Science.gov

Sample records for prefab wooden dwellings

  1. Demonstration PreFab Solar Heated Vacation Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariola, Frank; Walencik, Vincent J.

    1978-01-01

    To update a traditional construction shop program, students at Passaic Valley High School, New Jersey, developed a mock-up model of a solar-heated A-frame vacation house using prefab construction. The article describes the project and illustrates it with photographs of the model and a drawing of the solar collector. (MF)

  2. [Wooden spike orbital injury].

    PubMed

    Kiel, R; Wiaux, C; Atipo-Tsiba, P W; Gottrau, P de

    2005-03-01

    A 71-year-old female patient fell in her garden, inducing a skin wound on the temporal left eyebrow. Skin disinfection and wound closure were performed elsewhere, an X-ray image did not reveal a foreign body. She was referred to our service three days later with a progressive left periorbital swelling. Clinical inspection demonstrated a painfully, fluctuant swelling around the wound with an inflammatory pseudoptosis of the left eye. Vision was reduced on the left eye; anterior and posterior segments of both eyes were unharmed. After opening the wound sutures a purulent liquid was drained and a wooden fragment was found, measuring 22 x 0.5 mm. Because of restriction of abduction of the left eye, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, detecting another organic intraorbital foreign body and a fracture of the left medial orbital wall. Anterior orbitotomy was performed and a wooden fragment was removed, measuring 47 x 0.6 mm. Under administration of intravenous antibiotics vision and ocular motility recovered uneventfully. This case emphasizes the value of MRI in the diagnostics of retained wooden foreign bodies as well as the importance of a soigneuse inspection of skin wounds with a high risk for remaining foreign bodies. PMID:15785993

  3. Wooden Calendars from Central Rhodopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, V.

    2008-10-01

    Four wooden calendars from the village of Polkovnik Serafimovo, Smolyan region, in the Central Rhodopes are presented here, and three of them - for the first time. The shape and size, the kind of the signs and structure of the calendar record bear the characteristic features of the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The short notches on the edges represent the days of the year in the Julian (solar) calendar. The special signs on the sides mark the fixed festivals of the Orthodox Church calendar and are also influenced by the local tradition. The type of the signs confirms that the wooden sticks belong to the group of calendars from the Central Rhodopes. According to the beginning date of the calendar record on the sticks, two of the calendars are of the April (May) or October (November) type which corresponds to the very popular economic division of the year in the folk calendar into two periods -- warm and cold. The other two sticks, which are very similar to each other, make an exception in this respect among the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The months are divided into four groups (seasons) on each of the four edges of the stick (only one calendar from Burgas region has the same structure). The most interesting thing about the two sticks is that this is the only case among all known Bulgarian calendars that the beginning of the calendar record coincides with the beginning of the civil year on 1st January (January type) like some wooden calendars from Western Europe. Nowadays it is getting harder and harder to find wooden calendars in Bulgaria and in the neighbouring Balkan countries. The thorough knowledge about them could be helpful in various scientific fields, e.g. history of religion, ethnology, history of astronomy and mathematics, as well as semiotics.

  4. Dwelling Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2012-01-01

    Children's inventions go far beyond track housing or Ethan Allen furniture; they foreshadow the most innovative ideas in building forms and interior designs. Children improvise with containers and find places in a home that suggest enticing dwellings. A drawer left open becomes a balcony, soap trays become cots, and the space between twin beds…

  5. 49 CFR 178.935 - Standards for wooden Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for wooden Large Packagings. 178.935... PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.935 Standards for wooden Large Packagings. (a) The provisions in this section apply to wooden Large Packagings intended to contain solids. Wooden Large Packaging...

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis from a wooden necklace.

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M

    1997-09-01

    A 36-year-old female kitchenworker twice developed eczematous lesions corresponding exactly to the area around her neck where she had worn a wooden necklace. Contact dermatitis lasted longer than 1 week. The necklace consisted of 42 brown wooden beads and 63 other wooden parts, 0.5 to 3 cm diameter. Most parts could be identified as Cocobolo wood, Brazilian and East Indian rosewood, and teak. Patch tests with the pure constituents gave +3-reactions to three dalbergions and obtusaquinone, which are known to be the sensitizers of Cocobolo and the above-mentioned rosewoods. Because of these test results, the identification of the species by eye examination could be corroborated. Further detailed questioning revealed that the patient had played a recorder, probably made from Cocobolo (Dalbergia retusa), when a child, to which she unknowingly became allergic. PMID:9249295

  7. Wooden Calendar Sticks in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Vesselina; Koleva, Svetlana

    Wooden calendar sticks have preserved an archaic time-keeping tradition, which, during the Middle Ages, was one of the tools for establishing and disseminating Christian chronology and the liturgical calendars of the Western and Eastern Churches. The calendars vary in size and shape, type of signs, and structure of the record. Christian symbols interwoven with signs and pictograms mark days of importance in the ritual and economic year cycle. The wooden calendars are considered one of the proofs of the syncretism between the pagan tradition and Christian rites in folk cultures.

  8. 38. BARED MASONRY WALL USED TO FASTEN CLAPBOARDS. THE WOODEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. BARED MASONRY WALL USED TO FASTEN CLAPBOARDS. THE WOODEN VERTICAL MEMBER IS A STUD. THE WOODEN BLOCK IS A MORTISE-AND-TENON JOINT. - Andalusia, State Road vicinity (Bensalem Township), Andalusia, Bucks County, PA

  9. 49 CFR 178.709 - Standards for wooden IBCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) 11C Natural wood with inner liner. (2) 11D Plywood with inner liner. (3) 11F Reconstituted wood with inner liner. (b) Definitions for wooden IBCs: (1) Wooden IBCs consist of a rigid or collapsible wooden body together with an inner liner (but no inner packaging) and appropriate service and...

  10. 49 CFR 178.709 - Standards for wooden IBCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) 11C Natural wood with inner liner. (2) 11D Plywood with inner liner. (3) 11F Reconstituted wood with inner liner. (b) Definitions for wooden IBCs: (1) Wooden IBCs consist of a rigid or collapsible wooden body together with an inner liner (but no inner packaging) and appropriate service and...

  11. 49 CFR 178.709 - Standards for wooden IBCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) 11C Natural wood with inner liner. (2) 11D Plywood with inner liner. (3) 11F Reconstituted wood with inner liner. (b) Definitions for wooden IBCs: (1) Wooden IBCs consist of a rigid or collapsible wooden body together with an inner liner (but no inner packaging) and appropriate service and...

  12. Wooden wind turbine blade manufacturing process

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint

    1986-01-01

    A wooden wind turbine blade is formed by laminating wood veneer in a compression mold having the exact curvature needed for one side of the blade, following which the other side of the blade is ground flat along its length but twisted with respect to the blade axis.

  13. [Wooden chests for the midwife's equipment].

    PubMed

    Carlén-Nilsson, C

    1993-01-01

    In the museum of medical history in Lund there are several wooden chests containing partly identical instruments apparently belonging to a midwife. The instruments dated from before 1900, e.g. lancets and horn cups for blood-letting, a pewter enema syringe, a wooden stethoscope, a "tobacco pipe" and glass bottles. The use of the tobacco pipe was first puzzling, but it appeared to be a breast reliver. What do we know about the date of the chests? One chest has belonged to Kjersti Nilsdotter, a midwife educated in Lund 1872-1873. Her certificate was in the chest. From Ronnie Hunt, Minnesota we have got information about another chest of the same type. That belonged to Nelly Gustafsson, a midwife educated in Lund probably about 1870. She emigrated to USA and was a practising midwife in Lindstrom, Minnesota from about 1900. PMID:11639439

  14. A wooden calendar from southeastern Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, Vesselina; Georgiev, Iliya

    Wooden calendars are a specific tool for preserving the church calendar in medieval Europe. The Christian symbols are skillfully interwoven with traditional signs, which mark the days of importance for the economic and ritual life in a year. The archaic method of time reckoning has turned into a tool for disseminating and establishing the Christian festival system, and is one of the proofs of the syncretism between the pagan tradition and the new religious ritualism. Bulgarian Christians used such objects until the beginning of the 20th century. The earliest date fixed on a wooden calendar is 1783. These calendars are also called rabosh in Bulgaria. The calendar presented here is based on the Julian (solar) calendar containing the major fixed feasts of the Orthodox Church. It has not been published so far and is kept in a private collection.

  15. Structural integrity of wind tunnel wooden fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wingate, Robert T.; Rooker, James R.; Mort, Kenneth W.; Zager, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    Information is presented which was compiled by the NASA Inter-Center Committee on Structural Integrity of Wooden Fan Blades and is intended for use as a guide in design, fabrication, evaluation, and assurance of fan systems using wooden blades. A risk assessment approach for existing NASA wind tunnels with wooden fan blades is provided. Also, state of the art information is provided for wooden fan blade design, drive system considerations, inspection and monitoring methods, and fan blade repair. Proposed research and development activities are discussed, and recommendations are provided which are aimed at future wooden fan blade design activities and safely maintaining existing NASA wind tunnel fan blades. Information is presented that will be of value to wooden fan blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and wind tunnel operations personnel.

  16. Method of radiographic inspection of wooden members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Maggie L. (Inventor); Berry, Robert F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a method to be used for radiographic inspection of a wooden specimen for internal defects which includes the steps of introducing a radiopaque penetrant into any internal defects in the specimen through surface openings; passing a beam of radiation through a portion of the specimen to be inspected; and making a radiographic film image of the radiation passing through the specimen, with the radiopaque penetrant in the specimen absorbing the radiation passing through it, thereby enhancing the resulting image of the internal defects in the specimen.

  17. 75 FR 14469 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... its notice of institution (74 FR 62817, December 1, 2009) was adequate and the respondent interested... COMMISSION Wooden Bedroom Furniture From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... order on wooden bedroom furniture from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  18. 9. LOOKING EAST UP THE POWER CANAL SHOWING A WOODEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING EAST UP THE POWER CANAL SHOWING A WOODEN FLUME, CUT AND COVER AND TUNNEL NO. 10 Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, February 21, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  19. 38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom of tank No date - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  20. 7. Band Wheel, Showing Cloth Web Belt and Wooden Bearing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Band Wheel, Showing Cloth Web Belt and Wooden Bearing Blocks, Looking West - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  1. 32. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. DEADEND WELL WITH WOODEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. DEAD-END WELL WITH WOODEN OIL TANK, PIPE ROCKER ARM. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  2. 30. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, WOODEN COMPASS CASE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD, WOODEN COMPASS CASE AND HELM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  3. 49 CFR 178.510 - Standards for wooden barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.510 Standards for wooden barrels. (a) The... the purpose intended. (2) The body and heads must be of a design appropriate to the capacity...

  4. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES AND BRAKE HANDLE, LOOKING NORTH - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  5. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, BRAKE HANDLE, AND REDUCTION GEARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  6. View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing the wooden planks along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing the wooden planks along the upstream side face and the spillway at the right center of photo, view north - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  7. 9. Detail view of typical wooden column and beam connection, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view of typical wooden column and beam connection, located in second floor carding room of 1866 section of mill. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  8. 24. VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM WOODEN FERRY BRIDGE, SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM WOODEN FERRY BRIDGE, SHOWING TYPICAL FERRY SHED AT LOWER LEVEL OF FERRY CONCOURSE - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  9. 149. Credit JE. Using wooden forms and wire reinforcing to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. Credit JE. Using wooden forms and wire reinforcing to construct concrete portion of inverted siphon #2 on Coleman Canal. (JE, v. 27 1911 p. 413). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  10. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS AND UNDATED LARD PRESS AND VATS ON RIGHT SIDE) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Lard Refinery, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  11. 1. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE. COLLAPSED ADIT AND COLLAPSED WOODEN STRUCTURE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE. COLLAPSED ADIT AND COLLAPSED WOODEN STRUCTURE. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  12. 5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 0503, INTERIOR WOODEN ARCHES. Looking south from entrance. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Women's toilet with marble stalls and wooden doors, east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Women's toilet with marble stalls and wooden doors, east end of first floor. View to southwest. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Interior view of wooden despulpadora converted for use with electric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of wooden despulpadora converted for use with electric motor in lower level of casa No. 1, view towards the southwest - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  15. 3. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTO CA. 1906 SHOWING WOODEN AUTO BODIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTO CA. 1906 SHOWING WOODEN AUTO BODIES ON ASSEMBLY LINE, FROM COLLECTION OF HENRY BLOMMEL, CONNERSVILLE, INDIANA - Central Manufacturing Company, Eighteenth Street, Connersville, Fayette County, IN

  16. 89. LOCK 13 EAST. WOODEN TIMBERS (FOREGROUND LEFT AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. LOCK 13 EAST. WOODEN TIMBERS (FOREGROUND LEFT AND RIGHT OF LOCK ENTRANCE) ARE BEING USED AS BUMPERS TO HELP GUIDE SHIP INTO LOCK WHILE AVOIDING CONTACT WITH WALLS. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  17. 12. Credit WS. Basement of Mill, showing wooden flywheels to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Credit WS. Basement of Mill, showing wooden flywheels to water wheel and Fairbanks. Morse 20 hp, 350 rpm diesel engine, patented April 20, 1920. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  18. Room 105, small laboratory with museum case wooden cabinets at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Room 105, small laboratory with museum case wooden cabinets at left. View to south. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. ANOTHER DETAIL OF THE BRIDGE UNDERSIDE, IBEAM AND WOODEN CROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANOTHER DETAIL OF THE BRIDGE UNDERSIDE, I-BEAM AND WOODEN CROSS BEAM CONSTRUCTION. 69 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Structure No. 66.4, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE SHOWING IBEAMS, WOODEN CROSS BEAMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE SHOWING I-BEAMS, WOODEN CROSS BEAMS, AND PART OF WING WALL. 68 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Structure No. 66.4, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Usage of Raman DTS for wooden material analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasinek, Vladimir; Latal, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Rasnerova, Vladimira

    2013-05-01

    The contribution deals with a usage of Raman DTS for thermal transmittance monitoring and moisture monitoring in wooden buildings and constructions. Temperature measurement and thermal transmittance is notable for an analysis of moisture distribution inside of wooden girders that are the basic construction parts of wooden buildings during their seasoning and sanitation. In this contribution the results from measurements within real wooden objects will be presented and these results will be compared with laboratory experiments under controlled conditions. For wood sanitation two types of heating are used - flow of hot air and microwave heating. A multimode fiber 62,5/125 in primary coating is applied for measurements, this fiber is putted on the inside and outside surface of wooden construction. Here the fiber meanders are created inside of wooden girders with spacing of 1 cm. Optical fibers are laid in two mutual perpendicular cuts with usage of temperature resolution better than 0,05°C. The measured length of wooden girder is 1,4 m for unambiguously temperature specification inside the girder and its thermal transmittance. The temperature maps of various types of wooden girders are the results of analysis. Different multimode fibers with particular fiber coatings are included in the analysis. These measurements have been provided with Sentinel DTS and they are parts of a wide set DTS application for building industry. We are trying to specify the influence of fiber bending on temperature sensitivity, how to join measuring fiber to transporting fiber, critical length of both fibers and many others. Raman DTS can replace large number of thermometers and provide continuous information about temperature distribution.

  2. 13. SOUTHEAST TO SUCKER ROD WORK BENCH AND WOODEN SUCKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SOUTHEAST TO SUCKER ROD WORK BENCH AND WOODEN SUCKER ROD STORAGE RACKS ALONG EAST WALL OF FACTORY INTERIOR. AT THIS BENCH WORKERS RIVETED THREADED WROUGHT IRON CONNECTORS TO THE ENDS OF 20' LONG WOODEN SUCKER RODS (THE RODS WHICH EXTEND DOWNWARD IN THE WELL FROM THE GROUND SURFACE TO PISTON DISPLACEMENT PUMPS WHICH ACTUALLY ELEVATE WATER TO THE SURFACE). ROZNOR HEATER AT THE FAR RIGHT WAS ADDED CIRCA 1960. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  3. Assessment of structural integrity of wooden poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craighead, Ian A.; Thackery, Steve; Redstall, Martin; Thomas, Matthew R.

    2000-05-01

    Despite recent advances in the development of new materials, wood continues to be used globally for the support of overhead cable networks used by telecommunications and electrical utility companies. As a natural material, wood is subject to decay and will eventually fail, causing disruption to services and danger to public and company personnel. Internal decay, due to basidomycetes fungi or attack by termites, can progress rapidly and is often difficult to detect by casual inspection. The traditional method of testing poles for decay involves hitting them with a hammer and listening to the sound that results. However, evidence suggests that a large number of poles are replaced unnecessarily and a significant number of poles continue to fail unexpectedly in service. Therefore, a more accurate method of assessing the structural integrity of wooden poles is required. Over the last 25 years there have been a number of attempts at improving decay detection. Techniques such as ultrasound, drilling X rays etc. have been developed but have generally failed to improve upon the practicality and accuracy of the traditional testing method. The paper describes the use of signal processing techniques to analyze the acoustic response of the pole and thereby determine the presence of decay. Development of a prototype meter is described and the results of initial tests on several hundred poles are presented.

  4. 3D GPR Imaging of Wooden Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Pyakurel, Sandeep

    2007-03-01

    There has been a lack of an effective NDE technique to locate internal defects within wooden logs. The few available elastic wave propagation based techniques are limited to predicting E values. Other techniques such as X-rays have not been very successful in detecting internal defects in logs. If defects such as embedded metals could be identified before the sawing process, the saw mills could significantly increase their production by reducing the probability of damage to the saw blade and the associated downtime and the repair cost. Also, if the internal defects such as knots and decayed areas could be identified in logs, the sawing blade can be oriented to exclude the defective portion and optimize the volume of high valued lumber that can be obtained from the logs. In this research, GPR has been successfully used to locate internal defects (knots, decays and embedded metals) within the logs. This paper discusses GPR imaging and mapping of the internal defects using both 2D and 3D interpretation methodology. Metal pieces were inserted in a log and the reflection patterns from these metals were interpreted from the radargrams acquired using 900 MHz antenna. Also, GPR was able to accurately identify the location of knots and decays. Scans from several orientations of the log were collected to generate 3D cylindrical volume. The actual location of the defects showed good correlation with the interpreted defects in the 3D volume. The time/depth slices from 3D cylindrical volume data were useful in understanding the extent of defects inside the log.

  5. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of...

  6. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of...

  7. Minimum energy dwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    The two detached single family dwellings in the Mission Viejo community in California were monitored for the temperature and flow rate of water and air at some 45 points throughout the domestic hot water, mechanical conditioning, and solar energy systems. On site weather data were collected. Testing of levels of odor and moisture was performed to determine the effect of the tighter than average construction methods used in the MED houses. Electric consumption data for the mechanical system and household consumption were recorded separately. Utility cost records were maintained as a measure of savings between the MED houses and the standard Cordova model. Analyses and results of the data are presented.

  8. Waves in wood: free vibrations of a wooden pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. A.; Berger, J. R.

    2001-05-01

    Elastic waves in materials with cylindrical orthotropy are considered, this being a plausible model for a wooden pole. For time-harmonic motions, the problem is reduced to some coupled ordinary differential equations. Previously, these have been solved using the method of Frobenius (power-series expansions). Here, Neumann series (expansions in Bessel functions of various orders) are used, motivated by the known classical solutions for homogeneous isotropic solids. This is shown to give an effective and natural method for wave propagation in cylindrically orthotropic materials. As an example, the frequencies of free vibration of a wooden pole are computed. The problem itself arose from a study of ultrasonic devices as used in the detection of rotten regions inside wooden telegraph (utility) poles and trees; some background to these applications is given.

  9. Three-body dwell time

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, N. G.

    2010-06-15

    The lifetime of an unstable state or resonance formed as an intermediate state in two-body scattering is known to be related to the dwell time or the time spent within a given region of space by the two interacting particles. This concept is extended to the case of three-body systems and a relation connecting the three-body dwell time with the two-body dwell times of the substructures of the three-body system is derived for the case of separable wave functions. The Kapur-Peierls formalism is revisited to discover one of the first definitions of dwell time in the literature. An extension of the Kapur-Peierls formalism to the three-body case shows that the lifetime of a three-body resonance can indeed be given by the three-body dwell time.

  10. 6. VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLUMES ACROSS MARICOPA CANAL. SUCH FLUMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLUMES ACROSS MARICOPA CANAL. SUCH FLUMES WERE USED TO CARRY WATER FROM ONE CANAL TO ANOTHER, BEFORE THE CANAL COMPANIES WERE BOUGHT BY THE GOVERNMENT, AND THE SYSTEM UNIFIED. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Meteorological Station, interior with collapsed roof showing remnant wooden equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Meteorological Station, interior with collapsed roof showing remnant wooden equipment switch box on east wall; view southeast - Fort McKinley, Meteorological Station, East side of Weymouth Way, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  12. Out of the Toolbox: Toddlers Differentiate Wobbly and Wooden Handrails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sarah E.; Adolph, Karen E.; Lobo, Sharon A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether 16-month-old walking infants take the material composition of a handrail into account when assessing its effectiveness as a tool to augment balance. Infants were encouraged to cross from one platform to another via bridges of various widths (10, 20, 40cm) with either a wobbly (foam or latex) or a wooden handrail…

  13. 6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, REDUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, REDUCTION GEARS AND BED FOR (MISSING) CLUTCH/DRIVE GEAR UNIT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  14. 49 CFR 178.935 - Standards for wooden Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements for wooden Large Packagings are as follows: (1) The strength of the materials used and the method... from defects that would materially lessen the strength of any part of the Large Packagings. Each Large Packaging part must consist of uncut wood or a piece equivalent in strength and integrity. Large...

  15. 49 CFR 178.935 - Standards for wooden Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements for wooden Large Packagings are as follows: (1) The strength of the materials used and the method... from defects that would materially lessen the strength of any part of the Large Packagings. Each Large Packaging part must consist of uncut wood or a piece equivalent in strength and integrity. Large...

  16. 49 CFR 178.935 - Standards for wooden Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements for wooden Large Packagings are as follows: (1) The strength of the materials used and the method... from defects that would materially lessen the strength of any part of the Large Packagings. Each Large Packaging part must consist of uncut wood or a piece equivalent in strength and integrity. Large...

  17. Safety Analysis for Packaging Steel Banded Wooden Shipping Containers

    SciTech Connect

    FERRELL, P.C.

    2000-12-05

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the steel banded wooden shipping containers, which are certified as Type AF packagings. The authorized payload for these containers is unirradiated, slightly enriched, uranium ingots, billets, extrusions, and scrap materials. The amount of uranium in the containers will not exceed the LSA-II material requirements as defined in 49 CFR 173.403.

  18. 12. TIP TOP MINE. WOODEN STRUCTURE ASSOCIATED WITH CABLES IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TIP TOP MINE. WOODEN STRUCTURE ASSOCIATED WITH CABLES IN ID-31-C-13 AND ID-31-C-14 LOCATED ON SLOPE JUST BELOW TIP TOP HOUSE. CAMERA IS POINTED NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  19. 2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 10 YARDS TO THE RIGHT AND DOWNSLOPE OF THE ADIT IN ID-31-F-1. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  20. Method of making a wooden wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, C.

    1984-08-14

    A wooden wind turbine blade is formed by laminating wood veneer in a compression mold having the exact curvature needed for one side of the blade, following which the other side of the blade is ground flat along its length but twisted with respect to the blade axis. 8 figs.

  1. 29. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FOREBAY SIDE. NOTE COMPLETION OF WOODEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FOREBAY SIDE. NOTE COMPLETION OF WOODEN SOUTH WALL WHICH FACILITATED EASY GENERATOR MOVEMENT IN AND OUT OF BUILDING. ALSO NOTE ELECTRIC TURBINE PIT GATE HOISTING MACHINE, c. 1918. - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  2. 2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST (View is middle of the perimeter showing in MT-88-A-1 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  3. 19. Interior detail, ground floor, east wall showing original wooden ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior detail, ground floor, east wall showing original wooden transom door and massive concrete brackets for iron radiator. View to southeast. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  4. View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing wooden planks along the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing wooden planks along the upstream face and concrete base added in 1916/1917 and showing the iron grating covering upstream side of outlet structure is visible at lower photo center, view northeast - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. 49 CFR 178.709 - Standards for wooden IBCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS IBC Performance-Oriented... intended to contain solids that are loaded or discharged by gravity. Wooden IBC types are designated: (1... the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the IBC....

  6. 4. Interior view of main room in midsection shows wooden ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Interior view of main room in midsection shows wooden beam structure, wood block floor, work bench and heating stove. Camera is pointed N. In 1994 this room was intact with early 20th century machines. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Machine Shop, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. 5. Interior view of main room in midsection shows wooden ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior view of main room in midsection shows wooden beam structure, wood block floor, work benches and heating stove. Camera is pointed SE. In 1994 this room was intact with early 20th century machines. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Machine Shop, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. Credit BG. Interior view of the building displays temporary wooden ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Interior view of the building displays temporary wooden building construction, pump, and water piping arrangements. The well is currently used as an observation post for changes in ground water levels - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Well No. 2, East of Second Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. 49 CFR 178.510 - Standards for wooden barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... follows: (1) The wood used must be of good quality, straight-grained, well-seasoned and free from knots... of the barrel. (3) Staves and heads must be sawn or cleft with the grain so that no annual ring... good quality. The hoops of 2C2 barrels may be of a suitable hardwood. (5) For wooden barrels 2C1,...

  10. Method of making a wooden wind turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Clint

    1984-01-01

    A wooden wind turbine blade is formed by laminating wood veneer in a compression mold having the exact curvature needed for one side of the blade, following which the other side of the blade is ground flat along its length but twisted with respect to the blade axis.

  11. 49 CFR 178.709 - Standards for wooden IBCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... collapsible wooden body together with an inner liner (but no inner packaging) and appropriate service and... joint, or when other methods at least equally effective are used). Materials other than natural wood may be used for the construction of structural equipment of the outer packaging. (ii) Plywood used...

  12. 12 CFR 541.10 - Dwelling unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling unit. 541.10 Section 541.10 Banks and... FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.10 Dwelling unit. The term dwelling unit means the unified combination of rooms designed for residential use by one family, other than a single-family dwelling....

  13. 1. VIEW OF PATTERN STORAGE BUILDING NO. 5 (wooden structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PATTERN STORAGE BUILDING NO. 5 (wooden structure to right) AND NO. 6 (brick structure to the left, ca. 1891) ON THE EASTERN BANK OF THE STONY CREEK RIVER. Brick foundation for the pump machinery and brick conduit tunnel are still intact in the basement of Pattern Storage Building No. 6. - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Pattern Storage Building, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  14. Wooden Tools: Reservoirs of Microbial Biodiversity in Traditional Cheesemaking.

    PubMed

    Lortal, Sylvie; Licitra, Giuseppe; Valence, Florence

    2014-02-01

    Today, wooden shelves are used for the ripening of about 500,000 tons of cheese per year in Europe, including about 350,000 tons in France, such as most of the famous cheeses with the protected designation of origin (PDO), e.g., Comté, Reblochon, Beaufort, Munster, Cantal, and Roquefort. For some PDO cheeses, the use of wooden tools is mandatory. Many cheesemakers believe that wooden tools improve the organoleptic and typical characteristics of their final products. Wood is a natural and sustainable material which has been used for centuries in traditional cheese production in a wide variety of forms (vats, shelves, and packaging). Wood is important in the cheesemaking process, interacting with the milk in vats or with the cheeses placed on shelves for ripening. Wood is viable due to its ability to exchange water but, above all, because it is covered by a rich microbial biofilm. As wood is porous and difficult to clean, the European Commission regularly highlights the question of its safety when in contact with food and calls for deeper scientific investigation. In this review, knowledge about the multiple technological roles of wood in dairy technology is discussed. The crucial role of wood as a reservoir of microbial biodiversity for traditional cheeses is reviewed, along with results of safety assessments. As a conclusion, the numerous questions remaining about this natural inoculating system are discussed. PMID:26068076

  15. 7 CFR 3550.57 - Dwelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. (c) Existing dwellings. Existing dwellings must be structurally sound..., heating, plumbing, water, and wastewater disposal systems; and be free of termites and other wood...

  16. 7 CFR 3550.57 - Dwelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. (c) Existing dwellings. Existing dwellings must be structurally sound..., heating, plumbing, water, and wastewater disposal systems; and be free of termites and other wood...

  17. 7 CFR 3550.57 - Dwelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. (c) Existing dwellings. Existing dwellings must be structurally sound..., heating, plumbing, water, and wastewater disposal systems; and be free of termites and other wood...

  18. 7 CFR 3550.57 - Dwelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. (c) Existing dwellings. Existing dwellings must be structurally sound..., heating, plumbing, water, and wastewater disposal systems; and be free of termites and other wood...

  19. 7 CFR 3550.57 - Dwelling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A. (c) Existing dwellings. Existing dwellings must be structurally sound..., heating, plumbing, water, and wastewater disposal systems; and be free of termites and other wood...

  20. Development of flammable liquid storage wooden cabinets for chemical laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Staggs, K.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.; Doughty, S.M.; Barr, J.G.

    1993-11-01

    A fire hardened wooden cabinet was developed for the storage of flammable liquids for LLNL Bldg. 151 nuclear chemistry laboratories. The new cabinet requirements were to fit into existing cabinet spaces, match existing cabinets in appearance, and meet the National Fire Protection Association Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. A standard test apparatus was developed to produce the required fire exposure necessary to evaluate existing cabinets and new designs. The final design was a cabinet insert that could be prefabricated and installed into the appropriate storage area of the existing cabinets.

  1. Fire Protection in Various Types of Wooden Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašpercová, Stanislava; Makovická Osvaldová, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Design of new modern systems for low energy efficient construction in a passive, zero standard or energy-autonomous buildings, as well as the increased popularity of solid wood construction means intervention into the very structure of its statics, building physics, but also fire properties. Some prototype design solutions are not verified whether the tests, by good computational analysis or verification of long-term use of the building. In the context of changing standards in building design, new approaches are needed. If in wooden buildings the potential risk of fire is higher than other buildings, we need special methods, materials and practical skills.

  2. 6. DETAIL OF FLATARCHED WOODEN DOORS USED FOR ANIMAL ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF FLAT-ARCHED WOODEN DOORS USED FOR ANIMAL ENTRY AT CENTER OF SOUTHWEST FACADE. DOORS ARE COMPRISED OF THREE WOOD PANELS WITH A KICKPLATE ON SIDES. SMALL, SIX LITE WINDOWS COVERED BY GRILLS AND DETAILED WITH A THICK MASONRY LEDGE ARE LOCATED UNDER THE EAVE ON EITHER SIDE OF DOOR. A DRAINPIPE WITH A CONCRETE SPLASH BLOCK IS A LATER ADDITION. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. Bio-Inspired Wooden Actuators for Large Scale Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rüggeberg, Markus; Burgert, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing programmable actuation into materials and structures is a major topic in the field of smart materials. In particular the bilayer principle has been employed to develop actuators that respond to various kinds of stimuli. A multitude of small scale applications down to micrometer size have been developed, but up-scaling remains challenging due to either limitations in mechanical stiffness of the material or in the manufacturing processes. Here, we demonstrate the actuation of wooden bilayers in response to changes in relative humidity, making use of the high material stiffness and a good machinability to reach large scale actuation and application. Amplitude and response time of the actuation were measured and can be predicted and controlled by adapting the geometry and the constitution of the bilayers. Field tests in full weathering conditions revealed long-term stability of the actuation. The potential of the concept is shown by a first demonstrator. With the sensor and actuator intrinsically incorporated in the wooden bilayers, the daily change in relative humidity is exploited for an autonomous and solar powered movement of a tracker for solar modules. PMID:25835386

  4. Bio-inspired wooden actuators for large scale applications.

    PubMed

    Rüggeberg, Markus; Burgert, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing programmable actuation into materials and structures is a major topic in the field of smart materials. In particular the bilayer principle has been employed to develop actuators that respond to various kinds of stimuli. A multitude of small scale applications down to micrometer size have been developed, but up-scaling remains challenging due to either limitations in mechanical stiffness of the material or in the manufacturing processes. Here, we demonstrate the actuation of wooden bilayers in response to changes in relative humidity, making use of the high material stiffness and a good machinability to reach large scale actuation and application. Amplitude and response time of the actuation were measured and can be predicted and controlled by adapting the geometry and the constitution of the bilayers. Field tests in full weathering conditions revealed long-term stability of the actuation. The potential of the concept is shown by a first demonstrator. With the sensor and actuator intrinsically incorporated in the wooden bilayers, the daily change in relative humidity is exploited for an autonomous and solar powered movement of a tracker for solar modules. PMID:25835386

  5. Failure of wooden sandwich beam reinforced with glass/epoxy faces

    SciTech Connect

    Papakaliatakis, G. E.; Zacharopoulos, D. A.

    2015-12-31

    The mechanical properties and the failure of wooden beam strengthened with two faces from glass/epoxy composite and a wooden beam without strengthening was studied. Stresses and deflections on both beams, which are imposed in three point bending loading. On the idealized geometry of the specimens with detailed nonlinear orthotropic analysis was performed with a finite elements program. The failure study of the wooden beams was performed, applying the criterion of Tsai-Hill. The shear strength of the adhesive was taken into account. All the specimens were tested with three point bending loading and the experimental results were compared to those of the theoretical approach with the finite elements analysis. Comparing the results, the advantage of strengthened wooden beam against the simple wooden beam becomes obvious. Theoretical predictions were in good agreement with experimental results.

  6. Failure of wooden sandwich beam reinforced with glass/epoxy faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakaliatakis, G. E.; Zacharopoulos, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanical properties and the failure of wooden beam strengthened with two faces from glass/epoxy composite and a wooden beam without strengthening was studied. Stresses and deflections on both beams, which are imposed in three point bending loading. On the idealized geometry of the specimens with detailed nonlinear orthotropic analysis was performed with a finite elements program. The failure study of the wooden beams was performed, applying the criterion of Tsai-Hill. The shear strength of the adhesive was taken into account. All the specimens were tested with three point bending loading and the experimental results were compared to those of the theoretical approach with the finite elements analysis. Comparing the results, the advantage of strengthened wooden beam against the simple wooden beam becomes obvious. Theoretical predictions were in good agreement with experimental results.

  7. Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing

    SciTech Connect

    Boeheim, C.

    1991-08-01

    Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

  8. Wooden concrete: High thermal efficiency using waste wood

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, J.

    1994-09-01

    Wood concrete mixture of wood shavings, lime and cement is widely used in European building construction. In spite of many advantages, this material is almost unknown in the US. Eventual application of wooden concrete in building block production is discussed in this paper. Based on finite difference computer modeling, the thermal performance of several masonry wall systems and their components have been analyzed. The total wall system thermal performance for a typical single-story ranch house also has been determined. At present, typical experimental wall measurements and calculations do not include the effects of building envelope subsystems such as comers, window and door openings, and structural joints with roofs, floors, ceilings, and other walls. In masonry wall systems, these details may represent significant thermal bridges because of the highly conductive structural concrete. Many of the typical thermal bridges may be reduced by application of wood concrete elements.

  9. Homemade Wooden Vernier Scales for Use by Blind Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomac, Mike; Bidleman, Cricket; Brown, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Because she had been blind since birth, we knew that our new student, Cricket, would be unable to make the necessary measurements needed to get any meaningful lab data while all of the other students would be able to use highly accurate commercial Vernier calipers. All we had on loan for Cricket was a Brailled plastic tactile meterstick with low resolution divisions to the nearest whole centimeter. This was unacceptable, considering that the other students were achieving very accurate and consistent readings with their analog Vernier calipers to the nearest 0.005 cm. So using the Vernier scale concept, we decided to make a low-tech tactile wooden "Vernier caliper" that would have much more resolution and be quick and easy to use by anyone, even if totally blind.

  10. Comparison of Vertical Light Wooden Constructions Insulated by Straw Bales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, Miloslav

    2015-11-01

    The main task of configuring engineer by designing enclosure construction is to setup performances of the wall to the best options for existing conditions of the structure. Selecting and adjusting bearing elements of perimeter wall is the first step, however appropriateness and position of chosen materials has major influence on technical properties and architectural expression of structure. Besides light vertical constructions (LVC) there are light wooden constructions from glued elements (LPVC), heavy vertical constructions (HVC) and prefabricated vertical constructions (PVC). All types have specifications allowing alternatives in terms of layer structure and bearing elements position. Each type is considered in terms of: structure - 2D drawing and 3D model, thermal insulation, overall heat transfer coefficient, architectural examination.

  11. Pharmaceutical Analysis by Solid-Substrate Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Wooden Tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunyun; Deng, Jiewei; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) using wooden tips as solid substrates allows direct ionization of various samples and their simple and efficient analyses by mass spectrometry (MS). In this study, wooden-tip ESI-MS was used for pharmaceutical analysis. A wide variety of active components present in pharmaceuticals with forms of tablets, capsules, granules, dry suspensions, suspensions, drops, and oral liquids, etc., were all successfully ionized directly for mass spectrometric analysis. Trace degradation products were also sensitively detected using wooden-tip ESI-MS. This strategy was extended to construct chemical fingerprints of herbal products containing complex and unknown components, and the fingerprints provided valuable information for their quality assessment and origin tracing. Our experimental data demonstrated that wooden-tip ESI-MS is a useful tool for rapid pharmaceutical analysis, with high sensitivity and wide applicability, showing promising perspectives for quality assessment and control, authentication, and origin tracing of pharmaceuticals.

  12. Aureobasidium thailandensis, a new species isolated from leaves and wooden surfaces in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aureobasidium thailandense is described from material collected on leaves and wooden surfaces in Thailand. Phylogenetically it is distinct from other species of Aureobasidium. Phenotypically it is distinguished by its cardinal temperatures, salt tolerance, and production of reddish brown hyphal pigm...

  13. Digital Survey Techniques for the Documentation of Wooden Shipwrecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, E.; Balletti, C.; Beltrame, C.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, researchers widely employ the acquisition of point clouds as one of the principal type of documentation for cultural heritage. In this paper, different digital survey techniques are employed to document a wooden ancient shipwreck, a particular and difficult kind of archaeological finding due to its material characteristics. The instability of wood and the high costs of restoration do not always offer the opportunity of recovering and showing the hull to researchers and public and three-dimensional surveys are fundamental to document the original conditions of the wood. The precarious conditions of this material in contact with air could modify the structure and the size of the boat, requiring a fast and accurate recording technique. The collaboration between Ca' Foscari University and the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of Iuav University of Venice has given the possibility to demonstrate the utility of these technology. We have surveyed a sewn boat of Roman age through multi-image photogrammetry and laser scanner. Point clouds were compared and a residual analysis was done, to verify the characteristics and the opportunity of the two techniques, both of them have allowed obtaining a very precise documentation from a metrical point of view.

  14. Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of wooden cabinets

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide (EPA/600/R-92/088, May 1992). The WMAC team at Colorado state University performed an assessment at a plant that manufacturers wooden kitchen and bathroom cabinets. Components purchased from vendors are prepared for production through cutting, sanding, and routing operations. Stain, sealer, and top-coat are applied in separate spray booths. After the final coating, the components are dried and assembled. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint sludge from the spray booth water curtains is generated in a large amount and that significant cost savings could be achieved by dewatering the sludge before it is shipped offsite for disposal and reusing the water. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  15. Structural dynamics of concert harps with wooden and composite material soundboards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Melinda; Royston, Thomas J.

    2003-04-01

    The replacement of a Sitka spruce grand concert harp soundboard with a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic soundboard could provide improved durability and long-term stability. Experimental vibratory studies on concert harps with wooden soundboards are reviewed. A computational finite-element model is used to identify critical material properties by matching its predictions to the experimental data. With the material properties identified in the finite-element model, the lay-up of the composite soundboard is created using matching criteria based on research of wood replacements for violin top plates. The composite lay-up is then incorporated into the finite-element model, verifying that the dynamic response closely approximates that of the wooden soundboard. The identification technique and composite replacement design process may be applicable to other musical instruments, as well as other nonmusical, wooden plate structures.

  16. Evaluation for mulching use of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hiroki; Baba, Mitsuhisa; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Sugiura, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    Wooden timber from scrapped housing is not sufficiently recycled. Since timber made from Japanese cedar has been used in Towada, Aomori Prefecture for housing construction, we investigated the mulching method of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber. The main recycled chip diameter was comprised of two classes: 4.76 to 10 mm and 10 to 19 mm. They contained negligible amounts of heavy metals. By using 10 cm thick mulching chips, the growth of weeds was controlled due to a shading effect. It also contributed to making soil temperature and moisture stable, which are preferable for tree plantations at parks, orchards, and roadsides. Therefore, we concluded that Japanese cedar wooden chips are available for mulching when they were applied with a 10 cm mulching chips.

  17. Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

  18. Juxtapontine abscess around a retained wooden fragment following a penetrating eye injury: surgical management via a transtentorial approach.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sunil K; Umredkar, Alok A

    2012-01-01

    Penetrating injury through the orbit with a retained intracranial wooden foreign body is rare. The authors report the case of a child with a juxtapontine brain abscess secondary to a retained foreign body. The pitfalls in diagnosis and the surgical management for removal of the wooden fragment and drainage of the abscess are discussed. PMID:22208330

  19. 78 FR 13322 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...: Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 329 (January 4, 2005). On January 23... requirements for initiation of a new shipper review of its shipment(s) of wooden bedroom furniture from the PRC... Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  20. Descriptive texture analyses of cooked broiler breast fillets with the wooden condition after fresh and frozen storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the wooden breast condition on the texture of cooked broiler breast fillets (Pectoralis major) after fresh and frozen storage. Texture characteristics of normal (NORM) and severe wooden breast (WB) fillets were studied by both sensory descr...

  1. Tunable dwell time in gated silicene nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B. S.; Wang, Y.; Lou, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Residing on the gate-tunable electronic properties of silicene, we have systematically examined the dwell time for quantum tunneling through the single and multiple-gated silicene nanostructures. It is shown that unlike the graphene, superluminal tunneling is observable even at the normal incidence due to the sizeable spin-orbit gap of silicene. Together with its field-tunable bandgap, we show that this superluminal tunneling can be further flexibly switched on and off via electric mean. By simulating the dwell time through the symmetric and asymmetric double barrier structures, it is also shown here that the dwell time displays the distinct dependence on the former and latter barrier profiles. Those observations provide some favorable strategies to experimentally examine and fundamentally understand the time-dependent aspect of tunneling in solid state nanosystems.

  2. Optimizing peritoneal dialysis prescription for volume control: the importance of varying dwell time and dwell volume.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Michel; Zaloszyc, Ariane; Schaefer, Betti; Schmitt, Claus Peter

    2014-08-01

    Not only adequate uremic toxin removal but also volume control is essential in peritoneal dialysis (PD) to improve patient outcome. Modification of dwell time impacts on both ultrafiltration (UF) and purification. A short dwell favors UF but preferentially removes small solutes such as urea. A long dwell favors uremic toxin removal but also peritoneal fluid reabsorption due to the time-dependent loss of the crystalloid osmotic gradient. In particular, the long daytime dwell in automated PD may result in significant water and sodium reabsorption, and in such cases icodextrin should be considered. Increasing dwell volume favors the removal of solutes such as sodium due to the increased volume of diffusion and the recruitment of peritoneal surface area. A very large fill volume with too high an intraperitoneal pressure (IPP) may, however, result in back-filtration and thus reduced UF and sodium clearance. Based on these principles and the individual transport and pressure kinetics obtained from peritoneal equilibration tests and IPP measurements, we suggest combining short dwells with a low fill volume to favor UF with long dwells and a large fill volume to favor solute removal. Results from a recent randomized cross-over trial and earlier observational data in children support this concept: the absolute UF and UF relative to the administered glucose increased and solute removal and blood pressure improved. PMID:23903692

  3. Comparison of objective texture measurements in raw and cooked wooden breast meat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breast meat exhibiting the wooden breast condition is characterized as having an abnormally hard or rigid texture. The efficacy of using objective texture measurements to characterize the texture attributes of breast meat exhibiting this condition before and after cooking are not well under...

  4. 76 FR 49443 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR... Order: Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 329 (January 4, 2005). On... Circumstances Review, and Determination To Revoke Order in Part, 71 FR 38621 (July 7, 2006). \\18\\ Cheval...

  5. Protection of wooden airplane parts against moisture by means of varnish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E B; Van Ewijk, L J G

    1926-01-01

    The objects of the experiments herein described were to test the protection afforded by Valspar oil varnish against the absorption of moisture by wooden airplane parts and the consequent changes in their elastic properties and to compare some of the best Dutch varnishes with Valspar.

  6. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Abasht, Behnam; Mutryn, Marie F; Michalek, Ryan D; Lee, William R

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) at 47-48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR<0.1 and fold-change A/U>1.3 or <0.77) between affected and unaffected chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold) in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens. PMID:27097013

  7. 75 FR 72794 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 10214 (March 5, 2010) (``Initiation Notice''). The Department preliminarily... Duty Order: Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 329 (January 4, 2005... Determination To Revoke Order in Part, 71 FR 38621 (July 7, 2006). \\19\\ Cheval mirrors are any framed,...

  8. 78 FR 13626 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ...The Department of Commerce (``Department'') has received requests to conduct an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The anniversary month of this order is January. In accordance with the Department's regulations, we are initiating this administrative...

  9. 13. TIP TOP MINE. WOODEN STRUCTURE VISIBLE IN ID31C12 ISIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TIP TOP MINE. WOODEN STRUCTURE VISIBLE IN ID-31-C-12 ISIN UPPER LEFT. ALSO VISIBLE ARE TWO VERTICALLY BURIED LOGS ASSOCIATED WITH CABLES, ONE OF WHICH IS VISIBLE IN LOWER RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  10. Effect of wooden breast condition on water-holding capacity of broiler breast pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wooden breast condition (WBC) is an emerging muscle abnormality with broiler breast meat. Limited studies have shown that WBC significantly affects meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of WBC on water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler breast pectoralis major. Broiler...

  11. 75 FR 9869 - Initiation of Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) has received requests to conduct an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The anniversary month of this order is January. In accordance with the Department's regulations, we are initiating this administrative...

  12. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Abasht, Behnam; Mutryn, Marie F.; Michalek, Ryan D.; Lee, William R.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major) at 47–48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR < 0.1 and fold-change A/U > 1.3 or < 0.77) between affected and unaffected chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold) in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens. PMID:27097013

  13. 3. View of McKenzieRichey property showing wood shed, barn, wooden ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of McKenzie-Richey property showing wood shed, barn, wooden walkway and stairs, with west side of house in the foreground, facing northeast. - McKenzie Property, North Bank of Sailor Gulch 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  14. 75 FR 9581 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...'s Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping New Shipper Reviews, 74 FR 43096 (August 26, 2009... Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 75 FR 339 (January 5, 2010). The Department preliminary determines that... Antidumping Duty Order: Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 329 (January...

  15. Wooden breast condition results in reduced thaw loss in frozen-thawed broiler breast fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wooden breast condition (WBC) is an emerging quality issue with broiler breast meat that significantly affects both raw and cooked meat properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of WBC on meat water-holding capacity (WHC) estimated with different methods. Broiler breast ...

  16. 75 FR 5952 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... New Shipper Review, 74 FR 48905 (September 25, 2009). Shenzhen Shen Long Hang Industry Co., Ltd... Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China, 70 FR... FR 265 (January 5, 2009). In January 2009, the American Furniture Manufacturers Committee for...

  17. Construction of the 18-meter wooden blade at Nibe-Molle B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    The construction of an 18 m cantilevered wooden rotor blade for wind turbine-B at Nibe, Denmark is reported. The project is described and conclusions are made based on calculations and tests on the rotor blade. Details are given on choice of material, construction, attachments and fittings, stress problems and loads.

  18. 78 FR 8493 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 329 (January 4... review.\\4\\ See Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 76 FR 65694... China: Initiation of Administrative Review, 77 FR 12235 (February 29, 2012)(``Initiation Notice''),...

  19. 78 FR 60844 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Co . Ltd. Xingli Arts & Crafts Factory of Yangchun Yichun Guangming Furniture Co., Ltd. Yongxin Industrial (Holdings) Limited Zhanjiang Sunwin Arts & Crafts Co., Ltd. Zhong Shan Fullwin Furniture Co., Ltd... and Antidumping Duty Order: Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR...

  20. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  1. D Digital Model Database Applied to Conservation and Research of Wooden Construction in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Protected by the Tai-Hang Mountains, Shanxi Province, located in north central China, is a highly prosperous, densely populated valley and considered to be one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. Its continuous habitation and rich culture have given rise to a large number of temple complexes and pavilions. Among these structures, 153 can be dated as early as from the Tang dynasty (618- 907C.E.) to the end of the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368C.E.) in Southern Shanxi area. The buildings are the best-preserved examples of wooden Chinese architecture in existence, exemplifying historic building technology and displaying highly intricate architectural decoration and detailing. They have survived war, earthquakes, and, in the last hundred years, neglect. In 2005, a decade-long conservation project was initiated by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of China (SACH) to conserve and document these important buildings. The conservation process requires stabilization, conservation of important features, and, where necessary, partial dismantlement in order to replace unsound structural elements. Project team of CHCC have developed a practical recording system that created a record of all building components prior to and during the conservation process. After that we are trying to establish a comprehensive database which include all of the 153 earlier buildings, through which we can easily entering, browse, indexing information of the wooden construction, even deep into component details. The Database can help us to carry out comparative studies of these wooden structures, and, provide important support for the continued conservation of these heritage buildings. For some of the most important wooden structure, we have established three-dimensional models. Connected the Database with 3D Digital Model based on ArcGIS, we have developed 3D Digital Model Database for these cherish buildings. The 3D Digital Model Database helps us set up an integrate information inventory

  2. 12 CFR 141.25 - Single-family dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Single-family dwelling. 141.25 Section 141.25... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.25 Single-family dwelling. The term single-family dwelling means a structure designed for residential use by one family, or a unit so designed, whose owner...

  3. 12 CFR 541.25 - Single-family dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single-family dwelling. 541.25 Section 541.25... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.25 Single-family dwelling. The term single-family dwelling means a structure designed for residential use by one family, or a unit so designed, whose owner...

  4. 12 CFR 541.25 - Single-family dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Single-family dwelling. 541.25 Section 541.25... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.25 Single-family dwelling. The term single-family dwelling means a structure designed for residential use by one family, or a unit so designed, whose owner...

  5. 12 CFR 541.25 - Single-family dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Single-family dwelling. 541.25 Section 541.25... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.25 Single-family dwelling. The term single-family dwelling means a structure designed for residential use by one family, or a unit so designed, whose owner...

  6. 12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF FIRST CENTRE FAMILY DWELLING HOUSE, LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF FIRST CENTRE FAMILY DWELLING HOUSE, LATER FARMER DEACON'S SHOP, WITH SECOND CENTRE FAMILY DWELLING HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Shaker Centre Family Dwelling House (First), North side of Village Road, North of U.S. Route 68 & State Route 33 intersection, Shakertown, Mercer County, KY

  7. 12 CFR 541.25 - Single-family dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Single-family dwelling. 541.25 Section 541.25... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.25 Single-family dwelling. The term single-family dwelling means a structure designed for residential use by one family, or a unit so designed, whose owner...

  8. 12 CFR 141.25 - Single-family dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Single-family dwelling. 141.25 Section 141.25... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.25 Single-family dwelling. The term single-family dwelling means a structure designed for residential use by one family, or a unit so designed, whose owner...

  9. 12 CFR 541.25 - Single-family dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Single-family dwelling. 541.25 Section 541.25... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.25 Single-family dwelling. The term single-family dwelling means a structure designed for residential use by one family, or a unit so designed, whose owner...

  10. 12 CFR 141.25 - Single-family dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Single-family dwelling. 141.25 Section 141.25... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 141.25 Single-family dwelling. The term single-family dwelling means a structure designed for residential use by one family, or a unit so designed, whose owner...

  11. Curriculum Making as the Enactment of Dwelling in Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Hamish; Mannion, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article uses an account of dwelling to interrogate the concept of curriculum making. Tim Ingold's use of dwelling to understand culture is productive here because of his implicit and explicit interest in intergenerational learning. His account of dwelling rests on a foundational ontological claim--that mental construction and representation…

  12. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DAMAGE RATIOS OF WOODEN HOUSES AND WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPES AFTER THE SCENARIO TOKYO METROPOLITAN EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Yoshihisa; Yamazaki, Fumio

    This study estimated the damage ratios of wooden houses and water distribution pipes in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures after the scenario Tokyo Metropolitan earthquake. Since the damage ratios were evaluated by common fragility functions, the amount of damage can be compared seamlessly for the areas around Tokyo Metropolis. This study also considers the correlations between the damage ratios of wooden houses and water distribution pipes with respect to the postal address areas (cho-cho-moku) along the Tokyo Bay. The areas associated with higher damage ratios of wooden houses and water pipes were detected and the delay of restoration work is anticipated in these areas.

  13. Hold it! Memory affects attentional dwell time.

    PubMed

    Parks, Emily L; Hopfinger, Joseph B

    2008-12-01

    The allocation of attention, including the initial orienting and the subsequent dwell time, is affected by several bottom-up and top-down factors. How item memory affects these processes, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether item memory affects attentional dwell time by using a modified version of the attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Across four experiments, our results revealed that the AB was significantly affected by memory status (novel vs. old), but critically, this effect depended on the ongoing memory context. Specifically, items that were unique in terms of memory status demanded more resources, as measured by a protracted AB. The present findings suggest that a more comprehensive understanding of memory's effects on attention can be obtained by accounting for an item's memorial context, as well as its individual item memory strength. Our results provide new evidence that item memory and memory context play a significant role in the temporal allocation of attention. PMID:19001579

  14. Cylindrical optic figuring dwell time optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluschka, Eugene

    2000-11-01

    The Constellation-X, grazing incidence, x-ray telescope may be fabricated from replicated segments. A series of mandrels will serve as the 'masters' in the replication processes. Diamond turning (milling) followed by abrasive figuring followed by a super polishing are the steps currently envisioned in making just one (of many) mandrel. The abrasive figuring of a mandrel is accomplished by moving a grinding tool along a helical path on this almost cylindrical surface. The measurement of the surface is, however, performed along 'axial' scan lines which intercept this helical path. This approach to figuring and measuring permits a relatively simple scheme to be implemented for the determination of the optimal dwell times of the figuring tool. These optimal dwell times are determined by a deconvolution which approaches the problem in a linear programming context and uses the Simplex Method. The approach maximizes the amount of material removed at any point subject to inequality constraints. The effects of using these 'optimum' dwell times is to significantly improve the tools effectiveness at removing the higher spatial frequencies while staying (strictly) within the bounds and constraints imposed by the hardware. In addition, the ringing at the edges of the optic, frequently present in deconvolution problems, is completely eliminated.

  15. Penetrating skull fracture by a wooden object: Management dilemmas and literature review.

    PubMed

    Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Gill, Arwinder Singh; Faried, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Most penetrating skull injuries are caused by gun shot wounds or missiles. The compound depressed skull fracture represents an acute neurosurgical emergency. Management and diagnosis of such cases have been described, but its occurence following a fall onto a piece of wood is quite unusual. A 75-year-old female fell onto a piece of wood that penetrated her skull on the left frontal region and was treated in our department. The patient had no neurological deficits during presentation. She was managed surgically and removal of the wooden object was performed to prevent early or late infection complications. Wooden foreign bodies often pose a different set of challenges as far as penetrating injuries to the brain are concerned. Radiological difficulties and increased rates of infection due to its porous nature make these types of injuries particularly interesting. Their early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can minimize the risk of complications. PMID:23293668

  16. Transorbital penetrating brain injury by a wooden stick: A neuro-ophthalmologic emergency

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Sanjay Kumar; Panigrahi, Souvagya; Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Senapati, Satya Bhusan

    2016-01-01

    Accidental penetrating brain injury through transorbital route is an unusual occurrence in emergency practice of civilian cases. At time, it could be potentially life threatening. We report an interesting case of transorbital penetrating brain injury with a wooden stick in a 44-year-old male epileptic patient. The stick was removed successfully through transorbital exploration, without any neurovascular complications. The pertinent literature is reviewed and emergent management of such cases is discussed. PMID:27366283

  17. 4. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE LOOKING UP TOWARD COLLAPSED ADIT/WOODEN STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE LOOKING UP TOWARD COLLAPSED ADIT/WOODEN STRUCTURE AND BOXES IN TREES FAR RIGHT. WOOD, METAL FLUME AND WASTE ROCK ARE VISIBLE ON THE LEFT. STREAM BED IS IN MID-RIGHT. UPPER TAILINGS IN LOWER RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  18. 13. Photocopy of a photographca. 1896showing wooden arch bridge over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of a photograph--ca. 1896--showing wooden arch bridge over the North Fork of the San Joaquin River northeast of Fresno, CA. This structure was designed by Eastwood as part of the San Joaquin Electric Company's hydro-electric plant; it is a design that indicates his interest in the structural capabilities of the arch before he began building multiple arch dams. Courtesy Mr. Charles Allan Whitney. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese

    PubMed Central

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow’s milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm2 for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm2 for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement. PMID:25242963

  20. Grading of wooden plates for musical instrument making by means of holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urgela, Stanislav

    1998-07-01

    Wood selection for musical instrument making is usually based on visual estimation and on manual mechanical and vibrational subjective testing. The method proposed uses TV holography and holographic interferometry with a double- pulsed laser to visualize the standing acoustic waves and the impact generated by transient waves as inspection testing tools. The theory of bending waves in orthotropic plates is used to interpret the experimental results. This enables us to estimate Young's moduli parallel to and perpendicular to the grain and the in-plane shear modulus in wood. The testing is nondestructive, so the expensive wooden plates can be used in production. Properly modified, the test can be applied to the judgement of any wooden and wooden composite plates. The 3D charts for a set of the physioacoustical characteristics--density, modulus of elasticity, and acoustic constant on the axes--are confirmed as a useful procedure that can help to provide more objective results in wood grading for materials selection in the design of musical instruments, mainly bowed string instruments and pianos.

  1. Microbiological aspects of the biofilm on wooden utensils used to make a Brazilian artisanal cheese.

    PubMed

    Galinari, Éder; da Nóbrega, Juliana Escarião; de Andrade, Nélio José; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    The artisanal Minas cheese is produced from raw cow's milk and wooden utensils were employed in its manufacture, which were replaced by other materials at the request of local laws. This substitution caused changes in the traditional characteristics of cheese. Due to the absence of scientific studies indicating the microbial composition of biofilms formed on wooden forms, tables and shelves used in these cheese production, the present work evaluated the counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliforms at 32 °C, yeasts, presumptive mesophilic Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. in these biofilms, milk, whey endogenous culture and ripened cheese in two traditional regions: Serro and Serra da Canastra. Also, we checked for the presence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the ripened cheeses. The ultra structure of the biofilms was also assessed. Counts above legislation (> 2 log cfu/mL) for the pathogens evaluated were found in milk samples from both regions. Only one shelf and one form from Serro were above limits proposed (5 cfu/cm(2) for S. aureus and E. coli and 25 cfu/cm(2) for coliforms) in this study for contaminants evaluated. In Canastra, few utensils presented safe counting of pathogens. There was no Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the cheeses after ripening. Thus, the quality of the cheese is related to improving the microbiological quality of milk, implementation and maintenance of good manufacturing practices, correct cleaning of wooden utensils, and not its replacement. PMID:25242963

  2. A Universe on which to dwell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Marea

    2011-06-01

    The artworks The Cosmic Garden and To Dwell Upon the Universe created for the exhibition Astronomical Inspirations, at the Salle Miró, UNESCO Headquarters, for the launch of the International Year of Astronomy reflect upon the unfolding human perception and relationship with the cosmos and speculate on the nature of space expressed in printmaking via a study of astronomical phenomena, symbolism in visual and scientific artefacts and theories. The work overlaps between the printed image, the constructed print, the artist book and installation.

  3. 24 CFR 203.38 - Location of dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Location of dwelling. 203.38 Section 203.38 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.38 Location of dwelling. At the time a mortgage is insured there must be located on the...

  4. 24 CFR 203.38 - Location of dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Location of dwelling. 203.38 Section 203.38 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.38 Location of dwelling. At the time a mortgage is insured there must be located on the...

  5. 24 CFR 203.38 - Location of dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location of dwelling. 203.38 Section 203.38 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.38 Location of dwelling. At the time a mortgage is insured there must be located on the...

  6. Modeling of Thermophysical Processes in the Ignition of a Small Wooden Plank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, E. L.; Kasymov, D. P.; Yakimov, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    A formulation and a numerical solution based on a mathematical model of a porous reactive medium are given to the problem of ignition of a wooden plank by the action of a fire source. It is found that the ignition of the original reactant is determined by the processes of heat and mass exchange with the fire source, drying, and pyrolysis (decomposition and synthesis reactions) of a dry plank, by the reaction of oxidation of carbon dioxide, and also by the thermophysical properties of wood.

  7. Filter model based dwell time algorithm for ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Xing, Tingwen; Jia, Xin; Wei, Haoming

    2010-10-01

    The process of Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) can be described by a two-dimensional convolution equation which including dwell time. Solving the dwell time is a key problem in IBF. Theoretically, the dwell time can be solved from a two-dimensional deconvolution. However, it is often ill-posed]; the suitable solution of that is hard to get. In this article, a dwell time algorithm is proposed, depending on the characters of IBF. Usually, the Beam Removal Function (BRF) in IBF is Gaussian, which can be regarded as a headstand Gaussian filter. In its stop-band, the filter has various filtering abilities for various frequencies. The dwell time algorithm proposed in this article is just based on this concept. The Curved Surface Smooth Extension (CSSE) method and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm are also used. The simulation results show that this algorithm is high precision, effective, and suitable for actual application.

  8. Low cycle dwell time fatigue in Ti-6242

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, M.E.; Faber, R.; Li, X.; Ge, Y.; Kosaka, Y.; Bristow, B.; Reichman, S.H.; Hall, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    Ambient temperature low cycle dwell time and conventional low cycle fatigue tests were performed on Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Ti-6242). Specimens were solution annealed at various temperatures below the beta transus to control the volume fraction of primary alpha. The influence of the changes in primary alpha phase on low cycle dwell time fatigue life (DLCF) were determined and compared to the conventional low cycle fatigue (LCF) properties of the alloy. A dwell significantly decreased the number of cycles to failure. Increasing primary alpha associated with lower solution temperatures significantly increased susceptibility to low cycle dwell time fatigue although this effect, and DLCF in general, diminished with decreasing stress. It is believed that the susceptibility to dwell fatigue may be associated with ambient temperature, time-dependent, cyclic (creep) plasticity.

  9. [Home and dwelling arrangements in old age].

    PubMed

    Dapp, Ulrike; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    The increase of life expectancy provides the unique opportunity to participate actively in social life many years after retirement and upbringing of children. In Germany, over 80 % of the population 60 years and older are living independently in the community, and approximately 95 % stay in their own homes. On the other hand, the probability to suffer from diseases, frailty and impaired activities of daily life activities also rises with higher age. However, only on rare occasions older people in need of nursing care do like to give up their home voluntarily. Next to innovative forms of dwelling, home replacement, technical aids and us of information and communication technology (ICT), efforts to strengthen the older persons' independence of maintaining mobility in their home environment (life space) is emphasised in this article. The particular focus is on the use of preventative strategies and to support geriatric network facilities. PMID:26445251

  10. Associations of phthalate concentrations in floor dust and multi-surface dust with the interior materials in Japanese dwellings.

    PubMed

    Ait Bamai, Yu; Araki, Atsuko; Kawai, Toshio; Tsuboi, Tazuru; Saito, Ikue; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kanazawa, Ayako; Tajima, Shuji; Shi, Cong; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kishi, Reiko

    2014-01-15

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in numerous products. However, there has been some concern about the various effects they may have on human health. Thus, household phthalate levels are an important public health issue. While many studies have assessed phthalate levels in house dust, the association of these levels with building characteristics has scarcely been examined. The present study investigated phthalate levels in house dust samples collected from the living areas of homes, and examined associations between these phthalate levels and the interior materials. Dust was collected from two portions of the living area: floor dust from the entire floor surface, and multi-surface dust from objects more than 35 cm above the floor. The levels of seven phthalates were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode. Phthalate levels were higher in multi-surface dust than in floor dust. Among floor dust samples, those from dwellings with compressed wooden flooring had significantly higher levels of di-iso-butyl phthalate compared to those with other floor materials, while polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring was associated with higher di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) levels. Among multi-surface dust samples, higher levels of DEHP and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP) were found in samples from homes with PVC wallpaper than without. The number of PVC interior materials was significantly positively correlated with the levels of DEHP and DINP in multi-surface dust. The phthalate levels in multi-surface dust were associated with the interior surface materials, and those in floor dust were directly related to the flooring materials. Our findings show that when using house dust as an exposure assessment, it is very important to note where the samples were collected from. The present report provides useful information about the association between phthalates and dust inside dwellings, which will assist with establishing public health

  11. Active and Passive 3d Imaging Technologies Applied to Waterlogged Wooden Artifacts from Shipwrecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandiera, A.; Alfonso, C.; Auriemma, R.

    2015-04-01

    The fragility of organic artefacts in presence of water and their volumetric variation caused by the marine life on or surrounding them dictate that their physical dimensions be measured soon after their extraction from the seabed. In an ideal context, it would be appropriate to preserve and restore all the archaeological elements, rapidly and with the latest methods. Unfortunately however, the large number of artefacts makes the cost of such an operation prohibitive for a public institution. For this reason, digital technologies for documentation, restoration, display and conservation are being considered by many institutions working with limited budgets. In this paper, we illustrate the experience of the University of Salento in 3D imaging technology for waterlogged wooden artefacts from shipwrecks. The interest originates from the need to develop a protocol for documentation and digital restoration of archaeological finds discovered along the coast of Torre S. Sabina (BR) Italy. This work has allowed us to explore recent technologies for 3D acquisitions, both underwater and in the laboratory, as well as methods for data processing. These technologies have permitted us to start defining a protocol to follow for all waterlogged wooden artefacts requiring documentation and restoration.

  12. New insights on the wooden weapons from the Paleolithic site of Schöningen.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Werner H; Bigga, Gerlinde; Böhner, Utz; Richter, Pascale; Terberger, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The Paleolithic site of Schöningen is famous for the earliest known, completely preserved wooden weapons. Here we present recent results of an ongoing analysis of the nine spears, one lance, a double pointed stick, and a burnt stick dating to the Holsteinian, c. 300 kyr. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses, as well as studies of thin sections, contribute to a better understanding of the manufacture of the wooden weapons. They were deposited in organic sediments at a former lakeshore among numerous bones of butchered horses. In general, the spears are extremely well-preserved and show no or little sign of taphonomic alteration, although some of the weapons are broken and parts were slightly moved, probably by water action. The excellent preservation conditions provide considerable information on the operational sequence of production. The hunters selected thin trunks of spruce or pine and initially stripped off the bark. Traces of cutting, scraping, and smoothing can be observed on the spear surfaces in detail. In the case of spear X, repeated use of the weapon is implied by re-sharpening of the tip. Analyses of wood anatomy provide information on climatic conditions and contribute to the better understanding of the development of the site. PMID:26442632

  13. Molecular phylogeny in mytilids supports the wooden steps to deep-sea vents hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Sarah; Quéméré, Erwan; Lorion, Julien; Tillier, Annie; von Cosel, Rudo; Lopez, Philippe; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Boisselier-Dubayle, Marie-Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Molecular data were used to study the diversity of mytilids associated with sunken-woods sampled in the Solomon Islands and discuss the 'wooden steps to deep-sea vent' hypothesis proposed by Distel et al. First, COI data used in a barcoding approach confirm the presence of four distinct species. Analyses of the 18S rDNA and COI dataset then confirmed that these sunken-wood mytilids belonged to a monophyletic group including all species from deep-sea reducing environments. Finally, we analyzed the relationships within this monophyletic group that include the Bathymodiolinae using a COI dataset and a combined analysis of mitochondrial COI and ND4 genes and nuclear rDNA 18S and 28S. Our study supported the 'wooden steps to deep-sea vent' hypothesis: one of the sunken-wood species had a basal position within the Bathymodiolionae, and all described vent and seep mussels included in our analyses were derived taxa within Bathymodiolinae. PMID:17531795

  14. [Textual research on "Chigu Decoction" in Wooden Slips from the Site of the Ancient People's Dike in Zhangjiajie].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan; Zhang, Ru-Qing

    2011-07-01

    In 1987, wooden slips named Zhi Chigu Fang (Chigu Decoction) were discovered on the site of the Ancient People's Dike in Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province. 15 drugs with dosage were listed on the front of the wooden slip and processing on the reverse side. Though there are two academic opinions about Chigu Decoction neither of them is convincing. Zhi means treatment and Chigu is the name of an ancient exogenous febrile disease with the symptoms of aversion to cold, fever, headache and neck pain, ankylosis, cough and asthma or cold pain in the gastric area and diarrhea. Chi is a descriptive word describing the appearance of exogenous febrile fever. PMID:22169493

  15. Balancing out dwelling and moving: optimal sensorimotor synchronization.

    PubMed

    Cos, Ignasi; Girard, Benoît; Guigon, Emmanuel

    2015-07-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization is a fundamental skill involved in the performance of many artistic activities (e.g., music, dance). After a century of research, the manner in which the nervous system produces synchronized movements remains poorly understood. Typical rhythmic movements involve a motion and a motionless phase (dwell). The dwell phase represents a sizable fraction of the rhythm period, and scales with it. The rationale for this organization remains unexplained and is the object of this study. Twelve participants, four drummers (D) and eight nondrummers (ND), performed tapping movements paced at 0.5-2.5 Hz by a metronome. The participants organized their tapping behavior into dwell and movement phases according to two strategies: 1) Eight participants (1 D, 7 ND) maintained an almost constant ratio of movement time (MT) and dwell time (DT) irrespective of the metronome period. 2) Four participants increased the proportion of DT as the period increased. The temporal variabilities of both the dwell and movement phases were consistent with Weber's law, i.e., their variability increased with their durations, and the longest phase always exhibited the smallest variability. We developed an optimal statistical model that formalized the distribution of time into dwell and movement intervals as a function of their temporal variability. The model accurately predicted the participants' dwell and movement durations irrespective of their strategy and musical skill, strongly suggesting that the distribution of DT and MT results from an optimization process, dependent on each participant's skill to predict time during rest and movement. PMID:25878154

  16. Wind turbine sound pressure level calculations at dwellings.

    PubMed

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Leroux, Tony; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides calculations of outdoor sound pressure levels (SPLs) at dwellings for 10 wind turbine models, to support Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study. Manufacturer supplied and measured wind turbine sound power levels were used to calculate outdoor SPL at 1238 dwellings using ISO [(1996). ISO 9613-2-Acoustics] and a Swedish noise propagation method. Both methods yielded statistically equivalent results. The A- and C-weighted results were highly correlated over the 1238 dwellings (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r > 0.8). Calculated wind turbine SPLs were compared to ambient SPLs from other sources, estimated using guidance documents from the United States and Alberta, Canada. PMID:27036282

  17. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  18. Critical Fragmentation Properties of Random Drilling: How Many Holes Need to Be Drilled to Collapse a Wooden Cube?

    PubMed

    Schrenk, K J; Hilário, M R; Sidoravicius, V; Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Thielmann, M; Teixeira, A

    2016-02-01

    A solid wooden cube fragments into pieces as we sequentially drill holes through it randomly. This seemingly straightforward observation encompasses deep and nontrivial geometrical and probabilistic behavior that is discussed here. Combining numerical simulations and rigorous results, we find off-critical scale-free behavior and a continuous transition at a critical density of holes that significantly differs from classical percolation. PMID:26894717

  19. 77 FR 18206 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Second Extension of the Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 76 FR...: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Intent to Rescind Review in Part, 76 FR... Review, 77 FR 9623 (February 17, 2012). Statutory Time Limits In antidumping duty administrative...

  20. Critical Fragmentation Properties of Random Drilling: How Many Holes Need to Be Drilled to Collapse a Wooden Cube?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrenk, K. J.; Hilário, M. R.; Sidoravicius, V.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Thielmann, M.; Teixeira, A.

    2016-02-01

    A solid wooden cube fragments into pieces as we sequentially drill holes through it randomly. This seemingly straightforward observation encompasses deep and nontrivial geometrical and probabilistic behavior that is discussed here. Combining numerical simulations and rigorous results, we find off-critical scale-free behavior and a continuous transition at a critical density of holes that significantly differs from classical percolation.

  1. Effect of the wooden breast condition on shear force and texture profile analysis of raw and cooked broiler pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to characterize texture properties of raw and cooked broiler fillets (Pectoralis major) with the wooden breast condition (WBC) using the instrumental texture techniques of Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) and Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). Deboned (3 h post-mortem) broiler fille...

  2. 76 FR 53409 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Corrected Notice of Court Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...On August 3, 2011, the United States Court of International Trade (``CIT'' or the ``Court'') sustained the Department's remand redetermination \\1\\ pursuant to Court remands \\2\\ of the Final Determination \\3\\ of the less than fair value investigation of wooden bedroom furniture (``WBF'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\4\\......

  3. WHITE STRIPING AND WOODEN BREAST DEFECTS INFLUENCE MEAT QUALITY AND MUSCLE PROTEIN CHARACTERISTICS IN BROILER BREAST MEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of the wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) myopathies on meat quality and protein characteristics of broiler breast meat. Breast fillets (Pectoralis major) from a commercial processing plant were segregated into four groups: normal (neither WS nor W...

  4. 75 FR 82373 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 62748 (December 1, 2009). As a result of its review, the... FR 19364 (April 14, 2010). On November 30, 2010, the ITC determined, pursuant to section 751(c) of... a reasonably foreseeable time. See Wooden Bedroom Furniture From China, 75 FR 80528 (December...

  5. 75 FR 63440 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Correction to Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 75 FR 52716 (August 27, 2010) (Extension Notice). Subsequent to the... Notice of Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import... extension of time limit for the preliminary results of the antidumping new shipper review of wooden...

  6. WEST ELEVATION. DWELLING AND FLAG TOWER ARE IN THE DISTANCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION. DWELLING AND FLAG TOWER ARE IN THE DISTANCE. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED IS IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  7. SOUTH ELEVATION. THE DWELLING, FLAG TOWER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION. THE DWELLING, FLAG TOWER, AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  8. 249. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) DRAWING OF SINGLEFAMILY DWELLING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    249. Photocopied July 1978. (QMC) DRAWING OF SINGLE-FAMILY DWELLING AT 'QUINCY MINE. JULY 26TH, 1899.' BASEMENT, FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS AND ELEVATION. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  9. Radon and thoron in cave dwellings (Yan'an, China)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegand, J.; Feige, S.; Xie Quingling; Schreiber, U.; Wieditz, K.; Wittmann, C.; Luo Xiarong

    2000-04-01

    {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations were measured in cave dwellings and brick houses in the region of Yan'an (China) during summer 1997. The underground dwellings are built into Quaternary loess, and all investigated houses are founded on it. The median values of indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations are 42 (n = 18) and 77Bq m{sup {minus}3} (n = 15) for brick houses and 92 (n = 23) and 215 (n = 17) Bq m{sup {minus}3} for cave dwellings. To classify the dwellings in respect to their cave-character, the fraction of walls having a direct contact to the loess is calculated for each dwelling. While the {sup 222}Rn concentrations are increasing with higher fractions, the {sup 220}Rn concentrations are not correlated with this fraction. On the other hand, due to the short half-life of {sup 220}Rn the distance from the measuring point to the walls is negatively correlated with the {sup 220}Rn concentration, while there is no correlation with the {sup 222}Rn concentration. Therefore, concentric isolines of {sup 220}Rn concentrations showing a strong gradient were detected in cave dwellings. An influence of the ventilation rate is distinct for {sup 222}Rn but weak for {sup 220}Rn. The effective dose rates for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn and their progenies are calculated for brick houses (2.7 mSv y{sup {minus}1}), cave dwellings (7.1 mSv y{sup {minus}1}), and for traditional cave dwellings with a bed foundation built with loess (16.7 mSv y{sup {minus}1}). These calculations are based on summer measurements only. It is expected that the true effective dose rates will be significantly higher.

  10. Pigment Identification on a XIV/XV c. Wooden Crucifix Using Raman and LIBS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawczak, M.; Sliwinski, G.; Kaminska, A.; Oujja, M.; Castillejo, M.; Domingo, C.; Klossowska, M.

    The Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) techniques were applied for the pigment identification in polychrome layers on a fourteenth/fifteenth century wooden crucifix. In the Raman spectra, characteristic bands associated with compounds of the pigment samples taken from different areas of the object are observed. Groups of bands corresponding to the original white, red, and green pigments allow the identification of chalk, vermilion, red lead, malachite, and azurite. From the presence of bands ascribed to Prussian blue (282, 538 cm?1) and chrome yellow (338, 360, 403 cm?1) known since eighteenth century, retouching of some statue parts can be concluded. The elemental composition is obtained from LIBS profiles recorded under excitation at 248 and 266 nm. The gold-leaf technique is identified and the presence of Cu, Pb, Cr, Fe, CN, C2, and Ca agrees with the pigment composition applied for re-touching and observed in the Raman bands.

  11. An Interesting Case of Penetrating Craniofacial Trauma Involving a Wooden Stick.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ambadas; Chandrasala, Soumithran; Nimbeni, Basavaraj; Vishnudas, Praveesh; Dev, Arul

    2016-04-01

    Penetrating craniofacial trauma, although uncommon, has a high potential for death or catastrophic consequences from head injury or vital neurovascular injuries. The foreign body may cause significant challenge, especially when it is a large one. Airway obstruction, vascular injuries, intracranial communication, ocular injury and injuries to any other adjacent vital structures when involved may change the treatment objectives from simple foreign body retrieval to a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to stabilize the patient. Retrieval of foreign bodies may be challenging because of many factors including the size of the object, its site, and the surrounding anatomical structures. Accurate localization of the foreign body before removal is essential in craniofacial region. We present a case of penetrating craniofacial trauma from a wooden stick, with an in situ foreign body, that was managed by emergency surgical exploration in general anaesthesia and retrieval of foreign body in Toto under antibiotic coverage and tetanus prophylaxis. PMID:27190963

  12. An Interesting Case of Penetrating Craniofacial Trauma Involving a Wooden Stick

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ambadas; Chandrasala, Soumithran; Vishnudas, Praveesh; Dev, Arul

    2016-01-01

    Penetrating craniofacial trauma, although uncommon, has a high potential for death or catastrophic consequences from head injury or vital neurovascular injuries. The foreign body may cause significant challenge, especially when it is a large one. Airway obstruction, vascular injuries, intracranial communication, ocular injury and injuries to any other adjacent vital structures when involved may change the treatment objectives from simple foreign body retrieval to a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to stabilize the patient. Retrieval of foreign bodies may be challenging because of many factors including the size of the object, its site, and the surrounding anatomical structures. Accurate localization of the foreign body before removal is essential in craniofacial region. We present a case of penetrating craniofacial trauma from a wooden stick, with an in situ foreign body, that was managed by emergency surgical exploration in general anaesthesia and retrieval of foreign body in Toto under antibiotic coverage and tetanus prophylaxis. PMID:27190963

  13. Application of ultrasound phase-shift analysis to authenticate wooden panel paintings.

    PubMed

    Bravo, José M; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan V; Ferri, Marcelino; Redondo, Javier; Picó, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Artworks are a valuable part of the World's cultural and historical heritage. Conservation and authentication of authorship are important aspects to consider in the protection of cultural patrimony. In this paper we present a novel application of a well-known method based on the phase-shift analysis of an ultrasonic signal, providing an integrated encoding system that enables authentication of the authorship of wooden panel paintings. The method has been evaluated in comparison with optical analysis and shows promising results. The proposed method provides an integrated fingerprint of the artwork, and could be used to enrich the cataloging and protection of artworks. Other advantages that make particularly attractive the proposed technique are its robustness and the use of low-cost sensors. PMID:24803191

  14. Application of Ultrasound Phase-Shift Analysis to Authenticate Wooden Panel Paintings

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, José M.; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan V.; Ferri, Marcelino; Redondo, Javier; Picó, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Artworks are a valuable part of the World's cultural and historical heritage. Conservation and authentication of authorship are important aspects to consider in the protection of cultural patrimony. In this paper we present a novel application of a well-known method based on the phase-shift analysis of an ultrasonic signal, providing an integrated encoding system that enables authentication of the authorship of wooden panel paintings. The method has been evaluated in comparison with optical analysis and shows promising results. The proposed method provides an integrated fingerprint of the artwork, and could be used to enrich the cataloging and protection of artworks. Other advantages that make particularly attractive the proposed technique are its robustness and the use of low-cost sensors. PMID:24803191

  15. Low cycle dwell-time fatigue in Ti-6242

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, M.E.; Kosaka, Y.; Hall, J.A.

    1999-09-01

    Ambient-temperature, low-cycle dwell-time and conventional low-cycle fatigue tests were performed on Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si (Ti-6242). Specimens were solution annealed at various temperatures below the beta transus to control the volume fraction of primary alpha phase and were subsequently shot-peened. The influence of the changes in primary alpha phase on the low-cycle dwell-time fatigue life (LCDF) were determined and compared to the conventional low-cycle fatigue (LCF) properties of the alloy. A 120-second dwell significantly decreased the number of cycles to failure, although the factor decrease of LCF from a dwell, in general, diminished with decreasing stress. The Increasing primary alpha phase associated with lower solution temperatures appears to increase susceptibility to low-cycle dwell-time fatigue. It also appears that the susceptibility to dwell fatigue may be associated with ambient-temperature, time-dependent, cyclic (creep) plasticity.

  16. Interaction of ozone with wooden building products, treated wood samples and exotic wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schripp, Tobias; Langer, Sarka; Salthammer, Tunga

    2012-07-01

    Wooden building products indoors are known to be able to affect the perceived air quality depending on their emission strength. The indoor application of modern ecological lacquer systems (eco-lacquers or 'green' lacquers) may be a much stronger source than the substrates itself. Especially with regard to the formation of ultrafine particles by gas-to-particle conversion in the presence of ozone or other reactive species the impact of the applied building products on the indoor air quality has to be addressed. The present study reports a two concentration step ozonation of OSB panels, painted beech boards, and a number of solid 'exotic' wood types in a 1 m³ emission test chamber. The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) was recorded as well as the formation of ultrafine particles in the range 7-300 nm. The products are characterized on the basis of their ozone deposition velocity; the obtained values of 0.008-0.381 cm s-1 are comparable with previously published data. Within the samples of the present study one eco-lacquer was the strongest source of VOC (total VOC ˜ 60 mg m-3) while the wooden building products (OSB) were of intermediate emission strength. The lowest emission was found for the solid (exotic) wood samples. The VOC release of the samples corresponded roughly to the particle formation potential. However, the strongest UFP formation was measured for one solid wood sample ('Garapa') which showed a strong surface reaction in the presence of ozone and formed a large number of particles <40 nm. Overall, the experiments demonstrated the necessity of real-life samples for the estimation of UFP indoor air pollution from the ozone chemistry of terpenes.

  17. Microbial Activation of Wooden Vats Used for Traditional Cheese Production and Evolution of Neoformed Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Gaglio, Raimondo; Cruciata, Margherita; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Cardamone, Cinzia; Mancuso, Isabella; Sardina, Maria Teresa; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Portolano, Baldassare

    2015-01-01

    Three Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains were used to develop ad hoc biofilms on the surfaces of virgin wooden vats used for cheese production. Two vats (TZ) were tested under controlled conditions (pilot plant), and two vats (TA) were tested under uncontrolled conditions (industrial plant). In each plant, one vat (TA1 and TZ1) was used for the control, traditional production of PDO Vastedda della Valle del Belìce (Vastedda) cheese, and one (TA2 and TZ2) was used for experimental production performed after lactococcal biofilm activation and the daily addition of a natural whey starter culture (NWSC). Microbiological and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed differences in terms of microbial levels and composition of the neoformed biofilms. The levels of the microbial groups investigated during cheese production showed significant differences between the control trials and between the control and experimental trials, but the differences were not particularly marked between the TA2 and TZ2 productions, which showed the largest numbers of mesophilic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) cocci. LAB populations were characterized phenotypically and genotypically, and 44 dominant strains belonging to 10 species were identified. Direct comparison of the polymorphic profiles of the LAB collected during cheese making showed that the addition of the NWSC reduced their biodiversity. Sensory evaluation showed that the microbial activation of the wooden vats with the multistrain Lactococcus culture generated cheeses with sensory attributes comparable to those of commercial cheese. Thus, neoformed biofilms enable a reduction of microbial variability and stabilize the sensorial attributes of Vastedda cheese. PMID:26546430

  18. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  19. Scientific investigation of the Imperial Gates belonging to the wooden church from Săcel, Turda County, Romania.

    PubMed

    Măruţoiu, C; Bratu, I; Troşan, L; Neamtu, C; Măruţoiu, V C; Pop, D; Tănăselia, C; Garabagiu, S

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage objects have a major contribution to the historical patrimony of every country. In Romania, wooden churches are famous, they are mostly dated in between the XVth and XXth century, but unfortunately many of them have been destroyed, by natural or anthropic means. Therefore, the necessity of conservation and restoration has appeared, to the ones that still exist, as legacy for the future generations. In the present article, an Imperial Gate from a wooden church in Cluj County, Romania, has been investigated, using scientific techniques (FTIR and XRF). A 3D reconstruction has been performed, using similar colors with the original artwork, as resulted from the scientific investigation of the painting materials. A limited number of constituent materials have been used for this artwork, and the wood species used was lime, due to the ease of carving. PMID:26232574

  20. Scientific investigation of the Imperial Gates belonging to the wooden church from Săcel, Turda County, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Măruţoiu, C.; Bratu, I.; Troşan, L.; Neamtu, C.; Măruţoiu, V. C.; Pop, D.; Tănăselia, C.; Garabagiu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage objects have a major contribution to the historical patrimony of every country. In Romania, wooden churches are famous, they are mostly dated in between the XVth and XXth century, but unfortunately many of them have been destroyed, by natural or anthropic means. Therefore, the necessity of conservation and restoration has appeared, to the ones that still exist, as legacy for the future generations. In the present article, an Imperial Gate from a wooden church in Cluj County, Romania, has been investigated, using scientific techniques (FTIR and XRF). A 3D reconstruction has been performed, using similar colors with the original artwork, as resulted from the scientific investigation of the painting materials. A limited number of constituent materials have been used for this artwork, and the wood species used was lime, due to the ease of carving.

  1. Environmental monitoring of a Sardinian earthen dwelling during the summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desogus, G.; Di Benedetto, S.; Grassi, W.; Testi, D.

    2014-11-01

    Increasing interest in earth architecture has led to the development of new international norms regarding these structures. Although Italy has no specific legislation for this building type, both national laws for the safeguard of rural architecture and regional norms regarding the conservation of historical centers have considerably slowed down the pace of their destruction. This is particularly true for Sardinia, which maintains a conspicuous heritage of "raw earth" architecture, mostly in the old town centers of the Campidano plain and in its adjacent valley. Due to the current legislation on energy efficiency in buildings, it has become essential - particularly for the Sardinian region - to define guidelines for the improvement of energy efficiency for this existing building heritage and identify the best parameters for their energetic classification. Currently, these constructions are heavily penalized by the gap that persists between the requirements of current energy balance evaluations, calculated upon heating and domestic hot water energy demands, and the actual year-round energy performance, which also includes the summer season. Moreover, this building type has a low lifecycle environmental impact, but this aspect is not properly "rewarded" by Italian regulations. The study proposed herein firstly took into account the simulation of the thermal transient characteristics of the adobe wall (brick made of clay, earth and straw, forged with wooden molds and sun dried). Analytical calculations were performed using a transient model, assuming sinusoidal behavior of all the parameters acting on the system. The results showed a high thermal inertia of the material and a good ability in dampening the external thermal wave. Next, we conducted an internal and external environmental monitoring of an existing earthen residential building in Sardinia ("Casa Mancosu", Serramanna, VS), which provided the experimental data for the evaluation of the whole building thermo

  2. Field-induced wooden-tip electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for high-throughput analysis of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunyun; Deng, Jiewei; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates the first application of field-induced wooden-tip electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) for high-throughput analysis of herbal medicines. By application of an opposite and sample-contactless high voltage on the MS inlet rather than wooden tips, a high-throughput analysis device is easily set up, and a relatively fast analysis speed of 6 s per sample was successfully achieved. In addition, fast polarity switching between positive and negative ion detection mode is readily accomplished, which provides more complete chemical information for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines. By using the proposed method, various active ingredients present in different herbal medicines were rapidly detected, and the obtained mass spectra were served as the samples' fingerprints for tracing the origins, establishing the authenticity, and assessing the quality consistency and stability of herbal medicines. Our experimental results demonstrated that field-induced wooden-tip ESI-MS is a desirable method for high-throughput analysis of herbal medicines, with promising prospects for rapidly differentiating the origin, determining the authenticity, and assessing the overall quality of pharmaceuticals. PMID:26320794

  3. Robust stability of positive switched systems with dwell time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinjin; Zhang, Kanjian; Wei, Haikun

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies robust stability of positive switched systems (PSSs) with polytopic uncertainties in both discrete-time and continuous-time contexts. By using multiple linear copositive Lyapunov functions, a sufficient condition for stability of PSSs with dwell time is addressed. Being different from time-invariant multiple linear copositive Lyapunov functions, the Lyapunov functions constructed in this paper are time-varying during the dwell time and time-invariant afterwards. Then, robust stability of PSSs with polytopic uncertainties is solved. All conditions are solvable via linear programming. Finally, illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed results.

  4. Transpiration from forest dwelling and woodland Mygalomorphae (Araneae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L.; Constantinou, C.

    1983-03-01

    Rates of water loss in dry air at room temperature (21±2°C) have been measured from seven species of forest-dwelling mygalomorph spiders. They range from 0.260% body wt h-1 in the tube-dwelling trapdoor spider Dyarcyops sp. (from the humid coastal regions of eastern Australia) to 0.030% wt h-1 in Brachypelma smithi (from drier environments in Mexico). There is a tendency for rates of transpiration to be related to the humidities of the spiders' normal environments and micro-habitats.

  5. Computed Tomography with X-rays and Fast Neutrons for Restoration of Wooden Artwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloh, Kurt; Bellon, Carsten; Hohendorf, Stefan; Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Wrobel, Norma; Nusser, Amélie; Freitag, Markus; Bücherl, Thomas; Bar, Doron; Mor, Ilan; Tamin, Noam; Weiss-Babai, Ruth; Bromberger, Benjamin; Dangendorf, Volker; Tittelmeier, Kai

    The objects of this investigation were sculptures taken from a ca. three hundred years old baroque epitaph of a church in Tönning, a town in Northern Germany. Around 1900 it was found in a disastrous state heavily damaged by wood-worm. At that time, the whole artwork was treated with the tar extract carbolineum as a remedy. Nowadays, this substance has been identified as carcinogenic, and its presence can be perceived by its stench and visually at certain spots on the surface where it has penetrated the covering paint. A gold-painted sculpture of a massive wooden skull was interrogated with X-rays and fast neutrons to investigate the internal distribution of the carbolineum. The X-ray tomography, with its excellent spatial resolution revealed galleries left over from the worm infestation in the outer areas and cracks in the central region. The golden color coating appeared as a thick and dense layer. In comparison the tomography with fast neutrons, though being of lower resolution and yet unresolved artefacts revealed sections of slightly different densities in the bulk of the wood. These differences we attribute to the differences in the distribution of the impregnant in the wood, visible due to its higher hydrogen content making it less transparent for neutrons.

  6. Application of Structured Light System Technique for Authentication of Wooden Panel Paintings.

    PubMed

    Buchón-Moragues, Fernando; Bravo, José María; Ferri, Marcelino; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new application of photogrammetric techniques for protecting cultural heritage. The accuracy of the method and the fact that it can be used to carry out different tests without contact between the sample and the instruments can make this technique very useful for authenticating and cataloging artworks. The application focuses on the field of pictorial artworks, and wooden panel paintings in particular. In these works, the orography formed by the brushstrokes can be easily digitalized using a photogrammetric technique, called Structured Light System, with submillimeter accuracy. Thus, some of the physical characteristics of the brushstrokes, like minimum and maximum heights or slopes become a fingerprint of the painting. We explain in detail the general principles of the Structured Light System Technique and the specific characteristics of the commercial set-up used in this work. Some experiments are carried out on a sample painted by us to check the accuracy limits of the technique and to propose some tests that can help to stablish a methodology for authentication purposes. Finally, some preliminary results obtained on a real pictorial artwork are presented, providing geometrical information of its metric features as an example of the possibilities of this application. PMID:27314353

  7. An intraorbital wooden foreign body: description of a case and a variety of CT appearances.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Koji; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Mihara, Futoshi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Togao, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2007-04-01

    We present a case report in which a 4-year-old girl was involved in a fall that resulted in an injury of the right orbita. The girl kept a chopstick in her right hand that got into the right orbita due to this accident. Only a fraction remained in the orbita; the residual chopstick got lost. Hence, the substance of the chopstick was unknown. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a foreign body in the right orbita, but ophthalmologists had initially no indication of intervention. Further course according to the follow-up CT showed an increase of Hounsfield units (HU). These findings led to the assumption that the foreign body was made of wood. Through this, the ophthalmologists performed an evacuation. Motivated by these clinical results, we created an experimental setup that could demonstrate changes of HU in different coated chopsticks. It is concluded that wooden foreign bodies can display a variety of CT appearances depending on materials, types, coating, and time-course. PMID:17347767

  8. Real-time color-based texture analysis for sophisticated defect detection on wooden surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzleitner, Wolfgang; Schwingshakl, Gert

    2004-10-01

    We describe a scanning system developed for the classification and grading of surfaces of wooden tiles. The system uses color imaging sensors to analyse the surfaces of either hard- or softwood material in terms of the texture formed by grain lines (orientation, spatial frequency, and color), various types of colorization, and other defects like knots, heart wood, cracks, holes, etc. The analysis requires two major tracks: the assignment of a tile to its texture class (like A, B, C, 1, 2, 3, Waste), and the detection of defects that decrease the commercial value of the tile (heart wood, knots, etc.). The system was initially developed under the international IMS program (Intelligent Manufacturing Systems) by an industry consortium. During the last two years it has been further developed, and several industrial systems have been installed, and are presently used in production of hardwood flooring. The methods implemented reflect some of the latest developments in the field of pattern recognition: genetic feature selection, two-dimensional second order statistics, special color space transforms, and classification by neural networks. In the industrial scenario we describe, many of the features defining a class cannot be described mathematically. Consequently a focus was the design of a learning architecture, where prototype texture samples are presented to the system, which then automatically finds the internal representation necessary for classification. The methods used in this approach have a wide applicability to problems of inspection, sorting, and optimization of high-value material typically used in the furniture, flooring, and related wood manufacturing industries.

  9. Physical characteristics of olive stone wooden residues: possible bulking material for composting process.

    PubMed

    Vlyssides, A G; Barampouti, E M P; Mai, S Th

    2008-04-01

    The present work focuses on the study of the physical characteristics of olive stone wooden residues at the prospect of its use as a bulking material in compost process. The physical characteristics that were studied according to particle mesh classification, were the apparent density, porosity, water holding capacity, air free space and air pressure drop. From the experimental results, it was proved that only the fraction of 6.8-12.5 mesh, which is 29.40% of the substrate, could maintain the moisture in the optimum range 40-60%. The fraction of the particles of 2.6-23.6 mesh, which was 74.68% of the substrate, had appropriate porosity for composting. It was also proved that for dried substrate and air velocity 300 m h(-1), acceptable pressure drop (10 cm H2O m(-1)) was observed for the fraction of the particles of 2.6-27.5 mesh, which was 80.08% of the substrate, while for dried substrate and air velocity 150 m h(-1), the respective fraction was particles of 2.6-37.9 mesh which accounted for the 89.48% of the substrate. Conclusively, olive oil processing solid residues have the physical characteristics, so as to be used for composting or as a substrate for co-composting with high strength wastewater. PMID:17534724

  10. Application of Structured Light System Technique for Authentication of Wooden Panel Paintings

    PubMed Central

    Buchón-Moragues, Fernando; Bravo, José María; Ferri, Marcelino; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new application of photogrammetric techniques for protecting cultural heritage. The accuracy of the method and the fact that it can be used to carry out different tests without contact between the sample and the instruments can make this technique very useful for authenticating and cataloging artworks. The application focuses on the field of pictorial artworks, and wooden panel paintings in particular. In these works, the orography formed by the brushstrokes can be easily digitalized using a photogrammetric technique, called Structured Light System, with submillimeter accuracy. Thus, some of the physical characteristics of the brushstrokes, like minimum and maximum heights or slopes become a fingerprint of the painting. We explain in detail the general principles of the Structured Light System Technique and the specific characteristics of the commercial set-up used in this work. Some experiments are carried out on a sample painted by us to check the accuracy limits of the technique and to propose some tests that can help to stablish a methodology for authentication purposes. Finally, some preliminary results obtained on a real pictorial artwork are presented, providing geometrical information of its metric features as an example of the possibilities of this application. PMID:27314353

  11. To build a wooden horse...integrating drugs into the public health system.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian debate surrounding pharmacare follows some strange rules. On the one hand, there is a strong and widely shared belief that drugs ought to be among the benefits of the public health system, along with the other core services--hospitals and physicians. On the other hand, it is hard not to see the many obstacles to such a project, including the costs associated with drug consumption and the indifference of a large part of the population, which seems to be coming to terms with the fragmentary coverage it already has. Champions prepared to defend the cause of a universal and public system are but a few, and the sour experience of the National Forum on Health (1994-97), which proposed nothing short of comprehensive public coverage, is there as a reminder that a frontal attack is pointless--it looks too expensive, too complicated, too difficult. As did the Greek kings outside Troy, when Ulysses suggested to them that they build a wooden horse, the experts endlessly debate the stratagem that will make it possible to create a public system, without arousing the suspicions of the policy-makers or even the population. The lead paper by Morgan and Willison is no exception: once again, the idea is to achieve pharmacare without alerting potential opponents. PMID:15114065

  12. Factors controlling volatile organic compounds in dwellings in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, M; Galbally, I E; Molloy, S B; Selleck, P W; Keywood, M D; Lawson, S J; Powell, J C; Gillett, R W; Dunne, E

    2016-04-01

    This study characterized indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and investigated the effects of the dwelling characteristics, building materials, occupant activities, and environmental conditions on indoor VOC concentrations in 40 dwellings located in Melbourne, Australia, in 2008 and 2009. A total of 97 VOCs were identified. Nine VOCs, n-butane, 2-methylbutane, toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, d-limonene, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetic acid, accounted for 68% of the sum of all VOCs. The median indoor concentrations of all VOCs were greater than those measured outdoors. The occupant density was positively associated with indoor VOC concentrations via occupant activities, including respiration and combustion. Terpenes were associated with the use of household cleaning and laundry products. A petroleum-like indoor VOC signature of alkanes and aromatics was associated with the proximity of major roads. The indoor VOC concentrations were negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with ventilation. Levels of VOCs in these Australian dwellings were lower than those from previous studies in North America and Europe, probably due to a combination of an ongoing temporal decrease in indoor VOC concentrations and the leakier nature of Australian dwellings. PMID:25788118

  13. 24 CFR 990.140 - Occupied dwelling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Eligible Unit Months § 990.140 Occupied dwelling units. A PHA is eligible to receive operating subsidy for public housing units for each unit month that those units are under an ACC and occupied by a public housing-eligible family under lease....

  14. Variance of the Quantum Dwell Time for a Nonrelativistic Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N = 1, 2, 3, . . ., of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N = 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N = 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle s time flux and others) is derived.

  15. 10 CFR 440.22 - Eligible dwelling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Office of Management and Budget. (b) A subgrantee may weatherize a building containing rental dwelling... posted by DOE of Assisted Housing and Public Housing buildings identified by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development as meeting those requirements. (ii) A building containing rental...

  16. 10 CFR 440.22 - Eligible dwelling units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Office of Management and Budget. (b) A subgrantee may weatherize a building containing rental dwelling... posted by DOE of Assisted Housing and Public Housing buildings identified by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development as meeting those requirements. (ii) A building containing rental...

  17. Dwell Time Symmetry in Random Walks and Molecular Motors

    PubMed Central

    Lindén, Martin; Wallin, Mats

    2007-01-01

    The statistics of steps and dwell times in reversible molecular motors differ from those of cycle completion in enzyme kinetics. The reason is that a step is only one of several transitions in the mechanochemical cycle. As a result, theoretical results for cycle completion in enzyme kinetics do not apply to stepping data. To allow correct parameter estimation, and to guide data analysis and experiment design, a theoretical treatment is needed that takes this observation into account. In this article, we model the distribution of dwell times and number of forward and backward steps using first passage processes, based on the assumption that forward and backward steps correspond to different directions of the same transition. We extend recent results for systems with a single cycle and consider the full dwell time distributions as well as models with multiple pathways, detectable substeps, and detachments. Our main results are a symmetry relation for the dwell time distributions in reversible motors, and a relation between certain relative step frequencies and the free energy per cycle. We demonstrate our results by analyzing recent stepping data for a bacterial flagellar motor, and discuss the implications for the efficiency and reversibility of the force-generating subunits. PMID:17369422

  18. Proactive Coping in Community-Dwelling Older Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sougleris, Christina; Ranzijn, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of older community-dwelling Australian adults which aimed to test whether a relatively unexplored construct, proactive coping, could have a role in purpose in life, personal growth, and life satisfaction. A total of 109 women and 115 men (Mean age = 75.04 yrs, SD = 6.66) completed a questionnaire containing…

  19. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  20. Gender and Transportation Access among Community-Dwelling Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Josette; Weiss, Deborah R.; Wolfson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study estimates the prevalence of problems with transportation in a sample of community-dwelling seniors residing in an urban setting and investigates the role that gender plays in the ability of seniors to remain mobile in their communities. Design and Methods: Data collected as part of a study assessing the prevalence and…

  1. 24 CFR 200.926 - Minimum property standards for one and two family dwellings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and two family dwellings. 200.926 Section 200.926 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926 Minimum property standards for one and two family dwellings. (a... acceptable code; and (2) Those portions of the CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code designated by the...

  2. Design of Information Collecting System Towards The Song Dynasty Wooden Hall of Baoguo Temple, Ningbo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.; Tang, Z.; Yang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we'll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven't been included in the management of the system

  3. Wooden Bay Window (Rowshan) Conservation in Saudi-Hejazi Heritage Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adas, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    A prominent feature of the architectural style of heritage buildings in western Saudi Arabia (Hijaz) cities such as Jeddah is the extensive use in their facades of projected intricately carved wooden bay window (Rowshan sl, Rawasheen pl). Throughout Balad or the old town in Jeddah, the element of Rowshan can be found made from many different types of woods such as teak, Javan, mahogany, other types of african and middle eastern woods and with different sizes, proportions, and varied intricate ornamentations and motifs. Besides its aesthetic value, the rawasheen and their many components and parts provide other functions such as ventilation, lighting, and spatial and visual privacy for building interiors from the outside. The profound degradation of Rawasheen is impacting the authenticity and heritage value of old buildings in historical Jeddah because of many factors that include: extensive moisture damage, using improper repair methods and joinery techniques to maintain rawasheen, using unsuitable cleaning products and wood paints, and replacing damaged parts with unkown types of wood. In order to prevent any further deterioration of Rawasheen, documentation of rawasheen and its components using recent digital methodologies and the utilization of proper repair techniques must be followed when working with these elements to ensure longevity of conservation, and preservation of value and authenticity.Through the disucssion of Rowshan repair methodology that was developed that include the digital documentation of all intricate details of rowshan panels and wood engraving which allowed replicating damaged elements beyond repair and applied to a listed building in old Jeddah, the paper provides Rowshan repair guidelines which relate to documentation, diagnostic methods, investigations and tests, repair methodology and reinforcement.

  4. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions. PMID:12653275

  5. Algorithm for detecting defects in wooden logs using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaru, Dayakar; Halabe, Udaya B.; Gopalakrishnan, B.; Agrawal, Sachin; Grushecky, Shawn

    2005-11-01

    Presently there are no suitable non-invasive methods for precisely detecting the subsurface defects in logs in real time. Internal defects such as knots, decays, and embedded metals are of greatest concern for lumber production. While defects such as knots and decays (rots) are of major concern related to productivity and yield of high value wood products, embedded metals can damage the saw blade and significantly increase the down time and maintenance costs of saw mills. Currently, a large number of logs end up being discarded by saw mills, or result in low value wood products since they include defects. Nondestructive scanning of logs using techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) prior to sawing can greatly increase the productivity and yield of high value lumber. In this research, the GPR scanned data has been analyzed to differentiate the defective part of the wooden log from the good part. The location and size of the defect has been found in the GPR scanned data using the MATLAB algorithm. The output of this algorithm can be used as an input for generating operating instructions for a CNC sawing machine. This paper explains the advantages of the GPR technique, experimental setup and parameters used, data processing using RADAN software for detection of subsurface defects in logs, GPR data processing and analysis using MATLAB algorithm for automated defect detection, and comparison of results between the two processing methods. The results show that GPR in conjunction with the proposed algorithm provides a very promising technique for future on-line implementation in saw mills.

  6. Determinants of Living Situation in a Population of Community-Dwelling and Assisted-Living Dwelling Elders

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Erika; Kleppinger, Alison; Feinn, Richard; Kenny, Anne M

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine what variables separate community-dwelling elders from assisted-living dwelling elders. Design Cross-sectional Setting Community and assisted living facilities in Connecticut Participants 114 individuals (77 community-dwelling, 37 assisted living) Assessments Nutritional survey, 6 minute walk, Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE), Center of Epidemiologic Studies (CES)-Depression Scale, 25-OH vitamin D Results At baseline, assisted-living dwelling elders appeared to have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D levels, lower MMSE scores, higher CES-depression scale scores, and walked shorter distances in the six minute walk. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels and six minute walk were significantly different between the two groups using logistic regression analysis. As serum 25-OH vitamin D levels increased, the probability of an elder living in an ALF decreased, and as distance walked during the six minute walk increased, the probability of an elder living in an ALF decreased. Conclusions Elders living in assisted living facilities had significantly lower 25-OH vitamin D levels and walked shorter distances during the six minute walk. These variables can be used to predict the probability of an elder living in an assisted living facility. The lack of effect of nutrition suggests that the role of vitamin D in this setting is in physical function. PMID:20142070

  7. Biofilm ecology of wooden shelves used in ripening the French raw milk smear cheese Reblochon de Savoie.

    PubMed

    Mariani, C; Briandet, R; Chamba, J-F; Notz, E; Carnet-Pantiez, A; Eyoug, R N; Oulahal, N

    2007-04-01

    Little work has been carried out on the microbiology of wooden shelves supporting cheese during ripening, and the safety of their use during cheese ripening has frequently been asked. Microbial characterization (enumerations on specific growth media) and description of their physicochemical conditions (pH, water activity, and salt concentration) were determined on 50 wooden shelves of 3 different ages at the end of the cheese-ripening process, using cheeses from 8 farm producers. The experiments were performed during 2 different seasons (summer and autumn). Micrococci-corynebacteria and yeasts and molds were found to be the dominant microflora on the shelves. Leuconostocs, facultative heterofermentative lactobacilli, enterococci, staphylococci, and pseudomonads were also found but at lower levels. There was no statistical difference in the major microflora between shelves of different ages. Moreover, the total counts and the predominant microflora showed a surprising homogeneity between origins of cheeses. For most of the microflora enumerated, no seasonal variation was observed. Regardless of the age of the shelves, the wood had high water activity values (0.94 to 0.97), neutral pH values (7.1 to 8.3), and low salt contents (0.11 to 0.17 mg/cm2). The origins of the cheese had a statistically significant impact on water activity, pH, and salt concentration, whereas the age of the shelves did not influence these parameters. This study demonstrated the stability of the technological biofilm present on wooden shelves and will serve to enlarge the debate on the use of wood in cheese ripening. PMID:17369205

  8. Monitoring of pigmented and wooden surfaces in accelerated ageing processes by FT-Raman spectroscopy and multivariate control charts.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Liparota, Maria Cristina; Gennaro, Maria Carla

    2004-07-01

    Two of the most suitable analytical techniques used in the field of cultural heritage are NIR (near-infrared) and Raman spectroscopy. FT-Raman spectroscopy coupled to multivariate control charts is applied here for the development of a new method for monitoring the conservation state of pigmented and wooden surfaces. These materials were exposed to different accelerated ageing processes in order to evaluate the effect of the applied treatments on the goods surfaces. In this work, a new approach based on the principles of statistical process control (SPC) to the monitoring of cultural heritage, has been developed: the conservation state of samples simulating works-of-art has been treated like an industrial process, monitored with multivariate control charts, owing to the complexity of the spectroscopic data collected. The Raman spectra were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA) and the relevant principal components (PCs) were used for constructing multivariate Shewhart and cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts. These tools were successfully applied for the identification of the presence of relevant modifications occurring on the surfaces. CUSUM charts however proved to be more effective in the identification of the exact beginning of the applied treatment. In the case of wooden boards, where a sufficient number of PCs were available, simultaneous scores monitoring and residuals tracking (SMART) charts were also investigated. The exposure to a basic attack and to high temperatures produced deep changes on the wooden samples, clearly identified by the multivariate Shewhart, CUSUM and SMART charts. A change on the pigment surface was detected after exposure to an acidic solution and to the UV light, while no effect was identified on the painted surface after the exposure to natural atmospheric events. PMID:18969526

  9. Overpaint Removal on a Gilded Wooden Bas-Relief Using a Nd:YAG Laser at 1.064 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzelec, M.; Marczak, J.; Koss, A.; Szambelan, R.

    The paper presents the work on laser renovation of wooden bas-relief (lime tree), consisting of three figures: Saint Anna and Mary with Jesus, made by unknown artist at the beginning of XVII century. Almost whole relief surface is covered by gilding placed on a special preparation (bolus alba) with binding media. The painting layers cover only the parts of complexion and hairs of figures. The application of a 1.064 µm, Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser, allowed to unveil, in a short time the intact substrate of the object with well preserved gilding remains.

  10. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  11. Towards a strontium isoscape for the determination of provenance of prehistoric wooden findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsky, Monika; Tintner, Johannes; Bolka, Monika; Grabner, Michael; Kowarik, Kerstin; Reschreiter, Hans; Kern, Anton; Horacek, Micha; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Prehistoric wood artefacts have been excavated from ancient salt mine galleries in Hallstatt, Austria. These findings present a unique archive of information on Bronze and Iron Age mining and trade relations, as for certain tools a production elsewhere and transport to the mine is assumed. These wooden artefacts contain the geochemical information of their growth location, though masked by secondary salts due to the storage conditions. Consequently, the analysis of the biogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of the findings was carried out in comparison to the respective signatures of trees from possible regions of origin, in order to draw conclusions on prehistoric trade routes. Thus - in addition to Hallstatt - seven regions in the Alpine region of Austria as well as in the Northern and Southern lowlands were selected based on known settlements in the time period of interest. Within all regions, the geological bedrock variability was considered for the definition of sampling spots, which resulted in a total of 26 locations. Four tree species represented in the archaeological finds (i.e. Picea abies, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus sp.) were sampled upon availability. Wood sample digests from eight replicate trees per location were analysed using multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). In order to reveal the biogenic signatures of the prehistoric findings, a decontamination method based on acid leaching was developed. We could successfully separate biogenic from secondary Sr and adopted a mixing theory to account for possibly incomplete removal of the latter. The Sr isotope ratio data obtained from modern trees (i.e. bioavailable Sr) reflect the geological heterogeneity of the Alps, which challenges the creation of an isoscape and its applicability to distinct provenance determination. Different geologic bedrock types can be clearly distinguished by their 87Sr/86Sr, e.g. marine sedimentary and igneous rocks. Furthermore, the data

  12. Variance of the quantum dwell time for a nonrelativistic particle

    SciTech Connect

    Hahne, G. E.

    2013-01-15

    Munoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009)], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984)] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular, those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N= 1, 2, 3, Horizontal-Ellipsis , of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N= 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003)]; an explicit formula for N= 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle's time flux and others) is derived.

  13. Variance of the quantum dwell time for a nonrelativistic particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahne, G. E.

    2013-01-01

    Muñoz, Seidel, and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012108 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.012108], following an earlier proposal by Pollak and Miller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115 (1984), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.115] in the context of a theory of a collinear chemical reaction, showed that suitable moments of a two-flux correlation function could be manipulated to yield expressions for the mean quantum dwell time and mean square quantum dwell time for a structureless particle scattering from a time-independent potential energy field between two parallel lines in a two-dimensional spacetime. The present work proposes a generalization to a charged, nonrelativistic particle scattering from a transient, spatially confined electromagnetic vector potential in four-dimensional spacetime. The geometry of the spacetime domain is that of the slab between a pair of parallel planes, in particular, those defined by constant values of the third (z) spatial coordinate. The mean Nth power, N = 1, 2, 3, …, of the quantum dwell time in the slab is given by an expression involving an N-flux-correlation function. All these means are shown to be nonnegative. The N = 1 formula reduces to an S-matrix result published previously [G. E. Hahne, J. Phys. A 36, 7149 (2003), 10.1088/0305-4470/36/25/316]; an explicit formula for N = 2, and of the variance of the dwell time in terms of the S-matrix, is worked out. A formula representing an incommensurability principle between variances of the output-minus-input flux of a pair of dynamical variables (such as the particle's time flux and others) is derived.

  14. Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p < .0002). In contrast, walking speed of the elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.

  15. Dwell time calculation for computer controlled large tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Bin; Burge, James H.; Martin, Hubert; Zeng, Zhige; Li, Xiaojin; Zhou, Jiabin

    2012-09-01

    The Computer-controlled Large-tool such as the stressed-lap which firstly developed in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML) [1]and the Computer controlled active lap which developed in the IOE (Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Science), those large tools are controlled by computer to manufacturing large optics, especially for grinding with loose abrasive and polishing with slurry. Comparing the fixed orbital lap, computer-controlled largetool can bend its lap surface timely to match the local sub-aperture, so it always strike the high area preferentially, due to its large diameter , computer-controlled large-tool possess highly remove efficiency and generate less middle-frequency and high-frequency errors comparing some small tools such as computer controlled optical surface (CCOS), but on the other hand how to calculate the dwell time for those computer-controlled large-tool becomes a challenge comparing those small tools. Based on the mathematical removal equation for computer controlled active lap we have none negative least square algorithm to calculate the dwell time, after the simulation, a optimized algorithm based on none negative least square is provided, the dwell time calculated by this optimized algorithm meet the wanted removal volume with little residual errors.

  16. Quantum arrival and dwell times via idealized clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Yearsley, J. M.; Downs, D. A.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hashagen, A. K.

    2011-08-15

    A number of approaches to the problem of defining arrival- and dwell-time probabilities in quantum theory makes use of idealized models of clocks. An interesting question is the extent to which the probabilities obtained in this way are related to standard semiclassical results. In this paper, we explore this question using a reasonably general clock model, solved using path-integral methods. We find that, in the weak-coupling regime, where the energy of the clock is much less than the energy of the particle it is measuring, the probability for the clock pointer can be expressed in terms of the probability current in the case of arrival times, and the dwell-time operator in the case of dwell times, the expected semiclassical results. In the regime of strong system-clock coupling, we find that the arrival-time probability is proportional to the kinetic-energy density, consistent with an earlier model involving a complex potential. We argue that, properly normalized, this may be the generically expected result in this regime. We show that these conclusions are largely independent of the form of the clock Hamiltonian.

  17. Radon transport into dwellings: Considering groundwater as a source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostrom, M.; Lenhard, R. J.

    A mathematical model is used to investigate whether radon degassing from groundwater may contribute to indoor radon levels. Specifically, the transport of radon in the soil-gas phase from the groundwater-soil gas interface to under-pressurized dwellings is modelled. The question whether radon in groundwater may contribute to indoor radon levels arises from observed high radon concentrations in groundwater, and recent findings that advection in the gas phase may be an important transport mechanism for radon into slightly under-pressurized dwellings. Most previous radon transport investigations did not consider groundwater as a potential source for contributing to indoor radon. The mathematical model includes a method to directly calculate indoor radon concentrations and an equivalent continuum approach to represent cracks in concrete foundations. The results of the simulations indicate that radon, which partitions from groundwater to the soil gas, may be advectively transported by the gas phase to slightly underpressurized dwellings in relatively permeable soils such that indoor radon concentrations may exceed 148 Bq/m³, which is the action limit imposed by EPA.

  18. Planned complex suicide by self-poisoning and a manipulated blank revolver: remarkable findings due to multiple gunshot wounds and self-made wooden projectiles.

    PubMed

    Padosch, Stephan A; Schmidt, Peter H; Madea, Burkhard

    2003-11-01

    A remarkable case of complex suicide with poisoning and multiple self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head is reported. After ingestion of a liquid insecticide, the victim shot himself twice in the head, once in each temple. Self-manufactured wooden dowels were used as projectiles in combination with conventional blank cartridges. The dowels had been glued on top of the blank cartridges and expelled by propellant gases. Moreover, the blank revolver used had been extensively manipulated in a rarely observed manner. Several occlusive devices had been removed from the barrel and the cylinder chamber to enable the expulsion of the wooden projectiles. The investigation of the methods used and the circumstances found at the scene pointed towards a planned complex suicide. A remarkable case with unusual projectiles, i.e., wooden dowels, fired by an extensively manipulated blank gun is reported, emphasizing the importance of close collaboration between the police firearm laboratory and forensic pathology in practical casework. PMID:14640288

  19. Wooden shell of M2-F1 being assembled at El Mirage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Wooden shell of the M2-F1 being assembled at El Mirage, CA. While Flight Research Center technicians built the internal steel structure of the M2-F1, sailplane builder Gus Briegleb built the vehicle's outer wooden shell. Its skin was 3/32-inch mahogany plywood, with 1/8-inch mahogany rib sections reinforced with spruce. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to

  20. Factors Influencing Dwell Fatigue Cracking in Notches of Powder Metallurgy Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, T. P.; Telesman, J.; Ghosn, L.; Garg, A.; Gayda, J.

    2011-01-01

    The influences of heat treatment and cyclic dwells on the notch fatigue resistance of powder metallurgy disk superalloys were investigated for low solvus high refractory (LSHR) and ME3 disk alloys. Disks were processed to produce material conditions with varied microstructures and associated mechanical properties. Notched specimens were first subjected to baseline dwell fatigue cycles having a dwell at maximum load, as well as tensile, stress relaxation, creep rupture, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests at 704 C. Several material heat treatments displayed a bimodal distribution of fatigue life with the lives varying by two orders-of-magnitude, while others had more consistent fatigue lives. This response was compared to other mechanical properties, in search of correlations. The wide scatter in baseline dwell fatigue life was observed only for material conditions resistant to stress relaxation. For selected materials and conditions, additional tests were then performed with the dwells shifted in part or in total to minimum tensile load. The tests performed with dwells at minimum load exhibited lower fatigue lives than max dwell tests, and also exhibited early crack initiation and a substantial increase in the number of initiation sites. These results could be explained in part by modeling evolution of peak stresses in the notch with continued dwell fatigue cycling. Fatigue-environment interactions were determined to limit life for the fatigue cycles with dwells.

  1. [Necrosis and reconstruction of the inferior oblique muscle after removal of a wooden intra-orbital foreign body].

    PubMed

    Huber, K K; Hartmann, K; Vobig, M; Krombach, G A

    2006-08-01

    A 39-year-old patient presented 3 days after a bicycle accident with a progressive left periorbital inflammatory swelling and diplopia in upgaze. On the day of the accident, a cranial x-ray did not reveal a fracture or an orbital foreign body, and the 2.5 cm skin wound on the left lower eyelid was sutured. For further evaluation, computer tomography) was performed. This did not show a radio-opaque, orbital foreign body. An explorative orbitotomy was carried out and revealed a 3.7 cm long wooden fragment medial to the inferior oblique muscle (OI). The extraconal portion of OI was found to be necrotic. Complete reconstruction of the OI was not possible due to the extent of the necrosis. The residual muscle was fixated to the orbital septum. Recovery was good and the diplopia resolved after 6 months. This case emphasizes the importance of a meticulous inspection of skin wounds with a high risk of remaining wooden foreign bodies and shows the possibility of functional recovery of extraocular muscles following partial reconstruction. PMID:16819664

  2. Analysis of the European lacquer technique and technology of polychromed wooden decoration of Chinese room in Wilanow Palace in Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadrozna, Irmina; Guzowska, Anna; Jezewska, Elzbieta

    2009-07-01

    A well preserved wooden paneling decoration of one of the rooms adhering to the King's Jan III bedroom in Wilanow Palace is a unique example of European lacquerwork attributed to famous 18th century craft workshop of Martin Schnell. This decorative technique is a method of applying many layers of clear or colored composition of resins available in Europe to especially prepared ground layer. The paper summarizes the results of original painting materials identification as well as original and late layers stratigraphy. Under certainly not original parts of polychromy there were other colors found. It has been discovered also that some parts of the wooden paneling was removed and replaced with copies painted in a different technique. The 3D scanner and produced orthophotoplans allowed full documentation of the state of preservation of the whole room. The paint samples of which stratigraphic cross-sections were made have been analysed with SEM-EDS technique and ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy. Application of the most advanced analysis techniques like Gas Chromatography (GC/MS) and Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) allowed the most exact identification of binding media.

  3. The importance of old deciduous trees and wooden fences for lichen diversity – an example from the Teichalm area (Eastern Alps)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar

    2016-01-01

    BILOVITZ, P. O. 2014. The importance of old deciduous trees and wooden fences for lichen diversity – an example from the Teichalm area (Eastern Alps). – Herzogia 27: 199 –204. The investigation of the epiphytic lichen diversity on four neighbouring old, isolated deciduous trees and a wooden fence in the Teichalm area yielded 74 lichen taxa and 4 lichenicolous fungi. Anaptychia ciliaris, Cyphelium notarisii, Ramalina fastigiata and R. fraxinea are remarkable records. The usually sterile lichen Thelomma ocellatum was rich in fertile thalli. The known lichen diversity of the Teichalm-Sommeralm region increases from 87 to 122 taxa.

  4. TLS and photogrammetry for the modeling of a historic wooden framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, M.; Viale, M.

    2012-04-01

    contents which will be integrated into an informative device. That way, the public can easily visualize the framework, manipulate the 3D model, discover the construction and the various parts of the historical wooden structure. The raw point cloud cannot be used for this kind of applications. It is thus necessary, from the data which it supplies, to create an exploitable model. Several parameters are to be taken into account: the level of detail of the 3D model, the necessary time to model all the beams, the weight of the final files and finally the type of applied texture. The idea was to implement a workflow to reconcile these various criteria, several methods were tested. This project allowed to create a range of solutions (3D models of the complete framework, virtual tour, interactive 3D models, video animations) to allow an uninitiated public to take advantage of 3D material and software often reserved for the professionals. The work was completed by the comparison between a theoretical model of the framework and a more detailed model of the current state, which allowed to make diagnoses and to study the movements of the structure in the time and to supply important data for rehabilitation and renovation operations.

  5. Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshio; Takada, Hideki

    2010-04-01

    Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. 14C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of 14C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. 14C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

  6. The Influence of the Form of a Wooden Beam on Its Stiffness and Strength III : Stresses in Wood Members Subjected to Combined Column and Beam Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newlin, J A; Trayer, G W

    1925-01-01

    The general purpose in this study was to determine the stresses in a wooden member subjected to combined beam and column action. What may be considered the specific purpose, as it relates more directly to the problem of design, was to determine the particular stress that obtains at maximum load which, for combined loading, does not occur simultaneously with maximum stress.

  7. Release and environmental impact of silver nanoparticles and conventional organic biocides from coated wooden façades.

    PubMed

    Künniger, Tina; Gerecke, Andreas C; Ulrich, Andrea; Huch, Anja; Vonbank, Roger; Heeb, Markus; Wichser, Adrian; Haag, Regula; Kunz, Petra; Faller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This study represents for the first time a comprehensive assessment of functionality and environmental impacts of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) compared to conventional organic biocides. Four different transparent, hydrophobic coatings of wooden outdoor façades were tested during one year outdoor weathering. The total silver release from products with Ag-NP was proportional to the overall erosion of the coating. The results indicate that the Ag-NPs are likely transformed to silver complexes, which are considerably less toxic than ionic silver. The protective effect of the silver containing coatings against mold, blue stain and algae was insufficient, even in immaculate and non-weathered conditions. The release of organic biocides from conventional coatings was dependent on the weather conditions, the type of biocide and the use in the base or top coat. The conventional coating showed a good overall performance free from mold, blue stain and algae until the end of the test period. PMID:24121422

  8. Hbim for Conservation and Management of Built Heritage: Towards a Library of Vaults and Wooden Bean Floors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreni, D.; Brumana, R.; Georgopoulos, A.; Cuca, B.

    2013-07-01

    The paper illustrates the utility to switch from a 3D content model to a Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) in order to support conservation and management of built heritage. This three dimensional solution is based on simplified parametric models, suitable for industrial elements and modern architecture, that can be usefully applied to heritage documentation and management of the data on conservation practices. In this sense, the potentials in starting the definition of an HBIM targeted library are investigated, towards the logic of object data definition, beginning from surface surveying and representation. In order to motivate the opportunity in using this 3D object modelling instruments, some case studies are investigated in the paper. Vault and wooden bean floor analysis show how a HBIM for architectural heritage could be implemented in order to assemble different kind of data on historical buildings, such as e.g. dimensional, geometrical, thematic, historical and architectural information.

  9. The influence of the wooden equipment employed for cheese manufacture on the characteristics of a traditional stretched cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Di Grigoli, Antonino; Francesca, Nicola; Gaglio, Raimondo; Guarrasi, Valeria; Moschetti, Marta; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Settanni, Luca; Bonanno, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the wooden equipment used for the traditional cheese manufacturing from raw milk was evaluated on the variations of chemico-physical characteristics and microbial populations during the ripening of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese. Milk from two farms (A, extensive; B, intensive) was processed in traditional and standard conditions. Chemical and physical traits of cheeses were affected by the farming system and the cheese making technology, and changed during ripening. Content in NaCl and N soluble was lower, and paste consistency higher in cheese from the extensive farm and traditional technology, whereas ripening increased the N soluble and the paste yellow and consistency. The ripening time decreased the number of all lactic acid bacteria (LAB) groups, except enterococci detected at approximately constant levels (10(4) and 10(5) cfu g(-1) for standard and traditional cheeses, respectively), till 120 d of ripening. In all productions, at each ripening time, the levels detected for enterococci were lower than those for the other LAB groups. The canonical discriminant analysis of chemical, physical and microbiological data was able to separate cheeses from different productions and ripening time. The dominant LAB were isolated, phenotypically characterised and grouped, genetically differentiated at strain level and identified. Ten species of LAB were found and the strains detected at the highest levels were Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus casei. Ten strains, mainly belonging to Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum showed an antibacterial activity. The comparison of the polymorphic profiles of the LAB strains isolated from the wooden vat with those of the strains collected during maturation, showed the persistence of three enterococci in traditional cheeses, with Enterococcus faecalis found at dominant levels over the Enterococcus population till 120 d; the absence of these strains in the standard productions evidenced the

  10. Mining User Dwell Time for Personalized Web Search Re-Ranking

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songhua; Jiang, Hao; Lau, Francis

    2011-01-01

    We propose a personalized re-ranking algorithm through mining user dwell times derived from a user's previously online reading or browsing activities. We acquire document level user dwell times via a customized web browser, from which we then infer conceptword level user dwell times in order to understand a user's personal interest. According to the estimated concept word level user dwell times, our algorithm can estimate a user's potential dwell time over a new document, based on which personalized webpage re-ranking can be carried out. We compare the rankings produced by our algorithm with rankings generated by popular commercial search engines and a recently proposed personalized ranking algorithm. The results clearly show the superiority of our method. In this paper, we propose a new personalized webpage ranking algorithmthrough mining dwell times of a user. We introduce a quantitative model to derive concept word level user dwell times from the observed document level user dwell times. Once we have inferred a user's interest over the set of concept words the user has encountered in previous readings, we can then predict the user's potential dwell time over a new document. Such predicted user dwell time allows us to carry out personalized webpage re-ranking. To explore the effectiveness of our algorithm, we measured the performance of our algorithm under two conditions - one with a relatively limited amount of user dwell time data and the other with a doubled amount. Both evaluation cases put our algorithm for generating personalized webpage rankings to satisfy a user's personal preference ahead of those by Google, Yahoo!, and Bing, as well as a recent personalized webpage ranking algorithm.

  11. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 subjects admitted to Hamadan’s day care centers were selected through simple random sampling method. To gather the data, MMSE was used as well as a questionnaire containing demographic variables. Data analysis was completed through SPSS-16. Results The sample consisted of 17.9% male, 59.4% of whom were married. According to the results, 96 cases (45.3%) suffered from mild (MMSE≥22), 110 cases (51.9%) from moderate (11≤MMSE≤21) and 6 cases (2.8%) from severe cognitive disorder (MMSE≤10). As findings revealed, factors such as age (Pv = 0.005, r = -0.491) and schooling (Pv < 0.001) are of significant relationship with MMSE score. Discussion Prevalence of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults was of normal range. Hence, familial relations and social support can decrease mental status disorder. PMID:25436081

  12. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution. PMID:26960074

  13. Recoil-deposited Po-210 in radon dwellings

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelsson, C.

    1990-12-31

    Short-lived decay products of Rn-222 plate out on all surfaces in a house containing radon gas. Following the subsequent alpha decays of the mother nuclei, the daughter products Pb-214 and Pb-210 are superficially and permanently absorbed. Due to its long half-life (22 y) the activity of absorbed Pb-210 accumulates in the surface. The activity of Pb-210, or its decay products, can thus reflect the past randon daughter and plate-out history of a house over several decades. Our results and experience from measurements of Po-210 and Rn-222 in 22 dwellings will be presented. In these studies the Po-210 surface activity of one plane glass sheet per dwelling (window panes were not used) has been determined and compared with the period of exposure times the mean radon concentration measured over a two-month period. Considering the large uncertainty in the integrated radon exposure estimate the surface {sup 210}Po correlates well (r=0.73) with the accumulated radon exposure. The {sup 210}Po activity of the glass samples has been measured non-destructively using an open-flow pulse ionization chamber and this detector has also been successfully applied in field exercises.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of depression among community dwelling elderly.

    PubMed

    Yaka, Erdem; Keskinoglu, Pembe; Ucku, Reyhan; Yener, Görsev Gülmen; Tunca, Zeliha

    2014-01-01

    Depression in the elderly is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of depression among community-dwelling older population in an urban setting in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 482 elderly individuals 65 years and over in an urban area. Cluster sampling method was used for sample size. Depression in the elderly had been diagnosed by a clinical interview and Geriatric Depression Scale. Data were collected by door-to-door survey. Chi square test was used for statistical analysis. P value, which was calculated by the results of chi square test and coefficient of phi (φ), below 0.05 was included in the analysis of logistic regression. Depression was significantly associated with female gender, being single or divorced, lower educational status, low income, unemployment, and lack of health insurance. However, logistic regression analysis revealed higher depression rates in the elderly with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psychiatric disease, cerebrovascular disease, low income and being dependent. Depression is common among community-dwelling older people in an urban area of Izmir, Turkey. Older adults living in community should be cautiously screened to prevent or manage depression. PMID:24767692

  15. 24 CFR 206.51 - Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a condominium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a dwelling unit in a condominium. 206.51 Section 206.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Properties § 206.51 Eligibility of mortgages involving a dwelling unit in a...

  16. 25 CFR 91.7 - Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes. 91.7 Section 91.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.7 Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes....

  17. 25 CFR 91.7 - Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes. 91.7 Section 91.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.7 Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes....

  18. 25 CFR 91.7 - Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes. 91.7 Section 91.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.7 Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes....

  19. 25 CFR 91.7 - Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes. 91.7 Section 91.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.7 Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes....

  20. 25 CFR 91.7 - Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes. 91.7 Section 91.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT OF INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.7 Permits to occupy land for dwelling purposes....

  1. Relationship between Perceived Needs and Assessed Needs for Services in Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Frank, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the relationship between the perceived needs and assessed needs of community-dwelling seniors. Design and Methods: Trained research assistants administered the Naturally Occurring Retirement Community Baseline Survey to 268 community-dwelling older adults in suburban Maryland. Perceived and assessed needs were measured in the…

  2. Dwell Notch Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Yamada, Y.; Ghosn, L. J.; Jayaraman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern dwell notch low cycle fatigue (NLCF) behavior of a powder metallurgy (P/M) ME3 disk superalloy. The emphasis was placed on the environmentally driven mechanisms which may embrittle the highly stressed notch surface regions and reduce NLCF life. In conjunction with the environmentally driven notch surface degradation processes, the visco-plastic driven mechanisms which can significantly change the notch root stresses were also considered. Dwell notch low cycle fatigue testing was performed in air and vacuum on a ME3 P/M disk alloy specimens heat treated using either a fast or a slow cooling rate from the solutioning treatment. It was shown that dwells at the minimum stress typically produced a greater life debit than the dwells applied at the maximum stress, especially for the slow cooled heat treatment. Two different environmentally driven failure mechanisms were identified as the root cause of early crack initiation in the min dwell tests. Both of these failure mechanisms produced mostly a transgranular crack initiation failure mode and yet still resulted in low NLCF fatigue lives. The lack of stress relaxation during the min dwell tests produced higher notch root stresses which caused early crack initiation and premature failure when combined with the environmentally driven surface degradation mechanisms. The importance of environmental degradation mechanisms was further highlighted by vacuum dwell NLCF tests which resulted in considerably longer NLCF lives, especially for the min dwell tests.

  3. 25 CFR 700.155 - Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling-residential move.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling... Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling—residential move. (a) A certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses incurred in the search for a replacement dwelling....

  4. 25 CFR 700.155 - Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling-residential move.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling... Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling—residential move. (a) A certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses incurred in the search for a replacement dwelling....

  5. 25 CFR 700.155 - Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling-residential move.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling... Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling—residential move. (a) A certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses incurred in the search for a replacement dwelling....

  6. 25 CFR 700.155 - Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling-residential move.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling... Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling—residential move. (a) A certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses incurred in the search for a replacement dwelling....

  7. 25 CFR 700.155 - Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling-residential move.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling... Expenses in searching for replacement dwelling—residential move. (a) A certified eligible head of household is entitled to actual reasonable expenses incurred in the search for a replacement dwelling....

  8. Patterns of behaviour in dwellings exposed to road traffic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J.; Simonnet, F.; Vallet, M.

    1984-01-01

    An inquiry involving a total of 1500 subjects residing in 15 different sites in the conurbations of Lyon and Marseilles was carried out in 1979 with a view to determining the behaviour and attitudes of people with regard to traffic noise. The main purpose of the inquiry was to identify the objective reactions to the traffic noise and to determine how such reactions varied with the noise level, with account taken of the socio-economic characteristics of the subjects (age, income, owner occupier or tenant, etc.). The 08.00-20.00 hour Leq noise level was measured or calculated for each of the dwellings included in the inquiry. The 00.00-05.00 and 20.00-24.00 hour Leq values were also derived for each case and a total of nearly 20 000 different noise levels were involved in the analysis of the data for this inquiry. On considering the completed questionaires it was found that the annoyance experienced during the day was more closely correlated with the noise level ( r = 0·64) than had been the case with the results of previous studies. In addition to showing how traffic noise can interfere with activities and lead, for example, to the closing of windows to shut out the noise, the inquiry yielded information on the way in which activities affected by noise are transferred to quieter rooms, on the extent to which individual dwellings are sound proofed, on the extent to which occupants are likely to move to another dwelling in order to escape from the noise and finally on some aspects of the effects of noise on health and sleep. Thus it appears that a daytime Leq value of more than 65 dB(A) gives rise to what can be regarded as forced behavioural responses to the extent that there are significant changes in the normal way of life of the people concerned and such responses give an indication of the magnitude of the social costs that can be attributed to the undesirable effects of traffic noise.

  9. Dwell-time-limited coherence in open quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Hackens, B; Faniel, S; Gustin, C; Wallart, X; Bollaert, S; Cappy, A; Bayot, V

    2005-04-15

    We present measurements of the electron phase coherence time tau(varphi) on a wide range of open ballistic quantum dots (QDs) made from InGaAs heterostructures. The observed saturation of tau(varphi) below temperatures 0.5 Kdwell time becomes the limiting factor for electron interference effects in QDs at low temperature. PMID:15904090

  10. Dwell-Time-Limited Coherence in Open Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, B.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.; Bayot, V.

    2005-04-01

    We present measurements of the electron phase coherence time τϕ on a wide range of open ballistic quantum dots (QDs) made from InGaAs heterostructures. The observed saturation of τϕ below temperatures 0.5 Kdwell time becomes the limiting factor for electron interference effects in QDs at low temperature.