joint Attention at 9 Months

    PubMed Central

    Elison, Jed T.; Wolff, Jason J.; Heimer, Debra C.; Paterson, Sarah J.; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C.; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the neural basis of joint attention in infancy promises to yield important insights into the development of language and social cognition, and directly informs developmental models of autism. We describe a new method for evaluating responding to joint attention performance in infancy that highlights the 9 to 10 month period as a time interval of maximal individual differences. We then demonstrate that fractional anisotropy in the right uncinate fasciculus, a white matter fiber bundle connecting the amygdala to the ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and anterior temporal pole, measured in 6 month-olds predicts individual differences in responding to joint attention at 9 months of age. The white matter microstructure of the right uncinate was not related to receptive language ability at 9 months. These findings suggest that the development of core nonverbal social communication skills in infancy is largely supported by preceding developments within right lateralized frontotemporal brain systems. PMID:23432829

  10. Attention to the mouth and gaze following in infancy predict language development.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Elena J; Sobel, David M; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Shah, Rajesh J; Malle, Bertram F; Morgan, James L

    2015-11-01

    We investigated longitudinal relations among gaze following and face scanning in infancy and later language development. At 12 months, infants watched videos of a woman describing an object while their passive viewing was measured with an eye-tracker. We examined the relation between infants' face scanning behavior and their tendency to follow the speaker's attentional shift to the object she was describing. We also collected language outcome measures on the same infants at 18 and 24 months. Attention to the mouth and gaze following at 12 months both predicted later productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in terms of social engagement, which may account for both attentional distribution and language onset. We argue that an infant's inherent interest in engaging with others (in addition to creating more opportunities for communication) leads infants to attend to the most relevant information in a social scene and that this information facilitates language learning. PMID:25403090

  11. Temporal Dynamics Underlying the Modulation of Social Status on Social Attention

    PubMed Central

    Dalmaso, Mario; Galfano, Giovanni; Coricelli, Carol; Castelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Fixating someone suddenly moving the eyes is known to trigger a corresponding shift of attention in the observer. This phenomenon, known as gaze-cueing effect, can be modulated as a function of the social status of the individual depicted in the cueing face. Here, in two experiments, we investigated the temporal dynamics underlying this modulation. To this end, a gaze-cueing paradigm was implemented in which centrally-placed faces depicting high- and low-status individuals suddenly shifted the eyes towards a location either spatially congruent or incongruent with that occupied by a subsequent target stimulus. Social status was manipulated by presenting fictive Curriculum Vitae before the experimental phase. In Experiment 1, in which two temporal intervals (50 ms vs. 900 ms) occurred between the direct-gaze face and the averted-gaze face onsets, a stronger gaze-cueing effect in response to high-status faces than low-status faces was observed, irrespective of the time participants were allowed for extracting social information. In Experiment 2, in which two temporal intervals (200 ms vs. 1000 ms) occurred between the averted-gaze face and target onset, a stronger gaze cueing for high-status faces was observed at the shorter interval only. Taken together, these results suggest that information regarding social status is extracted from faces rapidly (Experiment 1), and that the tendency to selectively attend to the locations gazed by high-status individuals may decay with time (Experiment 2). PMID:24667700

  12. Structural Organization of the Corpus Callosum Predicts Attentional Shifts after Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.; Kennard, Christopher; Cazzoli, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in healthy participants has been shown to trigger a significant rightward shift in the spatial allocation of visual attention, temporarily mimicking spatial deficits observed in neglect. In contrast, rTMS applied over the left PPC triggers a weaker or null attentional shift. However, large interindividual differences in responses to rTMS have been reported. Studies measuring changes in brain activation suggest that the effects of rTMS may depend on both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric interactions between cortical loci controlling visual attention. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structural organization of human white matter pathways subserving visual attention, as assessed by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography, could explain interindividual differences in the effects of rTMS. Most participants showed a rightward shift in the allocation of spatial attention after rTMS over the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), but the size of this effect varied largely across participants. Conversely, rTMS over the left IPS resulted in strikingly opposed individual responses, with some participants responding with rightward and some with leftward attentional shifts. We demonstrate that microstructural and macrostructural variability within the corpus callosum, consistent with differential effects on cross-hemispheric interactions, predicts both the extent and the direction of the response to rTMS. Together, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may have a dual inhibitory and excitatory function in maintaining the interhemispheric dynamics that underlie the allocation of spatial attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) controls allocation of attention across left versus right visual fields. Damage to this area results in neglect, characterized by a lack of spatial awareness of the side of space

  13. A cost minimisation and Bayesian inference model predicts startle reflex modulation across species

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    In many species, rapid defensive reflexes are paramount to escaping acute danger. These reflexes are modulated by the state of the environment. This is exemplified in fear-potentiated startle, a more vigorous startle response during conditioned anticipation of an unrelated threatening event. Extant explanations of this phenomenon build on descriptive models of underlying psychological states, or neural processes. Yet, they fail to predict invigorated startle during reward anticipation and instructed attention, and do not explain why startle reflex modulation evolved. Here, we fill this lacuna by developing a normative cost minimisation model based on Bayesian optimality principles. This model predicts the observed pattern of startle modification by rewards, punishments, instructed attention, and several other states. Moreover, the mathematical formalism furnishes predictions that can be tested experimentally. Comparing the model with existing data suggests a specific neural implementation of the underlying computations which yields close approximations to the optimal solution under most circumstances. This analysis puts startle modification into the framework of Bayesian decision theory and predictive coding, and illustrates the importance of an adaptive perspective to interpret defensive behaviour across species. PMID:25660056

  14. Attention modulates specificity effects in spoken word recognition: Challenges to the time-course hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Rachel M; Blumstein, Sheila E; Luthra, Sahil

    2015-07-01

    Findings in the domain of spoken word recognition have indicated that lexical representations contain both abstract and episodic information. It has been proposed that processing time determines when each source of information is recruited, with increased processing time being required to access lower-frequency episodic instantiations. The time-course hypothesis of specificity effects has thus identified a strong role for retrieval mechanisms mediating the use of abstract versus episodic information. Here we conducted three recognition memory experiments to examine whether the findings previously attributed to retrieval mechanisms might instead reflect attention during encoding. The results from Experiment 1 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when subjects attended to the individual speakers, but not when they attended to lexical characteristics, during encoding, even though processing times at retrieval were equivalent. The results from Experiment 2 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when listeners attended to talker gender but not when they attended to syntactic characteristics, even though the processing times at retrieval were significantly longer in the latter condition. The results from Experiment 3 showed no talker-specificity effects when all listeners attended to lexical characteristics, even when processing at retrieval was slowed by the addition of background noise. Collectively, these results suggest that when processing time during retrieval is decoupled from encoding factors, it fails to predict the emergence of talker-specificity effects. Rather, attention during encoding appears to be the putative variable. PMID:25824889

  15. Attention modulates specificity effects in spoken word recognition: Challenges to the time-course hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Luthra, Sahil

    2015-01-01

    Findings in the domain of spoken word recognition indicate that lexical representations contain both abstract and episodic information. It has been proposed that processing time determines when each source of information is recruited, with increased processing time required to access lower-frequency episodic instantiations. The time-course hypothesis of specificity effects thus identifies a strong role for retrieval mechanisms mediating the use of abstract versus episodic information. Here we conducted three recognition memory experiments to examine whether findings previously attributed to retrieval mechanisms might reflect attention during encoding. Results from Experiment 1 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when subjects attended to individual speakers during encoding, but not when they attended to lexical characteristics during encoding, even though processing time at retrieval was equivalent. Results from Experiment 2 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when listeners attended to talker gender but not when they attended to syntactic characteristics, even though processing time at retrieval was significantly longer in the latter condition. Results from Experiment 3 showed no talker-specificity effects when attending to lexical characteristics even when processing at retrieval was slowed by the addition of background noise. Collectively, these results suggest that when processing time during retrieval is decoupled from encoding factors, it fails to predict the emergence of talker-specificity effects. Rather, attention during encoding appears to be the putative variable. PMID:25824889

  16. Biased ART: a neural architecture that shifts attention toward previously disregarded features following an incorrect prediction.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Gail A; Gaddam, Sai Chaitanya

    2010-04-01

    Memories in Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) networks are based on matched patterns that focus attention on those portions of bottom-up inputs that match active top-down expectations. While this learning strategy has proved successful for both brain models and applications, computational examples show that attention to early critical features may later distort memory representations during online fast learning. For supervised learning, biased ARTMAP (bARTMAP) solves the problem of over-emphasis on early critical features by directing attention away from previously attended features after the system makes a predictive error. Small-scale, hand-computed analog and binary examples illustrate key model dynamics. Two-dimensional simulation examples demonstrate the evolution of bARTMAP memories as they are learned online. Benchmark simulations show that featural biasing also improves performance on large-scale examples. One example, which predicts movie genres and is based, in part, on the Netflix Prize database, was developed for this project. Both first principles and consistent performance improvements on all simulation studies suggest that featural biasing should be incorporated by default in all ARTMAP systems. Benchmark datasets and bARTMAP code are available from the CNS Technology Lab Website: http://techlab.bu.edu/bART/. PMID:19811892

  17. Can Attention Deficits Predict a Genotype? Isolate Attention Difficulties in a Boy with Klinefelter Syndrome Effectively Treated with Methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Antonella; Benedetto, Loredana; Masi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a 17-year-old boy who was diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (XXY) at the age of 16 years. Although cognitive level was absolutely normal, he showed attentional difficulties that negatively affected school adjustment. He was successfully treated with methylphenidate. A significant improvement was observed in the ADHD Rating Scale IV and in the inattention subscale score of the Conners Scales. The CGI-S score improved from 3 to 1, and the CGI-I score at the end point was 1 (very much improved). Also attention measures, particularly forward and backward digit span, improved with MPH treatment. Given the widely variable and often aspecific features, KS may run undiagnosed in a large majority of affected patients. A close attention to the cognitive phenotype may favour a correct diagnosis, and a timely treatment. PMID:25215256

  18. Prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and its attentional modulation in the human S-ketamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) models of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Heekeren, K; Neukirch, A; Daumann, J; Stoll, M; Obradovic, M; Kovar, K-A; Geyer, M A; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E

    2007-05-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit diminished prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex and deficits in the attentional modulation of PPI. Pharmacological challenges with hallucinogens are used as models for psychosis in both humans and animals. Remarkably, in contrast to the findings in schizophrenic patients and in animal hallucinogen models of psychosis, previous studies with healthy volunteers demonstrated increased levels of PPI after administration of low to moderate doses of either the antiglutamatergic hallucinogen ketamine or the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of moderate and high doses of the serotonergic hallucinogen N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist S-ketamine on PPI and its attentional modulation in humans. Fifteen healthy volunteers were included in a double-blind cross-over study with two doses of DMT and S-ketamine. Effects on PPI and its attentional modulation were investigated. Nine subjects completed both experimental days with the two doses of both drugs. S-ketamine increased PPI in both dosages, whereas DMT had no significant effects on PPI. S-ketamine decreased and DMT tended to decrease startle magnitude. There were no significant effects of either drug on the attentional modulation of PPI. In human experimental hallucinogen psychoses, and even with high, clearly psychotogenic doses of DMT or S-ketamine, healthy subjects failed to exhibit the predicted attenuation of PPI. In contrast, PPI was augmented and the startle magnitude was decreased after S-ketamine. These data point to important differences between human hallucinogen models and both animal hallucinogen models of psychosis and naturally occurring schizophrenia. PMID:17591658

  19. Metacognition of Multi-Tasking: How Well Do We Predict the Costs of Divided Attention?

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.; McCarley, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Risky multi-tasking, such as texting while driving, may occur because people misestimate the costs of divided attention. In two experiments, participants performed a computerized visual-manual tracking task in which they attempted to keep a mouse cursor within a small target that moved erratically around a circular track. They then separately performed an auditory n-back task. After practicing both tasks separately, participants received feedback on their single-task tracking performance and predicted their dual-task tracking performance before finally performing the two tasks simultaneously. Most participants correctly predicted reductions in tracking performance under dual-task conditions, with a majority overestimating the costs of dual-tasking. However, the between-subjects correlation between predicted and actual performance decrements was near zero. This combination of results suggests that people do anticipate costs of multi-tasking, but have little metacognitive insight on the extent to which they are personally vulnerable to the risks of divided attention, relative to other people. PMID:24490818

  20. Visual Attention Measures Predict Pedestrian Detection in Central Field Loss: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Concetta F.; Horowitz, Todd; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Bowers, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The ability of visually impaired people to deploy attention effectively to maximize use of their residual vision in dynamic situations is fundamental to safe mobility. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate whether tests of dynamic attention (multiple object tracking; MOT) and static attention (Useful Field of View; UFOV) were predictive of the ability of people with central field loss (CFL) to detect pedestrian hazards in simulated driving. Methods 11 people with bilateral CFL (visual acuity 20/30-20/200) and 11 age-similar normally-sighted drivers participated. Dynamic and static attention were evaluated with brief, computer-based MOT and UFOV tasks, respectively. Dependent variables were the log speed threshold for 60% correct identification of targets (MOT) and the increase in the presentation duration for 75% correct identification of a central target when a concurrent peripheral task was added (UFOV divided and selective attention subtests). Participants drove in a simulator and pressed the horn whenever they detected pedestrians that walked or ran toward the road. The dependent variable was the proportion of timely reactions (could have stopped in time to avoid a collision). Results UFOV and MOT performance of CFL participants was poorer than that of controls, and the proportion of timely reactions was also lower (worse) (84% and 97%, respectively; p = 0.001). For CFL participants, higher proportions of timely reactions correlated significantly with higher (better) MOT speed thresholds (r = 0.73, p = 0.01), with better performance on the UFOV divided and selective attention subtests (r = −0.66 and −0.62, respectively, p<0.04), with better contrast sensitivity scores (r = 0.54, p = 0.08) and smaller scotomas (r = −0.60, p = 0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that brief laboratory-based tests of visual attention may provide useful measures of functional visual ability of individuals with CFL relevant to more

  1. Attentional gain and processing capacity limits predict the propensity to neglect unexpected visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Papera, Massimiliano; Richards, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Exogenous allocation of attentional resources allows the visual system to encode and maintain representations of stimuli in visual working memory (VWM). However, limits in the processing capacity to allocate resources can prevent unexpected visual stimuli from gaining access to VWM and thereby to consciousness. Using a novel approach to create unbiased stimuli of increasing saliency, we investigated visual processing during a visual search task in individuals who show a high or low propensity to neglect unexpected stimuli. When propensity to inattention is high, ERP recordings show a diminished amplification concomitantly with a decrease in theta band power during the N1 latency, followed by a poor target enhancement during the N2 latency. Furthermore, a later modulation in the P3 latency was also found in individuals showing propensity to visual neglect, suggesting that more effort is required for conscious maintenance of visual information in VWM. Effects during early stages of processing (N80 and P1) were also observed suggesting that sensitivity to contrasts and medium-to-high spatial frequencies may be modulated by low-level saliency (albeit no statistical group differences were found). In accordance with the Global Workplace Model, our data indicate that a lack of resources in low-level processors and visual attention may be responsible for the failure to "ignite" a state of high-level activity spread across several brain areas that is necessary for stimuli to access awareness. These findings may aid in the development of diagnostic tests and intervention to detect/reduce inattention propensity to visual neglect of unexpected stimuli. PMID:26849023

  2. Attentional blink magnitude is predicted by the ability to keep irrelevant material out of working memory.

    PubMed

    Arnell, Karen M; Stubitz, Shawn M

    2010-09-01

    Participants have difficulty in reporting the second of two masked targets if the second target is presented within 500 ms of the first target-an attentional blink (AB). Individual participants differ in the magnitude of their AB. The present study employed an individual differences design and two visual working memory tasks to examine whether visual working memory capacity and/or the ability to exclude irrelevant information from visual working memory (working memory filtering efficiency) could predict individual differences in the AB. Visual working memory capacity was positively related to filtering efficiency, but did not predict AB magnitude. However, the degree to which irrelevant stimuli were admitted into visual working memory (i.e., poor filtering efficiency) was positively correlated with AB magnitude over and above visual working memory capacity. Good filtering efficiency may benefit the AB by not allowing irrelevant RSVP distractors to gain access to working memory. PMID:19937451

  3. Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M; Montague, P Read

    2015-02-24

    Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers' prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers' beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of "no nicotine in cigarette" (compared with "nicotine in cigarette") strongly diminished neural responses in the striatum to value and reward prediction errors and reduced the impact of both on smokers' choices. These effects of belief could not be explained by global changes in visual attention and were specific to value and reward prediction errors. Thus, by modulating the expression of computationally explicit signals important for valuation and choice, beliefs can override the physical presence of a potent neuroactive compound like nicotine. These selective effects of belief demonstrate that belief can modulate model-based parameters important for learning. The implications of these findings may be far ranging because belief-dependent effects on learning signals could impact a host of other behaviors in addiction as well as in other mental health problems. PMID:25605923

  4. Selective Attention and Inhibitory Deficits in ADHD: Does Subtype or Comorbidity Modulate Negative Priming Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2008-01-01

    Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…

  5. Temporal prediction errors modulate task-switching performance.

    PubMed

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M; Góngora-Costa, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that temporal prediction errors (PEs, the differences between the expected and the actual stimulus' onset times) modulate the effective connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex (rAI), causing the activity of the rAI to decrease. The activity of the rAI is associated with efficient performance under uncertainty (e.g., changing a prepared behavior when a change demand is not expected), which leads to hypothesize that temporal PEs might disrupt behavior-change performance under uncertainty. This hypothesis has not been tested at a behavioral level. In this work, we evaluated this hypothesis within the context of task switching and concurrent temporal predictions. Our participants performed temporal predictions while observing one moving ball striking a stationary ball which bounced off with a variable temporal gap. Simultaneously, they performed a simple color comparison task. In some trials, a change signal made the participants change their behaviors. Performance accuracy decreased as a function of both the temporal PE and the delay. Explaining these results without appealing to ad hoc concepts such as "executive control" is a challenge for cognitive neuroscience. We provide a predictive coding explanation. We hypothesize that exteroceptive and proprioceptive minimization of PEs would converge in a fronto-basal ganglia network which would include the rAI. Both temporal gaps (or uncertainty) and temporal PEs would drive and modulate this network respectively. Whereas the temporal gaps would drive the activity of the rAI, the temporal PEs would modulate the endogenous excitatory connections of the fronto-striatal network. We conclude that in the context of perceptual uncertainty, the system is not able to minimize perceptual PE, causing the ongoing behavior to finalize and, in consequence, disrupting task switching. PMID:26379568

  6. Temporal prediction errors modulate task-switching performance

    PubMed Central

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M.; Góngora-Costa, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that temporal prediction errors (PEs, the differences between the expected and the actual stimulus’ onset times) modulate the effective connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex (rAI), causing the activity of the rAI to decrease. The activity of the rAI is associated with efficient performance under uncertainty (e.g., changing a prepared behavior when a change demand is not expected), which leads to hypothesize that temporal PEs might disrupt behavior-change performance under uncertainty. This hypothesis has not been tested at a behavioral level. In this work, we evaluated this hypothesis within the context of task switching and concurrent temporal predictions. Our participants performed temporal predictions while observing one moving ball striking a stationary ball which bounced off with a variable temporal gap. Simultaneously, they performed a simple color comparison task. In some trials, a change signal made the participants change their behaviors. Performance accuracy decreased as a function of both the temporal PE and the delay. Explaining these results without appealing to ad hoc concepts such as “executive control” is a challenge for cognitive neuroscience. We provide a predictive coding explanation. We hypothesize that exteroceptive and proprioceptive minimization of PEs would converge in a fronto-basal ganglia network which would include the rAI. Both temporal gaps (or uncertainty) and temporal PEs would drive and modulate this network respectively. Whereas the temporal gaps would drive the activity of the rAI, the temporal PEs would modulate the endogenous excitatory connections of the fronto-striatal network. We conclude that in the context of perceptual uncertainty, the system is not able to minimize perceptual PE, causing the ongoing behavior to finalize and, in consequence, disrupting task switching. PMID:26379568

  7. Neonatal brainstem function and 4-month arousal-modulated attention are jointly associated with autism.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ira L; Gardner, Judith M; Karmel, Bernard Z; Phan, Ha T T; Kittler, Phyllis; Gomez, Tina Rovito; Gonzalez, Maripaz G; Lennon, Elizabeth M; Parab, Santosh; Barone, Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The authors evaluated the contribution of initially abnormal neonatal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and 4-month arousal-modulated attention visual preference to later autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates. A longitudinal study design was used to compare NICU graduates with normal ABRs (n = 28) to those with initially abnormal ABRs (n = 46) that later resolved. At 4 months postterm age, visual preference (measured after feeding) for a random check pattern flashing at 1, 3, or 8 Hz and gestational age (GA) served as additional predictors. Outcome measures were PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) scores at 3.4 years (standard deviation = 1.2), and developmental quotients (DQ) obtained around the same age with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS). Preferences for higher rates of stimulation at 4 months were highly correlated with PDDBI scores (all P-values < 0.01) and the GMDS Hearing and Speech DQ, but only in those with initially abnormal ABRs. Effects were strongest for a PDDBI social competence measure most associated with a diagnosis of autism. For those with abnormal ABRs, increases in preference for higher rates of stimulation as infants were linked to nonlinear increases in severity of ASD at 3 years and to an ASD diagnosis. Abnormal ABRs were associated with later reports of repetitive and ritualistic behaviors irrespective of 4-month preference for stimulation. The joint occurrence of initially abnormal neonatal ABRs and preference for more stimulation at 4 months, both indices of early brainstem dysfunction, may be a marker for the development of autism in this cohort. PMID:23165989

  8. Low Fidelity Imitation of Atypical Biological Kinematics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Modulated by Self-Generated Selective Attention.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Spencer J; Andrew, Matthew; Elliott, Digby; Gowen, Emma; Bennett, Simon J

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether adults with autism had difficulty imitating atypical biological kinematics. To reduce the impact that higher-order processes have on imitation we used a non-human agent model to control social attention, and removed end-state target goals in half of the trials to minimise goal-directed attention. Findings showed that only neurotypical adults imitated atypical biological kinematics. Adults with autism did, however, become significantly more accurate at imitating movement time. This confirmed they engaged in the task, and that sensorimotor adaptation was self-regulated. The attentional bias to movement time suggests the attenuation in imitating kinematics might be a compensatory strategy due to deficits in lower-level visuomotor processes associated with self-other mapping, or selective attention modulated the processes that represent biological kinematics. PMID:26349922

  9. Predictive coding in autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Chennu, Srivas; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Rattazzi, Alexia; Beraudi, Ana; Tripicchio, Paula; Moyano, Beatriz; Soffita, Yamila; Steinberg, Laura; Adolfi, Federico; Sigman, Mariano; Marino, Julian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-11-01

    Predictive coding has been proposed as a framework to understand neural processes in neuropsychiatric disorders. We used this approach to describe mechanisms responsible for attentional abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We monitored brain dynamics of 59 children (8-15 yr old) who had ASD or ADHD or who were control participants via high-density electroencephalography. We performed analysis at the scalp and source-space levels while participants listened to standard and deviant tone sequences. Through task instructions, we manipulated top-down expectation by presenting expected and unexpected deviant sequences. Children with ASD showed reduced superior frontal cortex (FC) responses to unexpected events but increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to expected events. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibited reduced cortical responses in superior FC to expected events but strong PFC activation to unexpected events. Moreover, neural abnormalities were associated with specific control mechanisms, namely, inhibitory control in ASD and set-shifting in ADHD. Based on the predictive coding account, top-down expectation abnormalities could be attributed to a disproportionate reliance (precision) allocated to prior beliefs in ASD and to sensory input in ADHD. PMID:26311184

  10. Focused attention vs. crossmodal signals paradigm: deriving predictions from the time-window-of-integration model.

    PubMed

    Colonius, Hans; Diederich, Adele

    2012-01-01

    In the crossmodal signals paradigm (CSP) participants are instructed to respond to a set of stimuli from different modalities, presented more or less simultaneously, as soon as a stimulus from any modality has been detected. In the focused attention paradigm (FAP), on the other hand, responses should only be made to a stimulus from a pre-defined target modality and stimuli from non-target modalities should be ignored. Whichever paradigm is being applied, a typical result is that responses tend to be faster to crossmodal stimuli than to unimodal stimuli, a phenomenon often referred to as "crossmodal interaction." Here, we investigate predictions of the time-window-of-integration (TWIN) modeling framework previously proposed by the authors. It is shown that TWIN makes specific qualitative and quantitative predictions on how the two paradigms differ with respect to the probability of multisensory integration and the amount of response enhancement, including the effect of stimulus intensity ("inverse effectiveness"). Introducing a decision-theoretic framework for TWIN further allows comparing the two paradigms with respect to the predicted optimal time window size and its dependence on the prior probability that the crossmodal stimulus information refers to the same event. In order to test these predictions, experimental studies that systematically compare crossmodal effects under stimulus conditions that are identical except for the CSP-FAP instruction should be performed in the future. PMID:22952460

  11. Modulation of Auditory Spatial Attention by Angry Prosody: An fMRI Auditory Dot-Probe Study.

    PubMed

    Ceravolo, Leonardo; Frühholz, Sascha; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have been shown to modulate attentional orienting through signals sent by subcortical brain regions that modulate visual perception at early stages of processing. Fewer studies, however, have investigated a similar effect of emotional stimuli on attentional orienting in the auditory domain together with an investigation of brain regions underlying such attentional modulation, which is the general aim of the present study. Therefore, we used an original auditory dot-probe paradigm involving simultaneously presented neutral and angry non-speech vocal utterances lateralized to either the left or the right auditory space, immediately followed by a short and lateralized single sine wave tone presented in the same (valid trial) or in the opposite space as the preceding angry voice (invalid trial). Behavioral results showed an expected facilitation effect for target detection during valid trials while functional data showed greater activation in the middle and posterior superior temporal sulci (STS) and in the medial frontal cortex for valid vs. invalid trials. The use of reaction time facilitation [absolute value of the Z-score of valid-(invalid+neutral)] as a group covariate extended enhanced activity in the amygdalae, auditory thalamus, and visual cortex. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of a large and distributed network of regions among which the STS, thalamus, and amygdala are crucial for the decoding of angry prosody, as well as for orienting and maintaining attention within an auditory space that was previously primed by a vocal emotional event. PMID:27242420

  12. Modulation of Auditory Spatial Attention by Angry Prosody: An fMRI Auditory Dot-Probe Study

    PubMed Central

    Ceravolo, Leonardo; Frühholz, Sascha; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have been shown to modulate attentional orienting through signals sent by subcortical brain regions that modulate visual perception at early stages of processing. Fewer studies, however, have investigated a similar effect of emotional stimuli on attentional orienting in the auditory domain together with an investigation of brain regions underlying such attentional modulation, which is the general aim of the present study. Therefore, we used an original auditory dot-probe paradigm involving simultaneously presented neutral and angry non-speech vocal utterances lateralized to either the left or the right auditory space, immediately followed by a short and lateralized single sine wave tone presented in the same (valid trial) or in the opposite space as the preceding angry voice (invalid trial). Behavioral results showed an expected facilitation effect for target detection during valid trials while functional data showed greater activation in the middle and posterior superior temporal sulci (STS) and in the medial frontal cortex for valid vs. invalid trials. The use of reaction time facilitation [absolute value of the Z-score of valid-(invalid+neutral)] as a group covariate extended enhanced activity in the amygdalae, auditory thalamus, and visual cortex. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of a large and distributed network of regions among which the STS, thalamus, and amygdala are crucial for the decoding of angry prosody, as well as for orienting and maintaining attention within an auditory space that was previously primed by a vocal emotional event. PMID:27242420

  13. Cortical Brain Activity Reflecting Attentional Biasing Toward Reward-Predicting Cues Covaries with Economic Decision-Making Performance.

    PubMed

    San Martín, René; Appelbaum, Lawrence G; Huettel, Scott A; Woldorff, Marty G

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive choice behavior depends critically on identifying and learning from outcome-predicting cues. We hypothesized that attention may be preferentially directed toward certain outcome-predicting cues. We studied this possibility by analyzing event-related potential (ERP) responses in humans during a probabilistic decision-making task. Participants viewed pairs of outcome-predicting visual cues and then chose to wager either a small (i.e., loss-minimizing) or large (i.e., gain-maximizing) amount of money. The cues were bilaterally presented, which allowed us to extract the relative neural responses to each cue by using a contralateral-versus-ipsilateral ERP contrast. We found an early lateralized ERP response, whose features matched the attention-shift-related N2pc component and whose amplitude scaled with the learned reward-predicting value of the cues as predicted by an attention-for-reward model. Consistently, we found a double dissociation involving the N2pc. Across participants, gain-maximization positively correlated with the N2pc amplitude to the most reliable gain-predicting cue, suggesting an attentional bias toward such cues. Conversely, loss-minimization was negatively correlated with the N2pc amplitude to the most reliable loss-predicting cue, suggesting an attentional avoidance toward such stimuli. These results indicate that learned stimulus-reward associations can influence rapid attention allocation, and that differences in this process are associated with individual differences in economic decision-making performance. PMID:25139941

  14. Modulation of executive attention by threat stimulus in test-anxious students

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Renlai; Zou, Jilin

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether test anxiety (TA) is related to impaired attentional networks under emotional distraction. High and low test-anxious students completed a modified version of the attention network test (ANT) in which emotional distracters, specifically threat-related or neutral words, were embedded in centrally presented hollow arrows in Experiment 1. Results showed a significant reduction in efficiency of the executive attention in test-anxious students compared to controls when the fillers were threat/test-related words. To evaluate the effect of the test adaptation, the original ANT, which utilized no emotional distracter, was employed as a control task in Experiment 2. We then consolidated the data on efficiency of attentional networks, which were derived from both tasks. Contrasting the two tasks showed that TA reduced executive attention in the revised task only, suggesting an enhanced sensitivity provided by the adaptation from the original task. Taken together, these findings indicate that the attentional deficit in test-anxious individuals represents a situation-related defect of a single component of attention rather than an underlying structural and universal attentional deficit. The results support the hypothesis of attentional control theory and contribute to the understanding of attentional mechanisms in individuals with TA. PMID:26483738

  15. Modulation of spatial attention by goals, statistical learning, and monetary reward.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Sha, Li Z; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    This study documented the relative strength of task goals, visual statistical learning, and monetary reward in guiding spatial attention. Using a difficult T-among-L search task, we cued spatial attention to one visual quadrant by (i) instructing people to prioritize it (goal-driven attention), (ii) placing the target frequently there (location probability learning), or (iii) associating that quadrant with greater monetary gain (reward-based attention). Results showed that successful goal-driven attention exerted the strongest influence on search RT. Incidental location probability learning yielded a smaller though still robust effect. Incidental reward learning produced negligible guidance for spatial attention. The 95 % confidence intervals of the three effects were largely nonoverlapping. To understand these results, we simulated the role of location repetition priming in probability cuing and reward learning. Repetition priming underestimated the strength of location probability cuing, suggesting that probability cuing involved long-term statistical learning of how to shift attention. Repetition priming provided a reasonable account for the negligible effect of reward on spatial attention. We propose a multiple-systems view of spatial attention that includes task goals, search habit, and priming as primary drivers of top-down attention. PMID:26105657

  16. Modulation of executive attention by threat stimulus in test-anxious students.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Renlai; Zou, Jilin

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether test anxiety (TA) is related to impaired attentional networks under emotional distraction. High and low test-anxious students completed a modified version of the attention network test (ANT) in which emotional distracters, specifically threat-related or neutral words, were embedded in centrally presented hollow arrows in Experiment 1. Results showed a significant reduction in efficiency of the executive attention in test-anxious students compared to controls when the fillers were threat/test-related words. To evaluate the effect of the test adaptation, the original ANT, which utilized no emotional distracter, was employed as a control task in Experiment 2. We then consolidated the data on efficiency of attentional networks, which were derived from both tasks. Contrasting the two tasks showed that TA reduced executive attention in the revised task only, suggesting an enhanced sensitivity provided by the adaptation from the original task. Taken together, these findings indicate that the attentional deficit in test-anxious individuals represents a situation-related defect of a single component of attention rather than an underlying structural and universal attentional deficit. The results support the hypothesis of attentional control theory and contribute to the understanding of attentional mechanisms in individuals with TA. PMID:26483738

  17. Reconciling the influence of predictiveness and uncertainty on stimulus salience: a model of attention in associative learning.

    PubMed

    Esber, Guillem R; Haselgrove, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Theories of selective attention in associative learning posit that the salience of a cue will be high if the cue is the best available predictor of reinforcement (high predictiveness). In contrast, a different class of attentional theory stipulates that the salience of a cue will be high if the cue is an inaccurate predictor of reinforcement (high uncertainty). Evidence in support of these seemingly contradictory propositions has led to: (i) the development of hybrid attentional models that assume the coexistence of separate, predictiveness-driven and uncertainty-driven mechanisms of changes in cue salience; and (ii) a surge of interest in identifying the neural circuits underpinning these mechanisms. Here, we put forward a formal attentional model of learning that reconciles the roles of predictiveness and uncertainty in salience modification. The issues discussed are relevant to psychologists, behavioural neuroscientists and neuroeconomists investigating the roles of predictiveness and uncertainty in behaviour. PMID:21653585

  18. Neural correlates of attentional bias for smoking cues: modulation by variance in the dopamine transporter gene

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Lohoff, Falk W.; Ehrman, Ronald; O’Brien, Charles P.; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette-dependent smokers automatically and involuntarily orient attention towards smoking cues (SCs). This attentional bias is clinically significant, as it may contribute to relapse. Thus, identifying neural and genetic correlates of attentional bias is critical for improving interventions. Our previous studies show that the dopamine transporter (DAT) SLC6A3 genotype exerts profound effects on limbic responses to SCs. One potential mechanism underlying these effects is greater attentional bias for SCs. Here, we explored associations between attentional bias for SCs and neural responses to SCs among ‘sated’ smokers genotyped for the SLC6A3 polymorphism. Pseudo-Continuous arterial spin-labeled (pCASL) perfusion fMR images were acquired during SC exposure in 35 smokers genotyped for the SLC6A3 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism (n=16, 9-repeats; n=19,10/10-repeats). Participants completed a visual dot-probe attentional bias task, which contained pictures of smoking and non-smoking pictures, to examine whether genetic variation in DAT influences attentional bias and to investigate relationships between attentional bias and neural responses to SCs. Although attentional bias to smoking pictures was not significantly different between 9-repeats and 10/10-repeats, 9-repeats showed a positive correlation between attentional bias and increased SC-induced brain activity in the amygdala; whereas, 10/10-repeats showed an inverse correlation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). In group comparisons, 9-repeats exhibited positive correlations between attentional bias and SCs in the mOFC and amygdala, relative to 10/10-repeats. Findings suggest that genetic variation in the DAT gene influences brain responses associated with attentional bias; thus, providing additional support for a SC-vulnerable endophenotype. PMID:23061530

  19. Interactions between voluntary and involuntary attention modulate the quality and temporal dynamics of visual processing.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Michael A; White, Alex L; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Successfully navigating a dynamic environment requires the efficient distribution of finite neural resources. Voluntary (endogenous) covert spatial attention selectively allocates those processing resources to goal-relevant locations in the visual scene in the absence of eye movements. However, the allocation of spatial attention is not always voluntary; abrupt onsets in the visual periphery automatically enhance processing of nearby stimuli (exogenous attention). In dynamic environments, exogenous events and internal goals likely compete to determine the distribution of attention, but how such competition is resolved is not well understood. To investigate how exogenous events interact with the concurrent allocation of voluntary attention, we used a speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure. SAT conjointly measures the rate of information accrual and asymptotic discriminability, allowing us to measure how attentional interactions unfold over time during stimulus processing. We found that both types of attention sped information accrual and improved discriminability. However, focusing endogenous attention at the target location reduced the effects of exogenous cues on the rate of information accrual and rendered negligible their effects on asymptotic discriminability. We verified the robustness of these findings in four additional experiments that targeted specific, critical response delays. In conclusion, the speed and quality of visual processing depend conjointly on internally and externally driven attentional states, but it is possible to voluntarily diminish distraction by irrelevant events in the periphery. PMID:25117089

  20. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms Predict Alcohol Expectancy Development

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brammer, Whitney A.; Ray, Lara A.; Lee, Steve S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Positive alcohol expectancies and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are independent risk factors for adolescent alcohol problems and substance use disorders. However, the association of early ADHD diagnostic status, as well as its separate dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity, with alcohol expectancies is essentially unknown. Method At baseline (i.e., Wave 1), parents of 139 6-to 9-year-old children (71% male) with (N = 77; 55%) and without (N = 62; 45%) ADHD completed structured diagnostic interviews of child psychopathology. Approximately two years later (i.e., Wave 2), children completed a Memory Model-Based Expectancy Questionnaire (MMBEQ) to ascertain their positive and negative expectancies regarding alcohol use. All children were alcohol naïve at both baseline and follow-up assessments. Results Controlling for age, sex, IQ, as well as the number of Wave 1 oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, the number of baseline hyperactivity symptoms prospectively predicted more positive arousing (i.e., MMBEQ “wild and crazy” subscale) alcohol expectancies at Wave 2. No predictive association was observed for the number of Wave 1 inattention symptoms and alcohol expectancies. Conclusions Childhood hyperactivity prospectively and positively predicted expectancies regarding the arousing properties of alcohol, independent of inattention and ODD/CD symptoms, as well as other key covariates. Even in the absence of explicit alcohol engagement, youths with elevated hyperactivity may benefit from targeted intervention given its association with more positive arousing alcohol expectancies. PMID:27110089

  1. Cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort predict shifting efficiency: Implications for attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situational stress interact to impair performance on tasks that involve attentional shifting. The theory suggests that anxious individuals recruit additional effort to prevent shortfalls in performance effectiveness (accuracy), with deficits becoming evident in processing efficiency (the relationship between accuracy and time taken to perform the task). These assumptions, however, have not been systematically tested. The relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort in a shifting task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) was investigated in 90 participants. Cognitive trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through ego threat instructions, and mental effort was measured using a visual analogue scale. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors) and processing efficiency (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors divided by response time on perseverative error trials). The predictors were not associated with performance effectiveness; however, we observed a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency. At higher mental effort (+1 SD), higher cognitive trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency independently of situational stress, whereas at lower effort (-1 SD), this relationship was highly significant and most pronounced for those in the high-stress condition. These results are important because they provide the first systematic test of the relationship between trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort on shifting performance. The data are also consistent with the notion that effort moderates the relationship between anxiety and shifting efficiency, but not effectiveness. PMID:25642722

  2. Predicting Aggressive Tendencies by Visual Attention Bias Associated with Hostile Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ping-I; Hsieh, Cheng-Da; Juan, Chi-Hung; Hossain, Md Monir; Erickson, Craig A.; Lee, Yang-Han; Su, Mu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to clarify the relationship between social information processing (e.g., visual attention to cues of hostility, hostility attribution bias, and facial expression emotion labeling) and aggressive tendencies. Thirty adults were recruited in the eye-tracking study that measured various components in social information processing. Baseline aggressive tendencies were measured using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Visual attention towards hostile objects was measured as the proportion of eye gaze fixation duration on cues of hostility. Hostility attribution bias was measured with the rating results for emotions of characters in the images. The results show that the eye gaze duration on hostile characters was significantly inversely correlated with the AQ score and less eye contact with an angry face. The eye gaze duration on hostile object was not significantly associated with hostility attribution bias, although hostility attribution bias was significantly positively associated with the AQ score. Our findings suggest that eye gaze fixation time towards non-hostile cues may predict aggressive tendencies. PMID:26901770

  3. Predicting Aggressive Tendencies by Visual Attention Bias Associated with Hostile Emotions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping-I; Hsieh, Cheng-Da; Juan, Chi-Hung; Hossain, Md Monir; Erickson, Craig A; Lee, Yang-Han; Su, Mu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to clarify the relationship between social information processing (e.g., visual attention to cues of hostility, hostility attribution bias, and facial expression emotion labeling) and aggressive tendencies. Thirty adults were recruited in the eye-tracking study that measured various components in social information processing. Baseline aggressive tendencies were measured using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Visual attention towards hostile objects was measured as the proportion of eye gaze fixation duration on cues of hostility. Hostility attribution bias was measured with the rating results for emotions of characters in the images. The results show that the eye gaze duration on hostile characters was significantly inversely correlated with the AQ score and less eye contact with an angry face. The eye gaze duration on hostile object was not significantly associated with hostility attribution bias, although hostility attribution bias was significantly positively associated with the AQ score. Our findings suggest that eye gaze fixation time towards non-hostile cues may predict aggressive tendencies. PMID:26901770

  4. Spatial Attention-Related Modulation of the N170 by Backward Masked Fearful Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Joshua M.; Reinke, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Facial expressions are a basic form of non-verbal communication that convey important social information to others. The relevancy of this information is highlighted by findings that backward masked facial expressions facilitate spatial attention. This attention effect appears to be mediated through a neural network consisting of the amygdala,…

  5. Dual-task conditions modulate the efficiency of selective attention mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Festa, Elena K; Heindel, William C; Ott, Brian R

    2010-09-01

    Given previous demonstrations of both selective and divided attention deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, understanding how declines in the integrity of component processes of selective attention in these patients interact with impairments to executive processes mediating dual-task performance has both theoretical and practical relevance. To address this issue, healthy elderly and AD patients performed computerized tasks of spatial orienting, Simon response interference, and visual search both in isolation and while simultaneously engaged in a visuomotor tracking task (i.e., maintaining car position within a simulated driving environment). Results from the single-task conditions confirmed previous demonstrations of selective attention deficits in AD. Dual-task conditions produced in AD patients (but not healthy elderly) a change in the efficiency of the selective attention mechanisms themselves, as reflected in differential effects on cue or display conditions within each task. Rather than exacerbating the selective attention deficits observed under single-task conditions, however, dual-task conditions produced an apparent diminution of these deficits. We suggest this diminution is due to the combination of deficient top-down inhibitory processes along with a decrease in the attention-capturing properties of cue information under dual-task conditions in AD patients. These findings not only increase our understanding of the nature of the attentional deficits in AD patients, but also have implications for understanding the processes mediating attention in neurologically intact individuals. PMID:20621109

  6. Attentional Modulation of Masked Repetition and Categorical Priming in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabre, Ludovic; Lemaire, Patrick; Grainger, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of temporal attention and aging on masked repetition and categorical priming for numbers and words. Participants' temporal attention was manipulated by varying the stimulus onset asynchrony (i.e., constant or variable SOA). In Experiment 1, participants performed a parity judgment task and a lexical decision…

  7. Modulation of Attentional Blink with Emotional Faces in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Ruiz, Ericka; Strang, John; Sokoloff, Jennifer; Kenworthy, Lauren; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The attentional blink (AB) phenomenon was used to assess the effect of emotional information on early visual attention in typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The AB effect is the momentary perceptual unawareness that follows target identification in a rapid serial visual processing…

  8. Predictive coding and multisensory integration: an attentional account of the multisensory mind

    PubMed Central

    Talsma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Multisensory integration involves a host of different cognitive processes, occurring at different stages of sensory processing. Here I argue that, despite recent insights suggesting that multisensory interactions can occur at very early latencies, the actual integration of individual sensory traces into an internally consistent mental representation is dependent on both top–down and bottom–up processes. Moreover, I argue that this integration is not limited to just sensory inputs, but that internal cognitive processes also shape the resulting mental representation. Studies showing that memory recall is affected by the initial multisensory context in which the stimuli were presented will be discussed, as well as several studies showing that mental imagery can affect multisensory illusions. This empirical evidence will be discussed from a predictive coding perspective, in which a central top–down attentional process is proposed to play a central role in coordinating the integration of all these inputs into a coherent mental representation. PMID:25859192

  9. Levels of attention and task difficulty in the modulation of interval duration mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alana M; Davalos, Deana B

    2015-01-01

    Time perception has been described as a fundamental skill needed to engage in a number of higher level cognitive processes essential to successfully navigate everyday life (e.g., planning, sequencing, etc.) Temporal processing is often thought of as a basic neural process that impacts a variety of other cognitive processes. Others, however, have argued that timing in the brain can be affected by a number of variables such as attention and motivation. In an effort to better understand timing in the brain at a basic level with minimal attentional demands, researchers have often employed use of the mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN, specifically duration MMN (dMMN) and interval MMN (iMMN) have been popular methods for studying temporal processing in populations for which attention or motivation may be an issue (e.g., clinical populations, early developmental studies). There are, however, select studies which suggest that attention may in fact modify both temporal processing in general and the MMN event-related potential. It is unclear the degree to which attention affects MMN or whether the effects differ depending on the complexity or difficulty of the MMN paradigm. The iMMN indexes temporal processing and is elicited by introducing a deviant interval duration amid a series of standards. A greater degree of difference in the deviant from the standard elicits a heightened iMMN. Unlike past studies, in which attention was intentionally directed toward a closed-captioned move, the current study had participants partake in tasks involving varying degrees of attention (passive, low, and high) with varying degrees of deviants (small, medium, and large) to better understand the role of attention on the iMMN and to assess whether level of attention paired with changes in task difficulty differentially influence the iMMN electrophysiological responses. Data from 19 subjects were recorded in an iMMN paradigm. The amplitude of the iMMN waveform showed an increase with attention

  10. Levels of attention and task difficulty in the modulation of interval duration mismatch negativity

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alana M.; Davalos, Deana B.

    2015-01-01

    Time perception has been described as a fundamental skill needed to engage in a number of higher level cognitive processes essential to successfully navigate everyday life (e.g., planning, sequencing, etc.) Temporal processing is often thought of as a basic neural process that impacts a variety of other cognitive processes. Others, however, have argued that timing in the brain can be affected by a number of variables such as attention and motivation. In an effort to better understand timing in the brain at a basic level with minimal attentional demands, researchers have often employed use of the mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN, specifically duration MMN (dMMN) and interval MMN (iMMN) have been popular methods for studying temporal processing in populations for which attention or motivation may be an issue (e.g., clinical populations, early developmental studies). There are, however, select studies which suggest that attention may in fact modify both temporal processing in general and the MMN event-related potential. It is unclear the degree to which attention affects MMN or whether the effects differ depending on the complexity or difficulty of the MMN paradigm. The iMMN indexes temporal processing and is elicited by introducing a deviant interval duration amid a series of standards. A greater degree of difference in the deviant from the standard elicits a heightened iMMN. Unlike past studies, in which attention was intentionally directed toward a closed-captioned move, the current study had participants partake in tasks involving varying degrees of attention (passive, low, and high) with varying degrees of deviants (small, medium, and large) to better understand the role of attention on the iMMN and to assess whether level of attention paired with changes in task difficulty differentially influence the iMMN electrophysiological responses. Data from 19 subjects were recorded in an iMMN paradigm. The amplitude of the iMMN waveform showed an increase with attention

  11. Attentional bias towards and away from fearful faces is modulated by developmental amygdala damage.

    PubMed

    Pishnamazi, Morteza; Tafakhori, Abbas; Loloee, Sogol; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Aghamollaii, Vajiheh; Bahrami, Bahador; Winston, Joel S

    2016-08-01

    The amygdala is believed to play a major role in orienting attention towards threat-related stimuli. However, behavioral studies on amygdala-damaged patients have given inconsistent results-variously reporting decreased, persisted, and increased attention towards threat. Here we aimed to characterize the impact of developmental amygdala damage on emotion perception and the nature and time-course of spatial attentional bias towards fearful faces. We investigated SF, a 14-year-old with selective bilateral amygdala damage due to Urbach-Wiethe disease (UWD), and ten healthy controls. Participants completed a fear sensitivity questionnaire, facial expression classification task, and dot-probe task with fearful or neutral faces for spatial cueing. Three cue durations were used to assess the time-course of attentional bias. SF expressed significantly lower fear sensitivity, and showed a selective impairment in classifying fearful facial expressions. Despite this impairment in fear recognition, very brief (100 msec) fearful cues could orient SF's spatial attention. In healthy controls, the attentional bias emerged later and persisted longer. SF's attentional bias was due solely to facilitated engagement to fear, while controls showed the typical phenomenon of difficulty in disengaging from fear. Our study is the first to demonstrate the separable effects of amygdala damage on engagement and disengagement of spatial attention. The findings indicate that multiple mechanisms contribute in biasing attention towards fear, which vary in their timing and dependence on amygdala integrity. It seems that the amygdala is not essential for rapid attention to emotion, but probably has a role in assessment of biological relevance. PMID:27173975

  12. Experimental validation of predicted mammalian erythroid cis-regulatory modules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Yong; Zhou, Yuepin; King, David C.; Taylor, James; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Kasturi, Jyotsna; Petrykowska, Hanna; Gibb, Brian; Dorman, Christine; Miller, Webb; Dore, Louis C.; Welch, John; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Hardison, Ross C.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple alignments of genome sequences are helpful guides to functional analysis, but predicting cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) accurately from such alignments remains an elusive goal. We predict CRMs for mammalian genes expressed in red blood cells by combining two properties gleaned from aligned, noncoding genome sequences: a positive regulatory potential (RP) score, which detects similarity to patterns in alignments distinctive for regulatory regions, and conservation of a binding site motif for the essential erythroid transcription factor GATA-1. Within eight target loci, we tested 75 noncoding segments by reporter gene assays in transiently transfected human K562 cells and/or after site-directed integration into murine erythroleukemia cells. Segments with a high RP score and a conserved exact match to the binding site consensus are validated at a good rate (50%–100%, with rates increasing at higher RP), whereas segments with lower RP scores or nonconsensus binding motifs tend to be inactive. Active DNA segments were shown to be occupied by GATA-1 protein by chromatin immunoprecipitation, whereas sites predicted to be inactive were not occupied. We verify four previously known erythroid CRMs and identify 28 novel ones. Thus, high RP in combination with another feature of a CRM, such as a conserved transcription factor binding site, is a good predictor of functional CRMs. Genome-wide predictions based on RP and a large set of well-defined transcription factor binding sites are available through servers at http://www.bx.psu.edu/. PMID:17038566

  13. Cholinergic modulation of the medial prefrontal cortex: the role of nicotinic receptors in attention and regulation of neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Bloem, Bernard; Poorthuis, Rogier B.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is crucial for normal cognitive performance. Despite the fact that many have studied how ACh affects neuronal processing in the mPFC and thereby influences attention behavior, there is still a lot unknown about how this occurs. Here we will review the evidence that cholinergic modulation of the mPFC plays a role in attention and we will summarize the current knowledge about the role between ACh receptors (AChRs) and behavior and how ACh receptor activation changes processing in the cortical microcircuitry. Recent evidence implicates fast phasic release of ACh in cue detection and attention. This review will focus mainly on the fast ionotropic nicotinic receptors and less on the metabotropic muscarinic receptors. Finally, we will review limitations of the existing studies and address how innovative technologies might push the field forward in order to gain understanding into the relation between ACh, neuronal activity and behavior. PMID:24653678

  14. Attention Strongly Modulates Reliability of Neural Responses to Naturalistic Narrative Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ki, Jason J; Kelly, Simon P; Parra, Lucas C

    2016-03-01

    Attentional engagement is a major determinant of how effectively we gather information through our senses. Alongside the sheer growth in the amount and variety of information content that we are presented with through modern media, there is increased variability in the degree to which we "absorb" that information. Traditional research on attention has illuminated the basic principles of sensory selection to isolated features or locations, but it provides little insight into the neural underpinnings of our attentional engagement with modern naturalistic content. Here, we show in human subjects that the reliability of an individual's neural responses with respect to a larger group provides a highly robust index of the level of attentional engagement with a naturalistic narrative stimulus. Specifically, fast electroencephalographic evoked responses were more strongly correlated across subjects when naturally attending to auditory or audiovisual narratives than when attention was directed inward to a mental arithmetic task during stimulus presentation. This effect was strongest for audiovisual stimuli with a cohesive narrative and greatly reduced for speech stimuli lacking meaning. For compelling audiovisual narratives, the effect is remarkably strong, allowing perfect discrimination between attentional state across individuals. Control experiments rule out possible confounds related to altered eye movement trajectories or order of presentation. We conclude that reliability of evoked activity reproduced across subjects viewing the same movie is highly sensitive to the attentional state of the viewer and listener, which is aided by a cohesive narrative. PMID:26961961

  15. The prelimbic cortex uses contextual cues to modulate responding towards predictive stimuli during fear renewal.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Melissa; Killcross, Simon

    2015-02-01

    Previous research suggests the prelimbic (PL) cortex is involved in expression of conditioned fear (Burgos-Robles, Vidal-Gonzalez, & Quirk, 2009; Corcoran & Quirk, 2007). However, there is a long history of research in the appetitive domain which implicates this region in using higher-order cues to modulate a behavioural response (Birrell & Brown, 2000; Floresco, Block, & Tse, 2008; Marquis, Killcross, & Haddon, 2007; Sharpe & Killcross, 2014). For example, the PL cortex is necessary to allow animals to use contextual cues to disambiguate response conflict in ambiguous circumstances (Marquis et al., 2007). Using an ABA fear renewal procedure, we assessed the role of the PL cortex in using contextual cues to modulate a response towards a conditioned stimulus (CS) in an aversive setting. We found that pre-training lesions of the PL cortex did not impact on the expression or extinction of conditioned fear. Rather, they selectively abolished renewal. Functional inactivation of the PL cortex during extinction did not disrupt the subsequent renewal of conditioned fear or the ability of animals to exhibit fear towards a CS during the extinction session. However, PL inactivation during the renewal test session disrupted the ability of animals to demonstrate a reinstatement of responding in the renewal context. An analysis of orienting responses showed that renewal deficits were accompanied by a lack of change in attentional responding towards the CS. These data suggest the PL cortex uses contextual cues to modulate both a behavioural and an attentional response during aversive procedures. We argue that the role of the PL cortex in the expression of conditioned fear is to use higher-order information to modulate responding towards predictive cues in ambiguous circumstance. PMID:25464011

  16. Attentional modulation of neural processing of shape, color, and velocity in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Corbetta, M.; Miezin, F.M.; Dobmeyer, S.; Shulman, G.L.; Petersen, S.E. )

    1990-06-22

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow of normal subjects, while they were discriminating different attributes (shape, color, and velocity) of the same set of visual stimuli. Psychophysical evidence indicated that the sensitivity for discriminating subtle stimulus changes was higher when subjects focused attention on one attribute than when they divided attention among several attributes. Correspondingly, attention enhanced the activity of different regions of extrastriate visual cortex that appear to be specialized for processing information related to the selected attribute.

  17. Modulation of Attentional Blink with Emotional Faces in Typical Development and in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Ruiz, Ericka; Strang, John; Sokoloff, Jennifer; Kenworthy, Lauren; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The attentional blink (AB) phenomenon was used to assess the effect of emotional information on early visual attention in typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The AB effect is the momentary perceptual unawareness that follows target identification in a rapid serial visual processing stream. It is abolished or reduced for emotional stimuli, indicating that emotional information has privileged access to early visual attention processes. Method We examined the AB effect for faces with neutral and angry facial expressions in 8–14-year-old children with and without an ASD diagnosis. Results Children with ASD exhibited the same magnitude AB effect as typically developing children for both neutral and angry faces. Conclusions Early visual attention to emotional facial expressions was preserved in children with ASD. PMID:23176580

  18. The benefits of simply observing: mindful attention modulates the link between motivation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Papies, Esther K; Pronk, Tila M; Keesman, Mike; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2015-01-01

    Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one's thoughts and experiences and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this metacognitive perspective to one's spontaneous reward responses when encountering attractive stimuli. Taking a grounded cognition perspective, we argue that reward simulations in response to attractive stimuli contribute to appetitive behavior and that motivational states and traits enhance these simulations. Directing mindful attention at these thoughts and seeing them as mere mental events should break this link, such that motivational states and traits no longer affect reward simulations and appetitive behavior. To test this account, we trained participants to observe their thoughts in reaction to appetitive stimuli as mental events, using a brief procedure designed for nonmeditators. Across 3 experiments, we found that adopting the mindful attention perspective reduced the effects of motivational states and traits on appetitive behavior in 2 domains, in both the laboratory and the field. Specifically, after applying mindful attention, participants' sexual motivation no longer made opposite-sex others seem more attractive and thus desirable as partners. Similarly, participants' levels of hunger no longer boosted the attractiveness of unhealthy foods, resulting in healthier eating choices. We discuss these results in the context of mechanisms and applications of mindful attention and explore how mindfulness and mindful attention can be conceptualized in psychological research more generally. PMID:25347126

  19. Caffeine deprivation state modulates coffee consumption but not attentional bias for caffeine-related stimuli.

    PubMed

    Stafford, L D; Yeomans, M R

    2005-11-01

    Previous research has shown that caffeine deprivation state can exert a strong influence on the ability of caffeine to reinforce behaviour. Recent work has also found evidence for an attentional bias in habitual caffeine users. It remains unclear whether deprivation state can influence attentional bias. Here we explored the relationship between caffeine deprivation, attentional bias to caffeine-related stimuli and subsequent caffeine reinforcement measured by consumption of coffee. In three experiments, participants (between-subjects: n=28; within-subjects: n=20, within-subjects: n=20) were preloaded with either caffeine (experiments 1 and 3 : 100 mg; experiment 2 : 150 mg) or placebo, and in experiments 1 and 2 they completed a novel attentional bias task involving pre-attentive word recognition, and in experiment 3 a dot-probe task. In experiments 2 and 3, this was followed by a test of coffee consumption. Greater recognition for caffeine-related words (experiments 1 and 2) and faster reaction times to probes replacing caffeine-related rather than control stimuli (experiment 3) confirmed caffeine-related attentional biases, but in no case was this affected by manipulation of caffeine-deprivation state. Participants in a deprived versus nondeprived state, however, experienced increases in drowsiness and headaches (experiment 2) and reduced alertness (experiment 3). Further, coffee consumption was greatest when participants were caffeine-deprived than when they were nondeprived. Findings are discussed in relation to prevailing theories of drug addiction. PMID:16170233

  20. Attention to irrelevant contexts decreases as training increases: Evidence from eye-fixations in a human predictive learning task.

    PubMed

    Aristizabal, José A; Ramos-Álvarez, Manuel M; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Rosas, Juan M

    2016-03-01

    Participants were trained in a human predictive learning task in which they had to predict whether the ingestion of a given food (cue) by the imaginary customer of an imaginary restaurant (context) was followed by gastric malaise (outcome). One food was always followed by gastric malaise in one of the contexts, while other foods were not followed by gastric malaise in the same, or in an alternative context. Predictive responses and eye-fixations were recorded throughout the 48 training trials with each cue involved in the task. In agreement with the predictions of the Attentional Theory of Context Processing, attention to the contexts measured through eye-fixations decreased while attention to the cues increased as training progressed. The results of this study give support to the idea that contexts are actively processed at the beginning of acquisition, and that this processing decreases as training increases. PMID:26746587

  1. Endogenous auditory frequency-based attention modulates electroencephalogram-based measures of obligatory sensory activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, Caroline M; Power, Alan J; Reilly, Richard B; Crosse, Michael J; Loughnane, Gerard M; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-03-01

    Auditory selective attention is the ability to enhance the processing of a single sound source, while simultaneously suppressing the processing of other competing sound sources. Recent research has addressed a long-running debate by showing that endogenous attention produces effects on obligatory sensory responses to continuous and competing auditory stimuli. However, until now, this result has only been shown under conditions where the competing stimuli differed in both their frequency characteristics and, importantly, their spatial location. Thus, it is unknown whether endogenous selective attention based only on nonspatial features modulates obligatory sensory processing. Here, we investigate this issue using a diotic paradigm, such that competing auditory stimuli differ in frequency, but had no separation in space. We find a significant effect of attention on electroencephalogram-based measures of obligatory sensory processing at several poststimulus latencies. We discuss these results in terms of previous research on feature-based attention and by comparing our findings with the previous work using stimuli that differed both in terms of spatial and frequency-based characteristics. PMID:24231831

  2. The timing of face selectivity and attentional modulation in visual processing.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Y; Abrahamyan, A; Stevens, C J; Ioannides, A A

    2008-04-01

    Despite the complete imprint of a visual scene on the retina, the brain selects particular items for further processing. However, there is considerable debate about when and where the first attentional effects take hold in the cortex. We examined the timing of face specificity and attentional influences in the primary/secondary visual cortex (V1/V2) and in the fusiform gyrus (FG) in two experiments using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In experiment 1, using a passive viewing task, we identified three components in response to "Face," "Hand," and "Shoe" stimuli bilaterally in the FG: M(FG)100, M(FG)170, and M(FG)200-all showing a stronger preference for faces. The timing of these three activations of the FG is consistent with earlier studies claiming distinct stages of processing of visual stimuli in the first 300 ms. In experiment 2, subjects performed a gender-discrimination task on either faces or hands, drawing attention to only one of the two object categories. In addition to the previously identified three components in FG, here we found object-selective attentional enhancement first appearing in V1/V2 at around 170 ms, and then in FG at around 200 ms, i.e. concurrent with the third component. No attentional effects were evident on the first or second magnetoencephalography components. These findings may indicate that the visual input for an object is first encoded and matched to an attended "cue" object held in mind. When the attended and encoded objects match, a third stage involving attentive processing is enhanced. PMID:18355971

  3. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Horschig, Jörn M; Oosterheert, Wouter; Oostenveld, Robert; Jensen, Ole

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the direction of attention from the magnetoencephalogram by a template matching classifier and provided the classification outcome to the subject in real-time using a novel graphical user interface. Training data for the templates were obtained from a Posner-cueing task conducted just before the BCI task. Eleven subjects participated in four sessions each. Eight of the subjects achieved classification rates significantly above chance level. Subjects were able to significantly increase their performance from the first to the second session. Individual patterns of posterior alpha power remained stable throughout the four sessions and did not change with increased performance. We conclude that posterior alpha power can successfully be used as a control signal in brain-computer interfaces. We also discuss several ideas for further improving the setup and propose future research based on solid hypotheses about behavioral consequences of modulating neuronal oscillations by brain computer interfacing. PMID:25388661

  4. Dissociated α-Band Modulations in the Dorsal and Ventral Visual Pathways in Visuospatial Attention and Perception

    PubMed Central

    Capilla, Almudena; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Paterson, Gavin; Thut, Gregor; Gross, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Modulations of occipito-parietal α-band (8–14 Hz) power that are opposite in direction (α-enhancement vs. α-suppression) and origin of generation (ipsilateral vs. contralateral to the locus of attention) are a robust correlate of anticipatory visuospatial attention. Yet, the neural generators of these α-band modulations, their interdependence across homotopic areas, and their respective contribution to subsequent perception remain unclear. To shed light on these questions, we employed magnetoencephalography, while human volunteers performed a spatially cued detection task. Replicating previous findings, we found α-power enhancement ipsilateral to the attended hemifield and contralateral α-suppression over occipito-parietal sensors. Source localization (beamforming) analysis showed that α-enhancement and suppression were generated in 2 distinct brain regions, located in the dorsal and ventral visual streams, respectively. Moreover, α-enhancement and suppression showed different dynamics and contribution to perception. In contrast to the initial and transient dorsal α-enhancement, α-suppression in ventro-lateral occipital cortex was sustained and influenced subsequent target detection. This anticipatory biasing of ventro-lateral extrastriate α-activity probably reflects increased receptivity in the brain region specialized in processing upcoming target features. Our results add to current models on the role of α-oscillations in attention orienting by showing that α-enhancement and suppression can be dissociated in time, space, and perceptual relevance. PMID:23118197

  5. Attention modulations of posterior alpha as a control signal for two-dimensional brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Marcel; Jensen, Ole

    2009-04-30

    Research on brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) is gaining strong interest. This is motivated by BCIs being applicable for helping disabled, for gaming, and as a tool in cognitive neuroscience. Often, motor imagery is used to produce (binary) control signals. However, finding other types of control signals that allow the discrimination of multiple classes would help to increase the applicability of BCIs. We have investigated if modulation of posterior alpha activity by means of covert spatial attention in two dimensions can be reliably classified in single trials. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were collected for 15 subjects who were engaged in a task where they covertly had to visually attend left, right, up or down during a period of 2500 ms. We then classified the trials using support vector machines. The four orientations of covert attention could be reliably classified up to a maximum of 69% correctly classified trials (25% chance level) without the need for lengthy and burdensome subject training. Low classification performance in some subjects was explained by a low alpha signal. These findings support the case that modulation of alpha activity by means of covert spatial attention is promising as a control signal for a two-dimensional BCI. PMID:19428515

  6. A model for attentional information routing through coherence predicts biased competition and multistable perception.

    PubMed

    Harnack, Daniel; Ernst, Udo Alexander; Pawelzik, Klaus Richard

    2015-09-01

    Selective attention allows to focus on relevant information and to ignore distracting features of a visual scene. These principles of information processing are reflected in response properties of neurons in visual area V4: if a neuron is presented with two stimuli in its receptive field, and one is attended, it responds as if the nonattended stimulus was absent (biased competition). In addition, when the luminance of the two stimuli is temporally and independently varied, local field potentials are correlated with the modulation of the attended stimulus and not, or much less, correlated with the nonattended stimulus (information routing). To explain these results in one coherent framework, we present a two-layer spiking cortical network model with distance-dependent lateral connectivity and converging feed-forward connections. With oscillations arising inherently from the network structure, our model reproduces both experimental observations. Hereby, lateral interactions and shifts of relative phases between sending and receiving layers (communication through coherence) are identified as the main mechanisms underlying both biased competition as well as selective routing. Exploring the parameter space, we show that the effects are robust and prevalent over a broad range of parameters. In addition, we identify the strength of lateral inhibition in the first model layer as crucial for determining the working regime of the system: increasing lateral inhibition allows a transition from a network configuration with mixed representations to one with bistable representations of the competing stimuli. The latter is discussed as a possible neural correlate of multistable perception phenomena such as binocular rivalry. PMID:26108958

  7. A model for attentional information routing through coherence predicts biased competition and multistable perception

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Udo Alexander; Pawelzik, Klaus Richard

    2015-01-01

    Selective attention allows to focus on relevant information and to ignore distracting features of a visual scene. These principles of information processing are reflected in response properties of neurons in visual area V4: if a neuron is presented with two stimuli in its receptive field, and one is attended, it responds as if the nonattended stimulus was absent (biased competition). In addition, when the luminance of the two stimuli is temporally and independently varied, local field potentials are correlated with the modulation of the attended stimulus and not, or much less, correlated with the nonattended stimulus (information routing). To explain these results in one coherent framework, we present a two-layer spiking cortical network model with distance-dependent lateral connectivity and converging feed-forward connections. With oscillations arising inherently from the network structure, our model reproduces both experimental observations. Hereby, lateral interactions and shifts of relative phases between sending and receiving layers (communication through coherence) are identified as the main mechanisms underlying both biased competition as well as selective routing. Exploring the parameter space, we show that the effects are robust and prevalent over a broad range of parameters. In addition, we identify the strength of lateral inhibition in the first model layer as crucial for determining the working regime of the system: increasing lateral inhibition allows a transition from a network configuration with mixed representations to one with bistable representations of the competing stimuli. The latter is discussed as a possible neural correlate of multistable perception phenomena such as binocular rivalry. PMID:26108958

  8. Global statistical regularities modulate the speed of visual search in patients with focal attentional deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lanzoni, Lucilla; Melcher, David; Miceli, Gabriele; Corbett, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the statistical properties of ensembles of similar objects are processed in a qualitatively different manner than the characteristics of individual items. It has recently been proposed that these types of perceptual statistical representations are part of a strategy to complement focused attention in order to circumvent the visual system’s limited capacity to represent more than a few individual objects in detail. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with attentional deficits are nonetheless sensitive to these sorts of statistical representations. Here, we examined how such global representations may function to aid patients in overcoming focal attentional limitations by manipulating the statistical regularity of a visual scene while patients performed a search task. Three patients previously diagnosed with visual neglect searched for a target Gabor tilted to the left or right of vertical in displays of horizontal distractor Gabors. Although the local sizes of the distractors changed on every trial, the mean size remained stable for several trials. Patients made faster correct responses to targets in neglected regions of the visual field when global statistics remained constant over several trials, similar to age-matched controls. Given neglect patients’ attentional deficits, these results suggest that stable perceptual representations of global statistics can establish a context to speed search without the need to represent individual elements in detail. PMID:24971066

  9. Attentional Modulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials by Threat: Investigating the Effect of Evolutionary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    In dot-probe tasks, threatening cues facilitate attention to targets and enhance the amplitude of the target P1 peak of the visual-evoked potential. While theories have suggested that evolutionarily relevant threats should obtain preferential neural processing, this has not been examined empirically. In this study we examined the effects of…

  10. Attentional Sensitization of Unconscious Cognition: Task Sets Modulate Subsequent Masked Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Markus; Martens, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    According to classical theories, automatic processes are autonomous and independent of higher level cognitive influence. In contrast, the authors propose that automatic processing depends on attentional sensitization of task-congruent processing pathways. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this hypothesis with a modified masked semantic priming…

  11. Right Hand Presence Modulates Shifts of Exogenous Visuospatial Attention in Near Perihand Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Donna M.; Azanon, Elena; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    To investigate attentional shifting in perihand space, we measured performance on a covert visual orienting task under different hand positions. Participants discriminated visual shapes presented on a screen and responded using footpedals placed under their right foot. With the right hand positioned by the right side of the screen, mean cueing…

  12. Arousal modulates auditory attention and awareness: insights from sleep, sedation, and disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Chennu, Srivas; Bekinschtein, Tristan A

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between attention and consciousness is frequently tested in altered states of consciousness, including transitions between stages of sleep and sedation, and in pathological disorders of consciousness (DoC; the vegetative and minimally conscious states; VS and MCS). One of the most widely used tasks to assess cognitive processing in this context is the auditory oddball paradigm, where an infrequent change in a sequence of sounds elicits, in awake subjects, a characteristic EEG event-related potential called the mismatch negativity, followed by the classic P300 wave. The latter is further separable into the slightly earlier, anterior P3a and the later, posterior P3b, thought to be linked to task-irrelevant "bottom-up" and task-oriented "top-down" attention, respectively. We discuss here the putative dissociations between attention and awareness in DoC, sedation and sleep, bearing in mind the recently emerging evidence from healthy volunteers and patients. These findings highlight the neurophysiological and cognitive parallels (and differences) across these three distinct variations in levels of consciousness, and inform the theoretical framework for interpreting the role of attention therein. PMID:22403565

  13. Self-Alert Training: Volitional Modulation of Autonomic Arousal Improves Sustained Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Fitzgerald, Michael; Robertson, Ian H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines a new alertness training strategy (Self-Alert Training, SAT) designed to explore the relationship between the top-down control processes governing arousal and sustained attention. In order to maximally target frontal control systems SAT combines a previously validated behavioural self-alerting technique [Robertson, I.…

  14. Implicit learning of predictable sound sequences modulates human brain responses at different levels of the auditory hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Lecaignard, Françoise; Bertrand, Olivier; Gimenez, Gérard; Mattout, Jérémie; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Deviant stimuli, violating regularities in a sensory environment, elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN), largely described in the Event-Related Potential literature. While it is widely accepted that the MMN reflects more than basic change detection, a comprehensive description of mental processes modulating this response is still lacking. Within the framework of predictive coding, deviance processing is part of an inference process where prediction errors (the mismatch between incoming sensations and predictions established through experience) are minimized. In this view, the MMN is a measure of prediction error, which yields specific expectations regarding its modulations by various experimental factors. In particular, it predicts that the MMN should decrease as the occurrence of a deviance becomes more predictable. We conducted a passive oddball EEG study and manipulated the predictability of sound sequences by means of different temporal structures. Importantly, our design allows comparing mismatch responses elicited by predictable and unpredictable violations of a simple repetition rule and therefore departs from previous studies that investigate violations of different time-scale regularities. We observed a decrease of the MMN with predictability and interestingly, a similar effect at earlier latencies, within 70 ms after deviance onset. Following these pre-attentive responses, a reduced P3a was measured in the case of predictable deviants. We conclude that early and late deviance responses reflect prediction errors, triggering belief updating within the auditory hierarchy. Beside, in this passive study, such perceptual inference appears to be modulated by higher-level implicit learning of sequence statistical structures. Our findings argue for a hierarchical model of auditory processing where predictive coding enables implicit extraction of environmental regularities. PMID:26441602

  15. Implicit learning of predictable sound sequences modulates human brain responses at different levels of the auditory hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Lecaignard, Françoise; Bertrand, Olivier; Gimenez, Gérard; Mattout, Jérémie; Caclin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Deviant stimuli, violating regularities in a sensory environment, elicit the mismatch negativity (MMN), largely described in the Event-Related Potential literature. While it is widely accepted that the MMN reflects more than basic change detection, a comprehensive description of mental processes modulating this response is still lacking. Within the framework of predictive coding, deviance processing is part of an inference process where prediction errors (the mismatch between incoming sensations and predictions established through experience) are minimized. In this view, the MMN is a measure of prediction error, which yields specific expectations regarding its modulations by various experimental factors. In particular, it predicts that the MMN should decrease as the occurrence of a deviance becomes more predictable. We conducted a passive oddball EEG study and manipulated the predictability of sound sequences by means of different temporal structures. Importantly, our design allows comparing mismatch responses elicited by predictable and unpredictable violations of a simple repetition rule and therefore departs from previous studies that investigate violations of different time-scale regularities. We observed a decrease of the MMN with predictability and interestingly, a similar effect at earlier latencies, within 70 ms after deviance onset. Following these pre-attentive responses, a reduced P3a was measured in the case of predictable deviants. We conclude that early and late deviance responses reflect prediction errors, triggering belief updating within the auditory hierarchy. Beside, in this passive study, such perceptual inference appears to be modulated by higher-level implicit learning of sequence statistical structures. Our findings argue for a hierarchical model of auditory processing where predictive coding enables implicit extraction of environmental regularities. PMID:26441602

  16. Attentional demands modulate sensorimotor learning induced by persistent exposure to changes in auditory feedback.

    PubMed

    Scheerer, Nichole E; Tumber, Anupreet K; Jones, Jeffery A

    2016-02-01

    Hearing one's own voice is important for regulating ongoing speech and for mapping speech sounds onto articulator movements. However, it is currently unknown whether attention mediates changes in the relationship between motor commands and their acoustic output, which are necessary as growth and aging inevitably cause changes to the vocal tract. In this study, participants produced vocalizations while they heard their vocal pitch persistently shifted downward one semitone in both single- and dual-task conditions. During the single-task condition, participants vocalized while passively viewing a visual stream. During the dual-task condition, participants vocalized while also monitoring a visual stream for target letters, forcing participants to divide their attention. Participants' vocal pitch was measured across each vocalization, to index the extent to which their ongoing vocalization was modified as a result of the deviant auditory feedback. Smaller compensatory responses were recorded during the dual-task condition, suggesting that divided attention interfered with the use of auditory feedback for the regulation of ongoing vocalizations. Participants' vocal pitch was also measured at the beginning of each vocalization, before auditory feedback was available, to assess the extent to which the deviant auditory feedback was used to modify subsequent speech motor commands. Smaller changes in vocal pitch at vocalization onset were recorded during the dual-task condition, suggesting that divided attention diminished sensorimotor learning. Together, the results of this study suggest that attention is required for the speech motor control system to make optimal use of auditory feedback for the regulation and planning of speech motor commands. PMID:26655821

  17. Social and Nonsocial Content Differentially Modulates Visual Attention and Autonomic Arousal in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christopher J.; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Platt, Michael L.; Amaral, David G.

    2011-01-01

    The sophisticated analysis of gestures and vocalizations, including assessment of their emotional valence, helps group-living primates efficiently navigate their social environment. Deficits in social information processing and emotion regulation are important components of many human psychiatric illnesses, such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety disorder. Analyzing the neurobiology of social information processing and emotion regulation requires a multidisciplinary approach that benefits from comparative studies of humans and animal models. However, many questions remain regarding the relationship between visual attention and arousal while processing social stimuli. Using noninvasive infrared eye-tracking methods, we measured the visual social attention and physiological arousal (pupil diameter) of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they watched social and nonsocial videos. We found that social videos, as compared to nonsocial videos, captured more visual attention, especially if the social signals depicted in the videos were directed towards the subject. Subject-directed social cues and nonsocial nature documentary footage, compared to videos showing conspecifics engaging in naturalistic social interactions, generated larger pupil diameters (indicating heightened sympathetic arousal). These findings indicate that rhesus monkeys will actively engage in watching videos of various kinds. Moreover, infrared eye tracking technology provides a mechanism for sensitively gauging the social interest of presented stimuli. Adult male rhesus monkeys' visual attention and physiological arousal do not always trend in the same direction, and are likely influenced by the content and novelty of a particular visual stimulus. This experiment creates a strong foundation for future experiments that will examine the neural network responsible for social information processing in nonhuman primates. Such studies may provide valuable information relevant to

  18. Visual statistical learning is not reliably modulated by selective attention to isolated events

    PubMed Central

    Musz, Elizabeth; Weber, Matthew J.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of visual statistical learning (VSL) indicate that the visual system can automatically extract temporal and spatial relationships between objects. We report several attempts to replicate and extend earlier work (Turk-Browne et al., 2005) in which observers performed a cover task on one of two interleaved stimulus sets, resulting in learning of temporal relationships that occur in the attended stream, but not those present in the unattended stream. Across four experiments, we exposed observers to a similar or identical familiarization protocol, directing attention to one of two interleaved stimulus sets; afterward, we assessed VSL efficacy for both sets using either implicit response-time measures or explicit familiarity judgments. In line with prior work, we observe learning for the attended stimulus set. However, unlike previous reports, we also observe learning for the unattended stimulus set. When instructed to selectively attend to only one of the stimulus sets and ignore the other set, observers could extract temporal regularities for both sets. Our efforts to experimentally decrease this effect by changing the cover task (Experiment 1) or the complexity of the statistical regularities (Experiment 3) were unsuccessful. A fourth experiment using a different assessment of learning likewise failed to show an attentional effect. Simulations drawing random samples our first three experiments (n=64) confirm that the distribution of attentional effects in our sample closely approximates the null. We offer several potential explanations for our failure to replicate earlier findings, and discuss how our results suggest limiting conditions on the relevance of attention to VSL. PMID:25172196

  19. Beyond pleasure and arousal: appetitive erotic stimuli modulate electrophysiological brain correlates of early attentional processing.

    PubMed

    Kuhr, Benjamin; Schomberg, Jessica; Gruber, Thomas; Quirin, Markus

    2013-03-27

    Previous studies investigating affective reactions to pictures that elicit a specific effect have mainly focused on the dimensions valence and arousal. Using an event-related picture-viewing paradigm in electroencephalography, we investigated whether erotica - that is appetitive, evolutionarily relevant stimuli - have effects on early stages of attentional processing that are distinct from those of other positive and arousing stimuli. Seventeen male students viewed arousing photos of erotic, nude women or pictures of extreme sport scenes, as well as control pictures of attractive, dressed women or daily activities. Erotic pictures differed from extreme sport pictures not only in late but also in early attentional processes, as indicated by event-related potentials appearing from 130 ms after stimulus onset (P1). The findings suggest (a) that the dimension of appetence should be considered in addition to valence and arousal when investigating psychophysiological reactions to affective-motivational stimuli and (b) that early attentional processing as mirrored by the P1 can be influenced by motivational systems. PMID:23426107

  20. Circadian Modulation of Dopamine Levels and Dopaminergic Neuron Development Contributes to Attention Deficiency and Hyperactive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Xifeng; Tan, Yicheng; Zhang, Shuqing; He, Wei; He, Xiong; Huang, Guodong; Lu, Haiping; Wu, Ping; Che, Yi; Yan, Yi-Lin; Postlethwait, John H.; Chen, Wenbiao

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adults. While ADHD patients often display circadian abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we found that the zebrafish mutant for the circadian gene period1b (per1b) displays hyperactive, impulsive-like, and attention deficit-like behaviors and low levels of dopamine, reminiscent of human ADHD patients. We found that the circadian clock directly regulates dopamine-related genes monoamine oxidase and dopamine β hydroxylase, and acts via genes important for the development or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons to regulate their number and organization in the ventral diencephalic posterior tuberculum. We then found that Per1 knock-out mice also display ADHD-like symptoms and reduced levels of dopamine, thereby showing highly conserved roles of the circadian clock in ADHD. Our studies demonstrate that disruption of a circadian clock gene elicits ADHD-like syndrome. The circadian model for attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior sheds light on ADHD pathogenesis and opens avenues for exploring novel targets for diagnosis and therapy for this common psychiatric disorder. PMID:25673850

  1. 1-Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over the Posterior Parietal Cortex Modulates Spatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang-qing; Lan, Yue; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Dong-xu; He, Xiao-fei; Lin, Tuo

    2016-01-01

    Lesion and neuroimaging studies have suggested that regions in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are involved in visual spatial attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects on spatial attention resulting from a transient parietal impairment induced by 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We examined 50 healthy subjects using the attention network test (ANT) after first applying rTMS to right or left PPC. The right parietal rTMS, but not left PPC rTMS, caused a significant slowing in the mean reaction time (RT) to target presentation following a spatial cue during the ANT test. There were no significant effects of rTMS on mean RT under the no-cue, center-cue, and double-cue conditions, or for each flanker type among the experimental groups. Moreover, after rTMS to the right PPC, test subjects displayed deficits in networks related to alerting and orienting, whereas they exhibited improvement following rTMS to the left PPC. These findings indicate that the right PPC serves an important function in spatial orienting and the alerting activities. We interpreted the enhancement in alerting and spatial orienting function following low-frequency rTMS of left PPC as reflecting a disinhibition of right PPC via an inter-hemispheric inhibition account. PMID:26869911

  2. 1-Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation over the Posterior Parietal Cortex Modulates Spatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Dong-Xu; He, Xiao-Fei; Lin, Tuo

    2016-01-01

    Lesion and neuroimaging studies have suggested that regions in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are involved in visual spatial attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects on spatial attention resulting from a transient parietal impairment induced by 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We examined 50 healthy subjects using the attention network test (ANT) after first applying rTMS to right or left PPC. The right parietal rTMS, but not left PPC rTMS, caused a significant slowing in the mean reaction time (RT) to target presentation following a spatial cue during the ANT test. There were no significant effects of rTMS on mean RT under the no-cue, center-cue, and double-cue conditions, or for each flanker type among the experimental groups. Moreover, after rTMS to the right PPC, test subjects displayed deficits in networks related to alerting and orienting, whereas they exhibited improvement following rTMS to the left PPC. These findings indicate that the right PPC serves an important function in spatial orienting and the alerting activities. We interpreted the enhancement in alerting and spatial orienting function following low-frequency rTMS of left PPC as reflecting a disinhibition of right PPC via an inter-hemispheric inhibition account. PMID:26869911

  3. Why Does Working Memory Capacity Predict Variation in Reading Comprehension? On the Influence of Mind Wandering and Executive Attention

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Some people are better readers than others, and this variation in comprehension ability is predicted by measures of working memory capacity (WMC). The primary goal of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mind wandering experiences in the association between WMC and normal individual differences in reading comprehension, as predicted by the executive-attention theory of WMC (e.g., Engle & Kane, 2004). We used a latent-variable, structural-equation-model approach, testing skilled adult readers on three WMC span tasks, seven varied reading comprehension tasks, and three attention-control tasks. Mind wandering was assessed using experimenter-scheduled thought probes during four different tasks (two reading, two attention-control tasks). The results support the executive-attention theory of WMC. Mind wandering across the four tasks loaded onto a single latent factor, reflecting a stable individual difference. Most importantly, mind wandering was a significant mediator in the relationship between WMC and reading comprehension, suggesting that the WMC-comprehension correlation is driven, in part, by attention control over intruding thoughts. We discuss implications for theories of WMC, attention control, and reading comprehension. PMID:21875246

  4. Does Response Variability Predict Distractibility among Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; Roberts, Walter M.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Increased intraindividual variability in response time (RTSD) has been observed reliably in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has often been used as a measure of inattention. RTSD is assumed to reflect attentional lapses and distractibility, though evidence for the validity of this connection is lacking. We assessed whether RTSD…

  5. Resting EEG in Alpha and Beta Bands Predicts Individual Differences in Attentional Blink Magnitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Mary H.; Arnell, Karen M.; Cote, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy for a second target (T2) is reduced when it is presented within 500 ms of a first target (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)--an attentional blink (AB). There are reliable individual differences in the magnitude of the AB. Recent evidence has shown that the attentional approach that an individual typically adopts during a…

  6. The Prelimbic Cortex Directs Attention toward Predictive Cues during Fear Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Melissa J.; Killcross, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic cortex is argued to promote conditioned fear expression, at odds with appetitive research implicating this region in attentional processing. Consistent with an attentional account, we report that the effect of prelimbic lesions on fear expression depends on the degree of competition between contextual and discrete cues. Further, when…

  7. Emotion Regulation Predicts Attention Bias in Maltreated Children At-Risk for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romens, Sarah E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Child maltreatment is associated with heightened risk for depression; however, not all individuals who experience maltreatment develop depression. Previous research indicates that maltreatment contributes to an attention bias for emotional cues, and that depressed individuals show attention bias for sad cues. Method: The present study…

  8. Eye Direction, Not Movement Direction, Predicts Attention Shifts in Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Krysko, Kristen M.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments suggesting that a change in eye gaze creates a reflexive attention shift tend to confound motion direction and terminal eye direction. However, motion and the onset of motion are known to capture attention. Current thinking about social cognition in autism suggests that there might be a deficit in responding to social (eye gaze) cues…

  9. Frontolimbic Neural Circuitry at 6 Months Predicts Individual Differences in Joint Attention at 9 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elison, Jed T.; Wolff, Jason J.; Heimer, Debra C.; Paterson, Sarah J.; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C.; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the neural basis of joint attention in infancy promises to yield important insights into the development of language and social cognition, and directly informs developmental models of autism. We describe a new method for evaluating responding to joint attention performance in infancy that highlights the 9- to 10-month period as a time…

  10. Attention modulates neuronal correlates of interhemispheric integration and global motion perception

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Burak; Ozdem, Ceylan; Eroglu, Seda; Keskin, Dudu Taslak; Fang, Fang; Doerschner, Katja; Kersten, Daniel; Boyaci, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    In early retinotopic areas of the human visual system, information from the left and right visual hemifields (VHFs) is processed contralaterally in two hemispheres. Despite this segregation, we have the perceptual experience of a unified, coherent, and uninterrupted single visual field. How exactly the visual system integrates information from the two VHFs and achieves this perceptual experience still remains largely unknown. In this study using fMRI, we explored candidate areas that are involved in interhemispheric integration and the perceptual experience of a unified, global motion across VHFs. Stimuli were two-dimensional, computer-generated objects with parts in both VHFs. The retinal image in the left VHF always remained stationary, but in the experimental condition, it appeared to have local motion because of the perceived global motion of the object. This perceptual effect could be weakened by directing the attention away from the global motion through a demanding fixation task. Results show that lateral occipital areas, including the medial temporal complex, play an important role in the process of perceptual experience of a unified global motion across VHFs. In early areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus and V1, we observed correlates of this perceptual experience only when attention is not directed away from the object. These findings reveal effects of attention on interhemispheric integration in motion perception and imply that both the bilateral activity of higher-tier visual areas and feedback mechanisms leading to bilateral activity of early areas play roles in the perceptual experience of a unified visual field. PMID:25349270

  11. Attention-related modulation of auditory-cortex responses to speech sounds during dichotic listening.

    PubMed

    Alho, Kimmo; Salonen, Johanna; Rinne, Teemu; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2012-03-01

    Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG) in fifteen healthy right-handed participants listening to sequences of consonant-vowel syllable pairs delivered dichotically (one syllable presented to the left ear and another syllable simultaneously to the right ear). The participants were instructed to press a response button to occurrences of a particular target syllable. In a condition with no other instruction (the non-forced condition, NF), they showed the well-known right-ear advantage (REA), that is, the participants responded more often to target syllables delivered to the right ear than to targets delivered to the left ear. The same was true in the forced-right (FR) condition, where the participants were instructed to attend selectively to the right-ear syllables and respond only to targets among them. In the forced-left (FL) condition, where they were instructed to respond only to left-ear targets, they responded more often to targets in this ear than to targets in the right ear. At 300-500 ms from syllable pair onset, a sustained field (SF) in ERFs to the syllable pairs was stronger in the left auditory cortex than in the right auditory cortex in the NF and FR conditions, while the opposite was true in the FL condition. Thus selective attention during dichotic listening leads to stronger processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex contralateral to the attended direction. Our results also suggest that the REA observed for dichotic speech may involve a bias of attention to the right side even when there is no instruction to do so. This supports Kinsbourne's (1970) model of attention bias as a general principle of laterality. PMID:22300726

  12. How Does Early Developmental Assessment Predict Academic and Attentional-Behavioural Skills at Group and Individual Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Riitta; Ahonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to explore the ability of a brief developmental assessment to predict teacher-rated learning and attentional and behavioural skills in the first grade of school at both the group and individual levels. A sample of 394 children (181 males, 213 females) aged 4 years were followed to the age of 6 years, and 283 of the…

  13. Can Inhibition at Preschool Age Predict Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Social Difficulties in Third Grade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Shawn; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether deficits in inhibitory control in preschool-aged children are predictive of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and certain social difficulties in middle childhood, specifically third grade. Although many studies have examined the concurrent relationships among disinhibition, ADHD and social…

  14. Attentional sensitization of unconscious cognition: task sets modulate subsequent masked semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Martens, Ulla

    2010-08-01

    According to classical theories, automatic processes are autonomous and independent of higher level cognitive influence. In contrast, the authors propose that automatic processing depends on attentional sensitization of task-congruent processing pathways. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this hypothesis with a modified masked semantic priming paradigm during a lexical decision task by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs): Before masked prime presentation, participants attended an induction task either to semantic or perceptual stimulus features designed to activate a semantic or perceptual task set, respectively. Semantic priming effects on the N400 ERP component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, were obtained when a semantic task set was induced immediately before subliminal prime presentation, whereas a previously induced perceptual task set attenuated N400 priming. Across experiments, comparable results were obtained regardless of the difficulty level and the verbal or nonverbal nature of the induction tasks. In line with the proposed attentional sensitization model, unconscious semantic processing is enhanced by a semantic and attenuated by a perceptual task set. Hence, automatic processing of unconscious stimuli is susceptible to top-down control for optimizing goal-related information processing. PMID:20677895

  15. Selective attention modulates the effect of target location probability on redundant signal processing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Yun; Little, Daniel R; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the decision process underlying the detection of targets at multiple locations. In three experiments using the same observers, target location probability and attentional instructions were manipulated. A redundant-target detection task was conducted in which participants were required to detect a dot presented at one of two locations. When the dot appeared at the two locations with equal frequency (Experiment 1), those participants who were found to have limited to unlimited capacity were shown to adopt a parallel, self-terminating strategy. By contrast, those participants who had supercapacity were shown to process redundant targets in a coactive manner. When targets were presented with unequal probability, two participants adopted a parallel, self-terminating strategy regardless of whether they were informed the target location probability (Experiment 3) or not (Experiment 2). For the remaining two participants, the strategy changed from parallel, self-terminating to serial, self-terminating as a result of the probability instructions. In Experiments 2 and 3, all the participants were of unlimited to limited capacity. Taken together, these results suggest that target location probability differently affects the selection of a decision strategy and highlight the role of controlled attention in selecting a decision strategy. PMID:27188653

  16. Bilingualism modulates infants' selective attention to the mouth of a talking face.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ferran; Bosch, Laura; Lewkowicz, David J

    2015-04-01

    Infants growing up in bilingual environments succeed at learning two languages. What adaptive processes enable them to master the more complex nature of bilingual input? One possibility is that bilingual infants take greater advantage of the redundancy of the audiovisual speech that they usually experience during social interactions. Thus, we investigated whether bilingual infants' need to keep languages apart increases their attention to the mouth as a source of redundant and reliable speech cues. We measured selective attention to talking faces in 4-, 8-, and 12-month-old Catalan and Spanish monolingual and bilingual infants. Monolinguals looked more at the eyes than the mouth at 4 months and more at the mouth than the eyes at 8 months in response to both native and nonnative speech, but they looked more at the mouth than the eyes at 12 months only in response to nonnative speech. In contrast, bilinguals looked equally at the eyes and mouth at 4 months, more at the mouth than the eyes at 8 months, and more at the mouth than the eyes at 12 months, and these patterns of responses were found for both native and nonnative speech at all ages. Thus, to support their dual-language acquisition processes, bilingual infants exploit the greater perceptual salience of redundant audiovisual speech cues at an earlier age and for a longer time than monolingual infants. PMID:25767208

  17. Model-Free Estimation of Tuning Curves and Their Attentional Modulation, Based on Sparse and Noisy Data.

    PubMed

    Helmer, Markus; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Stephan, Valeska; Treue, Stefan; Geisel, Theo; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Tuning curves are the functions that relate the responses of sensory neurons to various values within one continuous stimulus dimension (such as the orientation of a bar in the visual domain or the frequency of a tone in the auditory domain). They are commonly determined by fitting a model e.g. a Gaussian or other bell-shaped curves to the measured responses to a small subset of discrete stimuli in the relevant dimension. However, as neuronal responses are irregular and experimental measurements noisy, it is often difficult to determine reliably the appropriate model from the data. We illustrate this general problem by fitting diverse models to representative recordings from area MT in rhesus monkey visual cortex during multiple attentional tasks involving complex composite stimuli. We find that all models can be well-fitted, that the best model generally varies between neurons and that statistical comparisons between neuronal responses across different experimental conditions are affected quantitatively and qualitatively by specific model choices. As a robust alternative to an often arbitrary model selection, we introduce a model-free approach, in which features of interest are extracted directly from the measured response data without the need of fitting any model. In our attentional datasets, we demonstrate that data-driven methods provide descriptions of tuning curve features such as preferred stimulus direction or attentional gain modulations which are in agreement with fit-based approaches when a good fit exists. Furthermore, these methods naturally extend to the frequent cases of uncertain model selection. We show that model-free approaches can identify attentional modulation patterns, such as general alterations of the irregular shape of tuning curves, which cannot be captured by fitting stereotyped conventional models. Finally, by comparing datasets across different conditions, we demonstrate effects of attention that are cell- and even stimulus

  18. Model-Free Estimation of Tuning Curves and Their Attentional Modulation, Based on Sparse and Noisy Data

    PubMed Central

    Helmer, Markus; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Stephan, Valeska; Treue, Stefan; Geisel, Theo; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Tuning curves are the functions that relate the responses of sensory neurons to various values within one continuous stimulus dimension (such as the orientation of a bar in the visual domain or the frequency of a tone in the auditory domain). They are commonly determined by fitting a model e.g. a Gaussian or other bell-shaped curves to the measured responses to a small subset of discrete stimuli in the relevant dimension. However, as neuronal responses are irregular and experimental measurements noisy, it is often difficult to determine reliably the appropriate model from the data. We illustrate this general problem by fitting diverse models to representative recordings from area MT in rhesus monkey visual cortex during multiple attentional tasks involving complex composite stimuli. We find that all models can be well-fitted, that the best model generally varies between neurons and that statistical comparisons between neuronal responses across different experimental conditions are affected quantitatively and qualitatively by specific model choices. As a robust alternative to an often arbitrary model selection, we introduce a model-free approach, in which features of interest are extracted directly from the measured response data without the need of fitting any model. In our attentional datasets, we demonstrate that data-driven methods provide descriptions of tuning curve features such as preferred stimulus direction or attentional gain modulations which are in agreement with fit-based approaches when a good fit exists. Furthermore, these methods naturally extend to the frequent cases of uncertain model selection. We show that model-free approaches can identify attentional modulation patterns, such as general alterations of the irregular shape of tuning curves, which cannot be captured by fitting stereotyped conventional models. Finally, by comparing datasets across different conditions, we demonstrate effects of attention that are cell- and even stimulus

  19. Response control networks are selectively modulated by attention to rare events and memory load regardless of the need for inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Magnotta, Vincent A; Buss, Aaron T; Ambrose, Joseph P; Wifall, Timothy A; Hazeltine, Eliot; Spencer, John P

    2015-10-15

    Recent evidence has sparked debate about the neural bases of response selection and inhibition. In the current study, we employed two reactive inhibition tasks, the Go/Nogo (GnG) and Simon tasks, to examine questions central to these debates. First, we investigated whether a fronto-cortical-striatal system was sensitive to the need for inhibition per se or the presentation of infrequent stimuli, by manipulating the proportion of trials that do not require inhibition (Go/Compatible trials) relative to trials that require inhibition (Nogo/Incompatible trials). A cortico-subcortical network composed of insula, putamen, and thalamus showed greater activation on salient and infrequent events, regardless of the need for inhibition. Thus, consistent with recent findings, key parts of the fronto-cortical-striatal system are engaged by salient events and do not appear to play a selective role in response inhibition. Second, we examined how the fronto-cortical-striatal system is modulated by working memory demands by varying the number of stimulus-response (SR) mappings. Right inferior parietal lobule showed decreasing activation as the number of SR mappings increased, suggesting that a form of associative memory - rather than working memory - might underlie performance in these tasks. A broad motor planning and control network showed similar trends that were also modulated by the number of motor responses required in each task. Finally, bilateral lingual gyri were more robustly engaged in the Simon task, consistent with the role of this area in shifts of visuo-spatial attention. The current study sheds light on how the fronto-cortical-striatal network is selectively engaged in reactive control tasks and how control is modulated by manipulations of attention and memory load. PMID:26190403

  20. Attentional disengagement is modulated by the offset of unpleasant pictures: a saccadic reaction time study.

    PubMed

    Machado-Pinheiro, Walter; Faria, Aydamari; Braga, Filipe; Guerra, Pedro; Perakakis, Pandelis; Caldas, Ariane Leão; Mocaiber, Izabela; Oliveira, Letícia; Pereira, Mirtes Garcia; Volchan, Eliane; Vila, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    We studied the influence of passively viewing a picture on saccade latencies to peripheral targets. Thirty-two volunteers were instructed to look at a central picture, wait for the onset of a peripheral target, and execute a saccade toward it as quickly as possible - saccadic reaction time (SRT). The central picture (neutral or unpleasant) could be turned off simultaneously with target onset (the no-gap condition) or 200ms prior to target onset (the gap-200 condition). We found that saccade latencies were influenced by emotional valence and condition. In the no-gap condition, SRTs were longer after viewing unpleasant pictures. In the gap-200 condition, the pattern was reversed, and unpleasant pictures induced shorter SRTs in relation to neutral pictures. Furthermore, the influence of unpleasant pictures gradually decreased when images were re-exposed to the participants - affective habituation. The results are discussed in terms of attentional avoidance and disengagement from unpleasant emotional pictures. PMID:24177247

  1. Analysis of cardiac autonomic modulation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Tatiana Dias; Wajnsztejn, Rubens; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Marques Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos; Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Adami, Fernando; Valenti, Vitor E; Monteiro, Carlos B M; Leone, Claudio; da Cruz Martins, Karen Cristina; Ferreira, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by decreased attention span, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. Autonomic nervous system imbalance was previously described in this population. We aim to compare the autonomic function of children with ADHD and controls by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV). Methods Children rested in supine position with spontaneous breathing for 20 minutes. Heart rate was recorded beat by beat. HRV analysis was performed in the time and frequency domains and Poincaré plot. Results Twenty-eight children with ADHD (22 boys, aged 9.964 years) and 28 controls (15 boys, age 9.857 years) participated in this study. It was determined that the mean and standard deviation of indexes which indicate parasympathetic activity is higher in children with ADHD than in children without the disorder: high frequency in normalized units, 46.182 (14.159) versus 40.632 (12.247); root mean square of successive differences, 41.821 (17.834) versus 38.150 (18.357); differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds, 199.75 (144.00) versus 127.46 (102.21) (P<0.05); percentage of differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds, 23.957 (17.316) versus 16.211 (13.215); standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat interval, 29.586 (12.622) versus 26.989 (12.983). Conclusion Comparison of the autonomic function by analyzing HRV suggests an increase in the activity of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous systems in children with ADHD in relation to the control group. PMID:24748797

  2. Attention Modulates the Auditory Cortical Processing of Spatial and Category Cues in Naturalistic Auditory Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Renvall, Hanna; Staeren, Noël; Barz, Claudia S.; Ley, Anke; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    This combined fMRI and MEG study investigated brain activations during listening and attending to natural auditory scenes. We first recorded, using in-ear microphones, vocal non-speech sounds, and environmental sounds that were mixed to construct auditory scenes containing two concurrent sound streams. During the brain measurements, subjects attended to one of the streams while spatial acoustic information of the scene was either preserved (stereophonic sounds) or removed (monophonic sounds). Compared to monophonic sounds, stereophonic sounds evoked larger blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses in the bilateral posterior superior temporal areas, independent of which stimulus attribute the subject was attending to. This finding is consistent with the functional role of these regions in the (automatic) processing of auditory spatial cues. Additionally, significant differences in the cortical activation patterns depending on the target of attention were observed. Bilateral planum temporale and inferior frontal gyrus were preferentially activated when attending to stereophonic environmental sounds, whereas when subjects attended to stereophonic voice sounds, the BOLD responses were larger at the bilateral middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, previously reported to show voice sensitivity. In contrast, the time-resolved MEG responses were stronger for mono- than stereophonic sounds in the bilateral auditory cortices at ~360 ms after the stimulus onset when attending to the voice excerpts within the combined sounds. The observed effects suggest that during the segregation of auditory objects from the auditory background, spatial sound cues together with other relevant temporal and spectral cues are processed in an attention-dependent manner at the cortical locations generally involved in sound recognition. More synchronous neuronal activation during monophonic than stereophonic sound processing, as well as (local) neuronal inhibitory mechanisms in

  3. Individual differences in selective attention predict speech identification at a cocktail party.

    PubMed

    Oberfeld, Daniel; Klöckner-Nowotny, Felicitas

    2016-01-01

    Listeners with normal hearing show considerable individual differences in speech understanding when competing speakers are present, as in a crowded restaurant. Here, we show that one source of this variance are individual differences in the ability to focus selective attention on a target stimulus in the presence of distractors. In 50 young normal-hearing listeners, the performance in tasks measuring auditory and visual selective attention was associated with sentence identification in the presence of spatially separated competing speakers. Together, the measures of selective attention explained a similar proportion of variance as the binaural sensitivity for the acoustic temporal fine structure. Working memory span, age, and audiometric thresholds showed no significant association with speech understanding. These results suggest that a reduced ability to focus attention on a target is one reason why some listeners with normal hearing sensitivity have difficulty communicating in situations with background noise. PMID:27580272

  4. Electrophysiological measures of attention during speech perception predict metalinguistic skills in children

    PubMed Central

    Astheimer, Lori; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) evidence demonstrates that preschool-aged children selectively attend to informative moments such as word onsets during speech perception. Although this observation indicates a role for attention in language processing, it is unclear whether this type of attention is part of basic speech perception mechanisms, higher-level language skills, or general cognitive abilities. The current study examined these possibilities by measuring ERPs from 5-year-old children listening to a narrative containing attention probes presented before, during, and after word onsets as well as at random control times. Children also completed behavioral tests assessing verbal and nonverbal skills. Probes presented after word onsets elicited a more negative ERP response beginning around 100 ms after probe onset than control probes, indicating increased attention to word-initial segments. Crucially, the magnitude of this difference was correlated with performance on verbal tasks, but showed no relationship to nonverbal measures. More specifically, ERP attention effects were most strongly correlated with performance on a complex metalinguistic task involving grammaticality judgments. These results demonstrate that effective allocation of attention during speech perception supports higher-level, controlled language processing in children by allowing them to focus on relevant information at individual word and complex sentence levels. PMID:24316548

  5. Subclinical alexithymia modulates early audio-visual perceptive and attentional event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have highlighted the advantage of using audio–visual oddball tasks (instead of unimodal ones) in order to electrophysiologically index subclinical behavioral differences. Since alexithymia is highly prevalent in the general population, we investigated whether the use of various bimodal tasks could elicit emotional effects in low- vs. high-alexithymic scorers. Methods: Fifty students (33 females and 17 males) were split into groups based on low and high scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). During event-related potential (ERP) recordings, they were exposed to three kinds of audio–visual oddball tasks: neutral-AVN—(geometrical forms and bips), animal-AVA—(dog and cock with their respective shouts), or emotional-AVE—(faces and voices) stimuli. In each condition, participants were asked to quickly detect deviant events occurring amongst a train of repeated and frequent matching stimuli (e.g., push a button when a sad face–voice pair appeared amongst a train of neutral face–voice pairs). P100, N100, and P300 components were analyzed: P100 refers to visual perceptive and attentional processing, N100 to auditory ones, and the P300 relates to response-related stages, involving memory processes. Results: High-alexithymic scorers presented a particular pattern of results when processing the emotional stimulations, reflected in early ERP components by increased P100 and N100 amplitudes in the emotional oddball tasks [P100: F(2, 48) = 20,319, p < 0.001; N100: F(2, 96) = 8,807, p = 0.001] as compared to the animal or neutral ones. Indeed, regarding the P100, subjects exhibited a higher amplitude in the AVE condition (8.717 μV), which was significantly different from that observed during the AVN condition (4.382 μV, p < 0.001). For the N100, the highest amplitude was found in the AVE condition (−4.035 μV) and the lowest was observed in the AVN condition (−2.687 μV, p = 0.003). However, no effect was found on the

  6. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry is Modulated by Joint Attention and Autistic Traits.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Janina; Ioannou, Christina; Korb, Sebastian; Schilbach, Leonhard; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2016-07-01

    Joint attention (JA) and spontaneous facial mimicry (SFM) are fundamental processes in social interactions, and they are closely related to empathic abilities. When tested independently, both of these processes have been usually observed to be atypical in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). However, it is not known how these processes interact with each other in relation to autistic traits. This study addresses this question by testing the impact of JA on SFM of happy faces using a truly interactive paradigm. Sixty-two neurotypical participants engaged in gaze-based social interaction with an anthropomorphic, gaze-contingent virtual agent. The agent either established JA by initiating eye contact or looked away, before looking at an object and expressing happiness or disgust. Eye tracking was used to make the agent's gaze behavior and facial actions contingent to the participants' gaze. SFM of happy expressions was measured by Electromyography (EMG) recording over the Zygomaticus Major muscle. Results showed that JA augments SFM in individuals with low compared with high autistic traits. These findings are in line with reports of reduced impact of JA on action imitation in individuals with ASC. Moreover, they suggest that investigating atypical interactions between empathic processes, instead of testing these processes individually, might be crucial to understanding the nature of social deficits in autism. Autism Res 2016, 9: 781-789. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. PMID:26442665

  7. The timing and temporal patterns of eye blinking are dynamically modulated by attention.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jihoon; Jeong, So-Yeong; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2012-12-01

    A number of human behaviors and movements show self-similar temporal patterns in their occurrence over time. Human walking, finger tapping and heartbeat intervals have fluctuations that are statistically similar at multiple time scales. However, whether eye blinking, which is a unique human behavior that occurs spontaneously, embeds a similar temporal structure within other types of movements is largely unknown. In this study, we used attention-requiring tasks to assess how the temporal pattern of eye blinking is altered in both the second and sub-second time scales. Our results showed that eyeblink activity was more suppressed as the task difficulty level increased and was facilitated immediately after exposure to auditory stimuli, which were presented for 6 to 14s. Moreover, similar transient suppressive and facilitative patterns were observed in the response period, which lasted for less than one second. Furthermore, we found that spontaneous eye blinking intervals fluctuated according to an 1/f scaling property, which is widely observed in various human movements. These results suggest that the dynamics of eye blinking under specific cognitive tasks exhibit a similar temporal structure at multiple time scales. PMID:22877514

  8. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry is Modulated by Joint Attention and Autistic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Janina; Ioannou, Christina; Korb, Sebastian; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2015-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) and spontaneous facial mimicry (SFM) are fundamental processes in social interactions, and they are closely related to empathic abilities. When tested independently, both of these processes have been usually observed to be atypical in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). However, it is not known how these processes interact with each other in relation to autistic traits. This study addresses this question by testing the impact of JA on SFM of happy faces using a truly interactive paradigm. Sixty‐two neurotypical participants engaged in gaze‐based social interaction with an anthropomorphic, gaze‐contingent virtual agent. The agent either established JA by initiating eye contact or looked away, before looking at an object and expressing happiness or disgust. Eye tracking was used to make the agent's gaze behavior and facial actions contingent to the participants' gaze. SFM of happy expressions was measured by Electromyography (EMG) recording over the Zygomaticus Major muscle. Results showed that JA augments SFM in individuals with low compared with high autistic traits. These findings are in line with reports of reduced impact of JA on action imitation in individuals with ASC. Moreover, they suggest that investigating atypical interactions between empathic processes, instead of testing these processes individually, might be crucial to understanding the nature of social deficits in autism. Autism Res 2016, 9: 781–789. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26442665

  9. The neural correlates of competition during memory retrieval are modulated by attention to the cues

    PubMed Central

    Danker, Jared F.; Fincham, Jon M.; Anderson, John R.

    2011-01-01

    As people learn more facts about a concept, those facts become more difficult to remember. This is called the fan effect, where fan refers to the number of facts known about a concept. Increasing fan has been shown to decrease accuracy and increase response time and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activity during retrieval. In this study, participants learned 36 arbitrary person-location pairings and had to recognize them while we recorded brain activity using fMRI. We separately manipulated the fan of each person and location, as well as the training procedure with which each pair was studied. In the person focus condition, participants studied pairs with a picture of the person’s face and used the person as a retrieval cue during training. In the location focus condition, participants studied pairs with a picture of the location and used the location as a retrieval cue during training. We found that the fan of the focused cue had a greater effect on response time, accuracy, and left VLPFC activity during retrieval than the fan of the unfocused cue. We also found that the parahippocampal place area (PPA) was more active during the recognition of pairs studied in the location focus condition, but not when the fan of the location was high. Overall, we found opposite effects of fan on VLPFC and PPA that were modulated by cue focus. PMID:21549721

  10. Religion and the Attentional Blink: Depth of Faith Predicts Depth of the Blink

    PubMed Central

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; Hommel, Bernhard; Shapiro, Kimron L.

    2010-01-01

    Religion is commonly defined as a set of rules, developed as part of a culture. Here we provide evidence that practice in following these rules systematically changes the way people allocate their attention, as indicated by the attentional blink (AB), a deficit in reporting the second of two target stimuli presented in close succession in a rapid sequence of distracters. We provide evidence that Dutch Calvinists and Atheists, brought up in the same country and culture and controlled for race, intelligence, mood, personality traits, and age, differ with respect to the amount of resources invested into processing AB targets. Calvinists showed a larger AB than Atheists, which is consistent with the notion that people's attentional processing style reflects biases rewarded by their religious beliefs. PMID:21833216

  11. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  12. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  13. Broad Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Children Predicts Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    PubMed Central

    Serlin, Gayle C.; Siller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We examined visual attention allocation during a set of social videos that are intended to elicit the coordination of attention with another person, compared to a control condition. Deficits in joint attention are a characteristic of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included a diverse sample of 50 typically developing school-aged children between 3 and 9 years of age (M = 6:3, SD = 1:8). Results demonstrated that gaze allocation differed significantly between the experimental and control condition. Further, individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly predicted by a parent-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype. This study contributes to a research program that aims to develop and validate an endophenotype measure of ASD. PMID:22847297

  14. Prediction of 7-year psychopathology from mother-infant joint attention behaviours: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate whether later diagnosis of psychiatric disorder can be predicted from analysis of mother-infant joint attention (JA) behaviours in social-communicative interaction at 12 months. Method Using data from a large contemporary birth cohort, we examined 159 videos of a mother-infant interaction for joint attention behaviour when children were aged one year, sampled from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Fifty-three of the videos involved infants who were later considered to have a psychiatric disorder at seven years and 106 were same aged controls. Psychopathologies included in the case group were disruptive behaviour disorders, oppositional-conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, pervasive development disorder, anxiety and depressive disorders. Psychiatric diagnoses were obtained using the Development and Wellbeing Assessment when the children were seven years old. Results None of the three JA behaviours (shared look rate, shared attention rate and shared attention intensity) showed a significant association with the primary outcome of case–control status. Only shared look rate predicted any of the exploratory sub-diagnosis outcomes and was found to be positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders (OR [95% CI]: 1.5 [1.0, 2.3]; p = 0.041). Conclusions JA behaviours did not, in general, predict later psychopathology. However, shared look was positively associated with later oppositional-conduct disorders. This suggests that some features of JA may be early markers of later psychopathology. Further investigation will be required to determine whether any JA behaviours can be used to screen for families in need of intervention. PMID:24063312

  15. Attentional control and inferences of agency: Working memory load differentially modulates goal-based and prime-based agency experiences.

    PubMed

    Renes, Robert A; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Aarts, Henk

    2015-12-15

    Previous research indicates that people can infer self-agency, the experience of causing outcomes as a result of one's own actions, in situations where information about action-outcomes is pre-activated through goal-setting or priming. We argue that goal-based agency inferences rely on attentional control that processes information about matches and mismatches between intended and actual outcomes. Prime-based inferences follow an automatic cognitive accessibility process that relies on matches between primed and actual information about outcomes. We tested an improved task for a better examination of goal-based vs. primed-based agency inferences, and examined the moderating effect of working memory load on both types of inferences. Findings of four studies showed that goal-based, but not prime-based agency inferences dwindled under working memory load. These findings suggest that goal-based (vs. primed-based) agency inferences indeed rely on attentional control, thus rendering goal-based agency inferences especially prone to conditions that modulate goal-directed control processes. PMID:26497069

  16. Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical…

  17. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  18. Attachment anxiety and attentional control predict immediate and delayed emotional Stroop interference.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heidi N; Paret, Laura; Battista, Christian; Xue, Ya

    2012-04-01

    Attachment anxiety has been associated with a hyperactivating response to threat. A modified emotional Stroop task was used to investigate temporal characteristics of the threat response by assessing response latencies to interpersonally threatening words (immediate interference) and two directly subsequent neutral filler words (delayed interference). Greater immediate and delayed interference to threatening words was observed (n = 125), with higher levels of attachment anxiety associated with immediate interference to threatening cues, and lower levels with delayed interference. Thus, attachment anxiety was related to the speed at which moderate perceived threat disrupted ongoing processes under top-down attentional control. Furthermore, top-down attentional control moderated the extent to which immediate or delayed interference was observed. Among participants who demonstrated relatively stronger top-down attentional control, immediate and delayed interference to threatening cues was minimal, suggesting that results involving emotional Stroop interference were primarily attributable to participants with relatively weaker top-down attentional control. The implications of these findings are considered within the broader context of performance-based and neuroimaging research, with suggestions for future applied research. PMID:22468618

  19. Impaired Contingent Attentional Capture Predicts Reduced Working Memory Capacity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jutta S.; Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K.; Park, Sohee

    2012-01-01

    Although impairments in working memory (WM) are well documented in schizophrenia, the specific factors that cause these deficits are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that a heightened susceptibility to attentional capture at an early stage of visual processing would result in working memory encoding problems. 30 patients with schizophrenia and 28 demographically matched healthy participants were presented with a search array and asked to report the orientation of the target stimulus. In some of the trials, a flanker stimulus preceded the search array that either matched the color of the target (relevant-flanker capture) or appeared in a different color (irrelevant-flanker capture). Working memory capacity was determined in each individual using the visual change detection paradigm. Patients needed considerably more time to find the target in the no-flanker condition. After adjusting the individual exposure time, both groups showed equivalent capture costs in the irrelevant-flanker condition. However, in the relevant-flanker condition, capture costs were increased in patients compared to controls when the stimulus onset asynchrony between the flanker and the search array was high. Moreover, the increase in relevant capture costs correlated negatively with working memory capacity. This study demonstrates preserved stimulus-driven attentional capture but impaired contingent attentional capture associated with low working memory capacity in schizophrenia. These findings suggest a selective impairment of top-down attentional control in schizophrenia, which may impair working memory encoding. PMID:23152783

  20. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predict Risk-Taking and Medical Illnesses in Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Belsky, Erica Roizen; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua-Shriftman, Erin C.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), free of conduct disorder (CD) in childhood (mean = 8 years), have elevated risk-taking, accidents, and medical illnesses in adulthood (mean = 41 years); whether development of CD influences risk-taking during adulthood; and whether exposure to…

  1. Early Childhood Assessments of Community Pediatric Professionals Predict Autism Spectrum and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2013-01-01

    For clinically referred children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) several early indicators have been described. However, knowledge is lacking on early markers of less severe variants of ASD and ADHD from the general population. The aim of the present study is to identify early indicators of…

  2. Acute aerobic exercise enhances attentional modulation of somatosensory event-related potentials during a tactile discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Christina; Staines, W Richard

    2015-03-15

    Neuroimaging research has shown that acute bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise can enhance attention-based neuronal activity in frontal brain regions, namely in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as improve cognitive performance. The circuitry of the PFC is complex with extensive reciprocal corticocortical and thalamocortical connections, yet it remains unclear if aerobic exercise can also assist attentional control over modality-specific sensory cortices. To test this, we used a tactile discrimination task to compare tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) prior to and following an acute bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We hypothesized that exercise preceding performance of the task would result in more efficient sensory gating of irrelevant/non-attended and enhancement of relevant/attended sensory information, respectively. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only. ERP amplitudes for the P50, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at FC4, C4, CP4 and P4 while P300 amplitudes were quantified in response to attended target stimuli at electrodes FCZ, CZ and CPZ. Results showed no effect of attention on the P50, however, both P100 and LLP amplitudes were significantly greater during attended, task-relevant trials, while the N140 was enhanced for non-attended, task-irrelevant stimuli. Moreover, unattended N140 amplitudes over parietal sites contralateral to stimulation were significantly greater post-exercise versus pre-exercise, while LLP modulation varied with greater unattended amplitudes post-exercise over frontal sites and greater attended amplitudes post-exercise over parietal sites. These results suggest that a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise facilitated the sensory gating of task-irrelevant tactile stimuli so that relevant sensory signals could be enhanced at

  3. Executive Function and IQ Predict Mathematical and Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke Sandrine Hanan; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Duivenvoorden, Hugo Joseph; van Goudoever, Johannes Bernard; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    Objective of this study was to examine the impact of executive function (EF) on mathematical and attention problems in very preterm (gestational age ≤ 30 weeks) children. Participants were 200 very preterm (mean age 8.2 ± 2.5 years) and 230 term children (mean age 8.3 ± 2.3 years) without severe disabilities, born between 1996 and 2004. EFs assessed included verbal fluency, verbal working memory, visuospatial span, planning, and impulse control. Mathematics was assessed with the Dutch Pupil Monitoring System and parents and teachers rated attention problems using standardized behavior questionnaires. The impact of EF was calculated over and above processing speed indices and IQ. Interactions with group (very preterm versus term birth status) were examined. Analyses were conducted separately for two subsamples: children in preschool and children in primary school. Very preterm children performed poorer on tests for mathematics and had more parent and teacher rated attention problems than term controls (ßs>.11, Ps<.01). IQ contributed unique variance to mathematics in preschool and in primary school (ßs>.16, Ps<.007). A significant interaction of group with IQ (ß = −. 24, P = .02) showed that IQ contributed unique variance to attention problems as rated by teachers, but that effects were stronger for very preterm than for term infants. Over and above IQ, EF contributed unique variance to mathematics in primary school (ß = .13, P<.001), to parent rated inattention in preschool and in primary school (ßs>−.16, Ps<.04), and to teacher rated inattention in primary school (ß = −.19; ß = .19, Ps<.009). In conclusion, impaired EF is, over and above impaired IQ, an important predictor for poor mathematics and attention problems following very preterm birth. PMID:23390558

  4. Spectrum sensitivity, energy yield, and revenue prediction of PV and CPV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, Geoffrey S.

    2015-09-01

    Impact on module performance of spectral irradiance variation has been determined for III-V multijunctions compared against the four most common flat-plate module types (cadmium telluride, multicrystalline silicon, copper indium gallium selenide, and monocrystalline silicon. Hour-by-hour representative spectra were generated using atmospheric variables for Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Convolution with published values for external quantum efficiency gave the predicted current output. When combined with specifications of commercial PV modules, energy yield and revenue were predicted. This approach provides a means for optimizing PV module design based on various site-specific temporal variables.

  5. Spectrum sensitivity, energy yield, and revenue prediction of PV and CPV modules

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, Geoffrey S.

    2015-09-28

    Impact on module performance of spectral irradiance variation has been determined for III-V multijunctions compared against the four most common flat-plate module types (cadmium telluride, multicrystalline silicon, copper indium gallium selenide, and monocrystalline silicon. Hour-by-hour representative spectra were generated using atmospheric variables for Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Convolution with published values for external quantum efficiency gave the predicted current output. When combined with specifications of commercial PV modules, energy yield and revenue were predicted. This approach provides a means for optimizing PV module design based on various site-specific temporal variables.

  6. Prediction of pilot reserve attention capacity during air-to-air target tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, E. D.; Faulkner, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Reserve attention capacity of a pilot was calculated using a pilot model that allocates exclusive model attention according to the ranking of task urgency functions whose variables are tracking error and error rate. The modeled task consisted of tracking a maneuvering target aircraft both vertically and horizontally, and when possible, performing a diverting side task which was simulated by the precise positioning of an electrical stylus and modeled as a task of constant urgency in the attention allocation algorithm. The urgency of the single loop vertical task is simply the magnitude of the vertical tracking error, while the multiloop horizontal task requires a nonlinear urgency measure of error and error rate terms. Comparison of model results with flight simulation data verified the computed model statistics of tracking error of both axes, lateral and longitudinal stick amplitude and rate, and side task episodes. Full data for the simulation tracking statistics as well as the explicit equations and structure of the urgency function multiaxis pilot model are presented.

  7. The Role of Strategic Attention Deployment in Development of Self-Regulation: Predicting Preschoolers' Delay of Gratification from Mother-Toddler Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethi, Anita; Mischel, Walter; Aber, J. Lawrence; Shoda, Yuichi; Rodriguez, Monica Larrea

    2000-01-01

    Examined role of toddlers' attention deployment strategies in predicting 5-year-olds' delay-of-gratification strategies. Found that toddlers' use of effective attention deployment strategies to cope with separation from mother and with maternal behavior (controlling or noncontrolling) predicted effective delay-of-gratification strategies at age 5,…

  8. Changes in frontal EEG coherence across infancy predict cognitive abilities at age 3: The mediating role of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical perspectives of cognitive development have maintained that functional integration of the prefrontal cortex across infancy underlies the emergence of attentional control and higher cognitive abilities in early childhood. To investigate these proposed relations, we tested whether functional integration of prefrontal regions across the second half of the first year predicted observed cognitive performance in early childhood 1 year prior indirectly through observed attentional control (N = 300). Results indicated that greater change in left-but not right-frontal EEG coherence between 5 and 10 months was positively associated with attentional control, cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control. Specifically, a larger increase in coherence between left frontal regions was positively associated with accuracy on a visual search task at Age 2, and visual search accuracy was positively associated with receptive vocabulary, performance on a set-shifting task (DCCS), and delay of gratification at Age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from the change in left frontal EEG coherence to 3-year cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control were significant, suggesting that internally controlled attention is a mechanism through which early neural maturation influences children's cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27441486

  9. Using Accelerated Testing To Predict Module Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term reliability is critical to the cost effectiveness and commercial success of photovoltaic (PV) products. Today most PV modules are warranted for 25 years, but there is no accepted test protocol to validate a 25-year lifetime. The qualification tests do an excellent job of identifying design, materials, and process flaws that are likely to lead to premature failure (infant mortality), but they are not designed to test for wear-out mechanisms that limit lifetime. This paper presents a method for evaluating the ability of a new PV module technology to survive long-term exposure to specific stresses. The authors propose the use of baseline technologies with proven long-term field performance as controls in the accelerated stress tests. The performance of new-technology modules can then be evaluated versus that of proven-technology modules. If the new-technology demonstrates equivalent or superior performance to the proven one, there is a high likelihood that they will survive versus the tested stress in the real world.

  10. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Modulates Event-Related Potential (ERP) Indices of Attention in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Manuel F.; Baruth, Joshua M.; El-Baz, Ayman; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have previously been shown to have significantly augmented and prolonged event-related potentials (ERP) to irrelevant visual stimuli compared to controls at both early and later stages (e.g., N200, P300) of visual processing and evidence of an overall lack of stimulus discrimination. Abnormally large and indiscriminative cortical responses to sensory stimuli may reflect cortical inhibitory deficits and a disruption in the excitation/inhibition ratio. Low-frequency (≤1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits. It was our prediction that after 12 sessions of low-frequency rTMS applied bilaterally to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices in individuals with ASD there would be a significant improvement in ERP indices of selective attention evoked at later (i.e., 200–600 ms) stages of attentional processing as well as an improvement in motor response error rate. We assessed 25 participants with ASD in a task of selective attention using illusory figures before and after 12 sessions of rTMS in a controlled design where a waiting-list group of 20 children with ASD performed the same task twice. We found a significant improvement in both N200 and P300 components as a result of rTMS as well as a significant reduction in response errors. We also found significant reductions in both repetitive behavior and irritability according to clinical behavioral questionnaires as a result of rTMS. We propose that rTMS has the potential to become an important therapeutic tool in ASD research and treatment. PMID:24683490

  11. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Awadh, Faris H. R.; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages –French, Spanish, and Arabic– that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features. PMID:27014125

  12. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers.

    PubMed

    Awadh, Faris H R; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages -French, Spanish, and Arabic- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features. PMID:27014125

  13. Predicting visual attention to nutrition information on food products: the influence of motivation and ability.

    PubMed

    Turner, Monique Mitchell; Skubisz, Christine; Pandya, Sejal Patel; Silverman, Meryl; Austin, Lucinda L

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To address this issue, food and beverage manufacturers as well as health organizations have developed nutrition symbols and logos to be placed on the front of food packages to guide consumers to more healthful food choices. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested information on the extent to which consumers notice, use, and understand front-of-package nutrition symbols. In response, this study used eye-tracking technology to explore the degree to which people pay visual attention to the information contained in food nutrition labels and front-of-package nutrition symbols. Results indicate that people with motivation to shop for healthful foods spent significantly more time looking at all available nutrition information compared to people with motivation to shop for products on the basis of taste. Implications of these results for message design, food labeling, and public policy are discussed. PMID:24555542

  14. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Karen L.; Shafto, Meredith A.; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Duncan, John; Henson, Rik; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Davis, Simon; Geerligs, Linda; Kievit, Rogier; McCarrey, Anna; Price, Darren; Taylor, Jason; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Dixon, Marie; Barnes, Dan; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory. PMID:26359527

  15. Idiosyncratic responding during movie-watching predicted by age differences in attentional control.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen L; Shafto, Meredith A; Wright, Paul; Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Geerligs, Linda; Cusack, Rhodri; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2015-11-01

    Much is known about how age affects the brain during tightly controlled, though largely contrived, experiments, but do these effects extrapolate to everyday life? Naturalistic stimuli, such as movies, closely mimic the real world and provide a window onto the brain's ability to respond in a timely and measured fashion to complex, everyday events. Young adults respond to these stimuli in a highly synchronized fashion, but it remains to be seen how age affects neural responsiveness during naturalistic viewing. To this end, we scanned a large (N = 218), population-based sample from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) during movie-watching. Intersubject synchronization declined with age, such that older adults' response to the movie was more idiosyncratic. This decreased synchrony related to cognitive measures sensitive to attentional control. Our findings suggest that neural responsivity changes with age, which likely has important implications for real-world event comprehension and memory. PMID:26359527

  16. Neural sensitivity to social deviance predicts attentive processing of peer-group judgment.

    PubMed

    Schnuerch, Robert; Trautmann-Lengsfeld, Sina Alexa; Bertram, Mario; Gibbons, Henning

    2014-01-01

    The detection of one's deviance from social norms is an essential mechanism of individual adjustment to group behavior and, thus, for the perpetuation of norms within groups. It has been suggested that error signals in mediofrontal cortex provide the neural basis of such deviance detection, which contributes to later adjustment to the norm. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to demonstrate that, across participants, the strength of mediofrontal brain correlates of the detection of deviance from a peer group's norms was negatively related to attentive processing of the same group's judgments in a later task. We propose that an individual's perception of social deviance might bias basic cognitive processing during further interaction with the group. Strongly perceiving disagreement with a group could cause an individual to avoid or inhibit this group's judgments. PMID:24968861

  17. The functional tumor necrosis factor-α (308A/G) polymorphism modulates attentional selection in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2013-11-01

    There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of inflammatory processes for cognitive functions in aging using molecular genetic approaches. Though this has mostly been evaluated in pathological aging, little is known about the relevance for cognitive functions in healthy aging in humans. On the basis of behavioral data and neurophysiological data (event-related potentials and time-frequency decomposition) we show that the A-allele of the functional tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α -308 A/G polymorphism confers dysfunction in a number of cognitive processes: prolonged attentional selection indexed by a delayed P1/N1 complex, an increased P3a, which is interpreted as an enhanced distractibility by nonrelevant stimuli and compromised response selection mechanisms, as indexed by a reduced frontocentral N2. Time-frequency analyses show that allelic variations further exert their effects by modulating alpha and beta frequency oscillations. On a neurobiological level, these effects might be because of the interaction of TNF-α with glutamatergic neural transmission by which TNF-α is known to boost apoptotic mechanisms in elderly individuals. PMID:23673311

  18. Predicting Fault Prone Modules by the Dempster-Shafer Belief Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Cukic, Bojan; Singh, Harshinder

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for predicting fault prone modules. The methodology is based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) belief networks. Our approach consists of three steps: First, building the Dempster-Shafer network by the induction algorithm; Second, selecting the predictors (attributes) by the logistic procedure; Third, feeding the predictors describing the modules of the current project into the inducted Dempster-Shafer network and identifying fault prone modules. We applied this methodology to a NASA dataset. The prediction accuracy of our methodology is higher than that achieved by logistic regression or discriminant analysis on the same dataset. PMID:26120284

  19. Attentional Enhancement of Auditory Mismatch Responses: a DCM/MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Auksztulewicz, Ryszard; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Despite similar behavioral effects, attention and expectation influence evoked responses differently: Attention typically enhances event-related responses, whereas expectation reduces them. This dissociation has been reconciled under predictive coding, where prediction errors are weighted by precision associated with attentional modulation. Here, we tested the predictive coding account of attention and expectation using magnetoencephalography and modeling. Temporal attention and sensory expectation were orthogonally manipulated in an auditory mismatch paradigm, revealing opposing effects on evoked response amplitude. Mismatch negativity (MMN) was enhanced by attention, speaking against its supposedly pre-attentive nature. This interaction effect was modeled in a canonical microcircuit using dynamic causal modeling, comparing models with modulation of extrinsic and intrinsic connectivity at different levels of the auditory hierarchy. While MMN was explained by recursive interplay of sensory predictions and prediction errors, attention was linked to the gain of inhibitory interneurons, consistent with its modulation of sensory precision. PMID:25596591

  20. Polarization predictions for cosmological models with large-scale power modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Emory F.; Xue, Qingyang

    2016-01-01

    Several "anomalies" have been noted on large angular scales in maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, although the statistical significance of these anomalies is hotly debated. Of particular interest is the evidence for large-scale power modulation: the variance in one half of the sky is larger than the other half. Either this variation is a mere fluke, or it requires a major revision of the standard cosmological paradigm. The way to determine which is the case is to make predictions for future data sets, based on the hypothesis that the anomaly is meaningful and on the hypothesis that it is a fluke. We make predictions for the CMB polarization anisotropy based on a cosmological model in which statistical isotropy is broken via coupling with a dipolar modulation field. Our predictions are constrained to match the observed Planck temperature variations. We identify the modes in CMB polarization data that most strongly distinguish between the modulation and no-modulation hypotheses.

  1. Early childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predicts poorer response to acute lithium therapy in adolescent mania.

    PubMed

    Strober, M; DeAntonio, M; Schmidt-Lackner, S; Freeman, R; Lampert, C; Diamond, J

    1998-11-01

    We compared the response to acute lithium therapy in 30 adolescents, 13-17 years of age, with mania and a prior history of early childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to a sex- and age-matched control group of adolescent manics without premorbid psychiatric illness. Response to treatment was assessed daily over the course of 28 days using measures of global clinical improvement and severity ratings on the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale (BRMS). BRMS scores decreased by a mean of 24.3 in the subgroup without prior ADHD compared to 16.7 in patients with ADHD (P = 0.0005). The average percent drop in BRMS scores over the study period in these two subgroups was 80.6% and 57.7%, respectively (P = 0.0005). Time to onset of sustained global clinical improvement was also assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival methods and possible covariates of time to improvement were tested in a Cox proportional hazards model. Median time to onset of sustained improvement was lengthened significantly in patients with early ADHD (23 days) compared to those without it (17 days; log rank chi2 = 7.2, P = 0.007). The results suggest that early childhood ADHD defines an important source of heterogeneity in bipolar illness with developmental, clinical, and neuropharmacogenetic implications. PMID:10743847

  2. Internal performance predictions for Langley scramjet engine module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinckney, S. Z.

    1978-01-01

    A one dimensional theoretical method for the prediction of the internal performance of a scramjet engine is presented. The effects of changes in vehicle forebody flow parameters and characteristics on predicted thrust for the scramjet engine were evaluated using this method, and results are presented. A theoretical evaluation of the effects of changes in the scramjet engine's internal parameters is also presented. Theoretical internal performance predictions, in terms thrust coefficient and specific impulse, are provided for the scramjet engine for free stream Mach numbers of 5, 6, and 7 free stream dynamic pressure of 23,940 N/sq m forebody surface angles of 4.6 deg to 14.6 deg, and fuel equivalence ratio of 1.0.

  3. Optimal control model predictions of system performance and attention allocation and their experimental validation in a display design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Govindaraj, T.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of different types of predictor displays in a longitudinal vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) hover task is analyzed in a theoretical study. Several cases with differing amounts of predictive and rate information are compared. The optimal control model of the human operator is used to estimate human and system performance in terms of root-mean-square (rms) values and to compute optimized attention allocation. The only part of the model which is varied to predict these data is the observation matrix. Typical cases are selected for a subsequent experimental validation. The rms values as well as eye-movement data are recorded. The results agree favorably with those of the theoretical study in terms of relative differences. Better matching is achieved by revised model input data.

  4. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predicts Intimate Partner Victimization in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Maya D; Ahmad, Shaikh; Meza, Jocelyn I; Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with interpersonal dysfunction during childhood and adolescence, yet little is known about the romantic relationships of young women with childhood ADHD. In the present study, we draw from a longitudinal sample of girls followed prospectively into young adulthood, comparing those with (n = 114) and without (n = 79; comparisons) childhood ADHD in terms of their risk for physical victimization by an intimate partner (physical IPV; e.g., slapping, punching) by 17-24 years of age. We examined ADHD both diagnostically and dimensionally, at the same time establishing reliable indicators of young adult physical IPV. Externalizing and internalizing problems, and academic achievement during adolescence, were tested as potential mediators. Overall, participants with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD experienced more physical IPV than did comparisons (30.7% vs. 6.3%). In parallel, IPV was associated with higher levels of childhood ADHD symptomatology (d = 0.73). Young women with persistent ADHD stood the highest risk of experiencing IPV (37.3%), followed by those with transient ADHD (19.0%) and those never-diagnosed (5.9%). Academic achievement measured during adolescence was a significant partial mediator of the childhood ADHD symptomatology-young adult IPV relationship, even with control of sociodemographic, psychiatric, and cognitive factors, including childhood reading and math disorders. Findings indicate that in young women, childhood ADHD is a specific and important predictor of physically violent victimization in their intimate relationships. This vulnerable population requires IPV prevention and intervention, with academic empowerment as a key target. PMID:25663589

  5. A neural model of cortico-cerebellar interactions during attentive imitation and predictive learning of sequential handwriting movements.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, S; Paine, R W

    2000-01-01

    Much sensory-motor behavior develops through imitation, as during the learning of handwriting by children. Such complex sequential acts are broken down into distinct motor control synergies, or muscle groups, whose activities overlap in time to generate continuous, curved movements that obey an inverse relation between curvature and speed. How are such complex movements learned through attentive imitation? Novel movements may be made as a series of distinct segments, but a practiced movement can be made smoothly, with a continuous, often bell-shaped, velocity profile. How does learning of complex movements transform reactive imitation into predictive, automatic performance? A neural model is developed which suggests how parietal and motor cortical mechanisms, such as difference vector encoding, interact with adaptively timed, predictive cerebellar learning during movement imitation and predictive performance. To initiate movement, visual attention shifts along the shape to be imitated and generates vector movement using motor cortical cells. During such an imitative movement, cerebellar Purkinje cells with a spectrum of delayed response profiles sample and learn the changing directional information and, in turn, send that learned information back to the cortex and eventually to the muscle synergies involved. If the imitative movement deviates from an attentional focus around a shape to be imitated, the visual system shifts attention, and may make an eye movement, back to the shape, thereby providing corrective directional information to the arm movement system. This imitative movement cycle repeats until the cortico-cerebellar system can accurately drive the movement based on memory alone. A cortical working memory buffer transiently stores the cerebellar output and releases it at a variable rate, allowing speed scaling of learned movements which is limited by the rate of cerebellar memory readout. Movements can be learned at variable speeds if the density of the

  6. Event-related EEG power modulations and phase connectivity indicate the focus of attention in an auditory own name paradigm.

    PubMed

    Lechinger, Julia; Wielek, Tomasz; Blume, Christine; Pichler, Gerald; Michitsch, Gabriele; Donis, Johann; Gruber, Walter; Schabus, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Estimating cognitive abilities in patients suffering from Disorders of Consciousness remains challenging. One cognitive task to address this issue is the so-called own name paradigm, in which subjects are presented with first names including the own name. In the active condition, a specific target name has to be silently counted. We recorded EEG during this task in 24 healthy controls, 8 patients suffering from Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) and 7 minimally conscious (MCS) patients. EEG was analysed with respect to amplitude as well as phase modulations and connectivity. Results showed that general reactivity in the delta, theta and alpha frequency (event-related de-synchronisation, ERS/ERD, and phase locking between trials and electrodes) toward auditory stimulation was higher in controls than in patients. In controls, delta ERS and lower alpha ERD indexed the focus of attention in both conditions, late theta ERS only in the active condition. Additionally, phase locking between trials and delta phase connectivity was highest for own names in the passive and targets in the active condition. In patients, clear stimulus-specific differences could not be detected. However, MCS patients could reliably be differentiated from UWS patients based on their general event-related delta and theta increase independent of the type of stimulus. In conclusion, the EEG signature of the active own name paradigm revealed instruction-following in healthy participants. On the other hand, DOC patients did not show clear stimulus-specific processing. General reactivity toward any auditory input, however, allowed for a reliable differentiation between MCS and UWS patients. PMID:27216625

  7. Dyslexia in a French-Spanish bilingual girl: behavioural and neural modulations following a visual attention span intervention.

    PubMed

    Valdois, Sylviane; Peyrin, Carole; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lallier, Marie; Démonet, Jean-François; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-04-01

    We report the case study of a French-Spanish bilingual dyslexic girl, MP, who exhibited a severe visual attention (VA) span deficit but preserved phonological skills. Behavioural investigation showed a severe reduction of reading speed for both single items (words and pseudo-words) and texts in the two languages. However, performance was more affected in French than in Spanish. MP was administered an intensive VA span intervention programme. Pre-post intervention comparison revealed a positive effect of intervention on her VA span abilities. The intervention further transferred to reading. It primarily resulted in faster identification of the regular and irregular words in French. The effect of intervention was rather modest in Spanish that only showed a tendency for faster word reading. Text reading improved in the two languages with a stronger effect in French but pseudo-word reading did not improve in either French or Spanish. The overall results suggest that VA span intervention may primarily enhance the fast global reading procedure, with stronger effects in French than in Spanish. MP underwent two fMRI sessions to explore her brain activations before and after VA span training. Prior to the intervention, fMRI assessment showed that the striate and extrastriate visual cortices alone were activated but none of the regions typically involved in VA span. Post-training fMRI revealed increased activation of the superior and inferior parietal cortices. Comparison of pre- and post-training activations revealed significant activation increase of the superior parietal lobes (BA 7) bilaterally. Thus, we show that a specific VA span intervention not only modulates reading performance but further results in increased brain activity within the superior parietal lobes known to housing VA span abilities. Furthermore, positive effects of VA span intervention on reading suggest that the ability to process multiple visual elements simultaneously is one cause of successful

  8. Resting spontaneous activity in the default mode network predicts performance decline during prolonged attention workload.

    PubMed

    Gui, Danyang; Xu, Sihua; Zhu, Senhua; Fang, Zhuo; Spaeth, Andrea M; Xin, Yuanyuan; Feng, Tingyong; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-10-15

    After continuous and prolonged cognitive workload, people typically show reduced behavioral performance and increased feelings of fatigue, which are known as "time-on-task (TOT) effects". Although TOT effects are pervasive in modern life, their underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we induced TOT effects by administering a 20-min continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to a group of 16 healthy adults and used resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine spontaneous brain activity changes associated with fatigue and performance. Behaviorally, subjects displayed robust TOT effects, as reflected by increasingly slower reaction times as the test progressed and higher self-reported mental fatigue ratings after the 20-min PVT. Compared to pre-test measurements, subjects exhibited reduced amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the default mode network (DMN) and increased ALFF in the thalamus after the test. Subjects also exhibited reduced anti-correlations between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right middle prefrontal cortex after the test. Moreover, pre-test resting ALFF in the PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (MePFC) predicted subjects' subsequent performance decline; individuals with higher ALFF in these regions exhibited more stable reaction times throughout the 20-min PVT. These results support the important role of both task-positive and task-negative networks in mediating TOT effects and suggest that spontaneous activity measured by resting-state BOLD fMRI may be a marker of mental fatigue. PMID:26196666

  9. Factors predicting treatment adherence in patients with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Semerci, Bengi; Taskıran, Sarper; Tufan, Evren; Şanlı, Işın

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to elicit patient- and treatment-related factors that can potentially predict treatment adherence in adult ADHD. Subjects who were over 18 and received a diagnosis of ADHD were included in the study. Chart review data of 102 subjects regarding demographics, medications, comorbidities, concomitant medications and domains of functional impairment were collected, and predictors were assessed using a binominal logistical regression model. One hundred and two patients (78.4 % male) with a mean age of 28.8 (SD = 9.8, range = 18-55) years were enrolled in the study. Childhood diagnosis of ADHD, agents used for treatment (MPH or atomoxetine), individual domains of dysfunction and use of additional psychotropic drugs were not found to be related to treatment adherence. Patients with a university education and those referred for family history of ADHD were more likely to adhere to treatment (p = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively). On the other hand, reasons for referral other than ADHD were significantly more frequently related to non-adherence (p = 0.02). Treatment noncompliance remains a significant problem despite therapeutic effects of medications. Identification of predictors of non-adherence can lead to heightened awareness of special populations at risk. We have found that prior awareness on ADHD (via past history/media/friends) leading to self/clinician referral to rule out ADHD and pervasiveness of symptoms across functional domains led to better compliance in our sample. Future research with prospective design utilizing objective tools for adherence is required. PMID:27056071

  10. Does diagnosis affect the predictive accuracy of risk assessment tools for juvenile offenders: Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Dinesh; Shaw, Jenny; Dolan, Mairead; Lennox, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Studies have suggested an increased risk of criminality in juveniles if they suffer from co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) along with Conduct Disorder. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV), and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have been shown to be good predictors of violent and non-violent re-offending. The aim was to compare the accuracy of these tools to predict violent and non-violent re-offending in young people with co-morbid ADHD and Conduct Disorder and Conduct Disorder only. The sample included 109 White-British adolescent males in secure settings. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups for re-offending. SAVRY factors had better predictive values than PCL:YV or YLS/CMI. Tools generally had better predictive values for the Conduct Disorder only group than the co-morbid group. Possible reasons for these findings have been discussed along with limitations of the study. PMID:25173178

  11. Dopamine and the Management of Attentional Resources: Genetic Markers of Striatal D2 Dopamine Predict Individual Differences in the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; Slagter, Heleen A.; de Rover, Mischa; Hommel, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB)--a deficit in reporting the second of two target stimuli presented in close succession in a rapid sequence of distracters--has been related to processing limitations in working memory. Given that dopamine (DA) plays a crucial role working memory, the present study tested whether individual differences in the size of the…

  12. How Does Awareness Modulate Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Shifts of Attention Triggered by Value Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Alexia; Neveu, Rémi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e., endogenously) according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e., exogenously) through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational value of stimuli can also strongly influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms, particularly outside of awareness. Here we developed a visual search paradigm to study subliminal value-based attentional orienting. We systematically manipulated goal-directed or stimulus-driven attentional orienting and examined whether an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus could compete with both types of spatial attention during search. Critically, reward was learned without conscious awareness in a preceding phase where one among several visual symbols was consistently paired with a subliminal monetary reinforcement cue. Our results demonstrated that symbols previously associated with a monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, and despite reward being unconsciously acquired. Thus, motivational processes operating independent of conscious awareness may provide powerful influences on mechanisms of attentional selection, which could mitigate both stimulus-driven and goal-directed shifts of attention. PMID:27483371

  13. Low Fidelity Imitation of Atypical Biological Kinematics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Modulated by Self-Generated Selective Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Spencer J.; Andrew, Matthew; Elliott, Digby; Gowen, Emma; Bennett, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether adults with autism had difficulty imitating atypical biological kinematics. To reduce the impact that higher-order processes have on imitation we used a non-human agent model to control social attention, and removed end-state target goals in half of the trials to minimise goal-directed attention. Findings showed that only…

  14. Both a Nicotinic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and a Noradrenergic SNP Modulate Working Memory Performance when Attention Is Manipulated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Pamela M.; Sundararajan, Ramya; Lin, Ming-Kuan; Kumar, Reshma; Fryxell, Karl J.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relation between the two systems of visuospatial attention and working memory by examining the effect of normal variation in cholinergic and noradrenergic genes on working memory performance under attentional manipulation. We previously reported that working memory for location was impaired following large location precues,…

  15. Dissecting Neural Responses to Temporal Prediction, Attention, and Memory: Effects of Reward Learning and Interoception on Time Perception.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Studentsova, Yana; Volkow, Nora D

    2015-10-01

    Temporal prediction (TP) is needed to anticipate future events and is essential for survival. Our sense of time is modulated by emotional and interoceptive (corporal) states that are hypothesized to rely on a dopamine (DA)-modulated "internal clock" in the basal ganglia. However, the neurobiological substrates for TP in the human brain have not been identified. We tested the hypothesis that TP involves DA striato-cortical pathways, and that accurate responses are reinforcing in themselves and activate the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed the involvement of the NAc and anterior insula in the temporal precision of the responses, and of the ventral tegmental area in error processing. Moreover, NAc showed higher activation for successful than for unsuccessful trials, indicating that accurate TP per se is rewarding. Inasmuch as activation of the NAc is associated with drug-induced addictive behaviors, its activation by accurate TP could help explain why video games that rely on TP can trigger compulsive behaviors. PMID:25389123

  16. Effects of Attention on the Strength of Lexical Influences on Speech Perception: Behavioral Experiments and Computational Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.; Magnuson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of lexical context on phonological processing are pervasive and there have been indications that such effects may be modulated by attention. However, attentional modulation in speech processing is neither well-documented nor well-understood. Experiment 1 demonstrated attentional modulation of lexical facilitation of speech sound recognition when task and critical stimuli were identical across attention conditions. We propose modulation of lexical activation as a neurophysiologically-plausible computational mechanism that can account for this type of modulation. Contrary to the claims of critics, this mechanism can account for attentional modulation without violating the principle of interactive processing. Simulations of the interactive TRACE model extended to include two different ways of modulating lexical activation showed that each can account for attentional modulation of lexical feedback effects. Experiment 2 tested conflicting predictions from the two implementations and provided evidence that is consistent with bias input as the mechanism of attentional control of lexical activation. PMID:18509503

  17. Motor Consciousness during Intention-Based and Stimulus-Based Actions: Modulating Attention Resources through Mindfulness Meditation.

    PubMed

    Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne Nathalie; Bobineau, Claudie

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction meditation (MBSR) may offer optimal performance through heightened attention for increased body consciousness. To test this hypothesis, MBSR effects were assessed on the simple task of lifting an object. A dual task paradigm was included to assess the opposite effect of a limited amount of attention on motor consciousness. In a stimulus-based condition, the subjects' task was to lift an object that was hefted with weights. In an intentional-based condition, subjects were required to lift a light object while imagining that the object was virtually heavier and thus, adjust their grip voluntarily. The degree of motor consciousness was evaluated by calculating correlation factors for each participant between the grip force level used during the lift trial ("lift the object") and that used during its associated reproduce trial ("without lifting, indicate the force you think you used in the previous trial"). Under dual task condition, motor consciousness decreased for intention- and stimulus-based actions, revealing the importance of top-down attention for building the motor representation that guides action planning. For MBSR-experts, heightened attention provided stronger levels of motor consciousness; this was true for both intention and stimulus-based actions. For controls, heightened attention decreased the capacity to reproduce force levels, suggesting that voluntary top-down attention interfered with the automatic bottom-up emergence of body sensations. Our results provide strong arguments for involvement of two types of attention for the emergence of motor consciousness. Bottom-up attention would serve as an amplifier of motor-sensory afferences; top-down attention would help transfer the motor-sensory content from a preconscious to a conscious state of processing. MBSR would be a specific state for which both types of attention are optimally combined to provide experts with total experiences of their body in movement. PMID

  18. Modulation of linguistic prediction by TDCS of the right lateral cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Miall, R C; Antony, J; Goldsmith-Sumner, A; Harding, S R; McGovern, C; Winter, J L

    2016-06-01

    It has been postulated recently that the cerebellum contributes the same prediction and learning functions to linguistic processing as it does towards motor control. For example, repetitive TMS over posterior-lateral cerebellum caused a significant loss in predictive language processing, as assessed by the latency of saccades to target items of spoken sentences, using the Visual World task. We aimed to assess the polarity-specific effects of cerebellar TDCS, hypothesising that cathodal TDCS should impair linguistic prediction, and anodal TDCS facilitate it. Our design also tested whether TDCS modulated associative learning in this task. A between groups (sham, anodal, cathodal) design was used, with concurrent stimulation during performance of a manual variation of the Visual World paradigm, and with assessment of latency reduction over repeated presentations of the spoken sentences. Mixed model ANOVA was used to analyse change in response latency. Cathodal TDCS decreased participants' response time advantage for the predictable sentence items without change for non-predictable items, consistent with the previous TMS results. Furthermore, anodal stimulation enhanced the response time advantage for the predictable items, again without change in latencies for non-predictive items. We found a clear practice-based effect over 4 blocks. However, this difference was not significantly modulated by either anodal or cathodal stimulation. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that cerebellum contributes to predictive language processing, mirroring its predictive role in motor control, but we do not yet have evidence that the learning process was affected by cerebellar TDCS. PMID:27126840

  19. Effect of attention on 40Hz auditory steady-state response depends on the stimulation type: Flutter amplitude modulated tones versus clicks.

    PubMed

    Voicikas, Aleksandras; Niciute, Ieva; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Griskova-Bulanova, Inga

    2016-08-26

    Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are used to test the ability of local cortical networks to generate gamma frequency activity in patients with psychiatric disorders. For the effective use of ASSRs in research and clinical applications, it is necessary to find a comfortable stimulation type and to know how ASSRs are modulated by the tasks given to the subjects during the recording session. We aimed to evaluate the suitability of flutter amplitude modulated tone (FAM) stimulation for generation of ASSRs: subjective pleasantness of FAMs and attentional effects on FAM-elicited 40Hz ASSRs were assessed. Commonly used click stimulation was used for comparison. FAMs produced ASSRs that were stable over the variety of tasks - they were not modulated by attentional demands during the task; responses to clicks were reduced and less synchronized during distraction. FAM stimuli were rated as less unpleasant and less arousing than click stimuli, thus being more pleasant to the subjects. Our findings suggest that FAM stimulation might be more suitable in conditions, where attention is difficult to control, i.e. in clinical settings. PMID:27424792

  20. Social identity-based motivation modulates attention bias toward negative information: an event-related brain potential study

    PubMed Central

    Montalan, Benoît; Boitout, Alexis; Veujoz, Mathieu; Leleu, Arnaud; Germain, Raymonde; Personnaz, Bernard; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that people readily pay more attention to negative than to positive and/or neutral stimuli. However, evidence from recent studies indicated that such an attention bias to negative information is not obligatory but sensitive to various factors. Two experiments using intergroup evaluative tasks (Study 1: a gender-related groups evaluative task and Study 2: a minimal-related groups evaluative task) was conducted to determine whether motivation to strive for a positive social identity – a part of one’s self-concept – drives attention toward affective stimuli. Using the P1 component of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as a neural index of attention, we confirmed that attention bias toward negative stimuli is not mandatory but it can depend on a motivational focus on affective outcomes. Results showed that social identity-based motivation is likely to bias attention toward affectively incongruent information. Thereby, early onset processes – reflected by the P1 component – appeared susceptible to top-down attentional influences induced by the individual’s motivation to strive for a positive social identity. PMID:24693339

  1. Trial-to-Trial Modulations of the Simon Effect in Conditions of Attentional Limitations : Evidence from Dual Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska; Kunde, Wilfried; Kiesel, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Interference effects are reduced after trials including response conflict. This sequential modulation has often been attributed to a top-down mediated adaptive control mechanism and/or to feature repetition mechanisms. In the present study we tested whether mechanisms responsible for such sequential modulations are subject to attentional…

  2. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory

  3. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  4. Modulation in the mirror neuron system when action prediction is not satisfied.

    PubMed

    Plata Bello, Julio; Modroño, Cristián; Marcano, Francisco; González-Mora, José Luis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to understand competitive games is closely connected to the mirror neuron system (MNS). This network is activated not only when an action is performed, but also when it is observed. Apart from allowing the understanding of actions performed by others, the MNS has been implicated in predicting subsequent actions. However, the results concerning the modulation of this network by the final outcome of these predictions are contradictory. These contradictions may be related to the use of complex experimental conditions. The aim of this research is to identify changes in the activity of the MNS when the predictions are or are not satisfied in a simple intransitive action-based game. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study was conducted. It consisted of the observation of videos with two actors playing the well-known rock-paper-scissors game. The participants were asked to predict the response of the second actor when the first actor performed one of the three possible actions. In some videos (congruents) the prediction was satisfied, but in the rest of the videos (incongruents) the prediction was not satisfied. When the result was shown, higher activity in the MNS was observed in the congruent videos than in the incongruent ones. Therefore, the observation of a simple manual game leads to a significant activation of the MNS, and this activity seems to be modulated by the final outcome of a prediction, and when predictions are satisfied the activity is higher. PMID:25722245

  5. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy. PMID:26916510

  6. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: Measurements and energy prediction improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Arnesano, A.; Vergallo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m2. About 37 000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m2 and from -1 to 40 W/m2 from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  7. Broad Autism Phenotype in Typically Developing Children Predicts Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Meghan R.; Serlin, Gayle C.; Siller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examined visual attention allocation during a set of social videos that are intended to elicit the coordination of attention with another person, compared to a control condition. Deficits in joint attention are a characteristic of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included a diverse sample of 50 typically…

  8. Deficits in Attention and Visual Processing but not Global Cognition Predict Simulated Driving Errors in Drivers Diagnosed With Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamin, Stephanie; Stinchcombe, Arne; Gagnon, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    This study sought to predict driving performance of drivers with Alzheimer's disease (AD) using measures of attention, visual processing, and global cognition. Simulated driving performance of individuals with mild AD (n = 20) was contrasted with performance of a group of healthy controls (n = 21). Performance on measures of global cognitive function and specific tests of attention and visual processing were examined in relation to simulated driving performance. Strong associations were observed between measures of attention, notably the Test of Everyday Attention (sustained attention; r = -.651, P = .002) and the Useful Field of View (r = .563, P = .010), and driving performance among drivers with mild AD. The Visual Object and Space Perception Test-object was significantly correlated with the occurrence of crashes (r = .652, P = .002). Tests of global cognition did not correlate with simulated driving outcomes. The results suggest that professionals exercise caution when extrapolating driving performance based on global cognitive indicators. PMID:26655744

  9. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  10. Dopamine and serotonin genetic risk scores predicting substance and nicotine use in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Groenman, Annabeth P; Greven, Corina U; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Schellekens, Arnt; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Rommelse, Nanda; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Luman, Marjolein; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of developing substance use disorders (SUDs) and nicotine dependence. The co-occurrence of ADHD and SUDs/nicotine dependence may in part be mediated by shared genetic liability. Several neurobiological pathways have been implicated in both ADHD and SUDs, including dopamine and serotonin pathways. We hypothesized that variations in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission genes were involved in the genetic liability to develop SUDs/nicotine dependence in ADHD. The current study included participants with ADHD (n = 280) who were originally part of the Dutch International Multicenter ADHD Genetics study. Participants were aged 5-15 years and attending outpatient clinics at enrollment in the study. Diagnoses of ADHD, SUDs, nicotine dependence, age of first nicotine and substance use, and alcohol use severity were based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Genetic risk scores were created for both serotonergic and dopaminergic risk genes previously shown to be associated with ADHD and SUDs and/or nicotine dependence. The serotonin genetic risk score significantly predicted alcohol use severity. No significant serotonin × dopamine risk score or effect of stimulant medication was found. The current study adds to the literature by providing insight into genetic underpinnings of the co-morbidity of ADHD and SUDs. While the focus of the literature so far has been mostly on dopamine, our study suggests that serotonin may also play a role in the relationship between these disorders. PMID:25752199

  11. Attention-Dependent Modulation of Cortical Taste Circuits Revealed by Granger Causality with Signal-Dependent Noise

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qiang; Ge, Tian; Grabenhorst, Fabian; Feng, Jianfeng; Rolls, Edmund T.

    2013-01-01

    We show, for the first time, that in cortical areas, for example the insular, orbitofrontal, and lateral prefrontal cortex, there is signal-dependent noise in the fMRI blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) time series, with the variance of the noise increasing approximately linearly with the square of the signal. Classical Granger causal models are based on autoregressive models with time invariant covariance structure, and thus do not take this signal-dependent noise into account. To address this limitation, here we describe a Granger causal model with signal-dependent noise, and a novel, likelihood ratio test for causal inferences. We apply this approach to the data from an fMRI study to investigate the source of the top-down attentional control of taste intensity and taste pleasantness processing. The Granger causality with signal-dependent noise analysis reveals effects not identified by classical Granger causal analysis. In particular, there is a top-down effect from the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex to the insular taste cortex during attention to intensity but not to pleasantness, and there is a top-down effect from the anterior and posterior lateral prefrontal cortex to the orbitofrontal cortex during attention to pleasantness but not to intensity. In addition, there is stronger forward effective connectivity from the insular taste cortex to the orbitofrontal cortex during attention to pleasantness than during attention to intensity. These findings indicate the importance of explicitly modeling signal-dependent noise in functional neuroimaging, and reveal some of the processes involved in a biased activation theory of selective attention. PMID:24204221

  12. Top-down modulation in human visual cortex predicts the stability of a perceptual illusion.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Dijk, Bob W; Lamme, Victor A F; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-02-15

    Conscious perception sometimes fluctuates strongly, even when the sensory input is constant. For example, in motion-induced blindness (MIB), a salient visual target surrounded by a moving pattern suddenly disappears from perception, only to reappear after some variable time. Whereas such changes of perception result from fluctuations of neural activity, mounting evidence suggests that the perceptual changes, in turn, may also cause modulations of activity in several brain areas, including visual cortex. In this study, we asked whether these latter modulations might affect the subsequent dynamics of perception. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure modulations in cortical population activity during MIB. We observed a transient, retinotopically widespread modulation of beta (12-30 Hz)-frequency power over visual cortex that was closely linked to the time of subjects' behavioral report of the target disappearance. This beta modulation was a top-down signal, decoupled from both the physical stimulus properties and the motor response but contingent on the behavioral relevance of the perceptual change. Critically, the modulation amplitude predicted the duration of the subsequent target disappearance. We propose that the transformation of the perceptual change into a report triggers a top-down mechanism that stabilizes the newly selected perceptual interpretation. PMID:25411458

  13. Top-down modulation in human visual cortex predicts the stability of a perceptual illusion

    PubMed Central

    Meindertsma, Thomas; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Dijk, Bob W.; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Donner, Tobias H.

    2014-01-01

    Conscious perception sometimes fluctuates strongly, even when the sensory input is constant. For example, in motion-induced blindness (MIB), a salient visual target surrounded by a moving pattern suddenly disappears from perception, only to reappear after some variable time. Whereas such changes of perception result from fluctuations of neural activity, mounting evidence suggests that the perceptual changes, in turn, may also cause modulations of activity in several brain areas, including visual cortex. In this study, we asked whether these latter modulations might affect the subsequent dynamics of perception. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure modulations in cortical population activity during MIB. We observed a transient, retinotopically widespread modulation of beta (12–30 Hz)-frequency power over visual cortex that was closely linked to the time of subjects' behavioral report of the target disappearance. This beta modulation was a top-down signal, decoupled from both the physical stimulus properties and the motor response but contingent on the behavioral relevance of the perceptual change. Critically, the modulation amplitude predicted the duration of the subsequent target disappearance. We propose that the transformation of the perceptual change into a report triggers a top-down mechanism that stabilizes the newly selected perceptual interpretation. PMID:25411458

  14. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and the pesticide chlorpyrifos modulate attention, motivation and impulsivity in female mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Reverte, Ingrid; Basaure, Pia; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate pesticides - and chlorpyrifos (CPF) in particular - contribute to a wide range of neurobehavioural disorders. Most experimental research focuses on learning and memory processes, while other behaviours remain understudied. The isoforms of the human apolipoprotein E (apoE) confer different cognitive skills on their carriers, but data on this topic are still limited. The current study was performed to assess whether the APOE genotypic variability differently modulates the effects of CPF on attentional performance, inhibitory control and motivation. Human apoE targeted replacement adult female mice (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) were trained to stably perform the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Animals were then subjected to daily dietary CPF (3.75 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. After CPF exposure, we established a 4-week CPF-free period to assess recovery. All individuals acquired the task, apoE2 mice showed enhanced learning, while apoE4 mice displayed increased premature and perseverative responding. This genotype-dependent lack of inhibitory control was reversed by CPF. Overall, the pesticide induced protracted impairments in sustained attention and motivation, and it reduced anticipatory responding. ApoE3 mice exhibited delayed attentional disruptions throughout the wash-out period. Taken together, these findings provide notable evidence on the emergence of CPF-related attentional and motivational deficits. PMID:27106138

  15. The Social Modulation of Pain: Others as Predictive Signals of Salience – a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Charlotte; Springer, Anne; Weinman, John A.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2013-01-01

    Several studies in cognitive neuroscience have investigated the cognitive and affective modulation of pain. By contrast, fewer studies have focused on the social modulation of pain, despite a plethora of relevant clinical findings. Here we present the first review of experimental studies addressing how interpersonal factors, such as the presence, behavior, and spatial proximity of an observer, modulate pain. Based on a systematic literature search, we identified 26 studies on experimentally induced pain that manipulated different interpersonal variables and measured behavioral, physiological, and neural pain-related responses. We observed that the modulation of pain by interpersonal factors depended on (1) the degree to which the social partners were active or were perceived by the participants to possess possibility for action; (2) the degree to which participants could perceive the specific intentions of the social partners; (3) the type of pre-existing relationship between the social partner and the person in pain, and lastly, (4) individual differences in relating to others and coping styles. Based on these findings, we propose that the modulation of pain by social factors can be fruitfully understood in relation to a recent predictive coding model, the free energy framework, particularly as applied to interoception and social cognition. Specifically, we argue that interpersonal interactions during pain may function as social, predictive signals of contextual threat or safety and as such influence the salience of noxious stimuli. The perception of such interpersonal interactions may in turn depend on (a) prior beliefs about interpersonal relating and (b) the certainty or precision by which an interpersonal interaction may predict environmental threat or safety. PMID:23888136

  16. Serotoninergic and dopaminergic modulation of cortico-striatal circuit in executive and attention deficits induced by NMDA receptor hypofunction in the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    PubMed Central

    Carli, Mirjana; Invernizzi, Roberto W.

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions are an emerging propriety of neuronal processing in circuits encompassing frontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical brain regions such as basal ganglia and thalamus. Glutamate serves as the major neurotrasmitter in these circuits where glutamate receptors of NMDA type play key role. Serotonin and dopamine afferents are in position to modulate intrinsic glutamate neurotransmission along these circuits and in turn to optimize circuit performance for specific aspects of executive control over behavior. In this review, we focus on the 5-choice serial reaction time task which is able to provide various measures of attention and executive control over performance in rodents and the ability of prefrontocortical and striatal serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C as well as dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors to modulate different aspects of executive and attention disturbances induced by NMDA receptor hypofunction in the prefrontal cortex. These behavioral studies are integrated with findings from microdialysis studies. These studies illustrate the control of attention selectivity by serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and dopamine D1- but not D2-like receptors and a distinct contribution of these cortical and striatal serotonin and dopamine receptors to the control of different aspects of executive control over performance such as impulsivity and compulsivity. An association between NMDA antagonist-induced increase in glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex and attention is suggested. Collectively, this review highlights the functional interaction of serotonin and dopamine with NMDA dependent glutamate neurotransmission in the cortico-striatal circuitry for specific cognitive demands and may shed some light on how dysregulation of neuronal processing in these circuits may be implicated in specific neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24966814

  17. Attentional spreading in object-based attention.

    PubMed

    Richard, Ashleigh M; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vecera, Shaun P

    2008-08-01

    The authors investigated 2 effects of object-based attention: the spread of attention within an attended object and the prioritization of search across possible target locations within an attended object. Participants performed a flanker task in which the location of the task-relevant target was fixed and known to participants. A spreading attention account predicts that object-based attention will arise from the spread of attention through an attended object. A prioritization account predicts that there will be a small, if any, object-based effect because the location of the target is known in advance and objects are not required to prioritize the deployment of attentional search. The results suggested that object-based attention operates via the spread of attention within an object. PMID:18665730

  18. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. Methods We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiotherapy at the West China Hospital from October 2010 to November 2012 to identify any correlation between the clinical or dosimetric parameters and acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) or severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP) by t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 68 patients, 33 patients (48.5%) developed ARP, 13 of which (19.1%) developed SARP. Of these 33 patients, 8 (11.8%), 12 (17.6%), 11 (16.2%), and 2 (2.9%) patients were grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 ARP, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lung infection during radiotherapy, use of VMAT, mean lung dose (MLD), and dosimetric parameters (e.g. V20, V30) are significantly correlated with RP. Multivariate analysis found that lung infection during radiotherapy, MLD ≥ 12 Gy, and V30 ≥ 13% are significantly correlated with an increased risk of RP. Conclusion Lung infection during radiotherapy and low radiation dose volume distribution were predictive factors associated with RP and should be accounted for during radiation planning. PMID:26273335

  19. Stimulant treatment history predicts frontal-striatal structural connectivity in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schweren, L J S; Hartman, C A; Zwiers, M P; Heslenfeld, D J; Franke, B; Oosterlaan, J; Buitelaar, J K; Hoekstra, P J

    2016-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has revealed white matter abnormalities in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulant treatment may affect such abnormalities. The current study investigated associations between long-term stimulant treatment and white matter integrity within the frontal-striatal and mesolimbic pathways, in a large sample of children, adolescents and young adults with ADHD. Participants with ADHD (N=172; mean age 17, range 9-26) underwent diffusion-weighted MRI scanning, along with an age- and gendermatched group of 96 control participants. Five study-specific white matter tract masks (orbitofrontal-striatal, orbitofrontal-amygdalar, amygdalar-striatal, dorsolateral-prefrontal-striatal and medialprefrontal- striatal) were created. First we analyzed case-control differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within each tract. Second, FA and MD in each tract was predicted from cumulative stimulant intake within the ADHD group. After correction for multiple testing, participants with ADHD showed reduced FA in the orbitofrontal-striatal pathway (p=0.010, effect size=0.269). Within the ADHD group, higher cumulative stimulant intake was associated with lower MD in the same pathway (p=0.011, effect size=-0.164), but not with FA. The association between stimulant treatment and orbitofrontal-striatal MD was of modest effect size. It fell short of significance after adding ADHD severity or ADHD type to the model (p=0.036 and p=0.094, respectively), while the effect size changed little. Our findings are compatible with stimulant treatment enhancing orbitofrontal-striatal white matter connectivity, and emphasize the importance of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections in ADHD. Longitudinal studies including a drug-naïve baseline assessment are needed to distinguish between-subject variability in ADHD severity from treatment effects. PMID:26899587

  20. Prediction strength modulates responses in human area CA1 to sequence violations

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Paul A.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging human, animal, and computational evidence suggest that, within the hippocampus, stored memories are compared with current sensory input to compute novelty, i.e., detecting when inputs deviate from expectations. Hippocampal subfield CA1 is thought to detect mismatches between past and present, and detected novelty is thought to modulate encoding processes, providing a mechanism for gating the entry of information into memory. Using high-resolution functional MRI, we examined human hippocampal subfield and medial temporal lobe cortical activation during prediction violations within a sequence of events unfolding over time. Subjects encountered sequences of four visual stimuli that were then reencountered in the same temporal order (Repeat) or a rearranged order (Violation). Prediction strength was manipulated by varying whether the sequence was initially presented once (Weak) or thrice (Strong) prior to the critical Repeat or Violation sequence. Analyses of blood oxygen level-dependent signals revealed that task-responsive voxels in anatomically defined CA1, CA23/dentate gyrus, and perirhinal cortex were more active when expectations were violated than when confirmed. Additionally, stronger prediction violations elicited greater activity than weaker violations in CA1, and CA1 contained the greatest proportion of voxels displaying this prediction violation pattern relative to other medial temporal lobe regions. Finally, a memory test with a separate group of subjects showed that subsequent recognition memory was superior for items that had appeared in prediction violation trials than in prediction confirmation trials. These findings indicate that CA1 responds to temporal order prediction violations, and that this response is modulated by prediction strength. PMID:26063773

  1. Prediction of Fault-Prone Software Modules Using a Generic Text Discriminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Osamu; Kikuno, Tohru

    This paper describes a novel approach for detecting fault-prone modules using a spam filtering technique. Fault-prone module detection in source code is important for the assurance of software quality. Most previous fault-prone detection approaches have been based on using software metrics. Such approaches, however, have difficulties in collecting the metrics and constructing mathematical models based on the metrics. Because of the increase in the need for spam e-mail detection, the spam filtering technique has progressed as a convenient and effective technique for text mining. In our approach, fault-prone modules are detected in such a way that the source code modules are considered text files and are applied to the seam filter directly. To show the applicability of our approach, we conducted experimental applications using source code repositories of Java based open source developments. The result of experiments shows that our approach can correctly predict 78% of actual fault-prone modules as fault-prone.

  2. An action-incongruent secondary task modulates prediction accuracy in experienced performers: evidence for motor simulation.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Desmond; Lohse, Keith R; Hodges, Nicola J

    2016-07-01

    We provide behavioral evidence that the human motor system is involved in the perceptual decision processes of skilled performers, directly linking prediction accuracy to the (in)ability of the motor system to activate in a response-specific way. Experienced and non-experienced dart players were asked to predict, from temporally occluded video sequences, the landing position of a dart thrown previously by themselves (self) or another (other). This prediction task was performed while additionally performing (a) an action-incongruent secondary motor task (right arm force production), (b) a congruent secondary motor task (mimicking) or (c) an attention-matched task (tone-monitoring). Non-experienced dart players were not affected by any of the secondary task manipulations, relative to control conditions, yet prediction accuracy decreased for the experienced players when additionally performing the force-production, motor task. This interference effect was present for 'self' as well as 'other' decisions, reducing the accuracy of experienced participants to a novice level. The mimicking (congruent) secondary task condition did not interfere with (or facilitate) prediction accuracy for either group. We conclude that visual-motor experience moderates the process of decision making, such that a seemingly visual-cognitive prediction task relies on activation of the motor system for experienced performers. This fits with a motor simulation account of action prediction in sports and other tasks, and alerts to the specificity of these simulative processes. PMID:26021748

  3. Theory of Planned Behavior Predicts Graduation Intentions of Canadian and Israeli Postsecondary Students with and without Learning Disabilities/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichten, Catherine S.; Heiman, Tali; Jorgensen, Mary; Nguyen, Mai Nhu; Havel, Alice; King, Laura; Budd, Jillian; Amsel, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    We tested the ability of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to predict intention to graduate among Canadian and Israeli students with and without a learning disability/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD). Results based on 1486 postsecondary students show that the model's predictors (i.e., attitude, subjective norms,…

  4. To What Extent Do Joint Attention, Imitation, and Object Play Behaviors in Infancy Predict Later Communication and Intellectual Functioning in ASD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9-12 and/or 15-18 months. A quantitative…

  5. Characteristics of Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties Predicting Arithmetic Word Problem Solving Performance: The Role of Attention, Behavior, and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Corroy, Kelly Cozine; Dupuis, Danielle N.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to evaluate differences in arithmetic word problem solving between high and low at-risk students for mathematics difficulties (MD) and (b) to assess the influence of attention, behavior, reading, and socio-economic status (SES) in predicting the word problem solving performance of third-grade students with MD.…

  6. Prediction in the service of comprehension: modulated early brain responses to omitted speech segments.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Scharinger, Mathias; Strauß, Antje; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    Speech signals are often compromised by disruptions originating from external (e.g., masking noise) or internal (e.g., inaccurate articulation) sources. Speech comprehension thus entails detecting and replacing missing information based on predictive and restorative neural mechanisms. The present study targets predictive mechanisms by investigating the influence of a speech segment's predictability on early, modality-specific electrophysiological responses to this segment's omission. Predictability was manipulated in simple physical terms in a single-word framework (Experiment 1) or in more complex semantic terms in a sentence framework (Experiment 2). In both experiments, final consonants of the German words Lachs ([laks], salmon) or Latz ([lats], bib) were occasionally omitted, resulting in the syllable La ([la], no semantic meaning), while brain responses were measured with multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG). In both experiments, the occasional presentation of the fragment La elicited a larger omission response when the final speech segment had been predictable. The omission response occurred ∼125-165 msec after the expected onset of the final segment and showed characteristics of the omission mismatch negativity (MMN), with generators in auditory cortical areas. Suggestive of a general auditory predictive mechanism at work, this main observation was robust against varying source of predictive information or attentional allocation, differing between the two experiments. Source localization further suggested the omission response enhancement by predictability to emerge from left superior temporal gyrus and left angular gyrus in both experiments, with additional experiment-specific contributions. These results are consistent with the existence of predictive coding mechanisms in the central auditory system, and suggestive of the general predictive properties of the auditory system to support spoken word recognition. PMID:24561233

  7. The contribution of surprise to the prediction based modulation of fMRI responses.

    PubMed

    Amado, Catarina; Hermann, Petra; Kovács, Petra; Grotheer, Mareike; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán; Kovács, Gyula

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that correct stimulus predictions reduce the neural responses when compared to surprising events (Egner et al., 2010). Further, it has been shown that such fulfilled expectations enhance the magnitude of repetition suppression (RS, i.e. a decreased neuronal response after the repetition of a given stimulus) in face selective visual cortex as well (Summerfield et al., 2008). Current MEG and neuroimaging studies suggest that the underlying mechanisms of expectation effects are independent from these of RS (Grotheer and Kovács, 2015; Todorovic and Lange, 2012). However, it is not clear as of today how perceptual expectations modulate the neural responses: is the difference between correctly predicted and surprising stimuli due to a genuine response reduction for correctly predicted stimuli or is it due to an increased response for surprising stimuli? Therefore, here we used a modified version of the paradigm of Grotheer and Kovács (2015) to induce predictions independently from repetition probability by presenting pairs of faces (female, male or infant) that were either repeated or alternating. Orthogonally to this, predictions were manipulated by the gender of the first face within each pair so that it signaled high, low or equal probability of repetitions. An unpredicted, neutral condition with equal probabilities for alternating and repeated trials was used to identify the role of surprising and enhancing modulations. Similarly, to Grotheer and Kovács (2015), we found significant RS and significant expectation effect in the FFA. Importantly, we observed larger response for surprising events in comparison to the neutral and correctly predicted conditions for alternating trials. Altogether, these results emphasize the role of surprise in prediction effects. PMID:26873275

  8. Attention Stabilizes Representations in the Human Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Aly, Mariam; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-02-01

    Attention and memory are intricately linked, but how attention modulates brain areas that subserve memory, such as the hippocampus, is unknown. We hypothesized that attention may stabilize patterns of activity in human hippocampus, resulting in distinct but reliable activity patterns for different attentional states. To test this prediction, we utilized high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel "art gallery" task. On each trial, participants viewed a room containing a painting, and searched a stream of rooms for a painting from the same artist (art state) or a room with the same layout (room state). Bottom-up stimulation was the same in both tasks, enabling the isolation of neural effects related to top-down attention. Multivariate analyses revealed greater pattern similarity in all hippocampal subfields for trials from the same, compared with different, attentional state. This stability was greater for the room than art state, was unrelated to univariate activity, and, in CA2/CA3/DG, was correlated with behavior. Attention therefore induces representational stability in the human hippocampus, resulting in distinct activity patterns for different attentional states. Modulation of hippocampal representational stability highlights the far-reaching influence of attention outside of sensory systems. PMID:25766839

  9. Modulating rest-break length induces differential recruitment of automatic and controlled attentional processes upon task reengagement.

    PubMed

    Lim, Julian; Teng, James; Wong, Kian Foong; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-07-01

    Rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce on-the-job fatigue, both physical and mental. However, this practice makes the assumption that recovery from fatigue, as measured by the reversal of performance declines, is the sole effect of taking a break on behavior. Here, through administering rest breaks of differing lengths in between blocks of a mentally demanding symbol decoding task, we show that this assumption may not be strictly true. First, we replicate previous work by showing that taking a longer break leads to two correlated effects: greater immediate rebound in performance, and greater subsequent time-on-task decline. Using fMRI, we reveal that time-on-task in this paradigm is associated with increasing recruitment of fronto-parietal areas associated with top-down control, and decreasing deactivation in the default-mode network. Finally, by analyzing individual differences, we reveal a potential neural basis for our behavioral observation: greater recovery following long breaks is associated with greater activity in the putamen, an area associated with the automatic generation of motor responses, followed by greater activity in left middle frontal gyrus by the end of those task periods. Taken together, this suggests a shift in the implicit engagement of automatic and controlled attentional processing following longer breaks. This shift may be undesirable or detrimental in real-world situations where maintaining a stable level of attention over time is necessary. PMID:27039697

  10. Individual differences in visual field shape modulate the effects of attention on the lower visual field advantage in crowding

    PubMed Central

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C.; Silver, Michael A.; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been reported that visual crowding of a target by flankers is stronger in the upper visual field than in the lower, and this finding has been attributed to greater attentional resolution in the lower hemifield (He, Cavanagh, & Intriligator, 1996). Here we show that the upper/lower asymmetry in visual crowding can be explained by natural variations in the borders of each individual's visual field. Specifically, asymmetry in crowding along the vertical meridian can be almost entirely accounted for by replacing the conventional definition of visual field location, in units of degrees of visual angle, with a definition based on the ratio of the extents of an individual's upper and lower visual field. We also show that the upper/lower crowding asymmetry is eliminated when stimulus eccentricity is expressed in units of percentage of visual field extent but is present when the conventional measure of visual angle is used. We further demonstrate that the relationship between visual field extent and perceptual asymmetry is most evident when participants are able to focus their attention on the target location. These results reveal important influences of visual field boundaries on visual perception, even for visual field locations far from those boundaries. PMID:25761337

  11. Nicotinergic Modulation of Attention-Related Neural Activity Differentiates Polymorphisms of DRD2 and CHRNA4 Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Breckel, Thomas P. K.; Giessing, Carsten; Gieseler, Anja; Reuter, Martin; Thiel, Christiane M.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive and neuronal effects of nicotine show high interindividual variability. Recent findings indicate that genetic variations that affect the cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter system impact performance in cognitive tasks and effects of nicotine. The current pharmacogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed to investigate epistasis effects of CHRNA4/DRD2 variations on behavioural and neural correlates of visuospatial attention after nicotine challenge using a data driven partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) approach. Fifty young healthy non-smokers were genotyped for CHRNA4 (rs1044396) and DRD2 (rs6277). They received either 7 mg transdermal nicotine or a matched placebo in a double blind within subject design prior to performing a cued target detection task with valid and invalid trials. On behavioural level, the strongest benefits of nicotine in invalid trials were observed in participants carrying both, the DRD2 T- and CHRNA4 C+ variant. Neurally, we were able to demonstrate that different DRD2/CHRNA4 groups can be decoded from the pattern of brain activity in invalid trials under nicotine. Neural substrates of interindividual variability were found in a network of attention-related brain regions comprising the pulvinar, the striatum, the middle and superior frontal gyri, the insula, the left precuneus, and the right middle temporal gyrus. Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in the CHRNA4 and DRD2 genes are a relevant source of individual variability in pharmacological studies with nicotine. PMID:26079805

  12. Circuits for multisensory integration and attentional modulation through the prefrontal cortex and the thalamic reticular nucleus in primates

    PubMed Central

    Zikopoulos, Basilis; Barbas, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Converging evidence from anatomic and physiologic studies suggests that the interaction of high-order association cortices with the thalamus is necessary to focus attention on a task in a complex environment with multiple distractions. Interposed between the thalamus and cortex, the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus intercepts and regulates communication between the two structures. Recent findings demonstrate that a unique circuitry links the prefrontal cortex with the reticular nucleus and may underlie the process of selective attention to enhance salient stimuli and suppress irrelevant stimuli in behavior. Unlike other cortices, some prefrontal areas issue widespread projections to the reticular nucleus, extending beyond the frontal sector to the sensory sectors of the nucleus and may influence the flow of sensory information from the thalamus to the cortex. Unlike other thalamic nuclei, the mediodorsal nucleus, which is the principal thalamic nucleus for the prefrontal cortex, has similarly widespread connections with the reticular nucleus. Unlike sensory association cortices, some terminations from prefrontal areas to the reticular nucleus are large, suggesting efficient transfer of information. We propose a model showing that the specialized features of prefrontal pathways in the reticular nucleus may allow selection of relevant information and override distractors, in processes that are deranged in schizophrenia. PMID:18330211

  13. Unsigned value prediction-error modulates the motor system in absence of choice.

    PubMed

    Vassena, Eliana; Cobbaert, Stephanie; Andres, Michael; Fias, Wim; Verguts, Tom

    2015-11-15

    Human actions are driven by the pursuit of goals, especially when achieving these goals entails a reward. Accordingly, recent work showed that anticipating a reward in a motor task influences the motor system, boosting motor excitability and increasing overall readiness. Attaining a reward typically requires some mental or physical effort. Recent neuroimaging evidence suggested that both reward expectation and effort requirements are encoded by a partially overlapping brain network. Moreover, reward and effort information are combined in an integrative value signal. However, whether and how mental effort is integrated with reward at the motor level during task preparation remains unclear. To address these issues, we implemented a mental effort task where reward expectation and effort requirements were manipulated. During task preparation, TMS was delivered on the motor cortex and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded on the right hand muscles to probe motor excitability. The results showed an interaction of effort and reward in modulating the motor system, reflecting an unsigned value prediction-error signal. Crucially, this was observed in the motor system in absence of a value-based decision or value-driven action selection. This suggests a high-level cognitive factor such as unsigned value prediction-error can modulate the motor system. Interestingly, effort-related motor excitability was also modulated by individual differences in tendency to engage in (and enjoy) mental effort, as measured by the Need for Cognition questionnaire, underlining a role of subjective effort experience in value-driven preparation for action. PMID:26254588

  14. The M1 Muscarinic Positive Allosteric Modulator PQCA Improves Performance on Translatable Tests of Memory and Attention in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lange, Henry S; Cannon, Christopher E; Drott, Jason T; Kuduk, Scott D; Uslaner, Jason M

    2015-12-01

    Improved treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) is a significant unmet medical need that is becoming even more critical given the rise in the number of patients and the substantial economic burden. The current standards of care, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), are hindered by gastrointestinal side effects owing to their nonselective activation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Recently, the highly selective M1 positive allosteric modulator PQCA (1-((4-cyano-4-(pyridine-2-yl)piperidin-1-yl)methyl-4-oxo-4 H-quinolizine-3-carboxylic acid) has been demonstrated to improve cognition in a variety of rodent and nonhuman primate cognition models without producing significant gastrointestinal side effects. Here we describe the effect of PQCA and the AChEI donepezil on two clinically relevant and highly translatable touchscreen cognition tasks in nonhuman primates: paired-associates learning (PAL) and the continuous-performance task (CPT). Blockade of muscarinic signaling by scopolamine produced significant impairments in both PAL and CPT. PQCA and donepezil attenuated the scopolamine deficits in both tasks, and the action of these two compounds was similar in magnitude. In addition, the combination of subeffective doses of PQCA and donepezil enhanced PAL performance. These results further suggest that M1-positive allosteric modulators, either as monotherapy or as an add-on to current standards of care, have potential to reduce the cognitive deficits associated with AD. PMID:26446308

  15. A predictive analytic model for the solar modulation of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2016-02-01

    An important factor limiting our ability to understand the production and propagation of cosmic rays pertains to the effects of heliospheric forces, commonly known as solar modulation. The solar wind is capable of generating time- and charge-dependent effects on the spectrum and intensity of low-energy (≲10 GeV ) cosmic rays reaching Earth. Previous analytic treatments of solar modulation have utilized the force-field approximation, in which a simple potential is adopted whose amplitude is selected to best fit the cosmic-ray data taken over a given period of time. Making use of recently available cosmic-ray data from the Voyager 1 spacecraft, along with measurements of the heliospheric magnetic field and solar wind, we construct a time-, charge- and rigidity-dependent model of solar modulation that can be directly compared to data from a variety of cosmic-ray experiments. We provide a simple analytic formula that can be easily utilized in a variety of applications, allowing us to better predict the effects of solar modulation and reduce the number of free parameters involved in cosmic-ray propagation models.

  16. A predictive analytic model for the solar modulation of cosmic rays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2016-02-23

    An important factor limiting our ability to understand the production and propagation of cosmic rays pertains to the effects of heliospheric forces, commonly known as solar modulation. The solar wind is capable of generating time- and charge-dependent effects on the spectrum and intensity of low-energy (≲10 GeV) cosmic rays reaching Earth. Previous analytic treatments of solar modulation have utilized the force-field approximation, in which a simple potential is adopted whose amplitude is selected to best fit the cosmic-ray data taken over a given period of time. Making use of recently available cosmic-ray data from the Voyager 1 spacecraft, along withmore » measurements of the heliospheric magnetic field and solar wind, we construct a time-, charge- and rigidity-dependent model of solar modulation that can be directly compared to data from a variety of cosmic-ray experiments. Here, we provide a simple analytic formula that can be easily utilized in a variety of applications, allowing us to better predict the effects of solar modulation and reduce the number of free parameters involved in cosmic-ray propagation models.« less

  17. Validation of Skeletal Muscle cis-Regulatory Module Predictions Reveals Nucleotide Composition Bias in Functional Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Andrew T.; Chou, Alice Yi; Arenillas, David J.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide scan for muscle-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) using three computational prediction programs. Based on the predictions, 339 candidate CRMs were tested in cell culture with NIH3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts for capacity to direct selective reporter gene expression to differentiated C2C12 myotubes. A subset of 19 CRMs validated as functional in the assay. The rate of predictive success reveals striking limitations of computational regulatory sequence analysis methods for CRM discovery. Motif-based methods performed no better than predictions based only on sequence conservation. Analysis of the properties of the functional sequences relative to inactive sequences identifies nucleotide sequence composition can be an important characteristic to incorporate in future methods for improved predictive specificity. Muscle-related TFBSs predicted within the functional sequences display greater sequence conservation than non-TFBS flanking regions. Comparison with recent MyoD and histone modification ChIP-Seq data supports the validity of the functional regions. PMID:22144875

  18. Attentional processes in low-socioeconomic status bilingual children: are they modulated by the amount of bilingual experience?

    PubMed

    Ladas, Aristea I; Carroll, Daniel J; Vivas, Ana B

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that bilingual children are more proficient in resolving cognitive conflict than monolinguals. However, the replicability of such findings has been questioned, with poor control of participants' socioeconomic status (SES) as a possible confounding factor. Two experiments are reported here, in which the main attentional functions and pragmatic ability of 54 bilingual and 56 monolingual low-SES children were assessed (Experiment 1: 6- to 12-year-olds; Experiment 2: 6- to 8-year-olds). A language-switching task was also employed, to measure bilingual proficiency. Overall, the monolingual and bilingual groups did not differ significantly in any of the tasks employed, although the ability to resolve conflict was related to children's level of bilingual experience. PMID:25571905

  19. Prediction of reliability on thermoelectric module through accelerated life test and Physics-of-failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2011-09-01

    Thermoelectric cooling module (TEM) which is electric device has a mechanical stress because of temperature gradient in itself. It means that structure of TEM is vulnerable in an aspect of reliability but research on reliability of TEM was not performed a lot. Recently, the more the utilization of thermoelectric cooling devices grows, the more the needs for life prediction and improvement are increasing. In this paper, we investigated life distribution, shape parameter of the TEM through accelerated life test (ALT). And we discussed about how to enhance life of TEM through the Physics-of-failure. Experimental results of ALT showed that the thermoelectric cooling module follows the Weibull distribution, shape parameter of which is 3.6. The acceleration model is coffin Coffin-Manson and material constant is 1.8.

  20. Cognitive style modulates conscious but not unconscious thought: Comparing the deliberation-without-attention effect in analytics and wholists.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jifan; Zhou, Caiping; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Meng

    2015-11-01

    Unconscious thought theory (UTT) suggests that conscious thinking is less effective in complex decision-making than unconscious thinking. However, little research has taken individual differences (e.g., cognitive style) into account. Using an adapted UTT paradigm, the present study compared the performances of individuals with a wholist or an analytic cognitive style in both conscious and unconscious thought conditions. After viewing information regarding four hypothetical phones, participants in the conscious thought condition deliberated for three minutes before rating the phones, while participants in the unconscious thought condition were distracted with a 2-back task for three minutes before rating. The results showed that wholists were equally good at differentiating good and bad phones after conscious or unconscious thought, whereas analytics performed well only when thinking unconsciously. The modulation effect of cognitive style appeared only in conscious thought. Implications for UTT and the understanding of cognitive style are discussed. PMID:26069938

  1. The spatial distribution of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Gobell, Joetta L; Tseng, Chia-huei; Sperling, George

    2004-06-01

    We use a novel search task to investigate the spatial distribution of visual attention, developing a general model from the data. Observers distribute attention to locations defined by stripes with a high penalty for attention to intervening areas. Attended areas are defined by a square-wave grating. A target is in one of the even stripes, and ten false targets (identical to the real target) are in the odd stripes; the observer must attend the even stripes and strongly ignore the odd, reporting the location of the target. As the spatial frequency of the grating increases, performance declines. Variations on this task inform a model that incorporates stimulus input, a "low pass" attentional modulation transfer function, and an acuity function to produce a strength map from which the location with the highest strength is selected. A feature-strength map that adds to the attention map enables the model to predict the results of attention-cued conjunction search experiments, and internal noise enables it to predict the outcome of double-pass experiments and of variations in the number of false targets. The model predicted performance on a trial-by-trial basis for three observers, accounting for approximately 70% of the trials. Actual trial-to-trial variation for an observer, using the double-pass method, is about 76%. For any requested distribution of spatial attention, this general model makes a prediction of the actually achieved distribution. PMID:15066391

  2. Predicting the clonogenic survival of A549 cells after modulated x-ray irradiation using the linear quadratic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Regina; Oliver, Lyn; Davey, Ross; Harvie, Rozelle; Baldock, Clive

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present two prediction methods, mean dose and summed dose, for predicting the number of A549 cells that will survive after modulated x-ray irradiation. The prediction methods incorporate the dose profile from the modulated x-ray fluence map applied across the cell sample and the linear quadratic (LQ) model. We investigated the clonogenic survival of A549 cells when irradiated using two different modulated x-ray fluence maps. Differences between the measured and predicted surviving fraction were observed for modulated x-ray irradiation. When the x-ray fluence map produced a steep dose gradient across the sample, fewer cells survived in the unirradiated region than expected. When the x-ray fluence map produced a less steep dose gradient across the sample, more cells survived in the unirradiated region than expected. Regardless of the steepness of the dose gradient, more cells survived in the irradiated region than expected for the reference dose range of 1-10 Gy. The change in the cell survival for the unirradiated regions of the two different dose gradients may be an important factor to consider when predicting the number of cells that will survive at the edge of modulated x-ray fields. This investigation provides an improved method of predicting cell survival for modulated x-ray radiation treatment. It highlights the limitations of the LQ model, particularly in its ability to describe the biological response of cells irradiated under these conditions.

  3. Predictive Power of Attention and Reading Readiness Variables on Auditory Reasoning and Processing Skills of Six-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbay, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present research was to describe the relation of six-year-old children's attention and reading readiness skills (general knowledge, word comprehension, sentences, and matching) with their auditory reasoning and processing skills. This was a quantitative study based on scanning model. Research sampling consisted of 204 kindergarten…

  4. Normal Hearing Ability but Impaired Auditory Selective Attention Associated with Prediction of Response to Donepezil in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Yoshitaka; Meguro, Kenichi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Kato, Yuriko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have a poor response to the voices of caregivers. After administration of donepezil, caregivers often find that patients respond more frequently, whereas they had previously pretended to be “deaf.” We investigated whether auditory selective attention is associated with response to donepezil. Methods. The subjects were40 AD patients, 20 elderly healthy controls (HCs), and 15 young HCs. Pure tone audiometry was conducted and an original Auditory Selective Attention (ASA) test was performed with a MoCA vigilance test. Reassessment of the AD group was performed after donepezil treatment for 3 months. Results. Hearing level of the AD group was the same as that of the elderly HC group. However, ASA test scores decreased in the AD group and were correlated with the vigilance test scores. Donepezil responders (MMSE 3+) also showed improvement on the ASA test. At baseline, the responders had higher vigilance and lower ASA test scores. Conclusion. Contrary to the common view, AD patients had a similar level of hearing ability to healthy elderly. Auditory attention was impaired in AD patients, which suggests that unnecessary sounds should be avoided in nursing homes. Auditory selective attention is associated with response to donepezil in AD. PMID:26161001

  5. Maternal Depression and Early Positive Parenting Predict Future Conduct Problems in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis, Andrea M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Baumann, Barbara L.; Kipp, Heidi; Jones, Heather A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for adverse outcomes such as substance abuse and criminality, particularly if they develop conduct problems. Little is known about early predictors of the developmental course of conduct problems among children with ADHD, however. Parental psychopathology and parenting …

  6. Simple tool for prediction of parotid gland sparing in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gensheimer, Michael F.; Hummel-Kramer, Sharon M.; Cain, David; Quang, Tony S.

    2015-10-01

    Sparing one or both parotid glands is a key goal when planning head and neck cancer radiation treatment. If the planning target volume (PTV) overlaps one or both parotid glands substantially, it may not be possible to achieve adequate gland sparing. This finding results in physicians revising their PTV contours after an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan has been run and reduces workflow efficiency. We devised a simple formula for predicting mean parotid gland dose from the overlap of the parotid gland and isotropically expanded PTV contours. We tested the tool using 44 patients from 2 institutions and found agreement between predicted and actual parotid gland doses (mean absolute error = 5.3 Gy). This simple method could increase treatment planning efficiency by improving the chance that the first plan presented to the physician will have optimal parotid gland sparing.

  7. Analytic IMRT dose calculations utilizing Monte Carlo to predict MLC fluence modulation

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylov, I. B.; Lerma, F. A.; Wu, Y.; Siebers, J. V.

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid dose-computation method is designed which accurately accounts for multileaf collimator (MLC)-induced intensity modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose calculations. The method employs Monte Carlo (MC) modeling to determine the fluence modulation caused by the delivery of dynamic or multisegmental (step-and-shoot) MLC fields, and a conventional dose-computation algorithm to estimate the delivered dose to a phantom or a patient. Thus, it determines the IMRT fluence prediction accuracy achievable by analytic methods in the limit that the analytic method includes all details of the MLC leaf transport and scatter. The hybrid method is validated and benchmarked by comparison with in-phantom film dose measurements, as well as dose calculations from two in-house, and two commercial treatment planning system analytic fluence estimation methods. All computation methods utilize the same dose algorithm to calculate dose to a phantom, varying only in the estimation of the MLC modulation of the incident photon energy fluence. Gamma analysis, with respect to measured two-dimensional (2D) dose planes, is used to benchmark each algorithm’s performance. The analyzed fields include static and dynamic test patterns, as well as fields from ten DMLC IMRT treatment plans (79 fields) and five SMLC treatment plans (29 fields). The test fields (fully closed MLC, picket fence, sliding windows of different size, and leaf-tip profiles) cover the extremes of MLC usage during IMRT, while the patient fields represent realistic clinical conditions. Of the methods tested, the hybrid method most accurately reproduces measurements. For the hybrid method, 79 of 79 DMLC field calculations have γ ≤1 (3% /3 mm) for more than 95% of the points (per field) while for SMLC fields, 27 of 29 pass the same criteria. The analytic energy fluence estimation methods show inferior pass rates, with 76 of 79 DMLC and 24 of 29 SMLC fields having more than 95% of the test points

  8. Identification of cancer cytotoxic modulators of PDE3A by predictive chemogenomics

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Luc; Lewis, Timothy A.; Rees, Matthew G.; Tsherniak, Aviad; Wu, Xiaoyun; Choi, Peter S.; Gechijian, Lara; Hartigan, Christina; Faloon, Patrick W.; Hickey, Mark J.; Tolliday, Nicola; Carr, Steven A.; Clemons, Paul A.; Munoz, Benito; Wagner, Bridget K.; Shamji, Alykhan F.; Koehler, Angela N.; Schenone, Monica; Burgin, Alex B.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Greulich, Heidi; Meyerson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    High cancer death rates indicate the need for new anti-cancer therapeutic agents. Approaches to discover new cancer drugs include target-based drug discovery and phenotypic screening. Here, we identified phosphodiesterase 3A modulators as cell-selective cancer cytotoxic compounds by phenotypic compound library screening and target deconvolution by predictive chemogenomics. We found that sensitivity to 6-(4-(diethylamino)-3-nitrophenyl)-5-methyl-4,5-dihydropyridazin-3(2H)-one, or DNMDP, across 766 cancer cell lines correlates with expression of the phosphodiesterase 3A gene, PDE3A. Like DNMDP, a subset of known PDE3A inhibitors kill selected cancer cells while others do not. Furthermore, PDE3A depletion leads to DNMDP resistance. We demonstrated that DNMDP binding to PDE3A promotes an interaction between PDE3A and Schlafen 12 (SLFN12), suggesting a neomorphic activity. Co-expression of SLFN12 with PDE3A correlates with DNMDP sensitivity, while depletion of SLFN12 results in decreased DNMDP sensitivity. Our results implicate PDE3A modulators as candidate cancer therapeutic agents and demonstrate the power of predictive chemogenomics in small-molecule discovery. PMID:26656089

  9. PETModule: a motif module based approach for enhancer target gene prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changyong; Li, Xiaoman; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The identification of enhancer-target gene (ETG) pairs is vital for the understanding of gene transcriptional regulation. Experimental approaches such as Hi-C have generated valuable resources of ETG pairs. Several computational methods have also been developed to successfully predict ETG interactions. Despite these progresses, high-throughput experimental approaches are still costly and existing computational approaches are still suboptimal and not easy to apply. Here we developed a motif module based approach called PETModule that predicts ETG pairs. Tested on eight human cell types and two mouse cell types, we showed that a large number of our predictions were supported by Hi-C and/or ChIA-PET experiments. Compared with two recently developed approaches for ETG pair prediction, we shown that PETModule had a much better recall, a similar or better F1 score, and a larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The PETModule tool is freely available at http://hulab.ucf.edu/research/projects/PETModule/. PMID:27436110

  10. Transdermal flux predictions for selected selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): comparison with experimental results.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Sevgi; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Masini-Etévé, Valérie; Potts, Russell O; Guy, Richard H

    2013-12-28

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of delivering transdermally a series of highly lipophilic compounds (log P ~4-7), comprising several selective oestrogen receptor modulators and a modified testosterone (danazol). The maximum fluxes of the drugs were predicted theoretically using the modified Potts & Guy algorithm (to determine the permeability coefficient (kp) from water) and the calculated aqueous solubilities. The correction provided by Cleek & Bunge took into account the contribution of the viable epidermal barrier to the skin permeation of highly lipophilic compounds. Experimental measurements of drug fluxes from saturated hydroalcoholic solutions were determined in vitro through excised pig skin. Overall, the predicted fluxes were in good general agreement (within a factor of 10) with the experimental results. Most of the experimental fluxes were greater than those predicted theoretically suggesting that the 70:30 v/v ethanol-water vehicle employed may have had a modest skin penetration enhancement effect. This investigation shows that the transdermal fluxes of highly lipophilic compounds can be reasonably predicted from first principles provided that the viable epidermis, underlying the stratum corneum, is included as a potentially important contributor to the skin's overall barrier function. Furthermore, the absolute values of the measured fluxes, when considered in parallel with previous clinical studies, indicate that it might be feasible to topically deliver a therapeutically useful amount of some of the compounds considered to treat cancerous breast tissue. PMID:24076520

  11. PETModule: a motif module based approach for enhancer target gene prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changyong; Li, Xiaoman; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The identification of enhancer-target gene (ETG) pairs is vital for the understanding of gene transcriptional regulation. Experimental approaches such as Hi-C have generated valuable resources of ETG pairs. Several computational methods have also been developed to successfully predict ETG interactions. Despite these progresses, high-throughput experimental approaches are still costly and existing computational approaches are still suboptimal and not easy to apply. Here we developed a motif module based approach called PETModule that predicts ETG pairs. Tested on eight human cell types and two mouse cell types, we showed that a large number of our predictions were supported by Hi-C and/or ChIA-PET experiments. Compared with two recently developed approaches for ETG pair prediction, we shown that PETModule had a much better recall, a similar or better F1 score, and a larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The PETModule tool is freely available at http://hulab.ucf.edu/research/projects/PETModule/. PMID:27436110

  12. Endocannabinoid-Dependent Modulation of Phasic Dopamine Signaling Encodes External and Internal Reward-Predictive Cues

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Jennifer M.; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays an integral role in incentive motivation and reward seeking and a growing body of evidence identifies signal transduction at cannabinoid receptors as a critical modulator of this system. Indeed, administration of exogenous cannabinoids results in burst firing of DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area and increases extracellular DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Implementation of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) confirms the ability of cannabinoids to augment DA within the NAcc on a subsecond timescale. The use of FSCV along with newly developed highly selective pharmacological compounds advances our understanding of how cannabinoids influence DA transmission and highlights a role for endocannabinoid-modulated subsecond DAergic activation in the incentive motivational properties of not only external, but also internal reward-predictive cues. For example, our laboratory has recently demonstrated that in mice responding under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule for food reinforcement, fluctuations in NAcc DA signal the principal cue predictive of reinforcer availability – time. That is, as the interval progresses, NAcc DA levels decline leading to accelerated food seeking and the resulting characteristic FI scallop pattern of responding. Importantly, administration of WIN 55,212-2, a synthetic cannabinoid agonist, or JZL184, an indirect cannabinoid agonist, increases DA levels during the interval and disrupts this pattern of responding. Along with a wealth of other reports, these results illustrate the role of cannabinoid receptor activation in the regulation of DA transmission and the control of temporally guided reward seeking. The current review will explore the striatal beat frequency model of interval timing as it pertains to cannabinoid signaling and propose a neurocircuitry through which this system modulates interoceptive time cues. PMID:25225488

  13. Predicting deliverability of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans using aperture complexity analysis.

    PubMed

    Younge, Kelly C; Roberts, Don; Janes, Lindsay A; Anderson, Carlos; Moran, Jean M; Matuszak, Martha M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of an aperture complexity metric for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans to predict plan delivery accuracy. We developed a complexity analysis tool as a plug-in script to Varian's Eclipse treatment planning system. This script reports the modulation of plans, arcs, and individual control points for VMAT plans using a previously developed complexity metric. The calculated complexities are compared to that of 649 VMAT plans previously treated at our institution from 2013 to mid-2015. We used the VMAT quality assurance (QA) results from the 649 treated plans, plus 62 plans that failed pretreatment QA, to validate the ability of the complexity metric to predict plan deliverability. We used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine an appropriate complexity threshold value above which a plan should be considered for reoptimization before it moves further through our planning workflow. The average complexity metric for the 649 treated plans analyzed with the script was 0.132 mm-1 with a standard deviation of 0.036 mm-1. We found that when using a threshold complexity value of 0.180 mm-1, the true positive rate for correctly identifying plans that failed QA was 44%, and the false-positive rate was 7%. Used clinically with this threshold, the script can identify overly modulated plans and thus prevent a significant portion of QA failures. Reducing VMAT plan complexity has a number of important clinical benefits, including improving plan deliverability and reducing treatment time. Use of the complexity metric during both the planning and QA processes can reduce the number of QA failures and improve the quality of VMAT plans used for treatment. PMID:27455504

  14. Reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for the assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adult psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2016-08-30

    Despite growing recognition that the symptoms and functional impairments of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood, only a few psychometrically sound diagnostic measures have been developed for the assessment of ADHD in adults, and none have been validated for use in a broad treatment-seeking psychiatric sample. The current study presents the reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for ADHD, which was administered to 1194 adults presenting to an outpatient psychiatric practice. The module showed excellent internal consistency and interrater reliability, good convergent and discriminant validity (as indexed by relatively high correlations with self-report measures of ADHD and ADHD-related constructs and little or no correlation with other, non-ADHD symptom domains), and good construct validity (as indexed by significantly higher rates of psychosocial impairment and self-reported family history of ADHD in individuals who meet criteria for an ADHD diagnosis). This instrument is thus a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for the detection of ADHD in adults presenting for psychiatric evaluation and treatment. PMID:27259136

  15. Modulation of the default-mode network and the attentional network by self-referential processes in patients with disorder of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Marttunen, Verónica; Castro, Mariana; Olmos, Lisandro; Leiguarda, Ramón; Villarreal, Mirta

    2016-02-01

    Disorders of consciousness (DOC) are related to an altered capacity of the brain to successfully integrate and segregate information. Alterations in brain functional networks structure have been found in fMRI studies, which could account for the incapability of the brain to efficiently manage internally and externally generated information. Here we assess the modulation of neural activity in areas of the networks related to active introspective or extrospective processing in 9 patients with DOC and 17 controls using fMRI. In addition, we assess the functional connectivity between those areas in resting state. Patients were experimentally studied in an early phase after the event of brain injury (3±1 months after the event) and subsequently in a second session 4±1 months after the first session. The results showed that the concerted modulation of the default mode network (DMN) and attentional network (AN) in response to the active involvement in the task improved with the level of consciousness, reflecting an integral recovery of the brain in its ability to be engaged in cognitive processes. In addition, functional connectivity decreased between the DMN and AN with recovery. Our results help to further understand the neural underpins of the disorders of consciousness. PMID:26796715

  16. Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Rachel A; Dick, Jaimie T A; Pritchard, Daniel W; Ennis, Marilyn; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-03-01

    Predatory functional responses play integral roles in predator-prey dynamics, and their assessment promises greater understanding and prediction of the predatory impacts of invasive species. Other interspecific interactions, however, such as parasitism and higher-order predation, have the potential to modify predator-prey interactions and thus the predictive capability of the comparative functional response approach. We used a four-species community module (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to compare the predatory functional responses of native Gammarus duebeni celticus and invasive Gammarus pulex amphipods towards three invertebrate prey species (Asellus aquaticus, Simulium spp., Baetis rhodani), thus, quantifying the context dependencies of parasitism and a higher-order fish predator on these functional responses. Our functional response experiments demonstrated that the invasive amphipod had a higher predatory impact (lower handling time) on two of three prey species, which reflects patterns of impact observed in the field. The community module also revealed that parasitism had context-dependent influences, for one prey species, with the potential to further reduce the predatory impact of the invasive amphipod or increase the predatory impact of the native amphipod in the presence of a higher-order fish predator. Partial consumption of prey was similar for both predators and occurred increasingly in the order A. aquaticus, Simulium spp. and B. rhodani. This was associated with increasing prey densities, but showed no context dependencies with parasitism or higher-order fish predator. This study supports the applicability of comparative functional responses as a tool to predict and assess invasive species impacts incorporating multiple context dependencies. PMID:25265905

  17. Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Rachel A; Dick, Jaimie T A; Pritchard, Daniel W; Ennis, Marilyn; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Predatory functional responses play integral roles in predator–prey dynamics, and their assessment promises greater understanding and prediction of the predatory impacts of invasive species. Other interspecific interactions, however, such as parasitism and higher-order predation, have the potential to modify predator–prey interactions and thus the predictive capability of the comparative functional response approach. We used a four-species community module (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to compare the predatory functional responses of native Gammarus duebeni celticus and invasive Gammarus pulex amphipods towards three invertebrate prey species (Asellus aquaticus, Simulium spp., Baetis rhodani), thus, quantifying the context dependencies of parasitism and a higher-order fish predator on these functional responses. Our functional response experiments demonstrated that the invasive amphipod had a higher predatory impact (lower handling time) on two of three prey species, which reflects patterns of impact observed in the field. The community module also revealed that parasitism had context-dependent influences, for one prey species, with the potential to further reduce the predatory impact of the invasive amphipod or increase the predatory impact of the native amphipod in the presence of a higher-order fish predator. Partial consumption of prey was similar for both predators and occurred increasingly in the order A. aquaticus, Simulium spp. and B. rhodani. This was associated with increasing prey densities, but showed no context dependencies with parasitism or higher-order fish predator. This study supports the applicability of comparative functional responses as a tool to predict and assess invasive species impacts incorporating multiple context dependencies. PMID:25265905

  18. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  19. Array Simulations Platform (ASP) predicts NASA Data Link Module (NDLM) performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Allen David

    1993-01-01

    Through a variety of imbedded theoretical and actual antenna patterns, the array simulation platform (ASP) enhanced analysis of the array antenna pattern effects for the KTx (Ku-Band Transmit) service of the NDLM (NASA Data Link Module). The ASP utilizes internally stored models of the NDLM antennas and can develop the overall pattern of antenna arrays through common array calculation techniques. ASP expertly assisted in the diagnosing of element phase shifter errors during KTx testing and was able to accurately predict the overall array pattern from combinations of the four internally held element patterns. This paper provides an overview of the use of the ASP software in the solving of array mis-phasing problems.

  20. Why Does Working Memory Capacity Predict Variation in Reading Comprehension? On the Influence of Mind Wandering and Executive Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVay, Jennifer C.; Kane, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Some people are better readers than others, and this variation in comprehension ability is predicted by measures of working memory capacity (WMC). The primary goal of this study was to investigate the mediating role of mind-wandering experiences in the association between WMC and normal individual differences in reading comprehension, as predicted…

  1. Validation and comparison of three power prediction models for CPV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundel, Hannah; Treiber, Lara; Dufour, Pascal; Coish, Nicholas; Fischer, Anton; Myrskog, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Accurate predictive energy modelling of a solar farm requires a thorough understanding of solar spectral variations, along with the spectral response and optical properties of the photovoltaic system. This paper investigates the minimum data required to accurately predict power output from CPV modules, comparing modelled output to both measured data and the existing method used by Sandia PV Array Performance Model (SAPM). Three models were derived based on various weather inputs. A Detailed Spectral Model (DS) uses SMARTS, inputting measured air mass, aerosols, ozone and water content, and incorporating measured DNI to account for cloudy days. The Sub-System Algebraic Model (SSA) removes the need for instantaneous spectrum calculations by creating equations for each sub-cell and DNI, based on the same inputs as the DS. These two models rely heavily on aerosol, which is not readily available. Alternatively, an Empirical model (EMP) may be used to determine the relationship between measured output power and easily measureable weather data (ambient temperature, air mass, direct normal irradiance and water content). These non-linear DS, SSA and EMP models have a bias error of 3.09 %, 4.24 % and -0.67 %, respectively. It was also found that the SSA model can be used in lieu of the SAPM.

  2. Pre-attentive sensitivity to vowel duration reveals native phonology and predicts learning of second-language sounds.

    PubMed

    Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola; Lipski, Silvia C

    2013-09-01

    In some languages (e.g. Czech), changes in vowel duration affect word meaning, while in others (e.g. Spanish) they do not. Yet for other languages (e.g. Dutch), the linguistic role of vowel duration remains unclear. To reveal whether Dutch represents vowel length in its phonology, we compared auditory pre-attentive duration processing in native and non-native vowels across Dutch, Czech, and Spanish. Dutch duration sensitivity patterned with Czech but was larger than Spanish in the native vowel, while it was smaller than Czech and Spanish in the non-native vowel. An interpretation of these findings suggests that in Dutch, duration is used phonemically but it might be relevant for the identity of certain native vowels only. Furthermore, the finding that Spanish listeners are more sensitive to duration in non-native than in native vowels indicates that a lack of duration differences in one's native language could be beneficial for second-language learning. PMID:23867922

  3. Prediction of hydrodynamics and chemistry of confined turbulent methane-air flames with attention to formation of oxides of nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elghobashi, S.; Spalding, D. B.; Srivatsa, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    A formulation of the governing partial differential equations for fluid flow and reacting chemical species in a tubular combustor is presented. A numerical procedure for the solution of the governing differential equations is described, and models for chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics calculations are presented. The chemical equilibrium model is used to characterize the hydrocarbon reactions. The chemical kinetics model is used to predict the concentrations of the oxides of nitrogen. The combustor consists of a cylindrical duct of varying cross sections with concentric streams of gaseous fuel and air entering the duct at one end. Four sample cases with specified inlet and boundary conditions are considered, and the results are discussed

  4. To what extent do joint attention, imitation, and object play behaviors in infancy predict later communication and intellectual functioning in ASD?

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Watson, Linda R.; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which early social communication behaviors predict later communication and intellectual outcomes was investigated via retrospective video analysis. Joint attention, imitation, and complex object play behaviors were coded from edited home videos featuring scenes of 29 children with ASD at 9–12 and/or 15–18 months. A quantitative interval recording of behavior and a qualitative rating of the developmental level were applied. Social communication behaviors increased between 9–12 and 15–18 months. Their mean level during infancy, but not the rate of change, predicted both Vineland Communication scores and intellectual functioning at 3–7 years. The two methods of measurement yielded similar results. Thus, early social communicative behaviors may play pivotal roles in the development of subsequent communication and intellectual functioning. PMID:21858585

  5. Prefrontal Parvalbumin Neurons in Control of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoseok; Ährlund-Richter, Sofie; Wang, Xinming; Deisseroth, Karl; Carlén, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Summary While signatures of attention have been extensively studied in sensory systems, the neural sources and computations responsible for top-down control of attention are largely unknown. Using chronic recordings in mice, we found that fast-spiking parvalbumin (FS-PV) interneurons in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) uniformly show increased and sustained firing during goal-driven attentional processing, correlating to the level of attention. Elevated activity of FS-PV neurons on the timescale of seconds predicted successful execution of behavior. Successful allocation of attention was characterized by strong synchronization of FS-PV neurons, increased gamma oscillations, and phase locking of pyramidal firing. Phase-locked pyramidal neurons showed gamma-phase-dependent rate modulation during successful attentional processing. Optogenetic silencing of FS-PV neurons deteriorated attentional processing, while optogenetic synchronization of FS-PV neurons at gamma frequencies had pro-cognitive effects and improved goal-directed behavior. FS-PV neurons thus act as a functional unit coordinating the activity in the local mPFC circuit during goal-driven attentional processing. PMID:26771492

  6. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (±5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26901590

  7. Attention enhances feature integration.

    PubMed

    Paul, Liza; Schyns, Philippe G

    2003-08-01

    Perceptual processing delays between attribute dimensions (e.g. color, form and motion) [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 264 (1997) 1407] have been attributed to temporal processing asynchronies resulting from functional segregation of visual information [Science 240 (1988) 740]. In addition, several lines of evidence converge to suggest that attention plays an important role in the integration of functionally processed information. However, exactly how attention modulates the temporal integration of information remains unclear. Here, we examined how attention modulates the integration of color and form into a unitary perception. Results suggest that attending to the location of an object enhances the integration of its defining attributes by speeding up the perceptual processing of each attribute dimension. Moreover, the perceptual asynchrony between attributes remains constant across attended and unattended conditions because attention seems to offer each processing dimension an equal processing advantage. PMID:12826102

  8. Gene expression signature-based chemical genomic prediction identifies a novel class of HSP90 pathway modulators.

    PubMed

    Hieronymus, Haley; Lamb, Justin; Ross, Kenneth N; Peng, Xiao P; Clement, Cristina; Rodina, Anna; Nieto, Maria; Du, Jinyan; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Raj, Srilakshmi M; Maloney, Katherine N; Clardy, Jon; Hahn, William C; Chiosis, Gabriela; Golub, Todd R

    2006-10-01

    Although androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling is central to prostate cancer, the ability to modulate AR signaling states is limited. Here we establish a chemical genomic approach for discovery and target prediction of modulators of cancer phenotypes, as exemplified by AR signaling. We first identify AR activation inhibitors, including a group of structurally related compounds comprising celastrol, gedunin, and derivatives. To develop an in silico approach for target pathway identification, we apply a gene expression-based analysis that classifies HSP90 inhibitors as having similar activity to celastrol and gedunin. Validating this prediction, we demonstrate that celastrol and gedunin inhibit HSP90 activity and HSP90 clients, including AR. Broadly, this work identifies new modes of HSP90 modulation through a gene expression-based strategy. PMID:17010675

  9. Identification of cancer-cytotoxic modulators of PDE3A by predictive chemogenomics | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    High cancer death rates indicate the need for new anticancer therapeutic agents. Approaches to discovering new cancer drugs include target-based drug discovery and phenotypic screening. Here, we identified phosphodiesterase 3A modulators as cell-selective cancer cytotoxic compounds through phenotypic compound library screening and target deconvolution by predictive chemogenomics.

  10. An Integrated Theory of Prospective Time Interval Estimation: The Role of Cognition, Attention, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    2007-01-01

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval estimation and bisection and impact of secondary…

  11. Development of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Predict Disease-Mediated Therapeutic Protein-Drug Interactions: Modulation of Multiple Cytochrome P450 Enzymes by Interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiling; Zhuang, Yanli; Xu, Zhenhua; Wang, Weirong; Zhou, Honghui

    2016-05-01

    Disease-mediated therapeutic protein-drug interactions have recently gained attention from regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical industries in the development of new biological products. In this study, we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model using SimCYP to predict the impact of elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the treatment effect of an anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody, sirukumab, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A virtual RA patient population was first constructed by incorporating the impact of systemic IL-6 level on hepatic and intestinal expression of multiple CYP enzymes with information from in vitro studies. Then, a PBPK model for CYP enzyme substrates was developed for healthy adult subjects. After incorporating the virtual RA patient population, the PBPK model was applied to quantitatively predict pharmacokinetics of multiple CYP substrates in RA patients before and after sirukumab treatment from a clinical cocktail drug interaction study. The results suggested that, compared with observed clinical data, changes in systemic exposure to multiple CYP substrates by anti-IL-6 treatment in virtual RA patients have been reasonably captured by the PBPK model, as manifested by modulations in area under plasma concentration versus time curves for midazolam, omeprazole, S-warfarin, and caffeine. This PBPK model reasonably captured the modulation effect of IL-6 and sirukumab on activity of CYP3A, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 and holds the potential to be utilized to assess the modulation effect of sirukumab on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of concomitant small-molecule drugs in RA patients. PMID:26961818

  12. Incorporation of gantry angle correction for 3D dose prediction in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yamada, Yuji; Yagi, Masashi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment dose verification with beam-by-beam analysis for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is commonly performed with a gantry angle of 0° using a 2D diode detector array. Any changes in multileaf collimator (MLC) position between the actual treatment gantry angle and 0° may result in deviations from the planned dose. We evaluated the effects of MLC positioning errors between the actual treatment gantry angles and nominal gantry angles. A gantry angle correction (GAC) factor was generated by performing a non-gap test at various gantry angles using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). To convert pixel intensity to dose at the MLC abutment positions, a non-gap test was performed using an EPID and a film at 0° gantry angle. We then assessed the correlations between pixel intensities and doses. Beam-by-beam analyses for 15 prostate IMRT cases as patient-specific quality assurance were performed with a 2D diode detector array at 0° gantry angle to determine the relative dose error for each beam. The resulting relative dose error with or without GAC was added back to the original dose grid for each beam. We compared the predicted dose distributions with or without GAC for film measurements to validate GAC effects. A gamma pass rate with a tolerance of 2%/2 mm was used to evaluate these dose distributions. The gamma pass rate with GAC was higher than that without GAC (P = 0.01). The predicted dose distribution improved with GAC, although the dosimetric effect to a patient was minimal. PMID:25742866

  13. In vitro blood-brain barrier permeability predictions for GABAA receptor modulating piperine analogs.

    PubMed

    Eigenmann, Daniela Elisabeth; Dürig, Carmen; Jähne, Evelyn Andrea; Smieško, Martin; Culot, Maxime; Gosselet, Fabien; Cecchelli, Romeo; Helms, Hans Christian Cederberg; Brodin, Birger; Wimmer, Laurin; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2016-06-01

    The alkaloid piperine from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and several synthetic piperine analogs were recently identified as positive allosteric modulators of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. In order to reach their target sites of action, these compounds need to enter the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We here evaluated piperine and five selected analogs (SCT-66, SCT-64, SCT-29, LAU397, and LAU399) regarding their BBB permeability. Data were obtained in three in vitro BBB models, namely a recently established human model with immortalized hBMEC cells, a human brain-like endothelial cells (BLEC) model, and a primary animal (bovine endothelial/rat astrocytes co-culture) model. For each compound, quantitative UHPLC-MS/MS methods in the range of 5.00-500ng/mL in the corresponding matrix were developed, and permeability coefficients in the three BBB models were determined. In vitro predictions from the two human BBB models were in good agreement, while permeability data from the animal model differed to some extent, possibly due to protein binding of the screened compounds. In all three BBB models, piperine and SCT-64 displayed the highest BBB permeation potential. This was corroborated by data from in silico prediction. For the other piperine analogs (SCT-66, SCT-29, LAU397, and LAU399), BBB permeability was low to moderate in the two human BBB models, and moderate to high in the animal BBB model. Efflux ratios (ER) calculated from bidirectional permeability experiments indicated that the compounds were likely not substrates of active efflux transporters. PMID:27018328

  14. Testing and Analysis for Lifetime Prediction of Crystalline Silicon PV Modules Undergoing Degradation by System Voltage Stress: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.; Smith, R.; Terwiliger, K.; Glick, S.; Jordan, D.; Johnston, S.; Kempe, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-07-01

    Acceleration factors are calculated for crystalline silicon PV modules under system voltage stress by comparing the module power during degradation outdoors to that in accelerated testing at three temperatures and 85% relative humidity. A lognormal analysis is applied to the accelerated lifetime test data considering failure at 80% of the initial module power. Activation energy of 0.73 eV for the rate of failure is determined, and the probability of module failure at an arbitrary temperature is predicted. To obtain statistical data for multiple modules over the course of degradation in-situ of the test chamber, dark I-V measurements are obtained and transformed using superposition, which is found well suited for rapid and quantitative evaluation of potential-induced degradation. It is determined that shunt resistance measurements alone do not represent the extent of power degradation. This is explained with a two-diode model analysis that shows an increasing second diode recombination current and ideality factor as the degradation in module power progresses. Failure modes of the modules stressed outdoors are examined and compared to those stressed in accelerated tests.

  15. General inattentiveness is a long-term reliable trait independently predictive of psychological health: Danish validation studies of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Petersen, Anders; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2016-05-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress and mental health, after controlling for age, gender, income, socioeconomic occupational class, stressful life events, and social desirability (β = 0.32-.42, ps < .001). Second, MAAS scores showed satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability in 100 retested healthy university students. Finally, MAAS sample mean scores as well as individuals' scores demonstrated satisfactory test-retest reliability across a 6 months interval in the adult community (retested N = 407), intraclass correlations ≥ .74. MAAS scores displayed significantly stronger long-term test-retest reliability than scores measuring psychological distress (z = 2.78, p = .005). Test-retest reliability estimates did not differ within demographic and socioeconomic strata. Scores on the Danish MAAS were psychometrically validated in healthy adults. MAAS's inattentiveness scores reflected a unidimensional construct, long-term reliable disposition, and a factor of independent significance for predicting psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751089

  16. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy prediction of modulation transfer function of optical lens system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Md Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Akib, Shatirah

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to predict MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  17. Small Engine Technology (SET) - Task 13 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines: Jet Noise Prediction Module, Wing Shielding Module, and System Studies Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Golub, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Final Report has been prepared by AlliedSignal Engines and Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, documenting work performed during the period May 1997 through June 1999, under the Small Engines Technology Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 13, ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines. The report specifically covers the work performed under Subtasks 4, 5 and 6. Subtask 4 describes the application of a semi-empirical procedure for jet noise prediction, subtask 5 describes the development of a procedure to predict the effects of wing shielding, and subtask 6 describes the results of system studies of the benefits of the new noise technology on business and regional aircraft.

  18. Interactions of attention, emotion and motivation.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Although successful visually guided action begins with sensory processes and ends with motor control, the intervening processes related to the appropriate selection of information for processing are especially critical because of the brain's limited capacity to handle information. Three important mechanisms--attention, emotion and motivation--contribute to the prioritization and selection of information. In this chapter, the interplay between these systems is discussed with emphasis placed on interactions between attention (or immediate task relevance of stimuli) and emotion (or affective evaluation of stimuli), and between attention and motivation (or the predicted value of stimuli). Although numerous studies have shown that emotional stimuli modulate mechanisms of selective attention in humans, little work has been directed at exploring whether such interactions can be reciprocal, that is, whether attention can influence emotional response. Recent work on this question (showing that distracting information is typically devalued upon later encounters) is reviewed in the first half of the chapter. In the second half, some recent experiments exploring how prior value-prediction learning (i.e., learning to associate potential outcomes, good or bad, with specific stimuli) plays a role in visual selection and conscious perception. The results indicate that some aspects of motivation act on selection independently of traditionally defined attention and other aspects interact with it. PMID:19733764

  19. State dependent model predictive control for orbital rendezvous using pulse-width pulse-frequency modulated thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Zhu, Zheng H.; Meguid, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the pulse-width pulse-frequency modulation based trajectory planning for orbital rendezvous and proximity maneuvering near a non-cooperative spacecraft in an elliptical orbit. The problem is formulated by converting the continuous control input, output from the state dependent model predictive control, into a sequence of pulses of constant magnitude by controlling firing frequency and duration of constant-magnitude thrusters. The state dependent model predictive control is derived by minimizing the control error of states and control roughness of control input for a safe, smooth and fuel efficient approaching trajectory. The resulting nonlinear programming problem is converted into a series of quadratic programming problem and solved by numerical iteration using the receding horizon strategy. The numerical results show that the proposed state dependent model predictive control with the pulse-width pulse-frequency modulation is able to effectively generate optimized trajectories using equivalent control pulses for the proximity maneuvering with less energy consumption.

  20. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression. PMID:26517321

  1. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression. PMID:26517321

  2. Controlling the Response: Predictive Modeling of a Highly Central, Pathogen-Targeted Core Response Module in Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Thrall, Brian D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated macrophage activation using computational analyses of a compendium of transcriptomic data covering responses to agonists of the TLR pathway, Salmonella infection, and manufactured amorphous silica nanoparticle exposure. We inferred regulatory relationship networks using this compendium and discovered that genes with high betweenness centrality, so-called bottlenecks, code for proteins targeted by pathogens. Furthermore, combining a novel set of bioinformatics tools, topological analysis with analysis of differentially expressed genes under the different stimuli, we identified a conserved core response module that is differentially expressed in response to all studied conditions. This module occupies a highly central position in the inferred network and is also enriched in genes preferentially targeted by pathogens. The module includes cytokines, interferon induced genes such as Ifit1 and 2, effectors of inflammation, Cox1 and Oas1 and Oasl2, and transcription factors including AP1, Egr1 and 2 and Mafb. Predictive modeling using a reverse-engineering approach reveals dynamic differences between the responses to each stimulus and predicts the regulatory influences directing this module. We speculate that this module may be an early checkpoint for progression to apoptosis and/or inflammation during macrophage activation. PMID:21339814

  3. A Feedback Model of Attention Explains the Diverse Effects of Attention on Neural Firing Rates and Receptive Field Structure

    PubMed Central

    Miconi, Thomas; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-01-01

    Visual attention has many effects on neural responses, producing complex changes in firing rates, as well as modifying the structure and size of receptive fields, both in topological and feature space. Several existing models of attention suggest that these effects arise from selective modulation of neural inputs. However, anatomical and physiological observations suggest that attentional modulation targets higher levels of the visual system (such as V4 or MT) rather than input areas (such as V1). Here we propose a simple mechanism that explains how a top-down attentional modulation, falling on higher visual areas, can produce the observed effects of attention on neural responses. Our model requires only the existence of modulatory feedback connections between areas, and short-range lateral inhibition within each area. Feedback connections redistribute the top-down modulation to lower areas, which in turn alters the inputs of other higher-area cells, including those that did not receive the initial modulation. This produces firing rate modulations and receptive field shifts. Simultaneously, short-range lateral inhibition between neighboring cells produce competitive effects that are automatically scaled to receptive field size in any given area. Our model reproduces the observed attentional effects on response rates (response gain, input gain, biased competition automatically scaled to receptive field size) and receptive field structure (shifts and resizing of receptive fields both spatially and in complex feature space), without modifying model parameters. Our model also makes the novel prediction that attentional effects on response curves should shift from response gain to contrast gain as the spatial focus of attention drifts away from the studied cell. PMID:26890584

  4. A Feedback Model of Attention Explains the Diverse Effects of Attention on Neural Firing Rates and Receptive Field Structure.

    PubMed

    Miconi, Thomas; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-02-01

    Visual attention has many effects on neural responses, producing complex changes in firing rates, as well as modifying the structure and size of receptive fields, both in topological and feature space. Several existing models of attention suggest that these effects arise from selective modulation of neural inputs. However, anatomical and physiological observations suggest that attentional modulation targets higher levels of the visual system (such as V4 or MT) rather than input areas (such as V1). Here we propose a simple mechanism that explains how a top-down attentional modulation, falling on higher visual areas, can produce the observed effects of attention on neural responses. Our model requires only the existence of modulatory feedback connections between areas, and short-range lateral inhibition within each area. Feedback connections redistribute the top-down modulation to lower areas, which in turn alters the inputs of other higher-area cells, including those that did not receive the initial modulation. This produces firing rate modulations and receptive field shifts. Simultaneously, short-range lateral inhibition between neighboring cells produce competitive effects that are automatically scaled to receptive field size in any given area. Our model reproduces the observed attentional effects on response rates (response gain, input gain, biased competition automatically scaled to receptive field size) and receptive field structure (shifts and resizing of receptive fields both spatially and in complex feature space), without modifying model parameters. Our model also makes the novel prediction that attentional effects on response curves should shift from response gain to contrast gain as the spatial focus of attention drifts away from the studied cell. PMID:26890584

  5. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  6. Attention's Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Robert M G; McClenahan, Laura J; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2016-06-01

    How do people get attention to operate at peak efficiency in high-pressure situations? We tested the hypothesis that the general mechanism that allows this is the maintenance of multiple target representations in working and long-term memory. We recorded subjects' event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing the working memory and long-term memory representations used to control attention while performing visual search. We found that subjects used both types of memories to control attention when they performed the visual search task with a large reward at stake, or when they were cued to respond as fast as possible. However, under normal circumstances, one type of target memory was sufficient for slower task performance. The use of multiple types of memory representations appears to provide converging top-down control of attention, allowing people to step on the attentional accelerator in a variety of high-pressure situations. PMID:27056975

  7. Attention as a Process of Selection, Perception as a Process of Representation, and Phenomenal Experience as the Resulting Process of Perception Being Modulated by a Dedicated Consciousness Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Talis

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence of attention and consciousness is disputed and necessity of attentional effects for conscious experience has become questioned. However, the conceptual landscape and interpretations of empirical evidence as related to this issue have remained controversial. Here I present some conceptual distinctions and research strategies potentially useful for moving forward when tackling this issue. Specifically, it is argued that we should carefully differentiate between pre-conscious processes and the processes resulting in phenomenal experience, move the emphasis from studying the effects of attention on the modality-specific and feature-specific perception to studying attentional effects on panmodal universal attributes of whatever conscious experience may be the case, and acknowledge that there is a specialized mechanism for leading to conscious experience of the pre-consciously represented contents autonomous from the mechanisms of perception, attention, memory, and cognitive control. PMID:22232612

  8. Right hemisphere dominance directly predicts both baseline V1 cortical excitability and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over low-level brain structures

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Q.; Siddiqui, S.; Ramachandran, S.; Goga, U.; Bonsu, A.; Patel, M.; Roberts, R.E.; Nigmatullina, Y.; Malhotra, P.; Bronstein, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial attention is characteristically observed in most right-handed individuals. This dominance has been attributed to both an anatomically larger right fronto-parietal network and the existence of asymmetric parietal interhemispheric connections. Previously it has been demonstrated that interhemispheric conflict, which induces left hemisphere inhibition, results in the modulation of both (i) the excitability of the early visual cortex (V1) and (ii) the brainstem-mediated vestibular–ocular reflex (VOR) via top-down control mechanisms. However to date, it remains unknown whether the degree of an individual’s right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial function can influence, (i) the baseline excitability of the visual cortex and (ii) the extent to which the right hemisphere can exert top-down modulation. We directly tested this by correlating line bisection error (or pseudoneglect), taken as a measure of right hemisphere dominance, with both (i) visual cortical excitability measured using phosphene perception elicited via single-pulse occipital trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and (ii) the degree of trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-mediated VOR suppression, following left hemisphere inhibition. We found that those individuals with greater right hemisphere dominance had a less excitable early visual cortex at baseline and demonstrated a greater degree of vestibular nystagmus suppression following left hemisphere cathodal tDCS. To conclude, our results provide the first demonstration that individual differences in right hemisphere dominance can directly predict both the baseline excitability of low-level brain structures and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over them. PMID:26518461

  9. Right hemisphere dominance directly predicts both baseline V1 cortical excitability and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over low-level brain structures.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Q; Siddiqui, S; Ramachandran, S; Goga, U; Bonsu, A; Patel, M; Roberts, R E; Nigmatullina, Y; Malhotra, P; Bronstein, A M

    2015-12-17

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial attention is characteristically observed in most right-handed individuals. This dominance has been attributed to both an anatomically larger right fronto-parietal network and the existence of asymmetric parietal interhemispheric connections. Previously it has been demonstrated that interhemispheric conflict, which induces left hemisphere inhibition, results in the modulation of both (i) the excitability of the early visual cortex (V1) and (ii) the brainstem-mediated vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) via top-down control mechanisms. However to date, it remains unknown whether the degree of an individual's right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial function can influence, (i) the baseline excitability of the visual cortex and (ii) the extent to which the right hemisphere can exert top-down modulation. We directly tested this by correlating line bisection error (or pseudoneglect), taken as a measure of right hemisphere dominance, with both (i) visual cortical excitability measured using phosphene perception elicited via single-pulse occipital trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and (ii) the degree of trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-mediated VOR suppression, following left hemisphere inhibition. We found that those individuals with greater right hemisphere dominance had a less excitable early visual cortex at baseline and demonstrated a greater degree of vestibular nystagmus suppression following left hemisphere cathodal tDCS. To conclude, our results provide the first demonstration that individual differences in right hemisphere dominance can directly predict both the baseline excitability of low-level brain structures and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over them. PMID:26518461

  10. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  11. MARIE Measurements and Model Predictions of Solar Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Cleghorn, T. F.; Hu, X.; Lee, K. T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent data from the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument on board the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft currently in Mars orbit are presented. It is shown that the short-term modulations of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are well described by correlating the so lar modulation parameter, <1>, with Earth-based neutron monitor counts using a 85-day time lag and the NASA Models - HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation). The dose rates observed by the MARIE instrument are within 10% of the model calculations.

  12. Cortical State and Attention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kenneth D.; Thiele, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Preface The brain continuously adapts its processing machinery to behavioural demands. To achieve this it rapidly modulates the operating mode of cortical circuits, controlling the way information is transformed and routed. This article will focus on two experimental approaches by which the control of cortical information processing has been investigated: the study of state-dependent cortical processing in rodents, and attention in the primate visual system. Both processes involve a modulation of low-frequency activity fluctuations and spiking correlation, and are mediated by common receptor systems. We suggest that selective attention involves processes similar to state change, operating at a local columnar level to enhance the representation of otherwise nonsalient features while suppressing internally generated activity patterns. PMID:21829219

  13. Efficiency characteristics of speed modulated drives at predicted torque conditions for air-to-air heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, C. K.

    Examples of system (motor + inverter drive) efficiencies of two types of adjustable speed control are compared for predicted compressor and indoor blower load profiles. The two classifications are inverter-driven induction motors (IDIMs) and permanent-magnet electronically commutated motors (PM-ECMs). Reference sine-wave-driven induction motor (SWDIM) efficiencies are also given. Available bench data on late 70's IDIM compressor drives are compared to recent data on IDIM and PM-ECM drives. The drive efficiencies are compared over common operating torque requirements for heating and cooling. A modulating heat pump model was used to develop predicted reciprocating compressor torque/drive-frequency mappings and the expected operating torque ranges. The variation in modulating compressor torque requirements is analyzed. Ways to adjust the torque relation for different compressor types and sizing strategies are also discussed. Modulating blower performance data on an early '80s generation modulating heat pump with an IDIM drive (and SWDIM reference drive) were obtained and compared to bench data on recent IDIM and PM-ECM drives under similar torque conditions. In both compressor and blower applications, the combined system efficiency of the PM-ECM drives is nearly equal to or higher than that of the reference SWDIM cases and significantly better than IDIMs available in the late '70s. When compared to more recent IDIMs, the PM-ECM efficiency advantage over IDIM compressors has been reduced 40 to 50 percent between half and nominal speed (3600 rpm) but still remains 14 to 9 percent higher, respectively.

  14. Attention Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

  15. Intrinsic modulation of ENSO predictability viewed through a local Lyapunov lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamperidou, Christina; Cane, Mark A.; Lall, Upmanu; Wittenberg, Andrew T.

    2013-04-01

    The presence of rich ENSO variability in the long unforced simulation of GFDL's CM2.1 motivates the use of tools from dynamical systems theory to study variability in ENSO predictability, and its connections to ENSO magnitude, frequency, and physical evolution. Local Lyapunov exponents (LLEs) estimated from the monthly NINO3 SSTa model output are used to characterize periods of increased or decreased predictability. The LLEs describe the growth of infinitesimal perturbations due to internal variability, and are a measure of the immediate predictive uncertainty at any given point in the system phase-space. The LLE-derived predictability estimates are compared with those obtained from the error growth in a set of re-forecast experiments with CM2.1. It is shown that the LLEs underestimate the error growth for short forecast lead times (less than 8 months), while they overestimate it for longer lead times. The departure of LLE-derived error growth rates from the re-forecast rates is a linear function of forecast lead time, and is also sensitive to the length of the time series used for the LLE calculation. The LLE-derived error growth rate is closer to that estimated from the re-forecasts for a lead time of 4 months. In the 2,000-year long simulation, the LLE-derived predictability at the 4-month lead time varies (multi)decadally only by 9-18 %. Active ENSO periods are more predictable than inactive ones, while epochs with regular periodicity and moderate magnitude are classified as the most predictable by the LLEs. Events with a deeper thermocline in the west Pacific up to five years prior to their peak, along with an earlier deepening of the thermocline in the east Pacific in the months preceding the peak, are classified as more predictable. Also, the GCM is found to be less predictable than nature under this measure of predictability.

  16. Intrinsic modulation of ENSO predictability viewed through a local Lyapunov lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamperidou, Christina; Cane, Mark A.; Lall, Upmanu; Wittenberg, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of rich ENSO variability in the long unforced simulation of GFDL's CM2.1 motivates the use of tools from dynamical systems theory to study variability in ENSO predictability, and its connections to ENSO magnitude, frequency, and physical evolution. Local Lyapunov exponents (LLEs) estimated from the monthly NINO3 SSTa model output are used to characterize periods of increased or decreased predictability. The LLEs describe the growth of infinitesimal perturbations due to internal variability, and are a measure of the immediate predictive uncertainty at any given point in the system phase-space. The LLE-derived predictability estimates are compared with those obtained from the error growth in a set of re-forecast experiments with CM2.1. It is shown that the LLEs underestimate the error growth for short forecast lead times (less than 8 months), while they overestimate it for longer lead times. The departure of LLE-derived error growth rates from the re-forecast rates is a linear function of forecast lead time, and is also sensitive to the length of the time series used for the LLE calculation. The LLE-derived error growth rate is closer to that estimated from the re-forecasts for a lead time of 4 months. In the 2,000-year long simulation, the LLE-derived predictability at the 4-month lead time varies (multi)decadally only by 9-18 %. Active ENSO periods are more predictable than inactive ones, while epochs with regular periodicity and moderate magnitude are classified as the most predictable by the LLEs. Events with a deeper thermocline in the west Pacific up to five years prior to their peak, along with an earlier deepening of the thermocline in the east Pacific in the months preceding the peak, are classified as more predictable. Also, the GCM is found to be less predictable than nature under this measure of predictability.

  17. Cholinergic Modulation of Visual Attention and Working Memory: Dissociable Effects of Basal Forebrain 192-IgG-Saporin Lesions and Intraprefrontal Infusions of Scopolamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudasama, Yogita; Dalley, Jeffrey W.; Nathwani, Falgyni; Bouger, Pascale; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of reductions in cortical cholinergic function on performance of a novel task that allowed for the simultaneous assessment of attention to a visual stimulus and memory for that stimulus over a variable delay within the same test session. In the first experiment, infusions of the muscarinic receptor antagonist…

  18. Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Modulations of Visual-Spatial Attention and Working Memory: Insights from Molecular Genetic Research and Implications for Adult Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormer, Viola S.; Passow, Susanne; Biesenack, Julia; Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Attention and working memory are fundamental for selecting and maintaining behaviorally relevant information. Not only do both processes closely intertwine at the cognitive level, but they implicate similar functional brain circuitries, namely the frontoparietal and the frontostriatal networks, which are innervated by cholinergic and dopaminergic…

  19. Poverty, household chaos, and interparental aggression predict children's ability to recognize and modulate negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Raver, C Cybele; Blair, Clancy; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    The following prospective longitudinal study considers the ways that protracted exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may take a substantial toll on emotional adjustment for 1,025 children followed from 6 to 58 months of age. Exposure to chronic poverty from infancy to early childhood as well as multiple measures of household chaos were also included as predictors of children's ability to recognize and modulate negative emotions in order to disentangle the role of interparental conflict from the socioeconomic forces that sometimes accompany it. Analyses revealed that exposure to greater levels of interparental conflict, more chaos in the household, and a higher number of years in poverty can be empirically distinguished as key contributors to 58-month-olds' ability to recognize and modulate negative emotion. Implications for models of experiential canalization of emotional processes within the context of adversity are discussed. PMID:25215541

  20. Attention samples stimuli rhythmically.

    PubMed

    Landau, Ayelet Nina; Fries, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Overt exploration or sampling behaviors, such as whisking, sniffing, and saccadic eye movements, are often characterized by a rhythm. In addition, the electrophysiologically recorded theta or alpha phase predicts global detection performance. These two observations raise the intriguing possibility that covert selective attention samples from multiple stimuli rhythmically. To investigate this possibility, we measured change detection performance on two simultaneously presented stimuli, after resetting attention to one of them. After a reset flash at one stimulus location, detection performance fluctuated rhythmically. When the flash was presented in the right visual field, a 4 Hz rhythm was directly visible in the time courses of behavioral performance at both stimulus locations, and the two rhythms were in antiphase. A left visual field flash exerted only partial reset on performance and induced rhythmic fluctuation at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz). These findings show that selective attention samples multiple stimuli rhythmically, and they position spatial attention within the family of exploration behaviors. PMID:22633805

  1. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

  2. The Normalization Model of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John H.; Heeger, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Attention has been found to have a wide variety of effects on the responses of neurons in visual cortex. We describe a model of attention that exhibits each of these different forms of attentional modulation, depending on the stimulus conditions and the spread (or selectivity) of the attention field in the model. The model helps reconcile proposals that have been taken to represent alternative theories of attention. We argue that the variety and complexity of the results reported in the literature emerge from the variety of empirical protocols that were used, such that the results observed in any one experiment depended on the stimulus conditions and the subject’s attentional strategy, a notion that we define precisely in terms of the attention field in the model, but that has not typically been completely under experimental control. PMID:19186161

  3. Controllability modulates the neural response to predictable but not unpredictable threat in humans.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kimberly H; Wheelock, Muriah D; Shumen, Joshua R; Bowen, Kenton H; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W; Knight, David C

    2015-10-01

    Stress resilience is mediated, in part, by our ability to predict and control threats within our environment. Therefore, determining the neural mechanisms that regulate the emotional response to predictable and controllable threats may provide important new insight into the processes that mediate resilience to emotional dysfunction and guide the future development of interventions for anxiety disorders. To better understand the effect of predictability and controllability on threat-related brain activity in humans, two groups of healthy volunteers participated in a yoked Pavlovian fear conditioning study during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Threat predictability was manipulated by presenting an aversive unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that was either preceded by a conditioned stimulus (i.e., predictable) or by presenting the UCS alone (i.e., unpredictable). Similar to animal model research that has employed yoked fear conditioning procedures, one group (controllable condition; CC), but not the other group (uncontrollable condition; UC) was able to terminate the UCS. The fMRI signal response within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC, ventromedial PFC, and posterior cingulate was diminished during predictable compared to unpredictable threat (i.e., UCS). In addition, threat-related activity within the ventromedial PFC and bilateral hippocampus was diminished only to threats that were both predictable and controllable. These findings provide insight into how threat predictability and controllability affects the activity of brain regions (i.e., ventromedial PFC and hippocampus) involved in emotion regulation, and may have important implications for better understanding neural processes that mediate emotional resilience to stress. PMID:26149610

  4. Predicting Modulation in Corticomotor Excitability and in Transcallosal Inhibition in Response to Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Travis W.; Bolic, Miodrag; Tremblay, François

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Responses to neuromodulatory protocols based either on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are known to be highly variable between individuals. In this study, we examined whether variability of responses to anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) could be predicted from individual differences in the ability to recruit early or late indirect waves (I-waves), as reflected in latency differences of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by TMS of different coil orientation. Methods: Participants (n = 20) first underwent TMS to measure latency of MEPs elicited at different coil orientations (i.e., PA, posterior-anterior; AP, anterior-posterior; LM, latero-medial). Then, participants underwent a-tDCS (20 min @ 2 mA) targeting the primary motor cortex of the contralateral preferred hand (right, n = 18). Individual responses to a-tDCS were determined by monitoring changes in MEP amplitude at rest and in the duration of the contralateral silent period (cSP) and ipsilateral silent period (iSP) during contraction; the latter providing an index of the latency and duration of transcallosal inhibition (LTI and DTI). Results: Consistent with previous reports, individual responses to a-tDCS were highly variable when expressed in terms of changes in MEP amplitude or in cSP duration with ~50% of the participants showing either little or no modulation. In contrast, individual variations in measures of transcallosal inhibition were less variable, allowing detection of significant after-effects. The reduced LTI and prolonged DTI observed post-tDCS were indicative of an enhanced excitability of the transcallosal pathway in the stimulated hemisphere. In terms of predictions, AP-LM latency differences proved to be good predictors of responses to a-tDCS when considering MEP modulation. Conclusion: The present results corroborate the predictive value of latency differences derived from TMS to determine who is likely to express

  5. How and when should interactome-derived clusters be used to predict functional modules and protein function?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jimin; Singh, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Clustering of protein–protein interaction networks is one of the most common approaches for predicting functional modules, protein complexes and protein functions. But, how well does clustering perform at these tasks? Results: We develop a general framework to assess how well computationally derived clusters in physical interactomes overlap functional modules derived via the Gene Ontology (GO). Using this framework, we evaluate six diverse network clustering algorithms using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and show that (i) the performances of these algorithms can differ substantially when run on the same network and (ii) their relative performances change depending upon the topological characteristics of the network under consideration. For the specific task of function prediction in S.cerevisiae, we demonstrate that, surprisingly, a simple non-clustering guilt-by-association approach outperforms widely used clustering-based approaches that annotate a protein with the overrepresented biological process and cellular component terms in its cluster; this is true over the range of clustering algorithms considered. Further analysis parameterizes performance based on the number of annotated proteins, and suggests when clustering approaches should be used for interactome functional analyses. Overall our results suggest a re-examination of when and how clustering approaches should be applied to physical interactomes, and establishes guidelines by which novel clustering approaches for biological networks should be justified and evaluated with respect to functional analysis. Contact: msingh@cs.princeton.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19770263

  6. Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Model to Predict High-Order Modulation Intersymbol Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Andro, Monty; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Demands for increased data rates in satellite communications necessitate higher order modulation schemes, larger system bandwidth, and minimum distortion of the modulated signal as it is passed through the traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA). One type of distortion that the TWTA contributes to is intersymbol interference (ISI), and this becomes particularly disruptive with wide-band, complex modulation schemes. It is suspected that in addition to the dispersion of the TWT, frequency dependent reflections due to mismatches within the TWT are a significant contributor to ISI. To experimentally investigate the effect of these mismatches within the physical TWT on ISI would be prohibitively expensive, as it would require manufacturing numerous amplifiers in addition to the acquisition of the required digital hardware. In an attempt to develop a more accurate model to correlate IS1 with the TWTA and the operational signal, a fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, TWT interaction model has been developed using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code MAFIA (solution of Maxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm). The model includes a user defined slow-wave circuit with a spatially tapered region of loss to implement a sever, and spatially varied geometry (such as helical pitch) to implement a phase velocity taper. The model also includes user defined input/output coupling and an electron beam contained by solenoidal, electrostatic, or periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing allowing standard or novel TWTs to be investigated. This model comprehensively takes into account the effects of frequency dependent nonlinear distortions (MAM and AMPM); gain ripple due to frequency dependent reflections at the input/output coupling, severs, and mismatches from dynamic pitch variations; drive induced oscillations; harmonic generation; intermodulation products; and backward waves.

  7. Geometric dose prediction model for hemithoracic intensity-modulated radiation therapy in mesothelioma patients with two intact lungs.

    PubMed

    Kuo, LiCheng; Yorke, Ellen D; Dumane, Vishruta A; Foster, Amanda; Zhang, Zhigang; Mechalakos, James G; Wu, Abraham J; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Rimner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The presence of two intact lungs makes it challenging to reach a tumoricidal dose with hemithoracic pleural intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) who underwent pleurectomy/decor-tications or have unresectable disease. We developed an anatomy-based model to predict attainable prescription dose before starting optimization. Fifty-six clinically delivered IMRT plans were analyzed regarding correlation of prescription dose and individual and total lung volumes, planning target volume (PTV), ipsilateral normal lung volume and ratios: contralateral/ipsilateral lung (CIVR); contralateral lung/PTV (CPVR); ipsilateral lung /PTV (IPVR); ipsilateral normal lung /total lung (INTLVR); ipsilateral normal lung/PTV (INLPVR). Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher's exact test were used. Correlation between mean ipsilateral lung dose (MILD) and these volume ratios and between prescription dose and single lung mean doses were studied. The prediction models were validated in 23 subsequent MPM patients. CIVR showed the strongest correlation with dose (R = 0.603, p < 0.001) and accurately predicted prescription dose in the validation cases. INLPVR and MILD as well as MILD and prescription dose were significantly correlated (R = -0.784, p < 0.001 and R = 0.554, p < 0.001, respectively) in the training and validation cases. Parameters obtainable directly from planning scan anatomy predict achievable prescription doses for hemithoracic IMRT treatment of MPM patients with two intact lungs. PMID:27167294

  8. Apodization and image contrast. [performance prediction in terms of modulation transfer function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Apodization is often defined in a restricted sense as the suppression of the outer parts (i.e., the concentric rings) of wave optical point images, which results in a higher relative concentration of energy in the central image area. In a wider sense, apodization is defined as any modification of the transmission distribution across the aperture. Generally the modulation transfer function (MTF) is not used in the treatment of apodization. To see how the imaging performance is modified, the MTF is introduced into the discussion. Besides the constant transmission, two transmission distributions which are functions of the aperture radius are considered.

  9. ACTP: A webserver for predicting potential targets and relevant pathways of autophagy-modulating compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Liang; Cai, Haoyang; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy (macroautophagy) is well known as an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation process for long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. Recently, accumulating evidence has revealed a series of small-molecule compounds that may activate or inhibit autophagy for therapeutic potential on human diseases. However, targeting autophagy for drug discovery still remains in its infancy. In this study, we developed a webserver called Autophagic Compound-Target Prediction (ACTP) (http://actp.liu-lab.com/) that could predict autophagic targets and relevant pathways for a given compound. The flexible docking of submitted small-molecule compound (s) to potential autophagic targets could be performed by backend reverse docking. The webpage would return structure-based scores and relevant pathways for each predicted target. Thus, these results provide a basis for the rapid prediction of potential targets/pathways of possible autophagy-activating or autophagy-inhibiting compounds without labor-intensive experiments. Moreover, ACTP will be helpful to shed light on identifying more novel autophagy-activating or autophagy-inhibiting compounds for future therapeutic implications. PMID:26824420

  10. Dose to Larynx Predicts for Swallowing Complications After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Caglar, Hale B.; Tishler, Roy B.; Burke, Elaine; Li Yi; Goguen, Laura; Norris, Carl M.; Allen, Aaron M.

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate early swallowing after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and determine factors correlating with aspiration and/or stricture. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy between September 2004 and August 2006 at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital were evaluated with institutional review board approval. Patients underwent swallowing evaluation after completion of therapy; including video swallow studies. The clinical- and treatment-related variables were examined for correlation with aspiration or strictures, as well as doses to the larynx, pharyngeal constrictor muscles, and cervical esophagus. The correlation was assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 96 patients were evaluated. Their median age was 55 years, and 79 (82%) were men. The primary site of cancer was the oropharynx in 43, hypopharynx/larynx in 17, oral cavity in 13, nasopharynx in 11, maxillary sinus in 2, and unknown primary in 10. Of the 96 patients, 85% underwent definitive RT and 15% postoperative RT. Also, 28 patients underwent induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemotherapy, 59 received concurrent chemotherapy, and 9 patients underwent RT alone. The median follow-up was 10 months. Of the 96 patients, 31 (32%) had clinically significant aspiration and 36 (37%) developed a stricture. The radiation dose-volume metrics, including the volume of the larynx receiving {>=}50 Gy (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively) and volume of the inferior constrictor receiving {>=}50 Gy (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02, respectively) were significantly associated with both aspiration and stricture. The mean larynx dose correlated with aspiration (p = 0.003). Smoking history was the only clinical factor to correlate with stricture (p = 0.05) but not aspiration. Conclusion: Aspiration and stricture are common side effects after

  11. Neural variability in premotor cortex is modulated by trial history and predicts behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Encarni; Pani, Pierpaolo; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Deco, Gustavo; Ferraina, Stefano; Verschure, Paul

    2013-04-24

    In the study of decision making, emphasis is placed on different forms of perceptual integration, while the influence of other factors, such as memory, is ignored. In addition, it is believed that the information underlying decision making is carried in the rate of the neuronal response, while its variability is considered unspecific. Here we studied the influence of recent experience on motor decision making by analyzing the activity of neurons in the dorsal premotor area of two monkeys performing a countermanding arm task. We observe that the across-trial variability of the neural response strongly correlates with trial history-dependent changes in reaction time. Using a theoretical model of decision making, we show that a trial history-monitoring signal can explain the observed behavioral and neural modulation. Our study reveals that, in the neural processes that culminate in motor plan maturation, the evidence provided by perception and memory is reflected in mean rate and variance respectively. PMID:23622062

  12. CisMiner: Genome-Wide In-Silico Cis-Regulatory Module Prediction by Fuzzy Itemset Mining

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Carmen; Lopez, Francisco J.; Cano, Carlos; Garcia-Alcalde, Fernando; Blanco, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene control regions are known to be spread throughout non-coding DNA sequences which may appear distant from the gene promoter. Transcription factors are proteins that coordinately bind to these regions at transcription factor binding sites to regulate gene expression. Several tools allow to detect significant co-occurrences of closely located binding sites (cis-regulatory modules, CRMs). However, these tools present at least one of the following limitations: 1) scope limited to promoter or conserved regions of the genome; 2) do not allow to identify combinations involving more than two motifs; 3) require prior information about target motifs. In this work we present CisMiner, a novel methodology to detect putative CRMs by means of a fuzzy itemset mining approach able to operate at genome-wide scale. CisMiner allows to perform a blind search of CRMs without any prior information about target CRMs nor limitation in the number of motifs. CisMiner tackles the combinatorial complexity of genome-wide cis-regulatory module extraction using a natural representation of motif combinations as itemsets and applying the Top-Down Fuzzy Frequent- Pattern Tree algorithm to identify significant itemsets. Fuzzy technology allows CisMiner to better handle the imprecision and noise inherent to regulatory processes. Results obtained for a set of well-known binding sites in the S. cerevisiae genome show that our method yields highly reliable predictions. Furthermore, CisMiner was also applied to putative in-silico predicted transcription factor binding sites to identify significant combinations in S. cerevisiae and D. melanogaster, proving that our approach can be further applied genome-wide to more complex genomes. CisMiner is freely accesible at: http://genome2.ugr.es/cisminer. CisMiner can be queried for the results presented in this work and can also perform a customized cis-regulatory module prediction on a query set of transcription factor binding sites provided by

  13. Suppression effects in feature-based attention

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixue; Miller, James; Liu, Taosheng

    2015-01-01

    Attending to a feature enhances visual processing of that feature, but it is less clear what occurs to unattended features. Single-unit recording studies in middle temporal (MT) have shown that neuronal modulation is a monotonic function of the difference between the attended and neuron's preferred direction. Such a relationship should predict a monotonic suppressive effect in psychophysical performance. However, past research on suppressive effects of feature-based attention has remained inconclusive. We investigated the suppressive effect for motion direction, orientation, and color in three experiments. We asked participants to detect a weak signal among noise and provided a partially valid feature cue to manipulate attention. We measured performance as a function of the offset between the cued and signal feature. We also included neutral trials where no feature cues were presented to provide a baseline measure of performance. Across three experiments, we consistently observed enhancement effects when the target feature and cued feature coincided and suppression effects when the target feature deviated from the cued feature. The exact profile of suppression was different across feature dimensions: Whereas the profile for direction exhibited a “rebound” effect, the profiles for orientation and color were monotonic. These results demonstrate that unattended features are suppressed during feature-based attention, but the exact suppression profile depends on the specific feature. Overall, the results are largely consistent with neurophysiological data and support the feature-similarity gain model of attention. PMID:26067533

  14. Measurement requirements and techniques for degradation studies and lifetime prediction testing of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, G. T.; Sliemers, F. A.; Derringer, G. C.; Wood, V. E.; Wilkes, K. E.; Gaines, G. B.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Tests of weathering and aging behavior are being developed to characterize the degradation and predict the lifetimes of low-cost photovoltaic arrays. Environmental factors which affect array performance include UV radiation, thermal energy, water, oxygen (generally involved in synergistic effects with UV radiation or high temperatures), physical stress, pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide and ozone), abrasives and dirt. A survey of photovoltaic array testing has shown the need to establish quantitative correlations between certain measurable properties (carbonyl formation, glass transition temperature, and molecular weight change) and modes of degradation and failure.

  15. Molecular deconstruction, detection, and computational prediction of microenvironment-modulated cellular responses to cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    LaBarge, Mark A; Parvin, Bahram; Lorens, James B

    2014-01-01

    The field of bioengineering has pioneered the application of new precision fabrication technologies to model the different geometric, physical or molecular components of tissue microenvironments on solid-state substrata. Tissue engineering approaches building on these advances are used to assemble multicellular mimetic-tissues where cells reside within defined spatial contexts. The functional responses of cells in fabricated microenvironments has revealed a rich interplay between the genome and extracellular effectors in determining cellular phenotypes, and in a number of cases has revealed the dominance of microenvironment over genotype. Precision bioengineered substrata are limited to a few aspects, whereas cell/tissue-derived microenvironments have many undefined components. Thus introducing a computational module may serve to integrate these types of platforms to create reasonable models of drug responses in human tissues. This review discusses how combinatorial microenvironment microarrays and other biomimetic microenvironments have revealed emergent properties of cells in particular microenvironmental contexts, the platforms that can measure phenotypic changes within those contexts, and the computational tools that can unify the microenvironment-imposed functional phenotypes with underlying constellations of proteins and genes. Ultimately we propose that a merger of these technologies will enable more accurate pre-clinical drug discovery. PMID:24582543

  16. Local stimulus disambiguation with global motion filters predicts adaptive surround modulation.

    PubMed

    Dellen, Babette; Torras, Carme

    2013-10-01

    Humans have no problem segmenting different motion stimuli despite the ambiguity of local motion signals. Adaptive surround modulation, i.e., the apparent switching between integrative and antagonistic modes, is assumed to play a crucial role in this process. However, so far motion processing models based on local integration have not been able to provide a unifying explanation for this phenomenon. This motivated us to investigate the problem of local stimulus disambiguation in an alternative and fundamentally distinct motion-processing model which uses global motion filters for velocity computation. Local information is reconstructed at the end of the processing stream through the constructive interference of global signals, i.e., inverse transformations. We show that in this model local stimulus disambiguation can be achieved by means of a novel filter embedded in this architecture. This gives rise to both integrative and antagonistic effects which are in agreement with those observed in psychophysical experiments with humans, providing a functional explanation for effects of motion repulsion. PMID:23685285

  17. Molecular deconstruction, detection, and computational prediction of microenvironment-modulated cellular responses to cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Labarge, Mark A; Parvin, Bahram; Lorens, James B

    2014-04-01

    The field of bioengineering has pioneered the application of new precision fabrication technologies to model the different geometric, physical or molecular components of tissue microenvironments on solid-state substrata. Tissue engineering approaches building on these advances are used to assemble multicellular mimetic-tissues where cells reside within defined spatial contexts. The functional responses of cells in fabricated microenvironments have revealed a rich interplay between the genome and extracellular effectors in determining cellular phenotypes and in a number of cases have revealed the dominance of microenvironment over genotype. Precision bioengineered substrata are limited to a few aspects, whereas cell/tissue-derived microenvironments have many undefined components. Thus, introducing a computational module may serve to integrate these types of platforms to create reasonable models of drug responses in human tissues. This review discusses how combinatorial microenvironment microarrays and other biomimetic microenvironments have revealed emergent properties of cells in particular microenvironmental contexts, the platforms that can measure phenotypic changes within those contexts, and the computational tools that can unify the microenvironment-imposed functional phenotypes with underlying constellations of proteins and genes. Ultimately we propose that a merger of these technologies will enable more accurate pre-clinical drug discovery. PMID:24582543

  18. Steady state and modulated heat conduction in layered systems predicted by the analytical solution of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordonez-Miranda, Jose; Yang, Ronggui; Volz, Sebastian; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2015-08-01

    Based on the phonon Boltzmann transport equation under the relaxation time approximation, analytical expressions for the temperature profiles of both the steady state and modulated heat conduction inside a thin film deposited on a substrate are derived and analyzed. It is shown that these components of the temperature depend strongly on the ratio between the film thickness and the average phonon mean free path (MFP), and they exhibit the diffusive behavior as predicted by the Fourier's law of heat conduction when this ratio is much larger than unity. In contrast, in the ballistic regime when this ratio is comparable to or smaller than unity, the steady-state temperature tends to be independent of position, while the amplitude and the phase of the modulated temperature appear to be lower than those determined by the Fourier's law. Furthermore, we derive an invariant of heat conduction and a simple formula for the cross-plane thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films, which could be a useful guide for understanding and optimizing the thermal performance of the layered systems. This work represents the Boltzmann transport equation-based extension of the Rosencwaig and Gersho work [J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976)], which is based on the Fourier's law and has widely been used as the theoretical framework for the development of photoacoustic and photothermal techniques. This work might shed some light on developing a theoretical basis for the determination of the phonon MFP and relaxation time using ultrafast laser-based transient heating techniques.

  19. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

  20. δ-Opioid and Dopaminergic Processes in Accumbens Shell Modulate the Cholinergic Control of Predictive Learning and Choice

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Vincent; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus; Chieng, Billy C.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making depends on the ability to extract predictive information from the environment to guide future actions. Outcome-specific Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) provides an animal model of this process in which a stimulus predicting a particular outcome biases choice toward actions earning that outcome. Recent evidence suggests that cellular adaptations of δ-opioid receptors (DORs) on cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-S) are necessary for PIT. Here we found that modulation of DORs in CINs critically influences D1-receptor (D1R)-expressing projection neurons in the NAc-S to promote PIT. First, we assessed PIT-induced changes in signaling processes in dopamine D1- and D2-receptor-expressing neurons using drd2-eGFP mice, and found that PIT-related signaling was restricted to non-D2R-eGFP-expressing neurons, suggesting major involvement of D1R-neurons. Next we confirmed the role of D1Rs pharmacologically: the D1R antagonist SCH-23390, but not the D2R antagonist raclopride, infused into the NAc-S abolished PIT in rats, an effect that depended on DOR activity. Moreover, asymmetrical infusion of SCH-23390 and the DOR antagonist naltrindole into the NAc-S also abolished PIT. DOR agonists were found to sensitize the firing responses of CINs in brain slices prepared immediately after the PIT test. We confirmed the opioid-acetylcholinergic influence over D1R-neurons by selectively blocking muscarinic M4 receptors in the NAc-S, which tightly regulate the activity of D1Rs, a treatment that rescued the deficit in PIT induced by naltrindole. We describe a model of NAc-S function in which DORs modulate CINs to influence both D1R-neurons and stimulus-guided choice between goal-directed actions. PMID:24453326

  1. Learned predictiveness training modulates biases towards using boundary or landmark cues during navigation

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Matthew G.; Smith, Alastair D.; Haselgrove, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A number of navigational theories state that learning about landmark information should not interfere with learning about shape information provided by the boundary walls of an environment. A common test of such theories has been to assess whether landmark information will overshadow, or restrict, learning about shape information. Whilst a number of studies have shown that landmarks are not able to overshadow learning about shape information, some have shown that landmarks can, in fact, overshadow learning about shape information. Given the continued importance of theories that grant the shape information that is provided by the boundary of an environment a special status during learning, the experiments presented here were designed to assess whether the relative salience of shape and landmark information could account for the discrepant results of overshadowing studies. In Experiment 1, participants were first trained that either the landmarks within an arena (landmark-relevant), or the shape information provided by the boundary walls of an arena (shape-relevant), were relevant to finding a hidden goal. In a subsequent stage, when novel landmark and shape information were made relevant to finding the hidden goal, landmarks dominated behaviour for those given landmark-relevant training, whereas shape information dominated behaviour for those given shape-relevant training. Experiment 2, which was conducted without prior relevance training, revealed that the landmark cues, unconditionally, dominated behaviour in our task. The results of the present experiments, and the conflicting results from previous overshadowing experiments, are explained in terms of associative models that incorporate an attention variant. PMID:25409751

  2. Multivariate analysis of factors predicting prostate dose in intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Tsuneyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Yoshinori; Kitsuda, Kenji; Notogawa, Takuya; Miki, Katsuhito; Nakamura, Kiyonao; Ishigaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a multivariate analysis to determine relationships between prostate radiation dose and the state of surrounding organs, including organ volumes and the internal angle of the levator ani muscle (LAM), based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images after bone matching. We analyzed 270 CBCT data sets from 30 consecutive patients receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer. With patients in the supine position on a couch with the HipFix system, data for center of mass (COM) displacement of the prostate and the state of individual organs were acquired and compared between planning CT and CBCT scans. Dose distributions were then recalculated based on CBCT images. The relative effects of factors on the variance in COM, dose covering 95% of the prostate volume (D{sub 95%}), and percentage of prostate volume covered by the 100% isodose line (V{sub 100%}) were evaluated by a backward stepwise multiple regression analysis. COM displacement in the anterior-posterior direction (COM{sub AP}) correlated significantly with the rectum volume (δVr) and the internal LAM angle (δθ; R = 0.63). Weak correlations were seen for COM in the left-right (R = 0.18) and superior-inferior directions (R = 0.31). Strong correlations between COM{sub AP} and prostate D{sub 95%} and V{sub 100%} were observed (R ≥ 0.69). Additionally, the change ratios in δVr and δθ remained as predictors of prostate D{sub 95%} and V{sub 100%}. This study shows statistically that maintaining the same rectum volume and LAM state for both the planning CT simulation and treatment is important to ensure the correct prostate dose in the supine position with bone matching.

  3. Stimulus onset predictability modulates proactive action control in a Go/No-go task

    PubMed Central

    Berchicci, Marika; Lucci, Giuliana; Spinelli, Donatella; Di Russo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the presence/absence of visual cues specifying the onset of an upcoming, action-related stimulus modulates pre-stimulus brain activity, associated with the proactive control of goal-directed actions. To this aim we asked 12 subjects to perform an equal probability Go/No-go task with four stimulus configurations in two conditions: (1) uncued, i.e., without any external information about the timing of stimulus onset; and (2) cued, i.e., with external visual cues providing precise information about the timing of stimulus onset. During task both behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Behavioral results showed faster response times in the cued than uncued condition, confirming existing literature. ERPs showed novel results in the proactive control stage, that started about 1 s before the motor response. We observed a slow rising prefrontal positive activity, more pronounced in the cued than the uncued condition. Further, also pre-stimulus activity of premotor areas was larger in cued than uncued condition. In the post-stimulus period, the P3 amplitude was enhanced when the time of stimulus onset was externally driven, confirming that external cueing enhances processing of stimulus evaluation and response monitoring. Our results suggest that different pre-stimulus processing come into play in the two conditions. We hypothesize that the large prefrontal and premotor activities recorded with external visual cues index the monitoring of the external stimuli in order to finely regulate the action. PMID:25964751