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  1. Early cranial ultrasound lesions predict head circumference at age 2 in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy S.; Kuban, Karl CK; O’Shea, T. Michael; Westra, Sjirk; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Leviton, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To assess how well early ultrasound lesions in preterm newborns predict reduced head circumference at two years, we followed 923 children born before the 28th week of gestation who were not microcephalic then until they were 2 years old. Two independent sonologists agreed on the presence/absence of four lesions, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), moderate/severe ventriculomegaly, an echodense lesion, and an echolucent lesion. Each also recorded the size, laterality and location. 6% of children who had a normal ultrasound scan were microcephalic compared to 15% who had IVH, 19% who had an echolucent lesion, and in 20% who had ventriculomegaly. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for microcephaly associated with different ultrasound images were IVH: 1.5 (0.9, 2.4), ventriculomegaly: 2.7 (1.6, 4.8), an echodense lesion 1.4 (0.8, 2.3), and an echolucent lesion: 2.8 (1.4, 5.4). Ventriculomegaly and an echolucent lesion had very similar low positive predictive values (24% and 27%) and high negative predictive values (91% and 90%) for microcephaly. Ventriculomegaly had a higher sensitivity for microcephaly than did an echolucent lesion (24% vs 16%). Focal white-matter damage, as characterized by an echolucent lesion, and diffuse white-matter damage, as suggested by ventriculomegaly, predict an increased risk of microcephaly. PMID:20724751

  2. Early Gesture Predicts Language Delay in Children with Pre- Or Perinatal Brain Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Eve; Levine, Susan C.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Does early gesture use predict later productive and receptive vocabulary in children with pre- or perinatal unilateral brain lesions (PL)? Eleven children with PL were categorized into 2 groups based on whether their gesture at 18 months was within or below the range of typically developing (TD) children. Children with PL whose gesture was within…

  3. Predicting Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesion Location and Volume.

    PubMed

    Smitherman, Emily; Hernandez, Ana; Stavinoha, Peter L; Huang, Rong; Kernie, Steven G; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Miles, Darryl K

    2016-01-01

    Brain lesions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are heterogeneous, rendering outcome prognostication difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate whether early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lesion location and lesion volume within discrete brain anatomical zones can accurately predict long-term neurological outcome in children post-TBI. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI hyperintense lesions in 63 children obtained 6.2±5.6 days postinjury were correlated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended-Pediatrics (GOS-E Peds) score at 13.5±8.6 months. FLAIR lesion volume was expressed as hyperintensity lesion volume index (HLVI)=(hyperintensity lesion volume / whole brain volume)×100 measured within three brain zones: zone A (cortical structures); zone B (basal ganglia, corpus callosum, internal capsule, and thalamus); and zone C (brainstem). HLVI-total and HLVI-zone C predicted good and poor outcome groups (p<0.05). GOS-E Peds correlated with HLVI-total (r=0.39; p=0.002) and HLVI in all three zones: zone A (r=0.31; p<0.02); zone B (r=0.35; p=0.004); and zone C (r=0.37; p=0.003). In adolescents ages 13-17 years, HLVI-total correlated best with outcome (r=0.5; p=0.007), whereas in younger children under the age of 13, HLVI-zone B correlated best (r=0.52; p=0.001). Compared to patients with lesions in zone A alone or in zones A and B, patients with lesions in all three zones had a significantly higher odds ratio (4.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-16.0) for developing an unfavorable outcome. PMID:25808802

  4. Early-Stage White Matter Lesions Detected by Multispectral MRI Segmentation Predict Progressive Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Jokinen, Hanna; Gonçalves, Nicolau; Vigário, Ricardo; Lipsanen, Jari; Fazekas, Franz; Schmidt, Reinhold; Barkhof, Frederik; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2015-01-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model-based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in normal-appearing brain tissue. This study investigated how the different stages of WML, from a “pre-visible” stage to fully developed lesions, predict future cognitive decline. MRI scans of 78 subjects, aged 65–84 years, from the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study were analyzed using a self-supervised multispectral segmentation algorithm to identify tissue types and partial WML volumes. Each lesion voxel was classified as having a small (33%), intermediate (66%), or high (100%) proportion of lesion tissue. The subjects were evaluated with detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at three annual follow-up visits. We found that voxels with small partial WML predicted lower executive function compound scores at baseline, and steeper decline of executive scores in follow-up, independently of the demographics and the conventionally estimated hyperintensity volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The intermediate and fully developed lesions were related to impairments in multiple cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, memory, and global cognitive function. In conclusion, early-stage partial WML, still too faint to be clearly detectable on conventional MRI, already predict executive dysfunction and progressive cognitive decline regardless of the conventionally evaluated WML load. These findings advance early recognition of small vessel disease and incipient vascular cognitive impairment. PMID:26696814

  5. Computational Modeling Predicts Interleukin-10 Control of Lesion Sterilization By Balancing Early Host-Immunity-Mediated Antimicrobial Responses With Caseation During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cilfone, Nicholas A.; Ford, Christopher B.; Marino, Simeone; Mattila, Joshua T.; Gideon, Hannah P.; Flynn, JoAnne L.; Kirschner, Denise E.; Linderman, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Although almost a third of the world’s population is infected with the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), our understanding of the functions of many immune factors involved in fighting infection is limited. Determining the role of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) at the level of the granuloma has proven difficult due to lesional heterogeneity and the limitations of animal models. Here we take an in silico approach and, through a series of virtual experiments, we predict several novel roles for IL-10 in TB granulomas: (1) decreased levels of IL-10 lead to increased numbers of sterile lesions, but at the cost of early increased caseation, (2) small increases in early antimicrobial activity cause this increased lesion sterility, (3) IL-10 produced by activated macrophages is a major mediator of early antimicrobial activity and early host-induced caseation and (4) increasing levels of infected macrophage derived IL-10 promotes bacterial persistence by limiting the early antimicrobial response and preventing lesion sterilization. Our findings, currently only accessible using an in silico approach, suggest that IL-10 at the individual granuloma scale is a critical regulator of lesion outcome. These predictions suggest IL-10 related mechanisms that could be used as adjunctive therapies during TB. PMID:25512604

  6. Evolution of early lesions in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, B; Mukherjee, A; Girdhar, A; Husain, S; Malaviya, G N; Girdhar, B K

    1993-09-01

    We observed 29 patients presenting with vague peripheral neurological symptoms for 6 months or more. During this period, 16 developed clinical leprosy, 3 developed borderline tuberculoid leprosy and the other 13 developed neuritic leprosy. Of these 13 cases 11 subsequently developed skin lesions similar to those seen in indeterminate and in borderline tuberculoid leprosy. Based on the above observations, an attempt has been made to explain the evolution of early lesions of leprosy. PMID:8231606

  7. [Remineralizing methods in early caries lesions - review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Berczyński, Paweł; Gmerek, Anna; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of early caries lesions are the basic tenets of minimally invasive dentistry. One of the key elements of a biological approach is the usage of remineralizing agents, which are great alternative to surgical intervention. This article shows a review of the literature concering materials used for the treatment of early caries lesions. PMID:27116859

  8. Prediction of Drug Penetration in Tuberculosis Lesions.

    PubMed

    Sarathy, Jansy P; Zuccotto, Fabio; Hsinpin, Ho; Sandberg, Lars; Via, Laura E; Marriner, Gwendolyn A; Masquelin, Thierry; Wyatt, Paul; Ray, Peter; Dartois, Véronique

    2016-08-12

    The penetration of antibiotics in necrotic tuberculosis lesions is heterogeneous and drug-specific, but the factors underlying such differential partitioning are unknown. We hypothesized that drug binding to macromolecules in necrotic foci (or caseum) prevents passive drug diffusion through avascular caseum, a critical site of infection. Using a caseum binding assay and MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of tuberculosis drugs, we showed that binding to caseum inversely correlates with passive diffusion into the necrotic core. We developed a high-throughput assay relying on rapid equilibrium dialysis and a caseum surrogate designed to mimic the composition of native caseum. A set of 279 compounds was profiled in this assay to generate a large data set and explore the physicochemical drivers of free diffusion into caseum. Principle component analysis and modeling of the data set delivered an in silico signature predictive of caseum binding, combining 69 molecular descriptors. Among the major positive drivers of binding were high lipophilicity and poor solubility. Determinants of molecular shape such as the number of rings, particularly aromatic rings, number of sp(2) carbon counts, and volume-to-surface ratio negatively correlated with the free fraction, indicating that low-molecular-weight nonflat compounds are more likely to exhibit low caseum binding properties and diffuse effectively through caseum. To provide simple guidance in the property-based design of new compounds, a rule of thumb was derived whereby the sum of the hydrophobicity (clogP) and aromatic ring count is proportional to caseum binding. These tools can be used to ensure desirable lesion partitioning and guide the selection of optimal regimens against tuberculosis. PMID:27626295

  9. Early Prediction of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Leona C.; Nicolaides, Kypros H.

    2014-01-01

    Effective screening for the development of early onset preeclampsia (PE) can be provided in the first-trimester of pregnancy. Screening by a combination of maternal risk factors, uterine artery Doppler, mean arterial pressure, maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, and placental growth factor can identify about 95% of cases of early onset PE for a false-positive rate of 10%. PMID:25136369

  10. Early Preinvasive Lesions in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chene, Gautier; Lamblin, Gery; Le Bail-Carval, Karine; Chabert, Philippe; Bakrin, Naoual; Mellier, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Faced with the catastrophic prognosis for ovarian cancer due to the fact that it is most often diagnosed late at the peritoneal carcinomatosis stage, screening and early detection could probably reduce the mortality rate. A better understanding of the molecular characteristics of the different ovarian cancer subtypes and their specific molecular signatures is indispensable prior to development of new screening strategies. We discuss here the early natural history of ovarian cancer and its origins. PMID:24804229

  11. Pathologic Heterogeneity Persists in Early Active Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Imke; Weigand, Stephen D; Popescu, Bogdan F G; Frischer, Josa M; Parisi, Joseph E; Guo, Yong; Lassmann, Hans; Brück, Wolfgang; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions demonstrate immunopathological heterogeneity in patterns of demyelination. Previous cross-sectional studies reported immunopatterns of demyelination were identical among multiple active demyelinating lesions from the same individual, but differed between individuals, leading to the hypothesis of intraindividual pathological homogeneity and interindividual heterogeneity. Other groups suggested a time-dependent heterogeneity of lesions. The objective of our present study was to analyze tissue samples collected longitudinally to determine whether patterns of demyelination persist over time within a given patient. Methods Archival tissue samples derived from patients with pathologically confirmed CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease who had undergone either diagnostic serial biopsy or biopsy followed by autopsy, were analyzed immunohistochemically. Inclusion criteria was the presence of early active demyelinating lesions - required for immunopattern classification - obtained from the same patient at two or more time points. Results Among 1321 surgical biopsies consistent with MS, 22 cases met study inclusion criteria. Twenty-one patients (95%) showed a persistence of immunopathological patterns in tissue sampled from different time points. This persistence was demonstrated for all major patterns of demyelination. A single patient showed features suggestive of both pattern II and pattern III on biopsy, but only pattern II among all active lesions examined at autopsy. Interpretation These findings continue to support the concept of patient-dependent immunopathological heterogeneity in early MS and suggest that the mechanisms and targets of tissue injury may differ among patient subgroups. These observations have potentially significant implications for individualized therapeutic approaches. PMID:24771535

  12. Identifying predictive morphologic features of malignancy in eyelid lesions

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Christina; Johnson, Davin; Pang, Renee; Kratky, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine features of eyelid lesions most predictive of malignancy, and to design a key to assist general practitioners in the triaging of such lesions. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Department of Ophthalmology at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ont. Participants A total of 199 consecutive periocular lesions requiring biopsy or excision were included. Main outcome measures First, potential features suggestive of malignancy for eyelid lesions were identified based on a survey sent to Canadian oculoplastic surgeons. The sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratios (ORs) of these features were then determined using 199 consecutive photographed eyelid lesions of patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology and underwent biopsy or excision. A triage key was then created based on the features with the highest ORs, and it was pilot-tested by a group of medical students. Results Of the 199 lesions included, 161 (80.9%) were benign and 38 (19.1%) were malignant. The 3 features with the highest ORs in predicting malignancy were infiltration (OR = 18.2, P < .01), ulceration (OR = 14.7, P < .01), and loss of eyelashes (OR = 6.0, P < .01). The acronym LUI (loss of eyelashes, ulceration, infiltration) was created to assist in memory recall. After watching a video describing the LUI triage key, the mean total score of a group of medical students for correctly identifying malignant lesions increased from 46% to 70% (P < .001). Conclusion Differentiating benign from malignant eyelid lesions can be difficult even for experienced physicians. The LUI triage key provides physicians with an evidence-based, easy-to-remember system for assisting in the triaging of these lesions. PMID:25756148

  13. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    TESTI, D.; NARDONE, M.; MELONE, P.; CARDELLI, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  14. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  15. Early lymphoid lesions: conceptual, diagnostic and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Karthik A.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Odejide, Oreofe O.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Jaffe, Elaine S.

    2014-01-01

    There are no “benign lymphomas”, a fact due to the nature of lymphoid cells to circulate and home as part of their normal function. Thus, benign clonal expansions of lymphocytes are only rarely recognized when localized. Recent studies have identified a number of lymphoid proliferations that lie at the interface between benign and malignant. Some of these are clonal proliferations that carry many of the molecular hallmarks of their malignant counterparts, such as BCL2/IGH and CCND1/IGH translocations associated with the in situ forms of follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, respectively. There are other clonal B-cell proliferations with low risk of progression; these include the pediatric variants of follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. Historically, early or incipient forms of T/NK-cell neoplasia also have been identified, such as lymphomatoid papulosis and refractory celiac disease. More recently an indolent form of T-cell lymphoproliferative disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract has been described. Usually, CD8+, the clonal cells are confined to the mucosa. The clinical course is chronic, but non-progressive. NK-cell enteropathy is a clinically similar condition, composed of cytologically atypical NK-cells that may involve the stomach, small bowel or colon. Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a cytologically alarming lesion that is self-limited if confined to the seroma cavity. Atypical lymphoid proliferations that lie at the border of benign and malignant can serve as instructive models of lymphomagenesis. It is also critical that they be correctly diagnosed to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful therapy. PMID:25176983

  16. Nuclear Division Index may Predict Neoplastic Colorectal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    IONESCU, Mirela E.; CIOCIRLAN, Mihai; BECHEANU, Gabriel; NICOLAIE, Tudor; DITESCU, Cristina; TEIUSANU, Adriana G.; GOLOGAN, Serban I.; ARBANAS, Tudor; DICULESCU, Mircea M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops by accumulation of multiple genetic damages leading to genetic instability that can be evaluated by cytogenetic methods. In the current study we used Cytokinesis-Blocked Micronucleus Assay (CBMN) technique to assess the behavior of Nuclear Division Index(NDI) in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with CRC and polyps versus patients with normal colonoscopy. Methods: Blood samples were collected from patients after informed consent. By CBMN technique we assessed the proportion of mono-nucleated, bi-nucleated, tri-nucleated and tetra-nucleated cells/500 cells, to calculate NDI. Data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 11.0 package. Results: 45 patients were available for analysis, 23 men and 22 women, with a mean age of 58.7±13.5. 17 had normal colonoscopy, 17 colonic polyps and 11 CRC. The mean NDI values were significantly smaller for patients with CRC or polyps than in patients with normal colonoscopy (1.57 vs 1.73, p=0.013). The difference persisted for patients with neoplastic lesions (adenomas and carcinomas) when compared with patients with normal colonoscopy or non neoplastic (hyperplastic) polyps (1.56 vs.1.71, p=0.018). The NDI cut-off value to predict the presence of adenomas or carcinomas was equal to 1.55 with a 54.2% sensitivity and 81% specificity of lower values (p=0.019). The NDI cut off value to predict the presence of advanced adenomas or cancer was 1.525 for a sensitivity of 56.3% and a specificity of 82.8% (p=0.048). Conclusion: NDI may be useful in screening strategies for colorectal cancer as simple, noninvasive, inexpensive cytogenetic biomarker. PMID:22368693

  17. Clinical monitoring of early caries lesions using cross polarization optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Pelzner, Roger B.

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization and to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anti-caries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role, since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10-μm. It is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper we present early results from two clinical studies underway to measure the effect of fluoride intervention on early lesions. CP-OCT was used to monitor early lesions on enamel and root surfaces before and after intervention with fluoride varnish. The lesion depth and internal structure were resolved for all the lesions examined and some lesions had well defined surface zones of lower reflectivity that may be indicative of arrested lesions. Changes were also noted in the structure of some of the lesions after fluoride intervention.

  18. Early Gesture "Selectively" Predicts Later Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively…

  19. Early gesture selectively predicts later language learning

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively predicted lexical versus syntactic skills at 42 months, even with early child speech controlled. Specifically, number of different meanings conveyed in gesture at 18 months predicted vocabulary at 42 months, but number of gesture+speech combinations did not. In contrast, number of gesture+speech combinations, particularly those conveying sentence-like ideas, produced at 18 months predicted sentence complexity at 42 months, but meanings conveyed in gesture did not. We can thus predict particular milestones in vocabulary and sentence complexity at age 3 1/2 by watching how children move their hands two years earlier. PMID:19120426

  20. Noninvasive Assessment of Early Dental Lesion Using a Dual-Contrast Photoacoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Renxiang; Shao, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiaoxiang; Tao, Chao; Ge, Jiuyu; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    Dental hard tissue lesions, including caries, cracked-tooth, etc., are the most prevalent diseases of people worldwide. Dental lesions and correlative diseases greatly decrease the life quality of patients throughout their lifetime. It is still hard to noninvasively detect these dental lesions in their early stages. Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging hybrid technology combining the high spatial resolution of ultrasound in deep tissue with the rich optical contrasts. In this study, a dual-contrast photoacoustic tomography is applied to detect the early dental lesions. One contrast, named B-mode, is related to the optical absorption. It is good at providing the sharp image about the morphological and macro-structural features of the teeth. Another contrast, named S-mode, is associated with the micro-structural and mechanical properties of the hard tissue. It is sensitive to the change of tissue properties induced by the early dental lesions. Experiments show that the comprehensive analysis of dual-contrast information can provide reliable information of the early dental lesions. Moreover, the imaging parameter of S-mode is device-independent and it could measure tissue properties quantitatively. We expect that the proposed scheme could be beneficial for improving safety, accuracy and sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis of the dental lesion.

  1. Noninvasive Assessment of Early Dental Lesion Using a Dual-Contrast Photoacoustic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Renxiang; Shao, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiaoxiang; Tao, Chao; Ge, Jiuyu; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Dental hard tissue lesions, including caries, cracked-tooth, etc., are the most prevalent diseases of people worldwide. Dental lesions and correlative diseases greatly decrease the life quality of patients throughout their lifetime. It is still hard to noninvasively detect these dental lesions in their early stages. Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging hybrid technology combining the high spatial resolution of ultrasound in deep tissue with the rich optical contrasts. In this study, a dual-contrast photoacoustic tomography is applied to detect the early dental lesions. One contrast, named B-mode, is related to the optical absorption. It is good at providing the sharp image about the morphological and macro-structural features of the teeth. Another contrast, named S-mode, is associated with the micro-structural and mechanical properties of the hard tissue. It is sensitive to the change of tissue properties induced by the early dental lesions. Experiments show that the comprehensive analysis of dual-contrast information can provide reliable information of the early dental lesions. Moreover, the imaging parameter of S-mode is device-independent and it could measure tissue properties quantitatively. We expect that the proposed scheme could be beneficial for improving safety, accuracy and sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis of the dental lesion. PMID:26902394

  2. Early Axonal Area Measurement Predicts Early Nerve Regeneration Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Michael; Yan, Yuhui; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Wang, Ziyi; Agresti, Michael; Matloub, Hani; Yan, Ji-Gheng

    2016-03-01

    Background Study of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration in laboratory animals can be time consuming and expensive. This study determines if it is possible to reduce time and cost for a peripheral nerve regeneration study. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if nerve axonal area (NXA) or nerve fiber counting (NFC) correlates with compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery which is known to predict functional muscular recovery in the early stage of nerve regeneration. Methods In this study, six rats had a crush injury of the sciatic nerve without treatment. These rats were evaluated at 4 weeks of recovery with the following assessments: CMAP readings from the extensor digitorum longus, NXA measurement, and NFC. Results NXA correlated with CMAP; NFC did not correlate with CMAP. Conclusion NFC is not a reliable method for predicting muscular recovery in the early stages. NXA is a dependable assessment for muscular recovery in the early stages of nerve regeneration. Using NXA measurement can predict later electrophysiological and functional recovery. Using NXA with CMAP measurement for nerve injury, repair, and treatment in the animal study can save cost and time. PMID:26636887

  3. Usefulness of a fluorescence visualization system for the detection of oral precancerous and early cancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Yuichi; Fujii, Tomoko; Ugaki, Yoshihide; Yasui, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Dateoka, Suguru; Kakudo, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Early detection of precancerous and early cancerous lesions could greatly reduce both the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to analyze a fluorescence visualization (FV) system for the detection of precancerous and early cancerous lesions in rat tongue carcinogenesis and human oral cancerous lesions using for the first time a 4NQO rat model and human tissue. Based on the results from the rat tongue carcinogenesis model, under direct FV, the normal oral mucosa emitted various shades of pale green autofluorescence. In the precancerous and early cancerous cases, the lesion appeared as an irregular dark area. Histological examination of the lesions showed that the VELscope system had a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 100% in discriminating normal mucosa from dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (CIS) or invasive carcinoma. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein level was gradually increased with progression of carcinogenic transformation. Furthermore, the results of PCNA and FV loss (FVL) were correlated. Next, results from 17 patients were also presented. Histological examination of the lesions showed that the VELscope system had a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 100% in discriminating normal mucosa from severe dysplasia/CIS or invasive carcinoma. There were no normal epithelium cells in any of the FVL regions. Furthermore, to clarify the usefulness of FV compared to vital staining with iodine, we investigated the surgical margins of early oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and compared the FVL and iodine unstained area (IU). The percentage of various types of dysplasia were almost equal when comparing the FVL and IU. These results suggest that this direct FV device has the potential for simple, cost-effective screening, detection and margin determination of oral precancerous and early cancerous lesions. PMID:27121913

  4. Early Results of Retrograde Transpopliteal Angioplasty of Iliofemoral Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Saumitra; Gibson, Matthew; Magee, Timothy R.; Galland, Robert B.; Torrie, E. Peter H.

    2001-12-15

    Purpose: To assess whether the retrograde transpopliteal approach is a safe, practical and effective alternative to femoral puncture for percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).Methods: Forty PTAs in 38 patients were evaluated. Intentional subintimal recanalization was performed in 13 limbs. Ultrasound evaluation of the popliteal fossa was carried out 30 min and 24 hr post procedurally in the first 10 patients to exclude local complications. All patients had a follow-up of at least 6 weeks.Results: The indication for PTA was critical ischemia in seven limbs and disabling claudication in the remainder.Stenoses (single or multiple) were present in 24 and occlusion in 15.The superficial femoral artery (SFA) was the commonest segment affected(36) followed by common femoral artery (CFA) in four and iliac artery in four. Technical success was achieved in 38 of 39 limbs where angioplasty was carried out. In one limb no lesion was found.Immediate complications were distal embolization in two and thrombosis in one. None of these required immediate surgery. There were no puncture site hematomas or popliteal arteriovenous fistulae.Symptomatic patency at 6 weeks was 85%. Further reconstructive surgery was required in three limbs and amputation in two.Conclusion: The transpopliteal approach has a high technical success rate and a low complication rate with a potential to develop into an outpatient procedure. It should be considered for flush SFA occulsions or iliac disease with tandem CFA/SFA disease where the contralateral femoral approach is often technically difficult.

  5. Treatment of early caries lesions using biomimetic self-assembling peptides – a clinical safety trial

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, P. A.; Davies, R. P. W.; Burke, J. L.; Smith, A.; Aggeli, A.; Brookes, S. J.; Kirkham, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We previously reported that a rationally designed biomimetic self-assembling peptide, P11−4, nucleated hydroxyapatite de novo and was apparently capable of in situ enamel regeneration following infiltration into caries-like lesions. Our present aim was to determine the safety and potential clinical efficacy of a single application of P11−4 on early enamel lesions. Materials and methods Fifteen healthy adults with Class V 'white spot' lesions received a single application of P11−4. Adverse events and lesion appearances were recorded over 180 days. Results Patients treated with P11−4 experienced a total of 11 adverse events during the study, of which two were possibly related to the protocol. Efficacy evaluation suggested that treatment with P11−4 significantly decreased lesion size (p = 0.02) after 30 days and shifted the apparent progression of the lesions from 'arrested/progressing' to 'remineralising' (p <0.001). A highly significant improvement in the global impression of change was recorded at day 30 compared with baseline (p <0.001). Conclusions The results suggest that treatment of early caries lesions with P11−4 is safe, and that a single application is associated with significant enamel regeneration, presumably by promoting mineral deposition within the subsurface tissue. PMID:23969679

  6. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  7. Early loss of oligodendrocytes in human and experimental neuromyelitis optica lesions

    PubMed Central

    Wrzos, Claudia; Winkler, Anne; Metz, Imke; Kayser, Dieter M.; Thal, Dietmar R.; Wegner, Christiane; Brück, Wolfgang; Nessler, Stefan; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic, mostly relapsing inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS characterized by serum anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies in the majority of patients. Anti-AQP4 antibodies derived from NMO patients target and deplete astrocytes in experimental models when co-injected with complement. However, the time course and mechanisms of oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination and the fate of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) have not been examined in detail. Also, no studies regarding astrocyte repopulation of experimental NMO lesions have been reported. We utilized two rat models using either systemic transfer or focal intracerebral injection of recombinant human anti-AQP4 antibodies to generate NMO-like lesions. Time-course experiments were performed to examine oligodendroglial and astroglial damage and repair. In addition, oligodendrocyte pathology was studied in early human NMO lesions. Apart from early complement-mediated astrocyte destruction, we observed a prominent, very early loss of oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) as well as a delayed loss of myelin. Astrocyte repopulation of focal NMO lesions was already substantial after 1 week. Olig2-positive OPCs reappeared before NogoA-positive, mature oligodendrocytes. Thus, using two experimental models that closely mimic the human disease, our study demonstrates that oligodendrocyte and OPC loss is an extremely early feature in the formation of human and experimental NMO lesions and leads to subsequent, delayed demyelination, highlighting an important difference in the pathogenesis of MS and NMO. PMID:24292009

  8. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M’hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S.; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans. PMID:26079768

  9. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma - precursor lesions and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Antonio Barros; Fagundes, Renato Borges

    2012-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) carries a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis. Early detection is highly desirable, since surgical and endoscopic resection offers the only possible cure for esophageal cancer. Population screening should be undertaken in high risk areas, and in low or moderate risk areas for people with risk factors (alcoholics, smokers, mate drinkers, history of head and neck cancer, achalasia and lye stricture of the esophagus). Esophageal balloon cytology is an easy and inexpensive sampling technique, but the current methods are insufficient for primary screening due to sampling errors. Conventional endoscopy with biopsy remains the standard procedure for the identification of pre-malignant and early malignant changes in esophageal mucosa and endoscopic detection. It may be enhanced by several techniques such as dye and optic chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, and optical-based spectroscopic and imaging modalities. Since more than 80% of SCCE deaths occur in developing countries, where expensive techniques such as narrow band imaging (NBI) and autofluorescence imaging are unavailable, the most cost-effective tool for targeting biopsies may be Lugol dye chromoendoscopy, since it is easy, accurate, inexpensive and available worldwide. In ideal conditions, or in developed countries, is it reasonable to think that optimal detection will require a combination of techniques, such as the combination of Lugol’s chromoendoscopy and NBI to identify esophageal areas that require further characterization by a high resolution technique. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness will determine whether these modalities will become part of standard endoscopy practice. PMID:22267978

  10. Validity of Acute Stroke Lesion Volume Estimation by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging–Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score Depends on Lesion Location in 496 Patients With Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Julian; Cheng, Bastian; Ebinger, Martin; Köhrmann, Martin; Wu, Ona; Kang, Dong-Wha; Liebeskind, David S.; Tourdias, Thomas; Singer, Oliver C.; Christensen, Soren; Campbell, Bruce; Luby, Marie; Warach, Steven; Fiehler, Jens; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score (ASPECTS) has been used to estimate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion volume in acute stroke. We aimed to assess correlations of DWI-ASPECTS with lesion volume in different middle cerebral artery (MCA) subregions and reproduce existing ASPECTS thresholds of a malignant profile defined by lesion volume ≥100 mL. Methods We analyzed data of patients with MCA stroke from a prospective observational study of DWI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in acute stroke. DWI-ASPECTS and lesion volume were calculated. The population was divided into subgroups based on lesion localization (superficial MCA territory, deep MCA territory, or both). Correlation of ASPECTS and infarct volume was calculated, and receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis was performed to identify the optimal ASPECTS threshold for ≥100-mL lesion volume. Results A total of 496 patients were included. There was a significant negative correlation between ASPECTS and DWI lesion volume (r=−0.78; P<0.0001). With regards to lesion localization, correlation was weaker in deep MCA region (r=−0.19; P=0.038) when compared with superficial (r=−0.72; P<0.001) or combined superficial and deep MCA lesions (r=−0.72; P<0.001). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis revealed ASPECTS≤6 as best cutoff to identify ≥100-mL DWI lesion volume; however, positive predictive value was low (0.35). Conclusions ASPECTS has limitations when lesion location is not considered. Identification of patients with malignant profile by DWI-ASPECTS may be unreliable. ASPECTS may be a useful tool for the evaluation of noncontrast computed tomography. However, if MRI is used, ASPECTS seems dispensable because lesion volume can easily be quantified on DWI maps. PMID:25316278

  11. Early lesions of follicular lymphoma: a genetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mamessier, Emilie; Song, Joo Y.; Eberle, Franziska C.; Pack, Svetlana; Drevet, Charlotte; Chetaille, Bruno; Abdullaev, Ziedulla; Adelaïde, José; Birnbaum, Daniel; Chaffanet, Max; Pittaluga, Stefania; Roulland, Sandrine; Chott, Andreas; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Nadel, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma is a multi-hit process progressing over many years through the accumulation of numerous genetic alterations. Besides the hallmark t(14;18), it is still unclear which other oncogenic hits contribute to the early steps of transformation and in which precursor stages these occur. To address this issue, we performed high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization microarrays on laser-capture micro-dissected cases of follicular lymphoma in situ (n=4), partial involvement by follicular lymphoma (n=4), and duodenal follicular lymphoma (n=4), assumed to represent, potentially, the earliest stages in the evolution of follicular lymphoma. Cases of reactive follicular hyperplasia (n=2), uninvolved areas from follicular lymphoma in situ lymph nodes, follicular lymphoma grade 1–2 (n=5) and follicular lymphoma grade 3A (n=5) were used as controls. Surprisingly, alterations involving several relevant (onco)genes were found in all entities, but at significantly lower proportions than in overt follicular lymphoma. While the number of alterations clearly assigns all these entities as precursors, the pattern of partial involvement by follicular lymphoma alterations was quantitatively and qualitatively closer to that of follicular lymphoma, indicating significant selective pressure in line with its faster rate of progression. Among the most notable alterations, we observed and validated deletions of 1p36 and gains of the 7p and 12q chromosomes and related oncogenes, which include some of the most recurrent oncogenic alterations in overt follicular lymphoma (TNFRSF14, EZH2, MLL2). By further delineating distinctive and hierarchical molecular and genetic features of early follicular lymphoma entities, our analysis underlines the importance of applying appropriate criteria for the differential diagnosis. It also provides a first set of candidates likely to be involved in the cascade of hits that pave the path of the various progression phases

  12. Can we predict the presence of coronary lesions from blood pressure measurement? A new clinical method.

    PubMed

    El Tahlawi, Mohammad; Abdelbaset, Mohammad; Gouda, Mohammad; Hussein, Ikhlas

    2015-04-01

    The roles of arterial function and structure in cardiovascular physiology have expanded with the development of a variety of parameters that evaluate arterial stiffness. Markers of arterial stiffness have been correlated with cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to find a simple, clinical, noninvasive method to predict atherosclerosis that leads to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to find a simple, clinical, noninvasive method to predict atherosclerosis that leads to the development of CAD. We included 100 cases that underwent coronary angiography in our center owing to different indications. The blood pressure in all cases was measured by two different observers. The oscillatory systolic blood pressure (OSBP) was defined as the point at which the mercury began to oscillate to a minimum level of 1 mm Hg. The auscultatory systolic blood pressure (AUSBP) was defined as the first Korotkoff sound. The difference between OSBP and AUSBP was calculated and called the oscillatory gap (OG). The correlation between the OG and the presence of coronary lesion in coronary angiography was statistically calculated. The study populations had a mean age of 57.3±9 years. The mean±s.d. OG was 14.44±10.44. There was a highly significantly positive correlation between the OG and the presence of coronary artery lesions (r=0.399 and P-value <0.000). There was also a significantly positive correlation between the presence of hypertension and the OG (r=0.376 and P-value <0.000). The difference between OSBP and AUSBP could be used as a simple method to detect atherosclerotic arterial changes. This method could indicate the degree of arterial stiffness. There was a significantly positive correlation between this new indicator of arterial stiffness and the presence of CAD. Any patient with a wide gap between OSBP and AUSBP should be treated early with antihypertensive drugs and statins before the development of CAD. PMID:25567772

  13. Usefulness of voxel-based lesion mapping for predicting motor recovery in subjects with basal ganglia hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Cho, Yoona; Jung, Tae-min; Ahn, Sung Jun; Park, Yoon Ghil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It is important to estimate motor recovery in the early phase after stroke. Many studies have demonstrated that both diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and motor-evoked potentials (MEP) are valuable predictors of motor recovery, but these modalities do not directly reflect the status of the injured gray matter. We report on 2 subjects with basal ganglia hemorrhage who showed similar DTT and MEP findings, but had markedly different clinical outcomes. Specifically, Subject 1 showed no improvement in motor function, whereas Subject 2 exhibited substantial improvement 7 weeks after onset. To determine if differences in gray matter might lend insight into these different outcomes, we analyzed gray matter lesions of the 2 subjects using a novel voxel-based lesion mapping method. The lesion of Subject 1 mainly included the putamen, thalamus, and Heschl's gyri, indicating extension of the hemorrhage in the posterior direction. In contrast, the lesion of Subject 2 mainly included the putamen, insula, and pallidum, indicating that the hemorrhage extended anterior laterally. These differential findings suggest that voxel-based gray matter lesion mapping may help to predict differential motor recovery in subjects with basal ganglia hemorrhage with similar DTT and MEP findings. PMID:27281090

  14. Early myocardial lesions induced by cardiotoxic compounds in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kemi, M; Matsumoto, H; Nomura, Y; Takahashi, R

    1996-07-01

    Early focal myocardial lesions in rats induced by five cardiotoxic compounds were histopathologically observed 1 hr and 4 hr after a single intravenous injection with 1/10 LD50 and LD50. The lesions were observed 1 hr and 4 hr after the treatment with LD50 of isoproterenol (ISP), 4 hr with 1/10 LD50 of ISP, 4 hr with LD50 of hydralazine (HYD), caffeine (CAF) and cyclophosphamide (CYC), but not with adriamycin (ADR). The lesions consisted of homogeneously intensely eosinophilic staining, contraction band formation and fragmentation of cardiac muscle fibers. The lesions were interspersed in the inner one third of the left ventricular walls including the papillary muscles with ISP, HYD and CAF, and were all over the ventricular myocardium with CYC. PMID:8844612

  15. [Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasms type 2A (Sipple's syndrome). An early clinical marker].

    PubMed

    Chabre, O; Labat-Moleur, F; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Stoebner, P; Sobol, H; Bachelot, I

    1992-02-22

    We report the association of a cutaneous lesion with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) in three patients from a French family. These lesions are very similar to those previously described in an Italian and an American MEN 2A family and called cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. In all three families the patients presented with a pruritic and pigmented cutaneous lesion localized unilaterally on the upper back. However, in the French family the patients also complained of paroxysmal pain in the same area, in which we could elicit a touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features in the upper back is known as Notalgia Paresthetica (NP). NP is believed to represent a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal nerve rami. Unlike the two previously reported families, the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the skin biopsies of the French patients did not show any amyloid material. This suggests that the presence of amyloid may not be a constant feature of the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A. We consider these lesions as a form of dorsal neuropathy rather than a cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. Whatever their origin, these cutaneous lesion usually precede the appearance of the neoplastic lesions of MEN 2A. They may act as an early clinical marker that must be searched for in each subject at risk for MEN 2A. In addition, all patients presenting with NP should be screened for MEN 2A. PMID:1348355

  16. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  17. Dentin caries activity in early occlusal lesions selected to receive operative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Maryann; Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Matthews, Abigail G.; Vena, Donald; Grill, Ashley; Craig, Ronald G.; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Members of the practice-based research network Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network investigated the dentin caries activity in early occlusal lesions and its relationship to patient age, preoperative tooth sensitivity and radio-graphic appearance, as well as its influence on preparation depth and volume. Methods PEARL Network practitioner-investigators (P-Is) (n = 45), general dentists who were trained but whose methods were not calibrated, conducted a study regarding postoperative hypersensitivity in resin-based composite restorations. The P-Is enrolled as study participants 613 patients with occlusal carious lesions that, in the P-Is’ clinical judgment, required restoration. The P-Is used baseline radiographs to assess the depth and extent of the lesions. Data for 671 restorations included baseline sensitivity; ranking of dentin caries activity on the opening of the enamel; radiographic visibility (n = 652); and measurements of preparation depth, width and length. Results P-Is found rapidly progressing dentin caries in 38.5 percent (258 of 671) of lesions and slowly progressing (and potentially inactive dentin) caries in the remainder of the lesions. Rapidly progressing caries was not related to the participant’s age or participant-reported preoperative hypersensitivity but was related to the lesion depth as seen radiographically (P < .001) and depth (P < .001) and volume (P < .001) of the preparation. Molars had slightly higher but not statistically significant levels of caries activity. Conclusion Rapidly progressing dentin caries, while present in only 38.5 percent of lesions, was related to the lesion’s radiographic appearance but not to the participant’s age or the study tooth’s pre-operative sensitivity. Clinical Implications On the basis of the low level of rapidly progressing dentin caries in this study population and the fact that slowly progressing caries can be inactive or remineralizing, the

  18. Functional Topography of Early Periventricular Brain Lesions in Relation to Cytoarchitectonic Probabilistic Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudt, Martin; Ticini, Luca F.; Grodd, Wolfgang; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2008-01-01

    Early periventricular brain lesions can not only cause cerebral palsy, but can also induce a reorganization of language. Here, we asked whether these different functional consequences can be attributed to topographically distinct portions of the periventricular white matter damage. Eight patients with pre- and perinatally acquired left-sided…

  19. Clinicopathologic Similarities of the Main and Minor Lesions of Synchronous Multiple Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC) is increasing due to improvements in diagnostic methods, but synchronous multiple EGC (SMEGC) remains a major problem. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of and the correlation between the main and minor lesions of SMEGC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with EGC between April 2008 and May 2013. The main lesion was defined as the one with the greatest invasion depth. If lesions had the same invasion depth, the tumor diameter was used to define the main lesion. Of 963 patients who had treatment for EGC, 37 patients with SMEGC were analyzed. The main and minor lesions showed a significant positive correlation of size (r = 0.533, P = 0.001). The main and minor lesions of SMEGC showed the same vertical and horizontal locations at 70.3% and 64.9%, respectively (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002). Macroscopic types were identical in 67.6% (P < 0.001), and 32.4% had identical macroscopic type and location. The main and minor lesions had identical characteristics of invasion depth, presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and differentiation in 78.4%, 83.8%, and 83.8%, respectively. Differentiation, LVI, and invasion depth (microscopic characteristics) were simultaneously the same in 62.2%. The location, macroscopic type, and 3 microscopic characteristics were matched in 27%. The main and minor lesions of SMEGC have similar clinicopathologic characteristics. Therefore, the possibility of SMEGC should not be neglected in cases of EGC, considering an understanding of the characteristics and association of lesions. PMID:27247495

  20. Clinicopathologic Similarities of the Main and Minor Lesions of Synchronous Multiple Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ho; Jeong, Seok Hoo; Yeo, Jina; Lee, Woon Kee; Chung, Dong Hae; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Chung, Jun-Won; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kwon, Kwang An; Park, Dong Kyun

    2016-06-01

    The detection rate of early gastric cancer (EGC) is increasing due to improvements in diagnostic methods, but synchronous multiple EGC (SMEGC) remains a major problem. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of and the correlation between the main and minor lesions of SMEGC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with EGC between April 2008 and May 2013. The main lesion was defined as the one with the greatest invasion depth. If lesions had the same invasion depth, the tumor diameter was used to define the main lesion. Of 963 patients who had treatment for EGC, 37 patients with SMEGC were analyzed. The main and minor lesions showed a significant positive correlation of size (r = 0.533, P = 0.001). The main and minor lesions of SMEGC showed the same vertical and horizontal locations at 70.3% and 64.9%, respectively (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002). Macroscopic types were identical in 67.6% (P < 0.001), and 32.4% had identical macroscopic type and location. The main and minor lesions had identical characteristics of invasion depth, presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and differentiation in 78.4%, 83.8%, and 83.8%, respectively. Differentiation, LVI, and invasion depth (microscopic characteristics) were simultaneously the same in 62.2%. The location, macroscopic type, and 3 microscopic characteristics were matched in 27%. The main and minor lesions of SMEGC have similar clinicopathologic characteristics. Therefore, the possibility of SMEGC should not be neglected in cases of EGC, considering an understanding of the characteristics and association of lesions. PMID:27247495

  1. Proliferative potential and p53 overexpression in precursor and early stage lesions of bronchioloalveolar lung carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, H.; Kameda, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Nakatani, Y.; Inayama, Y.; Iida, M.; Noda, K.; Ogawa, N.; Shibagaki, T.; Kanisawa, M.

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of bronchioloalveolar lung carcinoma (BAC), we evaluated the lesion size, growth fraction, and p53 overexpression of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) and early stage BAC. AAH was classified as showing low grade or high grade atypia. AAH-like carcinoma, presumably very early stage BAC, was distinguished from AAH in that it exhibited remarkable atypia suggestive of malignant potential and from overt BAC in that it lacked unequivocal malignant features, including invasive/destructive growth. The growth fraction was determined immunohistochemically in terms of the Ki-67 labeling index. The overexpression of p53 was evaluated by assessing the nuclear accumulation of immunoreactive p53 protein. Both the lesion size and the growth fraction increased from low grade AAH, to high grade AAH, to AAH-like carcinoma, and to overt adenocarcinoma. The overexpression of p53 in AAH-like carcinoma was similar to that in overt adenocarcinoma and was more frequent than that in AAH. Our findings indicate that AAH, AAH-like carcinoma, and overt BAC represent different categories, although the cellular events occurring in these lesions presumably represent a continuous spectrum of the changes that are reflected in the cytomorphology and lesion size. The findings here suggest that AAH and AAH-like carcinomas constitute a population of heterogeneous lesions representing different steps toward overt BAC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7717455

  2. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  3. Early-stage hemangioblastoma presenting as a small lesion with significant edema in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Nie, Quanmin; Guo, Pin; Shen, Lin; Li, Xiaoxiong; Qiu, Yongming

    2015-03-01

    Hemangioblastomas are benign tumors that are frequently associated with peritumoral cysts; however, their early characteristics before cyst formation remain unclear. In this article, the authors present a novel case of a cerebellar hemangioblastoma presenting as a small solid lesion with significant edema. Surgery was performed to resect the tumor, and a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed complete excision of the mass and resolution of the cerebellar edema. Histological examination confirmed that the lesion was a hemangioblastoma. This is the only report in the literature to describe the imaging and histopathologic characteristics of an initial hemangioblastoma in the cerebellum. PMID:25699527

  4. Ectopic lesion of schistosomiasis of the penis simulating an early carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A; Soyinka, F; Laja, A O

    1978-09-01

    A case of ectopic lesion of Schistosoma haematobium of the penis with extensive tissue destruction, simulating an early carcinoma of the penis and almost resulting in an autoamputation of the crown of the penis, is presented. The penis was surgically repaired and the patient treated with ambilhar. In schistosoma endemic area, it is important to think of ectopic schistosoma lesion by such a presentation. Existing theories to explain the presence of schistosoma eggs in locations outside the portal-caval system were reviewed and another one was advanced: its being sexually transmitted. PMID:31780

  5. Thermophotonic lock-in imaging of early demineralized and carious lesions in human teeth.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Amaechi, Bennett Tochukwu

    2011-07-01

    As an extension of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry, a novel dental-imaging modality, thermophotonic lock-in imaging (TPLI), is introduced. This methodology uses photothermal wave principles and is capable of detecting early carious lesions and cracks on occlusal and approximal surfaces as well as early caries induced by artificial demineralizing solutions. The increased light scattering and absorption within early carious lesions increases the thermal-wave amplitude and shifts the thermal-wave centroid, producing contrast between the carious lesion and the intact enamel in both amplitude and phase images. Samples with artificial and natural occlusal and approximal caries were examined in this study. Thermophotonic effective detection depth is controlled by the modulation frequency according to the well-known concept of thermal diffusion length. TPLI phase images are emissivity normalized and therefore insensitive to the presence of stains. Amplitude images, on the other hand, provide integrated information from deeper enamel regions. It is concluded that the results of our noninvasive, noncontacting imaging methodology exhibit higher sensitivity to very early demineralization than dental radiographs and are in agreement with the destructive transverse microradiography mineral density profiles. PMID:21806248

  6. Thermophotonic lock-in imaging of early demineralized and carious lesions in human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Amaechi, Bennett Tochukwu

    2011-07-01

    As an extension of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry, a novel dental-imaging modality, thermophotonic lock-in imaging (TPLI), is introduced. This methodology uses photothermal wave principles and is capable of detecting early carious lesions and cracks on occlusal and approximal surfaces as well as early caries induced by artificial demineralizing solutions. The increased light scattering and absorption within early carious lesions increases the thermal-wave amplitude and shifts the thermal-wave centroid, producing contrast between the carious lesion and the intact enamel in both amplitude and phase images. Samples with artificial and natural occlusal and approximal caries were examined in this study. Thermophotonic effective detection depth is controlled by the modulation frequency according to the well-known concept of thermal diffusion length. TPLI phase images are emissivity normalized and therefore insensitive to the presence of stains. Amplitude images, on the other hand, provide integrated information from deeper enamel regions. It is concluded that the results of our noninvasive, noncontacting imaging methodology exhibit higher sensitivity to very early demineralization than dental radiographs and are in agreement with the destructive transverse microradiography mineral density profiles.

  7. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR. PMID:26032851

  8. Expression of p53 in preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Martin, B; Verdebout, J-M; Mascaux, C; Paesmans, M; Rouas, G; Verhest, A; Ninane, V; Sculier, J-P

    2002-01-01

    p53 alteration has been reported to be an early event in bronchial carcinogenesis. Our study purpose was to determine the rate of p53 expression in the various preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions obtained by biopsy during fluorescence bronchoscopy and to analyse its association with patients characteristics. Various stages of preneoplastic lesions as well as radio-occult lung cancer were studied in biopsies obtained by fluorescence bronchoscopy. We assessed the expression of p53 by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody clone DO7. The p53 expression was considered as positive if > or = 1% of cells were positive and the level of positivity was expressed in percentage of positive cells. Fourteen patients were included in each category of preneoplastic lesions. At the threshold of 1% of positive cells p53 expression was observed in 28.5% of the patients with a histologically normal epithelium. This number of positive patients increased with the severity of preneoplastic lesions and reached 100% in the mild dysplasia. The mean rates of p53 positive cells for normal epithelium, hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild and severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive radio-occult carcinoma were respectively 0.9, 3.4, 9.1, 20.5, 50.2, 34.7 and 42.5%. There was no statistically significant correlation between p53 expression and patient characteristics such as sex, age, smoking habits and indication for fluorescence bronchoscopy. The alteration of p53 expression in patients with high risk of lung cancer was an early event: this abnormality increased with the severity of the lesions, without significant correlation with patient characteristics. PMID:11836584

  9. Atypical language lateralization and early linguistic development in children with focal brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, A M; Pecini, C; Cipriani, P; Brovedani, P; Brizzolara, D; Ferretti, G; Pfanner, L; Cioni, G

    2005-11-01

    The effects of congenital, unilateral, focal brain lesions on early linguistic development and hemispheric lateralization for language were investigated longitudinally in 24 preschool children with hemiplegia (14 males, 10 females), 12 with left hemisphere damage (LHD) and 12 with right hemisphere damage (RHD). A comprehensive linguistic assessment was performed at 2 and 3 years of life; cerebral lateralization for language was measured by the Fused Dichotic Words Listening Test. An early left-side specificity for language was indicated by the presence of lexical and grammatical delay in most children with LHD. In the dichotic listening test all 12 children with LHD showed a shift of language lateralization from the left to the right hemisphere. Atypical lateralization coefficients (lambda), i.e. values falling more than two standard deviations from the mean of a normative sample, were associated with a delay in lexical and grammatical development, especially after LHD. In addition, cortical-subcortical-periventricular lesions rather than solely periventricular damage, and larger lesions rather than small, were associated with the most atypical lateralization coefficients, irrespective of lesion side. Results of this study suggest that language and lateralization data are closely related and that reallocation of language functions in alternative regions of the brain has a cost in terms of a slow rate of language acquisition. PMID:16225734

  10. Decreased early atherosclerotic lesions in hypertriglyceridemic mice expressing cholesteryl ester transfer protein transgene.

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, T; Masucci-Magoulas, L; Jiang, X; Walsh, A; Rubin, E; Breslow, J L; Tall, A R

    1995-01-01

    The human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl ester from HDL to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The activity of CETP results in a reduction in HDL cholesterol levels, but CETP may also promote reverse cholesterol transport. Thus, the net impact of CETP expression on atherogenesis is uncertain. The influence of hypertriglyceridemia and CETP on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the proximal aorta was assessed by feeding transgenic mice a high cholesterol diet for 16 wk. 13 out of 14 (93%) hypertriglyceridemic human apo CIII (HuCIII) transgenic (Tg) mice developed atherosclerotic lesions, compared to 18 out of 29 (62%) controls. In HuCIII/CETPTg, human apo AI/CIIITg and HuAI/CIII/CETPTg mice, 7 of 13 (54%), 5 of 10 (50%), and 5 of 13 (38%), respectively, developed lesions in the proximal aorta (P < .05 compared to HuCIIITg). The average number of aortic lesions per mouse in HuCIIITg and controls was 3.4 +/- 0.8 and 2.7 +/- 0.6, respectively in HuCIII/CETPTg, HuAI/CIIIg, and HuAI/CIII/CETPTg mice the number of lesions was significantly lower than in HuCIIITg and control mice: 0.9 +/- 0.4, 1.5 +/- 0.5, and 0.9 +/- 0.4, respectively. There were parallel reductions in mean lesion area. In a separate study, we found an increased susceptibility to dietary atherosclerosis in nonhypertriglyceridemic CETP transgenic mice compared to controls. We conclude that CETP expression inhibits the development of early atherosclerotic lesions but only in hypertriglyceridemic mice. PMID:7560101

  11. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  12. Orofacial hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: high power diode laser in early and advanced lesion treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, Angela; Franco, Simonetta; Miccoli, Simona; Suppressa, Patrizia; De Falco, Vincenzo; Crincoli, Vito; Lacaita, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Michele; Favia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a muco-cutaneous inherited disease. Symptoms are epistaxis, visceral arterio-venous malformations, multiple muco-cutaneous telangiectasia with the risk of number increasing enlargement, bleeding, and super-infection. The aim of this work is to show the dual Diode Laser efficacy in preventive treatment of Early Lesions (EL < 2mm) and therapeutic treatment of Advanced Lesions (AL < 2mm). 21 patients affected by HHT with 822 muco-cutaneous telangiectatic nodules have been treated in several sessions with local anaesthesia and cooling of treated sites. EL preventive treatment consists of single Laser impulse (fibre 320) in ultrapulsed mode (2 mm single point spot). AL therapeutic treatment consists of repeated Laser impulses in pulsed mode (on 200ms / off 400ms). According to the results, Diode Laser used in pulsed and ultra-pulsed mode is very effective as noninvasive treatment both in early and advanced oral and perioral telangiectasia.

  13. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Colé, Pascale; Duncan, Lynne G.; Blaye, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological, and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and passage reading comprehension, and examine whether any such link involves domain-general or reading-specific flexibility. As the only previous support for a predictive relationship between flexibility and early reading comes from studies of reading comprehension in the opaque English orthography, another possibility is that this relationship may be largely orthography-dependent, only coming into play when mappings between representations are complex and polyvalent. To investigate these questions, 60 second-graders learning to read the more transparent French orthography were presented with two multiple classification tasks involving reading-specific cognitive flexibility (based on words) and non-specific flexibility (based on pictures). Reading skills were assessed by word reading, pseudo-word decoding, and passage reading comprehension measures. Flexibility was found to contribute significant unique variance to passage reading comprehension even in the less opaque French orthography. More interestingly, the data also show that flexibility is critical in accounting for one of the core components of reading comprehension, namely, the reading of words in isolation. Finally, the results constrain the debate over whether flexibility has to be reading-specific to be critically involved in reading. PMID:24966842

  14. Noninvasive Real-Time Automated Skin Lesion Analysis System for Melanoma Early Detection and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Barkana, Buket D.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma spreads through metastasis, and therefore, it has been proved to be very fatal. Statistical evidence has revealed that the majority of deaths resulting from skin cancer are as a result of melanoma. Further investigations have shown that the survival rates in patients depend on the stage of the cancer; early detection and intervention of melanoma implicate higher chances of cure. Clinical diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma are challenging, since the processes are prone to misdiagnosis and inaccuracies due to doctors’ subjectivity. Malignant melanomas are asymmetrical, have irregular borders, notched edges, and color variations, so analyzing the shape, color, and texture of the skin lesion is important for the early detection and prevention of melanoma. This paper proposes the two major components of a noninvasive real-time automated skin lesion analysis system for the early detection and prevention of melanoma. The first component is a real-time alert to help users prevent skinburn caused by sunlight; a novel equation to compute the time for skin to burn is thereby introduced. The second component is an automated image analysis module, which contains image acquisition, hair detection and exclusion, lesion segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. The proposed system uses PH2 Dermoscopy image database from Pedro Hispano Hospital for the development and testing purposes. The image database contains a total of 200 dermoscopy images of lesions, including benign, atypical, and melanoma cases. The experimental results show that the proposed system is efficient, achieving classification of the benign, atypical, and melanoma images with accuracy of 96.3%, 95.7%, and 97.5%, respectively. PMID:27170906

  15. Prediction of reduction in aggressive behaviour of growing pigs using skin lesion traits as selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Desire, S; Turner, S P; D'Eath, R B; Doeschl-Wilson, A B; Lewis, C R G; Roehe, R

    2016-08-01

    Aggression at regrouping is a common issue in pig farming. Skin lesions are genetically and phenotypically correlated with aggression and have been shown to have a significant heritable component. This study predicts the magnitude of reduction in complex aggressive behavioural traits when using lesion numbers on different body regions at two different time points as selection criteria, to identify the optimum skin lesion trait for selection purposes. In total, 1146 pigs were mixed into new social groups, and skin lesions were counted 24 h (SL24h) and 3 weeks (SL3wk) post-mixing, on the anterior, centre and posterior regions of the body. An animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters for skin lesion traits and 14 aggressive behavioural traits. Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and phenotypic values were scaled and standardised to allow direct comparison across multiple traits. Individuals with SL24h and SL3wk EBVs in the least aggressive 10% of the population were compared with the population mean to predict the expected genetic and phenotypic response in aggressive behaviour to selection. At mixing, selection for low anterior lesions was predicted to affect substantially more behavioural traits of aggressiveness than lesions obtained on other body parts, with EBVs between -0.21 and -1.17 SD below the population mean. Individuals with low central SL24h EBVs also had low EBVs for aggressive traits (-0.33 to -0.55). Individuals with high SL3wk EBVs had low EBVs for aggression at mixing (between -0.24 and -0.53 SD below the population mean), although this was predicted to affect fewer traits than selection against SL24h. These results suggest that selection against anterior SL24h would result in the greatest genetic and phenotypic reduction in aggressive behaviour recorded at mixing. Selection for increased SL3wk was predicted to reduce aggression at mixing; however, current understanding about aggressive behaviour under stable social conditions is insufficient

  16. HER2 Status in Premalignant, Early, and Advanced Neoplastic Lesions of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Ieni, A.; Barresi, V.; Rigoli, L.; Caruso, R. A.; Tuccari, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. HER2 expression in gastric cancer (GC) has received attention as a potential target for therapy with Trastuzumab. We reviewed the current knowledge on HER2 status in premalignant gastric lesions and in early (EGC) and advanced (AGC) GC to discuss the possible pathogenetic and prognostic roles of HER2 overexpression in GC. Results. HER2 overexpression was documented in gastric low-grade (LG) and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-IEN), with higher frequency in gastric type dysplasia. HER2 overexpression was significantly associated with disease recurrence and poor prognosis in EGC representing an independent risk factor for lymph node metastases. HER2 overexpression was more frequent in AGC characterized by high grade, advanced stage, and high Ki-67 labeling index. The discordance in HER2 status was evidenced between primitive GC and synchronous or metachronous metastases. Conclusions. HER2 overexpression in premalignant gastric lesions suggests its potential involvement in the early steps of gastric carcinogenesis. The assessment of HER2 status in EGC may be helpful for the identification of patients who are at low risk for developing nodal metastases. Finally, the possible discordance in HER2 status between primary GC and its synchronous metastases support routine assessment of HER2 both in the primary GC and in its metastatic lesions. PMID:26494937

  17. Electrode radius predicts lesion radius during radiofrequency energy heating. Validation of a proposed thermodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, D.E.; Watson, D.D.; Verow, A.F. )

    1990-07-01

    Myocardial heating by transcatheter delivery of radiofrequency (RF) energy has been proposed as an effective means of arrhythmia ablation. A thermodynamic model describing the radial temperature gradient at steady state during RF-induced heating is proposed. If one assumes that RF power output is adjusted to maintain a constant electrode-tissue interface temperature at all times, then this thermodynamic model predicts that the radius of the RF-induced lesion will be directly proportional to the electrode radius. A total of 76 RF-induced lesions were created in a model of isolated canine right ventricular free wall perfused and superfused with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Electrode radius was varied between 0.75 and 2.25 mm. RF energy (500 kHz) was delivered for 90 seconds, and the power output was adjusted to maintain a constant electrode-tissue interface temperature of 60 degrees C. A strong linear correlation was observed between electrode radius and lesion radius in two dimensions: transverse (p = 0.0001, r = 0.85) and transmural (p = 0.0001, r = 0.89). With these data, the temperature correlation with irreversible myocardial injury in this model was calculated at 46.6-48.8 degrees C. Therefore, the proposed thermodynamic model closely predicts the observed relation between electrode radius and lesion size during RF myocardial heating.

  18. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  19. Morel-Lavallee Lesion Initially Diagnosed as Quadriceps Contusion: Ultrasound, MRI, and Importance of Early Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas A.; Johnson, Jeremiah J.; Anderson, Shane B.

    2015-01-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesions (MLL) are rare, closed degloving injuries caused by trauma that delivers a shearing force to the soft tissue most commonly of the hip. If not treated in the acute and subacute setting these lesions are often complicated by re-accumulation of fluid, infection, or chronic pain. We present a unique case of a recurrent, massive medial knee/thigh MLL in which proper treatment was delayed due to initial diagnosis of a quadriceps contusion. We describe the ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings of this patient and based on a review of recent literature propose that the initial management should have included early drainage/debridement, which likely could have prevented recurrence and significantly shortened the clinical course. PMID:25987925

  20. The Dynamic Behavior of the Early Dental Caries Lesion in Caries-active Adults and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J P; Amaechi, B T; Bader, J D; Shugars, D; Vollmer, W M; Chen, C; Gilbert, G H; Esterberg, E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the full range of behavior of the visible, non-cavitated, early caries lesion in caries-active adults with substantial fluoride exposure, and to consider implications. Methods The data were from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), collected annually for 33 months using condensed ICDAS caries threshold criteria. Individual tooth surfaces having a non-cavitated caries lesion were included and the Patterns of transition to each subsequent annual clinical examination to sound, non-cavitated or cavitated, filled or crowned were determined. The resulting sets of Patterns for an individual tooth surface, looking forward from its first appearance as a non-cavitated lesion, were combined into one of four behavior Profiles classified as Reversing, Stable, Oscillating or continuously Progressing, or were excluded if not part of the caries continuum. The distributions of Profile types were assessed using the Rao-Scott Chi square test, which adjusts for clustering of tooth surfaces within teeth. Results Inter-and intra-examiner Kappa scores demonstrated acceptable calibration at baseline and annually. 8084 tooth surfaces from 543 subjects were included. The distribution of Profile types differed significantly between coronal and root surfaces. Overall two-thirds of all coronal non-cavitated lesions were first seen at baseline, half Reversed, over a fifth were Stable, 15% Oscillated and only 8.3% progressed to cavitation, filled or crowned in 33 months or less. (6.3% consistently Progressed plus 2.0% inconsistently, a subset of Oscillating, which oscillated before progressing to cavitation). Approximal, smooth and occlusal coronal surfaces each were significantly different in their individual distributions of Profile types. Xylitol showed no significant and consistent effect on this distribution by tooth surface type. This was in keeping with the X-ACT Trial’s lack of effect of xylitol at the non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion thresholds combined

  1. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults: an EAPD policy document.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Scope and purposeThe guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment and disease management.MethodologyThe guidance development is based on three reviews(1,2,3) and an interim seminar and workshop organised by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry in Brussels in May 2015.Review and updatingNo indication of a review or update schedule is given.RecommendationsSeven recommendations on caries detection and diagnosis, four recommendations on caries risk assessment and 11 on the management of the early carious lesion were made and they are briefly summarised in the table below.Research RecommendationsCaries detection and diagnosisThere is a need for more research in the primary dentition because most of the available studies consider only the permanent dentitionRadiograph subtraction studies need to be conductedOngoing evaluation of new methods and devicesThere is a need for well-designed prevention studies on early childhood caries which will provide sufficient and strong evidence of the cost-effectivenessThere is a significant need to bring the knowledge and learning to regular dental practice, to all the paediatric health care providers, the children and their parents.Caries risk assessmentClinical trials to assess the validity of models and single risk factors, as well as the role of confounding factors (eg age, lifestyle, socio-economy and socio-demography), for predicting caries.Further quantitative and qualitative health professional and parents would be helpful to identify perceptions and barriers to carrying out a CRA and to deliver a risk-based preventive care that could bridge the social inequalities in dental health.More research on the implementation of risk-based caries prevention and to establish the cost-effectiveness of such strategies. PMID:27339231

  2. Predictability crisis in early universe cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeenk, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Inflationary cosmology has been widely accepted due to its successful predictions: for a "generic" initial state, inflation produces a homogeneous, flat, bubble with an appropriate spectrum of density perturbations. However, the discovery that inflation is "generically eternal," leading to a vast multiverse of inflationary bubbles with different low-energy physics, threatens to undermine this account. There is a "predictability crisis" in eternal inflation, because extracting predictions apparently requires a well-defined measure over the multiverse. This has led to discussions of anthropic predictions based on a measure over the multiverse, and an assumption that we are typical observers. I will give a pessimistic assessment of attempts to make predictions in this sense, emphasizing in particular problems that arise even if a unique measure can be found.

  3. Monitoring the remineralization of early simulated lesions using a pH cycling model with CP-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hobin; Chan, Kenneth; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    If caries lesions are detected early enough they can be arrested by chemical intervention and dietary changes without the need for chemical intervention. Optical coherence tomography is ideally suited to monitor the changes that occur in caries lesions as a result of nonsurgical intervention, since OCT can nondestructively image the internal structure of the lesion. One of the most important changes that occurs in a lesion is preferential deposition of mineral in the outer surface zone. The deposition creates a highly mineralized and weakly scattering surface zone that is clearly visible in OCT images. Since this zone is near the highly reflective surface it is necessary to use cross-polarization OCT imaging to resolve this zone. Several CP-OCT studies have been conducted employing different remineralization models that produce lesions with varying mineral gradients. Previous studies have also demonstrated that automated algorithms can be used to assess the lesion depth and severity even with the presence of the weakly reflective surface zone. In this study we investigated the remineralization of lesions of varying severity using a pH cycling remineralization model and the change of the lesion was monitored using CP-OCT. Although the lesion depth and severity decreased after remineralization, there was still incomplete remineralization of the body of the lesion.

  4. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  5. Detection and Localization of Pre-Cancerous Lesions and Early Lung Cancer Using Tissue Autofluorescence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Jaclyn Yip-Chan

    In this work, two different yet related hypotheses were tested by experimental means as follows: (i) pre-cancerous and non-invasive (early) lung cancer can be detected and localized using the fluorescence properties of tumour localizing drugs at non-photosensitizing doses to skin tissue; (ii) significant differences exist in laser-induced autofluorescence between normal, pre-cancerous and cancerous tissues such that these differences alone can be exploited to detect and delineate early lung cancer without using exogenous drug(s). Exogenous fluorescent tumour markers such as hematoporphyrin derivatives (e.g. Photofrin) have been used to enhance to detection of occult lung lesions. Photofrin is preferentially retained in tumor tissues compared to the surrounding normal tissues; it fluoresces at 630 nm and 690 nm when excited at -405 nm. Based on this principle several imaging and non-imaging devices have been developed. However, wider clinical applications were limited due to the skin photosensitivity property of Photofrin. We have postulated that this could be solved by employing a much lower dose of Photofrin (0.25 mg/kg) which was believed to be less photosensitizing to human patients. This postulate was experimentally tested by ratio fluorometry and early lung cancers were detected with no false negative results and no apparent skin photosensitivity. An important finding in this study was that the mechanism for detection of early cancer was mainly due to the differences in the green autofluorescence between normal and malignant tissues, rather than fluorescence of tumour localizing drug. This discovery led to the second postulate of this thesis that tissue autofluorescence alone can be exploited for the detection of early lung cancer. The results indicated that algorithm(s) could be developed to clearly delineate early lesions from the normal tissues. Several algorithms were then tested using a non-imaging ratio fluorometer device and a prototype imaging

  6. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills. PMID:23184588

  7. Effects of catecholaminergic nerve lesion on endometrial development during early pregnancy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yulan; Liu, Guanhui; Wang, Zixu; Li, Jing; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-04-01

    Maternal stress is common during pregnancy and the postnatal period. This stress typically activates the sympathetic nervous system which releases catecholamines. This study explored the influence of sympathectomy by using neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on embryo implantation, and investigated the influence mechanism of sympathectomy on reconstruction of endometrial structure during early pregnancy. In the 6-OHDA-treated mice, uterine glands in the endometrium developed poorly, and the gland epithelia were arranged irregularly during early pregnancy. Furthermore, vacuoles, karyopykosis and plasmarrhexis appeared in some gland epithelia. The percentage of uterine glands and the density of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positivity were dramatically decreased, and Fas ligand (FasL) expression was decreased in cells from pregnancy days 5-9 (E5-9) in the treated group. Antioxidant enzyme activity levels in uteri were lower but the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in the 6-OHDA mice than those in the control mice at E5-9. Similarly, the number of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) positive cells was significantly increased during early pregnancy following treatment with 6-OHDA. Our results have indicated that peripheral catecholaminergic nerve lesions induced by 6-OHDA cause adverse pregnancy outcomes through disruption of endometrial gland development, which increases oxidative stress and iNOS expression in the endometrium. Thus, catecholaminergic nerves might favourably influence blastocyst implantation, foetal survival and development during early pregnancy by oxidative state regulation and endometrial gland reconstruction. PMID:26554516

  8. Predicted Errors in Children's Early Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gertner, Yael; Fisher, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Children use syntax to interpret sentences and learn verbs; this is syntactic bootstrapping. The structure-mapping account of early syntactic bootstrapping proposes that a partial representation of sentence structure, the "set of nouns" occurring with the verb, guides initial interpretation and provides an abstract format for new learning. This…

  9. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  10. Early Results with the Use of Heparin-bonded Stent Graft to Rescue Failed Angioplasty of Chronic Femoropopliteal Occlusive Lesions: TASC D Lesions Have a Poor Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhan, Ganesh Abisi, Said; Braithwaite, Bruce D.; MacSweeney, Shane T. R.; Whitaker, Simon C.; Habib, Said B.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate early patency rate of the heparin-bonded stent grafts in atherosclerotic long femoropopliteal occlusive disease, and to identify factors that affect outcome. Methods: Heparin-bonded Viabahn stent grafts were placed in 33 limbs in 33 patients during 2009-2010. The stents were deployed to rescue failed conventional balloon angioplasty. Mean age was 69 (range 44-88) years, and 67 % (22 of 33) were men. Most procedures (21 of 33, 64 %) were performed for critical limb ischemia (33 % for rest pain, 30 % tissue loss). Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression analysis were used to identify significant risk factors. Results: The average length of lesions treated was 25 {+-} 10 cm, and they were predominantly TASC (Transatlantic Intersociety Consensus) D (n = 13) and C (n = 17) lesions. The median primary patency was 5.0 months (95 % confidence interval 1.22-8.77). The mean secondary patency was 8.6 months (95 % confidence interval 6.82-10.42). Subsequently, 4 patients underwent bypass surgery and 5 patients underwent major amputation. One patient died. There were 5 in-stent or edge-stent stenoses. Cox multivariate regression analysis identified TASC D lesions to be a significant risk factor for early occlusion (p = 0.035). Conclusion: TASC D lesions of femoropopliteal occlusions have poor patency rates with the use of heparin-bonded stent grafts after failed conventional angioplasty. Alternative options should be considered for these patients.

  11. Ultrasound real-time elastography can predict malignancy in BI-RADS®-US 3 lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lesions of the breast that are classified BI-RADS®-US 3 by ultrasound are probably benign and observation is recommended, although malignancy may occasionally occur. In our study, we focus exclusively on BI-RADS®-US 3 lesions and hypothesize that sonoelastography as an adjunct to conventional ultrasound can identify a high-risk-group and a low-risk-group within these patients. Methods A group of 177 breast lesions that were classified BI-RADS®-US 3 were additionally examined with real-time sonoelastography. Elastograms were evaluated according to the Tsukuba Elasticity Score. Pretest and posttest probability of disease (POD), sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) and likelihood-ratios (LR) were calculated. Furthermore, we analyzed the false-negative and false-positive cases and performed a model calculation to determine how elastography could affect the proceedings in population screening. Results In our collection of BI-RADS®-US 3 cases there were 169 benign and eight malignant lesions. The pretest POD was 4.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1–9.0). In patients with a suspicious elastogram (high-risk group), the posttest POD was significantly higher (13.2%, p = 0.041) and the positive LR was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.7–5.9). With a benign elastogram (low-risk group), the posttest POD decreased to 2.2%. SE, SP, PPV and NPV for sonoelastography in BI-RADS®-US 3 lesions were 62.5% (95% CI: 25.9–89.8), 80.5% (95% CI: 73.5–86.0), 13.2% (95% CI: 5.0–28.9) and 97.8% (95% CI: 93.3–99.4), respectively. Conclusions Sonoelastography yields additional diagnostic information in the evaluation of BI-RADS®-US 3 lesions of the breast. The examiner can identify a low-risk group that can be vigilantly observed and a high-risk group that should receive immediate biopsy due to an elevated breast cancer risk. PMID:23530903

  12. Early Breast Cancer Precursor Lesions: Lessons Learned from Molecular and Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Hans-Peter; Elsawaf, Zeinab; Helmchen, Birgit; Aulmann, Sebastian

    2010-08-01

    Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), flat epithelial atypia (FEA), and lobular neoplasia (LN) form a group of early precursor lesions that are part of the low-grade pathway in breast cancer development. This concept implies that the neoplastic disease process begins at a stage much earlier than in situ carcinoma. We have performed a review of the published literature for the upgrade risk to ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma in open biopsy after a diagnosis of ADH, FEA, or LN in core needle biopsy. This has revealed the highest upgrade risk for ADH (28.2% after open biopsy), followed by LN (14.9%), and FEA (10.2%). With LN, the pleomorphic subtype is believed to confer a higher risk than classical LN. With all types of precursor lesions, careful attention must be paid to the clinicopathological correlation for the guidance of the clinical management. Follow-up biopsies are generally indicated in ADH, and if there is any radiological-pathological discrepancy, also in LN or FEA. PMID:22590441

  13. Early ischemic lesions following subarachnoid hemorrhage: common cold remedy as precipitating factor?

    PubMed

    Genonceaux, Sandrine; Cosnard, Guy; Van De Wyngaert, Françoise; Hantson, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with tetraplegia contrasting with a relatively preserved consciousness following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Multiple ischemic lesions were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in the absence of vasospasm or signs of increased intracranial pressure. During the weeks before SAH, the patient had repeatedly used a nasal decongestant containing phenylephrine. After coiling of the aneurysm harboured by the right posterior cerebral artery, symptomatic vasospasm developed in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and required aggressive therapy by intra-arterial infusion of milrinone followed by continuous intravenous administration. Follow-up MRI did not reveal new ischemic lesions. Echocardiography had demonstrated the presence of a patent foramen ovale. At 3 months follow-up, a major motor deficit persisted with akinetic mutism. The mechanisms of multiple early infarction following aneurysmal SAH are still debated, as vasospasm is usually not seen on the first imaging. Among precipitating factors of microvascular vasospasm, vasoactive substances like phenylephrine, may play a significant role. PMID:21510236

  14. Duration of Early Maternal Separation and Prediction of Schizotypal Symptoms from Early Adolescence to Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Anglin, Deidre M.; Cohen, Patricia R.; Chen, Henian

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood experiences influence the capacity for healthy social and emotional development. The present study uses longitudinal data to determine whether early maternal separation predicted the subsequent development of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) symptoms assessed repeatedly from early adolescence over the following 20 years. Within this community sample (N=766), multilevel linear regression analyses revealed the duration of separation from mother in the first 2 years of life predicted elevated SPD symptoms. This relationship was specific to children with mother-reported early angry emotional behavior. These results provide support for the role of early childhood psychosocial risk factors in the development of subsequent schizophrenia spectrum symptoms in emotionally vulnerable children. PMID:18407465

  15. Telomere length in early life predicts lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Heidinger, Britt J.; Blount, Jonathan D.; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Monaghan, Pat

    2012-01-01

    The attrition of telomeres, the ends of eukaryote chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cell deterioration with advancing age. The observed variation in telomere length among individuals of the same age is therefore thought to be related to variation in potential longevity. Studies of this relationship are hampered by the time scale over which individuals need to be followed, particularly in long-lived species where lifespan variation is greatest. So far, data are based either on simple comparisons of telomere length among different age classes or on individuals whose telomere length is measured at most twice and whose subsequent survival is monitored for only a short proportion of the typical lifespan. Both approaches are subject to bias. Key studies, in which telomere length is tracked from early in life, and actual lifespan recorded, have been lacking. We measured telomere length in zebra finches (n = 99) from the nestling stage and at various points thereafter, and recorded their natural lifespan (which varied from less than 1 to almost 9 y). We found telomere length at 25 d to be a very strong predictor of realized lifespan (P < 0.001); those individuals living longest had relatively long telomeres at all points at which they were measured. Reproduction increased adult telomere loss, but this effect appeared transient and did not influence survival. Our results provide the strongest evidence available of the relationship between telomere length and lifespan and emphasize the importance of understanding factors that determine early life telomere length. PMID:22232671

  16. The Predictive Validity of the Early Warning System Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn; Semmelroth, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    The Early Warning System is a tool developed by the National High School Center to collect data on indicators including attendance, grade point average, course failures, and credits earned. These indicators have been found to be highly predictive of a student's likelihood of dropping out of high school in large, urban areas. The Early Warning…

  17. Early Numeracy Indicators: Examining Predictive Utility Across Years and States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conoyer, Sarah J.; Foegen, Anne; Lembke, Erica S.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies using similar methods in two states investigated the long-term predictive utility of two single-skill early numeracy Curriculum Based Measures (CBMs) and the degree to which they can adequately predict high-stakes test scores. Data were drawn from kindergarten and first-grade students. State standardized assessment data from the…

  18. Increased diffusivity in acute multiple sclerosis lesions predicts risk of black hole

    PubMed Central

    Naismith, R.T.; Xu, J.; Tutlam, N.T.; Scully, P.T.; Trinkaus, K.; Snyder, A.Z.; Song, S.-K.; Cross, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) quantifies Brownian motion of water within tissue. Inflammation leads to tissue injury, resulting in increased diffusivity and decreased directionality. We hypothesize that DTI can quantify the damage within acute multiple sclerosis (MS) white matter lesions to predict gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions that will persist 12 months later as T1 hypointensities. Methods: A cohort of 22 individuals underwent 7 brain MRI scans over 15 months. DTI parameters were temporally quantified within regions of Gd enhancement. Comparison to the homologous region in the hemisphere contralateral to the Gd-enhancing lesion was also performed to standardize individual lesion DTI parameters. Results: After classifying each Gd-enhancing region as to black hole outcome, radial diffusivity, mean diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy, along with their standardized values, were significantly altered for persistent black holes (PBHs), and remained elevated throughout the study. A Gd-enhancing region with a 40% elevation in radial diffusivity had a 5.4-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1, 13.8) increased risk of becoming a PBH, with 70% (95% CI: 51%, 85%) sensitivity and 69% (95% CI: 57%, 80%) specificity. A model of radial diffusivity, with volume and length of Gd enhancement, was associated with a risk of becoming a PBH of 5.0 (95% CI: 2.6, 9.9). Altered DTI parameters displayed a dose relationship to duration of black hole persistence. Conclusions: Elevated radial diffusivity during gadolinium enhancement was associated with increased risk for development of a persistent black hole, a surrogate of severe demyelination and axonal injury. An elevated radial diffusivity within active multiple sclerosis lesions may be indicative of more severe tissue injury. GLOSSARY ABH = acute black hole; CBH = chronic black hole; DTI = diffusion tensor imaging; FLAIR = fluid-attenuated inversion recovery; Gd = gadolinium; MS = multiple sclerosis; NAWM = normal

  19. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  20. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  1. Spinal Cord Lesion by Minor Trauma as an Early Sign of Multiple System Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Brum, Marisa; Reimão, Sofia; Sousa, Djalma; de Carvalho, Rui; Ferreira, Joaquim J

    2016-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is characterized clinically by parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic, and corticospinal features of variable severity. When the presentation is only parkinsonism, the disease might be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson's disease (PD). We present a case of an 80-year-old man with previous diagnosis of PD. One year after the diagnosis, he had a whiplash cervical trauma due to a tricycle accident caused by a hole in the road. This low-energy trauma caused an unstable C4-C5 cervical fracture with spinal cord injury, which required surgical decompression and stabilization. Neurological examination showed marked postural instability, no rest and postural tremor, finger tapping slowed on the right, spastic tetraparesis (ASIA D) - predominantly on the left side, brisk deep tendon reflexes in the upper and lower extremities, and bilateral extensor plantar response. He also presented with vertical gaze restriction, mild hypometria in horizontal saccades, moderate dysphagia, and dysphonia. As atypical parkinsonism was suspected, he underwent an MRI that revealed conjunction of findings suggestive of parkinsonian-type MSA. In our case, we hypothesize that the loss of postural reflexes, as an early manifestation of MSA, did not allow the patient to have an effective reaction response to a low-energy trauma, resulting in a more severe injury. With this case report, we speculate that the severe spinal lesions caused by minor accidents can be an early sign of postural instability, which may lead to clinical suspicion of neurodegenerative disorder manifested by postural reflexes impairment. PMID:27014185

  2. Depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping for early prediction of cancer progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V.; LaFace, Justin; Hartman, Douglas J.; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Effective management of patients who are at risk of developing invasive cancer is a primary challenge in early cancer detection. Techniques that can help establish clear-cut protocols for successful triaging of at-risk patients have the potential of providing critical help in improving patient care while simultaneously reducing patient cost. We have developed such a technique for early prediction of cancer progression that uses unstained tissue sections to provide depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM) of heterogeneity in optical density alterations manifested in precancerous lesions during cancer progression. We present nanoNAM and its application to predicting cancer progression in a well-established mouse model of spontaneous carcinogenesis: ApcMin/+ mice.

  3. Early literacy and early numeracy: the value of including early literacy skills in the prediction of numeracy development.

    PubMed

    Purpura, David J; Hume, Laura E; Sims, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a year later on the PENS test and on the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Three mixed effect regressions were conducted using Time 2 PENS, Applied Problems, and Calculation as the dependent variables. Print Knowledge and Vocabulary accounted for unique variance in the prediction of Time 2 numeracy scores. Phonological Awareness did not uniquely predict any of the mathematics domains. The findings of this study identify an important link between early literacy and early numeracy development. PMID:21831396

  4. The Role of Epilepsy in Early Language Development in a Child with a Congenital Lesion in the Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder-Ingvar, M.; Deonna, T.; Roulet-Perez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Early epilepsy is known to worsen the developmental prognosis of young children with a congenital focal brain lesion, but its direct role is often very difficult to delineate from the other variables. This requires prolonged periods of follow-up with simultaneous serial electrophysiological and developmental assessments which are rarely obtained.…

  5. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection.

    PubMed

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F M J; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error's extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  6. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection

    PubMed Central

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error’s extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  7. Recent Advances in Molecular Imaging of Premalignant Gastrointestinal Lesions and Future Application for Early Detection of Barrett Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwang Hyun; Han, Na Young; Kwon, Chang Il; Lee, Hoo Keun; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in optical molecular imaging allow identification of morphologic and biochemical changes in tissues associated with gastrointestinal (GI) premalignant lesions earlier and in real-time. This focused review series introduces high-resolution imaging modalities that are being evaluated preclinically and clinically for the detection of early GI cancers, especially Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Although narrow band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, and chromoendoscopy are currently applied for this purpose in the clinic, further adoptions of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy, high-resolution microendoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and metabolomic imaging, as well as imaging mass spectrometry, will lead to detection at the earliest and will guide predictions of the clinical course in the near future in a manner that is beyond current advancements in optical imaging. In this review article, the readers will be introduced to sufficient information regarding this matter with which to enjoy this new era of high technology and to confront science in the field of molecular medical imaging. PMID:24570878

  8. Spinal Cord Lesion by Minor Trauma as an Early Sign of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Brum, Marisa; Reimão, Sofia; Sousa, Djalma; de Carvalho, Rui; Ferreira, Joaquim J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is characterized clinically by parkinsonism, cerebellar, autonomic, and corticospinal features of variable severity. When the presentation is only parkinsonism, the disease might be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson’s disease (PD). We present a case of an 80-year-old man with previous diagnosis of PD. One year after the diagnosis, he had a whiplash cervical trauma due to a tricycle accident caused by a hole in the road. This low-energy trauma caused an unstable C4–C5 cervical fracture with spinal cord injury, which required surgical decompression and stabilization. Neurological examination showed marked postural instability, no rest and postural tremor, finger tapping slowed on the right, spastic tetraparesis (ASIA D) – predominantly on the left side, brisk deep tendon reflexes in the upper and lower extremities, and bilateral extensor plantar response. He also presented with vertical gaze restriction, mild hypometria in horizontal saccades, moderate dysphagia, and dysphonia. As atypical parkinsonism was suspected, he underwent an MRI that revealed conjunction of findings suggestive of parkinsonian-type MSA. In our case, we hypothesize that the loss of postural reflexes, as an early manifestation of MSA, did not allow the patient to have an effective reaction response to a low-energy trauma, resulting in a more severe injury. With this case report, we speculate that the severe spinal lesions caused by minor accidents can be an early sign of postural instability, which may lead to clinical suspicion of neurodegenerative disorder manifested by postural reflexes impairment. PMID:27014185

  9. The early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions: from Thoma to Gorlin.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kusama, Kaoru; Saito, Ichiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    To reappraise the early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions (OGCL), the extensive world literature published from 1838 to 1962 was reviewed. In light of the long history of OGCL, the term "calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe" first appeared in a 1931 French report, and the term "ghost cells" had its origin in two American seminal articles by Thoma and Goldman in 1946. Although Gorlin et al. coined the term "calcifying odontogenic cyst" (COC) in 1962, this type of cyst was initially reported three decades earlier by Rywkind in Russia, and almost concurrently by Blood good in the United States and Sato in Japan. In 1948, Willis provided the initial histological evidence of a peripheral COC in his British pathology textbook. Credit for the earliest clinical presentation of odontoma associated calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor belongs to the American radiology textbook by Thoma in 1917. A Scandinavian journal report published in 1953 by Husted and Pindborg was the first to address a dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and its peripheral counterpart was originally reported in the Swiss literature 7 years later. The current concept of COC was undoubtedly established by Gorlin et al. but the history of OGCL really started with Thoma's pioneering work about a century ago. PMID:24972654

  10. Predictive value of red blood cell distribution width for coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiyan; Fu, Songling; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Jian; Gao, Lichao; Zhu, Weihua; Gong, Fangqi

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that elevated red blood cell distribution width is associated with poor outcome in cardiovascular diseases. In order to assess the predictive value of red blood cell distribution width, before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, for coronary artery lesions in patient with Kawasaki disease, we compared 83 patients with coronary artery lesions and 339 patients without coronary artery lesions before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical values were evaluated along with red blood cell distribution width. A total of 422 consecutive patients with Kawasaki disease were enrolled into our study. According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal red blood cell distribution width cut-off value for predicting coronary artery lesions was 14.55% (area under the curve was 0.721; p=0.000); eighty-three patients (19.7%) had coronary artery lesions, and 70% of the patients with coronary artery lesions had red blood cell distribution width level >14.55%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that fever duration >14 days (odds ratio was 3.42, 95% confidence interval was 1.27-9.22; p=0.015), intravenous immunoglobulin resistance (odds ratio was 2.33, 95% confidence interval was 1.02-5.29; p=0.04), and red blood cell distribution width >14.55% (odds ratio was 3.49, 95% confidence interval was 2.01-6.05; p=0.000) were independent predictors of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease. In Conclusion, red blood cell distribution width may be helpful for predicting coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease. PMID:26435202

  11. [18F]FDG Accumulation in Early Coronary Atherosclerotic Lesions in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tarkia, Miikka; Saraste, Antti; Stark, Christoffer; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Savunen, Timo; Strandberg, Marjatta; Saunavaara, Virva; Tolvanen, Tuula; Teuho, Jarmo; Teräs, Mika; Metsälä, Olli; Rinne, Petteri; Heinonen, Ilkka; Savisto, Nina; Pietilä, Mikko; Saukko, Pekka; Roivainen, Anne; Knuuti, Juhani

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation is an important contributor to atherosclerosis progression. A glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) has been used to detect atherosclerotic inflammation. However, it is not known to what extent [18F]FDG is taken up in different stages of atherosclerosis. We aimed to study the uptake of [18F]FDG to various stages of coronary plaques in a pig model. Methods First, diabetes was caused by streptozotocin injections (50 mg/kg for 3 days) in farm pigs (n = 10). After 6 months on high-fat diet, pigs underwent dual-gated cardiac PET/CT to measure [18F]FDG uptake in coronary arteries. Coronary segments (n = 33) were harvested for ex vivo measurement of radioactivity and autoradiography (ARG). Results Intimal thickening was observed in 16 segments and atheroma type plaques in 10 segments. Compared with the normal vessel wall, ARG showed 1.7±0.7 times higher [18F]FDG accumulation in the intimal thickening and 4.1±2.3 times higher in the atheromas (P = 0.004 and P = 0.003, respectively). Ex vivo mean vessel-to-blood ratio was higher in segments with atheroma than those without atherosclerosis (2.6±1.2 vs. 1.3±0.7, P = 0.04). In vivo PET imaging showed the highest target-to-background ratio (TBR) of 2.7. However, maximum TBR was not significantly different in segments without atherosclerosis (1.1±0.5) and either intimal thickening (1.2±0.4, P = 1.0) or atheroma (1.6±0.6, P = 0.4). Conclusions We found increased uptake of [18F]FDG in coronary atherosclerotic lesions in a pig model. However, uptake in these early stage lesions was not detectable with in vivo PET imaging. Further studies are needed to clarify whether visible [18F]FDG uptake in coronary arteries represents more advanced, highly inflamed plaques. PMID:26120829

  12. Predicting Early School Success with Developmental and Social Skills Screeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Sherry K.; Agostin, Tracy McKee

    1997-01-01

    Identifies developmental, social skill, and problem behavior subdomains that best predict academic achievement and grade promotion or retention in the early school years. Tests of 184 students at the end of kindergarten and then one year later indicate that social skills assessment should be included in kindergarten screening packages. (RJM)

  13. Early Prediction of Reading Comprehension within the Simple View Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Herrera, Sarah; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading proposes that reading comprehension is the product of word reading and language comprehension. In this study, we used the simple view framework to examine the early prediction of reading comprehension abilities. Using multiple measures for all constructs, we assessed word reading precursors (i.e., letter knowledge,…

  14. What Are the Precursor and Early Lesions of Peripheral Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Tsutsui, Akemi; Sasaki, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is divided into distal, perihilar, and intrahepatic CCs (ICCS), and are further subdivided into large bile duct ICC and peripheral ICC. In distal and perihilar CC and large duct ICC, biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm (IPN) have been proposed as precursor lesions. Peripheral ICC, bile duct adenoma (BDA), biliary adenofibroma (BAF), and von Meyenburg complexes (VMCs) are reportedly followed by development of ICCs. Herein, we surveyed these candidate precursor lesions in the background liver of 37 cases of peripheral ICC and controls (perihilar CC, 34 cases; hepatocellular carcinoma, 34 cases and combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma, 25 cases). In the background liver of peripheral ICC, BDA and BAF were not found, but there were not infrequently foci of BDA-like lesions and atypical bile duct lesions involving small bile ducts (32.4% and 10.8%, resp.). VMCs were equally found in peripheral CCs and also control CCs. In conclusion, BDA, BAF, and VMCs are a possible precursor lesion of a minority of peripheral CCs, and BDA-like lesions and atypical bile duct lesions involving small bile ducts may also be related to the development of peripheral ICC. Further pathologic studies on these lesions are warranted for analysis of development of peripheral ICCs. PMID:24860673

  15. Early burn wound excision and skin grafting postburn trauma restores in vivo neutrophil delivery to inflammatory lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Tchervenkov, J.I.; Epstein, M.D.; Silberstein, E.B.; Alexander, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of early vs delayed postburn wound excision and skin grafting on the in vivo neutrophil delivery to a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and a bacterial skin lesion (BSL). Male Lewis rats were presensitized to keyhole-limpet hemocyanin. Group 1 comprised sham controls. Groups 2 through 4 were given a 30% 3 degrees scald burn, but the burn wounds were excised, and skin was grafted on days 1, 3, and 7, respectively, after the burn. Group 5 comprised burn controls. Twelve days after burn trauma, all rats were injected at different intervals (during a 24-hour period) with a trio of intradermal injections of keyhole-limpet hemocyanin, Staphylococcus aureus 502A, and saline at different sites. In vivo neutrophil delivery to these dermal lesions was determined by injecting indium in 111 oxyquinoline-labeled neutrophils isolated from similarly treated groups of rats. Neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions was restored to normal by excision and skin grafting of the burn wound one day after burn trauma. Waiting three days after burn trauma to excise and skin graft the wound partially, but not completely, restored the in vivo neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions. Waiting one week to excise and skin graft a burn wound resulted in no improvement in neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL dermal lesions. It was concluded that burn wound excision and skin grafting immediately after burn trauma restored in vivo neutrophil delivery to a BSL and DTH dermal lesion. This may, in part, explain the beneficial effect of early aggressive burn wound debridement in patients with burn injuries.

  16. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076097

  17. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097

  18. Functional aspects of early brain development are preserved in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) epileptogenic lesions.

    PubMed

    Ruffolo, Gabriele; Iyer, Anand; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Roseti, Cristina; Mühlebner, Angelika; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; Scholl, Theresa; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Feucht, Martha; Krsek, Pavel; Zamecnik, Josef; Jansen, Floor E; Spliet, Wim G M; Limatola, Cristina; Aronica, Eleonora; Palma, Eleonora

    2016-11-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multi-system genetic disease characterized by several neurological disorders, the most common of which is the refractory epilepsy caused by highly epileptogenic cortical lesions. Previous studies suggest an alteration of GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in TSC brain indicating an unbalance of excitation/inhibition that can explain, at least in part, the high incidence of epilepsy in these patients. Here we investigate whether TSC cortical tissues could retain GABAA and AMPA receptors at early stages of human brain development thus contributing to the generation and recurrence of seizures. Given the limited availability of pediatric human brain specimens, we used the microtransplantation method of injecting Xenopus oocytes with membranes from TSC cortical tubers and control brain tissues. Moreover, qPCR was performed to investigate the expression of GABAA and AMPA receptor subunits (GABAA α1-5, β3, γ2, δ; GluA1, GluA2) and cation chloride co-transporters NKCC1 and KCC2. The evaluation of nine human cortical brain samples, from 15 gestation weeks to 15years old, showed a progressive shift towards more hyperpolarized GABAA reversal potential (EGABA). This shift was associated with a differential expression of the chloride cotransporters NKCC1 and KCC2. Furthermore, the GluA1/GluA2 mRNA ratio of expression paralleled the development process. On the contrary, in oocytes micro-transplanted with epileptic TSC tuber tissue from seven patients, neither the GABAA reversal potential nor the GluA1/GluA2 expression showed similar developmental changes. Our data indicate for the first time, that in the same cohort of TSC patients, the pattern of both GABAAR and GluA1/GluA2 functions retains features that are typical of an immature brain. These observations support the potential contribution of altered receptor function to the epileptic disorder of TSC and may suggest novel therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, our findings

  19. Lesion-specific coronary artery calcium quantification for predicting cardiac event with multiple instance support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingshan; Qian, Zhen; Marvasty, Idean; Rinehart, Sarah; Voros, Szilard; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2010-01-01

    Conventional whole-heart CAC quantification has been demonstrated to be insufficient in predicting coronary events, especially in accurately predicting near-term coronary events in high-risk adults. In this paper, we propose a lesion-specific CAC quantification framework to improve CAC's near-term predictive value in intermediate to high-risk populations with a novel multiple instance support vector machines (MISVM) approach. Our method works on data sets acquired with clinical imaging protocols on conventional CT scanners without modifying the CT hardware or updating the imaging protocol. The calcific lesions are quantified by geometric information, density, and some clinical measurements. A MISVM model is built to predict cardiac events, and moreover, to give a better insight of the characterization of vulnerable or culprit lesions in CAC. Experimental results on 31 patients showed significant improvement of the predictive value with the ROC analysis, the net reclassification improvement evaluation, and the leave-one-out validation against the conventional methods. PMID:20879266

  20. Role of the Biomarker p16 in Downgrading -IN 2 Diagnoses and Predicting Higher-grade Lesions.

    PubMed

    Maniar, Kruti P; Sanchez, Beatriz; Paintal, Ajit; Gursel, Demirkan B; Nayar, Ritu

    2015-12-01

    In 2012, the College of American Pathologists and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology published the "LAST" recommendations for histopathology reporting of human papilloma virus-related squamous lesions of the lower anogenital tract, including the use of a 2-tier nomenclature (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [LSIL/HSIL]) and expanded use of the biomarker p16 to classify equivocal lesions as either precancer (HSIL) or low-grade lesions (LSIL)/non-human papilloma virus changes. We aimed to determine (1) the frequency with which the poorly reproducible diagnosis of intermediate-grade (-IN 2) lesion in the lower anogenital tract would be downgraded on the basis of p16 results, and (2) whether p16 status was predictive of subsequent higher-grade lesions. A total of 200 specimens diagnosed as an intermediate-grade (-IN 2) lesion of the cervix (168), vagina (2), vulva (2), and anus (28) were reviewed and immunostained for p16. Slides were independently reviewed by 2 pathologists, with discrepant p16 interpretations adjudicated by a third pathologist. Of the 200 cases, 32% were negative for p16. Among the 166 patients with subsequent pathology (including 131 excisions), 26.2% of p16-positive cases versus 4.4% of p16-negative cases were associated with a subsequent diagnosis of HSIL (-IN 3) or worse (P=0.002). Reproducibility of the biopsy diagnosis was fair, with no significant difference with the addition of p16 or using 2 versus 3 tiers. In 11.5% of cases, there was discordance in p16 interpretation (κ 0.735, good agreement). The results indicate that using the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology recommendations would result in approximately one third of equivocal (-IN 2) diagnoses being downgraded to LSIL over 1 year in a busy academic practice. The significant association of p16 expression with a higher risk for HSIL on a subsequent specimen suggests that use of p16 to adjudicate equivocal (-IN 2

  1. The Stem Cell Marker Bmi-1 Is Sensitive in Identifying Early Lesions of Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Setúbal Destro; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; Altemani, Albina; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Sousa, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, we evaluated and described the sensitivity of the stem cell marker B cell-specific moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1) in identifying early lesions of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA). While invasive CXPAs are tumors with a prominent and easily recognizable malignant component, the identification of early carcinomatous changes in PA remains a diagnostic challenge due to the lack of objective morphological criteria. The immunohistochemical expression of Bmi-1 was assessed in both adenomatous and carcinomatous components of 9 CXPA cases at an early phase of histological progression (6 intracapsular and 3 minimally invasive) grouped according to the cellular differentiation as luminal (7 cases) or myoepithelial (2 cases). A selective nuclear expression of Bmi-1 was found exclusively in the malignant component of 8 cases (6 luminal type and 2 myoepithelial type), including intraductal carcinoma areas, except for 1 case in which scarce cells of the remnant PA were positive. Thus, Bmi-1 is expressed from the earliest morphologically detectable stages of PA malignant transformation. When faced with atypical features in PA, evaluation of Bmi-1 expression can provide more objective criteria for identification and diagnosis of early lesions of CXPA. This is applied to carcinomas with luminal or myoepithelial differentiation. PMID:26166073

  2. Lesion Load May Predict Long-Term Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lavorgna, Luigi; Messina, Silvia; Chisari, Clara Grazia; Ippolito, Domenico; Lanzillo, Roberta; Vacchiano, Veria; Realmuto, Sabrina; Valentino, Paola; Coniglio, Gabriella; Buccafusca, Maria; Paolicelli, Damiano; D’Ambrosio, Alessandro; Montella, Patrizia; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Savettieri, Giovanni; Alfano, Bruno; Gallo, Antonio; Simone, Isabella; Viterbo, Rosa; Zappia, Mario; Bonavita, Simona; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques provided evidences into the understanding of cognitive impairment (CIm) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Objectives To investigate the role of white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in predicting long-term CIm in a cohort of MS patients. Methods 303 out of 597 patients participating in a previous multicenter clinical-MRI study were enrolled (49.4% were lost at follow-up). The following MRI parameters, expressed as fraction (f) of intracranial volume, were evaluated: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-f), WM-f, GM-f and abnormal WM (AWM-f), a measure of lesion load. Nine years later, cognitive status was assessed in 241 patients using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), the Semantically Related Word List Test (SRWL), the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST), and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). In particular, being SRWL a memory test, both immediate recall and delayed recall were evaluated. MCST scoring was calculated based on the number of categories, number of perseverative and non-perseverative errors. Results AWM-f was predictive of an impaired performance 9 years ahead in SDMT (OR 1.49, CI 1.12–1.97 p = 0.006), PASAT (OR 1.43, CI 1.14–1.80 p = 0.002), SRWL-immediate recall (OR 1.72 CI 1.35–2.20 p<0.001), SRWL-delayed recall (OR 1.61 CI 1.28–2.03 p<0.001), MCST-category (OR 1.52, CI 1.2–1.9 p<0.001), MCST-perseverative error(OR 1.51 CI 1.2–1.9 p = 0.001), MCST-non perseverative error (OR 1.26 CI 1.02–1.55 p = 0.032). Conclusion In our large MS cohort, focal WM damage appeared to be the most relevant predictor of the long-term cognitive outcome. PMID:25816303

  3. Ability of laser fluorescence device associated with fluorescent dyes in detecting and quantifying early smooth surface caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; de Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; Nicolau, José

    2006-01-01

    A laser fluorescence (LF) device is a portable tool, but it does not measure minor mineral changes. Our in vitro study aim is to propose the association of an LF with two fluorescent dyes and to evaluate the performance in detecting and quantifying early demineralization. Artificial caries lesions are created in 40 primary canine teeth using a demineralizing solution (pH=4.8) for 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. LF measurements are performed with DIAGNOdent after demineralization in these samples and in 20 sound primary teeth. Measurements with LF with 0.2-mM tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (LF TMPyP) and with 4-mM protoporphyrin IX (LF PPIX) are made. The amount of calcium loss is determined by atomic emission spectrometry. A correlation between LF and LF with dyes and mineral loss and receiver operating characteristics analysis are performed, as well as comparisons of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values. Significant correlation is obtained with LF TMPyP and mineral loss of lesions demineralized for 24, 48, and 96 h. Better performance is achieved with LF TMPyP for all parameters than with LF alone. LF PPIX does not present good results. In conclusion, LF TMPyP provides good performance in detecting and quantifying very early enamel caries lesions. PMID:16674197

  4. Abnormal Early Cleavage Events Predict Early Embryo Demise: Sperm Oxidative Stress and Early Abnormal Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M.; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (<1 hr) P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors. PMID:25307782

  5. Analysis of the depolarizing properties of normal and adenomatous polyps in colon mucosa for the early diagnosis of precancerous lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; de Cos-Pérez, Jesús; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Optical characterization of biological tissues by means of polarimetric techniques is an area of growing interest. Polarized light can be used for malignant neoplasms detection. To our knowledge, few studies have so far focused on lesions that are prone to result in cancer. In this work we present a polarimetric study of depolarization in prepathological tissues. Specifically, we will focus on premalignant lesions in human colon due to their clinical relevance. Colonic adenoma, the potential precursor of malignant adenocarcinoma, provokes significant structural modifications in colon mucosa that affect light depolarization. The depolarizing properties of normal and adenomatous polyps mucosa are compared. The average linear degree of polarization is shown to present a strong dependence with the precancerous state of the colonic tissue. This method has the potential to enable an early diagnosis of colon cancer.

  6. A pathogenetic study of the early connective tissue lesions of viral caprine arthritis-encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D. S.; Crawford, T. B.; Klevjer-Anderson, P.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were designed to correlate morphologic lesions with the presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Twenty-one cesarean-derived goat kids were infected with 10(6) to 10(7) TCID50 of virus, killed sequentially, and examined for viral antigens by immunofluorescence, viral infectivity by isolation and titration, and morphologic changes by light microscopy. Fluorescent viral antigens were detected from 1 to 10 days postinoculation (DPI) and only in synovial cells. Virus was reisolated from several joints and from brain 0.5 to 79 DPI. Increases in synovial fluid cell counts were noted by 1 DPI, and morphologic changes in synovial membranes were present from 3 to 45 DPI. Joint lesions progressed from mild synovial cell hyperplasia and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration to severe synovial cell hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration with villous hypertrophy. Lesions elsewhere were mild, consisting only of perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. Eleven cesarean-derived control goats were negative for viral antigens, virus, and morphologic lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6990770

  7. Predictive Capabilities of Neurobehavioral Diagnostics in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Abramova, Oxana

    2016-05-01

    Modern world experiences annual increase in the number of children born with neurological problems, which in the future may stipulate the development of their neurobehavioral and neuropsychological aberrations. Specific functional features of a child's brain development depend on many factors, but there is a strong need for early clinical and psychological identification of a child's development with a view to elaborate preventive measures, which are often more effective than the treatment or correction of dysfunction, already complicated by compensatory bonds. One should note that despite a high interest in the possibility of predicting the future development of the child in the early ontogenesis, few studies have so far been devoted to the search for indicators that could be meaningful for neuropsychology, neurology, and educational, special, and clinical psychology. PMID:26683601

  8. Site and size of multiple sclerosis lesions predict enhanced or decreased female orgasmic function.

    PubMed

    Winder, Klemens; Seifert, Frank; Koehn, Julia; Deutsch, Martina; Engelhorn, Tobias; Dörfler, Arnd; Lee, De-Hyung; Linker, Ralf A; Hilz, Max J

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging identified brain areas involved in female orgasm. In women with multiple sclerosis (MS), associations between orgasmic function and the site and size of MS-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes are undetermined. This study intended to correlate MS-associated cerebral lesion load and location with clinical scores of female orgasmic function. In 50 women with MS (mean age 37.0 ± 9.9 years), we assessed Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores for orgasmic frequency, difficulty and satisfaction. We determined disease duration, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and cerebral MS-lesion load and location using T2-weighed 1.5 T MRIs. We correlated FSFI scores for orgasm with patient age, disease duration, EDSS scores, and cerebral MS-lesion load (Spearman rank correlation; significance: p < 0.05). FSFI scores for orgasm correlated inversely with MS-lesion load in the left temporal periventricular white matter and right middle-inferior occipital area, but directly with MS-lesion load in the right frontal primary motor cortex, left prefrontal/inferior frontal cortex, right amygdala, left temporal middle-inferior and fusiform areas, and midbrain. FSFI scores for orgasm did not correlate with patient age, disease duration and EDSS scores (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that MS-lesions in left temporal periventricular and right visual association areas deteriorate orgasmic function. In contrast, direct correlations between frontotemporal or midbrain lesions and higher FSFI scores, indicating enhanced or disinhibited orgasmic function, suggest that these brain regions normally buffer orgasmic responses. Moreover, our results indicate that orgasmic dysfunction in women with MS evolves independently of disease duration and physical disability. PMID:26459094

  9. A Model for Predicting Gastrostomy Tube Placement in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Upper Aerodigestive Tract Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Ashley C.; Moustafa, Farah; Worley, Mitch; Waltonen, Joshua D.; D'Agostino, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Identifying high-risk patients in the preoperative period can allow physicians to optimize nutritional status early for better outcomes after head and neck cancer resections. OBJECTIVE To develop a model to predict preoperatively the need for gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement in patients undergoing surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective medical record review included all adult patients diagnosed with head and neck cancers who underwent tumor resection from 2007 through 2012 at Wake Forest Baptist Health, a level 1 tertiary care center. Records were screened for patient demographics, tumor characteristics, surgical treatment type, and postoperative placement of G-tube. A total of 743 patients underwent resection of head and neck tumors. Of these, 203 were excluded for prior G-tube placement, prior head and neck resection, G-tube placement for chemoradiotherapy, and resection for solely nodal disease, leaving 540 patients for analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Placement of postoperative G-tube. RESULTS Of the 540 included patients, 23% required G-tube placement. The following variables were significant and independent predictors of G-tube placement: preoperative irradiation (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% CI, 2.4–6.9; P < .001), supracricoid laryngectomy (OR, 26.0; 95% CI, 4.9–142.9; P < .001), tracheostomy tube placement (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5–4.4; P < .001), clinical node stage N0 vs N2 (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4–4.2; P = .01), clinical node stage N1 vs N2 (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P = .01), preoperative weight loss (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.2; P = .004), dysphagia (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.2; P = .005), reconstruction type (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9; P = .02), and tumor stage (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9; P = .03). A predictive model was developed based on these variables. In the validation analysis, we found that the average predicted score for patients who received G-tubes was statistically

  10. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity. PMID:26664034

  11. Specific dysphoric symptoms are predicted by early maladaptive schemas.

    PubMed

    Trincas, Roberta; Ottaviani, Cristina; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Tenore, Katia; Spitoni, Grazia; Mancini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire) and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings. PMID:24511281

  12. Herpesviral Hematopoietic Necrosis in Goldfish in Switzerland: Early Lesions in Clinically Normal Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Giovannini, S; Bergmann, S M; Keeling, C; Lany, C; Schütze, H; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2016-07-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 is a pathogen of goldfish, inducing a disease referred to as herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis. The disease is described so far in Japan, North America, Taiwan, Australia, the United Kingdom, and recently also Italy. Here the authors describe histologic lesions in clinically affected fish in comparison with clinically normal but virus DNA-positive goldfish in Switzerland. While necrosis or enhanced single-cell necrosis in the hematopoietic tissue in the pronephros or mesonephros was evident in dead and sick animals, in clinically normal goldfish, only single-cell necrosis was observed. Virus DNA was demonstrated in dead as well as clinically affected and subclinically infected goldfish by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. This study identifies the presence of goldfish herpesvirus in Switzerland and highlights the fact that the virus might be more widespread than assumed, as clinically normal goldfish can also carry cyprinid herpesvirus 2, showing histologically similar lesions but of lesser extent and severity. PMID:26553521

  13. Laser-Casein phosphopeptide effect on remineralization of early enamel lesions in primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Najafpour, Ebrahim; Samiei, Mohammad; Erfanparast, Leila; Anoush, Somayeh; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Ghertasi-Oskouei, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation following casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) application on calcium and phosphate concentration and surface microhardness (SMH) of enamel surface in artificial white spot lesions of primary teeth. Material and Methods Eighty teeth with artificial white spot lesions were randomly divided into four groups: (A) distilled and deionized water, (B) Nd:YAG laser, (C) CPP-ACP crème, & (D) CPP-ACP plus laser. SMH was measured using Vickers diamond indenter in Vickers Hardness Number (VHN). Two samples of each group were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analyzed with the SPSS 17/win. Results The subjects of group D demonstrated a significant increase in the calcium and phosphate contents of enamel surface compared to those of groups A (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), B (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) and C (P = 0.024, P = 0.04), respectively. A statistically significant difference was seen for mean VHN between groups A and B (P = 0.002). SEM evaluations confirmed the results. Conclusions The combination of Nd:YAG laser and CPP-ACP crème could be recommended as an effective preventive modality for remineralizing of white spot lesions in primary teeth. Key words:CPP-ACP, enamel remineralization, microhardness, Nd:YAG, primary teeth, SEM. PMID:26155343

  14. On the stability of lung parenchymal lesions with applications to early pneumothorax diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bhandarkar, Archis R; Banerjee, Rohan; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax, a prevalent medical challenge in most trauma cases, is a form of sudden lung collapse closely associated with risk factors such as lung cancer and emphysema. Our work seeks to explore and quantify the currently unknown pathological factors underlying lesion rupture in pneumothorax through biomechanical modeling. We hypothesized that lesion instability is closely associated with elastodynamic strain of the pleural membrane from pulsatile air flow and collagen-elastin dynamics. Based on the principles of continuum mechanics and fluid-structure interaction, our proposed model coupled isotropic tissue deformation with pressure from pulsatile air motion and the pleural fluid. Next, we derived mathematical instability criteria for our ordinary differential equation system and then translated these mathematical instabilities to physically relevant structural instabilities via the incorporation of a finite energy limiter. The introduction of novel biomechanical descriptions for collagen-elastin dynamics allowed us to demonstrate that changes in the protein structure can lead to a transition from stable to unstable domains in the material parameter space for a general lesion. This result allowed us to create a novel streamlined algorithm for detecting material instabilities in transient lung CT scan data via analyzing deformations in a local tissue boundary. PMID:23762195

  15. Early postnatal testosterone predicts sex-related differences in early expressive vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Kung, Karson T F; Browne, Wendy V; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Noorderhaven, Rebecca M; Hines, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    During the first few years of life, girls typically have a larger expressive vocabulary than boys. This sex difference is important since a small vocabulary may predict subsequent language difficulties, which are more prevalent in boys than girls. The masculinizing effects of early androgen exposure on neurobehavioral development are well-documented in nonhuman mammals. The present study conducted the first test of whether early postnatal testosterone concentrations influence sex differences in expressive vocabulary in toddlers. It was found that testosterone measured in saliva samples collected at 1-3 months of age, i.e., during the period called mini-puberty, negatively predicted parent-report expressive vocabulary size at 18-30 months of age in boys and in girls. Testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty also accounted for additional variance in expressive vocabulary after other predictors such as sex, child's age at vocabulary assessment, and paternal education, were taken into account. Furthermore, testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty mediated the sex difference in expressive vocabulary. These results suggest that testosterone during the early postnatal period contributes to early language development and neurobehavioral sexual differentiation in humans. PMID:26970201

  16. Early Nasogastric Feeding in Predicted Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Eckerwall, Gunilla E.; Axelsson, Jakob B.; Andersson, Roland G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of early, nasogastric enteral nutrition (EN) with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Summary Background Data: In SAP, the magnitude of the inflammatory response as well as increased intestinal permeability correlates with outcome. Enteral feeding has been suggested superior to parenteral feeding due to a proposed beneficial effect on the gut barrier. Methods: Fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to TPN or EN groups. The nutritional regimen was started within 24 hours from admission and EN was provided through a nasogastric tube. The observation period was 10 days. Intestinal permeability was measured by excretion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and concentrations of antiendotoxin core antibodies (Endocab). Interleukins (IL)-6 IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as markers of the systemic inflammatory response. Morbidity and feasibility of the nutritional route were evaluated by the frequency of complications, gastrointestinal symptoms, and abdominal pain. Results: PEG, Endocab, CRP, IL-6, APACHE II score, severity according to the Atlanta classification (22 patients), and gastrointestinal symptoms or abdominal pain did not significantly differ between the groups. The incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly higher in TPN patients (21 of 26 vs. 7 of 23; P < 0.001). Total complications (25 vs. 52; P = 0.04) and pulmonary complications (10 vs. 21; P = 0.04) were significantly more frequent in EN patients, although complications were diagnosed dominantly within the first 3 days. Conclusion: In predicted SAP, nasogastric early EN was feasible and resulted in better control of blood glucose levels, although the overall early complication rate was higher in the EN group. No beneficial effects on intestinal permeability or the inflammatory response were seen by EN treatment. PMID:17122621

  17. Early increase in DcR2 expression and late activation of caspases in the platelet storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Plenchette, S; Moutet, M; Benguella, M; N'Gondara, J P; Guigner, F; Coffe, C; Corcos, L; Bettaieb, A; Solary, E

    2001-10-01

    Platelet transfusion is widely used to prevent bleeding in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. The maximal storage duration of platelet concentrates is usually 5 days, due to the platelet storage lesion that impairs their functions when stored for longer times. Some of the morphological and biochemical changes that characterize this storage lesion are reminiscent of cell death by apoptosis. The present study analyzed whether proteins involved in nucleated cell apoptosis could play a role in the platelet storage lesion. Storage of leukocyte-depleted platelets obtained by apheresis is associated with a late and limited activation of caspases, mainly caspase-3. This event correlates with an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim in the particulate fraction and a slight and late release of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein Diablo/Smac in the cytosol. Platelets do not express the death receptors Fas, DR4 and DR5 on their plasma membrane, while the expression of the decoy receptor DcR2 increases progressively during platelet storage. Addition of low concentrations of the cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide accelerates platelet caspase activation during storage, an effect that is partially prevented by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Altogether, DcR2 expression on the plasma membrane is an early event while caspase activation is a late event during platelet storage. These observations suggest that caspases are unlikely to account for the platelet storage lesion. As a consequence, addition of caspase inhibitors may not improve the quality of platelet concentrates stored in standard conditions. PMID:11587215

  18. Effect of 18F-FDG uptake time on lesion detectability in PET imaging of early stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wangerin, Kristen A.; Muzi, Mark; Peterson, Lanell M.; Linden, Hannah M.; Novakova, Alena; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Kurland, Brenda F.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Prior reports have suggested that delayed FDG-PET oncology imaging can improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for known lesions. Our goal was to estimate realistic bounds for lesion detectability for static measurements with one to four hours between FDG injection and image acquisition. Tumor and normal tissue kinetic model parameters were estimated from dynamic PET studies of patients with early stage breast cancer. These were used to generate time-activity curves (TACs) out to four hours, for which we assumed both nonreversible and reversible models with different rates of FDG dephosphorylation (k4). For each pair of tumor and normal tissue TACs, 600 PET sinogram realizations were generated, and images were reconstructed using OSEM. Test statistics for each tumor and normal tissue region of interest were output from the computer model observers and evaluated using an ROC analysis with the calculated AUC providing a measure of lesion detectability. For the nonreversible model (k4 = 0), the AUC increased in 11/23 (48%) of patients for one to two hours after the current standard post-radiotracer injection imaging window of one hour. This improvement was driven by increased tumor/normal tissue contrast before the impact of increased noise due to radiotracer decay began to dominate the imaging signal. As k4 was increased from 0 to 0.01 min−1, the time of maximum detectability shifted earlier, as the decreasing FDG concentration in the tumor lowered the CNR. These results imply that delayed PET imaging may reveal low-conspicuity lesions that would have otherwise gone undetected. PMID:26807443

  19. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated. Methods National representative sample of 15-year-olds in Denmark with 4 and 12 year follow-up studies with measurement of breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies. A total of 561 persons completed questionnaires at age 15 years (baseline 1990, n=847, response rate 84.6%), age 19 years (n=729, response rate 73.2%) and age 27 years (n=614, response rate 61.6%). Results Low meal frequencies at age 15 years was a significant predictor for having low meal frequencies at age 19 years (odds ratio (OR, 95% CI)) varying between 2.11, 1.33-3.34 and 7.48, 3.64-15.41). Also, low meal frequencies at age 19 years predicted low meal frequencies at age 27 years (OR varying between 2.26, 1.30-3.91 and 4.38, 2.36-8.13). Significant predictions over the full study period were seen for low breakfast frequency and low lunch frequency (OR varying between 1.78, 1.13-2.81 and 2.58, 1.31-5.07). Analyses stratified by gender showed the same patterns (OR varying between 1.88, 1.13-3.14 and 8.30, 2.85-24.16). However, the observed predictions were not statistical significant among men between age 15 and 27 years. Analyses stratified by adolescent family structure revealed different lunch predictions in strata. Conclusions Having low meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted low meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood. We propose that promotion of regular meals become a prioritised issue within health education. PMID:23642295

  20. Predictability and Prediction of Early- and Peak-summer East Asian rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, S. Y.; Wang, B.; Xing, W.; Kim, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall has a profound influence on the lives of billions of people. The seasonal prediction of the EASM rainfall, however, has long been an outstanding challenge in climate science. Traditional seasonal forecast of EASM deals with JJA mean rainfall anomalies, which may not be the best strategy because the EASM rainy season is typically from May to August and pronounced differences exist between early summer (May-June, MJ) and peak summer (July-August, JA): both climatological mean states and the principal modes of interannual variability exhibit distinct spatial and temporal structures. The present study explores the sources and limit of the predictability of the early and peak summer rainfall over the East Asian (EA) region. Since the climate models' seasonal forecasts have rather limited skills, it is important to find the causes of the low skills, to improve seasonal prediction, and to better estimate the predictability of EASM rainfall. We address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method. Four empirical modes of variability for peak summer rainfall are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific-EA teleconnection mode, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high-dipole feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-ENSO mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train mode. These modes are named according to the major sources of predictability. Based on the understanding of predictability sources for each mode, a suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading principal components (PCs). All four modes can be predicted with significant cross-validated correlation skills(0.59-0.65). Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, a 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the EA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill is 0.37, which is higher than the MME hind cast skill (0.13). The estimated potential attainable pattern correlation coefficient skill averaged over the entire domain is

  1. A comparative evaluation of remineralizing ability of bioactive glass and amorphous calcium phosphate casein phosphopeptide on early enamel lesion

    PubMed Central

    Palaniswamy, Udaya Kumar; Prashar, Neha; Kaushik, Mamta; Lakkam, Surender Ram; Arya, Shikha; Pebbeti, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was done to evaluate remineralizing potential of bioactive glasses (BAGs) and amorphous calcium phosphate-casein phosphopeptide (ACP-CPP) on early enamel lesion. Materials and Methods: Twenty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were sectioned sagittally. The buccal half was impregnated in acrylic resin blocks and treated with 37% phosphoric acid in liquid form, to demineralize enamel surface to simulate early enamel lesion. The samples were divided into two groups. The samples in Group I were treated with ACP-CPP (GC Tooth Mousse) and in Group II with BAG (Sensodyne Repair and Protect) and stored in saliva to prevent dehydration. The samples were tested for microhardness. The data obtained was analyzed using ANOVA post hoc multiple comparison and independent sample t- test and presented as a mean and standard deviation. Results: All the samples showed a decrease in the microhardness after demineralization. After application of remineralizing agents, Group II showed a highly significant increase in the microhardness (P < 0.05) after 10 days, while Group I showed a significant increase in microhardness after 15 days (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both the remineralizing agents tested in this study can be considered effective in repair and prevention of demineralization. BAG showed better results initially, but eventually both have similar remineralizing potential. PMID:27605985

  2. Diagnostic Performances of 99mTc-Methoxy Isobutyl Isonitrile Scan in Predicting the Malignancy of Lung Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuxin; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the value of technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in differentiating malignant from benign lung lesions. The PubMed and Embase databases were comprehensively searched for relevant articles that evaluated lung lesions suspicious for malignancy. Two reviewers independently extracted the data on study characteristics and examination results, and assessed the quality of each selected study. The data extracted from the eligible studies were assessed by heterogeneity and threshold effect tests. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and areas under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curves (SROC) were also calculated. Fourteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and DOR of 99mTc-MIBI scan in detecting malignant lung lesions were 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81, 0.87), 0.83 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88), 4.22 (95% CI: 2.53, 7.04), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.31), and 25.71 (95% CI: 10.67, 61.96), respectively. The area under the SROC was 0.9062. Meta-regression analysis showed that the accuracy estimates were significantly influenced by ethnic groups (P < 0.01), but not by image analysis methods, mean lesion size, or year of publication. Deek funnel plot asymmetry test for the overall analysis did not raise suspicion of publication bias (P = 0.50). Our results indicated that 99mTc-MIBI scan is a promising diagnostic modality in predicting the malignancy of lung lesions. PMID:27149482

  3. Effect of Chicken Egg Shell Powder Solution on Early Enamel Carious Lesions: An Invitro Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezar, A.V. Rajesh; Ghani, Mohamed Fayas; Narayanan, Ashwin; S., Anand; Mohan, Ajit George

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the remineralization potential of enamel surface lesion using chicken eggshell powder (CESP) solution. Materials and Methods: Ten freshly extracted un-erupted third molars decoronated at cement-enamel junction (CEJ) used in this study. Each decoronated tooth was sectioned to get 4 samples of enamel blocks such that 40 blocks were obtained which were then subjected to demineralization protocol and grouped as: Group 1-untreated group, Group 2-subsurface demineralization, Group 3-subsurface demineralization + 7 days CESP immersion, Group 4- subsurface demineralization + clinpro application. The samples were evaluated for X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis, microhardness testing and atomic analyses using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The data were statistically analysed by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey – Kramer multiple comparison test. Results: X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy shows Calcium concentration of 98% and 0.46% of phosphate. Group 4 (Clinpro) shows the highest efficacy in enhancing the remineralization followed by Group 3 (CESP). The results of atomic analyses showed that quantitative amounts of Ca weight % and P weight % is statistically greater for all the three groups except the demineralized group. Conclusion: CESP with higher calcium content can remineralise enamel surface lesion. PMID:25954701

  4. Early experiences building a software quality prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.; Evanco, W. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiences building a software quality prediction model are discussed. The overall research objective is to establish a capability to project a software system's quality from an analysis of its design. The technical approach is to build multivariate models for estimating reliability and maintainability. Data from 21 Ada subsystems were analyzed to test hypotheses about various design structures leading to failure-prone or unmaintainable systems. Current design variables highlight the interconnectivity and visibility of compilation units. Other model variables provide for the effects of reusability and software changes. Reported results are preliminary because additional project data is being obtained and new hypotheses are being developed and tested. Current multivariate regression models are encouraging, explaining 60 to 80 percent of the variation in error density of the subsystems.

  5. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    PubMed Central

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The authoritative parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  6. Early Clinical Experience and Outcome of Helical Tomotherapy for Multiple Metastatic Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ik Jae; Seong, Jinsil; Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Yong Bae; Keum, Ki Chang; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon; Cho, Jaeho

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of synchronous treatment of multiple metastatic lesions by helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with multiple metastatic lesions were treated by helical tomotherapy from April 2006 to February 2007. Among these patients, 21 had metastatic bone disease. Subjective pain response was assessed using the visual analogue scales, and morbidity was evaluated by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. The correlation between the percentage of red bone marrow in the radiation field and the severity of leukocytopenia was analyzed. Results: The median age was 57 years. Radiation dose to the gross tumor volume was 30-84 Gy, with a median fractional size of 3 Gy. Mean treatment time was 16 min and 1 sec. Treatment time and fraction size were modified because of poor performance status or hematologic toxicity in two patients. With regard to palliative effects for bone metastasis, 16 patients (76.2%) experienced positive pain relief. Four patients had Grade III leukocytopenia, and three had Grade IV leukocytopenia. In the multivariate logistic regression, red marrow percentage was the independent risk factor most associated with Grade III/IV leukocytopenia (p = 0.014). The tolerance cutoff point of red bone marrow was 26.8%, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.7% and 85.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy was effective for symptom palliation and was feasible for patients with multiple metastatic diseases. The volume of red bone marrow, as well as performance status, must be taken into account to determine optimal treatment.

  7. [Early pregnancy risk: development and validation of a predictive instrument].

    PubMed

    Burrows, R; Rosales, M E; Díaz, M; Muzzo, S

    1994-06-01

    An early pregnancy risk scale, with scores ranging from 11 to 66 points from lower to higher risk, was constructed using variables associated with teenager's pregnancy. This scale was applied to 3000 female teenagers, coming from Metropolitan Santiago public schools. The sample was divided in three risk groups: group A (high risk) with scores equal or over 35 points, group B (low risk) with scores equal or below 20 points and group B (intermediate risk) with scores between 20.1 and 34.9 points. These girls were followed during 2 years. During this period, 84 girls became pregnant, 24 of 184 (13%) in group A, 60 of 2332 (2.6%) in group C and none of 307 in group B. There were 104 school desertions in group A and 37 in group B. To study associations and analyze risk, the sample was divided in two risk groups: high, with scores over 27 and low, with scores below 27. There was a high association between pregnancy risk score and the occurrence of pregnancy (RR 5.25 p < 0.0001) and school desertion (RR 3.32 p < 0.0001). Pregnancy was predicted with a 78% sensitivity and 55.6% specificity. School desertion was predicted with a 74% sensitivity and 56% specificity. The importance variable weighing using multiple regression models, to improve the predictor's sensitivity and specificity, is discussed. PMID:7732221

  8. Maternal Oral Bacterial Levels Predict Early Childhood Caries Development

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, B.W.; Gansky, S.A.; Weintraub, J.A.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Ramos-Gomez, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the association of maternal salivary bacterial challenge (mutans streptococci [MS] and lactobacilli [LB]) from pregnancy through 24 months’ postpartum with child caries incidence (≥1 cavitated or restored teeth) at 36 months. Materials & Methods: Dental, salivary bacterial, sociodemographic, and behavioral measures were collected at three- to six-month intervals from a birth cohort of low-income Hispanic mother-child dyads (N = 243). We calculated the relative child caries incidence, adjusted for confounding, following higher maternal challenge of MS (>4500 colony-forming units per milliliter of saliva [CFU/mL]) and LB (>50 CFU/mL) based on multivariable models. Results: Salivary MS and LB levels were greater among mothers of caries-affected children versus caries-free children. Mothers with higher salivary MS challenge were more likely to have MS-positive children (>0 CFU/mL), but maternal LB challenge was not a statistically significant predictor of child LB-positive status. Adjusting for sociodemographics, feeding and care practices, and maternal dental status, higher maternal salivary challenge of both MS and LB over the study period predicted nearly double the child caries incidence versus lower MS and LB (cumulative incidence ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 3.8). Conclusion: Maternal salivary bacterial challenge not only is associated with oral infection among children but also predicts increased early childhood caries occurrence. PMID:24356441

  9. Early prediction of lung cancer recurrence after stereotactic radiotherapy using second order texture statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    Benign radiation-induced lung injury is a common finding following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer, and is often difficult to differentiate from a recurring tumour due to the ablative doses and highly conformal treatment with SABR. Current approaches to treatment response assessment have shown limited ability to predict recurrence within 6 months of treatment. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of second order texture statistics for prediction of eventual recurrence based on computed tomography (CT) images acquired within 6 months of treatment, and compare with the performance of first order appearance and lesion size measures. Consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) regions were manually delineated on post-SABR CT images. Automatic consolidation expansion was also investigated to act as a surrogate for GGO position. The top features for prediction of recurrence were all texture features within the GGO and included energy, entropy, correlation, inertia, and first order texture (standard deviation of density). These predicted recurrence with 2-fold cross validation (CV) accuracies of 70-77% at 2- 5 months post-SABR, with energy, entropy, and first order texture having leave-one-out CV accuracies greater than 80%. Our results also suggest that automatic expansion of the consolidation region could eliminate the need for manual delineation, and produced reproducible results when compared to manually delineated GGO. If validated on a larger data set, this could lead to a clinically useful computer-aided diagnosis system for prediction of recurrence within 6 months of SABR and allow for early salvage therapy for patients with recurrence.

  10. What predicts early volumetric edema increase following stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases?

    PubMed

    Hanna, Andrew; Boggs, D Hunter; Kwok, Young; Simard, Marc; Regine, William F; Mehta, Minesh

    2016-04-01

    A volumetric analysis of pre- and post-radiosurgery (PreSRS and PostSRS) edema in patients with cerebral metastases was performed to determine factors of a predictive model assessing the risk of developing increased edema relatively early after SRS. One-hundred-fourteen metastases in 55 patients were analyzed. Selection for this analysis required an MRI ≤ 30 days before SRS and an MRI ≤ 100 days after SRS. Tumor volumes were calculated on PreSRS, SRS, and PostSRS T1-weighted postgadolinium images while edema volumes were calculating using PreSRS and PostSRS fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR images. An increase in edema was defined as an increase in measurable edema of at least 5%. We developed and evaluated a model predicting the relative risk (RR) of increased edema after SRS. Peritumoral edema increased in 18% (21/114) of the analyzed lesions. Melanoma/renal histology, recursive partitioning analysis class III, and prior WBRT carried RRs of developing postSRS edema increase of 2.45, 2.48, and 3.16, respectively (all P values <0.05). The PreSRS edema/tumor ratio predicted for a RR of 1.007/ratio unit, and steroid dose at time of SRS predicted for a RR of 0.89/mg (all P values <0.05). A predictive model for assessing the RR of increased edema after SRS was developed based from these data and may be useful in identifying patients who might benefit from prophylactic anti-edema therapies before, during, or after SRS. This model could be used as the basis of inclusion criteria for prospective trials investigating novel anti-edema therapies. PMID:26721241

  11. Traumatic axonal injury: Relationships between lesions in the early phase and diffusion tensor imaging parameters in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Moen, Kent Gøran; Vik, Anne; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Håberg, Asta Kristine; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Eikenes, Live

    2016-07-01

    This prospective study of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients investigates fractional anisotropy (FA) from chronic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in areas corresponding to persistent and transient traumatic axonal injury (TAI) lesions detected in clinical MRI from the early phase. Thirty-eight patients (mean 24.7 [range 13-63] years of age) with moderate-to-severe TBI and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Patients underwent 1.5-T clinical MRI in the early phase (median 7 days), including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2* gradient echo (T2*GRE) sequences. TAI lesions from the early phase were characterized as nonhemorrhagic or microhemorrhagic. In the chronic phase (median 3 years), patients and controls were imaged at 3 T with FLAIR, T2*GRE, T1, and DTI sequences. TAI lesions were classified as transient or persistent. The FLAIR/T2*GRE images from the early phase were linearly registered to the FA images from the chronic phase and lesions manually segmented on the FA-registered FLAIR/T2*GRE images. For regions of interest (ROIs) from both nonhemorrhagic and microhemorrhagic lesion, we found a significant linear trend of lower mean FA from ROIs in healthy controls to ROIs in patients without either nonhemorrhagic or microhemorrhagic lesions and further to transient and finally persistent lesion ROIs (P < 0.001). Histogram analyses showed lower FA in persistent compared with transient nonhemorrhagic lesion ROIs (P < 0.001), but this was not found in microhemorrhagic lesion ROIs (P = 0.08-0.55). The demonstrated linear trend of lower FA values from healthy controls to persistent lesion ROIs was found in both nonhemorrhagic and microhemorrhagic lesions and indicates a gradual increasing disruption of the microstructure. Lower FA values in persistent compared with transient lesions were found only in nonhemorrhagic lesions. Thus, clinical MRI techniques are able to depict important aspects of white matter pathology across the

  12. Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Adult Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Poole, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994–95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7–12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001–02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24–32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50–50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth. PMID:22870260

  13. Positive and Negative Predictive Value of PET-CT in Skull Base Lesions: Case Series and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hines, John Peyton; Howard, Brittany E.; Hoxworth, Joseph M.; Lal, Devyani

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET-CT) scans in determining malignancy in skull base lesions and perform a systematic literature review for optimal PET-CT interpretation. Design Retrospective case series and systematic literature review of the current English literature. Setting Tertiary referral academic medical center. Participants All patients with skull base lesions that underwent PET-CT and tissue biopsy from 2010 to 2013. Main Outcome Measures PPV and NPV of radiologist's report and standardized uptake value (SUV) cutoff of 2.5 and 3, biopsy with pathologic interpretation, clinical follow-up. Results A total of 31 PET-CT scans of 16 patients were studied; 10 PET-CT were performed upfront for diagnostic purposes and 21 were post-treatment surveillance scans. The PPV of radiologist's interpretation, SUV cutoff of 2.5, and SUV cutoff of 3.0 was 80%, 60%, and 68.4%, with a NPV of 100%, 83.3%, and 75%, respectively. Literature search yielded 500 abstracts; 7 studies met inclusion criteria for detailed review. No consensus or guidelines for optimal SUV cutoff value was found. Conclusions PET-CT based on SUV cutoff criteria alone has high NPV but low PPV in determining malignancy in skull base lesions. Interpretation by a radiologist experienced in nuclear medicine and neuroradiology, synthesizing clinical, SUV, and radiologic data are of superior value. PMID:26937333

  14. Effect of tablets containing probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus reuteri) on early caries lesions in adolescents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Keller, M K; Nøhr Larsen, I; Karlsson, I; Twetman, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of tablets containing probiotic lactobacilli on early caries lesions in adolescents with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). 36 healthy adolescents of both sexes (12-17 years of age) were enrolled and randomly allocated to a placebo-controlled trial with two parallel groups. The test group received two tablets daily containing two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) for a period of three months, while the control group got identical placebo tablets without live bacteria. The primary outcome was QLF-readings (change in fluorescence, ΔF and lesion area, mm2) at baseline and after 3 months, conducted at two buccal sites of each individual, pre-selected with clearly visible clinical signs of enamel demineralisation (white spots). Significantly more premolars were allocated to the placebo group, while the test group had more incisors (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in fluorescence values between the groups, neither at baseline, nor at the follow-up. There was however a significant decrease in fluorescence over time in the test group, but not in the placebo group (P<0.05). No alterations of the lesion area (ΔA) were found in any group. The inter-examiner intra-class correlation coefficient-value for QLF-readings was excellent. No side- or adverse effects were reported during the intervention period. This pilot study found a significant decrease over time in the test group. However, no statistically significant differences in fluorescence values between the groups were found. Hence, the null hypothesis could not be rejected. PMID:24889893

  15. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in rats with dopaminergic lesion: Possible application for early detection of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khatib, S; Finberg, J P M; Artoul, F; Lavner, Y; Mahmood, S; Tisch, U; Haick, H; Aluf, Y; Vaya, J

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic (DA) neuron depletion. Early detection of PD may help in selecting the appropriate treatment. Biomarkers of PD have been suggested, however none of these is currently in clinical use. The aim of this study was to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as early biomarkers of PD. Our hypothesis was that during PD progression, specific VOCs are generated that are linked to the biochemical pathways characterizing PD. These VOCs can be detected by GC-MS combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique. Three groups of rats were studied: DA-lesioned rats injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (HDA; 250μg/rat n=11); control rats injected with saline (n=9), and control rats injected with DSP-4 (n=8), a specific noradrenergic neuron toxin. Blood and striatal tissue homogenate were analyzed. In the blood, 1-octen-3-ol and 2-ethylhexanol were found at significantly higher concentrations in HDA versus sham rats. In the striatal homogenate 1-octen-3-ol and other four compounds were found at significantly lower concentrations in HDA versus sham rats. 1-Octen-3-ol is a cytotoxic compound. These results may lead to the development of an early diagnostic test for PD based on profiling of VOCs in body fluids. PMID:25034982

  16. Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Congming; Wei, Xiaochun; Chen, Chongwei; Cao, Kun; Li, Yongping; Jiao, Qiang; Ding, Juan; Zhou, Jingming; Fleming, Braden C.; Chen, Qian; Shang, Xianwen; Wei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether there is a correlation between the concentration of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in synovial fluid (SF) and the severity of cartilage damage in the human knee joints, the knee cartilages from patients were classified using the Outer-bridge scoring system and graded using the Modified Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, we detected and compared Ihh protein levels in rat and mice cartilages between normal control and surgery-induced osteoarthritis (OA) group by IHC and fluorescence molecular tomography in vivo respectively. Ihh expression was increased 5.2-fold in OA cartilage, 3.1-fold in relative normal OA cartilage, and 1.71-fold in OA SF compared to normal control samples. The concentrations of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples was significantly increased in early-stage OA samples when compared to normal samples (r = 0.556; p < 0.001); however, there were no significant differences between normal samples and late-stage OA samples. Up-regulation of Ihh protein was also an early event in the surgery-induced OA models. Increased Ihh is associated with the severity of OA cartilage damage. Elevated Ihh content in human knee joint synovial fluid correlates with early cartilage lesions. PMID:24786088

  17. The Cerebellum Generates Motor-to-Auditory Predictions: ERP Lesion Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knolle, Franziska; Schroger, Erich; Baess, Pamela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2012-01-01

    Forward predictions are crucial in motor action (e.g., catching a ball, or being tickled) but may also apply to sensory or cognitive processes (e.g., listening to distorted speech or to a foreign accent). According to the "internal forward model," the cerebellum generates predictions about somatosensory consequences of movements. These predictions…

  18. Fluorescence detection of tumors: studies on the early diagnosis of microscopic lesions in preclinical and clinical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, Thomas S.; McGinnis, Carolyn; Crean, David H.; Khan, S.; Liebow, Charles

    1991-06-01

    The growth of microscopic tumor lesions at or beyond treatment field lesions poses major problems in the diagnosis and curative treatment of numerous cancers. Early detection techniques which clearly define the extent of condemned or field spread of disease may improve the primary treatment of the disease. In vivo fluorescence photometry is a non-imaging technique which digitally displays relative fluorescence values in volts. The sensitivity of the instrument has allowed the detection of micrometastases in both pre-clinical and clinical studies using drug doses that are 80-90 lower than those used therapeutically. This technique is now being applied in preliminary experiments to the hamster cheek pouch models to (1) discern varying grades of dysplasia; (2) levels of uptake of the drug in normal growing and quiescent tumors. Results will be shown in two models in which this technique has shown to be efficacious preclinically in the Pollard rat adenocarcinoma model in which micrometastases in the lymph node have been detected, and preliminary studies involving the hamster cheek pouch model in which the pouch is painted with 9, 10 dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA) for initiation and promotion of tumors. Clinically results will be shown in which fluorescence detection, confirmed by biopsy and histopathological examination, was capable of detecting the existence of micrometastatic involvement of less than 100 cells.

  19. Role of α1 and α2 chains of type IV collagen in early fibrotic lesions of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and migration of lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagase, Takahide; Fukuda, Yuh; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Early fibrotic lesions are thought to be the initial findings of fibrogenesis in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, but little is known about their properties. Type IV collagen comprises six gene products, α1-α6, and although it is known as a major basement membrane component, its abnormal deposition is seen in fibrotic lesions of certain organs. We studied the expression of type I and III collagen and all α chains of type IV collagen in lung specimens from patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or organizing pneumonia (OP) via immunohistochemistry. With cultured lung fibroblasts, we analyzed the expression and function of all α chains of type IV collagen via immunohistochemistry, western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, and a Boyden chamber migration assay after the knockdown of α1 and α2 chains. Although we observed type I and III collagens in early fibrotic lesions of both UIP and OP, we found type IV collagen, especially α1 and α2 chains, in early fibrotic lesions of UIP but not OP. Fibroblasts enhanced the expression of α1 and α2 chains of type IV collagen after transforming growth factor-β1 stimulation. Small interfering RNA against α1 and α2 chains increased fibroblast migration, with upregulated phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and adding medium containing fibroblast-produced α1 and α2 chains reduced the increased levels of fibroblast migration and phosphorylation of FAK. Fibroblasts in OP were positive for phosphorylated FAK but fibroblasts in UIP were not. These results suggest that fibroblasts in UIP with type IV collagen deposition, especially α1 and α2 chains, have less ability to migrate from early fibrotic lesions than fibroblasts in OP without type IV collagen deposition. Thus, type IV collagen deposition in early fibrotic lesions of UIP may be implicated in refractory pathophysiology including migration of lesion fibroblasts via a FAK pathway. PMID:26006016

  20. Management of Lesion Nematodes and Potato Early Dying with Rotation Crops

    PubMed Central

    LaMondia, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Soil-incorporated rotation/green manure crops were evaluated for management of potato early dying caused by Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans. After two years of rotation/green manure and a subsequent potato crop, P. penetrans numbers were less after ‘Saia’ oat/‘Polynema’ marigold, ‘Triple S’ sorghum-sudangrass, or ‘Garry’ oat than ‘Superior’ potato or ‘Humus’ rapeseed. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) for early dying was lowest after Saia oat/marigold, and tuber yields were greater than continuous potato after all crops except sorghum-sudangrass. Saia oat/marigold crops resulted in the greatest tuber yields. After one year of rotation/green manure, a marigold crop increased tuber yields and reduced AUDPC and P. penetrans. In the second potato crop after a single year of rotation, plots previously planted to marigolds had reduced P. penetrans densities and AUDPC and increased tuber yield. Rapeseed supported more P. penetrans than potato, but had greater yields. After two years of rotation/green manure crops and a subsequent potato crop, continuous potato had the highest AUDPC and lowest tuber weight. Rotation with Saia oats (2 yr) and Rudbeckia hirta (1 yr) reduced P. penetrans and increased tuber yields. AUDPC was lowest after R. hirta. Two years of sorghum-sudangrass did not affect P. penetrans, tuber yield or AUDPC. These results demonstrate that P. penetrans may be reduced by one or two years of rotation to non-host or antagonistic plants such as Saia oat, Polynema marigold, or R. hirta and that nematode control may reduce the severity of potato early dying. PMID:19259461

  1. Electrical injuries. Biological values measurements as a prediction factor of local evolution in electrocutions lesions

    PubMed Central

    Teodoreanu, R; Popescu, SA; Lascar, I

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rationale. Taking into account the incidence and the severity of electrocutions, we consider it extremely necessary to find effective, appropriate and particularized therapeutic solutions aimed at improving the survival, decreasing the mortality, ensuring a superior functional and aesthetic effect and facilitating the social reintegration. Given the severity of the general condition of the electrically injured patient and the fact that any worsening of the lesions has a systemic echo, the selection of the timing for re-excision is very important. The postponement of the surgical timing can break the precarious metabolic equilibrium and can hasten the installation of the multisystem organ failure (MSOF). Objective. The study is intended to establish a possible connection between the clinical evolution of the electrically injured patient and the dynamics of three important biological parameters, able to provide data concerning the therapeutic attitude to be followed. The patients with a diagnostic of high-voltage electrocution, who will be admitted to the Clinic, will be followed for a period of 2 years. The parameters to be followed daily will be: - Creatin-kinase, as a marker of muscular damage - Hemoglobin, as a marker of tissue oxygenation - Leukocytes, as an indicator of a possible septic evolution. The therapeutic alternatives, including the administration of antiplatelet drugs will be studied. Methods and Results. In the period October 2010-June 2013 a total of 12 cases of high-voltage electrocution were admitted in our clinic. Among these, some could be placed in the study of 7 cases, as the remaining patients died within the first 24 hours of hospitalization due to the endured lesions. All the patients were admitted to the ICU ward that supported the treatment and monitoring until their stabilization, at which time they were transferred to the ward. All the patients received anti-thromboxane treatment from their admission (injectable NSAIDs

  2. The GRK2 Overexpression Is a Primary Hallmark of Mitochondrial Lesions during Early Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Obrenovich, Mark E; Palacios, Hector H; Gasimov, Eldar; Leszek, Jerzy; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to vascular damage as an early contributor to the development of two leading causes of age-associated dementia, namely Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD-like pathology such as stroke. This review focuses on the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) as they relate to dementia and how the cardio and cerebrovasculature is involved in AD pathogenesis. The exploration of GRKs in AD pathogenesis may help bridge gaps in our understanding of the heart-brain connection in relation to neurovisceral damage and vascular complications of AD. The a priori basis for this inquiry stems from the fact that kinases of this family regulate numerous receptor functions in the brain, myocardium and elsewhere. The aim of this review is to discuss the finding of GRK2 overexpression in the context of early AD pathogenesis. Also, we consider the consequences for this overexpression as a loss of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation, as well as suggest a potential role for GPCRs and GRKs in a unifying theory of AD pathogenesis through the cerebrovasculature. Finally, we synthesize this newer information in an attempt to put it into context with GRKs as regulators of cellular function, which makes these proteins potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for future pharmacological intervention. PMID:20204079

  3. The GRK2 Overexpression Is a Primary Hallmark of Mitochondrial Lesions during Early Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Obrenovich, Mark E.; Palacios, Hector H.; Gasimov, Eldar; Leszek, Jerzy; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to vascular damage as an early contributor to the development of two leading causes of age-associated dementia, namely Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD-like pathology such as stroke. This review focuses on the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) as they relate to dementia and how the cardio and cerebrovasculature is involved in AD pathogenesis. The exploration of GRKs in AD pathogenesis may help bridge gaps in our understanding of the heart-brain connection in relation to neurovisceral damage and vascular complications of AD. The a priori basis for this inquiry stems from the fact that kinases of this family regulate numerous receptor functions in the brain, myocardium and elsewhere. The aim of this review is to discuss the finding of GRK2 overexpression in the context of early AD pathogenesis. Also, we consider the consequences for this overexpression as a loss of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation, as well as suggest a potential role for GPCRs and GRKs in a unifying theory of AD pathogenesis through the cerebrovasculature. Finally, we synthesize this newer information in an attempt to put it into context with GRKs as regulators of cellular function, which makes these proteins potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for future pharmacological intervention. PMID:20204079

  4. Early prediction of urinary tract infection in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    Nickavar, Azar; Khosravi, Nastaran; Doaei, Mahdiye

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common manifestation of infectious disorders during the neonatal period. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the serious bacterial infections with hyperbilirubinemia among newborn infants. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the early predictive risk factors of UTI in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia, to prevent its long-term complications. Patients and Methods: A total of 95 neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated in 2 groups with (n = 40) and without UTI (n = 55). Results: Mean age at diagnosis of UTI was 16.37 ± 8.86 days. Hyperbilirubinemia was detected in 70% of patients during the first week of life. There was a significant difference regarding the age at admission, duration of hyperbilirubinemia, serum bilirubin and creatinine, white blood cells (WBC) , and also Hgb levels between the 2 groups in univariate analysis. However, prolonged jaundice (OR = 10.3, P = 0.001) and serum bilirubin concentration (OR = 5.15, P = 0.001) were statistically associated with a positive urine culture in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Screening of UTI is recommended in neonates with prolonged unexplained jaundice, leukocytosis, and increased serum creatinine. PMID:26468481

  5. Prediction of motor outcome by shoulder subluxation at early stage of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Yi, Ji Hyun; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Jun; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We attempted to determine whether shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can predict motor outcome in relation to the corticospinal tract (CST) state on diffusion tensor tractography. Fifty-nine stroke patients with severe hemiparesis were recruited. The patients were classified according to the distance of shoulder subluxation (group A: ≥2 cm, group B: <2 cm) and the affected CST on diffusion tensor tractography at the first evaluation (CST type A—the CST was discontinued at the stroke lesion; CST type B—the integrity of the CST was preserved). Motor function of the patients was evaluated twice (first: beginning of rehabilitation—24.1 ± 16.6 days; second: discharge after first rehabilitation—58.5 ± 24.1 days) using the Medical Research Council score, Motricity Index, and Modified Brunnstrom Classification. Regarding the improvement of the Medical Research Council for the finger extensor and upper Motricity Index, the order in terms of better recovery was as follows: group B–type B, group A–type B, group B–type A, and group A–type A (P < 0.05). The distance of shoulder subluxation showed significant correlation with improvement of the finger extensor (moderate negative correlation, r = −0.37) and improvement of the Modified Brunnstrom Classification (weak negative correlation, r = −0.29) (P < 0.05). The presence of shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can be a predictor of motor outcome of the affected upper extremity and the degree of shoulder subluxation can be a predictor of the motor function of the affected hand. Therefore, our results suggest that shoulder subluxation in relation to the affected CST state at the early stage of stroke can be a prognostic factor for motor outcome. PMID:27512873

  6. Early lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men. An ultrastructural comparison with other vascular proliferations in skin.

    PubMed Central

    McNutt, N. S.; Fletcher, V.; Conant, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    An aggressive variant of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has appeared in young homosexual men with evidence of systemic immunosuppression. The ultrastructure in biopsy specimens from 8 KS cases in young homosexual men has been compared with that in biopsy specimens from 4 KS cases in elderly heterosexuals and with that in biopsy specimens from 23 cases of benign vascular disorders of skin. In all cases of KS the small blood vessels lacked a prominent investment of pericytes and their processes, had a fragmented and often absent basal lamina, had frequent discontinuities in the endothelial lining, and had only a few small junctional densities between endothelial cells. Some clinically aggressive cases of KS also had necrosis of individual endothelial cells and had prominent cytoplasmic processes entrapping individual collagen fibers. The benign disorders lacked these features. These differences in the structure of the small vessels may be of diagnostic value in some early cases of KS. The loss of dendritic pericytes in blood capillaries in KS might relate to the telangiectasia which is a prominent feature of the early lesions of KS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6301283

  7. The effects of neurochemical lesioning of dopaminergic terminals in early ontogenesis on behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shabanov, P D; Lebedev, A A; Meshcherov, Sh K; Strel'tsov, V F

    2005-06-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine, which induces selective degeneration of the dopaminergic system of the brain, was given intraamniotically to rats on days 13 and 17 of intrauterine development at a dose of 75 microg/fetus. Similar experiments were performed with 6-hydroxydopamine on days 4 and 10 of neonatal life. Rats were subsequently reared and motor and emotional (dopamine-dependent) types of behavior were studied in adulthood, addressing behavior in the open field test, rotatory behavior, anxiety in an elevated cross maze, a place-preference conditioned response, acquisition of the ability to differentiate new and old arms in a Y maze, aggressivity in the "foreigner-resident" test, and self-stimulation in a Skinner box. Prenatal exposure, to a lesser extent than postnatal exposure, initiated rotatory and stereotypical behavior, decreased the level of anxiety (fear) in the elevated maze, and reinforced the effects of phenamine in the conditioned place-preference test, impaired the differentiation of old and new Y-maze arms, impaired aggressivity in the "foreigner-resident" test, and impaired self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. It is concluded that the early postnatal period of development is more sensitive to the action of this neurotoxin than the prenatal period. This is associated with the critical periods of the formation of the dopaminergic system during ontogenesis, which depend on synaptogenesis. PMID:16033202

  8. FRONTIER FIELDS: HIGH-REDSHIFT PREDICTIONS AND EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Zitrin, Adi

    2015-02-20

    The Frontier Fields program is obtaining deep Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope images of new ''blank'' fields and nearby fields gravitationally lensed by massive galaxy clusters. The Hubble images of the lensed fields are revealing nJy sources (AB mag > 31), the faintest galaxies yet observed. The full program will transform our understanding of galaxy evolution in the first 600 million years (z > 9). Previous programs have yielded a dozen or so z > 9 candidates, including perhaps fewer than expected in the Ultra Deep Field and more than expected in shallower Hubble images. In this paper, we present high-redshift (z > 6) number count predictions for the Frontier Fields and candidates in three of the first Hubble images. We show the full Frontier Fields program may yield up to ∼70 z > 9 candidates (∼6 per field). We base this estimate on an extrapolation of luminosity functions observed between 4 < z < 8 and gravitational lensing models submitted by the community. However, in the first two deep infrared Hubble images obtained to date, we find z ∼ 8 candidates but no strong candidates at z > 9. We defer quantitative analysis of the z > 9 deficit (including detection completeness estimates) to future work including additional data. At these redshifts, cosmic variance (field-to-field variation) is expected to be significant (greater than ±50%) and include clustering of early galaxies formed in overdensities. The full Frontier Fields program will significantly mitigate this uncertainty by observing six independent sightlines each with a lensing cluster and nearby blank field.

  9. Preventive Screening for Early Readers: Predictive Validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffreda, Catherine T.; Diperna, James Clyde; Pedersen, Jason A.

    2009-01-01

    Current empirical evidence indicates poor learning trajectories for students with early literacy skill deficits. As such, reliable and valid detection of at-risk students through regular screening and progress monitoring is imperative. This study investigated the predictive validity of scores on the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  10. Enzyme replacement therapy in newborn mucopolysaccharidosis IVA mice: early treatment rescues bone lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Montaño, Adriana M.; Oikawa, Hirotaka; Dung, Vu Chi; Hashimoto, Amiko; Oguma, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Tatsuo; Shimada, Tsutomu; Orii, Tadao; Sly, William S.

    2014-01-01

    We treated mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) mice to assess the effects of long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) initiated at birth, since adult mice treated by ERT showed little improvement in bone pathology (1). To conduct ERT in newborn mice, we used recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) produced in a CHO cell line. First, to observe the tissue distribution pattern, a dose of 250 units/g body weight was administered intravenously in MPS IVA mice at day 2 or 3. The infused enzyme was primarily recovered in liver and spleen, with detectable activity in bone and brain. Second, newborn ERT was conducted after tissue distribution study. The first injection of newborn ERT was performed intravenously, the second to fourth weekly injections were intraperitoneal, and the remaining injections from 5th to 14th week were intravenous into the tail vein. MPS IVA mice treated with GALNS showed clearance of lysosomal storage in liver, spleen, and sinus lining cells in bone marrow. The column structure of the growth plate was organized better than adult mice treated with ERT; however, hyaline and fibrous cartilage cells in femur, spine, ligaments, discs, synovium, and periosteum still had storage materials to some extent. Heart valves were refractory to the treatment. Levels of serum keratan sulfate were kept normal in newborn ERT mice. In conclusion, the enzyme, which enters the cartilage before the cartilage cell layer becomes mature, prevents disorganization of column structure. Early treatment from birth leads to partial remission of bone pathology in MPS IVA mouse. PMID:24953405

  11. [The role of the general practitioner and dentist in the early diagnosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Scala, M; Moresco, L; Comandini, D; Monteghirfo, S; Tomei, D

    1997-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancer allows for a 90% 5-year survival rate. Unfortunately, nowadays 60% of these tumors are detected in advanced stages with a 5-year survival of about 20%. Therefore, early diagnosis is of the greatest importance. Both the GP and the dentist have a primary role in early diagnosis and are also responsible for informing the population regarding the risk factors in oral cancer. GPs and dentists should systematically check the oral cavity mucous membranes in heavy smokers and/or drinkers above all when over 40. Lesions become suspicious when they persist for more than two weeks after detection. The high-risk pts and suspicious lesions should undergo the following diagnostic procedures: micronucleus test, vital staining, scraping and biopsy for cytological and histological examination. The above mentioned methods will increase the early diagnosis of tumours and improve its prognosis. PMID:9173222

  12. Predictive Modeling of Human Perception Subjectivity: Feasibility Study of Mammographic Lesion Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songhua; Tourassi, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    The majority of clinical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) studies disregard human perception subjectivity, aiming to duplicate the consensus expert assessment of the visual similarity on example cases. The purpose of our study is twofold: (i) discern better the extent of human perception subjectivity when assessing the visual similarity of two images with similar semantic content, and (ii) explore the feasibility of personalized predictive modeling of visual similarity. We conducted a human observer study in which five observers of various expertise were shown ninety-nine triplets of mammographic masses with similar BI-RADS descriptors and were asked to select the two masses with the highest visual relevance. Pairwise agreement ranged between poor and fair among the five observers, as assessed by the kappa statistic. The observers' self-consistency rate was remarkably low, based on repeated questions where either the orientation or the presentation order of a mass was changed. Various machine learning algorithms were explored to determine whether they can predict each observer's personalized selection using textural features. Many algorithms performed with accuracy that exceeded each observer's self-consistency rate, as determined using a cross-validation scheme. This accuracy was statistically significantly higher than would be expected by chance alone (two-tailed p-value ranged between 0.001 and 0.01 for all five personalized models). The study confirmed that human perception subjectivity should be taken into account when developing CBIR-based medical applications.

  13. Predicting High School Graduation and College Enrollment: Comparing Early Warning Indicator Data and Teacher Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soland, James

    2013-01-01

    Each year, more districts implement early warning systems (EWS). These EWS predict negative student outcomes, such as dropping out, before they occur. Predictions are then used to match at-risk students to appropriate supports and interventions. Research suggests that these systems are useful in ensuring educators respond to student needs early,…

  14. Disruption of Smad-dependent signaling for growth of GST-P-positive lesions from the early stage in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimura, Ryohei; Mizukami, Sayaka; Takahashi, Miwa; Taniai, Eriko; Kemmochi, Sayaka; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    To clarify the involvement of signaling of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} during the hepatocarcinogenesis, the immunohistochemical distribution of related molecules was analyzed in relation with liver cell lesions expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) during liver tumor promotion by fenbendazole, phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, or thioacetamide, using rats. Our study focused on early-stage promotion (6 weeks after starting promotion) and late-stage promotion (57 weeks after starting promotion). With regard to Smad-dependent signaling, cytoplasmic accumulation of phosphorylated Smad (phospho-Smad)-2/3 - identified as Smad3 by later immunoblot analysis - increased in the subpopulation of GST-P{sup +} foci, while Smad4, a nuclear transporter of Smad2/3, decreased during early-stage promotion. By late-stage promotion, GST-P{sup +} lesions lacking phospho-Smad2/3 had increased in accordance with lesion development from foci to carcinomas, while Smad4 largely disappeared in most proliferative lesions. With regard to Smad-independent mitogen-activated protein kinases, GST-P{sup +} foci that co-expressed phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase increased during early-stage promotion; however, p38-downstream phospho-activating transcriptional factor (ATF)-2, ATF3, and phospho-c-Myc, were inversely downregulated without relation to promotion. By late-stage promotion, proliferative lesions downregulated phospho-ATF2 and phospho-c-Myc along with lesion development, as with downregulation of phospho-p38 in all lesions. These results suggest that from the early stages, carcinogenic processes were facilitated by disruption of tumor suppressor functions of Smad-dependent signaling, while Smad-independent activation of p38 was an early-stage phenomenon. GST-P{sup -} foci induced by promotion with agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} did not change Smad expression, suggesting an aberration in the Smad

  15. Early prediction of language and literacy problems: is 18 months too early?

    PubMed

    Duff, Fiona J; Nation, Kate; Plunkett, Kim; Bishop, Dvm

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of stability in language difficulties across early childhood: most late talkers (LTs) resolve their difficulties by pre-school; and a significant number of children who were not LTs subsequently manifest language difficulties. Greater reliability in predicting individual outcomes is needed, which might be achieved by waiting until later in development when language is more stable. At 18 months, productive vocabulary scores on the Oxford Communicative Developmental Inventory were used to classify children as LTs or average talkers (ATs). Thirty matched-pairs of LTs and ATs were followed up at school-age (average age 7 years), when language and literacy outcomes were assessed. For 18 children, intermediate testing at age 4 had classified them as showing typical development (TD) or specific language impairment (SLI). After correcting for multiple comparisons, there were no significant differences between the LTs and ATs on any outcome measure, and the LTs were performing in the average range. However, there were large-sized effects on all outcomes when comparing the TD and SLI groups. LT status on its own is not determinative of language and literacy difficulties. It would therefore not be appropriate to use expressive vocabulary measures alone to screen for language difficulties at 18 months. However, children with language impairment at age 4 are at risk of enduring difficulties. PMID:26244110

  16. SIV Encephalitis Lesions Are Composed of CD163+ Macrophages Present in the Central Nervous System during Early SIV Infection and SIV-Positive Macrophages Recruited Terminally with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Nowlin, Brian T.; Burdo, Tricia H.; Midkiff, Cecily C.; Salemi, Marco; Alvarez, Xavier; Williams, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) during AIDS pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured the accumulation of brain perivascular (CD163+) and inflammatory (MAC387+) macrophages in SIV-infected monkeys. Monocyte progenitors were 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled in bone marrow, and CNS macrophages were labeled serially with fluorescent dextrans injected into the cisterna magna. MAC387+ macrophages accumulated in the meninges and choroid plexus in early inflammation and in the perivascular space and SIV encephalitis (SIVE) lesions late. CD163+ macrophages accumulated in the perivascular space and SIVE lesions with late inflammation. Most of the BrdU+ cells were MAC387+; however, CD163+BrdU+ macrophages were present in the meninges and choroid plexus with AIDS. Most (81.6% ± 1.8%) of macrophages in SIVE lesions were present in the CNS before SIVE lesion formation. There was a 2.9-fold increase in SIVp28+ macrophages entering the CNS late compared with those entering early (P < 0.05). The rate of CD163+ macrophage recruitment to the CNS inversely correlated with time to death (P < 0.03) and increased with SIVE. In SIVE animals, soluble CD163 correlated with CD163+ macrophage recruitment (P = 0.02). Most perivascular macrophages that comprise SIVE lesions and multinucleated giant cells are present in the CNS early, before SIVE lesions are formed. Most SIV-infected macrophages traffic to the CNS terminally with AIDS. PMID:25963554

  17. Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and hepcidin and early diabetic nephropathy lesions in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Fufaa, Gudeta D.; Weil, E. Jennifer; Nelson, Robert G.; Hanson, Robert L.; Knowler, William C.; Rovin, Brad H.; Wu, Haifeng; Klein, Jon B.; Mifflin, Theodore E.; Feldman, Harold I.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Kusek, John W.; Mauer, Michael; Zinman, Bernard; Donnelly, Sandra; Canada, Toronto; Gardiner, Robert; Suissa, Samy; Drummond, Keith; Goodyer, Paul; Sinaiko, Alan; Strand, Trudy; Gubler, Marie Claire; Klein, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and hepcidin are potential biomarkers of renal inflammation. We examined their association with development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) lesions in normotensive normoalbuminuric subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from the Renin-Angiotensin System Study. Methods Biomarker concentrations were measured in baseline urine samples from 224 subjects who underwent kidney biopsies at baseline and after 5 years. Fifty-eight urine samples below the limit of quantitation (LOQ, 28.8 pg/mL) of the MCP-1 assay were assigned concentrations of LOQ/√2 for analysis. Relationships between ln(MCP-1/Cr) or ln(hepcidin/Cr) and morphometric variables were assessed by sex using multiple linear regression after adjustment for age, T1D duration, HbA1c, mean arterial pressure, albumin excretion rate (AER) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In models that examined changes in morphometric variables, the baseline morphometric value was also included. Results Baseline mean age was 24.6 years, mean duration of T1D 11.2 years, median AER 6.4 µg/min and mean iohexol GFR 129 mL/min/1.73 m2. No associations were found between hepcidin/Cr and morphometric variables. Higher MCP-1/Cr was associated with higher interstitial fractional volume at baseline and after 5 years in women (baseline partial r = 0.244, P = 0.024; 5-year partial r = 0.299, P = 0.005), but not in men (baseline partial r = −0.049, P = 0.678; 5-year partial r = 0.026, P = 0.830). MCP-1 was not associated with glomerular lesions in either sex. Conclusions Elevated urinary MCP-1 concentration measured before clinical findings of DN in women with T1D was associated with changes in kidney interstitial volume, suggesting that inflammatory processes may be involved in the pathogenesis of early interstitial changes in DN. PMID:25648911

  18. Value of Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) Endoscopy in the Early Diagnosis of Laryngeal Cancer and Precancerous Lesions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-03

    Chronic Inflammation of Hypopharynx; Hoarseness; Macroscopic Laryngeal Lesions; Histological Confirmation of Dysplasia; Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Carcinoma of Larynx; Invasive Carcinoma of Hypo Pharynx; Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

  19. Efficacy of sealing proximal early active lesions: an 18-month clinical study evaluated by conventional and subtraction radiography.

    PubMed

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Ellwood, R

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of sealing proximal lesions on adult patients using a split-mouth design. Eighty-two 15- to 39-year-olds from the Dental Faculties in Copenhagen and Bogotá participated, each having 2 or more proximal lesions in the following radiographic stages: (1) lesion restricted to the outer half of enamel; (2) lesion from the inner half of enamel including the enamel dentine junction, and (3) lesion restricted to the outer third of dentine. Standardized geometrically aligned baseline and follow-up radiographs were obtained. One randomly selected lesion (test) in each patient was sealed with 1 of 2 resins. The patients were instructed to floss all the proximal lesions 3 times per week. The baseline to 18 months difference in caries lesion progression status was assessed using 3 methods: (1) radiographs were independently assessed visually; (2) radiographs were read in pairs, and (3) using subtraction radiography of digitized images. A total of 72 subjects finished the study (12.2% dropout). The compliance concerning flossing was poor (15%). For the repeated examinations kappa was 0.84 for the visual examination, 0.44 for the paired readings and 0.84 for the subtraction examination. Two test lesions and 1 control lesion were restored. For the independent radiograph assessment method 10 and 26% progressed in the test and control group, respectively (p > 0.05); with the paired radiograph method the corresponding data were 22% in the test and 47% in the control groups (p < 0.01). By subtraction radiography 44% of the test group and 84% of the control were judged to have progressed (p < 0.001). The sealing technique was superior to instructing patients to floss, and subtraction radiography appeared to be the most sensitive method for assessing lesion progression. PMID:16946605

  20. Application of array backprojection to tsunami prediction and early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chao; Meng, Lingsen

    2016-04-01

    Teleseismic and static geodetic data have weak constraints on the offshore slip while tsunami data are limited by their availability, so predictions of tsunami waves in the near-field remain challenging. In this study, we develop a near-field tsunami prediction approach based on seismic array backprojections (BP). In this approach, the rupture area is first estimated by enclosing the BP radiators. Then slip models with uniform slip are constructed based on statistical scaling relations between rupture area and seismic moment to predict the near-field tsunami waveforms. The method is applied to the 2011 Tohoku, 2014 Iquique, and 2015 Illapel tsunami events, and the model predictions are compared with tsunami recordings at 57 tidal gauges and nine DART stations. Results show that the average error of arrival time and amplitude nearshore is approximately -15 to +5 min and 0.5 m, respectively, which are sufficiently small for tsunami warning purposes.

  1. Value of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) and dual focus narrow-band imaging (dNBI) in diagnosing early squamous cell neoplasms in esophageal Lugol’s voiding lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Pittayanon, Rapat; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Kullavanijaya, Pinit

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Lugol’s chromoendoscopy provides excellent sensitivity for the detection of early esophageal squamous cell neoplasms (ESCN), but its specificity is suboptimal. An endoscopy technique for real-time histology is required to decrease the number of unnecessary biopsies. This study aimed to compare the ESCN diagnostic capability of probed-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) and dual focus narrow-band imaging (dNBI) in Lugol’s voiding lesions. Patients and methods: Patients with a history of head and neck cancer without dysphagia were recruited. Lugol’s voiding lesions larger than 5 mm were sequentially characterized by dNBI and pCLE by two independent operators. Finally, all lesions larger than 5 mm were biopsied followed by histological analysis, which is considered to be the gold standard in cancer diagnosis. The primary outcomes were the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the accuracy of the two techniques. Results: In total, 44 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 60 years; 80 % were male. Twenty-one Lugol’s voiding lesions larger than 5 mm were detected in 12 patients. Seven lesions (33 %) from four patients were histologically diagnosed as ESCNs (four with high grade dysplasia and three with low grade dysplasia). The other 14 lesions were histologically confirmed as non-neoplastic: active esophagitis, glycogenation with inflammation, acute ulcer, inlet patch, and unremarkable changes. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of pCLE vs. dNBI were 83 % vs. 85 %, 92 % vs. 62 %, 83 % vs. 54 %, 92 % vs. 89 %, and 89 % vs. 70 %, respectively (NS). Conclusions: Asymptomatic patients with a history of head and neck cancer underwent Lugol’s chromoendoscopy based ESCN surveillance. Further characterization of the Lugol’s voiding lesions by advanced imaging showed that both pCLE and dNBI provided good sensitivity in

  2. Comparison of Predictive Models for the Early Diagnosis of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, Meysam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study develops neural network models to improve the prediction of diabetes using clinical and lifestyle characteristics. Prediction models were developed using a combination of approaches and concepts. Methods We used memetic algorithms to update weights and to improve prediction accuracy of models. In the first step, the optimum amount for neural network parameters such as momentum rate, transfer function, and error function were obtained through trial and error and based on the results of previous studies. In the second step, optimum parameters were applied to memetic algorithms in order to improve the accuracy of prediction. This preliminary analysis showed that the accuracy of neural networks is 88%. In the third step, the accuracy of neural network models was improved using a memetic algorithm and resulted model was compared with a logistic regression model using a confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Results The memetic algorithm improved the accuracy from 88.0% to 93.2%. We also found that memetic algorithm had a higher accuracy than the model from the genetic algorithm and a regression model. Among models, the regression model has the least accuracy. For the memetic algorithm model the amount of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and ROC are 96.2, 95.3, 93.8, 92.4, and 0.958 respectively. Conclusions The results of this study provide a basis to design a Decision Support System for risk management and planning of care for individuals at risk of diabetes. PMID:27200219

  3. Sustained Attention and Age Predict Inhibitory Control during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2011-01-01

    Executive functioning skills develop rapidly during early childhood. Recent research has focused on specifying this development, particularly predictors of executive functioning skills. Here we focus on sustained attention as a predictor of inhibitory control, one key executive functioning component. Although sustained attention and inhibitory…

  4. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  5. Early Identification: Predicting School Problems Before They Become Disabling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senf, Gerald M.

    Screening for early identification of learning problems must be done through effective identification procedures which assure all children an equal opportunity for quality education. In order to do this, it is necessary to identify the essential characteristics of an effective screening program, the ways these characteristics might be implemented,…

  6. Predictive Value of Cytokeratin 7 Immunohistochemistry in Cervical Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion as a Marker for Risk of Progression to a High-grade Lesion.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Cherie; Mills, Anne M; Stoler, Mark H

    2016-02-01

    The squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) cell population of the uterine cervix is a discrete epithelial area and the putative source of the majority of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). The SCJ cells can be identified by immunohistochemical (IHC) stains including cytokeratin 7 (CK7). Others have theorized that an SCJ marker-positive low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) has a higher risk for future HSIL compared with an SCJ marker-negative LSIL. This study has 2 aims: first, to refine the definition of a positive CK7 immunostaining pattern in cervical lesions, and, second, to test the hypothesis that CK7 positivity in LSIL indicates higher risk for future HSIL, with both questions addressed using a data set with consensus diagnoses. One hundred cases each of LSIL, moderate HSIL (CIN2), and severe HSIL (CIN3) were stained for CK7, with positivity defined as a diffuse cytoplasmic staining pattern (>5 to 6 contiguous cells); all others were considered negative. Using this model, 34% of CIN1, 45% of CIN2, and 60% of CIN3 were CK7 positive. With follow-up, CK7-positive LSILs were more likely to progress to HSIL compared with CK7-negative LSIL (32% vs. 11%, P=0.05), in concordance with the results of other researchers. This study simplifies cervical CK7 IHC grading into a reproducible system and supports the thesis that CK7 positivity in LSIL is associated with increased risk for future HSIL. Larger cohorts using consensus-diagnosed LSIL are needed to confirm these results before CK7 may be considered for clinical validation. PMID:26551618

  7. Prediction of Coronary Atherosclerotic Ostial Lesion with a Damping of the Pressure Tracing during Diagnostic Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Her, Ae-Young; Ann, Soe Hee; Singh, Gillian Balbir; Kim, Yong Hoon; Koo, Bon-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose When performing coronary angiography (CAG), diagnostic catheter intubation to the ostium can cause damping of the pressure tracing. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of atherosclerotic ostial stenosis in patients showing pressure damping during CAG. Materials and Methods In total, 2926 patients who underwent diagnostic CAG were screened in this study. Pressure damping was defined as an abrupt decline of the coronary blood pressure with a blunted pulse pressure after engagement of the diagnostic catheter. According to CAG and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), we divided damped ostia into two groups: atherosclerotic ostial lesion group (true lesion group) and non-atherosclerotic ostium group (false lesion group). Clinical and angiographic characteristics were compared between the two groups. Results The overall incidence of pressure damping was 2.3% (68 patients and 76 ostia). Among the pressure damped ostia, 40.8% (31 of 76 ostia) were true atherosclerotic ostial lesions (true lesion group). The true lesion group had more frequent left main ostial damping and more percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) performed on non-ostial lesions, compared to the false lesion group. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, left main ostial damping [hazard ratio (HR) 4.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-13.67, p=0.021] and PCI on non-ostial lesion (HR 5.34, 95% CI 1.34-21.27, p=0.018) emerged as independent predictors for true atherosclerotic ostial lesions in patients with pressure damping. Conclusion Left main ostial damping and the presence of a non-ostial atherosclerotic lesion may suggest a significant true atherosclerotic lesion in the coronary ostium. PMID:26632383

  8. Endocrine and Metabolic Biomarkers Predicting Early Childhood Obesity Risk.

    PubMed

    Socha, Piotr; Hellmuth, Christian; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Demmelmair, Hans; Rzehak, Peter; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Escribano, Joaquin; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Riva, Enrica; Verduci, Elvira; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of long-term effects of early dietary intervention in infancy on later obesity risk. Many studies showed reduced risk of obesity with breastfeeding in infancy, which could be related to the reduced protein intake with human milk compared to infant formula. In a randomized controlled trial (Childhood Obesity Project), we were able to show that infant formula with reduced protein content results in lower BMI both at 2 and 6 years. These effects seem to be mediated mainly by branched-chain amino acids which stimulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis and insulin release. In this trial, we also showed an influence of high-protein diet on larger kidney size, which seems to be partly explained by a significant effect of free IGF-1 on kidney volume. The IGF-1 axis was shown to regulate early growth, adipose tissue differentiation and early adipogenesis in animals and in humans. Leptin and adiponectin can also be regarded as important endocrine regulators of obesity. These markers were tested in observational studies. Leptin seems to be closely correlated with BMI but changes in adiponectin require further exploration. Still, there is a lack of good data or some results are contradictory to indicate the role of either leptin or adiponectin in infancy for determining later obesity risk. PMID:27088335

  9. Atypical early histories predict lower extraversion in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Hani D; Weiss, Alexander; Ross, Stephen R

    2016-05-01

    Although much research has been conducted to understand personality development in humans, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of these processes, particularly in relation to social influences. As such, investigations into personality development in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, may provide useful insight. We evaluated the impact of early social exposure (to both humans and conspecifics) on personality development by studying 88 chimpanzees, including former pets and entertainers, living in accredited zoos and sanctuaries. During infancy, subjects varied in the amount of time spent with conspecifics compared with humans. Caregivers familiar with the chimpanzees rated them using a modified version of the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire (HPQ) and the ratings were found to have strong inter-rater reliability. We used the published structure of the HPQ to evaluate our results in relation to differences in early life experience. Chimpanzees who as infants spent less time with conspecifics were rated as lower in Extraversion later in life in comparison with chimpanzees who as infants spent more time with conspecifics. These results suggest that a broad range of social influences should be considered when evaluating the impact of early social environment on later personality expression. PMID:26814701

  10. Inattention Symptoms Predict Level of Depression in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Khushmand; O’Neill, Sarah; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential bidirectional relationships between severity of inattention and depression across early childhood. Methods Children (N = 216) from the New York, NY, metropolitan area were recruited when they were aged 3 to 4 years (T1) and studied again at age 6 (T2) and 7 (T3) years. Child inattention symptoms were measured using the Kiddie–Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children–Present and Lifetime, along with both parent and teacher reports on the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2). Severity of child depression was assessed at each time point using parent and teacher reports on the BASC-2. After examining correlations between child inattention and depression, structural equation modeling was used to investigate whether child inattention was longitudinally related to child depression, and whether child depression symptoms were associated with later child inattention. Results Severity of child inattention at T1 and T2 was longitudinally associated with increased severity of child depression at T2 and T3, respectively. Early child depression was not longitudinally associated with later child inattention. Conclusion Child inattention is a risk factor for increased levels of child depression. Pediatricians and clinicians who assess children’s inattention symptoms also need to investigate symptoms of depression. This study makes a case for treating children’s inattention symptoms at preschool and early childhood, before emotional problems become more severe. PMID:23391681

  11. Predicting reading disability: early cognitive risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Kenneth Mikael; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined early cognitive risk and protective factors for Grade 2 reading disability (RD). We first examined the reading outcome of 198 children in four developmental cognitive subgroups that were identified in our previous analysis: dysfluent trajectory, declining trajectory, unexpected trajectory and typical trajectory. We found that RD was unevenly distributed among the subgroups, although children with RD were found in all subgroups. A majority of the children with RD had familial risk for dyslexia. Second, we examined in what respect children with similar early cognitive development but different RD outcome differ from each other in cognitive skills, task-focused behaviour and print exposure. The comparison of the groups with high cognitive risk but different RD outcome showed significant differences in phonological skills, in the amount of shared reading and in task-focused behaviour. Children who ended up with RD despite low early cognitive risk had poorer cognitive skills, more task avoidance and they were reading less than children without RD and low cognitive risk. In summary, lack of task avoidance seemed to act as a protective factor, which underlines the importance of keeping children interested in school work and reading. PMID:23297103

  12. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  13. Preschool Executive Functioning Abilities Predict Early Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Pritchard, Verena E.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2010-01-01

    Impairments in executive function have been documented in school-age children with mathematical learning difficulties. However, the utility and specificity of preschool executive function abilities in predicting later mathematical achievement are poorly understood. This study examined linkages between children's developing executive function…

  14. Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Neri, Franco M; Taraskin, Sergei N; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2012-09-01

    Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible-infected-removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power. PMID:22513723

  15. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…

  16. Early adversity disrupts the adult use of aversive prediction errors to reduce fear in uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kristina M.; DiLeo, Alyssa; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Early life adversity increases anxiety in adult rodents and primates, and increases the risk for developing post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) in humans. We hypothesized that early adversity impairs the use of learning signals -negative, aversive prediction errors–to reduce fear in uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, we gave adolescent rats a battery of adverse experiences then assessed adult performance in probabilistic Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction. Rats were confronted with three cues associated with different probabilities of foot shock: one cue never predicted shock, another cue predicted shock with uncertainty, and a final cue always predicted shock. Control rats initially acquired fear to all cues, but rapidly reduced fear to the non-predictive and uncertain cues. Early adversity rats were slower to reduce fear to the non-predictive cue and never fully reduced fear to the uncertain cue. In extinction, all cues were presented in the absence of shock. Fear to the uncertain cue in discrimination, but not early adversity itself, predicted the reduction of fear in extinction. These results demonstrate early adversity impairs the use of negative aversive prediction errors to reduce fear, especially in situations of uncertainty. PMID:26379520

  17. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  18. Early, Isolated Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting without Symptoms or Grossly Apparent Endoscopic Lesions and Diagnosed by Random Duodenal Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Makki, Issa; Khanal, Pradeep; Amin, Mitual B.; Blenc, Ann Marie; Desai, Tusar; Cappell, Mitchell S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data regarding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) solely involving the duodenum are sparse because of the relative rarity of the disease. A comprehensive literature review revealed only 17 cases reported until 2004, and only a moderate number of cases have been reported since. MALToma can be asymptomatic in its very early stages but frequently produces localized or nonspecific symptoms, including early satiety, abdominal pain, vomiting, and involuntary weight loss in later stages. While gastric MALToma is strongly associated with gastric Helicobactor pylori infection, duodenal MALToma is often unassociated with H. pylori infection. A 74-year-old female presented with only dysphagia (without symptoms referable to a duodenal lesion), without systemic ‘B’ symptoms, and with no evident duodenal lesions at esophagogastroduodenoscopy; however, she was diagnosed with duodenal MALToma by pathologic examination of random duodenal biopsies performed to exclude celiac disease. An important clinical feature of this case is that duodenal MALToma was diagnosed by pathologic analysis of duodenal biopsies despite (1) no endoscopically apparent duodenal lesions; (2) duodenal involvement without gastric involvement; (3) lack of symptoms attributable to duodenal MALToma, and (4) absence of evident H. pylori infection. This work shows that early duodenal MALToma can be difficult to diagnose because of absent symptoms, absence of gastric involvement, absence of endoscopic abnormalities, and absence of H. pylori infection; it may require random duodenal biopsies for diagnosis. PMID:27482191

  19. Early, Isolated Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting without Symptoms or Grossly Apparent Endoscopic Lesions and Diagnosed by Random Duodenal Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Makki, Issa; Khanal, Pradeep; Amin, Mitual B; Blenc, Ann Marie; Desai, Tusar; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data regarding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) solely involving the duodenum are sparse because of the relative rarity of the disease. A comprehensive literature review revealed only 17 cases reported until 2004, and only a moderate number of cases have been reported since. MALToma can be asymptomatic in its very early stages but frequently produces localized or nonspecific symptoms, including early satiety, abdominal pain, vomiting, and involuntary weight loss in later stages. While gastric MALToma is strongly associated with gastric Helicobactor pylori infection, duodenal MALToma is often unassociated with H. pylori infection. A 74-year-old female presented with only dysphagia (without symptoms referable to a duodenal lesion), without systemic 'B' symptoms, and with no evident duodenal lesions at esophagogastroduodenoscopy; however, she was diagnosed with duodenal MALToma by pathologic examination of random duodenal biopsies performed to exclude celiac disease. An important clinical feature of this case is that duodenal MALToma was diagnosed by pathologic analysis of duodenal biopsies despite (1) no endoscopically apparent duodenal lesions; (2) duodenal involvement without gastric involvement; (3) lack of symptoms attributable to duodenal MALToma, and (4) absence of evident H. pylori infection. This work shows that early duodenal MALToma can be difficult to diagnose because of absent symptoms, absence of gastric involvement, absence of endoscopic abnormalities, and absence of H. pylori infection; it may require random duodenal biopsies for diagnosis. PMID:27482191

  20. Early sensory processing deficits predict sensitivity to distraction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smucny, Jason; Olincy, Ann; Eichman, Lindsay C; Lyons, Emma; Tregellas, Jason R

    2013-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia frequently report difficulties paying attention during important tasks, because they are distracted by noise in the environment. The neurobiological mechanism underlying this problem is, however, poorly understood. The goal of this study was to determine if early sensory processing deficits contribute to sensitivity to distracting noise in schizophrenia. To that end, we examined the effect of environmentally relevant distracting noise on performance of an attention task in 19 patients with schizophrenia and 22 age and gender-matched healthy comparison subjects. Using electroencephalography, P50 auditory gating ratios also were measured in the same subjects and were examined for their relationship to noise-induced changes in performance on the attention task. Positive symptoms also were evaluated in patients. Distracting noise caused a greater increase in reaction time in patients, relative to comparison subjects, on the attention task. Higher P50 auditory gating ratios also were observed in patients. P50 gating ratio significantly correlated with the magnitude of noise-induced increase in reaction time. Noise-induced increase in reaction time was associated with delusional thoughts in patients. P50 ratios were associated with delusional thoughts and hallucinations in patients. In conclusion, the observation of noise effects on attention in patients is consistent with subjective reports from patients. The observed relationship between noise effects on reaction time and P50 auditory gating supports the hypothesis that early inhibitory processing deficits may contribute to susceptibility to distraction in the illness. PMID:23590872

  1. Quantification of Early Stages of Cortical Reorganization of the Topographic Map of V1 Following Retinal Lesions in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Botelho, Eliã P.; Ceriatte, Cecília; Soares, Juliana G.M.; Gattass, Ricardo; Fiorani, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the capacity for reorganization of the topographic representation of area V1 in adult monkeys. Bias-free automated mapping methods were used to delineate receptive fields (RFs) of an array of neuronal clusters prior to, and up to 6 h following retinal lesions. Monocular lesions caused a significant reorganization of the topographic map in this area, both inside and outside the cortical lesion projection zone (LPZ). Small flashed stimuli revealed responses up to 0.85 mm inside the boundaries of the LPZ, with RFs representing regions of undamaged retina immediately surrounding the lesion. In contrast, long moving bars that spanned the scotoma resulting from the lesion revealed responsive units up to 1.87 mm inside the LPZ, with RFs representing interpolated responses in this region. This reorganization is present immediately after monocular retinal lesioning. Both stimuli showed a similar and significant (5-fold) increase of the RF scatter in the LPZ, 0.56 mm (median), compared with the undamaged retina, 0.12 mm. Our results reveal an array of preexisting subthreshold functional connections of up to 2 mm in V1, which can be rapidly mobilized independently from the differential qualitative reorganization elicited by each stimulus. PMID:23010747

  2. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  3. Predictive Validity of Early Literacy Measures for Korean English Language Learners in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jeanie Nam; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of early literacy measures with first-grade Korean English language learners (ELLs) in the United States at varying levels of English proficiency. Participants were screened using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency…

  4. Frequency Effects or Context Effects in Second Language Word Learning: What Predicts Early Lexical Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Subtirelu, Nicholas; Salsbury, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study examines frequency, contextual diversity, and contextual distinctiveness effects in predicting produced versus not-produced frequent nouns and verbs by early second language (L2) learners of English. The study analyzes whether word frequency is the strongest predictor of early L2 word production independent of contextual diversity and…

  5. Predicting the Early Developmental Course of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Campbell, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were examined to test whether: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remain stable from 54 months through early elementary school; behavioral inhibition and attention deficits assessed at 54 months predict ADHD symptoms in elementary…

  6. Parental corporal punishment predicts behavior problems in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, Matthew K; Mebert, Carolyn J

    2007-09-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (Research Triangle Institute, 2002), this study examined the impact of corporal punishment (CP) on children's behavior problems. Longitudinal analyses were specified that controlled for covarying contextual and parenting variables and that partialed child effects. The results indicate that parental CP uniquely contributes to negative behavioral adjustment in children at both 36 months and at 1st grade, with the effects at the earlier age more pronounced in children with difficult temperaments. Parents and mental health professionals who work to modify children's negative behavior should be aware of the unique impact that CP likely plays in triggering and maintaining children's behavior problems. Broad-based family policies that reduce the use of this parenting behavior would potentially increase children's mental health and decrease the incidence of children's behavior problems. PMID:17874924

  7. Molecular imaging of apoptosis for early prediction of therapy efficiency.

    PubMed

    De Saint-Hubert, Marijke; Bauwens, Matthias; Mottaghy, Felix M

    2014-01-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer and any effective therapy primarily attempts to induce apoptosis. The evaluation of the degree of success of cancer therapy is currently mainly based on clinical and laboratory parameters and in a later stage on tumor shrinkage. However, none of these parameters provide an objective and early analysis of a therapeutic effect. Molecular imaging may provide a tool for this purpose by using not only pathophysiological but also biochemical effects of the therapy. First in the field, FDG-PET has been explored and demonstrated to offer insight in the amount of viable cells, even though false positives are commonly due to the lack of specificity of this particular radiopharmaceutical. More specific markers target the dying cells instead of those remaining alive. Specific apoptosis markers have been developed of which the radiolabeled Annexin A5 is the most intensely studied probe. Site-specific labeling strategies have improved this imaging probe with good results both in pre-clinical studies and in clinical trials, with promises for clinical applications. Caspase sensitive probes, such as the isatines, can also effectively image apoptosis but are limited due to the high background activities. More recent discoveries of small apoptosis sensitive probes, such as (18)F-ML10, are currently being explored. In this review, the most important apoptosis sensitive probes are described from both a pre-clinical and a clinical perspective, highlighting their potential but also their limitations as an early marker for therapeutic success. It seems that apoptosis imaging can help to guide therapy, not by replacing the current methodology but by providing additional and useful information. PMID:24025102

  8. Early prediction of death in acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, GUOFANG; PING, LEI; ZHOU, SHENGKUI; LIU, WEIWEI; LIU, LEIJING; ZHANG, DONGMEI; LI, ZAILI; TIAN, YONGFANG; CHEN, ZHEN

    2016-01-01

    Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) has been on the decline. However, mortality at long-term follow up is on the increase. The aim of the present study was to investigate early warning signals of death in patients with acute HICH. The medical records of 128 patients with acute HICH within 6 h of onset were retrospectively analyzed. For these patients, systolic blood pressure (BP) was recorded at different time points (emergency, admission, every 6 h within 24 h and twice daily after 24 h) within 1 week. Computed tomography scanning was performed at emergency and the following 24±3 h to assess the hematoma volume. Neurological impairment was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Outcomes were death, defined as a modified Rankin scale score 6, at 90 days. The results showed that at 90 days, 15 HICH patients succumbed (mortality of 11.7%). Of the 15 patients, 1 patient (6.7%) sucumbed within 24 h and 6 patients (40%) within 1 week. HICH mortality was closely associated with age (P<0.001) but not with gender. A significant association was detected between mortality and high BP taken at 30 min, 45 min and 6 h after admission (P=0.003), albeit not at emergency and admission (P>0.05). Death was also correlated with hematoma volume at 24 h but not with the site. Results from the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that age and hematoma volume were independent risk factors of death of HICH. In conclusion, age and hematoma volume may be important early predictors of death in HICH. Proactive control and management of hematoma may reduce the mortality of HICH. PMID:26889222

  9. Diagnosis of HIV-Associated Oral Lesions in Relation to Early versus Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from the CIPRA HT001 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Batavia, Ashita S.; Secours, Rode; Espinosa, Patrice; Jean Juste, Marc Antoine; Severe, Patrice; Pape, Jean William; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucosal lesions that are associated with HIV infection can play an important role in guiding the decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). The incidence of these lesions relative to the timing of ART initiation has not been well characterized. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between 2004 and 2009. 816 HIV-infected ART-naïve participants with CD4 T cell counts between 200 and 350 cells/mm3 were randomized to either immediate ART initiation (early group; N = 408), or initiation when CD4 T cell count was less than or equal 200 cells/mm3 or with the development of an AIDS-defining condition (delayed group; N = 408). Every 3 months, all participants underwent an oral examination. The incidence of oral lesions was 4.10 in the early group and 17.85 in the delayed group (p-value <0.01). In comparison to the early group, there was a significantly higher incidence of candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, herpes labialis, and recurrent herpes simplex in the delayed group. The incidence of oral warts in delayed group was 0.97 before therapy and 4.27 post-ART initiation (p-value <0.01). In the delayed group the incidence of oral warts post-ART initiation was significantly higher than that seen in the early group (4.27 versus 1.09; p-value <0.01). The incidence of oral warts increased after ART was initiated, and relative to the early group there was a four-fold increase in oral warts if ART was initiated following an AIDS diagnosis. Based upon our findings, candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, herpes labialis, and recurrent herpes simplex indicate immune suppression and the need to start ART. In contrast, oral warts are a sign of immune reconstitution following ART initiation. PMID:26930571

  10. Diagnosis of HIV-Associated Oral Lesions in Relation to Early versus Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from the CIPRA HT001 Trial.

    PubMed

    Batavia, Ashita S; Secours, Rode; Espinosa, Patrice; Jean Juste, Marc Antoine; Severe, Patrice; Pape, Jean William; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucosal lesions that are associated with HIV infection can play an important role in guiding the decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). The incidence of these lesions relative to the timing of ART initiation has not been well characterized. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between 2004 and 2009. 816 HIV-infected ART-naïve participants with CD4 T cell counts between 200 and 350 cells/mm3 were randomized to either immediate ART initiation (early group; N = 408), or initiation when CD4 T cell count was less than or equal 200 cells/mm3 or with the development of an AIDS-defining condition (delayed group; N = 408). Every 3 months, all participants underwent an oral examination. The incidence of oral lesions was 4.10 in the early group and 17.85 in the delayed group (p-value <0.01). In comparison to the early group, there was a significantly higher incidence of candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, herpes labialis, and recurrent herpes simplex in the delayed group. The incidence of oral warts in delayed group was 0.97 before therapy and 4.27 post-ART initiation (p-value <0.01). In the delayed group the incidence of oral warts post-ART initiation was significantly higher than that seen in the early group (4.27 versus 1.09; p-value <0.01). The incidence of oral warts increased after ART was initiated, and relative to the early group there was a four-fold increase in oral warts if ART was initiated following an AIDS diagnosis. Based upon our findings, candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, herpes labialis, and recurrent herpes simplex indicate immune suppression and the need to start ART. In contrast, oral warts are a sign of immune reconstitution following ART initiation. PMID:26930571

  11. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met polymorphism interacts with early experience to predict executive functions in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N = 1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood. PMID:26251232

  12. Comparison of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography in Predicting Treatment Decision for Periapical Lesions: A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Balasundaram, Ashok; Shah, Punit; Hoen, Michael M.; Wheater, Michelle A.; Bringas, Josef S.; Gartner, Arnold; Geist, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the ability of endodontists to determine the size of apical pathological lesions and select the most appropriate choice of treatment based on lesions' projected image characteristics using 2 D and 3 D images. Study Design. Twenty-four subjects were selected. Radiographic examination of symptomatic study teeth with an intraoral periapical radiograph revealed periapical lesions equal to or greater than 3 mm in the greatest diameter. Cone-beam Computed tomography (CBCT) images were made of the involved teeth after the intraoral periapical radiograph confirmed the size of lesion to be equal to greater than 3 mm. Six observers (endodontists) viewed both the periapical and CBCT images. Upon viewing each of the images from the two imaging modalities, observers (1) measured lesion size and (2) made decisions on treatment based on each radiograph. Chi-square test was used to look for differences in the choice of treatment among observers. Results. No significant difference was noted in the treatment plan selected by observers using the two modalities (χ2(3) = .036, P > 0.05). Conclusion. Lesion size and choice of treatment of periapical lesions based on CBCT radiographs do not change significantly from those made on the basis of 2 D radiographs. PMID:23056050

  13. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion

    PubMed Central

    Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Stein, Cynthia J.; Bachur, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. Results: A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of <13 had resolution of their symptoms within 28 days of injury. Conclusions: The only independent predictor of prolonged symptoms after sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. PMID:25381296

  14. Invited Commentary: Use of Arsenical Skin Lesions to Predict Risk of Internal Cancer—Implications for Prevention and Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Habibul; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic exposure affects millions of people worldwide, causing substantial mortality and morbidity from cancers and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. An article in the current issue (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(3):202–212) reports that classic dermatological manifestations, typically associated with chronic arsenic exposure, are predictive of internal cancers among Taiwanese decades after the cessation of exposure. Specifically, the risk of lung and urothelial cancers was elevated, which was evident regardless of arsenic dose, smoking, and age. There was also an unexpected elevated risk of prostate cancer. Despite some methodological limitations, these findings underscore the need for assessing whether dermatological manifestations are also predictive of cardiovascular, respiratory, and other arsenic-related, long-term health consequences. Given the emerging evidence of arsenic exposure from dietary sources beyond contaminated drinking water and occupational and environmental settings, and also because the vast majority of diseases and deaths among exposed populations do not show classic dermatological manifestations, larger and more comprehensive investigations of the health effects of arsenic exposure, especially at lower doses, are needed. In parallel, because the risk of known arsenic-related health outcomes remains elevated decades after exposure cessation, research toward identification of early clinical and biological markers of long-term risk as well as avenues for prevention, in addition to policy actions for exposure reductions, is warranted. PMID:23299696

  15. Troponin T in Prediction of Culprit Lesion Coronary Artery Disease and 1-Year Major Adverse Cerebral and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zeus, Tobias; Ketterer, Ulrike; Leuf, Daniela; Dannenberg, Lisa; Wagstaff, Rabea; Bönner, Florian; Gliem, Michael; Jander, Sebastian; Kelm, Malte; Polzin, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Troponin T (TnT) elevation above the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) is considered diagnostic of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Non-specific increases of TnT are frequent in acute stroke patients. However, in these patients, correct diagnosis of MI is crucial because the antithrombotic medications used to treat acute MI might be harmful and produce intracranial bleeding. In this study, we aimed to associate enhanced TnT levels defined by different cutoff values with occurrence of culprit lesion coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as 1-year major adverse cerebral and cardiovascular events (MACCEs). In this cohort study, we investigated 84 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and concomitant MI. TnT levels were measured using a fourth-generation TnT assay. The incidence of culprit lesion CAD was determined by coronary angiography. MACCEs were recorded during 1-year follow-up. Culprit lesion CAD occurred in 55 % of patients, and 1-year MACCE in 37 %. TnT levels above the manufacturers' provided 99th URL (TnT > 0.01) were not associated with culprit lesion CAD (relative risk [RR], 1.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.8; P = 0.09). Slightly increased cutoff level (TnT > 0.03) increased specificity and was associated with culprit lesion CAD without decreasing sensitivity (RR, 1.5; 95 % CI 1.1-2.2; P = 0.021) and 1-year MACCE (RR, 1.7; 95 % CI 1.3-2.3; P < 0.001). Slightly increasement of the TnT cutoff level predicted MACCEs and is superior in prediction of culprit lesion CAD in stroke patients without being less sensitive. This finding has to be confirmed in large-scale clinical trials. PMID:26899027

  16. E-nose based rapid prediction of early mouldy grain using probabilistic neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua; Fu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, early mouldy grain rapid prediction method using probabilistic neural network (PNN) and electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. E-nose responses to rice, red bean, and oat samples with different qualities were measured and recorded. E-nose data was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), back propagation (BP) network, and PNN, respectively. Results indicated that PCA and BP network could not clearly discriminate grain samples with different mouldy status and showed poor predicting accuracy. PNN showed satisfying discriminating abilities to grain samples with an accuracy of 93.75%. E-nose combined with PNN is effective for early mouldy grain prediction. PMID:25714125

  17. Predicting response to chemotherapy with early-stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Rafael; Taron, Miquel; Massuti, Bartomeu; Mederos, Nuria; Magri, Ignacio; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Sanchez, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 11,107 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who had undergone surgical resection showed that the 5-year survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy was 4%, and that of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was 5%. Two trials have shown a trend toward improved survival with adjuvant paclitaxel plus carboplatin. However, the benefit of adjuvant treatment remains suboptimal. We must distinguish between patients who will not relapse-and who can thus be spared adjuvant treatment-and those who will-for whom adjuvant treatment must be personalized. Several gene expression signatures, generally containing nonoverlapping genes, provide similar predictive information on clinical outcome, and a model combining several signatures did not perform better than did each of the signatures separately. The invasiveness gene signature, containing 186 genes, includes genes involved in the nuclear factor κB pathway, the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and epigenetic control of gene expression. A 15-gene signature has identified JBR.10 patients who are more sensitive to adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:21263267

  18. Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II

    2013-01-01

    Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…

  19. Characteristic endoscopic ultrasound findings of ampullary lesions that predict the need for surgical excision or endoscopic ampullectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, Jared J.; Kundu, Sarba; Hauser, Matthew; Conway, Jason D.; Evans, John A.; Pawa, Rishi; Mishra, Girish

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The management of ampullary lesions has evolved to include endoscopic ampullectomy (EA) as a curative approach to cancers of the ampulla of Vater. With this change comes a need to risk-stratify patients at initial diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Patients with verified ampullary lesions (N = 50) were analyzed in a case-control design. We evaluated endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) data to define characteristics that yield a high sensitivity in selecting candidates for EA. Results: Using data from previously published studies yielded a sensitivity of 0.765 in appropriately identifying the 34 surgical cases. Expanding these characteristics increased the sensitivity of EUS to 0.971 in identifying surgical candidates. Additionally, of advanced disease cases, the expanded characteristics correctly identified these cases with a sensitivity of 1.0-improved over 0.708 using prior published data. Conclusion: EA should be strongly considered if ampullary lesions are found to fit the following characteristics after EUS evaluation: lesion size <2.5 cm, invasion ≤4 mm, pancreatic duct dilatation ≤3 mm, ≤T1 lesion, no lymph nodes present, and no ductal stent in place. Furthermore, EUS data can be used to identify all high-risk lesions. With these characteristics identified, clinicians are better able to risk-stratify patients using EUS as either appropriate for or too high-risk for endoscopic resection. PMID:27386476

  20. [Foot lesions].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, C; Schellong, S; Wollina, U; Machetanz, J; Unger, L

    2013-11-01

    The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly worsening effect is contributed by infection and ischemia. Seemingly localised lesions have the potential for phlegmone and septicaemia if not diagnosed and drained early. The acral lesions of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have unique features as well. However, their life-threatening potential is lower than that of DFS even if the limb is critical. Notably, isolated foot lesions with a mere venous cause may arise from insufficient perforator veins; the accompanying areas of haemosiderosis will lead the diagnostic path. Cholesterol embolization (blue toe syndrome, trash foot) elicits a unique clinical picture and will become more frequent with increasing numbers of catheter-based procedures. Finally, descriptions are given of podagra and of foot mycosis as disease entities not linked to perfusion. The present review focuses on the depiction of disease and its diagnosis, leaving therapeutic considerations untouched. PMID:24114468

  1. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition. PMID:24666165

  2. ERPs Recorded During Early Second Language Exposure Predict Syntactic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In the present study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners’ proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared to closed-class function words, while low proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners’ L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition. PMID:24666165

  3. MRI-based Selection for Intra-arterial Stroke Therapy: Value of Pre-treatment DWI Lesion Volume in Selecting Acute Stroke Patients Who Will Benefit from Early Recanalization

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Albert J.; Verduzco, Luis A.; Schaefer, Pamela W.; Hirsch, Joshua A.; Rabinov, James D.; González, R. Gilberto

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent studies demonstrate that an acute diffusion weighted imaging(DWI) lesion volume >70cm3 predicts poor outcome in stroke patients. We sought to determine if this threshold could identify patients treated with intra-arterial therapy(IAT) who would do poorly despite reperfusion. In patients with initial infarcts <70cm3, we sought to determine what effect recanalization and time to recanalization had on infarct growth and functional outcome. Methods We retrospectively studied 34 consecutive anterior circulation stroke patients who underwent pre-treatment DWI and perfusion weighted imaging(PWI) and subsequent IAT. Recanalization success and time to recanalization were recorded. Initial DWI and MTT lesion and final infarct volumes were determined. Patients were stratified based on initial infarct volume, recanalization status and time to recanalization. Statistical tests were performed to assess differences in clinical and imaging outcomes. Good clinical outcome was defined as a 3-month mRS≤2. Results Among patients with initial infarcts >70cm3, all had poor outcomes despite a 50% recanalization rate, with mean infarct growth of 114cm3. These patients also had the largest MTT volumes(p<0.04). Patients with initial infarct volumes <70cm3 who recanalized early had the best clinical outcomes(p<0.008) with a 64% rate of mRS≤2 and the least infarct growth(p<0.03), with mean growth of 18cm3. Conclusion This study supports the use of an acute DWI lesion volume threshold as an imaging selection criterion for IAT. It also confirms the importance of early reperfusion in selected patients. PMID:19359641

  4. Risk factors for non-curative resection of early gastric neoplasms with endoscopic submucosal dissection: Analysis of 1,123 lesions

    PubMed Central

    TOYOKAWA, TATSUYA; INABA, TOMOKI; OMOTE, SHIZUMA; OKAMOTO, AKIKO; MIYASAKA, RIKA; WATANABE, KAZUO; IZUMIKAWA, KOICHI; FUJITA, ISAO; HORII, JOICHIRO; ISHIKAWA, SHIGENAO; MORIKAWA, TAMIYA; MURAKAMI, TAKAKO; TOMODA, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Although the frequency of residual disease and recurrence following endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has markedly decreased, a few cases of residual disease and recurrence following ESD are still observed. The aims of the present study were to clarify the causes of non-curative resection and to investigate the risk factors. A total of 1,123 early gastric neoplasm lesions treated by ESD were investigated. Non-curative resection was defined as histological positivity of the resected margins, vascular invasion or failure of en bloc resection. Cases of non-curative resection were classified as being caused by one of three reasons: Inadequate technique, pre-procedural misdiagnosis or problems in the histological diagnosis. Following classification, the cases of non-curative and curative resection were compared based on a range of patient characteristics: Procedure time, and size, type and location of the lesions. The frequency of non-curative resection was 16% (182 lesions). Non-curative resection occurred due to inadequate technique in 59 cases, pre-procedural misdiagnosis in 88 cases and problems in the histological diagnosis in 35 cases. Multivariate analysis revealed that a large lesion size, long procedure time and inexperienced endoscopist were associated with a significantly higher risk of non-curative resection due to an inadequate technique. Furthermore, it was found that lesions located in the upper area of the stomach and cancer with submucosal invasion were associated with a significantly higher risk of non-curative resection due to pre-procedural misdiagnosis. In conclusion, the present study has shown that the major reasons for non-curative resection are an inadequate technique and pre-procedural misdiagnosis. The risk factors for these problems have been clarified. PMID:25780411

  5. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  6. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  7. Carotid Anatomy Does Not Predict the Risk of New Ischaemic Brain Lesions on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging after Carotid Artery Stenting in the ICSS-MRI Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Doig, D.; Hobson, B.M.; Müller, M.; Jäger, H.R.; Featherstone, R.L.; Brown, M.M.; Bonati, L.H.; Richards, T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS, ISRCTN25337470) randomized patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis > 50% to carotid artery stenting (CAS) or endarterectomy. CAS increased the risk of new brain lesions visible on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) more than endarterectomy in the ICSS-MRI Substudy. The predictors of new post-stenting DWI lesions were assessed in these patients. Methods ICSS-MRI Substudy patients allocated to CAS were studied. Baseline or pre-stenting catheter angiograms were rated to determine carotid anatomy. Baseline patient demographics and the influence of plaque length, plaque morphology, internal carotid angulation, and external or common carotid atheroma were examined in negative binomial regression models. Results A total of 115 patients (70% male, average age 70.4) were included; 50.4% had at least one new DWI-MRI-positive lesion following CAS. Independent risk factors increasing the number of new lesions were a left-sided stenosis (incidence risk ratio [IRR] 1.59, 95% CI 1.04–2.44, p = .03), age (IRR 2.10 per 10-year increase in age, 95% CI 1.61–2.74, p < .01), male sex (IRR 2.83, 95% CI 1.72–4.67, p < .01), hypertension (IRR 2.04, 95% CI 1.25–3.33, p < .01) and absence of cardiac failure (IRR 6.58, 95% CI 1.23–35.07, p = .03). None of the carotid anatomical features significantly influenced the number of post-procedure lesions. Conclusion Carotid anatomy seen on pre-stenting catheter angiography did not predict of the number of ischaemic brain lesions following CAS. PMID:26481656

  8. Do in-vivo behaviors predict early response in family-based treatment for anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    Darcy, Alison M; Bryson, Susan W.; Agras, W. Stewart; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Le Grange, Daniel; Lock, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore whether identified parental and patient behaviors observed in the first few sessions of family-based treatment (FBT) predict early response (weight gain of 1.8 kg by session four) to treatment. Therapy film recordings from 21 adolescent participants recruited into the FBT arm of a multi-site randomized clinical trial were coded for the presence of behaviors (length of observed behavior divided by length of session recording) in the first, second and fourth sessions. Behaviors that differed between early responders and non-early responders on univariate analysis were entered into discriminant class analyses. Participants with fewer negative verbal behaviors in the first session and were away from table during the meal session less had the greatest rates of early response. Parents who made fewer critical statements and who did not repeatedly present food during the meal session had children who had the greatest rates of early response. In-vivo behaviors in early sessions of FBT may predict early response to FBT. Adaptations to address participant resistance and to decrease the numbers of critical comments made by parents while encouraging their children to eat might improve early response to FBT. PMID:24091274

  9. Do in-vivo behaviors predict early response in family-based treatment for anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Darcy, Alison M; Bryson, Susan W; Agras, W Stewart; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Le Grange, Daniel; Lock, James

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to explore whether identified parental and patient behaviors observed in the first few sessions of family-based treatment (FBT) predict early response (weight gain of 1.8 kg by session four) to treatment. Therapy film recordings from 21 adolescent participants recruited into the FBT arm of a multi-site randomized clinical trial were coded for the presence of behaviors (length of observed behavior divided by length of session recording) in the first, second and fourth sessions. Behaviors that differed between early responders and non-early responders on univariate analysis were entered into discriminant class analyses. Participants with fewer negative verbal behaviors in the first session and were away from table during the meal session less had the greatest rates of early response. Parents who made fewer critical statements and who did not repeatedly present food during the meal session had children who had the greatest rates of early response. In-vivo behaviors in early sessions of FBT may predict early response to FBT. Adaptations to address participant resistance and to decrease the numbers of critical comments made by parents while encouraging their children to eat might improve early response to FBT. PMID:24091274

  10. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence Through Age 32 Years

    PubMed Central

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2014-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first three years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through mid-adolescence in a manner consistent with an Enduring Effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes PMID:25521785

  11. The Growth Rate of Early DWI Lesions is Highly Variable and Associated with Penumbral Salvage and Clinical Outcomes Following Endovascular Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Hayley M; Mlynash, Michael; Inoue, Manabu; Tipirnini, Aaryani; Liggins, John; Bammer, Roland; Lansberg, Maarten G; Kemp, Stephanie; Zaharchuk, Greg; Straka, Matus; Albers, Gregory W

    2014-01-01

    Importance The degree of variability in the rate of early DWI expansion in acute stroke has not been well characterized. Objective We hypothesized that patients with slowly expanding DWI lesions would have more penumbral salvage and better clinical outcomes following endovascular reperfusion than patients with rapidly expanding DWI lesions. Methods In the first part of this substudy of DEFUSE 2, growth curves were constructed for patients with >90% reperfusion and <10% reperfusion. Next, the initial growth rate was determined in all patients with a clearly established time of symptom onset, assuming a lesion volume of 0ml just prior to symptom onset. Patients who achieved reperfusion (>50% reduction in PWI after endovascular therapy), were categorized into tertiles according to their initial DWI growth rates. For each tertile, penumbral salvage (comparison of final volume to the volume of PWI (Tmax > 6 sec)/ DWI mismatch prior to endovascular therapy), favorable clinical response (NIHSS improvement of ≥8 points or 0-1 at 30 days), and good functional outcome (90 day modified Rankin score of ≤ 2) were calculated. A multivariate model assessed whether infarct growth rates were an independent predictor of clinical outcomes. Results 65 patients were eligible for this study; the median initial growth rate was 3.1 ml/hr (IQR 0.7-10.7). Target mismatch patients (n=42) had initial growth rates that were significantly slower than the growth rates in Malignant profile (n=9) patients p < 0.001). In patients who achieved reperfusion (n=38), slower early DWI growth rates were associated with better clinical outcomes (p<0.05) and a trend toward more penumbral salvage (n=31, p=0.103). A multivariate model demonstrated that initial DWI growth rate was an independent predictor of achieving a 90 day modified Rankin score of ≤ 2. Conclusions The growth rate of early DWI lesions in acute stroke patients is highly variable; Malignant profile patients have higher growth rates than

  12. Bilingual language processing after a lesion in the left thalamic and temporal regions. A case report with early childhood onset

    SciTech Connect

    van Lieshout, P.; Renier, W.; Eling, P.; de Bot, K.; Slis, I. )

    1990-02-01

    This case study concerns an 18-year-old bilingual girl who suffered a radiation lesion in the left (dominant) thalamic and temporal region when she was 4 years old. Language and memory assessment revealed deficits in auditory short-term memory, auditory word comprehension, nonword repetition, syntactic processing, word fluency, and confrontation naming tasks. Both languages (English and Dutch) were found to be affected in a similar manner, despite the fact that one language (English) was acquired before and the other (Dutch) after the period of lesion onset. Most of the deficits appear to be related to verbal (short-term) memory dysfunction. Several hypotheses of subcortical involvement in memory processes are discussed with reference to existing theories in this area.

  13. Early Posttransplant Isolated v1 Lesion Does Not Need to Be Treated and Does Not Lead to Increased Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Thajudeen, Bijin; Sussman, Amy; Madhrira, Machaiah; Bracamonte, Erika; Popovtzer, Mordecai; Kadambi, Pradeep V.

    2016-01-01

    Acute vascular rejection (AVR) is characterized by intimal arteritis in addition to tubulitis and interstitial inflammation. It is associated with a poorer prognosis compared to tubulointerstitial rejection (AIR) and AVR is associated with a higher rate of graft loss than AIR. The prognosis and treatment of arteritis without tubulitis and interstitial inflammation (isolated v1 lesion) are still controversial. We report a case of a patient who had a biopsy of the kidney allograft for evaluation of slow graft function. The biopsy revealed an isolated v1 lesion. However, we chose not to augment immunosuppression. The patient's kidney allograft function improved over time with close monitoring. Repeat biopsy a year later showed no evidence of endothelialitis and relatively unchanged fibrosis and no other abnormalities. Although it is suggested that most cases of isolated v1 lesions will respond to corticosteroids or T cell depleting therapies, some cases will improve with conservative management. Further studies are needed to determine which cases could be managed conservatively. PMID:27293950

  14. PK-PD modeling of individual lesion FDG-PET response to predict overall survival in patients with sunitinib-treated gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Schindler, E; Amantea, M A; Karlsson, M O; Friberg, L E

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacometric models were developed to characterize the relationships between lesion-level tumor metabolic activity, as assessed by the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) obtained on [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), tumor size, and overall survival (OS) in 66 patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) treated with intermittent sunitinib. An indirect response model in which sunitinib stimulates tumor loss best described the typically rapid decrease in SUVmax during on-treatment periods and the recovery during off-treatment periods. Substantial interindividual and interlesion variability were identified in SUVmax baseline and drug sensitivity. A parametric time-to-event model identified the relative change in SUVmax at one week for the lesion with the most pronounced response as a better predictor of OS than tumor size. Based on the proposed modeling framework, early changes in FDG-PET response may serve as predictor for long-term outcome in sunitinib-treated GIST. PMID:27299707

  15. Early Communicative Gestures Prospectively Predict Language Development and Executive Function in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Laura J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Wilbourn, Makeba Parramore; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Blair, Clancy B.

    2014-01-01

    Using an epidemiological sample (N =1117) and a prospective longitudinal design, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of preverbal and verbal communication (15 months to 3 years) on EF at age 4 years. Results indicated that whereas gestures (15 months), as well as language (2 and 3 years) were correlated with later EF (φs >= .44), the effect was entirely mediated through later language. In contrast, language had significant direct and indirect effects on later EF. Exploratory analyses indicated that the pattern of results was comparable for low and not-low income families. The results were consistent with theoretical accounts of language as a precursor of EF ability, and highlighted gesture as an early indicator of EF. PMID:24773289

  16. Peripheral Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Provirus Levels Correlate with and Predict Histological Tissue Lesion Severity in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether host immune responses in the form of serum anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses or virus replication in the form of peripheral OPP provirus levels associate with the degree of histological tissue lesions in naturally OPPV infec...

  17. Up-regulation of CC chemokine ligand 20 and its receptor CCR6 in the lesional skin of early systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Juan; Li, Lin; Tan, Zhijian; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Tian, Fen; Wang, Li; Ren, Yali; Xu, Guangfen; He, Xiaoliang; Shen, Guanxin; Tu, Yating

    2011-01-01

    Mononuclear cell (MNC) infiltrate is one of the earliest pathological changes in systemic sclerosis (SSc) skin. However, little is known about the recruitment of these cells into skin lesions. Recently, the role of chemokines has been suggested in the pathogenesis of SSc. Here we studied the expressions and distributions of CC chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in early SSc skin lesions and the difference in CCL20 expressions and ability to recruite MNCs of normal dermal fibroblast (NDF) and scleroderma dermal fibroblast (SSDF). We found that the expressions of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 were obviously up-regulated in SSc in contrast to normal human skin. mRNA levels were significantly expressed in SSc lesional skins vs normal skin tissues. SSDF displayed increased constitutive expressions of CCL20 mRNA and protein. In addition, Th1 cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) remarkably increased the expression of CCL20 in both NDF and SSDF in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Supernatants from SSDF showed stronger chemotactic activity to PBMCs than those from NDF. Thus our findings suggest that CCL20 released from cytokine-activated SSDF plays an important role in the induction of SSc by further recruiting more MNCs to the skin. PMID:21742595

  18. First descriptions of early- and middle-stage copepodids of Anthosoma crassum (Dichelesthiidae: Siphonostomatoida) and lesions on shortfin makos (Isurus oxyrinchus) infected with A. crassum.

    PubMed

    Benz, George W; Borucinska, Joanna D; Greenwaldt, Scott A

    2002-02-01

    Early- and middle-stage copepodids of Anthosoma crassum (Dichelesthiidae: Siphonostomatoida) and lesions associated with A. crassum infections are described from samples collected from the jaws of shortfin makos captured off southern California. The copepodids did not possess frontal filaments or frontal organs, and they resided in a headstandlike position firmly attached by their embedded antennae. Copepod larvae and small adults were lodged in shallow mucosal ulcers that basally exhibited mild, acute granulocytic stomatitis; large adults were lodged in deep tunnels encompassing the anterior aspects of their bodies. Some lesions contained more than I copepod. Examinations of lesions revealed that A. crassum infection of shortfin makos can result in severe subacute, necrotizing stomatitis with hemorrhage, granulation tissue, and lymphocytic aggregations in the mucosa, and reactive lymphocytic infiltration of the submucosal skeletal muscle. Copepod gut contents consisted of shark erythrocytes, hemosiderin granules, and necrotic host cells. These observations, along with reports of sharks heavily infected with A. crassum, suggest that this copepod may sometimes play a role in the morbidity and mortality of sharks that it infects. PMID:12053965

  19. Short communication: Markers of oxidant status and inflammation relative to the development of claw lesions associated with lameness in early lactation cows.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Gandy, J C; Neuder, L; Brester, J; Sordillo, L M

    2016-07-01

    Lameness is a major health disorder of dairy cattle and evidence suggests that it may be associated with oxidative stress (OS) during the transition period. Some debate exists, however, as to whether OS precedes the development of lameness or if OS occurs as a consequence of lameness. The purpose of this study was to test whether cows showing claw lesions during early lactation had a greater pro-oxidant and inflammatory status throughout the dry period or at the start of the lactation. Blood samples were taken from 30 cows from the same herd at dry off, movement to the close-up pen, and between 3 and 7 d in milk. Sera were analyzed for concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant potential. Blood samples also were subjected to total and differential white blood cell counts. Animals were monitored through 120 d in milk and grouped ex post into the following health categories: (1) exclusively hoof lesions; (2) other production diseases; or (3) nondiseased. Changes in oxidant status and inflammatory markers were significantly different with respect to metabolic and physiologic adaptations to calving and lactation. No differences in oxidant status, acute phase protein concentrations, or leukocyte populations were observed between the hoof lesions and the nondiseased categories. Thus, any associations between OS and lameness likely occurs closer to the onset of clinical signs or as a consequence of inflammatory responses due to localized tissue injury. PMID:27132100

  20. Bone marrow abnormalities and early bone lesions in multiple myeloma and its precursor disease: a prospective study using functional and morphologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manisha; Turkbey, Baris; Tan, Esther; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Tageja, Nishant; Mailankody, Sham; Roschewski, Mark; Mulquin, Marcia; Carpenter, Ashley; Lamping, Elizabeth; Minter, Alex R; Weiss, Brendan M; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Calvo, Katherine R; Maric, Irina; Usmani, Saad Z; Choyke, Peter L; Kurdziel, Karen; Landgren, Ola

    2016-05-01

    The incidence and importance of bone marrow involvement and/or early bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) precursor diseases is largely unknown. This study prospectively compared the sensitivity of several imaging modalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM. Thirty patients (10 each with MGUS, SMM and MM) were evaluated with skeletal survey, [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT, [(18)F]NaF-PET/CT and morphologic dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. An additional 16 SMM patients had skeletal surveys and FDG-PET/CT. Among MGUS patients, DCE-MRI found only one focal marrow abnormality; other evaluations were negative. Among 26 SMM patients, five (19%) were re-classified as MM based on lytic bone lesions on CT and six had unifocal or diffuse marrow abnormality. Among MM, marrow abnormalities were observed on FDG-PET/CT in 8/10 patients and on DCE-MRI in nine evaluable patients. Abnormal NaF uptake was observed only in MM patients with lytic lesions on CT, providing no additional clinical information. PMID:26690712

  1. Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N

    2012-02-21

    Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

  2. Decoding the future from past experience: learning shapes predictions in early visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Caroline D. B.; Meeson, Alan; Welchman, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Learning the structure of the environment is critical for interpreting the current scene and predicting upcoming events. However, the brain mechanisms that support our ability to translate knowledge about scene statistics to sensory predictions remain largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that learning of temporal regularities shapes representations in early visual cortex that relate to our ability to predict sensory events. We tested the participants' ability to predict the orientation of a test stimulus after exposure to sequences of leftward- or rightward-oriented gratings. Using fMRI decoding, we identified brain patterns related to the observers' visual predictions rather than stimulus-driven activity. Decoding of predicted orientations following structured sequences was enhanced after training, while decoding of cued orientations following exposure to random sequences did not change. These predictive representations appear to be driven by the same large-scale neural populations that encode actual stimulus orientation and to be specific to the learned sequence structure. Thus our findings provide evidence that learning temporal structures supports our ability to predict future events by reactivating selective sensory representations as early as in primary visual cortex. PMID:25744884

  3. Predicting the macroseismic intensity from early radiated P wave energy for on-site earthquake early warning in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondi, P.; Picozzi, M.; Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Mucciarelli, M.

    2015-10-01

    Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are potentially effective tools for risk mitigation in active seismic regions. The present study explores the possibility of predicting the macroseismic intensity within EEW timeframes using the squared velocity integral (IV2) measured on the early P wave signals, a proxy for the P wave radiated energy of earthquakes. This study shows that IV2 correlates better than the peak displacement measured on P waves with both the peak ground velocity and the Housner Intensity, with the latter being recognized by engineers as a reliable proxy for damage assessment. Therefore, using the strong motion recordings of the Italian Accelerometric Archive, a novel relationship between the parameter IV2 and the macroseismic intensity (IM) has been derived. The validity of this relationship has been assessed using the strong motion recordings of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Strong Motion Data and Osservatorio Sismico delle Strutture databases, as well as, in the case of the MW 6, 29 May 2012 Emilia earthquake (Italy), comparing the predicted intensities with the ones observed after a macroseismic survey. Our results indicate that P wave IV2 can become a key parameter for the design of on-site EEWS, capable of proving real-time predictions of the IM at target sites.

  4. Maternal psychopathology and early child temperament predict young children's salivary cortisol 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Lea R; Smith, Victoria C; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret W; Bufferd, Sara J; Rose, Suzanne A; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-05-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males) children participated in the baseline and follow-up assessments. At age three, maternal lifetime psychopathology was assessed with a diagnostic clinical interview, and child temperamental positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) were assessed using laboratory observations. At age six, children's waking and evening cortisol were assessed on 2 days. Maternal lifetime anxiety predicted offspring's higher morning cortisol at age six. Child temperamental NA at age three predicted higher evening cortisol at age six. There was a significant interaction between maternal lifetime depression and child temperamental PA at age three in predicting offspring's morning cortisol at age six. For the offspring of mothers with lifetime depression, higher PA at age 3 predicted lower morning cortisol at age 6. These findings highlight the importance of examining the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability in predicting the development of offspring's stress physiology. Findings hold significance in identifying etiological mechanisms of risk and delineating the complex developmental pathways to psychopathology. PMID:23192743

  5. On the feasibility of tilt test outcome early prediction using ECG and pressure parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno-Blanes, FJ; Rojo-Álvarez, JL; Caamaño, AJ; Flores-Yepes, JA; García-Alberola, A.

    2011-12-01

    The tilt test is a valuable clinical tool for vasovagal syncope (VVS) diagnostic, and its early prediction from simple ECG and blood pressure-based parameters has widely been studied in the literature. However, no practical system is currently used in the clinical setting for the early prediction of the tilt test outcome. The objectives of this study were (1) to benchmark the early prediction performance of all the previously proposed parameters, when nonlinearly combined; (2) to try to improve this performance with the inclusion of additional information and processing techniques. We analyzed a database of 727 consecutive cases of tilt test. Previously proposed features were measured from heart rate and systolic/diastolic pressure tachograms, in several representative signal segments. We aimed to improve the prediction performance: first, using new nonlinear features (detrended fluctuation analysis and sample entropy); second, using a multivariable nonlinear classifier (support vector machine); and finally, including additional physiological signals (stroke volume). The predictive performance of the nonlinearly combined previously proposed features was limited [area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) 0.57 ± 0.12], especially at the beginning of the test, which is the most clinically relevant period. The improvement with additional available physiological information was limited too. We conclude that the use of a system for tilt test outcome prediction with current knowledge and processing should be considered with caution, and that further effort has to be devoted to understand the mechanisms of VVS.

  6. Predictive model for contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the breast: Is it feasible in malignant risk assessment of breast imaging reporting and data system 4 lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Chen, Ji-Dong; Chen, Qing; Yue, Lin-Xian; Zhou, Guo; Lan, Cheng; Li, Yi; Wu, Chi-Hua; Lu, Jing-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To build and evaluate predictive models for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) of the breast to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. METHODS: A total of 235 breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) 4 solid breast lesions were imaged via CEUS before core needle biopsy or surgical resection. CEUS results were analyzed on 10 enhancing patterns to evaluate diagnostic performance of three benign and three malignant CEUS models, with pathological results used as the gold standard. A logistic regression model was developed basing on the CEUS results, and then evaluated with receiver operating curve (ROC). RESULTS: Except in cases of enhanced homogeneity, the rest of the 9 enhancement appearances were statistically significant (P < 0.05). These 9 enhancement patterns were selected in the final step of the logistic regression analysis, with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 84.4% and 82.7%, respectively, and the area under the ROC curve of 0.911. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the malignant vs benign CEUS models were 84.38%, 87.77%, 86.38% and 86.46%, 81.29% and 83.40%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The breast CEUS models can predict risk of malignant breast lesions more accurately, decrease false-positive biopsy, and provide accurate BI-RADS classification. PMID:27358688

  7. Effects of etanercept versus sulfasalazine in early axial spondyloarthritis on active inflammatory lesions as detected by whole-body MRI (ESTHER): a 48-week randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, I-H; Hermann, KG; Haibel, H; Althoff, CE; Listing, J; Burmester, GR; Krause, A; Bohl-Bühler, M; Freundlich, B; Rudwaleit, M; Sieper, J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the potential of etanercept versus sulfasalazine to reduce active inflammatory lesions on whole-body MRI in active axial spondyloarthritis with a symptom duration of less than 5 years. Methods Patients were randomly assigned to etanercept (n=40) or sulfasalazine (n=36) treatment over 48 weeks. All patients showed active inflammatory lesions (bone marrow oedema) on MRI in either the sacroiliac joints or the spine. MRI was performed at weeks 0, 24 and 48 and was scored for active inflammatory lesions in sacroiliac joints and the spine including posterior segments and peripheral enthesitis by two radiologists, blinded for treatment arm and MRI time point. Results In the etanercept group, the reduction of the sacroiliac joint score from 7.7 at baseline to 2.0 at week 48 was significantly (p=0.02) larger compared with the sulfasalazine group from 5.4 at baseline to 3.5 at week 48. A similar difference in the reduction of inflammation was found in the spine from 2.2 to 1.0 in the etanercept group versus from 1.4 to 1.3 in the sulfasalazine group between baseline and week 48, respectively (p=0.01). The number of enthesitic sites also improved significantly from 26 to 11 in the etanercept group versus 24 to 26 in the sulfasalazine group (p=0.04 for difference). 50% of patients reached clinical remission in the etanercept group versus 19% in the sulfasalazine group at week 48. Conclusion In patients with early axial spondyloarthritis active inflammatory lesions detected by whole-body MRI improved significantly more in etanercept versus sulfasalazine-treated patients. This effect correlated with a good clinical response in the etanercept group. PMID:21372193

  8. Diagnostic Performances of 99mTc-Methoxy Isobutyl Isonitrile Scan in Predicting the Malignancy of Lung Lesions: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuxin; Liu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the value of technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in differentiating malignant from benign lung lesions.The PubMed and Embase databases were comprehensively searched for relevant articles that evaluated lung lesions suspicious for malignancy. Two reviewers independently extracted the data on study characteristics and examination results, and assessed the quality of each selected study. The data extracted from the eligible studies were assessed by heterogeneity and threshold effect tests. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and areas under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curves (SROC) were also calculated.Fourteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and DOR of Tc-MIBI scan in detecting malignant lung lesions were 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81, 0.87), 0.83 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88), 4.22 (95% CI: 2.53, 7.04), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.31), and 25.71 (95% CI: 10.67, 61.96), respectively. The area under the SROC was 0.9062. Meta-regression analysis showed that the accuracy estimates were significantly influenced by ethnic groups (P < 0.01), but not by image analysis methods, mean lesion size, or year of publication. Deek funnel plot asymmetry test for the overall analysis did not raise suspicion of publication bias (P = 0.50).Our results indicated that Tc-MIBI scan is a promising diagnostic modality in predicting the malignancy of lung lesions. PMID:27149482

  9. Predicting Kindergarteners' Response to Early Reading Intervention: An Examination of Progress-Monitoring Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslund, Eric L.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Taylor, Aaron B.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Simmons, Leslie; Kwok, Oi-Man; Johnson, Caitlin; Coyne, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of combinations of progress-monitoring measures: (a) curriculum-embedded phonemic awareness and alphabetic/decoding measures, and (b) Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS; Good & Kaminski, 2002) nonsense word fluency and phoneme segmentation fluency on reading outcomes of…

  10. Predicting Early School Achievement with the EDI: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    School readiness tests are significant predictors of early school achievement. Measuring school readiness on a large scale would be necessary for the implementation of intervention programs at the community level. However, assessment of school readiness is costly and time consuming. This study assesses the predictive value of a school readiness…

  11. Linguistic and Spatial Skills Predict Early Arithmetic Development via Counting Sequence Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Koponen, Tuire; Räsänen, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Finnish children (ages 6-10), two studies examined how early linguistic (spoken vs. written) and spatial skills predict later development of arithmetic, and whether counting sequence knowledge mediates these associations. In Study 1 (N = 1,880), letter knowledge and spatial visualization, measured in…

  12. Parenting, Peers, and Perceived Norms: What Predicts Attitudes toward Sex among Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Ronald B., Jr.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Merten, Michael J.; Schwerdtfeger Gallus, Kami L.; Dowdy, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Although attitudes strongly predict later sexual behaviors, few studies have investigated the factors that influence early adolescent attitudes toward sex. Using a general population sample of urban seventh-grade students (N = 1,736), we examined how supportive parenting, television viewing, perceived social norms, and having a friend and/or…

  13. Parenting and Child Characteristics in the Prediction of Shame in Early and Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Lall, Debra I. K.; De Jaeger, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined individual differences in shame responding in early childhood and predictive relations with shame proneness in middle childhood. Child shame responding, parental shaming, and child temperamental inhibition were assessed at Time 1 (n = 225, aged 3-4 years), shame responding was reassessed at Time 2 (n = 199, aged 5-7 years), and shame…

  14. A Test of Taxonomic Predictivity: Resistance to Early Blight in Wild Relatives of Cultivated Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight (caused by the foliar fungus Alternaria solani) is a widespread disease that appears annually in potato crops worldwide. This is our second study of a disease resistance in wild potatoes to test the assumed ability of taxonomy to predict the presence of traits in a group for which the t...

  15. Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Vermulst, Ad A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Dekovic, Maja; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger…

  16. Predictive Validity of Early Literacy Indicators from the Middle of Kindergarten to Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mack D.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Kwok, Oiman; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Research has emphasized the importance of phonological awareness, phonemic decoding, and automaticity in reading development. Special and general education teachers need valid, efficient, and effective early literacy indicators for schoolwide screening and monitoring that adequately predict reading outcomes. The purpose of this study was to…

  17. Role of Parent Literacy and Numeracy Expectations and Activities in Predicting Early Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segers, Eliane; Kleemans, Tijs; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    The home numeracy environment (i.e., parents' numeracy expectations and activities), is related to early numeracy in young children. As recent studies have shown that both cognitive and linguistic factors play an important role in predicting numeracy development, it may be assumed that rather than the home "numeracy" environment, the…

  18. Are Articular Cartilage Lesions and Meniscus Tears Predictive of IKDC, KOOS, and Marx Activity Level Outcomes after ACL Reconstruction? A 6-Year Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charles L.; Huston, Laura J.; Dunn, Warren R.; Reinke, Emily K.; Nwosu, Samuel K.; Parker, Richard D.; Wright, Rick W.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Amendola, Annunziata; McCarty, Eric C.; Wolf, Brian R.; Harrell, Frank E.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying risk factors for inferior outcomes after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is important for prognosis and future treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether articular cartilage and meniscal variables are predictive of 3 validated sports outcome instruments after ACLR. Hypothesis/Purpose We hypothesized that articular cartilage lesions and meniscus tears/treatment would be predictors of the IKDC, KOOS (all 5 subscales), and Marx activity level at 6 years following ACLR. Study Design Prospective cohort, Level 1 Methods Between 2002 and 2004, 1512 ACLR subjects were prospectively enrolled and followed longitudinally with the IKDC, KOOS, and Marx activity score completed at entry, 2, and 6 years. A logistic regression model was built incorporating variables from patient demographics, surgical technique, articular cartilage injuries, and meniscus tears/treatment to determine the predictors (risk factors) of IKDC, KOOS, and Marx at 6 years. Results We completed a minimum follow-up on 86% (1307/1512) of our cohort at 6 years. The cohort was 56% male, had a median age of 23 years at the time of enrollment, with 76% reporting a non-contact injury mechanism. Incidence of concomitant pathology at the time of surgery consisted of the following: articular cartilage (medial femoral condyle [MFC]-25%, lateral femoral condyle [LFC]-20%, medial tibial plateau [MTP]-6%, lateral tibial plateau [LTP]-12%, patella-20%, trochlear-9%) and meniscal (medial-38%, lateral-46%). Both articular cartilage lesions and meniscal tears were significant predictors of 6-year outcomes on IKDC and KOOS. Grade 3 or 4 articular cartilage lesions (excluding patella) significantly reduced IKDC and KOOS scores at 6 years. IKDC demonstrated worse outcomes with the presence of a grade 3-4 chondral lesion on the MFC, MTP, and LFC. Likewise, KOOS was negatively affected by cartilage injury. The sole significant predictor of reduced Marx activity was the presence of a grade 4 lesion

  19. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  20. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  1. Prediction of Early Response to Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer by Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Tielian; Li, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether change of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value could predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer underwent chest MR imaging including DWI before and at the end of the first cycle of chemotherapy. The tumor's mean ADC value and diameters on MR images were calculated and compared. The grouping reference was based on serial CT scans according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Logistic regression was applied to assess treatment response prediction ability of ADC value and diameters. Results. The change of ADC value in partial response group was higher than that in stable disease group (P = 0.004). ROC curve showed that ADC value could predict treatment response with 100% sensitivity, 64.71% specificity, 57.14% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 82.7% accuracy. The area under the curve for combination of ADC value and longest diameter change was higher than any parameter alone (P ≤ 0.01). Conclusions. The change of ADC value may be a sensitive indicator to predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Prediction ability could be improved by combining the change of ADC value and longest diameter. PMID:24688359

  2. Predicting early positive change in multisystemic therapy with youth exhibiting antisocial behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n = 185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into midtreatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared with those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. PMID:24866967

  3. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-05-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  4. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  5. Neonatal imitation and early social experience predict gaze following abilities in infant monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Grace M.; Ferrari, Pier F.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Paukner, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Individuals vary in their social skills and motivation, the causes of which remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether an individual’s propensity to interact with others measured within days after birth, and differences in infants’ early social environment, may predict a later social skill. Specifically, we tested whether neonatal imitation—newborns’ capacity to match modelled actions—and social experience in the first months of life predict gaze following (directing attention to locations where others look), in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 119). Facial gesture imitation in the first week of life predicted gaze following at 7 months of age. Imitators were better at gaze following than non-imitators, suggesting neonatal imitation may be an early marker predicting socio-cognitive functioning. In addition, infants with rich social environments outperformed infants with less socialization, suggesting early social experiences also support the development of infants’ gaze following competence. The present study offers compelling evidence that an individual difference present from birth predicts a functional social cognitive skill in later infancy. In addition, this foundational skill—gaze following—is plastic, and can be improved through social interactions, providing infants with a strong foundation for later social interaction and learning. PMID:26831763

  6. Neonatal imitation and early social experience predict gaze following abilities in infant monkeys.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Miller, Grace M; Ferrari, Pier F; Suomi, Stephen J; Paukner, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Individuals vary in their social skills and motivation, the causes of which remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether an individual's propensity to interact with others measured within days after birth, and differences in infants' early social environment, may predict a later social skill. Specifically, we tested whether neonatal imitation--newborns' capacity to match modelled actions--and social experience in the first months of life predict gaze following (directing attention to locations where others look), in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 119). Facial gesture imitation in the first week of life predicted gaze following at 7 months of age. Imitators were better at gaze following than non-imitators, suggesting neonatal imitation may be an early marker predicting socio-cognitive functioning. In addition, infants with rich social environments outperformed infants with less socialization, suggesting early social experiences also support the development of infants' gaze following competence. The present study offers compelling evidence that an individual difference present from birth predicts a functional social cognitive skill in later infancy. In addition, this foundational skill--gaze following--is plastic, and can be improved through social interactions, providing infants with a strong foundation for later social interaction and learning. PMID:26831763

  7. Using Peer Injunctive Norms to Predict Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Intentions.

    PubMed

    Zaleski, Adam C; Aloise-Young, Patricia A

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated the importance of the perceived injunctive norm to predict early adolescent cigarette smoking intentions. A total of 271 6(th) graders completed a survey that included perceived prevalence of friend smoking (descriptive norm), perceptions of friends' disapproval of smoking (injunctive norm), and future smoking intentions. Participants also listed their five best friends, in which the actual injunctive norm was calculated. Results showed that smoking intentions were significantly correlated with the perceived injunctive norm but not with the actual injunctive norm. Secondly, the perceived injunctive norm predicted an additional 3.4% of variance in smoking intentions above and beyond the perceived descriptive norm. These results demonstrate the importance of the perceived injunctive norm in predicting early adolescent smoking intentions. PMID:24078745

  8. Using Peer Injunctive Norms to Predict Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Adam C.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the importance of the perceived injunctive norm to predict early adolescent cigarette smoking intentions. A total of 271 6th graders completed a survey that included perceived prevalence of friend smoking (descriptive norm), perceptions of friends’ disapproval of smoking (injunctive norm), and future smoking intentions. Participants also listed their five best friends, in which the actual injunctive norm was calculated. Results showed that smoking intentions were significantly correlated with the perceived injunctive norm but not with the actual injunctive norm. Secondly, the perceived injunctive norm predicted an additional 3.4% of variance in smoking intentions above and beyond the perceived descriptive norm. These results demonstrate the importance of the perceived injunctive norm in predicting early adolescent smoking intentions. PMID:24078745

  9. Surgical induction, histological evaluation, and MRI identification of cartilage necrosis in the distal femur in goats to model early lesions of osteochondrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Ferenc; Nissi, Mikko J.; Wang, Luning; Ellermann, Jutta M.; Carlson, Cathy S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify and interrupt the vascular supply to portions of the distal femoral articularepiphyseal cartilage complex (AECC) in goat kids to induce cartilage necrosis, characteristic of early lesions of osteochondrosis; then utilize MRI to identify necrotic areas of cartilage. Design Distal femora were perfused and cleared in goat kids of various ages to visualize the vascular supply to the distal femoral AECC. Vessels located on the axial aspect of the medial femoral condyle and on the abaxial side of the lateral trochlear ridge were transected in eight 4-day-old goats to induce cartilage necrosis. Goats were euthanized 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10 weeks post operatively and operated stifles were harvested. Adiabatic T1ρ relaxation time maps of the harvested distal femora were generated using a 9.4T MR scanner, after which samples were evaluated histologically. Results Interruption of the vascular supply to the medial femoral condyle caused lesions of cartilage necrosis in 6/8 goat kids that were demonstrated histologically. Adiabatic T1ρ relaxation time mapping identified these areas of cartilage necrosis in 5/6 cases. No significant findings were detected after transection of perichondrial vessels supplying the lateral trochlear ridge. Conclusions Cartilage necrosis, characteristic of early osteochondrosis, can be induced by interrupting the vascular supply to the distal femoral AECC in goat kids. The ability of high field MRI to identify these areas of cartilage necrosis in the AECC using the adiabatic T1ρ sequence suggests that this technique may be useful in the future for the early diagnosis of osteochondrosis. PMID:25463443

  10. Usefulness of an early neurofunctional assessment in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Picciolini, O; Giannì, M L; Vegni, C; Fumagalli, M; Mosca, F

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether early neurofunctional assessment may be useful in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome in children of very low birth weight (VLBW). Design Observational longitudinal study. Settings Northern Italy. Patients A total of 250 VLBW children (129 boys, 121 girls) born consecutively 1996–1999. Main outcome measures Neurodevelopment at 36 months of chronological age, classified in accordance with the classification of Tardieu and the International classification of functioning. Results Of the infants exhibiting normal neurodevelopment (n  =  183) or major dysfunction (n  =  17) at 3 months of corrected age, 72% and 94% respectively did not change their score during the study. Minor dysfunctions at 3 months of corrected age were transient in 17 (34%) children. After adjustment for neonatal variables, neurodevelopment at 3 months of corrected age remained predictive of dysfunction at 36 months (odds ratio  =  4.33, 95% confidence interval 2.05 to 9.12). If the results for the normal and minor dysfunction groups were pooled, the predictive qualities of the 3 month neurofunctional assessment were: sensitivity 0.5, specificity 0.99, positive predictive value 0.94, negative predictive value 0.93. Conclusion Early neurofunctional evaluation may be useful in predicting later neurodevelopmental outcome in VLBW children. PMID:16492947

  11. Early Prediction of Postmeningitic Hearing Loss in Children Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C.; Germiller, John A.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Shah, Samir S.; Pollock, Avrum N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether early gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (GdMRI) can reliably detect meningitic labyrinthitis and thereby predict which children are at high risk for hearing loss. Permanent sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) remains a common sequela of bacterial meningitis, and early diagnosis of the associated suppurative labyrinthitis can be difficult, especially in critically ill, sedated patients and young children. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary pediatric hospital. Participants Twenty-three survivors of bacterial meningitis (median age, 15 months [range, 3 months–14 years]) who had undergone brain GdMRI during the acute disease and had subsequent ear-specific audiometric data. Main Outcome Measure Blinded to disease and outcome, a neuroradiologist rated the relative enhancement of each cochlea on T1-weighted images using a 4-point scale. Scores were then correlated with the degree of hearing loss on subsequent testing. Results Sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 15 of 46 ears (8 of 23 patients). Enhancement on GdMRI was detected in 13 of the 15 ears that later developed SNHL but was absent in all 31 unaffected ears. Thus, GdMRI was 87% sensitive and 100% specific for predicting which ears would develop permanent SNHL. In the subgroup with pneumococcal meningitis (n=15), GdMRI was 100% sensitive and 100% specific. Labyrinthine enhancement was detectable as early as 1 day after diagnosis. Conclusion Gadolinium-enhanced MRI detected meningitic labyrinthitis at early stages and accurately predicted which patients would later develop hearing loss. PMID:21339394

  12. Initialized Decadal Climate Predictions of the Observed Early-2000s Hiatus of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, G. A.; Teng, H.; Arblaster, J.

    2014-12-01

    The slow-down in the rate of global warming in the early-2000s is not evident in the multi-model ensemble average of traditional climate change projection simulations. However, a number of individual ensemble members from that set of models successfully simulate the early-2000s hiatus when naturally-occurring climate variability involving the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) coincided, by chance, with the observed negative phase of the IPO that contributed to the early-2000s hiatus. If the recent methodology of initialized decadal climate prediction could have been applied in the mid-1990s using the CMIP5 multi-models, both the negative phase of the IPO in the early 2000s as well as the hiatus could have been simulated, with the multi-model average performing better than most of the individual models. The loss of predictive skill for six initial years prior to the mid-1990s points to the need for consistent hindcast skill to establish reliability of an operational decadal climate prediction system.

  13. Analysis of cardiovascular oscillations: A new approach to the early prediction of pre-eclampsia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malberg, H.; Bauernschmitt, R.; Voss, A.; Walther, T.; Faber, R.; Stepan, H.; Wessel, N.

    2007-03-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious disorder with high morbidity and mortality occurring during pregnancy; 3%-5% of all pregnant women are affected. Early prediction is still insufficient in clinical practice. Although most pre-eclamptic patients show pathological uterine perfusion in the second trimester, this parameter has a positive predictive accuracy of only 30%, which makes it unsuitable for early, reliable prediction. The study is based on the hypothesis that alterations in cardiovascular regulatory behavior can be used to predict PE. Ninety-six pregnant women in whom Doppler investigation detected perfusion disorders of the uterine arteries were included in the study. Twenty-four of these pregnant women developed PE after the 30th week of gestation. During pregnancy, additional several noninvasive continuous blood pressure recordings were made over 30 min under resting conditions by means of a finger cuff. The time series extracted of systolic as well as diastolic beat-to-beat pressures and the heart rate were studied by variability and coupling analysis to find predictive factors preceding genesis of the disease. In the period between the 18th and 26th weeks of pregnancy, three special variability and baroreflex parameters were able to predict PE several weeks before clinical manifestation. Discriminant function analysis of these parameters was able to predict PE with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and a positive predictive value of 70%. The combined clinical assessment of uterine perfusion and cardiovascular variability demonstrates the best current prediction several weeks before clinical manifestation of PE.

  14. Neural Systems Underlying the Influence of Sound Shape Properties of the Lexicon on Spoken Word Production: Do fMRI Findings Predict Effects of Lesions in Aphasia?

    PubMed Central

    Bullock-Rest, Natasha; Cerny, Alissa; Sweeney, Carol; Palumbo, Carole; Kurowski, Kathleen; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous behavioral work has shown that the phonetic realization of words in spoken word production is influenced by sound shape properties of the lexicon. A recent fMRI study (Peramunage et al., 2011) showed that this influence of lexical structure on phonetic implementation recruited a network of areas that included the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The current study examined whether lesions in these areas result in a concomitant functional deficit. Ten individuals with aphasia and 8 normal controls read words aloud in which half had a voiced stop consonant minimal pair (e.g. tame; dame), and the other half did not (e.g. tooth; *dooth). Voice onset time (VOT) analysis of the initial voiceless stop consonant revealed that aphasic participants with lesions including the IFG and/or the SMG behaved as did normals, showing VOT lengthening effects for minimal pair words compared to non-minimal pair words. The failure to show a functional deficit in the production of VOT as a function of the lexical properties of a word with damage in the IFG or SMG suggests that fMRI findings do not always predict effects of lesions on behavioral deficits in aphasia. Nonetheless, the pattern of production errors made by the aphasic participants did reflect properties of the lexicon, supporting the view that the SMG and IFG are part of a lexical network involved in spoken word production. PMID:23743183

  15. Early Improvements in Individual Symptoms to Predict Later Remission in Major Depressive Disorder Treated With Mirtazapine.

    PubMed

    Funaki, Kei; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Takefumi; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined whether early improvements in individual, instead of overall, depressive symptoms predict remission in major depressive disorder (MDD). This post hoc analysis used data from 194 patients with MDD enrolled in a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of mirtazapine, to identify improvements in specific individual depressive symptoms in the early phase that are associated with subsequent remission. Trajectories of individual depressive symptoms over 6 weeks were compared between remitters and nonremitters. Early improvement was defined as a ≥20% decrease in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression 17 items (HAM-D17) total score in weeks 1 and 2, and remission was defined as a HAM-D17 final score of ≤7. Reliability parameters were calculated for early improvements in predicting later remission. Whether improvement in each of the HAM-D17 symptoms in weeks 1 or 2 predicted remission was examined, using binary logistic regression analyses. As a result, improvements in weeks 1 and 2 were associated with sensitivity of 0.82 and 0.99 and specificity of 0.54 and 0.44, respectively, in predicting remission in week 6. Improvements in insomnia late (P = .04) and insight (P = .007) in week 1 and somatic symptoms general (P = .002) and insight (P = .04) in week 2 were associated with remission in week 6. In conclusion, early improvements in insight, insomnia late, and somatic symptoms general, as well as overall depressive symptoms, may serve as specific clinical indicators of subsequent remission in patients with MDD receiving mirtazapine. PMID:26813241

  16. Predicting early initiation of alcohol use: a prospective study of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty Elizabeth; Hemphill, Sheryl; Reid, Sophie; Patton, George; Toumbourou, John

    2013-03-01

    This study explores the social, contextual and individual factors that predict early initiation of alcohol use. A state-wide representative sample of 927 fifth-grade students, in Victoria, Australia were surveyed. Students were resurveyed in the sixth and seventh grade. Risk and protective factors were measured with a modified version of the Communities That Care youth survey. Alcohol use was measured to assess transition from alcohol nonuse to use. Social contexts perceived to provide easier access to alcohol and drugs were found to be the clearest predictors of early onset alcohol use. The limitations and implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23390887

  17. Predicting Outcome of Community-Based Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tristram; Klorman, Rafael; Mruzek, Daniel W

    2015-10-01

    We examined predictors of outcome (IQ, adaptive behavior, and ASD severity) after 12 and 24 months of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) in 71, 20-59 months old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who were enrolled in publicly-funded, community-based agencies. Predictors included social engagement (combining variables loading onto a single factor: social approach, joint attention, and imitation) and sensorimotor rituals. Younger age and higher IQ at intake predicted favorable outcomes at both 12 and 24 months. Adjusting for age, IQ, baseline predictor scores, EIBI hours, treatment site, and sensorimotor rituals, social engagement predicted superior later IQ and adaptive behavior. In contrast, sensorimotor rituals did not predict outcome. Although limited by the absence of a control group, the study indicates social engagement predicts some EIBI outcomes. PMID:25778537

  18. Early prediction of movie box office success based on Wikipedia activity big data.

    PubMed

    Mestyán, Márton; Yasseri, Taha; Kertész, János

    2013-01-01

    Use of socially generated "big data" to access information about collective states of the minds in human societies has become a new paradigm in the emerging field of computational social science. A natural application of this would be the prediction of the society's reaction to a new product in the sense of popularity and adoption rate. However, bridging the gap between "real time monitoring" and "early predicting" remains a big challenge. Here we report on an endeavor to build a minimalistic predictive model for the financial success of movies based on collective activity data of online users. We show that the popularity of a movie can be predicted much before its release by measuring and analyzing the activity level of editors and viewers of the corresponding entry to the movie in Wikipedia, the well-known online encyclopedia. PMID:23990938

  19. Assessment of Brain Damage and Plasticity in the Visual System Due to Early Occipital Lesion: Comparison of FDG-PET with Diffusion MRI Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jeong-won; Tiwari, Vijay N.; Shin, Joseph; Chugani, Harry T.; Juhász, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the relation between glucose metabolic changes of the primary visual cortex, structural abnormalities of the corresponding visual tracts, and visual symptoms in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Materials and Methods In 10 children with unilateral SWS (ages 1.5–5.5 years), a region-of-interest analysis was applied in the bilateral medial occipital cortex on positron emission tomography (PET) and used to track diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) streamlines corresponding to the central visual pathway. Normalized streamline volumes of individual SWS patients were compared with values from age-matched control groups as well as correlated with normalized glucose uptakes and visual field deficit. Results Lower glucose uptake and lower corresponding streamline volumes were detected in the affected occipital lobe in 9/10 patients, as compared to the contralateral side. Seven of these 9 patients had visual field deficit and normal or decreased streamline volumes on the unaffected side. The two other children had no visual symptoms and showed high contralateral visual streamline volumes. There was a positive correlation between the normalized ratios on DWI and PET, indicating that lower glucose metabolism was associated with lower streamline volume in the affected hemisphere (R = 0.70, P = 0.024). Conclusion We demonstrated that 18F-flurodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET combined with DWI tractography can detect both brain damage on the side of the lesion and contralateral plasticity in children with early occipital lesions. PMID:24391057

  20. Rib lesions in skeletons from early neolithic sites in Central Germany: on the trail of tuberculosis at the onset of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Nicole; Maixner, Frank; Ganslmeier, Robert; Friederich, Susanne; Dresely, Veit; Meller, Harald; Zink, Albert; Alt, Kurt W

    2012-11-01

    As an infectious disease, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Paleopathological and paleomicrobiological studies indicate a long standing association of the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its human host. Since the occurrence and the epidemic spread of this pathogen seem to be closely linked to social and biological factors, it is of particular interest to understand better the role of TB during periods of social and nutritional change such as the Neolithic. In this study, 118 individuals from three sites in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) dating to the Linear Pottery Culture (5400-4800 BC) were examined macroscopically to identify TB related bone lesions. In two individuals, Pott's disease was detected. In addition, periosteal reactions of varying degrees and frequency were observed mainly along the neck of the ribs in 6.5% (2/31) of subadults and 35.1% (20/57) of adults, with one site standing out markedly. Rib lesions, however, are not specific indicators of TB as they can also be caused by other diseases; so additional investigations were undertaken using histology and micro-CT scans to say more about the disease process. Supplementary molecular analyses indicate the presence of pathogens belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in individuals of all sites. Furthermore, we discuss the occurrence and spread of TB during the Neolithic with regard to nutritional aspects and possible risks of infection. The data presented provide important insights into the health status of Early Neolithic populations in Central Germany. PMID:23042554

  1. FoxP3+ regulatory T cells suppress early stages of granuloma formation but have little impact on sarcoidosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Taflin, Cécile; Miyara, Makoto; Nochy, Dominique; Valeyre, Dominique; Naccache, Jean-Marc; Altare, Frédéric; Salek-Peyron, Pascale; Badoual, Cécile; Bruneval, Patrick; Haroche, Julien; Mathian, Alexis; Amoura, Zahir; Hill, Gary; Gorochov, Guy

    2009-02-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by a disproportionate Th1 granulomatous immune response in involved organs. It is also associated with both peripheral and intratissular regulatory T cell (Treg) expansion. These cells exhibit powerful antiproliferative activity, yet do not completely inhibit the production of either tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interferon-gamma. The origin of the observed Treg amplification and, more importantly, its impact on the evolution of sarcoidosis remain unresolved issues. Here, we show that CD4(+)CD45RA(-)FoxP3(bright) Tregs proliferate and accumulate within granulomas. However, circulating and tissue Treg numbers are neither correlated with the dissemination of the disease nor correlated locally with the extent of granulomatous inflammation. Rather, we found a positive correlation between the presence of Tregs in renal granulomas and the degree of interstitial fibrosis (r = 0.46, P = 0.03, n = 20). Furthermore, Treg depletion accelerates in vitro granuloma growth in mononuclear cell cultures of healthy controls, but not in those from patients with active sarcoidosis. The results of this study show that although healthy Tregs suppress the initial steps of granuloma formation, they have no positive influence on sarcoidosis lesions. Our findings argue for a more preventive than curative effect of Tregs on inflammatory processes. PMID:19147826

  2. Analysis of ROC: The value of HPV16 E6 protein in the diagnosis of early stage cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Xu, Shubin; Liang, Lei; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is a multifactorial malignant tumor and diagnosis is therefore crucial. The aim of the present study was to examine the value of E6 oncoprotein, in human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), in the diagnosis of early stage cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to analyze accuracy of diagnosis. A total of 124 patients infected with HPV16 were included in the study. The patients had an average age of 46.7±6.9 years and duration of disease of 10.5±3.4 months. To determine the expression level of HPV16 E6 the immunohistochemical Elivision method was performed. Proportion/horizon positive cells were used to count the cells, and pathologic diagnosis was employed for analysis of the results. The average follow-up time was 2.6±0.7 years. Sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing HPV16 E16 at 1 and 2 years, respectively, were calculated. The diagnostic rate of cervical carcinoma increased with time, and the positive expression of HPV16 E6 was also increased with the development of the disease. Differences among groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (AUC) of HPV16 E6 diagnosis improved with time, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Thus, HPV16 E6 oncoprotein can be used as an indicator with good sensitivity and specificity to diagnose early cervical carcinoma and precancerous lesions. The results therefore showed that accuracy increased with the development of the disease. PMID:27588123

  3. Peroxisome-proliferator activator receptor-gamma activation decreases attachment of endometrial cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells in an in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion.

    PubMed

    Kavoussi, S K; Witz, C A; Binkley, P A; Nair, A S; Lebovic, D I

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activation has an effect on the attachment of endometrial cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells in a well-established in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion. The endometrial epithelial cell line EM42 and mesothelial cell line LP9 were used for this study. EM42 cells, LP9 cells or both were treated with the PPAR-gamma agonist ciglitazone (CTZ) at varying concentrations (10, 20 and 40 microM) x 48 h with subsequent co-culture of EM42 and LP9 cells. The rate of EM42 attachment and invasion through LP9 cells was then assessed and compared with control (EM42 and LP9 cells co-cultured without prior treatment with CTZ). Next, attachment of CTZ-treated and untreated EM42 cells to hyaluronic acid (HA), a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) on peritoneal mesothelial cells, were assessed. Although there was no difference in EM42 attachment when LP9 cells alone were treated with CTZ, treatment of EM42 cells with 40 microM CTZ decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 cells by 27% (P < 0.01). Treatment of both EM42 and LP9 cells with 40 microM CTZ decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 by 37% (P < 0.01). Treatment of EM42 cells with 40 microM CTZ decreased attachment to HA by 66% (P = 0.056). CTZ did not decrease invasion of EM42 cells through the LP9 monolayer. CTZ may inhibit EM42 cell proliferation. In conclusion, CTZ significantly decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 cells and HA in an in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion. PMID:19643817

  4. P16INK4a: a potential diagnostic adjunct for prediction of high-grade cervical lesions in liquid-based cytology: with HPV testing and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y P; Abdul Raub, S H; Mohd Dali, A Z H; Kassim, F; Visvalingam, V; Zakaria, Z; Kamaluddin, M A; Noor Akmal, S

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and its precursors. Increased expression of high-risk hrHPV viral oncogenes in abnormal cells might increase the expression of p16INK4a. We aimed to determine the role of p16INK4a in detecting hrHPV-transformed epithelial cells in liquid-based cervical cytology, and compared the results with hrHPV DNA testing by realtime polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-seven cytological samples were tested for p16INK4a immunomarker and hrHPV DNA. Test performance of both tests was determined by comparing sensitivity, specificity and predictive values using available histological follow-up data as gold standard. Of 57 samples, 36 (63.2%) showed immunoreactivity for p16INK4a and 43 (75.4%) were hrHPV-infected. A fairly low concordance rate (k = 0.504) between p16INK4a immunolabelling and hrHPV DNA status was noted. For prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and worse lesions, p16INK4a had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.5% and 60%; whereas hrHPV DNA testing had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 20%. Dual testing by combining p16INK4a and hrHPV showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 33.3%. In conclusion, p16INK4a is useful in predicting severity of the cytological abnormalities. Although p16INK4a is more specific but less sensitive than hrHPV in detecting high-grade cervical lesions, a combination of both tests failed to demonstrate significant improvement in diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Larger-scale prospective studies are required to assess further whether this biomarker should be routinely used as primary screening tool independently or in combination with hrHPV testing to improve diagnostic accuracy in cervical cytology. PMID:27568665

  5. Development and Predictive Value of Early Vocalizations in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze early vocalization development, the predictive value of this development in terms of later language skills, and possible gender difference in early vocalization development in a selected cohort of 32 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children and 35 full-term controls. The data on early vocalization…

  6. Prediction, prevention, and mechanism of early (anaphylactic) antivenom reactions in victims of snake bites.

    PubMed Central

    Malasit, P; Warrell, D A; Chanthavanich, P; Viravan, C; Mongkolsapaya, J; Singhthong, B; Supich, C

    1986-01-01

    Victims of snake bites are often subjected to cutaneous or conjunctival hypersensitivity testing before being given antivenom. None of 12 early (anaphylactic) reactions was predicted by these tests in 25 Nigerian and Thai patients. The incidence and severity of early reactions was the same whether antivenom was given by intravenous injection over 10 minutes or diluted and given as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes. Although antivenom activated complement in vitro, there was no evidence of complement activation or formation of immune complexes in patients bitten by snakes who were treated with antivenom, whether or not they developed early reactions. Higher doses of antivenom might induce the complement activation and formation of immune complexes (aggregates) that have been observed during the clinically more severe reactions associated with homologous immunoglobulin treatment. PMID:3080048

  7. Proximal culprit lesion and coronary artery occlusion independently predict the risk of microvascular obstruction in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Abanador-Kamper, N; Kamper, L; Karamani, V; Haage, P; Seyfarth, M

    2016-08-01

    Microvascular obstruction (MO) and coronary flow have been independently described to have a high prognostic impact after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Their interdependence has not been precisely elucidated, so far. Aim of this study was to investigate the impact of coronary flow on the occurrence of MO in patients with AMI. 336 patients with revascularized AMI were examined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were categorised into two groups based on the presence of MO. Procedural characteristics and marker of infarct size were analyzed. MO was present in 110 (33 %) and absent in 226 (67 %) patients. Both groups differed significantly regarding pre- and post-interventional thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow. After multivariable regression analysis pre-interventional TIMI-flow 0, proximal culprit lesion, post-interventional TIMI-flow lesion 11.94 (95 % CI 5.70-25.01, P < 0.001); for post-interventional TIMI-flow III 0.28 (95 % CI 0.10-0.74, P = 0.010) and for CK-MB 1.50 (95 % CI 1.24-1.82, P < 0.001). Pre-interventional proximal coronary artery occlusion (TIMI 0) and insufficient post-interventional coronary reperfusion (TIMI-flow 

  8. Prediction in the service of comprehension: modulated early brain responses to omitted speech segments.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Scharinger, Mathias; Strauß, Antje; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    Speech signals are often compromised by disruptions originating from external (e.g., masking noise) or internal (e.g., inaccurate articulation) sources. Speech comprehension thus entails detecting and replacing missing information based on predictive and restorative neural mechanisms. The present study targets predictive mechanisms by investigating the influence of a speech segment's predictability on early, modality-specific electrophysiological responses to this segment's omission. Predictability was manipulated in simple physical terms in a single-word framework (Experiment 1) or in more complex semantic terms in a sentence framework (Experiment 2). In both experiments, final consonants of the German words Lachs ([laks], salmon) or Latz ([lats], bib) were occasionally omitted, resulting in the syllable La ([la], no semantic meaning), while brain responses were measured with multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG). In both experiments, the occasional presentation of the fragment La elicited a larger omission response when the final speech segment had been predictable. The omission response occurred ∼125-165 msec after the expected onset of the final segment and showed characteristics of the omission mismatch negativity (MMN), with generators in auditory cortical areas. Suggestive of a general auditory predictive mechanism at work, this main observation was robust against varying source of predictive information or attentional allocation, differing between the two experiments. Source localization further suggested the omission response enhancement by predictability to emerge from left superior temporal gyrus and left angular gyrus in both experiments, with additional experiment-specific contributions. These results are consistent with the existence of predictive coding mechanisms in the central auditory system, and suggestive of the general predictive properties of the auditory system to support spoken word recognition. PMID:24561233

  9. Mutation tracking in circulating tumor DNA predicts relapse in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Murillas, Isaac; Schiavon, Gaia; Weigelt, Britta; Ng, Charlotte; Hrebien, Sarah; Cutts, Rosalind J; Cheang, Maggie; Osin, Peter; Nerurkar, Ashutosh; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Garrido, Javier Armisen; Dowsett, Mitch; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Smith, Ian E; Turner, Nicholas C

    2015-08-26

    The identification of early-stage breast cancer patients at high risk of relapse would allow tailoring of adjuvant therapy approaches. We assessed whether analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in plasma can be used to monitor for minimal residual disease (MRD) in breast cancer. In a prospective cohort of 55 early breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, detection of ctDNA in plasma after completion of apparently curative treatment-either at a single postsurgical time point or with serial follow-up plasma samples-predicted metastatic relapse with high accuracy [hazard ratio, 25.1 (confidence interval, 4.08 to 130.5; log-rank P < 0.0001) or 12.0 (confidence interval, 3.36 to 43.07; log-rank P < 0.0001), respectively]. Mutation tracking in serial samples increased sensitivity for the prediction of relapse, with a median lead time of 7.9 months over clinical relapse. We further demonstrated that targeted capture sequencing analysis of ctDNA could define the genetic events of MRD, and that MRD sequencing predicted the genetic events of the subsequent metastatic relapse more accurately than sequencing of the primary cancer. Mutation tracking can therefore identify early breast cancer patients at high risk of relapse. Subsequent adjuvant therapeutic interventions could be tailored to the genetic events present in the MRD, a therapeutic approach that could in part combat the challenge posed by intratumor genetic heterogeneity. PMID:26311728

  10. Early prediction of therapy responses and outcomes in breast cancer patients using quantitative ultrasound spectral texture.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Sannachi, Lakshmanan; Pritchard, Kathleen; Trudeau, Maureen; Gandhi, Sonal; Wright, Frances C; Zubovits, Judit; Yaffe, Martin J; Kolios, Michael C; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2014-06-15

    Early alterations in textural characteristics of quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps, in conjunction with changes in their mean values, are demonstrated here, for the first time, to be capable of predicting ultimate clinical/pathologic responses of breast cancer patients to chemotherapy. Mechanisms of cell death, induced by chemotherapy within tumor, introduce morphological alterations in cancerous cells, resulting in measurable changes in tissue echogenicity. We have demonstrated that the development of such changes is reflected in early alterations in textural characteristics of quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps, followed by consequent changes in their mean values. The spectral/textural biomarkers derived on this basis have been demonstrated as non-invasive surrogates of breast cancer chemotherapy response. Particularly, spectral biomarkers sensitive to the size and concentration of acoustic scatterers could predict treatment response of patients with up to 80% of sensitivity and specificity (p=0.050), after one week within 3-4 months of chemotherapy. However, textural biomarkers characterizing heterogeneities in distribution of acoustic scatterers, could differentiate between treatment responding and non-responding patients with up to 100% sensitivity and 93% specificity (p=0.002). Such early prediction permits offering effective alternatives to standard treatment, or switching to a salvage therapy, for refractory patients. PMID:24939867

  11. Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Comparison of Two Endovascular Perforation Techniques with Respect to Success Rate, Confounding Pathologies and Early Hippocampal Tissue Lesion Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Höllig, Anke; Weinandy, Agnieszka; Nolte, Kay; Clusmann, Hans; Rossaint, Rolf; Coburn, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Recently aside from the “classic” endovascular monofilament perforation technique to induce experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) a modification using a tungsten wire advanced through a guide tube has been described. We aim to assess both techniques for their success rate (induction of SAH without confounding pathologies) as primary endpoint. Further, the early tissue lesion pattern as evidence for early brain injury will be analyzed as secondary endpoint. Sprague Dawley rats (n=39) were randomly assigned to receive either Sham surgery (n=4), SAH using the “classic” technique (n=18) or using a modified technique (n=17). Course of intracranial pressure (ICP) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was analyzed; subsequent pathologies were documented either 6 or 24 h after SAH. Hippocampal tissue samples were analyzed via immunohistochemistry and western blotting. SAH-induction, regardless of confounding pathologies, was independent from type of technique (p=0.679). There was no significant difference concerning case fatality rate (classic: 40%; modified: 20%; p=0.213). Successful induction of SAH without collateral ICH or SDH was possible in 40% with the classic and in 86.7% with the modified technique (p=0.008). Peak ICP levels differed significantly between the two groups (classic: 94 +/- 23 mmHg; modified: 68 +/- 19 mmHg; p=0.003). Evidence of early cellular stress response and activation of apoptotic pathways 6 h after SAH was demonstrated. The extent of stress response is not dependent on type of technique. Both tested techniques successfully produce SAH including activation of an early stress response and apoptotic pathways in the hippocampal tissue. However, the induction of SAH with less confounding pathologies was more frequently achieved with the modified tungsten wire technique. PMID:25867893

  12. Early functional magnetic resonance imaging activations predict language outcome after stroke.

    PubMed

    Saur, Dorothee; Ronneberger, Olaf; Kümmerer, Dorothee; Mader, Irina; Weiller, Cornelius; Klöppel, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    An accurate prediction of system-specific recovery after stroke is essential to provide rehabilitation therapy based on the individual needs. We explored the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from an auditory language comprehension experiment to predict individual language recovery in 21 aphasic stroke patients. Subjects with an at least moderate language impairment received extensive language testing 2 weeks and 6 months after left-hemispheric stroke. A multivariate machine learning technique was used to predict language outcome 6 months after stroke. In addition, we aimed to predict the degree of language improvement over 6 months. 76% of patients were correctly separated into those with good and bad language performance 6 months after stroke when based on functional magnetic resonance imaging data from language relevant areas. Accuracy further improved (86% correct assignments) when age and language score were entered alongside functional magnetic resonance imaging data into the fully automatic classifier. A similar accuracy was reached when predicting the degree of language improvement based on imaging, age and language performance. No prediction better than chance level was achieved when exploring the usefulness of diffusion weighted imaging as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging acquired two days after stroke. This study demonstrates the high potential of current machine learning techniques to predict system-specific clinical outcome even for a disease as heterogeneous as stroke. Best prediction of language recovery is achieved when the brain activation potential after system-specific stimulation is assessed in the second week post stroke. More intensive early rehabilitation could be provided for those with a predicted poor recovery and the extension to other systems, for example, motor and attention seems feasible. PMID:20299389

  13. Insecure attachment during infancy predicts greater amygdala volumes in early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Moutsiana, Christina; Johnstone, Tom; Murray, Lynne; Fearon, Pasco; Cooper, Peter J; Pliatsikas, Christos; Goodyer, Ian; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Background The quality of the early environment is hypothesized to be an influence on morphological development in key neural areas related to affective responding, but direct evidence to support this possibility is limited. In a 22-year longitudinal study, we examined hippocampal and amygdala volumes in adulthood in relation to early infant attachment status, an important indicator of the quality of the early caregiving environment. Methods Participants (N = 59) were derived from a prospective longitudinal study of the impact of maternal postnatal depression on child development. Infant attachment status (24 Secure; 35 Insecure) was observed at 18 months of age, and MRI assessments were completed at 22 years. Results In line with hypotheses, insecure versus secure infant attachment status was associated with larger amygdala volumes in young adults, an effect that was not accounted for by maternal depression history. We did not find early infant attachment status to predict hippocampal volumes. Conclusions Common variations in the quality of early environment are associated with gross alterations in amygdala morphology in the adult brain. Further research is required to establish the neural changes that underpin the volumetric differences reported here, and any functional implications. PMID:25156392

  14. Prediction of Early Childhood Caries via Spatial-Temporal Variations of Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Yang, Fang; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cunpei; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Amir, Amnon; Knight, Rob; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Microbiota-based prediction of chronic infections is promising yet not well established. Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common infection in children. Here we simultaneously tracked microbiota development at plaque and saliva in 50 4-year-old preschoolers for 2 years; children either stayed healthy, transitioned into cariogenesis, or experienced caries exacerbation. Caries onset delayed microbiota development, which is otherwise correlated with aging in healthy children. Both plaque and saliva microbiota are more correlated with changes in ECC severity (dmfs) during onset than progression. By distinguishing between aging- and disease-associated taxa and exploiting the distinct microbiota dynamics between onset and progression, we developed a model, Microbial Indicators of Caries, to diagnose ECC from healthy samples with 70% accuracy and predict, with 81% accuracy, future ECC onsets for samples clinically perceived as healthy. Thus, caries onset in apparently healthy teeth can be predicted using microbiota, when appropriately de-trended for age. PMID:26355216

  15. Early Prediction of Movie Box Office Success Based on Wikipedia Activity Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Mestyán, Márton; Yasseri, Taha; Kertész, János

    2013-01-01

    Use of socially generated “big data” to access information about collective states of the minds in human societies has become a new paradigm in the emerging field of computational social science. A natural application of this would be the prediction of the society's reaction to a new product in the sense of popularity and adoption rate. However, bridging the gap between “real time monitoring” and “early predicting” remains a big challenge. Here we report on an endeavor to build a minimalistic predictive model for the financial success of movies based on collective activity data of online users. We show that the popularity of a movie can be predicted much before its release by measuring and analyzing the activity level of editors and viewers of the corresponding entry to the movie in Wikipedia, the well-known online encyclopedia. PMID:23990938

  16. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  17. Oral Lesions in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  18. UP-BEAT (Upper Limb Baby Early Action–observation Training): protocol of two parallel randomised controlled trials of action–observation training for typically developing infants and infants with asymmetric brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Guzzetta, Andrea; Boyd, Roslyn N; Perez, Micah; Ziviani, Jenny; Burzi, Valentina; Slaughter, Virginia; Rose, Stephen; Provan, Kerry; Findlay, Lisa; Fisher, Imogen; Colombini, Francesca; Tealdi, Gessica; Marchi, Viviani; Whittingham, Koa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Infants with asymmetric brain lesions are at high risk of developing congenital hemiplegia. Action–observation training (AOT) has been shown to effectively improve upper limb motor function in adults with chronic stroke. AOT is based on action observation, whereby new motor skills can be learnt by observing motor actions. This process is facilitated by the Mirror Neuron System, which matches observed and performed motor actions. This study aims to determine the efficacy of AOT in: (1) influencing the early development of reaching and grasping of typically developing infants and (2) improving the upper limb activity of infants with asymmetric brain lesions. Methods and analysis This study design comprises two parallel randomised sham-controlled trials (RCTs) in: (1) typically developing infants (cohort I) and (2) infants with asymmetric brain lesions (eg, arterial stroke, venous infarction, intraventricular haemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; cohort II). Cohort II will be identified through a neonatal ultrasound or neonatal MRI. A sham control will be used for both RCTs, taking into consideration that it would be unethical to give no intervention to an at-risk population. Based on a two-tailed t test of two independent means, with a significance (α) level of 0.05, 80% power, predicted effect size of 0.8 and a 90% retention rate, we require 20 participants in each group (total sample of 40) for cohort I. The sample size for cohort II was based on the assumption that the effect size of the proposed training would be similar to that found by Heathcock et al in preterm born infants (n=26) with a mean effect size of 2.4. Given the high effect size, the calculation returned a sample of only four participants per group, on a two-tailed t test, with a significance (α) level of 0.05 and 80% power. As cohort II will consist of two subgroups of lesion type (ie, arterial stroke and venous infarction), we have quadrupled the sample to include 16

  19. Analysis of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Values of Smear and Colposcopy in Diagnosis of Premalignant and Malignant Cervical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Kale, Ahmet; Kuyumcuoğlu, Umur; Bozkurt, Murat; Ağaçayak, Elif; Özekinci, Server; Gül, Talip

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to examine the positive and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical colposcopy, the sensitivity and specificity of smear, and to evaluate the correlation with histopathology of abnormal cytology and colposcopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS The criteria for inclusion of patients with unhealthy cervix in the study were: Erosion, Chronic cervicitis, and Healed lacerations, Hypertrophied cervix, bleeding on touch, suspicious growth/ulcer/polyp on the cervix, and abnormal discharges from the cervix. Women with frank carcinoma cervix, pregnant females, patients with bleeding per vaginum at the time of examination, and those who had used vaginal medications, vaginal contraceptives or douches in the last 48 h of examination were excluded from the study. Demographic analysis was performed for 450 patients who were admitted to the clinic. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of patients to identify cervical pathologies of smear and colposcopy were histopathologically calculated. The statistical software package SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Spearman's and Chi-Square tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of smear were 0.57%, 0.76%, 0.26%, 0.92% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of colposcopy were 0.92%, 0.67%, 0.52%, 0.96% respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between abnormal cytology and histopathology, and abnormal colposcopy finding and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. It was concluded that Pap smear, colposcopy and histopathology should be collectively evaluated to evaluate cervical findings in low socio-economic regions. PMID:26655816

  20. Lesion regression rate based on RECIST: prediction of treatment outcome in patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy compared with FDG PET-CT

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Munetaka; Tuji, Hiroyuki; Shimode, Yuzo; Kondo, Tamaki; Oota, Kiyotaka; Tonami, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the lesion regression rate (ΔLR) based on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria could be used for the prediction of treatment outcome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) compared with FDG PET-CT. A total of 33 patients underwent MRI and PET-CT at pretreatment and at 8 weeks after CRT. We assessed the treatment outcome by analyzing the following parameters: the RECIST criteria, ΔLR, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria, and pretreatment SUVmax of the primary tumor and node. The correlation between the analysis of the parameters and the results of the long-term follow-up of the patients was determined. The RECIST did not significantly correlate with locoregional control (LRC) or survival. The ΔLR was significantly lower for the lesions with locoregional failure (LRF) than for those with LRC. A threshold ΔLR of 48% revealed a sensitivity of 72.7% and specificity of 77.3% for the prediction of LRF. Progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with ΔLR ≥ 48% was significantly better than that of patients with ΔLR < 48% (P = 0.001), but not overall survival. There was a significant correlation between LRC and the EORTC (P = 0.02). The patients who achieved a complete response by the EORTC criteria showed significantly better PFS and overall survival (P = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). The ΔLR was inferior to FDG PET-CT with respect to the prediction of patient survival; however, it may be useful for selecting patients in need of more aggressive monitoring after CRT. PMID:25829531

  1. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI.

    PubMed

    Tudorica, Alina; Oh, Karen Y; Chui, Stephen Y-C; Roy, Nicole; Troxell, Megan L; Naik, Arpana; Kemmer, Kathleen A; Chen, Yiyi; Holtorf, Megan L; Afzal, Aneela; Springer, Charles S; Li, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB). Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD) was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors) guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed with the standard Tofts and Shutter-Speed models (TM and SSM). After one NACT cycle the percent changes of DCE-MRI parameters K(trans) (contrast agent plasma/interstitium transfer rate constant), ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction), kep (intravasation rate constant), and SSM-unique τi (mean intracellular water lifetime) are good to excellent early predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR) vs. non-pCR, with univariate logistic regression C statistics value in the range of 0.804 to 0.967. ve values after one cycle and at NACT midpoint are also good predictors of response, with C ranging 0.845 to 0.897. However, RECIST LD changes are poor predictors with C = 0.609 and 0.673, respectively. Post-NACT K(trans), τi, and RECIST LD show statistically significant (P < .05) correlations with RCB. The performances of TM and SSM analyses for early prediction of response and RCB evaluation are comparable. In conclusion, quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are superior to imaging tumor size for early prediction of therapy response. Both TM and SSM analyses are effective for therapy response evaluation. However, the τi parameter derived only with SSM analysis allows the unique opportunity to potentially quantify therapy-induced changes in tumor energetic metabolism. PMID:26947876

  2. MELD score can predict early mortality in patients with rebleeding after band ligation for variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Chun-Yen; Sheen, I-shyan; Huang, Chang-Wen; Lin, Tsung-Nan; Lin, Chun-Jung; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Huang, Chien-Hao; Ho, Yu-Pin; Chiu, Cheng-Tang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the outcomes, as well as risk factors for 6-wk mortality, in patients with early rebleeding after endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) for esophageal variceal hemorrhage (EVH). METHODS: Among 817 EVL procedures performed for EVH between January 2007 and December 2008, 128 patients with early rebleeding, defined as rebleeding within 6 wk after EVL, were enrolled for analysis. RESULT: The rate of early rebleeding after EVL for acute EVH was 15.6% (128/817). The 5-d, 6-wk, 3-mo, and 6-mo mortality rates were 7.8%, 38.3%, 55.5%, and 58.6%, respectively, in these early rebleeding patients. The use of beta-blockers, occurrence of hypovolemic shock, and higher model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at the time of rebleeding were independent predictors for 6-wk mortality. A cut-off value of 21.5 for the MELD score was found with an area under ROC curve of 0.862 (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 77.6%, 81%, 71.7%, and 85.3%, respectively. As for the 6-mo survival rate, patients with a MELD score ≥ 21.5 had a significantly lower survival rate than patients with a MELD score < 21.5 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the MELD score is an easy and powerful predictor for 6-wk mortality and outcomes of patients with early rebleeding after EVL for EVH. PMID:21547132

  3. Encrustation and Atherosclerosis: The Analogy Between Early in Vivo Lesions and Deposits Which Occur in Extracorporeal Circulations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E. A.; Rowsell, H. C.; Downie, H. G.; Robinson, G. A.; Mustard, J. F.

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the relation between the pattern and topography of thrombus formation in models of various vessel configurations coupled into extracorporeal shunts in swine and the development of atherosclerosis at corresponding sites on swine aortas. The pattern and distribution of deposits formed in the models were strikingly similar to the pattern and distribution of incipient atherosclerosis at comparable sites in the vascular tree. The earliest and only consistent component of the flow chamber deposits was the blood platelet. The platelet deposits would frequently stain with oil red O. The cholesterol level of washed human platelets was found to show a good correlation with that in the plasma. This evidence suggests that deposition of particulate matter (chiefly platelets), largely determined by the hydraulic factors, may be an important factor in the early, as well as later, stages of atherosclerosis. ImagesFigs. 10a and bFig. 13Fig. 21Fig. 1Fig. 3Figs. 4a and bFig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6bFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:14477412

  4. Cognitive impairment effects of early life stress in adolescents can be predicted with early biomarkers: Impacts of sex, experience, and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders that emerge in adolescence, in a sex-dependent manner. Early adversity modeled in rodents with maternal separation (MS) affects cognition and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. Humans and animals exposed to early life adversity also display heightened circulating inflammatory cytokines, however the predictive relationship of these early measures with later behavioral deficits is unknown. Here, male and female rats were exposed to MS or control rearing during the postnatal period (P2-21). Blood samples were taken at distinct developmental time points for analysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, and IL-10, followed by win-shift cognitive testing and analysis of mPFC parvalbumin (PVB) immunofluorescent interneurons in adolescence. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between early cytokines and adolescent behavioral measures. We observed sex- and age-dependent effects of MS on circulating cytokines. MS also yielded adolescent decreases in mPFC PVB and cognitive deficits, which were predicted by early cytokine expression in a sex- and experience-dependent manner. Taken together, the present data reveals that circulating cytokines and PVB levels are predictive of adolescent cognitive deficits, and therefore provide compelling evidence for a putative role of early biomarkers in mediating MS-induced behavioral dysfunction. Importantly, predictive relationships often depended on sex and on MS history, suggesting that early life experiences may yield individualistic mechanisms of vulnerability compared to the general population. PMID:27235636

  5. White Matter Lesion Load Is Associated With Resting State Functional MRI Activity and Amyloid PET but not FDG in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongxia; Yu, Fang; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantify and investigate the interactions between multimodal MRI/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging metrics in elderly patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. Materials and Methods Thirteen early AD, 17 MCI patients, and 14 age-matched healthy aging controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database were selected based on availability of data. Default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) were obtained for resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). White matter lesion load (WMLL) was quantified from MRI T2-weighted FLAIR images. Amyloid deposition with PET [18F]-Florbetapir tracer and metabolism of glucose by means of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) images were quantified using ratio of standard uptake values (rSUV). Results Whole-brain WMLL and amyloid deposition were significantly higher (P < 0.005) in MCI and AD patients compared with controls. RS-fMRI results showed significantly reduced (corrected P < 0.05) DMN connectiv ity and altered fALFF activity in both MCI and AD groups. FDG uptake results showed hypometabolism in AD and MCI patients compared with controls. Correlations (P < 0.05) were found between WMLL and amyloid load, FDG uptake and amyloid load, as well as between amyloid load (rSUV) and fALFF. Conclusion Our quantitative results of four MRI and PET imaging metrics (fALFF/DMN, WMLL, amyloid, and FDG rSUV values) agree with published values. Signifi-cant correlations between MRI metrics, including WMLL/ functional activity and PET amyloid load suggest the potential of MRI and PET-based biomarkers for early detection of AD. PMID:24382798

  6. Clinicogenetic risk models predict early progression of follicular lymphoma after first-line immunochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jurinovic, Vindi; Kridel, Robert; Staiger, Annette M; Szczepanowski, Monika; Horn, Heike; Dreyling, Martin H; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Klapper, Wolfram; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Barr, Paul M; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Ansell, Stephen; Sehn, Laurie H; Connors, Joseph M; Gascoyne, Randy D; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Unterhalt, Michael; Weinstock, David M; Weigert, Oliver

    2016-08-25

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease. Posttreatment surrogate end points, such as progression of disease within 24 months (POD24) are promising predictors for overall survival (OS) but are of limited clinical value, primarily because they cannot guide up-front treatment decisions. We used the clinical and molecular data from 2 independent cohorts of symptomatic patients in need of first-line immunochemotherapy (151 patients from a German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group [GLSG] trial and 107 patients from a population-based registry of the British Columbia Cancer Agency [BCCA]) to validate the predictive utility of POD24, and to evaluate the ability of pretreatment risk models to predict early treatment failure. POD24 occurred in 17% and 23% of evaluable GLSG and BCCA patients, with 5-year OS rates of 41% (vs 91% for those without POD24, P < .0001) and 26% (vs 86%, P < .0001), respectively. The m7-FL International Prognostic Index (m7-FLIPI), a prospective clinicogenetic risk model for failure-free survival, had the highest accuracy to predict POD24 (76% and 77%, respectively) with an odds ratio of 5.82 in GLSG (P = .00031) and 4.76 in BCCA patients (P = .0052). A clinicogenetic risk model specifically designed to predict POD24, the POD24-PI, had the highest sensitivity to predict POD24, but at the expense of a lower specificity. In conclusion, the m7-FLIPI prospectively identifies the smallest subgroup of patients (28% and 22%, respectively) at highest risk of early failure of first-line immunochemotherapy and death, including patients not fulfilling the POD24 criteria, and should be evaluated in prospective trials of precision medicine approaches in FL. PMID:27418643

  7. The functional organization of trial-related activity in lexical processing after early left hemispheric brain lesions: An event-related fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Damien A.; Choi, Alexander H.; Dosenbach, Yannic B.L.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Children with congenital left hemisphere damage due to perinatal stroke are capable of acquiring relatively normal language functions despite experiencing a cortical insult that in adults often leads to devastating lifetime disabilities. Although this observed phenomenon accepted, its neurobiological mechanisms are not well characterized. In this paper we examined the functional neuroanatomy of lexical processing in 13 children/adolescents with perinatal left hemispheric damage. In contrast to many previous perinatal infarct fMRI studies, we use an event-related design, which allowed us to isolate trial related activity and examine correct and error trials separately. Using both group and single subject analysis techniques we attempt to address several methodological factors that may contribute to some discrepancies in the perinatal lesion literature. These methodological factors include making direct statistical comparisons, using common stereotactic space, using both single-subject and group analyses, and accounting for performance differences. Our group analysis, investigating correct trial related activity (separately from error trials), showed very few statistical differences in the non-involved right hemisphere between patients and performance matched controls. The single subject analysis revealed atypical regional activation patterns in several patients; however, the location of these regions identified in individual patients often varied across subjects. These results are consistent with the idea that alternative functional organization of trial-related activity after left hemisphere lesions is in large part unique to the individual. In addition, reported differences between results obtained with event-related designs and blocked designs may suggest diverging organizing principles for sustained and trial-related activity after early childhood brain injuries. PMID:19819000

  8. Predicting 3-year outcomes of early-identified children with hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ching, T.Y.C.; Day, J.; Seeto, M.; Dillon, H.; Marnane, V.; Street, L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem/Objectives Permanent childhood hearing loss has major negative impacts on children’s health and development. To improve outcomes, universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been implemented widely. However, high-quality evidence on its efficacy was lacking. To address this evidence gap, we conducted the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study to directly compare outcomes of early- and late-identified children. This paper investigates whether early performance measured shortly after initial amplification predicts language development at 3 years of age. Methodology This is a prospective, population-based study. We assessed outcomes at 6- and 12-months after amplification, and then at 3 and 5 years of age. Main outcome measures included directly-assessed language, receptive vocabulary, speech production; and parent-reported functional performance in everyday life. A range of demographic and audiological information was also collected at evaluation intervals. Results About 450 children participated, and 3-year outcomes scores were available for 356 participants. Multiple regression analysis revealed that early language scores or functional performance ratings were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes. Other significant predictors included the presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at cochlear implant activation. Conclusions Early performance, either directly-assessed language ability (PLS-4) or parent-reported functional ratings (PEACH), were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes; along with presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at CI activation. Earlier implantation is possible with early detection of hearing loss via UNHS. Monitoring performance after initial amplification allows preventive strategies to be implemented early to improve outcomes. PMID:24383228

  9. Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Learning of Science in a Methods Course: Examining the Predictive Ability of an Intentional Learning Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saçkes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the predictive ability of an intentional learning model in the change of preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understanding of lunar phases. Fifty-two preservice early childhood teachers who were enrolled in an early childhood science methods course participated in the study. Results indicated that the use of metacognitive strategies facilitated preservice early childhood teachers' use of deep-level cognitive strategies, which in turn promoted conceptual change. Also, preservice early childhood teachers with high motivational beliefs were more likely to use cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Thus, they were more likely to engage in conceptual change. The results provided evidence that the hypothesized model of intentional learning has a high predictive ability in explaining the change in preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understandings from the pre to post-interviews. Implications for designing a science methods course for preservice early childhood teachers are provided.

  10. A Proteomic Approach Identifies Candidate Early Biomarkers to Predict Severe Dengue in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nhi, Dang My; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Ohyama, Kaname; Kimura, Daisuke; Lan, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Uchida, Leo; Thuong, Nguyen Van; Nhon, Cao Thi My; Phuc, Le Hong; Mai, Nguyen Thi; Mizukami, Shusaku; Bao, Lam Quoc; Doan, Nguyen Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Van Thanh; Quang, Luong Chan; Karbwang, Juntra; Yui, Katsuyuki; Morita, Kouichi; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Hirayama, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe dengue with severe plasma leakage (SD-SPL) is the most frequent of dengue severe form. Plasma biomarkers for early predictive diagnosis of SD-SPL are required in the primary clinics for the prevention of dengue death. Methodology Among 63 confirmed dengue pediatric patients recruited, hospital based longitudinal study detected six SD-SPL and ten dengue with warning sign (DWS). To identify the specific proteins increased or decreased in the SD-SPL plasma obtained 6–48 hours before the shock compared with the DWS, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology was performed using four patients each group. Validation was undertaken in 6 SD-SPL and 10 DWS patients. Principal findings Nineteen plasma proteins exhibited significantly different relative concentrations (p<0.05), with five over-expressed and fourteen under-expressed in SD-SPL compared with DWS. The individual protein was classified to either blood coagulation, vascular regulation, cellular transport-related processes or immune response. The immunoblot quantification showed angiotensinogen and antithrombin III significantly increased in SD-SPL whole plasma of early stage compared with DWS subjects. Even using this small number of samples, antithrombin III predicted SD-SPL before shock occurrence with accuracy. Conclusion Proteins identified here may serve as candidate predictive markers to diagnose SD-SPL for timely clinical management. Since the number of subjects are small, so further studies are needed to confirm all these biomarkers. PMID:26895439

  11. Early flood warnings from empirical (expanded) downscaling of the full ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürger, Gerd; Reusser, Dominik; Kneis, David

    2009-10-01

    A prototype early warning system for floods is introduced. For a small headwater catchment, probabilistic streamflow predictions in 24-hourly steps are obtained from downscaling all members of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Ensemble Prediction System and feeding the resulting precipitation and temperature series into a hydrologic model. We apply "expanded downscaling," a scheme that was previously used for climate scenarios and that is particularly suited to extreme events and the simulation of flood-triggering heavy rainfall. The entire model chain is thoroughly verified, using daily precipitation and streamflow observations and forecasts from the decade 1997-2006. It turns out that strong meteorologic (precipitation) events are skillfully predicted for at least 5 days lead time by the downscaling. That skill, however, is partly lost by deficiencies in the hydrological modeling as revealed in this study. We discuss ways to overcome these difficulties, along with the prospect of employing the whole system operationally, for example, for reservoir regulations. We close with an outlook for early flash flood warnings.

  12. The Predictive Utility of Early Childhood Disruptive Behaviors for School-Age Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that school-age children with disruptive behavior (DB) problems frequently demonstrate impaired social skills and experience rejection from peers, which plays a crucial role in the pathway to more serious antisocial behavior. A critical question is which DB problems in early childhood are prognostic of impaired social functioning in school-age children. This study examines the hypothesis that aggression in early childhood will be the more consistent predictor of compromised social functioning than inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or oppositional behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 725 high-risk children from 3 geographically distinct areas followed from ages 2 to 8.5. Four latent growth models of DB from child ages 2 to 5, and potential interactions between dimensions, were used to predict latent parent and teacher ratings of school-age social dysfunction. Analyses were conducted in a multi-group format to examine potential differences between intervention and control group participants. Results showed that age 2 aggression was the DB problem most consistently associated with both parent- and teacher-rated social dysfunction for both groups. Early starting aggressive behavior may be particularly important for the early identification of children at risk for school-age social difficulties. PMID:25526865

  13. Characterization and Prediction of Early Reading Abilities in Children on the Autism Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have reading profiles characterized by higher decoding skills and lower reading comprehension. This study assessed whether this profile was apparent in young children with ASD and examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early reading. A discrepant profile of reading (higher alphabet and lower meaning) was found in 62% of this sample. Concurrent analyses revealed that reading proficiency was associated with higher nonverbal cognition and expressive language, and that social ability was negatively related to alphabet knowledge. Nonverbal cognition and expressive language at mean age 2½ years predicted later reading performance at mean age 5½ years. These results support the importance of early language skills as a foundation for reading in children with ASD. PMID:24022730

  14. Tract-specific fractional anisotropy predicts cognitive outcome in a community sample of middle-aged participants with white matter lesions

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; Bargalló, Núria; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Barrios, Maite; Cáceres, Cynthia; Toran, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) have been consistently related to cognitive dysfunction but the role of white matter (WM) damage in cognitive impairment is not fully determined. Diffusion tensor imaging is a promising tool to explain impaired cognition related to WMLs. We investigated the separate association of high-grade periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) with fractional anisotropy (FA) in middle-aged individuals. We also assessed the predictive value to cognition of FA within specific WM tracts associated with high-grade WMLs. One hundred participants from the Barcelona-AsIA Neuropsychology Study were divided into groups based on low- and high-grade WMLs. Voxel-by-voxel FA were compared between groups, with separate analyses for high-grade PVHs and DWMHs. The mean FA within areas showing differences between groups was extracted in each tract for linear regression analyses. Participants with high-grade PVHs and participants with high-grade DWMHs showed lower FA in different areas of specific tracts. Areas showing decreased FA in high-grade DWMHs predicted lower cognition, whereas areas with decreased FA in high-grade PVHs did not. The predictive value to cognition of specific WM tracts supports the involvement of cortico-subcortical circuits in cognitive deficits only in DWMHs. PMID:24549185

  15. Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins. PMID:21047863

  16. Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

    2011-05-22

    Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins. PMID:21047863

  17. Predictive value of early brain atrophy on response in patients treated with interferon β

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Miralles, Francisco Carlos; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Río, Jordi; Auger, Cristina; Pareto, Deborah; Tintoré, Mar; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between brain volume loss during the first year of interferon treatment and clinical outcome at 4 years. Methods: Patients with multiple sclerosis initiating interferon β were clinically evaluated every 6 months for the presence of relapses and assessment of global disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). MRI scans were performed at baseline and after 12 months, and the percentage of brain volume change (PBVC), brain parenchymal volume change (BPVc%), gray matter volume change (GMVc%), and white matter volume change (WMVc%) were estimated. Patients were divided based on the cutoff values for predicting confirmed EDSS worsening obtained by receiver operating characteristic analysis for all atrophy measurements. Survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression to predict disability worsening at last observation were applied, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and radiologic variables. Results: Larger PBVC and WMVc% decreases were observed in patients with disability worsening at 4 years of follow-up, whereas no differences were found in BPVc% or GMVc%. Cutoff points were obtained for PBVC (−0.86%; sensitivity 65.5%, specificity 71.4%) and WMVc% (−2.49%; sensitivity 85.3%, specificity 43.8%). Patients with decreases of PBVC and WMVc% below cutoff values were more prone to develop disability worsening (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.875, p = 0.005; HR 4.246, p = 0.004, respectively). PBVC (HR 4.751, p = 0.008) and the interaction of new T2 lesions with WMVc% (HR 1.086, p = 0.005) were found to be independent predictors of disability worsening in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions: At the patient level, whole-brain and white matter volume changes in the first year of interferon β therapy are predictive of subsequent clinical evolution under treatment. PMID:26185778

  18. Do Early-Life Conditions Predict Functional Health Status in Adulthood? The Case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Soldo, Beth J; Elo, Irma T

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few researchers have investigated early antecedents of adult functional limitations in developing countries. In this study, we assessed associations between childhood conditions and adult lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) as well as the potential mediating role of adult socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and chronic diseases or symptoms. Based on data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of individuals born prior to 1951 and contacted in 2001 and 2003, we found that childhood nutritional deprivation, serious health problems, and family background predict adult LBFL in Mexico. Adjustment for the potential mediators in adulthood attenuates these associations only to a modest degree. PMID:21074924

  19. Linguistic and spatial skills predict early arithmetic development via counting sequence knowledge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Koponen, Tuire; Räsänen, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Finnish children (ages 6-10), two studies examined how early linguistic (spoken vs. written) and spatial skills predict later development of arithmetic, and whether counting sequence knowledge mediates these associations. In Study 1 (N = 1,880), letter knowledge and spatial visualization, measured in kindergarten, predicted the level of arithmetic in first grade, and later growth through third grade. Study 2 (n = 378) further showed that these associations were mediated by counting sequence knowledge measured in first grade. These studies add to the literature by demonstrating the importance of written language for arithmetic development. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that linguistic and spatial skills can improve arithmetic development by enhancing children's number-related knowledge. PMID:24148144

  20. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN. PMID:26209847

  1. Internet use and video gaming predict problem behavior in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus

    2011-02-01

    In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised 205 adolescents aged 10-14 years (Md = 13). Individuals were identified who showed clinically relevant problem behavior according to the problem scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Online gaming, communicational Internet use, and playing first-person shooters were predictive of externalizing behavior problems (aggression, delinquency). Playing online role-playing games was predictive of internalizing problem behavior (including withdrawal and anxiety). Parent-child communication about Internet activities was negatively related to problem behavior. PMID:20303580

  2. Feature Selection Methods for Early Predictive Biomarker Discovery Using Untargeted Metabolomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Grissa, Dhouha; Pétéra, Mélanie; Brandolini, Marion; Napoli, Amedeo; Comte, Blandine; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    Untargeted metabolomics is a powerful phenotyping tool for better understanding biological mechanisms involved in human pathology development and identifying early predictive biomarkers. This approach, based on multiple analytical platforms, such as mass spectrometry (MS), chemometrics and bioinformatics, generates massive and complex data that need appropriate analyses to extract the biologically meaningful information. Despite various tools available, it is still a challenge to handle such large and noisy datasets with limited number of individuals without risking overfitting. Moreover, when the objective is focused on the identification of early predictive markers of clinical outcome, few years before occurrence, it becomes essential to use the appropriate algorithms and workflow to be able to discover subtle effects among this large amount of data. In this context, this work consists in studying a workflow describing the general feature selection process, using knowledge discovery and data mining methodologies to propose advanced solutions for predictive biomarker discovery. The strategy was focused on evaluating a combination of numeric-symbolic approaches for feature selection with the objective of obtaining the best combination of metabolites producing an effective and accurate predictive model. Relying first on numerical approaches, and especially on machine learning methods (SVM-RFE, RF, RF-RFE) and on univariate statistical analyses (ANOVA), a comparative study was performed on an original metabolomic dataset and reduced subsets. As resampling method, LOOCV was applied to minimize the risk of overfitting. The best k-features obtained with different scores of importance from the combination of these different approaches were compared and allowed determining the variable stabilities using Formal Concept Analysis. The results revealed the interest of RF-Gini combined with ANOVA for feature selection as these two complementary methods allowed selecting the 48

  3. Feature Selection Methods for Early Predictive Biomarker Discovery Using Untargeted Metabolomic Data.

    PubMed

    Grissa, Dhouha; Pétéra, Mélanie; Brandolini, Marion; Napoli, Amedeo; Comte, Blandine; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    Untargeted metabolomics is a powerful phenotyping tool for better understanding biological mechanisms involved in human pathology development and identifying early predictive biomarkers. This approach, based on multiple analytical platforms, such as mass spectrometry (MS), chemometrics and bioinformatics, generates massive and complex data that need appropriate analyses to extract the biologically meaningful information. Despite various tools available, it is still a challenge to handle such large and noisy datasets with limited number of individuals without risking overfitting. Moreover, when the objective is focused on the identification of early predictive markers of clinical outcome, few years before occurrence, it becomes essential to use the appropriate algorithms and workflow to be able to discover subtle effects among this large amount of data. In this context, this work consists in studying a workflow describing the general feature selection process, using knowledge discovery and data mining methodologies to propose advanced solutions for predictive biomarker discovery. The strategy was focused on evaluating a combination of numeric-symbolic approaches for feature selection with the objective of obtaining the best combination of metabolites producing an effective and accurate predictive model. Relying first on numerical approaches, and especially on machine learning methods (SVM-RFE, RF, RF-RFE) and on univariate statistical analyses (ANOVA), a comparative study was performed on an original metabolomic dataset and reduced subsets. As resampling method, LOOCV was applied to minimize the risk of overfitting. The best k-features obtained with different scores of importance from the combination of these different approaches were compared and allowed determining the variable stabilities using Formal Concept Analysis. The results revealed the interest of RF-Gini combined with ANOVA for feature selection as these two complementary methods allowed selecting the 48

  4. Petrous Apex Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Amedee, Ronald G.; Gianoli, Gerard J.; Mann, Wolf J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to detail our experience in treating 69 patients over the past 6 years with pathologic processes involving the petrous apex. These included 25 (36%) primary petrous apex lesions, 40 (58%) lesions that involved the petrous apex by direct invasion from an adjacent region, and four (6%) lesions that were the result of metastatic spread from a distant site. Although lesions of the petrous apex are uncommon, they may present significant morbidity to the patient. The symptoms elicited by these lesions are usually vague and nonlocalizing in the early stages but may progress to include multiple cranial neuropathies. Successful results are contingent on early diagnosis, which requires a high index of suspicion and use of appropriate imaging modalities. Thorough preoperative assessment with use of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and carotid arteriography is essential to plan the surgical approach. We present this collection of patients in order to aid in the further preoperative characterization of the differences in primary and secondary lesions of the petrous apex. PMID:17170919

  5. Predictive Power of Air Travel and Socio-Economic Data for Early Pandemic Spread

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Parviez; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Daszak, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Controlling the pandemic spread of newly emerging diseases requires rapid, targeted allocation of limited resources among nations. Critical, early control steps would be greatly enhanced if the key risk factors can be identified that accurately predict early disease spread immediately after emergence. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine the role of travel, trade, and national healthcare resources in predicting the emergence and initial spread of 2009 A/H1N1 influenza. We find that incorporating national healthcare resource data into our analyses allowed a much greater capacity to predict the international spread of this virus. In countries with lower healthcare resources, the reporting of 2009 A/H1N1 cases was significantly delayed, likely reflecting a lower capacity for testing and reporting, as well as other socio-political issues. We also report substantial international trade in live swine and poultry in the decade preceding the pandemic which may have contributed to the emergence and mixed genotype of this pandemic strain. However, the lack of knowledge of recent evolution of each H1N1 viral gene segment precludes the use of this approach to determine viral origins. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that strategies to prevent pandemic influenza virus emergence and spread in the future should include: 1) enhanced surveillance for strains resulting from reassortment in traded livestock; 2) rapid deployment of control measures in the initial spreading phase to countries where travel data predict the pathogen will reach and to countries where lower healthcare resources will likely cause delays in reporting. Our results highlight the benefits, for all parties, when higher income countries provide additional healthcare resources for lower income countries, particularly those that have high air traffic volumes. In particular, international authorities should prioritize aid to those poorest countries where both the risk of emerging infectious

  6. Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence Predicts Salivary Cortisol in Early Adulthood Among Blacks; Sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the link between psychological distress and altered cortisol level has been already shown; very limited information exists about this association among Black youth. Objectives: We tested sex differences in predictive role of symptoms of anxiety during adolescence on annual decline in morning salivary cortisol levels in early adulthood among Black youth. Patients and Methods: Data came from wave 1 (year 1994), wave 6 (year 2000), and wave 7 (year 2001) of the Flint adolescent study. In this study 176 Black youth (85 males and 91 females) were followed for 7 years from mean age of 15 at baseline to 22 at the end of follow up. Linear regression was used for data analysis with change in salivary cortisol from 2000 to 2001 as the dependent variable, symptoms of anxiety, at 1994 as independent variable, age, number of employed parents, depressive symptoms and alcohol use at 1994 as controls, and sex as the moderator. Results: Higher level of anxiety symptoms at 1994 was predictive of a higher decline in morning salivary cortisol from 2000 to 2001 for all youths, while the effects of baseline socio-economics, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use were controlled. Among female participants, anxiety symptoms at 1994 were predictive of a greater decline in morning salivary cortisol level from 2000 to 2001. The association was not found among males. Conclusions: Our findings suggest sex differences in the predictive role of anxiety symptoms during adolescence on the annual decline in cortisol level during early adulthood. While most research on this topic is among White middle class individuals, our findings shed more light on the longitudinal links between psychological distress and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function among Black youth. PMID:26633980

  7. Simulation of multiple ion channel block provides improved early prediction of compounds’ clinical torsadogenic risk

    PubMed Central

    Mirams, Gary R.; Cui, Yi; Sher, Anna; Fink, Martin; Cooper, Jonathan; Heath, Bronagh M.; McMahon, Nick C.; Gavaghan, David J.; Noble, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Aims The level of inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel is one of the earliest preclinical markers used to predict the risk of a compound causing Torsade-de-Pointes (TdP) arrhythmias. While avoiding the use of drugs with maximum therapeutic concentrations within 30-fold of their hERG inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) values has been suggested, there are drugs that are exceptions to this rule: hERG inhibitors that do not cause TdP, and drugs that can cause TdP but are not strong hERG inhibitors. In this study, we investigate whether a simulated evaluation of multi-channel effects could be used to improve this early prediction of TdP risk. Methods and results We collected multiple ion channel data (hERG, Na, l-type Ca) on 31 drugs associated with varied risks of TdP. To integrate the information on multi-channel block, we have performed simulations with a variety of mathematical models of cardiac cells (for rabbit, dog, and human ventricular myocyte models). Drug action is modelled using IC50 values, and therapeutic drug concentrations to calculate the proportion of blocked channels and the channel conductances are modified accordingly. Various pacing protocols are simulated, and classification analysis is performed to evaluate the predictive power of the models for TdP risk. We find that simulation of action potential duration prolongation, at therapeutic concentrations, provides improved prediction of the TdP risk associated with a compound, above that provided by existing markers. Conclusion The suggested calculations improve the reliability of early cardiac safety assessments, beyond those based solely on a hERG block effect. PMID:21300721

  8. Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoung

    Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students

  9. Beauty, charm, and F{sub L} at HERA: New data vs. Early predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, N. N.; Zoller, V. R.

    2010-04-15

    One of the well-known effects of the asymptotic freedom is splitting of the leading-log BFKL pomeron into a series of isolated poles in complex angular momentum plane. Following our earlier works we explore the phenomenological consequences of the emerging BFKL-Regge factorized expansion for the small-x charm (F{sub 2}{sup c}) and beauty (F{sub 2}{sup b}) structure functions of the proton. As we found earlier, the colordipole approach to the BFKL dynamics predicts uniquely decoupling of subleading hard BFKL exchanges from F{sub 2}{sup c} at moderately large Q{sup 2}. We predicted precocious BFKL asymptotics of F{sub 2}{sup c} (x,Q{sup 2}) with intercept of the rightmost BFKL pole {alpha}{sub P}(0) - 1 = {Delta}{sub P} {approx} 0.4. High-energy open beauty photo- and electroproduction probes the vacuum exchange at much smaller distances and detects significant corrections to the BFKL asymptotics coming from the subleading vacuum poles. In view of the accumulation of the experimental data on small -xF{sub 2}{sup c} and F{sub 2}{sup b} we extended our early predictions to the kinematical domain covered by new HERA measurements. Our structure functions obtained in 1999 agree well with the determination of both F{sub 2}{sup c} and F{sub 2}{sup b} by the H1 published in 2006 but contradict very recent (2008, preliminary)H1 results on F{sub 2}{sup b}. We present also comparison of our early predictions for the longitudinal structure function F{sub L} with recent H1 data (2008) taken at very low Bjorken x. We comment on the electromagnetic corrections to the Okun-Pomeranchuk theorem.

  10. Inhibition during Early Adolescence Predicts Alcohol and Marijuana Use by Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Jacobus, Joanna; Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use has been associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning, but it is unclear if deficits predate or follow the onset of use. The goal of this prospective study was to understand how neuropsychological functioning during early adolescence could predict substance use by late adolescence. Method At baseline, participants were 175 substance use-naïve healthy 12–14 year-olds (41% female) recruited from local schools. Participants completed extensive interviews and neuropsychological tests. Each year, participants’ substance use was assessed. By late adolescence (ages 17–18), 105 participants transitioned into substance use, while 75 remained substance-naïve. Hierarchical linear regressions examined how baseline cognitive performance predicted subsequent substance use, controlling for common substance use risk factors (i.e., family history, externalizing behaviors, gender, pubertal development, and age). Results Poorer baseline performance on tests of cognitive inhibition-interference predicted higher follow-up peak drinks on an occasion (β=−.15; p<.001), more days of drinking (β=−.15; p<.001), and more marijuana use days (β=−.17; p<.001) by ages 17–18, above and beyond covariates. Performances on short term memory, sustained attention, verbal learning and memory, visuospatial functioning, and spatial planning did not predict subsequent substance involvement (ps > .05). Conclusions Compromised inhibitory functioning during early adolescence prior to the onset of substance use was related to more frequent and intense alcohol and marijuana use by late adolescence. Inhibition performance could help identify teens at risk for initiating heavy substance use during adolescence, and potentially could be modified to improve outcome. PMID:24749728

  11. Redox Protein Expression Predicts Radiotherapeutic Response in Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Woolston, Caroline M.; Al-Attar, Ahmad; Storr, Sarah J.; Ellis, Ian O.; Morgan, David A.L.; Martin, Stewart G.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: Early-stage invasive breast cancer patients have commonly undergone breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. In a large majority of these patients, the treatment is effective; however, a proportion will develop local recurrence. Deregulated redox systems provide cancer cells protection from increased oxidative stress, such as that induced by ionizing radiation. Therefore, the expression of redox proteins was examined in tumor specimens from this defined cohort to determine whether such expression could predict response. Methods and Materials: The nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of nine redox proteins (glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutaredoxin, glutathione peroxidase 1, 3, and 4, and glutathione S-transferase-{theta}, -{pi}, and -{alpha}) was assessed using conventional immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 224 tumors. Results: A high cytoplasmic expression of glutathione S-transferase-{theta} significantly correlated with a greater risk of local recurrence (p = .008) and, when combined with a low nuclear expression (p = .009), became an independent predictive factor (p = .002) for local recurrence. High cytoplasmic expression of glutathione S-transferase-{theta} also correlated with a worse overall survival (p = .009). Low nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 (p = .002) correlated with a greater risk of local recurrence and was an independent predictive factor (p = .005). These proteins did not correlate with tumor grade, suggesting their function might be specific to the regulation of oxidative stress rather than alterations of tumor phenotype. Only nuclear (p = .005) and cytoplasmic (p = .001) expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 correlated with the tumor grade. Conclusions: Our results support the use of redox protein expression, namely glutathione S-transferase-{theta} and glutathione peroxidase 3, to predict the response to radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer patients. If incorporated into

  12. Dosemetric Parameters Predictive of Rib Fractures after Proton Beam Therapy for Early-Stage Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yojiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Kato, Takahiro; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Motohisa; Azami, Yusuke; Hareyama, Masato; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Proton beam therapy (PBT) is the preferred modality for early-stage lung cancer. Compared with X-ray therapy, PBT offers good dose concentration as revealed by the characteristics of the Bragg peak. Rib fractures (RFs) after PBT lead to decreased quality of life for patients. However, the incidence of and the risk factors for RFs after PBT have not yet been clarified. We therefore explored the relationship between irradiated rib volume and RFs after PBT for early-stage lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and the risk factors for RFs following PBT for early-stage lung cancer. We investigated 52 early-stage lung cancer patients and analyzed a total of 215 irradiated ribs after PBT. Grade 2 RFs occurred in 12 patients (20 ribs); these RFs were symptomatic without displacement. No patient experienced more severe RFs. The median time to grade 2 RFs development was 17 months (range: 9-29 months). The three-year incidence of grade 2 RFs was 30.2%. According to the analysis comparing radiation dose and rib volume using receiver operating characteristic curves, we demonstrated that the volume of ribs receiving more than 120 Gy3 (relative biological effectiveness (RBE)) was more than 3.7 cm(3) at an area under the curve of 0.81, which increased the incidence of RFs after PBT (P < 0.001). In this study, RFs were frequently observed following PBT for early-stage lung cancer. We demonstrated that the volume of ribs receiving more than 120 Gy3 (RBE) was the most significant parameter for predicting RFs. PMID:27087118

  13. Negative relational schemas predict the trajectory of coercive dynamics during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-05-01

    Coercive family processes are germane to the development of problem behaviors in early childhood, yet the cognitive and affective underpinnings are not well understood. We hypothesized that one antecedent of early coercive interactions is the caregiver's implicit affective attitudes toward the child, which in this article are termed relational schemas. Relational schemas have previously been linked to coercion and problem behaviors, but there has yet to be an examination of the association between relational schemas and trajectories of coercion during early childhood. We examined 731 indigent caregiver-child dyads (49 % female children) from a randomized intervention trial of the Family Check-Up. Predominantly biological mothers participated. A speech sample was used to assess relational schemas at age 2. Coercive interactions were assessed observationally each year between ages 2 and 4. Caregiver and teacher reports of children's oppositional and aggressive behaviors were collected at age 7.5 and 8.5. Path analysis revealed that negative relational schemas were associated with less steep declines in coercion during this period, which in turn were predictive of ratings of oppositional and aggressive behaviors at age 7.5/8.5 after controlling for baseline levels, positive relational schemas, child gender, ethnicity, and cumulative risk. Intervention condition assignment did not moderate this relationship, suggesting the results represent a naturally occurring process. Given the link between persistent early coercion and later deleterious outcomes, relational schemas that maintain and amplify coercive dynamics represent a potential target for early intervention programs designed to improve parent-child relationships. PMID:25208813

  14. Negative Relational Schemas Predict the Trajectory of Coercive Dynamics During Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    Coercive family processes are germane to the development of problem behaviors in early childhood, yet the cognitive and affective underpinnings are not well understood. We hypothesized that one antecedent of early coercive interactions is the caregiver’s implicit affective attitudes toward the child, which in this article are termed relational schemas. Relational schemas have previously been linked to coercion and problem behaviors, but there has yet to be an examination of the association between relational schemas and trajectories of coercion during early childhood. We examined 731 indigent caregiver-child dyads (49% female children) from a randomized intervention trial of the Family Check-Up. Predominantly biological mothers participated. A speech sample was used to assess relational schemas at age 2. Coercive interactions were assessed observationally each year between ages 2 and 4. Caregiver and teacher reports of children’s oppositional and aggressive behaviors were collected at age 7.5 and 8.5. Path analysis revealed that negative relational schemas were associated with less steep declines in coercion during this period, which in turn were predictive of ratings of oppositional and aggressive behaviors at age 7.5/8.5 after controlling for baseline levels, positive relational schemas, child gender, ethnicity, and cumulative risk. Intervention condition assignment did not moderate this relationship, suggesting the results represent a naturally occurring process. Given the link between persistent early coercion and later deleterious outcomes, relational schemas that maintain and amplify coercive dynamics represent a potential target for early intervention programs designed to improve parent–child relationships. PMID:25208813

  15. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, M.J.; Armstrong, D.; Abi Gerges, N.; Bridgland-Taylor, M.; Pollard, C.E.; Bowes, J.; Valentin, J.-P.

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies – radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology – was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. - Highlights: • The L-type calcium channel is a significant safety liability during drug discovery. • Radioligand-binding to the L-type calcium channel can be measured in vitro. • The assay can be run at a single test concentration as part of a screening cascade. • This measurement is highly predictive of changes in cardiac myocyte contractility.

  16. Early accumulation of heparan sulfate in neurons and in the beta-amyloid protein-containing lesions of Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Snow, A. D.; Mar, H.; Nochlin, D.; Sekiguchi, R. T.; Kimata, K.; Koike, Y.; Wight, T. N.

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (HK-249) that recognizes a glucosamine sulfate alpha 1----4 glucuronic acid-containing determinant in heparan sulfate (HS) chains of a basement membrane-derived heparan sulfate proteoglycan identified and immunolocalized HS specifically to the amyloid deposits in neuritic plaques (NPs), congophilic angiopathy (CA), as well as in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and non-tangle-bearing neurons in the brains of Alzheimer's and Down's syndrome (DS) patients. Ultrastructural immunohistochemistry demonstrated that HS within neurons of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain was localized to lipofuscin granules, an aging pigment previously shown also to contain beta-amyloid protein (BAP). Heparan sulfate also was localized to neurite-containing, nonfibrillar 'primitive' plaques that also demonstrated positive BAP immunoreactivity in both AD and DS brains. Antibodies to laminin, fibronectin, and a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan failed to show positive immunostaining of the HS-containing sites described above. Analysis of DS patients at different ages revealed that HS accumulated within neurons of the hippocampus and amygdala as early as 1 day after birth. Young age-matched controls did not demonstrate similar positive HS immunoreactivity in neurons, whereas positive immunostaining for HS was observed in other regions thought to normally contain HS. The earliest deposition of BAP was first observed as 'amorphous' or 'diffuse' cortical deposits in DS brain in patients aged 18 and 24 years before the accumulation of fibrillar amyloid (observed in DS patients who are 35 years and older). These cortical deposits also contained positive HS immunoreactivity, implying that HS accumulation in conjunction with the BAP is an early event that ultimately may contribute to the early age-related accumulation (ie, as early as 35 years of age in DS) of NPs, NFTs, and/or CA. Furthermore the colocalization of HS and BAP in a number of specific locales in AD and DS brain

  17. 18F-FDG PET/CT focal, but not osteolytic, lesions predict the progression of smoldering myeloma to active disease.

    PubMed

    Zamagni, E; Nanni, C; Gay, F; Pezzi, A; Patriarca, F; Bellò, M; Rambaldi, I; Tacchetti, P; Hillengass, J; Gamberi, B; Pantani, L; Magarotto, V; Versari, A; Offidani, M; Zannetti, B; Carobolante, F; Balma, M; Musto, P; Rensi, M; Mancuso, K; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A; Chauviè, S; Rocchi, S; Fard, N; Marzocchi, G; Storto, G; Ghedini, P; Palumbo, A; Fanti, S; Cavo, M

    2016-02-01

    Identification of patient sub-groups with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) at high risk of progression to active disease (MM) is an important goal. 18F-FDG PET/CT (positron emission tomography (PET) integrated with computed tomography (PET/CT) using glucose labelled with the positron-emitting radionuclide (18)F) allows for assessing early skeletal involvement. Identification of osteolytic lesions by this technique has recently been incorporated into the updated International Myeloma Working Group criteria for MM diagnosis. However, no data are available regarding the impact of focal lesions (FLs) without underlying osteolysis on time to progression (TTP) to MM. We hence prospectively studied a cohort of 120 SMM patients with PET/CT. PET/CT was positive in 16% of patients (1 FL: 8, 2 FLs: 3, >3 FLs: 6, diffuse bone marrow involvement: 2). With a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 38% of patients progressed to MM, in a median time of 4 years, including 21% with skeletal involvement. The risk of progression of those with positive PET/CT was 3.00 (95% confidence interval 1.58-5.69, P=0.001), with a median TTP of 1.1 versus 4.5 years for PET/CT-negative patients. The probability of progression within 2 years was 58% for positive versus 33% for negative patients. In conclusion, PET/CT positivity significantly increased the risk of progression of SMM to MM. PET/CT could become a new tool to define high-risk SMM. PMID:26490489

  18. Early treatment response predicted subsequent clinical response in patients with schizophrenia taking paliperidone extended-release.

    PubMed

    Yeh, En-Chi; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Tsai, Chang-Jer; Chen, Chun-Tse; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chiu, Chih-Chiang

    2015-11-30

    This 6-week open-labeled study investigated whether early treatment response in patients receiving paliperidone extended-release (paliperidone ER) can facilitate prediction of responses at Week 6. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered 9mg/day of paliperidone ER during the first 2 weeks, after which the dose was adjusted clinically. They were assessed on Days 0, 4, 7, 14, 28, and 42 by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The serum concentrations of 9-hydroxyrisperidone were examined on Days 14 and 42. Among the 41 patients enrolled, 26 were classified as responders (≧50% improvement on total PANSS scores at Week 6). In the receiver-operator curves (ROC) analyses, the changes in total PANSS scores at Week 2 appeared to show more accurate predictability compared to Day 4 and Day 7. At Week 6, no significant correlation was observed between blood 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentration and the total score or changes of PANSS scores. The results suggest that early treatment response to paliperidone ER, particularly at Week 2, can serve as a suitable outcome predictor at Week 6. Using 9mg/day paliperidone ER as an initial dose for schizophrenia treatment exhibited relatively favorable tolerability and feasibility. PMID:26319696

  19. Do motor skills in infancy and early childhood predict anxious and depressive symptomatology at school age?

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Barrett, Nicholas C; Smith, Leigh M; Rigoli, Daniela; Gasson, Natalie

    2010-10-01

    Research has identified a relationship between social-emotional problems and motor impairment in both pre-school and school-age children. The aim of the current study was to determine how motor performance in infancy and early childhood is related to levels of anxious and depressive symptomatology at age 6-12 years. Fifty participants were assessed by their parents 11 times between the ages of 4 months and 4 years using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), and once between the age of 6 and 12 years using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The ASQ scores were used to obtain the stability (variance) of fine and gross motor performance. Once gestational age, sex and age of testing were taken into account, the stability of gross motor scores predicted both the anxiety/depression measure and the anxious score from the CBCL. It appears that how variable a young child's gross motor development is from 4 months to 4 years predicts the level of anxious/depressive symptoms at school age. These findings may assist in the early identification of children at risk of anxiety disorders and depression at school age. PMID:20650535

  20. El Niño-Flood Predictability for Early Humanitarian Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerton, Rebecca; Stephens, Liz; Cloke, Hannah; Woolnough, Steve; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a mode of variability which sees anomalously high or low sea surface temperatures in the Pacific, is known to have a significant impact on both hydrology and meteorology across the globe. One significant influence is that of El Niño, the warm phase of ENSO, on flooding in the Piura region of Peru. The anticipation and forecasting of floods is crucial for flood preparedness, and the link between El Niño and flooding in Peru, alongside the predictive skill of El Niño up to seasons ahead, may provide an early indication of upcoming severe flood events. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been used to create the first 110-year global reanalysis dataset of river discharge, using the ECMWF ERA-20C atmospheric reanalysis. These datasets are being used to analyse the predictability of flood events in Peru in relation to ENSO, using both hydrological and meteorological approaches; with the aim of providing early indicators of potential flood events and thresholds for early humanitarian action in the region. In particular, this research also aims to determine the causes of the most extreme flood events, such as those observed in 1982/83 and 1997/98, through investigation of the changes in atmospheric circulation during these events. Forecast-based Financing (FbF) is an initiative of the German Red Cross, for disbursing humanitarian funding as soon as a forecast threshold is crossed, prior to a severe event. Collaboration with the Peruvian Red Cross and SENAHMI during 2015 led to the use of such research to define thresholds for action in Piura during an El Niño, as part of an FbF pilot study. We will present here the link between El Niño and flooding, with a focus on the Piura region of Peru, and how this El Niño-flood predictability may be used for flood preparedness and early humanitarian action in regions across the globe.

  1. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control,…

  2. The Predictive Effects of L1 and L2 Early Literacy Indicators on Reading in French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgoin, Renée

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the predictive effects of within- and cross-language early literacy indicators with regard to second language (L2) reading achievement in a Grade 3 entry-point French immersion (FI) program. Kindergarten students (N = 83) in a regular English program were administered English early literacy measures. Three years later, once…

  3. Inhibitory Control in Preschool Predicts Early Math Skills in First Grade: Evidence from an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Sze, Irene Nga-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Preschoolers' inhibitory control and early math skills were concurrently and longitudinally examined in 255 Chinese, African American, Dominican, and Mexican 4-year-olds in the United States. Inhibitory control at age 4, assessed with a peg-tapping task, was associated with early math skills at age 4 and predicted growth in such skills from…

  4. Occipital MEG Activity in the Early Time Range (<300 ms) Predicts Graded Changes in Perceptual Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lau M; Pedersen, Michael N; Sandberg, Kristian; Overgaard, Morten

    2016-06-01

    Two electrophysiological components have been extensively investigated as candidate neural correlates of perceptual consciousness: An early, occipitally realized component occurring 130-320 ms after stimulus onset and a late, frontally realized component occurring 320-510 ms after stimulus onset. Recent studies have suggested that the late component may not be uniquely related to perceptual consciousness, but also to sensory expectations, task associations, and selective attention. We conducted a magnetoencephalographic study; using multivariate analysis, we compared classification accuracies when decoding perceptual consciousness from the 2 components using sources from occipital and frontal lobes. We found that occipital sources during the early time range were significantly more accurate in decoding perceptual consciousness than frontal sources during both the early and late time ranges. These results are the first of its kind where the predictive values of the 2 components are quantitatively compared, and they provide further evidence for the primary importance of occipital sources in realizing perceptual consciousness. The results have important consequences for current theories of perceptual consciousness, especially theories emphasizing the role of frontal sources. PMID:26009612

  5. Early Negative Affect Predicts Anxiety, not Autism, in Preschool Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tonnsen, Bridgette L.; Malone, Patrick S.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2012-01-01

    Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) face high risk for anxiety disorders, yet no studies have explored FXS as a high-risk sample for investigating early manifestations of anxiety outcomes. Negative affect is one of the most salient predictors of problem behaviors and has been associated with both anxiety and autistic outcomes in clinical and non-clinical pediatric samples. In light of the high comorbidity between autism and anxiety within FXS, the present study investigates the relationship between longitudinal trajectories of negative affect (between 8 and 71 months) and severity of anxiety and autistic outcomes in young males with FXS (n= 25). Multilevel models indicated associations between elevated anxiety and higher fear and sadness, lower soothability, and steeper longitudinal increases in approach. Autistic outcomes were unrelated to negative affect. These findings suggest early negative affect differentially predicts anxiety, not autistic symptoms, within FXS. Future research is warranted to determine the specificity of the relationship between negative affect and anxiety, as well as to explore potential moderators. Characterizing the relationship between early negative affect and anxiety within FXS may inform etiology and treatment considerations specific to children with FXS, as well as lend insight into precursors of anxiety disorders in other clinical groups and community samples. PMID:23011214

  6. Predictive score for early diagnosis of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD).

    PubMed

    Tada, Hiroko; Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Okuno, Hideo; Kubota, Masaya; Yamagata, Takanori; Kawano, Gou; Shiihara, Takashi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirose, Shinichi; Hayashi, Takuya; Osaka, Hitoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2015-11-15

    Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) at onset manifests an early seizure (ES) usually lasting more than 30 min. Following ES, some patients exhibit almost clear consciousness with no neurological symptoms, and no MRI abnormality for a few days, which may lead to an initial misdiagnosis of prolonged febrile seizures (PFS). To allow an early diagnosis of AESD, we retrospectively analyzed clinical manifestations, laboratory data, and radiologic and EEG findings in patients with AESD (n=62) having ES of over 30 min, and ones with PFS (n=54), using logistic regression analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that an age below 1.5 years and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 14 or less than 14 (Japan Coma Scale score of 1 or higher) were high risk factors of developing AESD. We proposed an AESD prediction score system consisting of consciousness level, age, duration of convulsions, enforcement of mechanical intubation, and aspartate aminotransferase, blood glucose and creatinine levels (full score: 9), the mean scores in AESD and PFS being 5.9 and 1.8, which were significantly different (p<0.001). We herein propose a scoring system for differentiating patients with AESD and PFS around the time of ES (score of 4 or more than 4 suggesting AESD), which may contribute to early therapeutic intervention and an improved neurologic outcome. PMID:26333951

  7. Learning impairments identified early in life are predictive of future impairments associated with aging

    PubMed Central

    Hullinger, Rikki; Burger, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    The Morris water maze (MWM) behavioral paradigm is commonly used to measure spatial learning and memory in rodents. It is widely accepted that performance in the MWM declines with age. However, young rats ubiquitously perform very well on established versions of the water maze, suggesting that more challenging tasks may be required to reveal subtle differences in young animals. Therefore, we have used a one-day water maze and novel object recognition to test whether more sensitive paradigms of memory in young animals could identify subtle cognitive impairments early in life that might become accentuated later with senescence. We have found that these two tasks reliably separate young rats into inferior and superior learners, are highly correlated, and that performance on these tasks early in life is predictive of performance at 12 months of age. Furthermore, we have found that repeated training in this task selectively improves the performance of inferior learners, suggesting that behavioral training from an early age may provide a buffer against age-related cognitive decline. PMID:26283528

  8. Metabolite Profile of Cervicovaginal Fluids from Early Pregnancy Is Not Predictive of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melinda M.; Sulek, Karolina; McKenzie, Elizabeth J.; Jones, Beatrix; Han, Ting-Li; Villas-Boas, Silas G.; Kenny, Louise C.; McCowan, Lesley M. E.; Baker, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we used a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to search for biomarkers that may act as early indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Samples were selected as a nested case-control study from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) biobank in Auckland, New Zealand. Cervicovaginal swabs were collected at 20 weeks from women who were originally assessed as being at low risk of sPTB. Samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Despite the low amount of biomass (16–23 mg), 112 compounds were detected. Statistical analysis showed no significant correlations with sPTB. Comparison of reported infection and plasma inflammatory markers from early pregnancy showed two inflammatory markers were correlated with reported infection, but no correlation with any compounds in the metabolite profile was observed. We hypothesise that the lack of biomarkers of sPTB in the cervicovaginal fluid metabolome is simply because it lacks such markers in early pregnancy. We propose alternative biofluids be investigated for markers of sPTB. Our results lead us to call for greater scrutiny of previously published metabolomic data relating to biomarkers of sPTB in cervicovaginal fluids, as the use of small, high risk, or late pregnancy cohorts may identify metabolite biomarkers that are irrelevant for predicting risk in normal populations. PMID:26610472

  9. Significance of Bioindicators for Early Predictions on Diagnosis and Therapy of Irradiated Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Maria; Port, Matthias; Gulani, Jatinder; Chappell, Mark; Abend, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Decisions on whether to start a therapeutic intervention for management of the Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) should be made early after exposure, and it should be based on readily available clinical signs and laboratory parameters. Here, the authors use the minipig to assess if early prediction of the later developing clinical outcome and necessity of therapeutic interventions can be determined within the first 3 d after exposure and whether it is comparable to human data. Retrospective analysis of data accumulated in the period 2009-2012 was used. Male Göttingen minipigs (age 4-5 mo, weight 9-10 kg) were irradiated (or sham-irradiated) bilaterally with gamma-photons (Co, 0.5-0.6 Gy min) in the dose range of 1.6-12 Gy. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry, and clinical symptoms were collected up to 60 d after irradiation in untreated minipigs. Changes in these early parameters (up to 3 d after exposure) were correlated with later occurrence (10-60 d after irradiation) of (1) hematological severity scores, (2) severe thrombocytopenia, (3) severe neutropenia, as well as need for (4) therapeutic intervention, (5) administration of cytokines/antibiotics, or (6) thrombocyte transfusions. Binary endpoints were analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Most predictive were decreased lymphocyte counts and increases in body temperature at 3 h after irradiation. These data corroborate earlier findings performed on human radiation victims suffering from severe hematological syndrome and provide further evidence for the suitability of the minipig model as a potential alternative non-rodent animal model. PMID:27356060

  10. Early Weight Gain Predicts Outcome in Two Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa, and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n=61) or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy (AFT) (n=60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Results Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (AUC = .670; p=.043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC=0.754, p=.014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square=3.692, df=1, p=.055). Conclusion Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. PMID:24190844

  11. Medical image analysis methods in MR/CT-imaged acute-subacute ischemic stroke lesion: Segmentation, prediction and insights into dynamic evolution simulation models. A critical appraisal☆

    PubMed Central

    Rekik, Islem; Allassonnière, Stéphanie; Carpenter, Trevor K.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, basic thresholding techniques in combination with standard statistical correlation-based data analysis tools have been widely used to investigate different aspects of evolution of acute or subacute to late stage ischemic stroke in both human and animal data. Yet, a wave of biology-dependent and imaging-dependent issues is still untackled pointing towards the key question: “how does an ischemic stroke evolve?” Paving the way for potential answers to this question, both magnetic resonance (MRI) and CT (computed tomography) images have been used to visualize the lesion extent, either with or without spatial distinction between dead and salvageable tissue. Combining diffusion and perfusion imaging modalities may provide the possibility of predicting further tissue recovery or eventual necrosis. Going beyond these basic thresholding techniques, in this critical appraisal, we explore different semi-automatic or fully automatic 2D/3D medical image analysis methods and mathematical models applied to human, animal (rats/rodents) and/or synthetic ischemic stroke to tackle one of the following three problems: (1) segmentation of infarcted and/or salvageable (also called penumbral) tissue, (2) prediction of final ischemic tissue fate (death or recovery) and (3) dynamic simulation of the lesion core and/or penumbra evolution. To highlight the key features in the reviewed segmentation and prediction methods, we propose a common categorization pattern. We also emphasize some key aspects of the methods such as the imaging modalities required to build and test the presented approach, the number of patients/animals or synthetic samples, the use of external user interaction and the methods of assessment (clinical or imaging-based). Furthermore, we investigate how any key difficulties, posed by the evolution of stroke such as swelling or reperfusion, were detected (or not) by each method. In the absence of any imaging-based macroscopic dynamic model

  12. Improved prediction of tacrolimus concentrations early after kidney transplantation using theory-based pharmacokinetic modelling

    PubMed Central

    Størset, Elisabet; Holford, Nick; Hennig, Stefanie; Bergmann, Troels K; Bergan, Stein; Bremer, Sara; Åsberg, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; Staatz, Christine E

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim was to develop a theory-based population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus in adult kidney transplant recipients and to externally evaluate this model and two previous empirical models. Methods Data were obtained from 242 patients with 3100 tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. External evaluation was performed by examining model predictive performance using Bayesian forecasting. Results Pharmacokinetic disposition parameters were estimated based on tacrolimus plasma concentrations, predicted from whole blood concentrations, haematocrit and literature values for tacrolimus binding to red blood cells. Disposition parameters were allometrically scaled to fat free mass. Tacrolimus whole blood clearance/bioavailability standardized to haematocrit of 45% and fat free mass of 60 kg was estimated to be 16.1 l h−1 [95% CI 12.6, 18.0 l h−1]. Tacrolimus clearance was 30% higher (95% CI 13, 46%) and bioavailability 18% lower (95% CI 2, 29%) in CYP3A5 expressers compared with non-expressers. An Emax model described decreasing tacrolimus bioavailability with increasing prednisolone dose. The theory-based model was superior to the empirical models during external evaluation displaying a median prediction error of −1.2% (95% CI −3.0, 0.1%). Based on simulation, Bayesian forecasting led to 65% (95% CI 62, 68%) of patients achieving a tacrolimus average steady-state concentration within a suggested acceptable range. Conclusion A theory-based population pharmacokinetic model was superior to two empirical models for prediction of tacrolimus concentrations and seemed suitable for Bayesian prediction of tacrolimus doses early after kidney transplantation. PMID:25279405

  13. The isovolumic relaxation to early rapid filling relation: kinematic model based prediction with in vivo validation.

    PubMed

    Mossahebi, Sina; Kovács, Sándor J

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although catheterization is the gold standard, Doppler echocardiography is the preferred diastolic function (DF) characterization method. The physiology of diastole requires continuity of left ventricular pressure (LVP)-generating forces before and after mitral valve opening (MVO). Correlations between isovolumic relaxation (IVR) indexes such as tau (time-constant of IVR) and noninvasive, Doppler E-wave-derived metrics, such as peak A-V gradient or deceleration time (DT), have been established. However, what has been missing is the model-predicted causal link that connects isovolumic relaxation (IVR) to suction-initiated filling (E-wave). The physiology requires that model-predicted terminal force of IVR (Ft IVR) and model-predicted initial force of early rapid filling (Fi E-wave) after MVO be correlated. For validation, simultaneous (conductance catheter) P-V and E-wave data from 20 subjects (mean age 57 years, 13 men) having normal LV ejection fraction (LVEF>50%) and a physiologic range of LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were analyzed. For each cardiac cycle, the previously validated kinematic (Chung) model for isovolumic pressure decay and the Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) kinematic model for the subsequent E-wave provided Ft IVR and Fi E-wave respectively. For all 20 subjects (15 beats/subject, 308 beats), linear regression yielded Ft IVR = α Fi E-wave + b (R = 0.80), where α = 1.62 and b = 1.32. We conclude that model-based analysis of IVR and of the E-wave elucidates DF mechanisms common to both. The observed in vivo relationship provides novel insight into diastole itself and the model-based causal mechanistic relationship that couples IVR to early rapid filling. PMID:24760512

  14. Predicting the use of electronic prescribing among early adopters in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Sicotte, Claude; Taylor, Laurel; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the factors that can predict physicians’ use of electronic prescribing. Design All primary care physicians who practised in a single geographic region in Quebec were invited to use a free, advanced, research-based electronic prescribing and drug management system. This natural experiment was studied with an expansion of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which was used to explain early adopters’ use of this electronic prescribing technology. Setting Quebec city region. Participants A total of 61 primary care physicians who practised in a single geographic region where there was no electronic prescribing. Main outcome measures Actual use of electronic prescribing; physicians’ perceptions of and intentions to use electronic prescribing; physician and practice characteristics. Results During the 9-month study period, 61 primary care physicians located in 26 practice sites used electronic prescribing to write 15 160 electronic prescriptions for 18 604 patients. Physician electronic prescribing rates varied considerably, from a low of 0 to a high of 75 per 100 patient visits, with a mean utilization rate of 30 per 100 patient visits. Overall, 34% of the variance in the use of electronic prescribing was explained by the expanded TAM. Computer experience (P = .001), physicians’ information-acquisition style (P = .01), and mean medication use in the practice (P = .02) were significant predictors. Other TAM factors that generally predict new technology adoption (eg, intention to use, perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness) were not predictive in this study. Conclusion The adoption of electronic prescribing was a highly challenging task, even among early adopters. The insight that this pilot study provides into the determinants of the adoption of electronic prescribing suggests that novel physician-related factors (eg, information-acquisition style) and practice-related variables (eg, prevalence of medication use) influence

  15. Serum microRNA expression patterns that predict early treatment failure in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant K.; Preus, Leah; Hu, Qiang; Yan, Li; Long, Mark D.; Morrison, Carl D.; Nesline, Mary; Johnson, Candace S.; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Kohli, Manish; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in the serum of prostate cancer (CaP) patients that predict the risk of early treatment failure following radical prostatectomy (RP). Microarray and Q-RT-PCR analyses identified 43 miRNAs as differentiating disease stages within 14 prostate cell lines and reflectedpublically available patient data. 34 of these miRNA were detectable in the serum of CaP patients. Association with time to biochemical progression was examined in a cohort of CaP patients following RP. A greater than two-fold increase in hazard of biochemical progression associated with altered expression of miR-103, miR-125b and miR-222 (p <.0008) in the serum of CaP patients. Prediction models based on penalized regression analyses showed that the levels of the miRNAs and PSA together were better at detecting false positives than models without miRNAs, for similar level of sensitivity. Analyses of publically available data revealed significant and reciprocal relationships between changes in CpG methylation and miRNA expression patterns suggesting a role for CpG methylation to regulate miRNA. Exploratory validation supported roles for miR-222 and miR-125b to predict progression risk in CaP. The current study established that expression patterns of serum-detectable miRNAs taken at the time of RP are prognostic for men who are at risk of experiencing subsequent early biochemical progression. These non-invasive approaches could be used to augment treatment decisions. PMID:24583788

  16. The “Buruli Score”: Development of a Multivariable Prediction Model for Diagnosis of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Individuals with Ulcerative Skin Lesions, Akonolinga, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Yolanda K.; Bastard, Mathieu; Nkemenang, Patrick; Comte, Eric; Ehounou, Geneviève; Eyangoh, Sara; Rusch, Barbara; Tabah, Earnest Njih; Trellu, Laurence Toutous; Etard, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to laboratory diagnosis can be a challenge for individuals suspected of Buruli Ulcer (BU). Our objective was to develop a clinical score to assist clinicians working in resource-limited settings for BU diagnosis. Methododology/Principal Findings Between 2011 and 2013, individuals presenting at Akonolinga District Hospital, Cameroon, were enrolled consecutively. Clinical data were collected prospectively. Based on a latent class model using laboratory test results (ZN, PCR, culture), patients were categorized into high, or low BU likelihood. Variables associated with a high BU likelihood in a multivariate logistic model were included in the Buruli score. Score cut-offs were chosen based on calculated predictive values. Of 325 patients with an ulcerative lesion, 51 (15.7%) had a high BU likelihood. The variables identified for the Buruli score were: characteristic smell (+3 points), yellow color (+2), female gender (+2), undermining (+1), green color (+1), lesion hyposensitivity (+1), pain at rest (-1), size >5cm (-1), locoregional adenopathy (-2), age above 20 up to 40 years (-3), or above 40 (-5). This score had AUC of 0.86 (95%CI 0.82–0.89), indicating good discrimination between infected and non-infected individuals. The cut-off to reasonably exclude BU was set at scores <0 (NPV 96.5%; 95%CI 93.0–98.6). The treatment threshold was set at a cut-off ≥4 (PPV 69.0%; 95%CI 49.2–84.7). Patients with intermediate BU probability needed to be tested by PCR. Conclusions/Significance We developed a decisional algorithm based on a clinical score assessing BU probability. The Buruli score still requires further validation before it can be recommended for wide use. PMID:27045293

  17. Predictive role of polymerase chain reaction in the early diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Elsa B; Rivero, Rocío; De Rissio, Ana María; Malagrino, Nora; Esteva, Mónica I; Riarte, Adelina Rosa; Ruiz, Andrés Mariano

    2014-09-01

    The efficacy of specific chemotherapy in congenital Chagas disease before the first year of life ranges between 90 and 100%. Between this age and 15 years of age, the efficacy decreases to around 60%. Therefore, early infection detection is a priority in vertical transmission. The aim of this work was to assess whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays a predictive role in the diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease as compared to conventional parasitological and serological methods. To this end, we studied a total of 468 children born to Trypanosoma cruzi seroreactive mothers came from Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay, who lived in the city of Buenos Aires and suburban areas (Argentina), a non-endemic area of this country. These children were assessed by PCR from 2004 to 2009 with the specific primers Tcz1 and Tcz2, and 121 and 122. PCR allowed detecting 49 T. cruzi-positive children. Eight of these 49 children were excluded from the analysis: six because they did not complete follow-up and two because the first control was performed after 12 months of age. Parasitological methods allowed detecting 25 positive children, 7 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.53±2.00 vs. 6.71±1.46 months; p=0.0002). Serological methods allowed detecting 16 positive children, 12 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.46±1.48 vs. 11.77±4.40 months; p<0.0001). None of the children negative by PCR was positive by serological or parasitological methods. This study shows that PCR allows early diagnosis in congenital Chagas disease. At present, an early positive PCR is not indicative for treatment. However, a positive PCR would alert the health system to search only those infected infants diagnosed by early PCR and thus generate greater efficiency in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital T. cruzi infection. PMID:24892867

  18. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, J. Casey; Takahashi, Ayuko; Glotzbecker, Michael P.; Snyder, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age) is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old). Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old). Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8). Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55°) had decreased body weight (89%), right (59%) and left (86%) lung mass, right (74%) and left (69%) radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%), and forced vital capacity (75%). Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may also have

  19. Urinary Biomarkers TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 Early Predict Acute Kidney Injury after Major Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gocze, Ivan; Koch, Matthias; Renner, Philipp; Zeman, Florian; Graf, Bernhard M.; Dahlke, Marc H.; Nerlich, Michael; Schlitt, Hans J.; Kellum, John A.; Bein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the ability of the urinary biomarkers IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7) and TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2) to early predict acute kidney injury (AKI) in high-risk surgical patients. Introduction Postoperative AKI is associated with an increase in short and long-term mortality. Using IGFBP7 and TIMP-2 for early detection of cellular kidney injury, thus allowing the early initiation of renal protection measures, may represent a new concept of evaluating renal function. Methods In this prospective study, urinary [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] was measured in surgical patients at high risk for AKI. A predefined cut-off value of [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] >0.3 was used for assessing diagnostic accuracy. Perioperative characteristics were evaluated, and ROC analyses as well as logistic regression models of risk assessment were calculated with and without a [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test. Results 107 patients were included in the study, of whom 45 (42%) developed AKI. The highest median values of biomarker were detected in septic, transplant and patients after hepatic surgery (1.24 vs 0.45 vs 0.47 ng/l2/1000). The area under receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the risk of any AKI was 0.85, for early use of RRT 0.83 and for 28-day mortality 0.77. In a multivariable model with established perioperative risk factors, the [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test was the strongest predictor of AKI and significantly improved the risk assessment (p<0.001). Conclusions Urinary [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test sufficiently detect patients with risk of AKI after major non-cardiac surgery. Due to its rapid responsiveness it extends the time frame for intervention to prevent development of AKI. PMID:25798585

  20. Temperature-Dependent Models for Predicting European Corn Borer Early Feeding on Corn in Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magai, Robert Nthipe

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) is one of the most damaging insect pests to corn. Current yield losses attributed to the European corn borer are in the region of 400 million annually. Even though the European corn borer (ECB) has been extensively studied, few models exist that attempt to accurately predict its early infestation on corn. The basic problem encountered in formulating a first generation infestation prediction model is when to start calculating the temperature index. The exact conditions required to terminate diapause and the resumption of normal development are not well established. One of the old methods used in Missouri to predict the earliest date of ECB infestation involves the use of growing degree days, and by convention the heat units are arbitrarily calculated from January 1. This study was conducted to formulate prediction, and simulation-decision models for corn and first generation ECB infestation. The effects of variable maximum and minimum temperatures on the growth and development of the ECB were studied both in the laboratory and field designed experiments. Archival biological data from the IPM programs in three Missouri counties and weather data from weather stations were also used in corn phenology studies and to determine the dates of earliest ECB infestation on corn, for the period covering 1984 through 1989. Results from laboratory experiments suggest that the total growth and development period of ECB reared at variable temperatures is a constant value. However, the phenological development of the ECB stages does not follow a linear trend as earlier assumed during the introduction of the growing degree day model, but assumes a cubic curve. The starting point for the calculation of the temperature index in early spring occurs under conditions of longer than 13.0 hours of day length and a daily mean temperature of 60^ circF and above for at least five consecutive days. Three prediction models were developed. These are

  1. Metabolomics Profiling for Identification of Novel Potential Markers in Early Prediction of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kuc, Sylwia; Koster, Maria P. H.; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Berger, Ruud; Harms, Amy C.; Dane, Adrie D.; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Vreeken, Rob J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The first aim was to investigate specific signature patterns of metabolites that are significantly altered in first-trimester serum of women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (PE) compared to healthy pregnancies. The second aim of this study was to examine the predictive performance of the selected metabolites for both early onset [EO-PE] and late onset PE [LO-PE]. Methods This was a case-control study of maternal serum samples collected between 8+0 and 13+6 weeks of gestation from 167 women who subsequently developed EO-PE n = 68; LO-PE n = 99 and 500 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Metabolomics profiling analysis was performed using two methods. One has been optimized to target eicosanoids/oxylipins, which are known inflammation markers and the other targets compounds containing a primary or secondary biogenic amine group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to predict the development of PE using metabolites alone and in combination with first trimester mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements. Results Two metabolites were significantly different between EO-PE and controls (taurine and asparagine) and one in case of LO-PE (glycylglycine). Taurine appeared the most discriminative biomarker and in combination with MAP predicted EO-PE with a detection rate (DR) of 55%, at a false-positive rate (FPR) of 10%. Conclusion Our findings suggest a potential role of taurine in both PE pathophysiology and first trimester screening for EO-PE. PMID:24873829

  2. Practical Guidance for Implementing Predictive Biomarkers into Early Phase Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Matthew J.; Weiner, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) coapprovals of several therapeutic compounds and their companion diagnostic devices (FDA News Release, 2011, 2013) to identify patients who would benefit from treatment have led to considerable interest in incorporating predictive biomarkers in clinical studies. Yet, the translation of predictive biomarkers poses unique technical, logistic, and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed by a multidisciplinary team including discovery scientists, clinicians, biomarker experts, regulatory personnel, and assay developers. These issues can be placed into four broad categories: sample collection, assay validation, sample analysis, and regulatory requirements. In this paper, we provide a primer for drug development teams who are eager to implement a predictive patient segmentation marker into an early clinical trial in a way that facilitates subsequent development of a companion diagnostic. Using examples of nucleic acid-based assays, we briefly review common issues encountered when translating a biomarker to the clinic but focus primarily on key practical issues that should be considered by clinical teams when planning to use a biomarker to balance arms of a study or to determine eligibility for a clinical study. PMID:24236296

  3. The Solar Eclipse Predictions of Chiljeongsam-Oepyeon in Early Choseon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2004-12-01

    The history books of East Asia about astronomical phenomena have the more records of the solar eclipse frequently than any other ones. It is because traditionally, the solar eclipse meaned the fate of dynasty and the king's rule. The Sun, the biggest thing in the heaven symbolized the king, and the solar eclipse foresaw that the king had the problem in private including the body, and the country might suffer from difficulties in a great scale. So the king and all of the ministers used to gather to hold a ceremony named Gusikrye which solar eclipse may pass safely. Consequently, kings always had concernments on collecting informations of solar eclipse. Inspite of importance of solar eclipse predictions, but at the beginning of the Choseon, the predictions of the solar eclipse didn't fit. King Sejong compiled the Chiljeongsan-naepion and the Chiljeongsan-oepyeon to calculate the celestial phenomena including the solar eclipse. By the publications of these two books, the calendar making system of Choseon was firmly established. The Chiljeongsan-oepyeon adopted Huihui calendar of Arabia. The Solar eclipse predictions of Chiljeongsan-oepyeon were relative correct compared to modern method in early Choseon dynasty.

  4. Do infant and early childhood tests predict intelligence quotients better than maternal characteristics?

    PubMed

    Palti, H; Adler, B

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of infant and early childhood testing for subsequent intelligence tests at 3 and 5 years of age were assessed and compared to the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of maternal education for the same. The study was based on prospective surveillance of a population of infants attending the Maternal and Child services in western Jerusalem. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the 9- and 24-month tests were low, thus leading to labeling of false positives and inadequate detection of those with developmental delay. Maternal education was shown to be the single best predictor for intellectual performance on the 3- and 5-year test in the above analysis, as well as in a multivariate model where the 9- and 24-month tests, maternal education, origin, birth order, and sex were introduced as independent variables. It is recommended to take a detailed history, listen to parents' complaints, and use developmental testing selectively for children suspected to have problems, and not to apply developmental tests as a routine for all children in well-child care. PMID:7809387

  5. Early seizures in patients with acute stroke: Frequency, predictive factors, and effect on clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Andrea; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Caso, Valeria; Venti, Michele; Palmerini, Francesco; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    Background Early seizure (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and the predictive factors for ES as well the effects of ES on the clinical outcome at hospital discharge in patients with first-ever stroke. Patients and methods A total of 638 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke (543 ischemic, 95 hemorrhagic), admitted to our Stroke Unit, were included in this prospective study. ES were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded. Results Thirty-one patients (4.8%) had ES. Seizures were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke. ES was not associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability). After multivariate analysis, hemorrhagic transformation resulted as an independent predictive factor for ES (OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 1.95–22.61; p = 0.003). Conclusion ES occur in about 5% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES does not seem to be associated with an adverse outcome at hospital discharge after acute stroke. PMID:18827922

  6. Improved Rainfall Estimates and Predictions for 21st Century Drought Early Warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Chris; Peterson, Pete; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Husak, Gregory; Landsfeld, Marty; Hoell, Andrew; Pedreros, Diego; Roberts, J. B.; Robertson, F. R.; Tadesse, Tsegae; Zaitchik, Ben; Rowland, James; Verdin, James

    2015-01-01

    As temperatures increase, the onset and severity of droughts is likely to become more intense. Improved tools for understanding, monitoring and predicting droughts will be a key component of 21st century climate adaption. The best drought monitoring systems will bring together accurate precipitation estimates with skillful climate and weather forecasts. Such systems combine the predictive power inherent in the current land surface state with the predictive power inherent in low frequency ocean-atmosphere dynamics. To this end, researchers at the Climate Hazards Group (CHG), in collaboration with partners at the USGS and NASA, have developed i) a long (1981-present) quasi-global (50degS-50degN, 180degW-180degE) high resolution (0.05deg) homogenous precipitation data set designed specifically for drought monitoring, ii) tools for understanding and predicting East African boreal spring droughts, and iii) an integrated land surface modeling (LSM) system that combines rainfall observations and predictions to provide effective drought early warning. This talk briefly describes these three components. Component 1: CHIRPS The Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS), blends station data with geostationary satellite observations to provide global near real time daily, pentadal and monthly precipitation estimates. We describe the CHIRPS algorithm and compare CHIRPS and other estimates to validation data. The CHIRPS is shown to have high correlation, low systematic errors (bias) and low mean absolute errors. Component 2: Hybrid statistical-dynamic forecast strategies East African droughts have increased in frequency, but become more predictable as Indo- Pacific SST gradients and Walker circulation disruptions intensify. We describe hybrid statistical-dynamic forecast strategies that are far superior to the raw output of coupled forecast models. These forecasts can be translated into probabilities that can be used to generate bootstrapped ensembles

  7. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships. PMID:27427801

  8. Early survival prediction after intra-arterial therapies: a 3D quantitative MRI assessment of tumour response after TACE or radioembolization of colorectal cancer metastases to the liver

    PubMed Central

    Chapiro, Julius; Duran, Rafael; Lin, MingDe; Schernthaner, Rüdiger; Lesage, David; Wang, Zhijun; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the predictive role of 1D, 2D and 3D quantitative, enhancement-based MRI regarding overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) following intra-arterial therapies (IAT). Methods This retrospective analysis included 29 patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or radioembolization and received MRI within 6 weeks after therapy. Tumour response was assessed using 1D and 2D criteria (such as European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines [EASL] and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [mRECIST]). In addition, a segmentation-based 3D quantification of overall (volumetric [v] RECIST) and enhancing lesion volume (quantitative [q] EASL) was performed on portal venous phase MRI. Accordingly, patients were classified as responders (R) and non-responders (NR). Survival was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier analysis and compared using Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR). Results Only enhancement-based criteria identified patients as responders. EASL and mRECIST did not predict patient survival (P = 0.27 and P = 0.44, respectively). Using uni- and multivariate analysis, qEASL was identified as the sole predictor of patient survival (9.9 months for R, 6.9 months for NR; P = 0.038; HR 0.4). Conclusion The ability of qEASL to predict survival early after IAT provides evidence for potential advantages of 3D quantitative tumour analysis. PMID:25636420

  9. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  10. A Bayesian Framework for Early Risk Prediction in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chaganti, Shikha; Plassard, Andrew J.; Wilson, Laura; Smith, Miya A.; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of risk is critical in determining the course of treatment in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Computed tomography (CT) acquired at admission has shown latent prognostic value in prior studies; however, no robust clinical risk predictions have been achieved based on the imaging data in large-scale TBI analysis. The major challenge lies in the lack of consistent and complete medical records for patients, and an inherent bias associated with the limited number of patients samples with high-risk outcomes in available TBI datasets. Herein, we propose a Bayesian framework with mutual information-based forward feature selection to handle this type of data. Using multi-atlas segmentation, 154 image-based features (capturing intensity, volume and texture) were computed over 22 ROIs in 1791 CT scans. These features were combined with 14 clinical parameters and converted into risk likelihood scores using Bayes modeling. We explore the prediction power of the image features versus the clinical measures for various risk outcomes. The imaging data alone were more predictive of outcomes than the clinical data (including Marshall CT classification) for discharge disposition with an area under the curve of 0.81 vs. 0.67, but less predictive than clinical data for discharge Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score with an area under the curve of 0.65 vs. 0.85. However, in both cases, combining imaging and clinical data increased the combined area under the curve with 0.86 for discharge disposition and 0.88 for discharge GCS score. In conclusion, CT data have meaningful prognostic value for TBI patients beyond what is captured in clinical measures and the Marshall CT classification. PMID:27127331

  11. A Bayesian framework for early risk prediction in traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Plassard, Andrew J.; Wilson, Laura; Smith, Miya A.; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of risk is critical in determining the course of treatment in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Computed tomography (CT) acquired at admission has shown latent prognostic value in prior studies; however, no robust clinical risk predictions have been achieved based on the imaging data in large-scale TBI analysis. The major challenge lies in the lack of consistent and complete medical records for patients, and an inherent bias associated with the limited number of patients samples with high-risk outcomes in available TBI datasets. Herein, we propose a Bayesian framework with mutual information-based forward feature selection to handle this type of data. Using multi-atlas segmentation, 154 image-based features (capturing intensity, volume and texture) were computed over 22 ROIs in 1791 CT scans. These features were combined with 14 clinical parameters and converted into risk likelihood scores using Bayes modeling. We explore the prediction power of the image features versus the clinical measures for various risk outcomes. The imaging data alone were more predictive of outcomes than the clinical data (including Marshall CT classification) for discharge disposition with an area under the curve of 0.81 vs. 0.67, but less predictive than clinical data for discharge Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score with an area under the curve of 0.65 vs. 0.85. However, in both cases, combining imaging and clinical data increased the combined area under the curve with 0.86 for discharge disposition and 0.88 for discharge GCS score. In conclusion, CT data have meaningful prognostic value for TBI patients beyond what is captured in clinical measures and the Marshall CT classification.

  12. Lameness Prevalence and Risk Factors in Large Dairy Farms in Upstate New York. Model Development for the Prediction of Claw Horn Disruption Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Foditsch, Carla; Oikonomou, Georgios; Machado, Vinícius Silva; Bicalho, Marcela Luccas; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Lima, Svetlana Ferreira; Rossi, Rodolfo; Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo; Kussler, Arieli; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of this prospective cohort study were a) to describe lameness prevalence at drying off in large high producing New York State herds based on visual locomotion score (VLS) and identify potential cow and herd level risk factors, and b) to develop a model that will predict the probability of a cow developing claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL) in the subsequent lactation using cow level variables collected at drying off and/or available from farm management software. Data were collected from 23 large commercial dairy farms located in upstate New York. A total of 7,687 dry cows, that were less than 265 days in gestation, were enrolled in the study. Farms were visited between May 2012 and March 2013, and cows were assessed for body condition score (BCS) and VLS. Data on the CHDL events recorded by the farm employees were extracted from the Dairy-Comp 305 database, as well as information regarding the studied cows’ health events, milk production, and reproductive records throughout the previous and subsequent lactation period. Univariable analyses and mixed multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the data at the cow level. The overall average prevalence of lameness (VLS > 2) at drying off was 14%. Lactation group, previous CHDL, mature equivalent 305-d milk yield (ME305), season, BCS at drying off and sire PTA for strength were all significantly associated with lameness at the drying off (cow-level). Lameness at drying off was associated with CHDL incidence in the subsequent lactation, as well as lactation group, previous CHDL and ME305. These risk factors for CHDL in the subsequent lactation were included in our predictive model and adjusted predicted probabilities for CHDL were calculated for all studied cows. ROC analysis identified an optimum cut-off point for these probabilities and using this cut-off point we could predict CHDL incidence in the subsequent lactation with an overall specificity of 75% and sensitivity of 59

  13. Early play may predict later dominance relationships in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris).

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Chung, Lawrance K; Smith, Jennifer E

    2013-05-22

    Play has been defined as apparently functionless behaviour, yet since play is costly, models of adaptive evolution predict that it should have some beneficial function (or functions) that outweigh its costs. We provide strong evidence for a long-standing, but poorly supported hypothesis: that early social play is practice for later dominance relationships. We calculated the relative dominance rank by observing the directional outcome of playful interactions in juvenile and yearling yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and found that these rank relationships were correlated with later dominance ranks calculated from agonistic interactions, however, the strength of this relationship attenuated over time. While play may have multiple functions, one of them may be to establish later dominance relationships in a minimally costly way. PMID:23536602

  14. Early Child Neglect: Does It Predict Obesity or Underweight in Later Childhood?

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Thompson, Shanel M.; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Child neglect has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for both obesity and underweight in early childhood, although little research has examined the relation between neglect and body mass index (BMI). The current study examined the relation between neglect and BMI among 185 children (91 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] history of neglect) who were initially seen at ages 4–6 years and who were followed through ages 7–9 years. Neglected and comparison children were found to have similar BMIs, although both groups had BMIs that were significantly greater than Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) norms for age, gender, and ethnicity. Neglect chronicity did predict lower BMIs but only at ages 8 and 9 years. The current findings suggest that greater examination of moderators is needed to identify the specific contexts in which neglect is related to children’s weight. PMID:20395224

  15. Parenting and Child DRD4 Genotype Interact to Predict Children’s Early Emerging Effortful Control

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather J.; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Durbin, C. Emily; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Singh, Shiva M.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), or the trait-like capacity to regulate dominant responses, has important implications for children’s development. Although genetic factors and parenting likely influence EC, few studies have examined whether they interact to predict its development. The current study examined whether the DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat polymorphism moderated the relationship between parenting and children’s EC. A total of 382 three-year-olds and primary caregivers completed behavioural tasks assessing children’s EC and parenting. Children’s DRD4 genotypes moderated the relationship between parenting and EC: children with at least one 7-repeat allele displayed lower EC in the context of negative parenting than children without this allele. These findings suggest opportunities for modifying early risk for low EC. PMID:22862680

  16. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Felicia W.; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  17. Maternal Characteristics, Mean Arterial Pressure and Serum Markers in Early Prediction of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kuc, Sylwia; Koster, Maria P. H.; Franx, Arie; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In a previous study, we have described the predictive value of first-trimester Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-subunit of human Chorionic Gonadotropin (fβ-hCG), Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12) for early onset preeclampsia (EO-PE; delivery <34 weeks). The objective of the current study was to obtain the predictive value of these serum makers combined with maternal characteristics and first-trimester maternal mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in a large series of patients, for both EO-PE and late onset PE (LO-PE; delivery ≥ 34 weeks). Methods This was a nested case-control study, using stored first-trimester maternal serum from women who developed EO-PE (n = 68) or LO-PE (n = 99), and 500 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Maternal characteristics, MAP, and pregnancy outcome were collected for each individual woman and used to calculate prior risks for PE in a multiple logistic regression model. Models containing prior PE risks, serum markers, and MAP were developed for the prediction of EO-PE and LO-PE. The model-predicted detection rates (DR) for fixed 10% false-positive rates were calculated for EO-PE and LO-PE with or without the presence of a small-for-gestational age infant (SGA, birth weight <10th centile). Results The best prediction model included maternal characteristics, MAP, PAPP-A, ADAM12, and PlGF, with DR of 72% for EO-PE and 49% for LO-PE. Prediction for PE with concomitant SGA was better than for PE alone (92% for EO-PE and 57% for LO-PE). Conclusion First-trimester MAP, PAPP-A, ADAM12, and PlGF combined with maternal characteristics and MAP are promising markers in the risk assessment of PE, especially for EO-PE complicated by SGA. PMID:23717445

  18. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  19. Predicting Early Spelling: The Contribution of Children's Early Literacy, Private Speech during Spelling, Behavioral Regulation, and Parental Spelling Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aram, Dorit; Abiri, Shimrit; Elad, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend understanding of preschoolers' early spelling using the Vygotskian ("Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes," Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978) paradigm of child development. We assessed the contribution of maternal spelling support in predicting children's…

  20. Serum biomarkers may help predict successful misoprostol management of early pregnancy failure.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Courtney A; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Quinley, Kelly E; Miller, Carrie; Sammel, Mary D

    2015-06-01

    In order to simplify management of early pregnancy loss, our goal was to elucidate predictors of successful medical management of miscarriage with a single dose of misoprostol. In this secondary analysis of data from a multicenter randomized controlled trial, candidate biomarkers were compared between 49 women with missed abortion who succeeded in passing their pregnancy with a single dose of misoprostol and 46 women who did not pass their pregnancy with a misoprostol single dose. We computed the precision of trophoblastic protein and hormone concentrations to discriminate between women who succeed or fail single dose misoprostol management. We also included demographic factors in our analyses. We found overlap in the concentrations of the individual markers between women who succeeded and failed single-dose misoprostol. However, hCG levels ≥ 4000 mIU/mL and ADAM-12 levels ≥ 2500 pg/mL were independently associated with complete uterine expulsion after one dose of misoprostol in our population. A multivariable logistic model for success included non-Hispanic ethnicity and parity <2 in addition to hCG ≥ 4000 mIU/mL and ADAM-12 ≥ 2500 pg/mL and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 72-90%). Categorizing women with a predicted probability of ≥ 0.65 resulted in a sensitivity of 75.0%, specificity 77.1% and positive predictive value of 81.8%. While preliminary, our data suggest that serum biomarkers, especially when combined with demographic characteristics, may be helpful in guiding patient decision-making regarding the management of early pregnancy failure (EPF). Further study is warranted. PMID:26051455

  1. Early Prediction of Long-Term Response to Cabergoline in Patients with Macroprolactinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngki; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Kim, Eui-Hyun; Lee, Eun Jig; Kim, Sun Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background Cabergoline is typically effective for treating prolactinomas; however, some patients display cabergoline resistance, and the early characteristics of these patients remain unclear. We analyzed early indicators predicting long-term response to cabergoline. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 44 patients with macroprolactinomas who received cabergoline as first-line treatment; the patients were followed for a median of 16 months. The influence of various clinical parameters on outcomes was evaluated. Results Forty patients (90.9%) were treated medically and displayed tumor volume reduction (TVR) of 74.7%, a prolactin normalization (NP) rate of 81.8%, and a complete response (CR; TVR >50% with NP, without surgery) rate of 70.5%. Most patients (93.1%) with TVR ≥25% and NP at 3 months eventually achieved CR, whereas only 50% of patients with TVR ≥25% without NP and no patients with TVR <25% achieved CR. TVR at 3 months was strongly correlated with final TVR (R=0.785). Patients with large macroadenomas exhibited a low NP rate at 3 months, but eventually achieved TVR and NP rates similar to those of patients with smaller tumors. Surgery independently reduced the final dose of cabergoline (β=-1.181 mg/week), and two of four patients who underwent surgery were able to discontinue cabergoline. Conclusion Determining cabergoline response using TVR and NP 3 months after treatment is useful for predicting later outcomes. However, further cabergoline administration should be considered for patients with TVR >25% at 3 months without NP, particularly those with huge prolactinomas, because a delayed response may be achieved. As surgery can reduce the cabergoline dose necessary for successful disease control, it should be considered for cabergoline-resistant patients. PMID:25309786

  2. Decreased T-cell proliferative response to common environmental antigens could be an indicator of early human immunodeficiency virus-mediated lymphocyte lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Tassinari, P; Deibis, L; Blanca, I; Bianco, N E; Echeverría de Pérez, G

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate CD4+/CD29+ cells and their responses to different antigens in polar stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we studied 26 HIV-seropositive carriers (SPCs) and 15 patients with AIDS simultaneously with 20 healthy volunteers (HVs) and 10 seronegative homosexual and bisexual men (SNH). CD3, CD4, CD29, and CD45RA phenotypes were analyzed by two-color flow cytometry. Significant depletion of CD4+ T cells and both memory (CD4+/CD29+) and naive (CD4+/CD45RA+) T-cell subsets was found among SPCs and AIDS patients compared with the numbers of such cells in the HV and SNH groups. Responses to optimal doses of Candida albicans, streptokinase, and tetanus toxoid were explored in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4(+)- and CD4+/CD29(+)-enriched cell populations. In SPCs, the response to C. albicans in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a statistically significant diminution compared with the response of HVs (15,308 versus 35,951 cpm). In addition, a significantly reduced response to streptokinase was evident only when cell preparations were CD4+/CD29+ enriched (3,048 versus 10,367 cpm). Furthermore, the SPC group comprised seven responders to at least one antigen and seven nonresponders to any of the selected specific antigens. Absence of a response in these latter patients was independent of the absolute counts of memory and naive T-cell populations. The response to tetanus toxoid, although diminished in SPCs, was not significantly different from that in controls. Our results suggest that defective responses to common environmental antigens, unrelated to the absolute number of CD4+/CD29+ cells, is probably an early indicator of an HIV-induced lymphocyte lesion. PMID:7583914

  3. What predicts persistent early conduct problems? Evidence from the Growing Up in Scotland cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Paul; Tipping, Sarah; Henderson, Marion; Der, Geoff; Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a strong case for early identification of factors predicting life-course-persistent conduct disorder. The authors aimed to identify factors associated with repeated parental reports of preschool conduct problems. Method Nested case–control study of Scottish children who had behavioural data reported by parents at 3, 4 and 5 years. Results 79 children had abnormal conduct scores at all three time points (‘persistent conduct problems’) and 434 at one or two points (‘inconsistent conduct problems’). 1557 children never had abnormal scores. Compared with children with no conduct problems, children with reported problems were significantly more likely to have mothers who smoked during pregnancy. They were less likely to be living with both parents and more likely to be in poor general health, to have difficulty being understood, to have a parent who agrees that smacking is sometimes necessary and to be taken to visit other people with children rarely. The results for children with persistent and inconsistent conduct problems were similar, but associations with poverty and maternal smoking were significantly less strong in the inconsistent group. Conclusion These factors may be valuable in early identification of risk of major social difficulties. PMID:22844082

  4. Early warning and clinical outcome prediction of acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, En-Qiang; Zeng, Fan; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Tang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is an increasingly recognized fatal liver disease encompassing a severe acute exacerbation of liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Despite the introduction of an artificial liver support system and antiviral therapy, the short-term prognosis of HBV-ACLF is still extremely poor unless emergency liver transplantation is performed. In such a situation, stopping or slowing the progression of CHB to ACLF at an early stage is the most effective way of reducing the morbidity and mortality of HBV-ACLF. It is well-known that the occurrence and progression of HBV-ACLF is associated with many factors, and the outcomes of HBV-ACLF patients can be significantly improved if timely and appropriate interventions are provided. In this review, we highlight recent developments in early warning and clinical outcome prediction in patients with HBV-ACLF and provide an outlook for future research in this field. PMID:26576085

  5. Lymph Node Micrometastases in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer are Not Predictive of Survival.

    PubMed

    Stany, Michael P; Stone, Pamela J B; Felix, Juan C; Amezcua, Charles A; Groshen, Susan; Ye, Wei; Kyser, Kathy L; Howard, Robin S; Zahn, Chris M; Muderspach, Laila I; Lentz, Scott E; Chernofsky, Mildred R

    2015-07-01

    Although patients with early-stage cervical cancer have in general a favorable prognosis, 10% to 40% patients still recur depending on pathologic risk factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the presence of lymph node micrometastasis (LNmM) had an impact on patient's survival. We performed a multi-institutional retrospective review on patients with early-stage cervical cancer, with histologically negative lymph nodes, treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for the study period 1994 to 2004. Tissue blocks of lymph nodes from the patient's original surgery were recut and then evaluated for the presence of micrometastases. One hundred twenty-nine patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. LNmM were found in 26 patients (20%). In an average follow-up time of 70 mo, there were 11 recurrences (8.5%). Of the 11 recurrences, 2 (18%) patients had LNmM. Patients with LNmM were more likely to have received adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. In stratified log-rank analysis, LNmM were not associated with any other high-risk clinical or pathologic variables. Survival data analysis did not demonstrate an association between the presence of LNmM and recurrence or overall survival. The presence of LNmM was not associated with an unfavorable prognosis nor was it associated with other high-risk clinical or pathologic variables predicting recurrence. Further study is warranted to understand the role of micrometastases in cervical cancer. PMID:26061072

  6. Gestational weight gain and predicted changes in offspring anthropometrics between early infancy and 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Adair, Linda S.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine how gestational weight gain (GWG), categorized using the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, relates to changes in offspring weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) between early infancy and 3 years. Methods Women with singleton infants were recruited from the third cohort of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005). Term infants with at least one weight or length measurement during the study period were included (n=476). Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models estimated longitudinal changes in WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ associated with GWG. Results In early infancy, compared to infants of women with adequate weight gain, those of women with excessive weight gains had higher WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Excessive GWG≥200% of the recommended amount was associated with faster rates of change in WAZ and LAZ and noticeably higher predicted mean WAZ and WLZ that persisted across the study period. Conclusions GWG represents a modifiable behavioral factor that is associated with offspring anthropometric outcomes. More longitudinal studies that utilize maternal and pediatric body composition measures are necessary to understand the nature of this association. PMID:22434753

  7. Utility of C-Reactive Protein Levels for Early Prediction of Dengue Severity in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Lee, Ing-Kit; Liu, Jien-Wei; Huang, Shi-Yu; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Dengue has broad clinical presentation with unpredictable clinical evolution and outcome. We aimed to evaluate the utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels for distinguishing between mild and severe cases in the early phase of the dengue illness. We retrospectively evaluated adults with dengue from 2006 to 2014, according to 1997 and 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for severity. Of 191 included patients, 32.9% had nonshock dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), 3.1% dengue shock syndrome (DSS), and 7.9% severe dengue. The risk of DHF/DSS and severe dengue is significantly related to the increasing levels of CRP. Of 191 patients, 97 had CRP levels measured during the febrile (days 1–3); 85 during the critical (days 4–6); and 9 during the convalescent (days 7–10) illness phases. During the febrile phase, there was significant higher CRP level for DSS versus DF/nonshock DHF and severe dengue versus nonsevere dengue, with CRP cutoff level 30.1 mg/L (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), 0.938; 100% sensitivity, 76.3% specificity) and 24.2 mg/L (AUC, 0.717; 70% sensitivity, 71.3% specificity), respectively. Our study highlights the utility of the CRP levels in early prediction of DSS and severe dengue in adult patients. PMID:26247033

  8. Gene Expression Profiling during Early Acute Febrile Stage of Dengue Infection Can Predict the Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Calzavara-Silva, Carlos E.; Gomes, Ana L. V.; Brito, Carlos A. A.; Cordeiro, Marli T.; Silva, Ana M.; Magalhães, Cecilia; Andrade, Raoni; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background We report the detailed development of biomarkers to predict the clinical outcome under dengue infection. Transcriptional signatures from purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells were derived from whole-genome gene-expression microarray data, validated by quantitative PCR and tested in independent samples. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was performed on patients of a well-characterized dengue cohort from Recife, Brazil. The samples analyzed were collected prospectively from acute febrile dengue patients who evolved with different degrees of disease severity: classic dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) samples were compared with similar samples from other non-dengue febrile illnesses. The DHF samples were collected 2–3 days before the presentation of the plasma leakage symptoms. Differentially-expressed genes were selected by univariate statistical tests as well as multivariate classification techniques. The results showed that at early stages of dengue infection, the genes involved in effector mechanisms of innate immune response presented a weaker activation on patients who later developed hemorrhagic fever, whereas the genes involved in apoptosis were expressed in higher levels. Conclusions/Significance Some of the gene expression signatures displayed estimated accuracy rates of more than 95%, indicating that expression profiling with these signatures may provide a useful means of DHF prognosis at early stages of infection. PMID:19936257

  9. Exposure to Violence Predicting Cortisol Response During Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Understanding Moderating Factors

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Justin E.; Miller, Alison L.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the association between violence and biological stress regulation has been largely cross-sectional, and has also focused on childhood. Using longitudinal data from a low-income, high-risk, predominantly African-American sample (n = 266; 57 % female), we tested hypotheses about the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and early adulthood on cortisol responses in early adulthood. We found that cumulative exposure to violence predicted an attenuated cortisol response. Further, we tested whether sex, mothers’ support, or fathers’ support moderated the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol responses. We found that the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was modified by sex; specifically, males exposed to violence exhibited a more attenuated response pattern. In addition, the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was moderated by the presence of fathers’ support during adolescence. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how cumulative exposure to violence influences biological outcomes, emphasizing the need to understand sex and parental support as moderators of risk. PMID:24458765

  10. Urinary L-FABP predicts poor outcomes in critically ill patients with early acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Parr, Sharidan K; Clark, Amanda J; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi K; Wickersham, Nancy E; Ware, Lorraine B; Ikizler, T Alp; Siew, Edward D

    2015-03-01

    Biomarker studies for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) have been limited by nonselective testing and uncertainties in using small changes in serum creatinine as a reference standard. Here we examine the ability of urine L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) to predict injury progression, dialysis, or death within 7 days in critically ill adults with early AKI. Of 152 patients with known baseline creatinine examined, 36 experienced the composite outcome. Urine L-FABP demonstrated an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.70-0.86), which improved to 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.75-0.90) when added to the clinical model (AUC-ROC of 0.74). Urine NGAL, IL-18, and KIM-1 had AUC-ROCs of 0.65, 0.64, and 0.62, respectively, but did not significantly improve discrimination of the clinical model. The category-free net reclassification index improved with urine L-FABP (total net reclassification index for nonevents 31.0%) and urine NGAL (total net reclassification index for events 33.3%). However, only urine L-FABP significantly improved the integrated discrimination index. Thus, modest early changes in serum creatinine can help target biomarker measurement for determining prognosis with urine L-FABP, providing independent and additive prognostic information when combined with clinical predictors. PMID:25229339

  11. Activity in early visual areas predicts interindividual differences in binocular rivalry dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Hiroyuki; Mano, Hiroaki; Umeda, Masahiro; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Saiki, Jun

    2013-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented to the two eyes, binocular rivalry (BR) occurs, and perception alternates spontaneously between the images. Although neural correlates of the oscillating perception during BR have been found in multiple sites along the visual pathway, the source of BR dynamics is unclear. Psychophysical and modeling studies suggest that both low- and high-level cortical processes underlie BR dynamics. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of high-level regions by showing that frontal and parietal cortices responded time locked to spontaneous perceptual alternation in BR. However, a potential contribution of early visual areas to BR dynamics has been overlooked, because these areas also responded to the physical stimulus alternation mimicking BR. In the present study, instead of focusing on activity during perceptual switches, we highlighted brain activity during suppression periods to investigate a potential link between activity in human early visual areas and BR dynamics. We used a strong interocular suppression paradigm called continuous flash suppression to suppress and fluctuate the visibility of a probe stimulus and measured retinotopic responses to the onset of the invisible probe using functional MRI. There were ∼130-fold differences in the median suppression durations across 12 subjects. The individual differences in suppression durations could be predicted by the amplitudes of the retinotopic activity in extrastriate visual areas (V3 and V4v) evoked by the invisible probe. Weaker responses were associated with longer suppression durations. These results demonstrate that retinotopic representations in early visual areas play a role in the dynamics of perceptual alternations during BR. PMID:24353304

  12. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all p<0.001) and 9.7 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 3.3 to 28.6). Each SD decrease in length-for-age in the first 30 months of life was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.4 in boys and 0.6 standard deviation in girls (all p<0.001) and with 5.8 greater odds of stunting (95% CI 2.6 to 13.5). The effect of weight gain during early childhood on weight in early adolescence was more complex to understand. Weight-for-length at birth and rate of change in weight-for-length in early childhood were positively associated with age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and a greater risk of being overweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904

  13. The ability of early changes in motivation to predict later antidepressant treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Gorwood, Philip; Vaiva, Guillaume; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Baylé, Franck J; Courtet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Baseline values and early changes of emotional reactivity, cognitive speed, psychomotor function, motivation, and sensory perception have not been studied to any extent in unipolar depression, although they could help to characterize different dimensions of illness that are harder to capture by clinicians, give new insights on how patients improve, and offer new early clinical markers for later treatment response. Methods About 1,565 adult outpatients with major depressive disorder receiving agomelatine completed the clinician-rated 16-item quick inventory of depressive symptoms, Clinical Global Impression, and Multidimensional Assessment of Thymic States (MAThyS) rating scales at inclusion, Week 2 and Week 6. The MAThyS includes a 20-item self-rated visual analog scale (from inhibition [0] to activation [10], with [5] representing the usual state) leading to five a priori dimensions (emotional reactivity, cognitive speed, psychomotor function, motivation, and sensory perception). Results All MAThyS dimension scores increased from inclusion to Week 2 and from inclusion to Week 6 (P<0.001). Improvement was around 2 points (out of 10) for motivation, 1.5 points for psychomotor function, and 0.5 points for other dimensions. Motivation showed a trend to being more severely impaired at inclusion in future nonresponders (t=1.25, df=1,563, P=0.10). Its improvement at Week 2 was the most discriminating MAThyS dimension between future responders and nonresponders, and represents the best predictor of future response, with the highest area under the receptor operating characteristic curve (area under curve =0.616, 95% confidence interval [0.588–0.643], P<0.001). Finally, improvements in motivation correlated the most strongly with clinician-rated 16-item quick inventory of depressive symptoms improvement (r=−0.491, df=1,563, P<0.001). Conclusion Motivation had the most capacity for early improvement, the best predictive value for response, and the largest

  14. Early life stress predicts thalamic hyperconnectivity: A transdiagnostic study of global connectivity.

    PubMed

    Philip, Noah S; Tyrka, Audrey R; Albright, Sarah E; Sweet, Lawrence H; Almeida, Jorge; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2016-08-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is an established risk factor for psychiatric illness and is associated with altered functional connectivity within- and between intrinsic neural networks. The widespread nature of these disruptions suggests that broad imaging measures of neural connectivity, such as global based connectivity (GBC), may be particularly appropriate for studies of this population. GBC is designed to identify brain regions having maximal functional connectedness with the rest of the brain, and alterations in GBC may reflect a restriction or broadening of network synchronization. We evaluated whether ELS severity predicted GBC in a sample (N = 46) with a spectrum of ELS exposure. Participants included healthy controls without ELS, those with at least moderate ELS but without psychiatric disorders, and a group of patients with ELS- related psychiatric disorders. The spatial distribution of GBC peaked in regions of the salience and default mode networks, and ELS severity predicted increased GBC of the left thalamus (corrected p < 0.005, r = 0.498). Thalamic connectivity was subsequently evaluated and revealed reduced connectivity with the salience network, particularly the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (corrected p < 0.005), only in the patient group. These findings support a model of disrupted thalamic connectivity in ELS and trauma-related negative affect states, and underscore the importance of a transdiagnostic, dimensional neuroimaging approach to understanding the sequelae of trauma exposure. PMID:27214526

  15. Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Donald R; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the relation between psychopathy assessed at age 13 by using the mother-reported Childhood Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997) and psychopathy assessed at age 24 by using the interviewer-rated Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995). Data from over 250 participants of the middle sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study were used to examine this relation; approximately 9% of the sample met criteria for a possible PCL:SV diagnosis. Despite the long time lag, different sources, and different methods, psychopathy from early adolescence into young adulthood was moderately stable (r=.31). The relation was present for the PCL:SV total and facet scores, was not moderated by initial risk status or initial psychopathy level, and held even after controlling for other age 13 variables. Diagnostic stability was somewhat lower. Both specificity and negative predictive power were good, and sensitivity was adequate, but positive predictive power was poor. This constitutes the first demonstration of the relative stability of psychopathy from adolescence into adulthood and provides evidence for the incremental utility of the adolescent psychopathy construct. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:17324026

  16. Presepsin is an early monitoring biomarker for predicting clinical outcome in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fahmy T; Ali, Mohamed A M; Elnakeeb, Mostafa M; Bendary, Heba N M

    2016-09-01

    Despite their undoubted helpfulness in diagnosing sepsis, increased blood C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels have been described in many noninfectious conditions. Presepsin is a soluble fragment of the cluster of differentiation 14 involved in pathogen recognition by innate immunity. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic performance of presepsin in comparison to PCT and CRP in patients presenting with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and suspected sepsis. Seventy-six subjects were enrolled in this study, including 51 patients with SIRS as well as 25 healthy subjects. Plasma presepsin, PCT and CRP levels were serially measured on admission and at days 1, 3, 7 and 15. Presepsin and PCT yielded similar diagnostic accuracy, whereas presepsin performed significantly better than CRP. Presepsin and PCT showed comparable performance for predicting 28-day mortality, and both biomarkers performed significantly better than CRP. In septic patients, presepsin revealed earlier concentration changes over time when compared to PCT and CRP. Presepsin and PCT could differentiate between septic and non-septic patients with comparable accuracy and both biomarkers showed similar performance for predicting 28-day mortality. Early changes in presepsin concentrations might reflect the appropriateness of the therapeutic modality and could be useful for making effective treatment decisions. PMID:27353646

  17. Prediction of early lethal SEGR failures of VDMOSFETs for commercial space systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J.L.; Wheatley, C.F.; Wheatley, T.H.

    1999-12-01

    Quantitative risk assessments are presented for two radiation-hardened MOSFETs (Harris FSL11A0 and FRL11A0) using an extracted expression, integral flux curves representing different conditions, and experimentally-determined signature curves taken at different ion impact angles. The effectiveness of certain parameters including the selected orbit, spacecraft shielding thickness, drain and gate biases, device hardness, and time of exposure are discussed. Failures are studied using normalized Monte Carlo simulations validated by statistical methods. These validated Monte Carlo simulations are then used to extract and present an extracted expression. The concept of a lethal ion rate is discussed. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) failure thresholds at different ion impact angles are measured and reported on the Harris FSL11A0 and FRL11A0 (radiation-hardened vertical MOSFETs having similar layouts but with different SEGR sensitivities). Integral flux curves are presented for various orbits and conditions. Predictions of very early failures are performed using the extracted expression, the integral flux curves, and the new signature curves. Based upon these predictions, the influence of selected parameters are evaluated.

  18. Moisture absorption early postmortem predicts ultimate drip loss in fresh pork.

    PubMed

    Kapper, C; Walukonis, C J; Scheffler, T L; Scheffler, J M; Don, C; Morgan, M T; Forrest, J C; Gerrard, D E

    2014-02-01

    Water-holding capacity is the ability of meat to hold moisture and is subject to postmortem metabolism. The objective of this study was to characterize the loss of moisture from muscle postmortem and investigate whether these losses are useful in predicting the ultimate drip loss of fresh pork. Cotton-rayon absorptive-based devices were inserted in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pork carcasses (n = 51) postmortem and removed at various intervals for 24h. Greatest moisture absorption was observed at 105 min post exsanguination. Drip loss varied (0.6-15.3%) across carcasses. Individual absorption at 75 min correlated (r = 0.33) with final drip loss. Correlations improved using individual absorption values at 90 min (r = 0.48) and accumulated absorption values at 150 min (r = 0.41). Results show that significant moisture is lost from muscle tissue early postmortem and suggest that capture of this moisture may be useful in predicting final drip loss of fresh meat. PMID:24225387

  19. CT Perfusion Imaging Can Predict Patients' Survival and Early Response to Transarterial Chemo-Lipiodol Infusion for Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei-Fu; Cheng, De-Lei; Zhou, Chun-Ze; Ni, Ming; Lu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the performance of computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI) in predicting the early response to transarterial chemo-lipiodol infusion (TACLI) and survival of patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM). Materials and Methods Computed tomography perfusion imaging was performed before and 1 month after TACLI in 61 consecutive patients. Therapeutic response was evaluated on CT scans 1 month and 4 months after TACLI; the patients were classified as responders and non-responders based on 4-month CT scans after TACLI. The percentage change of CTPI parameters of target lesions were compared between responders and non-responders at 1 month after TACLI. The optimal parameter and cutoff value were determined. The patients were divided into 2 subgroups according to the cutoff value. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates of the 2 subgroups. Results Four-month images were obtained from 58 patients, of which 39.7% were responders and 60.3% were non-responders. The percentage change in hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP) 1 month after TACLI was the optimal predicting parameter (p = 0.003). The best cut-off value was -21.5% and patients who exhibited a ≥ 21.5% decrease in HAP had a significantly higher overall survival rate than those who exhibited a < 21.5% decrease (p < 0.001). Conclusion Computed tomography perfusion imaging can predict the early response to TACLI and survival of patients with CRLM. The percentage change in HAP after TACLI with a cutoff value of -21.5% is the optimal predictor. PMID:26175580

  20. Development of a Simple Clinical Risk Score for Early Prediction of Severe Dengue in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ing-Kit; Liu, Jien-Wei; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chen, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Ching-Yen; Huang, Shi-Yu; Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Hao

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to develop and validate a risk score to aid in the early identification of laboratory-confirmed dengue patients at high risk of severe dengue (SD) (i.e. severe plasma leakage with shock or respiratory distress, or severe bleeding or organ impairment). We retrospectively analyzed data of 1184 non-SD patients at hospital presentation and 69 SD patients before SD onset. We fit a logistic regression model using 85% of the population and converted the model coefficients to a numeric risk score. Subsequently, we validated the score using the remaining 15% of patients. Using the derivation cohort, two scoring algorithms for predicting SD were developed: models 1 (dengue illness ≤4 days) and 2 (dengue illness >4 days). In model 1, we identified four variables: age ≥65 years, minor gastrointestinal bleeding, leukocytosis, and platelet count ≥100×109 cells/L. Model 1 (ranging from −2 to +6 points) showed good discrimination between SD and non-SD, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.848 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.771–0.924). The optimal cutoff value for model 1 was 1 point, with a sensitivity and specificity for predicting SD of 70.3% and 90.6%, respectively. In model 2 (ranging from 0 to +3 points), significant predictors were age ≥65 years and leukocytosis. Model 2 showed an AUC of 0.859 (95% CI, 0.756–0.963), with an optimal cutoff value of 1 point (sensitivity, 80.3%; specificity, 85.8%). The median interval from hospital presentation to SD was 1 day. This finding underscores the importance of close monitoring, timely resuscitation of shock including intravenous fluid adjustment and early correction of dengue-related complications to prevent the progressive dengue severity. In the validation data, AUCs of 0.904 (95% CI, 0.825–0.983) and 0.917 (95% CI, 0.833–1.0) in models 1 and 2, respectively, were achieved. The observed SD rates (in both cohorts) were <3% for patients with a score <1 point, but >50

  1. Development of a Simple Clinical Risk Score for Early Prediction of Severe Dengue in Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ing-Kit; Liu, Jien-Wei; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chen, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Ching-Yen; Huang, Shi-Yu; Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Hao

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to develop and validate a risk score to aid in the early identification of laboratory-confirmed dengue patients at high risk of severe dengue (SD) (i.e. severe plasma leakage with shock or respiratory distress, or severe bleeding or organ impairment). We retrospectively analyzed data of 1184 non-SD patients at hospital presentation and 69 SD patients before SD onset. We fit a logistic regression model using 85% of the population and converted the model coefficients to a numeric risk score. Subsequently, we validated the score using the remaining 15% of patients. Using the derivation cohort, two scoring algorithms for predicting SD were developed: models 1 (dengue illness ≤4 days) and 2 (dengue illness >4 days). In model 1, we identified four variables: age ≥65 years, minor gastrointestinal bleeding, leukocytosis, and platelet count ≥100×109 cells/L. Model 1 (ranging from -2 to +6 points) showed good discrimination between SD and non-SD, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.848 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.771-0.924). The optimal cutoff value for model 1 was 1 point, with a sensitivity and specificity for predicting SD of 70.3% and 90.6%, respectively. In model 2 (ranging from 0 to +3 points), significant predictors were age ≥65 years and leukocytosis. Model 2 showed an AUC of 0.859 (95% CI, 0.756-0.963), with an optimal cutoff value of 1 point (sensitivity, 80.3%; specificity, 85.8%). The median interval from hospital presentation to SD was 1 day. This finding underscores the importance of close monitoring, timely resuscitation of shock including intravenous fluid adjustment and early correction of dengue-related complications to prevent the progressive dengue severity. In the validation data, AUCs of 0.904 (95% CI, 0.825-0.983) and 0.917 (95% CI, 0.833-1.0) in models 1 and 2, respectively, were achieved. The observed SD rates (in both cohorts) were <3% for patients with a score <1 point, but >50% for those

  2. Colorectal Subepithelial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Most of subepithelial lesion (SEL) being identified was accidentally discovered as small bulging lesion covered with normal mucosa from endoscopic screening. The type of treatment and prognosis vary depending on the type of tumor, it would be crucial to perform an accurate differential diagnosis. Since the differentiation of SEL relied on the indirect findings observed from the mucosal surface using an endoscopy only in the past, it was able to confirm the presence of lesion only but difficult to identify complex detailed nature of the lesion. However, after the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was introduced, it became possible to identify extrinsic compression, and size of intramural tumors, internal properties and contour so that it gets possible to have differential diagnosis of lesions and prediction on the lesion whether it is malignant or benign. In addition, the use of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration and EUS-guided core biopsy made it possible to make histological differential diagnosis. This study intended to investigate endoscopic and EUS findings, histological diagnosis, treatment regimen and impression of colorectal SELs. PMID:26240803

  3. Predicting cortical dark/bright asymmetries from natural image statistics and early visual transforms.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Norcia, Anthony M

    2015-05-01

    The nervous system has evolved in an environment with structure and predictability. One of the ubiquitous principles of sensory systems is the creation of circuits that capitalize on this predictability. Previous work has identified predictable non-uniformities in the distributions of basic visual features in natural images that are relevant to the encoding tasks of the visual system. Here, we report that the well-established statistical distributions of visual features--such as visual contrast, spatial scale, and depth--differ between bright and dark image components. Following this analysis, we go on to trace how these differences in natural images translate into different patterns of cortical input that arise from the separate bright (ON) and dark (OFF) pathways originating in the retina. We use models of these early visual pathways to transform natural images into statistical patterns of cortical input. The models include the receptive fields and non-linear response properties of the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways, with their ON and OFF pathway divisions. The results indicate that there are regularities in visual cortical input beyond those that have previously been appreciated from the direct analysis of natural images. In particular, several dark/bright asymmetries provide a potential account for recently discovered asymmetries in how the brain processes visual features, such as violations of classic energy-type models. On the basis of our analysis, we expect that the dark/bright dichotomy in natural images plays a key role in the generation of both cortical and perceptual asymmetries. PMID:26020624

  4. Multidimensional Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Early Impairment in Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Mabray, Marc C; Talbott, Jason F; Whetstone, William D; Dhall, Sanjay S; Phillips, David B; Pan, Jonathan Z; Manley, Geoffrey T; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Beattie, Michael S; Haefeli, Jenny; Ferguson, Adam R

    2016-05-15

    Literature examining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has focused on cervical SCI. Reproducible systems have been developed for MRI-based grading; however, it is unclear how they apply to thoracic SCI. Our hypothesis is that MRI measures will group as coherent multivariate principal component (PC) ensembles, and that distinct PCs and individual variables will show discriminant validity for predicting early impairment in thoracic SCI. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 25 patients with acute thoracic SCI who underwent MRI on admission and had American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) assessment at hospital discharge. Imaging variables of axial grade, sagittal grade, length of injury, thoracolumbar injury classification system (TLICS), maximum canal compromise (MCC), and maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC) were collected. We performed an analytical workflow to detect multivariate PC patterns followed by explicit hypothesis testing to predict AIS at discharge. All imaging variables loaded positively on PC1 (64.3% of variance), which was highly related to AIS at discharge. MCC, MSCC, and TLICS also loaded positively on PC2 (22.7% of variance), while variables concerning cord signal abnormality loaded negatively on PC2. PC2 was highly related to the patient undergoing surgical decompression. Variables of signal abnormality were all negatively correlated with AIS at discharge with the highest level of correlation for axial grade as assessed with the Brain and Spinal Injury Center (BASIC) score. A multiple variable model identified BASIC as the only statistically significant predictor of AIS at discharge, signifying that BASIC best captured the variance in AIS within our study population. Our study provides evidence of convergent validity, construct validity, and clinical predictive validity for the sampled MRI measures of SCI when applied in acute thoracic and thoracolumbar SCI. PMID:26414451

  5. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes. PMID:23998347

  6. Preschool Speech Intelligibility and Vocabulary Skills Predict Long-Term Speech and Language Outcomes Following Cochlear Implantation in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C.; Colson, Bethany G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants, but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine if early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of cochlear implants. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3 – 6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes. PMID:23998347

  7. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. Objective: We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. Methods: We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. Results: We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early

  8. Early Ethanol Consumption Predicts Relapse-Like Behavior in Adolescent Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L.; Kingsley, Megan A.; Rezvani, Amir H.; Propst, Kiayia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    , and circulating corticosterone levels did not significantly predict deprivation-stimulated consumption. Conclusions These results suggest that consumption during early exposure to ethanol establishes a pattern leading to development of increased alcohol consumption and preference in adolescent male rats. In addition, they represent an animal model of the well-described observation that humans who consume large quantities of ethanol during early exposure are the most likely to repeat heave drinking behavior. Furthermore, early consumption is distinct from novelty seeking, anxiety, and stress hormone levels which are also thought to contribute to vulnerability to alcoholism. PMID:18336637

  9. p16 staining has limited value in predicting the outcome of histological low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Sagasta, Amaia; Castillo, Paola; Saco, Adela; Torné, Aureli; Esteve, Roser; Marimon, Lorena; Ordi, Jaume; Del Pino, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of p16 staining in predicting the outcome of histological low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (LSIL/CIN1) we prospectively recruited all the patients referred to colposcopy from 2003 to 2011 due to abnormal screening test results and diagnosed with LSIL/CIN1 at biopsy (n=507). All biopsies were stained for p16 and re-evaluated after three years by the same gynecological pathologist using the LAST criteria. Follow-up was conducted every 6 months and included a Pap test (liquid-based cytology), high-risk human papillomavirus testing (Hybrid Capture 2 test), and colposcopy. The mean follow-up was 28 months. An outcome diagnosis of HSIL was defined as a histological diagnosis of high-grade SIL/CIN (HSIL/CIN2-3). The diagnosis of LSIL/CIN1 was confirmed in 416 out of 507 biopsies (82%), whereas 58 (11%) were reclassified as negative and 33 (6%) as HSIL/CIN2-3. During follow-up, 86/507 women initially diagnosed with LSIL/CIN1 (17%) showed an outcome diagnosis of HSIL/CIN2-3, with the rate of HSIL final diagnosis of 3% (2/58) in the women with biopsies reclassified as negative, 17% (70/416) in the group with confirmed LSIL and 42% (14/33) in the women with biopsies reclassified as HSIL (P<0.001). p16 was positive in 245/507 patients (48%) and in 210/416 patients (50%) with confirmed LSIL/CIN1 at re-evaluation. Although positive p16 immunostaining was associated with risk of HSIL/CIN2-3 outcome in the multivariate analysis (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-3.1; P=0.009) in the overall group of patients with LSIL/CIN1, this association was not verified in the subset of patients with confirmed LSIL/CIN1 after re-evaluation (HR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-2.6; P=0.095). In conclusion, in LSIL/CIN1 lesions p16 should be limited to equivocal cases in which HSIL/CIN2 is included in the differential diagnosis since it has low value in clinical practice as a marker of progression of

  10. The enduring predictive significance of early maternal sensitivity: social and academic competence through age 32 years.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Roisman, Glenn I; Fraley, R Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through midadolescence in a manner consistent with an enduring effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social competence (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes. PMID:25521785

  11. Lesion enhancement diminishes with time in primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Khaleeli, Z; Ciccarelli, O; Mizskiel, K; Altmann, D; Miller, D H; Thompson, A J

    2010-03-01

    Fewer gadolinium-enhancing lesions are seen in established primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) compared with other subtypes. Previously, we found unexpectedly high enhancement levels in early PPMS (42%), suggesting an early inflammatory phase. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this level of enhancement was maintained, and whether it influenced clinical progression, over 5 years. Forty-five patients with PPMS, within 5 years of onset, were scored on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) and its subtests (including the timed walk test [TWT]) 6-monthly for 3 years, and at 5 years. T1-weighted brain and spinal cord images after triple dose gadolinium-DTPA, and T2-weighted brain sequences were also acquired. A mixed effect logistic model evaluated change in the percentage of patients with enhancing lesions. Ordinal logistic and multiple linear regression models identified predictors of progression, adjusted for T2 lesion load. The percentage of patients with enhancing lesions in the brain and spinal cord declined over 5 years (p = 0.03). Among patients with enhancement, more enhancing lesions at baseline predicted greater decline in mobility on the TWT over 5 years (p = 0.02). In conclusion, a proportion of patients with PPMS may undergo an early inflammatory phase, which has some impact on subsequent mobility. PMID:20203148

  12. Machine learning framework for early MRI-based Alzheimer's conversion prediction in MCI subjects.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Elaheh; Pepe, Antonietta; Gaser, Christian; Huttunen, Heikki; Tohka, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    -validated AUC score of 0.9020 in discriminating pMCI from sMCI. The results presented in this study demonstrate the potential of the suggested approach for early AD diagnosis and an important role of MRI in the MCI-to-AD conversion prediction. However, it is evident based on our results that combining MRI data with cognitive test results improved the accuracy of the MCI-to-AD conversion prediction. PMID:25312773

  13. PREDICT Plus: development and validation of a prognostic model for early breast cancer that includes HER2

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, G C; Bajdik, C D; Dicks, E; Provenzano, E; Schmidt, M K; Sherman, M; Greenberg, D C; Green, A R; Gelmon, K A; Kosma, V-M; Olson, J E; Beckmann, M W; Winqvist, R; Cross, S S; Severi, G; Huntsman, D; Pylkäs, K; Ellis, I; Nielsen, T O; Giles, G; Blomqvist, C; Fasching, P A; Couch, F J; Rakha, E; Foulkes, W D; Blows, F M; Bégin, L R; van't Veer, L J; Southey, M; Nevanlinna, H; Mannermaa, A; Cox, A; Cheang, M; Baglietto, L; Caldas, C; Garcia-Closas, M; Pharoah, P D P

    2012-01-01

    Background: Predict (www.predict.nhs.uk) is an online, breast cancer prognostication and treatment benefit tool. The aim of this study was to incorporate the prognostic effect of HER2 status in a new version (Predict+), and to compare its performance with the original Predict and Adjuvant!. Methods: The prognostic effect of HER2 status was based on an analysis of data from 10 179 breast cancer patients from 14 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The hazard ratio estimates were incorporated into Predict. The validation study was based on 1653 patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer identified from the British Columbia Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit. Predicted overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) for Predict+, Predict and Adjuvant! were compared with observed outcomes. Results: All three models performed well for both OS and BCSS. Both Predict models provided better BCSS estimates than Adjuvant!. In the subset of patients with HER2-positive tumours, Predict+ performed substantially better than the other two models for both OS and BCSS. Conclusion: Predict+ is the first clinical breast cancer prognostication tool that includes tumour HER2 status. Use of the model might lead to more accurate absolute treatment benefit predictions for individual patients. PMID:22850554

  14. Nomogram Incorporating CD44v6 and Clinicopathological Factors to Predict Lymph Node Metastasis for Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Bang Wool; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Boram; Jo, Min Jung; Choi, Seung Ho; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo; Kook, Myeong-Cherl

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment strategy for early gastric cancer depends on the probability of lymph node metastasis. The aim of this study is to develop a nomogram predicting lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer using clinicopathological factors and biomarkers. Methods A literature review was performed to identify biomarkers related to lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Seven markers were selected and immunohistochemistry was performed in 336 early gastric cancer tissues. Based on the multivariable analysis, a prediction model including clinicopatholgical factors and biomarkers was developed, and benefit of adding biomarkers was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating curve and net reclassification improvement. Functional study in gastric cancer cell line was performed to evaluate mechanism of biomarker. Results Of the seven biomarkers studied, α1 catenin and CD44v6 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. A conventional prediction model, including tumor size, histological type, lymphatic blood vessel invasion, and depth of invasion, was developed. Then, a new prediction model including both clinicopathological factors and CD44v6 was developed. Net reclassification improvement analysis revealed a significant improvement of predictive performance by the addition of CD44v6, and a similar result was shown in the internal validation using bootstrapping. Prediction nomograms were then constructed based on these models. In the functional study, CD44v6 was revealed to affect cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Conclusions Overexpression of CD44v6 was a significant predictor of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer. The prediction nomograms incorporating CD44v6 can be useful to determine treatment plans in patients with early gastric cancer. PMID:27482895

  15. Eosinophil Granule Proteins ECP and EPX as Markers for a Potential Early-Stage Inflammatory Lesion in Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS)

    PubMed Central

    Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Ravaoalimalala, Vololomboahangy Elisabeth; Leutscher, Peter; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding

    2014-01-01

    Background Genital granulomas induced by Schistosoma haematobium eggs can manifest as different lesion types visible by colposcopy; rubbery papules (RP), homogenous sandy patches (HSP) and grainy sandy patches (GSP). Pronounced tissue eosinophilia is a candidate marker for active S. haematobium pathology, as viable schistosome egg granulomas often are eosinophil rich. Here it was investigated whether eosinophil granule proteins ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) and EPX (eosinophil protein-X) in urine and genital lavage can be used as markers for active FGS lesions. Methods Uro-genital samples from 118 Malagasy women were analysed for ECP and EPX by standard sandwich avidin/biotin amplified ELISA. Principal findings The women with RP lesions had significantly higher levels of ECP and EPX in both lavage and urine. Furthermore, women with RP lesions were significantly younger than those with GSP. This could indicate that RP lesions might be more recently established and thus represent an earlier inflammatory lesion stage. Conclusion ECP in genital lavage might be a future tool aiding the identification of FGS pathology at a stage where reversibility remains a possibility following praziquantel treatment. PMID:25033206

  16. Prolonged QT interval at onset of acute myocardial infarction in predicting early phase ventricular tachycardia

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.J.; Crampton, R.S.; Gibson, R.S.; Stebbins, P.T.; Waldman, M.T.; Beller, G.A.

    1981-07-01

    The prospectively assessed time course of changes in ventricular repolarization during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is reported in 32 patients admitted 2.0 +/- 1.8 (SD) hours after AMI onset. The initial corrected QT interval (QTc) upon hospitalization was longer in the 14 patients developing ventricular tachycardia (VT) within the first 48 hours as compared to QTc in the eight patients with frequent ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and to QTc in the 10 patients with infrequent VPBs. By the fifth day after AMI onset, the QTc shortened significantly only in the VT group, suggesting a greater initial abnormality of repolarization in these patients. All 32 patients had coronary angiography, radionuclide ventriculography, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy before hospital discharge. Significant discriminating factors related to early phase VT in AMI included initially longer QT and QTc intervals, faster heart rate, higher peak serum levels of creatine kinase, acute anterior infarction, angiographically documented proximal stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and scintigraphic evidence of hypoperfusion of the interventricular septum. Prior infarction, angina pectoris, hypertension, multivessel coronary artery disease, and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction did not provide discrimination among the three different ventricular arrhythmia AMI groups. Researchers conclude that (1) the QT interval is frequently prolonged early in AMI, (2) the initial transiently prolonged ventricular repolarization facilitates and predicts complex ventricular tachyarrhythmias within the first 48 hours of AMI, (3) jeopardized blood supply to the interventricular septum frequently coexists, and (4) therapeutic enhancement of rapid recovery of the ventricular repolarization process merits investigation for prevention of VT in AMI.

  17. The Carbon_h-Factor: Predicting Individuals' Research Impact at Early Stages of Their Career

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005) introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term “research impact” to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific “impact” of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well). As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor) into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology) and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal) with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx. 0.4, 0

  18. Exposure to Movie Reckless Driving in Early Adolescence Predicts Reckless, but Not Inattentive Driving

    PubMed Central

    Kostermans, Evelien; Stoolmiller, Mike; de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examine the association between exposure to depictions of reckless driving in movies and unsafe driving, modeling inattentive and reckless driving as separate outcomes. Methods Data were obtained by telephone from 1,630 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were drivers at a survey 6 years later. Exposure to movie reckless driving was measured based on movies seen from a randomly selected list of 50 movie titles that had been content coded for reckless driving among characters. Associations were tested with inattentive and reckless driving behaviors in the subsequent survey–controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, parental education, school performance, extracurricular activities, daily television and video/computer game exposure, number of movies watched per week, self-regulation and sensation seeking. Results Exposure to movie reckless driving was common, with approximately 10% of movie characters having driven recklessly. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a significant distinction between items tapping reckless and inattentive driving at the 6th wave. Age and exposure to movie reckless driving at baseline were directly associated with wave-6 reckless (but not inattentive) driving. Additionally, growth in sensation seeking mediated a prospective relation between the total number of movies watched per week at baseline and reckless driving, independent of exposure to movie reckless driving. Males and high sensation seekers reported lower seatbelt usage and more reckless driving, whereas lower self-regulation predicted inattentive driving. Discussion In this study, exposure to movie reckless driving during early adolescence predicted adolescents’ reckless driving, suggesting a direct modeling effect. Other aspects of movies were also associated with reckless driving, with that association mediated through growth in sensation seeking. Predictors of reckless driving were different from predictors of inattentive driving

  19. Compensatory saccades benefit from prediction during head impulse testing in early recovery from vestibular deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Agrawal, Yuri; Newman-Toker, David E; Xie, Li; Saber Tehrani, Ali S; Wong, Aaron; Schubert, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The head impulse test (HIT) can identify a deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) by the compensatory saccade (CS) generated once the head stops moving. The inward HIT is considered safer than the outward HIT, yet might have an oculomotor advantage given that the subject would presumably know the direction of head rotation. Here, we compare CS latencies following inward (presumed predictable) and outward (more unpredictable) HITs after acute unilateral vestibular nerve deafferentation. Seven patients received inward and outward HITs delivered at six consecutive postoperative days (POD) and again at POD 30. All head impulses were recorded by portable video-oculography. CS included those occurring during (covert) or after (overt) head rotation. Inward HITs included mean CS latencies (183.48 ms ± 4.47 SE) that were consistently shorter than those generated during outward HITs in the first 6 POD (p = 0.0033). Inward HITs induced more covert saccades compared to outward HITs, acutely. However, by POD 30 there were no longer any differences in latencies or proportions of CS and direction of head rotation. Patients with acute unilateral vestibular loss likely use predictive cues of head direction to elicit early CS to keep the image centered on the fovea. In acute vestibular hypofunction, inwardly applied HITs may risk a preponderance of covert saccades, yet this difference largely disappears within 30 days. Advantages of inwardly applied HITs are discussed and must be balanced against the risk of a false-negative HIT interpretation. PMID:26088345

  20. Early starting, aggressive, and/or callous-unemotional? Examining the overlap and predictive utility of antisocial behavior subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Luke W.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Shaw, Daniel S.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Forbes, Erika E.

    2015-01-01

    Antisocial behavior (AB) in adolescence predicts problematic outcomes in adulthood. However, researchers have noted marked heterogeneity within the broad group of youth engaging in these destructive behaviors and have attempted to identify those with distinct etiologies and different trajectories of symptoms. In the present study, we evaluate three prominent AB subtyping approaches: age of onset, presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and aggressive versus rule breaking symptoms. We examined the overlap of these subtypes and their predictive validity in a diverse sample of 268 low-income young men followed prospectively from adolescence into emerging adulthood. We found that those with early starting AB were uniquely high on aggressive symptoms but not on CU traits. Early starting AB and both aggression and rule breaking measured during adolescence predicted most subsequent psychiatric and AB outcomes in early adulthood in univariate models, whereas CU traits were only predictive of adolescent arrests, later substance dependence diagnosis, and later CU traits. Finally, after accounting for shared variance among predictor variables, we found that aggressive symptoms explained the most unique variance in predicting several later outcomes (e.g., antisocial personality disorder) over and above other subtyping approaches. Results are discussed in relation to of the utility of existing subtyping approaches to AB, noting that aggression and age of onset, but not CU traits, appear to be the best at predicting later negative outcome. PMID:25603360

  1. Skills of yearly prediction of the early-season rainfall over southern China by the NCEP climate forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Siyu; Yang, Song; Deng, Yi; Li, Qiaoping

    2015-11-01

    The prominent rainfall over southern China from April to June, usually characterized by a rain belt aligned in a southwest-northeast direction, is referred to here as the early-season rainfall (ESR). The predictability of the ESR is studied by analyzing the 45-day hindcast made with the US National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) and several observational data sets. Skills of predicting the ESR and the associated atmospheric circulation and surface air temperature (SAT) patterns in each year are assessed with multiple methods. Results show that the ESR can be well predicted by the CFSv2 in advance by 20 days in some years including 2005 and 2006, while the lead time of skillful prediction is limited to around 1 week in some other years such as 2001 and 2010. More accurate predictions of the ESR seem to be related to the higher skills of CFSv2 in predicting the dominant modes of the rainfall variability. Moreover, atmospheric circulation patterns associated with the ESR and the SAT over the western Pacific warm pool in the preceding winter can be important signals for ESR prediction since in the years with good skills of ESR prediction, the CFSv2 also predicted these signals successfully. An overestimate (underestimate) of the SAT may lead to large biases in the predicted atmospheric circulation and subsequently result in an underestimate (overestimate) southern China ESR.

  2. Perfusion-Weighted MRI Parameters for Prediction of Early Progressive Infarction in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Yerim; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Seong Rim

    2016-01-01

    Objective Early progressive infarction (EPI) is frequently observed and related to poor functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction caused by MCA occlusion. We evaluated the perfusion parameters of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a predictor of EPI. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients with acute MCA territory infarction caused by MCA occlusion. EPI was defined as a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale increment ≥2 points during 24 hours despite receiving standard treatment. Regional parameter ratios, such as cerebral blood flow and volume (rCBV) ratio (ipsilateral value/contralateral value) on perfusion MRI were analyzed to investigate the association with EPI. Results Sixty-four patients were enrolled in total. EPI was present in 18 (28%) subjects and all EPI occurred within 3 days after hospitalization. Diabetes mellitus, rCBV ratio and regional time to peak (rTTP) ratio showed statically significant differences in both groups. Multi-variate analysis indicated that history of diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR), 6.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55–24.24] and a low rCBV ratio (rCBV, <0.85; OR, 6.57; 95% CI, 1.4–30.27) was significantly correlated with EPI. Conclusion The incidence of EPI is considerable in patients with acute MCA territory infarction caused by MCA occlusion. We suggest that rCBV ratio is a useful neuro-imaging parameter to predict EPI. PMID:27446514

  3. Early deictic but not other gestures predict later vocabulary in both typical development and autism.

    PubMed

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Adamson, Lauren B; Dimitrova, Nevena

    2016-08-01

    Research with typically developing children suggests a strong positive relation between early gesture use and subsequent vocabulary development. In this study, we ask whether gesture production plays a similar role for children with autism spectrum disorder. We observed 23 18-month-old typically developing children and 23 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder interact with their caregivers (Communication Play Protocol) and coded types of gestures children produced (deictic, give, conventional, and iconic) in two communicative contexts (commenting and requesting). One year later, we assessed children's expressive vocabulary, using Expressive Vocabulary Test. Children with autism spectrum disorder showed significant deficits in gesture production, particularly in deictic gestures (i.e. gestures that indicate objects by pointing at them or by holding them up). Importantly, deictic gestures-but not other gestures-predicted children's vocabulary 1 year later regardless of communicative context, a pattern also found in typical development. We conclude that the production of deictic gestures serves as a stepping-stone for vocabulary development. PMID:26503989

  4. Early prediction of medication refractoriness in children with idiopathic epilepsy based on scalp EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Wu, Rong-Ching; Wu, Hui-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    Refractory epilepsy often has deleterious effects on an individual's health and quality of life. Early identification of patients whose seizures are refractory to antiepileptic drugs is important in considering the use of alternative treatments. Although idiopathic epilepsy is regarded as having a significantly lower risk factor of developing refractory epilepsy, still a subset of patients with idiopathic epilepsy might be refractory to medical treatment. In this study, we developed an effective method to predict the refractoriness of idiopathic epilepsy. Sixteen EEG segments from 12 well-controlled patients and 14 EEG segments from 11 refractory patients were analyzed at the time of first EEG recordings before antiepileptic drug treatment. Ten crucial EEG feature descriptors were selected for classification. Three of 10 were related to decorrelation time, and four of 10 were related to relative power of delta/gamma. There were significantly higher values in these seven feature descriptors in the well-controlled group as compared to the refractory group. On the contrary, the remaining three feature descriptors related to spectral edge frequency, kurtosis, and energy of wavelet coefficients demonstrated significantly lower values in the well-controlled group as compared to the refractory group. The analyses yielded a weighted precision rate of 94.2%, and a 93.3% recall rate. Therefore, the developed method is a useful tool in identifying the possibility of developing refractory epilepsy in patients with idiopathic epilepsy. PMID:25164248

  5. Changes in Early Cortical Visual Processing Predict Enhanced Reactivity in Deaf Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bottari, Davide; Caclin, Anne; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with profound deafness rely critically on vision to interact with their environment. Improvement of visual performance as a consequence of auditory deprivation is assumed to result from cross-modal changes occurring in late stages of visual processing. Here we measured reaction times and event-related potentials (ERPs) in profoundly deaf adults and hearing controls during a speeded visual detection task, to assess to what extent the enhanced reactivity of deaf individuals could reflect plastic changes in the early cortical processing of the stimulus. We found that deaf subjects were faster than hearing controls at detecting the visual targets, regardless of their location in the visual field (peripheral or peri-foveal). This behavioural facilitation was associated with ERP changes starting from the first detectable response in the striate cortex (C1 component) at about 80 ms after stimulus onset, and in the P1 complex (100–150 ms). In addition, we found that P1 peak amplitudes predicted the response times in deaf subjects, whereas in hearing individuals visual reactivity and ERP amplitudes correlated only at later stages of processing. These findings show that long-term auditory deprivation can profoundly alter visual processing from the earliest cortical stages. Furthermore, our results provide the first evidence of a co-variation between modified brain activity (cortical plasticity) and behavioural enhancement in this sensory-deprived population. PMID:21980501

  6. Predicting childhood effortful control from interactions between early parenting quality and children's dopamine transporter gene haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Sulik, Michael J; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Stover, Daryn A; Verrelli, Brian C

    2016-02-01

    Children's observed effortful control (EC) at 30, 42, and 54 months (n = 145) was predicted from the interaction between mothers' observed parenting with their 30-month-olds and three variants of the solute carrier family C6, member 3 (SLC6A3) dopamine transporter gene (single nucleotide polymorphisms in intron8 and intron13, and a 40 base pair variable number tandem repeat [VNTR] in the 3'-untranslated region [UTR]), as well as haplotypes of these variants. Significant moderating effects were found. Children without the intron8-A/intron13-G, intron8-A/3'-UTR VNTR-10, or intron13-G/3'-UTR VNTR-10 haplotypes (i.e., haplotypes associated with the reduced SLC6A3 gene expression and thus lower dopamine functioning) appeared to demonstrate altered levels of EC as a function of maternal parenting quality, whereas children with these haplotypes demonstrated a similar EC level regardless of the parenting quality. Children with these haplotypes demonstrated a trade-off, such that they showed higher EC, relative to their counterparts without these haplotypes, when exposed to less supportive maternal parenting. The findings revealed a diathesis-stress pattern and suggested that different SLC6A3 haplotypes, but not single variants, might represent different levels of young children's sensitivity/responsivity to early parenting. PMID:25924976

  7. Monitoring and prediction in early warning systems for rapid mass movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stähli, M.; Sättele, M.; Huggel, C.; McArdell, B. W.; Lehmann, P.; Van Herwijnen, A.; Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Ferrari, A.; Kos, A.; Or, D.; Springman, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    Rapid mass movements (RMM) pose a substantial risk to people and infrastructure. Reliable and cost-efficient measures have to be taken to reduce this risk. One of these measures includes establishing and advancing the state of practice in the application of early warning systems (EWSs). EWSs have been developed during the past decades and are rapidly increasing. In this paper, we focus on the technical part of EWSs, i.e., the prediction and timely recognition of imminent hazards, as well as on monitoring slopes at risk and released mass movements. Recent innovations in assessing spatial precipitation, monitoring and precursors of the triggering and deformation of RMM offer new opportunities for next-generation EWSs. However, technical advancement can only be transferred into more reliable, operational EWSs with an adequate well-instructed dedicated staff. To this end, an intense dialog between scientists, engineers and those in charge of warning, as well as further experience with new comprehensive prototype systems jointly operated by scientists and practitioners, will be essential.

  8. Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection.

    PubMed

    Li, Norman P; Yong, Jose C; Tov, William; Sng, Oliver; Fletcher, Garth J O; Valentine, Katherine A; Jiang, Yun F; Balliet, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Although mate preference research has firmly established that men value physical attractiveness more than women do and women value social status more than men do, recent speed-dating studies have indicated mixed evidence (at best) for whether people's sex-differentiated mate preferences predict actual mate choices. According to an evolutionary, mate preference priority model (Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier, 2002; Li & Kenrick, 2006; Li, Valentine, & Patel, 2011), the sexes are largely similar in what they ideally like, but for long-term mates, they should differ on what they most want to avoid in early selection contexts. Following this model, we conducted experiments using online messaging and modified speed-dating platforms. Results indicate that when a mating pool includes people at the low end of social status and physical attractiveness, mate choice criteria are sex-differentiated: Men, more than women, chose mates based on physical attractiveness, whereas women, more than men, chose mates based on social status. In addition, individuals who more greatly valued social status or physical attractiveness on paper valued these traits more in their actual choices. In particular, mate choices were sex-differentiated when considering long-term relationships but not short-term ones, where both sexes shunned partners with low physical attractiveness. The findings validate a large body of mate preferences research and an evolutionary perspective on mating, and they have implications for research using speed-dating and other interactive contexts. PMID:23915041

  9. Prediction model for aneuploidy in early human embryo development revealed by single-cell analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Rodriguez, Maria; Chavez, Shawn L.; Rubio, Carmen; Pera, Renee A. Reijo; Simon, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidies are prevalent in the human embryo and impair proper development, leading to cell cycle arrest. Recent advances in imaging and molecular and genetic analyses are postulated as promising strategies to unveil the mechanisms involved in aneuploidy generation. Here we combine time-lapse, complete chromosomal assessment and single-cell RT–qPCR to simultaneously obtain information from all cells that compose a human embryo until the approximately eight-cell stage (n=85). Our data indicate that the chromosomal status of aneuploid embryos (n=26), including those that are mosaic (n=3), correlates with significant differences in the duration of the first mitotic phase when compared with euploid embryos (n=28). Moreover, gene expression profiling suggests that a subset of genes is differentially expressed in aneuploid embryos during the first 30 h of development. Thus, we propose that the chromosomal fate of an embryo is likely determined as early as the pronuclear stage and may be predicted by a 12-gene transcriptomic signature. PMID:26151134

  10. Pretreatment Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Improves Prediction of Early Distant Metastases in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Shy-Chyi; Lin, Chien-Yu; Huang, Bing-Shen; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ku, Yi-Kang; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Li, Cheng-He; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Liao, Chun-Ta; Liu, Ho-Ling; Sung, Kyunghyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of early distant metastases (DM) in patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) plays an important role in selecting the most appropriate treatment approach. Here, we sought to investigate the predictive value of distinct MRI parameters for the detection of early DM. Between November 2010 and June 2011, a total of 51 newly diagnosed NPC patients were included. All of the study participants were followed until December 2014 at a single institution after completion of therapy. DM was defined as early when they were detected on pretreatment FDG-PET scans or within 6 months after initial diagnosis. The following parameters were tested for their ability to predict early DM: pretreatment FDG-PET standardized uptake value (SUV), MRI-derived AJCC tumor staging, tumor volume, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) values. The DCE-derived ve was defined as the volume fraction of the extravascular, extracellular space. Compared with patients without early DM, patients with early DM had higher SUV, tumor volume, DCE mean (median) ve, ve skewness, ve kurtosis, and the largest mean ve selected among sequential slices (P < 0.05). No differences were identified when early DM were defined only according to the results of pretreatment FDG-PET. Among different quantitative DCE parameters, the mean ve had the highest area under curve (AUC, 0.765). However, the AUCs of SUV, tumor volume, mean ve, ve skewness, ve kurtosis, or the largest mean ve selected among the sequential slices did not differ significantly from one another (P = 0.82). Taken together, our results suggest that DCE-derived ve may be a useful parameter in combination with SUV and tumor volume for predicting early DM. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI may be complementary to FDG-PET for selecting the most appropriate treatment approach in NPC patients. PMID:26871776

  11. Use of mental health telemetry to enhance identification and predictive value of early changes during augmentation treatment of major depression.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Ayal; Kreindler, David; Reis, Catherine; Levitt, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    Standard clinical trial methodology in depression does not allow for careful examination of early changes in symptom intensity. The purpose of this study was to use daily "Mental Health Telemetry" (MHT) to prospectively record change in depressive and anxiety symptoms for depressed patients receiving augmentation treatment, and determine the extent and predictive capacity of early changes. We report results of a 6-week, open-label study of the addition of quetiapine XR (range, 50-300 mg) for adult patients (n = 26) with major depressive disorder who were nonresponsive to antidepressant treatment. In addition to regular study visits, all participants completed daily, wirelessly transmitted self-report ratings of symptoms on a Smartphone. Daily and 3-day moving average mean scores were calculated, and associations between early symptom change and eventual response to treatment were determined. Improvement in depressive and anxiety symptoms was identified as early as day 1 of treatment. Of the total decline in depression severity over 6 weeks, 9% was present at day 1, 28% at day 2, 39% at days 3 and 4, 65% at day 7, and 80% at day 10. Self-report rating of early improvement (≥20%) in depressive symptoms at day 7 significantly predicted responder status at week 6 (P = 0.03). Clinician-rated depressive and anxiety symptoms only became significantly associated with responder status at day 14. In conclusion, very early changes in depressive symptoms were identified using MHT, early changes accounted for most of total change, and MHT-recorded improvement as early as day 7 significantly predicted response to treatment at study end point. PMID:24100787

  12. Early identification of young children at risk for poor academic achievement: preliminary development of a parent-report prediction tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Early school success is clearly related to later health. A prediction index that uses parent report to assess children's risk for poor academic achievement could potentially direct targeted service delivery to improve child outcomes. Methods We obtained risk factors through literature review and used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child Files to examine the predictive associations of these factors with academic achievement scores. Results Twenty predictors were identified including four strong predictors (maternal education, child gender, family income, and low birth weight). Significantly, 12 predictors explained 17-24% of score variance. Conclusions Parent-reported factors provide predictive accuracy for academic achievement. PMID:21851586

  13. Predicting Change in Early Adolescent Problem Behavior in the Middle School Years: A Mesosystemic Perspective on Parenting and Peer Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the…

  14. Predicting First Grade Reading Achievement for Spanish-Speaking Kindergartners: Is Early Literacy Screening in English Valid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.; Huang, Francis

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the viability of using kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, and orthographic knowledge, administered in English, to predict first grade reading achievement of Spanish-speaking English language learners. The primary research question was: Do kindergarten measures of early literacy skills in…

  15. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  16. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  17. Is the spatial distribution of brain lesions associated with closed-head injury in children predictive of subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herskovits, Edward H.; Gerring, Joan P.; Davatzikos, Christos; Bryan, R. Nick

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an association between the spatial distributions of lesions detected at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain in children, adolescents, and young adults after closed-head injury (CHI) and development of the reexperiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data obtained in 94 subjects without a history of PTSD as determined by parental interview were analyzed. MR images were obtained 3 months after CHI. Lesions were manually delineated and registered to the Talairach coordinate system. Mann-Whitney analysis of lesion distribution and PTSD status at 1 year (again, as determined by parental interview) was performed, consisting of an analysis of lesion distribution versus the major symptoms of PTSD: reexperiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance. RESULTS: Of the 94 subjects, 41 met the PTSD reexperiencing criterion and nine met all three PTSD criteria. Subjects who met the reexperiencing criterion had fewer lesions in limbic system structures (eg, the cingulum) on the right than did subjects who did not meet this criterion (Mann-Whitney, P =.003). CONCLUSION: Lesions induced by CHI in the limbic system on the right may inhibit subsequent manifestation of PTSD reexperiencing symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults. Copyright RSNA, 2002.

  18. Early Childhood Assessments of Community Pediatric Professionals Predict Autism Spectrum and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2013-01-01

    For clinically referred children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) several early indicators have been described. However, knowledge is lacking on early markers of less severe variants of ASD and ADHD from the general population. The aim of the present study is to identify early indicators of…

  19. The predictive value of early treatment response in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode psychosis: Haloperidol versus olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sean A; Rosebush, Patricia I; Anglin, Rebecca E; Mazurek, Michael F

    2016-07-30

    Early antipsychotic response predicts outcomes for psychotic patients, but recent evidence suggests that this may not be true for patients treated with olanzapine. In this study, we assessed the predictive value of early response to olanzapine or haloperidol in 75 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode psychosis inpatients. Patients were assessed weekly using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Regression analyses were used to determine whether improvement at week 2 or week 3 predicted improvement at hospital discharge. The majority of patients in both groups experienced a decrease in symptom severity of ≥50% at week 2. In the haloperidol group, week 2 improvement predicted improvement at discharge for all measures except the HAM-A. In the olanzapine group, week 2 improvement only predicted improvement at discharge for HAM-D scores. However, week 3 improvement in the olanzapine group predicted improvement at discharge for all measures except the HAM-A. Olanzapine non-responders at week 3 (but not week 2) benefited from having olanzapine switched to another antipsychotic. These results suggest that a 2 week trial of haloperidol is sufficient to predict treatment outcomes, while a 3 week trial is required for olanzapine. PMID:27156027

  20. Significance of retinal laser lesion location and subretinal hemorrhage in bridging choroidal neovascular complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuschereba, Steven T.; Clarkson, Donna R.; Valo, Lynn M.; Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2003-06-01

    Purpose: To determine funduscopic criteria that will help predict when bridging choroidal neovascular (CNV) complexes will develop after laser retinal trauma and to define early preventive treatment targets. Methods: Ten rhesus monkeys were used and retinal lesions were produced by Nd:YAG exposures (20ns, 1-2mJ, 1064nm, min. spot size) simulating human accidental laser trauma to the central fundus. Funduscopy and fluorescein/ICG angiography were conducted at day 1, 4, and 14, and at 2 and 4 months, and animals terminated for histologic evaluation. Predisposition for bridging fibrovascular complexes was evaluated for single lesions, two small lesions showing coalescing hemorrhages, and multiple lesions involved with large field subretinal and vitreous hemorrhages. Results: Elevated CNVs were present in all single lesions with confined subretinal hemorrhages. All lesion sets that showed initial and small coalescing subretinal hemorrhages formed bridging CNV scars. No bridging CNVs occurred in lesion sets involving a vitreous hemorrhage adjacent to a confined, but small subretinal hemorrhage. In large field subretinal hemorrhages involving multiple laser lesions, complex CNV formation occurred. Extensive secondary photoreceptor losses occurred in confined hemorrhage and CNV zones. Conclusion: Trauma presenting with evidence of coalescing and confined subretinal hemorrhages between two adjacent lesions has a high chance of forming choroidal neovascular bridge complexes between the involved lesions. CNV formation may be related to the long residence time, break down products, and clearance processes of extravasated blood. Removal of trapped blood and curtailing angiogenesis and cellular proliferation may be helpful treatment strategies.

  1. Interleukin 15 Levels in Serum May Predict a Severe Disease Course in Patients with Early Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Ortiz, Ana M.; Alvaro-Gracia, José María; Castañeda, Santos; Díaz-Sánchez, Belen; Carvajal, Inmaculada; García-Vadillo, J. Alberto; Humbría, Alicia; López-Bote, J. Pedro; Patiño, Esther; Tomero, Eva G.; Vicente, Esther F.; Sabando, Pedro; García-Vicuña, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Background Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is thought to be involved in the physiopathological mechanisms of RA and it can be detected in the serum and the synovial fluid of inflamed joints in patients with RA but not in patients with osteoarthritis or other inflammatory joint diseases. Therefore, the objective of this work is to analyse whether serum IL-15 (sIL-15) levels serve as a biomarker of disease severity in patients with early arthritis (EA). Methodology and Results Data from 190 patients in an EA register were analysed (77.2% female; median age 53 years; 6-month median disease duration at entry). Clinical and treatment information was recorded systematically, especially the prescription of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Two multivariate longitudinal analyses were performed with different dependent variables: 1) DAS28 and 2) a variable reflecting intensive treatment. Both included sIL-15 as predictive variable and other variables associated with disease severity, including rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Of the 171 patients (638 visits analysed) completing the follow-up, 71% suffered rheumatoid arthritis and 29% were considered as undifferentiated arthritis. Elevated sIL-15 was detected in 29% of this population and this biomarker did not overlap extensively with RF or ACPA. High sIL-15 levels (β Coefficient [95% confidence interval]: 0.12 [0.06–0.18]; p<0.001) or ACPA (0.34 [0.01–0.67]; p = 0.044) were significantly and independently associated with a higher DAS28 during follow-up, after adjusting for confounding variables such as gender, age and treatment. In addition, those patients with elevated sIL-15 had a significantly higher risk of receiving intensive treatment (RR 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.18–2.7; p = 0.007). Conclusions Patients with EA displaying high baseline sIL-15 suffered a more severe disease and received more intensive treatment. Thus, sIL-15 may be a biomarker for

  2. A predictive relationship between early season North Atlantic hurricane activity and the upcoming winter North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jessica; Saunders, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is linked strongly to European winter climate including windstorms. Predicting the winter NAO is key to making successful seasonal predictions of European winter climate. We observe that in recent decades there are many instances of an inverse relationship between the strength of the North Atlantic hurricane season and the strength of the subsequent European winter windstorm season. Stormy European winter seasons often follow quiet Atlantic hurricane seasons and calm European winters follow active hurricane seasons. We explore the strength and temporal stability of this inverse relationship, consider a facilitating physical mechanism, and briefly discuss the implications of our findings for end users, in particular global reinsurers. We find there is a statistically significant link between North Atlantic hurricane activity and the upcoming winter NAO. The relationship is established by the midway point of the hurricane season in early September. The link is strongest when hurricane activity is in the upper or lower tercile and when summer ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) is neutral. The relationship works well going back 40 years to the mid 1970s. The early winter (October-November-December) NAO is predicted best but since the early 1980s the predictive link extends to the main winter (December-January-February) NAO. The inverse link can be facilitated by a persistence and slow evolution of atmospheric circulation patterns and sea surface temperature anomalies over the North Atlantic between the summer and the winter. This persistence is best when hurricane seasons are more extreme and when summer ENSO is neutral. Our findings offer the potential for predicting the early winter and winter NAO from early September. The implied inverse relationship between US hurricane activity and European windstorm activity may enable more effective offsetting of risks between territories.

  3. Ethnic identity trajectories among Mexican-origin girls during early and middle adolescence: Predicting future psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early adolescents, growth in exploration was associated with more depressive symptoms during middle adolescence, whereas higher initial levels and greater rates of change of affirmation predicted fewer subsequent depressive symptoms. Among middle adolescents, higher baseline levels of exploration and affirmation predicted fewer depressive symptoms in late adolescence. Higher initial levels and greater change in affirmation predicted higher self-esteem among both cohorts. Findings highlight the developmental and multifaceted quality of ethnic identity and that associations between ethnic identity and adjustment may vary by adolescent developmental stage. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986228

  4. Early Improvement in One Week Predicts the Treatment Response to Escitalopram in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kang-Seob; Shin, Eunsook; Ha, Juwon; Shin, Dongwon; Shin, Youngchul; Lim, Se-Won

    2016-01-01

    Objective Social anxiety disorder (SAD) shows relatively delayed responses to pharmacotherapy when compared to other anxiety disorders. Therefore, more effective early therapeutic decisions can be made if the therapeutic response is predictable as early as possible. We studied whether the therapeutic response at 12 weeks is predictable based on the early improvement with escitalopram at 1 week. Methods The subjects were 28 outpatients diagnosed with SAD. The subjects took 10–20 mg/day of escitalopram. The results of the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS), Hamilton anxiety rating scale, and Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale were evaluated at 0, 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. Early improvement was defined as a ≥10% reduction in the LSAS total at 1 week of treatment, and endpoint response was defined as a ≥35% reduction in the LSAS total score. The correlation between clinical characteristics and therapeutic responses was analyzed by simple linear regression. The correlation between early improvement responses and endpoint responses was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves. Results When we adjusted the influence of a ≥35% reduction in the LSAS total endpoint score on a ≥10% reduction of the LSAS total score at 1 week of treatment for the patients’ age, the early improvement group at 1 week of treatment was expected to show stronger endpoint responses compared to the group with no early improvement. Conclusion The results suggest that a ≥10% reduction in the LSAS total score in a week can predict endpoint treatment response. PMID:27121427

  5. Early prediction of pathological response in locally advanced rectal cancer based on sequential 18F-FDG PET

    PubMed Central

    HATT, MATHIEU; VAN STIPHOUT, RUUD; LE POGAM, ADRIEN; LAMMERING, GUIDO; VISVIKIS, DIMITRIS; LAMBIN, PHILIPPE

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to investigate the predictive value of sequential 18F-FDG PET scans for pathological tumor response grade (TRG) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) and the impact of partial volume effects correction (PVC). Methods Twenty-eight LARC patients were included. Responders and non-responders status were determined in histopathology. PET indices [SUV max and mean, volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG)] at baseline and their evolution after one and two weeks of PCRT were extracted by delineation of the PET images, with or without PVC. Their predictive value was investigated using Mann-Whitney-U tests and ROC analysis. Results Within baseline parameters, only SUVmean was correlated with response. No evolution after one week was predictive of the response, whereas after two weeks all the parameters except volume were, the best prediction being obtained with TLG (AUC 0.79, sensitivity 63%, specificity 92%). PVC had no significant impact on these results. Conclusion Several PET indices at baseline and their evolution after two weeks of PCRT are good predictors of response in LARC, with or without PVC, whereas results after one week are suboptimal. Best predictor was TLG reduction after two weeks, although baseline SUVmean had smaller but similar predictive power. PMID:22873767

  6. Value of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Yu, Xiaoping; Hu, Yin; Li, Feiping; Xiang, Wang; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Hui; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhongping; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Forty-three NPC patients underwent IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI at baseline (pretreatment) and after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (posttreatment). Based on whether locoregional lesions were identified, patients were divided into the residual and nonresidual groups at the end of CRT and into the good-responder and poor-responder groups 6 months after the end of CRT. The pretreatment and posttreatment IVIM-DWI parameters (ADC, D, D∗, and f) and DCE-MRI parameters (Ktrans, Kep, and Ve) values and their percentage changes (Δ%) were compared between the residual and nonresidual groups and between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. None of perfusion-related parametric values derived from either DCE-MRI or IVIM-DWI showed significant differences either between the residual and nonresidual groups or between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. The nonresidual group exhibited lower pre-ADC, lower pre-D, and higher Δ%D values than did the residual group (all P <0.05). The good-responder group had lower pre-D and pre-ADC values than did the poor-responder group (both P <0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pre-D had the highest area under the curve in predicting both the early and short-term responses to CRT for NPC patients (0.817 and 0.854, respectively). IVIM-DWI is more valuable than DCE-MRI in predicting the early and short-term response to CRT for NPC, and furthermore diffusion-related IVIM-DWI parameters (pre-ADC, pre-D, and Δ%D) are more powerful than perfusion-related parameters derived from both IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI. PMID:27583847

  7. Value of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Yu, Xiaoping; Hu, Yin; Li, Feiping; Xiang, Wang; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Hui; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhongping; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Forty-three NPC patients underwent IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI at baseline (pretreatment) and after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (posttreatment). Based on whether locoregional lesions were identified, patients were divided into the residual and nonresidual groups at the end of CRT and into the good-responder and poor-responder groups 6 months after the end of CRT. The pretreatment and posttreatment IVIM-DWI parameters (ADC, D, D*, and f) and DCE-MRI parameters (K, Kep, and Ve) values and their percentage changes (Δ%) were compared between the residual and nonresidual groups and between the good-responder and poor-responder groups.None of perfusion-related parametric values derived from either DCE-MRI or IVIM-DWI showed significant differences either between the residual and nonresidual groups or between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. The nonresidual group exhibited lower pre-ADC, lower pre-D, and higher Δ%D values than did the residual group (all P <0.05). The good-responder group had lower pre-D and pre-ADC values than did the poor-responder group (both P <0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pre-D had the highest area under the curve in predicting both the early and short-term responses to CRT for NPC patients (0.817 and 0.854, respectively).IVIM-DWI is more valuable than DCE-MRI in predicting the early and short-term response to CRT for NPC, and furthermore diffusion-related IVIM-DWI parameters (pre-ADC, pre-D, and Δ%D) are more powerful than perfusion-related parameters derived from both IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI. PMID:27583847

  8. Early Standard Electroencephalogram Abnormalities Predict Mortality in Septic Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Azabou, Eric; Magalhaes, Eric; Braconnier, Antoine; Yahiaoui, Lyria; Moneger, Guy; Heming, Nicholas; Annane, Djillali; Mantz, Jean; Chrétien, Fabrice; Durand, Marie-Christine; Lofaso, Frédéric; Porcher, Raphael; Sharshar, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis is associated with increased mortality, delirium and long-term cognitive impairment in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities occurring at the acute stage of sepsis may correlate with severity of brain dysfunction. Predictive value of early standard EEG abnormalities for mortality in ICU septic patients remains to be assessed. Methods In this prospective, single center, observational study, standard EEG was performed, analyzed and classified according to both Synek and Young EEG scales, in consecutive patients acutely admitted in ICU for sepsis. Delirium, coma and the level of sedation were assessed at the time of EEG recording; and duration of sedation, occurrence of in-ICU delirium or death were assessed during follow-up. Adjusted analyses were carried out using multiple logistic regression. Results One hundred ten patients were included, mean age 63.8 (±18.1) years, median SAPS-II score 38 (29–55). At the time of EEG recording, 46 patients (42%) were sedated and 22 (20%) suffered from delirium. Overall, 54 patients (49%) developed delirium, of which 32 (29%) in the days after EEG recording. 23 (21%) patients died in the ICU. Absence of EEG reactivity was observed in 27 patients (25%), periodic discharges (PDs) in 21 (19%) and electrographic seizures (ESZ) in 17 (15%). ICU mortality was independently associated with a delta-predominant background (OR: 3.36; 95% CI [1.08 to 10.4]), absence of EEG reactivity (OR: 4.44; 95% CI [1.37–14.3], PDs (OR: 3.24; 95% CI [1.03 to 10.2]), Synek grade ≥ 3 (OR: 5.35; 95% CI [1.66–17.2]) and Young grade > 1 (OR: 3.44; 95% CI [1.09–10.8]) after adjustment to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS-II) at admission and level of sedation. Delirium at the time of EEG was associated with ESZ in non-sedated patients (32% vs 10%, p = 0.037); with Synek grade ≥ 3 (36% vs 7%, p< 0.05) and Young grade > 1 (36% vs 17%, p< 0.001). Occurrence of delirium in the days after

  9. Early noninvasive measurement of the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate accurately predicts early graft dysfunction and mortality after deceased donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Olmedilla, Luis; Pérez-Peña, José María; Ripoll, Cristina; Garutti, Ignacio; de Diego, Roberto; Salcedo, Magdalena; Jiménez, Consuelo; Bañares, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    Early diagnosis of graft dysfunction in liver transplantation is essential for taking appropriate action. Indocyanine green clearance is closely related to liver function and can be measured noninvasively by spectrophotometry. The objectives of this study were to prospectively analyze the relationship between the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICGPDR) and early graft function after liver transplantation and to evaluate the role of ICGPDR in the prediction of severe graft dysfunction (SGD). One hundred seventy-two liver transplants from deceased donors were analyzed. Ten patients had SGD: 6 were retransplanted, and 4 died while waiting for a new graft. The plasma disappearance rate was measured 1 hour (PDRr60) and within the first 24 hours (PDR1) after reperfusion, and it was significantly lower in the SGD group. PDRr60 and PDR1 were excellent predictors of SGD. A threshold PDRr60 value of 10.8%/minute and a PDR1 value of 10%/minute accurately predicted SGD with areas under the receiver operating curve of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.97) and 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.98), respectively. In addition, survival was significantly lower in patients with PDRr60 values below 10.8%/minute (53%, 47%, and 47% versus 95%, 94%, and 90% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively) and with PDR1 values below 10%/minute (62%, 62%, and 62% versus 94%, 92%, and 88%). In conclusion, very early noninvasive measurement of ICGPDR can accurately predict early severe graft dysfunction and mortality after liver transplantation. PMID:19790138

  10. Early Sympathy and Social Acceptance Predict the Development of Sharing in Children

    PubMed Central

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika; Chaparro, Maria Paula; Buchmann, Marlis

    2012-01-01

    Sharing is a fascinating activity of the human species and an important basis for the development of fairness, care, and cooperation in human social interaction. Economic research has proposed that sharing, or the willingness to sacrifice own resources for others, has its roots in social emotions such as sympathy. However, only few cross-sectional experiments have investigated children’s other-regarding preferences, and the question how social-emotional skills influence the willingness to share valuable resources has not been tested. In the present longitudinal-experimental study, a sample of 175 6-year-old children, their primary caregivers, and their teachers is examined over a 3-year period of time. Data are analyzed by means of growth curve modeling. The findings show that sharing valuable resources strongly increases in children from 6 to 9 years of age. Increases in sharing behavior are associated with the early-developing ability to sympathize with anonymous others. Sharing at 7 years of age is predicted by feelings of social acceptance at 6 years of age. These findings hold after controlling for children’s IQ and SES. Girls share more equally than boys at 6 and 7 years of age, however, this gender difference disappears at the age of 9 years. These results indicate that human sharing strongly increases in middle childhood and, that this increase is associated with sympathy towards anonymous others and with feelings of social acceptance. Additionally, sharing develops earlier in girls than in boys. This developmental perspective contributes to new evidence on change in sharing and its social-emotional roots. A better understanding of the factors underlying differences in the development of sharing and pro-social orientations should also provide insights into the development of atypical, anti-social orientations which exhibit social-emotional differences such as aggression and bullying behavior. PMID:23272197

  11. Early sympathy and social acceptance predict the development of sharing in children.

    PubMed

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika; Chaparro, Maria Paula; Buchmann, Marlis

    2012-01-01

    Sharing is a fascinating activity of the human species and an important basis for the development of fairness, care, and cooperation in human social interaction. Economic research has proposed that sharing, or the willingness to sacrifice own resources for others, has its roots in social emotions such as sympathy. However, only few cross-sectional experiments have investigated children's other-regarding preferences, and the question how social-emotional skills influence the willingness to share valuable resources has not been tested. In the present longitudinal-experimental study, a sample of 175 6-year-old children, their primary caregivers, and their teachers is examined over a 3-year period of time. Data are analyzed by means of growth curve modeling. The findings show that sharing valuable resources strongly increases in children from 6 to 9 years of age. Increases in sharing behavior are associated with the early-developing ability to sympathize with anonymous others. Sharing at 7 years of age is predicted by feelings of social acceptance at 6 years of age. These findings hold after controlling for children's IQ and SES. Girls share more equally than boys at 6 and 7 years of age, however, this gender difference disappears at the age of 9 years. These results indicate that human sharing strongly increases in middle childhood and, that this increase is associated with sympathy towards anonymous others and with feelings of social acceptance. Additionally, sharing develops earlier in girls than in boys. This developmental perspective contributes to new evidence on change in sharing and its social-emotional roots. A better understanding of the factors underlying differences in the development of sharing and pro-social orientations should also provide insights into the development of atypical, anti-social orientations which exhibit social-emotional differences such as aggression and bullying behavior. PMID:23272197

  12. Developmental trends in auditory processing can provide early predictions of language acquisition in young infants.

    PubMed

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2013-03-01

    Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory - Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. PMID:23432827

  13. Developmental Trends in Auditory Processing Can Provide Early Predictions of Language Acquisition in Young Infants

    PubMed Central

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R.; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory – Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. PMID:23432827

  14. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  15. Temperature-Controlled Retinal Photocoagulation Reliably Generates Uniform Subvisible, Mild, or Moderate Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Koinzer, Stefan; Baade, Alexander; Schlott, Kerstin; Hesse, Carola; Caliebe, Amke; Roider, Johann; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conventional retinal photocoagulation produces irregular lesions and does not allow reliable control of ophthalmoscopically invisible lesions. We applied automatically controlled retinal photocoagulation, which allows to apply uniform lesions without titration, and aimed at five different predictable lesion intensities in a study on rabbit eyes. Methods A conventional 532-nm photocoagulation laser was used in combination with a pulsed probe laser. They facilitated real-time fundus temperature measurements and automatic exposure time control for different predefined time/temperature dependent characteristics (TTC). We applied 225 control lesions (exposure time 200 ms) and 794 TTC lesions (5 intensities, exposure times 7–800 ms) in six rabbit eyes with variable laser power (20–66.4 mW). Starting after 2 hours, we examined fundus color and optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images over 3 months and classified lesion morphologies according to a seven-stage OCT classifier. Results Visibility rates in funduscopy (OCT) after 2 hours were 17% (68%) for TTC intensity group 1, 38% (90%) for TTC group 2 and greater than 94% (>98%) for all consecutive groups. TTC groups 1 through 4 correlated to increasing morphological lesion intensities and increasing median funduscopic and OCT diameters. Group 5 lesions were as large as, but more intense than group 4 lesions. Conclusions Automatic, temperature controlled photocoagulation allows to apply predictable subvisible, mild, or moderate lesions without manual power titration. Translational Relevance The technique will facilitate standardized, automatically controlled low and early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) intensity photocoagulation independently of the treating physician, the treated eye and lesion location. PMID:26473086

  16. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Mattigatti, Sudha; Managoli, Noopur A; Rairam, Surabhi G; Patil, Ashwini M

    2013-01-01

    Abfraction or Theory of Abfraction is a theory explaining the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It suggests that they are caused by flexural forces, usually from cyclic loading; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes this pattern of destruction by separating the enamel rods. Clinical aspect importance of these ineart lesions are at most important to be detected for early intervention and treatment modalities as options during the progression of the disease. How to cite this article: Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):142-5. PMID:24324319

  17. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  18. Predictive Upper Cretaceous to Early Miocene Paleogeography of the San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, K.

    2006-12-01

    /Eagle Rest Peak correlation of Ross et al. (1973), and Matthews' (1976) correlation of Pinnacles-Neenach Volcanics. This paleogeography originally encompassed more than 30 documented pairs of correlative geologic and geophysical features at more than 20 pairs of localities, and has proved to be predictive. Since its first introduction, in April and June 1998, other authors have reported seven additional correlated pairs of geological and geophysical features that are consistent with this model. These new correlations lengthen the time interval of this paleogeography into the early Miocene, so that it now covers 70 Ma to 23.5 Ma. The expanded paleogeography now incorporates at least 45 pairs of documented correlations, and extends from Pelona and Orocopia to the northernmost end of the San Andreas fault system at the modern position of the Mendocino Triple Junction. The figures demonstrating this model incorporate reversal of: -- San Gregorio-northern (between Bolinas and the Navarro Discontinuity) San Andreas fault, 181 km dextral offset; -- San Gregorio-Hosgri fault, 93 km dextral offset; -- San Gregorio-Nacimiento fault, 90 km dextral offset; -- San Francisco peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault (between the intersections with the San Gregorio and Calaveras faults), 31 km dextral offset; -- San Andreas (north of Eagle Rest Peak)-Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama fault, 284 km dextral offset; -- Southern San Andreas fault (south of Logan and Eagle Rest Peak), 315 km dextral offset; -- Far-northern San Andreas fault (north of the Navarro Discontinuity and the Pilarcitos fault), 204 km dextral offset; -- Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault, 36 km dextral offset; and -- Pinto Mountain fault, 16 km sinistral offset.

  19. Evolution of early hemiplegic signs in full-term infants with unilateral brain lesions in the neonatal period: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bouza, H; Rutherford, M; Acolet, D; Pennock, J M; Dubowitz, L M

    1994-08-01

    Neonates with unilateral hemispheric lesions detected by imaging in the newborn period are at risk for developing hemiplegia. Five full-term infants with predominantly unilateral lesions identified by cranial ultrasound in the neonatal period and confirmed with MRI were examined clinically at regular intervals in order to establish the development, incidence and evolution of later hemiplegia and the evolution of hemiplegic signs. In the neonatal period the infants had either a normal examination or subtle transient abnormalities. Abnormalities were not seen until 6 months of age in infants who developed hemiplegia. The number of hemiplegic signs in each child increased with time, the earlier the signs appeared the more severe the hemiplegia. In some infants deterioration with loss of preexisting skills was observed. At 24 months two of the infants were normal, one had a mild and two a moderate hemiplegia. PMID:7824092

  20. Early Low Urinary CXCL9 and CXCL10 Might Predict Immunological Quiescence in Clinically and Histologically Stable Kidney Recipients.

    PubMed

    Rabant, M; Amrouche, L; Morin, L; Bonifay, R; Lebreton, X; Aouni, L; Benon, A; Sauvaget, V; Le Vaillant, L; Aulagnon, F; Sberro, R; Snanoudj, R; Mejean, A; Legendre, C; Terzi, F; Anglicheau, D

    2016-06-01

    We monitored the urinary C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL)9 and CXCL10 levels in 1722 urine samples from 300 consecutive kidney recipients collected during the first posttransplantation year and assessed their predictive value for subsequent acute rejection (AR). The trajectories of urinary CXCL10 showed an early increase at 1 month (p = 0.0005) and 3 months (p = 0.0009) in patients who subsequently developed AR. At 1 year, the AR-free allograft survival rates were 90% and 54% in patients with CXCL10:creatinine (CXCL10:Cr) levels <2.79 ng/mmoL and >2.79 ng/mmoL at 1 month, respectively (p < 0.0001), and 88% and 56% in patients with CXCL10:Cr levels <5.32 ng/mmoL and >5.32 ng/mmoL at 3 months (p < 0.0001), respectively. CXCL9:Cr levels also associate, albeit less robustly, with AR-free allograft survival. Early CXCL10:Cr levels predicted clinical and subclinical rejection and both T cell- and antibody-mediated rejection. In 222 stable patients, CXCL10:Cr at 3 months predicted AR independent of concomitant protocol biopsy results (p = 0.009). Although its positive predictive value was low, a high negative predictive value suggests that early CXCL10:Cr might predict immunological quiescence on a triple-drug calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressive regimen in the first posttransplantation year, even in clinically and histologically stable patients. The clinical utility of this test will need to be addressed by dedicated prospective clinical trials. PMID:26694099

  1. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  2. Role of Early Proctoscopy in Predicting Late Symptomatic Proctitis After External Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Campostrini, Franco; Musola, Renato; Marchiaro, Giuseppe; Lonardi, Federico; Verlato, Giuseppe

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether acute radiation-proctitis, diagnosed by proctoscopy after radiation therapy for prostate cancer, can predict late clinical proctitis. Methods and Materials: A prospective study of 130 patients who underwent external radiation therapy (RT) for stage T1 to T4 prostate cancer between 1997 and 2008 was performed. Treatments were conventional (2-dimensional [2D]) in 61 patients and 3D conformal in 69, with a median target dose of 72 Gy (70-74 Gy). Within 1 week after RT, proctoscopy was performed to detect possible acute endoscopic proctitis (AEP). Acute clinical proctitis (ACP) and late clinical proctitis (LCP) were also evaluated. The median follow-up was 84 months (20-180 months). The influence of AEP and ACP on LCP occurrence was studied using the Cox model controlling for age, dose, prostatectomy, RT technique (2D vs 3D), and hormone therapy. Results: AEP was detected in 15 patients (11.5%) and ACP in 67 (51.5%); in 13 cases (10%) AEP and ACP occurred simultaneously. Thirty-five cases of LCP were recorded. The 5-year probability of developing LCP was highest in patients with AEP and ACP (77%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 53%-94%) and lowest in asymptomatic patients (14%, 95% CI 7%-26%; P<.001). Compared to asymptomatic patients, the 5-year probability also was slightly increased in patients with ACP only (26%, 95% CI 16%-40%; P=.052). In multivariable analysis, the combination of AEP and ACP was the main predictor of LCP: compared to asymptomatic patients, the hazard ratio was 5.6 (2.1-15.2) in patients with AEP plus ACP (P=.001) and 2.1 (0.9-4.9) in those with ACP only (P=.103). Conclusions: In patients with AEP and ACP, the risk of LCP was more than 5-fold increased compared to those who were asymptomatic, while a much smaller increase in risk occurred in patients with ACP only. Early proctoscopy can provide valuable information regarding the likelihood of late proctitis.

  3. Cytosolic phosphorylated EGFR is predictive of recurrence in early stage penile cancer patients: a retropective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Penile cancer (PC) is a rare tumor, and therapeutic options are limited for this disease, with an overall 5-year overall survival around 65-70%. Adjuvant therapy is not recommended for patients with N0-1 disease, despite up to 60% of these patients will die within 5 years from diagnosis. Methods Medical records of all patients who underwent radical surgery at University Federico II of Naples and at National Tumor Institute “Pascale” of Naples for early squamous cell carcinoma of the penis from January, 2000 to December, 2011 were retrieved. Paraffin wax embedded tissue specimens were retrieved from the pathology archives of the participating Institutions for all patients. Expression of p-EGFR, EGFR and positivity to HPV were evaluated along with other histological variables of interest. Demographic data of eligible patients were retrieved along with clinical characteristics such as type of surgical operation, time of follow up, time of recurrence, overall survival. A multivariable model was constructed using a forward stepwise selection procedure. Results Thirty eligible patients were identified. All patients were positive for EGFR by immunohistochemistry, while 13 and 16 were respectively positive for nuclear and cytosolic p-EGFR. No EGFR amplification was detected by FISH. Eight patients were positive for high-risk HPV by ISH. On univariable analysis, corpora cavernosa infiltration (OR 7.8; 95% CI = 0,8 to 75,6; P = 0,039) and positivity for cytosolic p-EGFR (OR 7.6; 95% CI =1.49 to 50; P = 0.009) were predictive for recurrence, while only positivity for cytosolic p-EGFR (HR =9.0; 95% CI 1.0-100; P = 0,0116) was prognostic for poor survival. Conclusion It is of primary importance to identify patients with N0-1 disease who are at increased risk of recurrence, as they do not normally receive any adjuvant therapy. Expression of p-EGFR was found in this series to be strongly related to increase risk of recurrence and shorter overall

  4. SU-E-J-256: Predicting Metastasis-Free Survival of Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemo-Radiotherapy by Data-Mining of CT Texture Features of Primary Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, H; Wang, J; Shen, L; Hu, W; Wan, J; Zhou, Z; Zhang, Z

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between computed tomographic (CT) texture features of primary lesions and metastasis-free survival for rectal cancer patients; and to develop a datamining prediction model using texture features. Methods: A total of 220 rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT scans before CRT. The primary lesions on the CT images were delineated by two experienced oncologists. The CT images were filtered by Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filters with different filter values (1.0–2.5: from fine to coarse). Both filtered and unfiltered images were analyzed using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis with different directions (transversal, sagittal, and coronal). Totally, 270 texture features with different species, directions and filter values were extracted. Texture features were examined with Student’s t-test for selecting predictive features. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed upon the selected features to reduce the feature collinearity. Artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression were applied to establish metastasis prediction models. Results: Forty-six of 220 patients developed metastasis with a follow-up time of more than 2 years. Sixtyseven texture features were significantly different in t-test (p<0.05) between patients with and without metastasis, and 12 of them were extremely significant (p<0.001). The Area-under-the-curve (AUC) of ANN was 0.72, and the concordance index (CI) of logistic regression was 0.71. The predictability of ANN was slightly better than logistic regression. Conclusion: CT texture features of primary lesions are related to metastasisfree survival of rectal cancer patients. Both ANN and logistic regression based models can be developed for prediction.

  5. Early Transcriptome Signatures from Immunized Mouse Dendritic Cells Predict Late Vaccine-Induced T-Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dérian, Nicolas; Bellier, Bertrand; Pham, Hang Phuong; Tsitoura, Eliza; Kazazi, Dorothea; Huret, Christophe; Mavromara, Penelope; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology offers promising approaches for identifying response-specific signatures to vaccination and assessing their predictive value. Here, we designed a modelling strategy aiming to predict the quality of late T-cell responses after vaccination from early transcriptome analysis of dendritic cells. Using standardized staining with tetramer, we first quantified antigen-specific T-cell expansion 5 to 10 days after vaccination with one of a set of 41 different vaccine vectors all expressing the same antigen. Hierarchical clustering of the responses defined sets of high and low T cell response inducers. We then compared these responses with the transcriptome of splenic dendritic cells obtained 6 hours after vaccination with the same vectors and produced a random forest model capable of predicting the quality of the later antigen-specific T-cell expansion. The model also successfully predicted vector classification as low or strong T-cell response inducers of a novel set of vaccine vectors, based on the early transcriptome results obtained from spleen dendritic cells, whole spleen and even peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Finally, our model developed with mouse datasets also accurately predicted vaccine efficacy from literature-mined human datasets. PMID:26998760

  6. Early prediction of the response of breast tumors to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using quantitative MRI and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Mani, Subramani; Chen, Yukun; Arlinghaus, Lori R; Li, Xia; Chakravarthy, A Bapsi; Bhave, Sandeep R; Welch, E Brian; Levy, Mia A; Yankeelov, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to predict early in the course of treatment the response of breast tumors to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can stratify patients based on response for patient-specific treatment strategies. Currently response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is evaluated based on physical exam or breast imaging (mammogram, ultrasound or conventional breast MRI). There is a poor correlation among these measurements and with the actual tumor size when measured by the pathologist during definitive surgery. We tested the feasibility of using quantitative MRI as a tool for early prediction of tumor response. Between 2007 and 2010 twenty consecutive patients diagnosed with Stage II/III breast cancer and receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled on a prospective imaging study. Our study showed that quantitative MRI parameters along with routine clinical measures can predict responders from non-responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The best predictive model had an accuracy of 0.9, a positive predictive value of 0.91 and an AUC of 0.96. PMID:22195145

  7. MRI reveals that early changes in cerebral blood volume precede blood-brain barrier breakdown and overt pathology in MS-like lesions in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Broom, Kerry A; Anthony, Daniel C; Blamire, Andrew M; Waters, Sara; Styles, Peter; Perry, Victor Hugh; Sibson, Nicola R

    2005-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established clinical tool for diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS), the archetypal central nervous system neuroinflammatory disease. In this study, we have used a model of delayed-type hypersensitivity in the rat brain, which bears many of the hallmarks of an MS lesion, to investigate the development of MRI-detectable changes before the appearance of conventional indices of lesion development. In addition, we have correlated the MRI-detectable changes with the developing histopathology. Significant increases in regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) preceded overt changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, T2 relaxation and the diffusion properties of tissue water. Thus, changes in rCBV might be a more sensitive indicator of lesion onset than the conventional indices used clinically in MS patients, such as contrast enhancement. In addition, we show that BBB breakdown, and consequent edema formation, are more closely correlated with astrogliosis than any other histopathologic changes, while regions of T1 and T2 hypointensity appear to reflect hypercellularity. PMID:15678123

  8. Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Learning of Science in a Methods Course: Examining the Predictive Ability of an Intentional Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saçkes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive ability of an intentional learning model in the change of preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understanding of lunar phases. Fifty-two preservice early childhood teachers who were enrolled in an early childhood science methods course participated in the study. Results indicated that the use…

  9. Coronary and systemic arterial physiology and immunohistochemical markers related to early coronary arterial lesions in beagle dogs given the potassium channel opener, ZD6169, or the endothelin receptor antagonist, ZD1611.

    PubMed

    Jones, Huw Bowen; Björkman, Jan-Arne; Schofield, Jason

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand Factor [vWF] or fibrinogen) and systemic and coronary arterial physiological parameters in beagle dogs to investigate early arterial lesions induced by the potassium channel opener, ZD6169, or the endothelin receptor antagonist, ZD1611. Dogs given an oral dose of ZD6169 (experiment 1) were terminated 1 day later and showed arterial and myocardial lesions. Minimal arterial lesions exhibited few condensed medial smooth muscle cells only, with others showing segmental medial necrosis occasionally with medial/adventitial acute inflammation. Intercellular immunostaining was seen in ostensibly normal tissue, where no pathology was present in conventionally stained sections. vWF and fibrinogen are valuable tools for detecting disruption of arterial integrity. In experiment 2, 2 dogs were given a single high dose of ZD6169 or ZD1611 and BP/HR monitored by conventional measures or telemetry. Substantially reduced systolic/diastolic BP and increased HR occurred within 10 min of ZD6169 infusion: ZD1611 caused minor BP decrease and HR increase. In experiment 3, both drugs given to anaesthetized dogs induced markedly exaggerated systolic phasic forward and reverse flow in left descending and right coronary arteries. Diastolic coronary artery flows were unaffected with ZD1611 and increased slightly with ZD6169. In both coronary arteries, the ZD1611-induced increase in flows paralleled decreased resistance. PMID:23125115

  10. Osteoprotegerin is Associated With Endothelial Function and Predicts Early Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Taichirou; Nakagomi, Akihiro; Kohashi, Keiichi; Kosugi, Munenori; Kusama, Yoshiki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble glycoprotein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is linked to vascular atherosclerosis and calcification. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) correlates with carotid atherosclerosis and is a significant predictor of cardiovascular events. The OPG levels are associated with the CIMT in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this pathway remain unclear. We investigated 114 CAD patients (89 men, 25 women; mean age: 68.7 ± 10.3 years) and measured the Gensini score (a marker of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis), the mean CIMT and the plasma levels of OPG and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA; a marker of endothelial function). Early carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a mean CIMT > 1.0 mm. Only 33 of the 114 patients (28.9%) had early carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with early carotid atherosclerosis had higher OPG levels than those without. The OPG levels were found to be significantly associated with ADMA (r = 0.191, P = 0.046) and the mean CIMT (r = 0.319, P = 0.001), but not with the Gensini score. A receiver operating curve analysis revealed the optimal cut-off value of the OPG levels for predicting early carotid atherosclerosis to be 100 pmol/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed OPG ≥ 100 pmol/L to be significantly and independently associated with early carotid atherosclerosis (odds ratio: 2.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-7.20, P = 0.017). These data indicate that OPG is significantly associated with endothelial function and predicts early carotid atherosclerosis in patients with CAD. PMID:26549398

  11. Early Prediction of Acute Antidepressant Treatment Response and Remission in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Rongrong; Emslie, Graham; Mayes, Taryn; Nakonezny, Paul; Kennard, Betsy; Hughes, Carroll

    2009-01-01

    The rate of symptom improvement during the early weeks of acute fluoxetine treatment is a good indicator of remission. This finding was made after evaluating the outcome of the fluoxetine treatment on 168 children and adults with depression.

  12. FKBP5 genotype interacts with early life trauma to predict heavy drinking in college students.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Richard; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Kranzler, Henry R; Tennen, Howard; Covault, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is debilitating and costly. Identification and better understanding of risk factors influencing the development of AUD remain a research priority. Although early life exposure to trauma increases the risk of adulthood psychiatric disorders, including AUD, many individuals exposed to early life trauma do not develop psychopathology. Underlying genetic factors may contribute to differential sensitivity to trauma experienced in childhood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is susceptible to long-lasting changes in function following childhood trauma. Functional genetic variation within FKBP5, a gene encoding a modulator of HPA axis function, is associated with the development of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, particularly among individuals exposed to trauma early in life. In the current study, we examined interactions between self-reported early life trauma, past-year life stress, past-year trauma, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1360780) in FKBP5 on heavy alcohol consumption in a sample of 1,845 college students from two university settings. Although we found no effect of early life trauma on heavy drinking in rs1360780*T-allele carriers, rs1360780*C homozygotes exposed to early life trauma had a lower probability of heavy drinking compared to rs1360780*C homozygotes not exposed to early life trauma (P < 0.01). The absence of an interaction between either current life stress or past-year trauma, and FKBP5 genotype on heavy drinking suggests that there exists a developmental period of susceptibility to stress that is moderated by FKBP5 genotype. These findings implicate interactive effects of early life trauma and FKBP5 genetic variation on heavy drinking. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27196697

  13. Parenting and Infant Difficulty: Testing a Mutual Exacerbation Hypothesis to Predict Early Onset Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorber, Michael F.; Egeland, Byron

    2011-01-01

    The prediction of conduct problems (CPs) from infant difficulty and parenting measured in the first 6 months of life was studied in a sample of 267 high-risk mother-child dyads. Stable, cross-situational CPs at school entry (5-6 years) were predicted by negative infancy parenting, mediated by mutually angry and hostile mother-toddler interactions…

  14. Early Seizure Frequency and Aetiology Predict Long-Term Medical Outcome in Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice, it is important to predict as soon as possible after diagnosis and starting treatment, which children are destined to develop medically intractable seizures and be at risk of increased mortality. In this study, we determined factors predictive of long-term seizure and mortality outcome in a population-based cohort of 102…

  15. Lava heating and loading of ice sheets on early Mars: Predictions for meltwater generation, groundwater recharge, and resulting landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanelli, James P.; Head, James W.

    2016-06-01

    Recent modeling studies of the early Mars climate predict a predominantly cold climate, characterized by the formation of regional ice sheets across the highland areas of Mars. Formation of the predicted "icy highlands" ice sheets is coincident with a peak in the volcanic flux of Mars involving the emplacement of the Late Noachian - Early Hesperian ridged plains unit. We explore the relationship between the predicted early Mars "icy highlands" ice sheets, and the extensive early flood volcanism to gain insight into the surface conditions prevalent during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian transition period. Using Hesperia Planum as a type area, we develop an ice sheet lava heating and loading model. We quantitatively assess the thermal and melting processes involved in the lava heating and loading process following the chronological sequence of lava emplacement. We test a broad range of parameters to thoroughly constrain the lava heating and loading process and outline predictions for the formation of resulting geological features. We apply the theoretical model to a study area within the Hesperia Planum region and assess the observed geology against predictions derived from the ice sheet lava heating and loading model. Due to the highly cratered nature of the Noachian highlands terrain onto which the volcanic plains were emplaced, we predict highly asymmetrical lava loading conditions. Crater interiors are predicted to accumulate greater thicknesses of lava over more rapid timescales, while in the intercrater plains, lava accumulation occurs over longer timescales and does not reach great thicknesses. We find that top-down melting due to conductive heat transfer from supraglacial lava flows is generally limited when the emplaced lava flows are less than ∼10 m thick, but is very significant at lava flow thicknesses of ∼100 m or greater. We find that bottom-up cryosphere and ice sheet melting is most likely to occur within crater interiors where lavas

  16. The predictive value of early behavioural assessments in pet dogs--a longitudinal study from neonates to adults.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Studies on behavioural development in domestic dogs are of relevance for matching puppies with the right families, identifying predispositions for behavioural problems at an early stage, and predicting suitability for service dog work, police or military service. The literature is, however, inconsistent regarding the predictive value of tests performed during the socialisation period. Additionally, some practitioners use tests with neonates to complement later assessments for selecting puppies as working dogs, but these have not been validated. We here present longitudinal data on a cohort of Border collies, followed up from neonate age until adulthood. A neonate test was conducted with 99 Border collie puppies aged 2-10 days to assess activity, vocalisations when isolated and sucking force. At the age of 40-50 days, 134 puppies (including 93 tested as neonates) were tested in a puppy test at their breeders' homes. All dogs were adopted as pet dogs and 50 of them participated in a behavioural test at the age of 1.5 to 2 years with their owners. Linear mixed models found little correspondence between individuals' behaviour in the neonate, puppy and adult test. Exploratory activity was the only behaviour that was significantly correlated between the puppy and the adult test. We conclude that the predictive validity of early tests for predicting specific behavioural traits in adult pet dogs is limited. PMID:25003341

  17. The Predictive Value of Early Behavioural Assessments in Pet Dogs – A Longitudinal Study from Neonates to Adults

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Studies on behavioural development in domestic dogs are of relevance for matching puppies with the right families, identifying predispositions for behavioural problems at an early stage, and predicting suitability for service dog work, police or military service. The literature is, however, inconsistent regarding the predictive value of tests performed during the socialisation period. Additionally, some practitioners use tests with neonates to complement later assessments for selecting puppies as working dogs, but these have not been validated. We here present longitudinal data on a cohort of Border collies, followed up from neonate age until adulthood. A neonate test was conducted with 99 Border collie puppies aged 2–10 days to assess activity, vocalisations when isolated and sucking force. At the age of 40–50 days, 134 puppies (including 93 tested as neonates) were tested in a puppy test at their breeders' homes. All dogs were adopted as pet dogs and 50 of them participated in a behavioural test at the age of 1.5 to 2 years with their owners. Linear mixed models found little correspondence between individuals' behaviour in the neonate, puppy and adult test. Exploratory activity was the only behaviour that was significantly correlated between the puppy and the adult test. We conclude that the predictive validity of early tests for predicting specific behavioural traits in adult pet dogs is limited. PMID:25003341

  18. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed

  19. Biomarkers Predicting a Need for Intensive Treatment in Patients with Early Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    I, González-Álvaro; A.M, Ortiz; I.V, Seoane; R, García-Vicuña; C, Martínez; R.P, Gomariz

    2015-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) complicates early recognition and treatment. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated that intervention during the window of opportunity can improve the response to treatment and slow—or even stop—irreversible structural changes. Advances in therapy, such as biologic agents, and changing approaches to the disease, such as the treat to target and tight control strategies, have led to better outcomes resulting from personalized treatment to patients with different prognostic markers. The various biomarkers identified either facilitate early diagnosis or make it possible to adjust management to disease activity or poor outcomes. However, no single biomarker can bridge the gap betw