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Sample records for preferences strategic behavior

  1. Cognitive skills affect economic preferences, strategic behavior, and job attachment

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Stephen V.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Goette, Lorenz; Rustichini, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Economic analysis has so far said little about how an individual's cognitive skills (CS) are related to the individual's economic preferences in different choice domains, such as risk taking or saving, and how preferences in different domains are related to each other. Using a sample of 1,000 trainee truckers we report three findings. First, there is a strong and significant relationship between an individual's CS and preferences. Individuals with better CS are more patient, in both short- and long-run. Better CS are also associated with a greater willingness to take calculated risks. Second, CS predict social awareness and choices in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. Subjects with better CS more accurately forecast others' behavior and differentiate their behavior as a second mover more strongly depending on the first-mover's choice. Third, CS, and in particular, the ability to plan, strongly predict perseverance on the job in a setting with a substantial financial penalty for early exit. Consistent with CS being a common factor in all of these preferences and behaviors, we find a strong pattern of correlation among them. These results, taken together with the theoretical explanation we offer for the relationships we find, suggest that higher CS systematically affect preferences and choices in ways that favor economic success. PMID:19416865

  2. On operator strategic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Deeper and more detailed knowledge as to how human operators such as pilots respond, singly and in groups, to demands on their performance which arise from technical systems will support the manipulation of such systems' design in order to accommodate the foibles of human behavior. Efforts to understand how self-autonomy impacts strategic behavior and such related issues as error generation/recognition/correction are still in their infancy. The present treatment offers both general and aviation-specific definitions of strategic behavior as precursors of prospective investigations.

  3. Strategic mating with common preferences.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Steve; Reyniers, Diane

    2005-12-21

    We present a two-sided search model in which individuals from two groups (males and females, employers and workers) would like to form a long-term relationship with a highly ranked individual of the other group, but are limited to individuals who they randomly encounter and to those who also accept them. This article extends the research program, begun in Alpern and Reyniers [1999. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88], of providing a game theoretic analysis for the Kalick-Hamilton [1986. J. Personality Soc. Psychol. 51, 673-682] mating model in which a cohort of males and females of various 'fitness' or 'attractiveness' levels are randomly paired in successive periods and mate if they accept each other. Their model compared two acceptance rules chosen to represent homotypic (similarity) preferences and common (or 'type') preferences. Our earlier paper modeled the first kind by assuming that if a level x male mates with a level y female, both get utility -|x-y|, whereas this paper models the second kind by giving the male utility y and the female utility x. Our model can also be seen as a continuous generalization of the discrete fitness-level game of Johnstone [1997. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40, 51-59]. We establish the existence of equilibrium strategy pairs, give examples of multiple equilibria, and conditions guaranteeing uniqueness. In all equilibria individuals become less choosy over time, with high fitness individuals pairing off with each other first, leaving the rest to pair off later. This route to assortative mating was suggested by Parker [1983. Mate Choice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-164]. If the initial fitness distributions have atoms, then mixed strategy equilibria may also occur. If these distributions are unknown, there are equilibria in which only individuals in the same fitness band are mated, as in the steady-state model of MacNamara and Collins [1990. J. Appl. Prob. 28, 815-827] for the job search problem. PMID:16171826

  4. Men's strategic preferences for femininity in female faces.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2014-08-01

    Several evolutionarily relevant sources of individual differences in face preference have been documented for women. Here, we examine three such sources of individual variation in men's preference for female facial femininity: term of relationship, partnership status and self-perceived attractiveness. We show that men prefer more feminine female faces when rating for a short-term relationship and when they have a partner (Study 1). These variables were found to interact in a follow-up study (Study 2). Men who thought themselves attractive also preferred more feminized female faces for short-term relationships than men who thought themselves less attractive (Study 1 and Study 2). In women, similar findings for masculine preferences in male faces have been interpreted as adaptive. In men, such preferences potentially reflect that attractive males are able to compete for high-quality female partners in short-term contexts. When a man has secured a mate, the potential cost of being discovered may increase his choosiness regarding short-term partners relative to unpartnered men, who can better increase their short-term mating success by relaxing their standards. Such potentially strategic preferences imply that men also face trade-offs when choosing relatively masculine or feminine faced partners. In line with a trade-off, women with feminine faces were seen as more likely to be unfaithful and more likely to pursue short-term relationships (Study 3), suggesting that risk of cuckoldry is one factor that may limit men's preferences for femininity in women and could additionally lead to preferences for femininity in short-term mates. PMID:25040006

  5. Strategic Family Therapy of Avoidant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Thomas A.; Hinkle, J. Scott

    1993-01-01

    Notes that Millon's biopsychosocial model asserts that socioenvironmental factors of parental or peer rejection may shape development of avoidant behavior but does not elaborate on how family system may perpetuate its existence once disorder has evolved. Presents brief overview of avoidant behavior and strategic family therapy case study.…

  6. Residential Preferences and Population Dispersal Migration Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Gordon F.

    In order to test the hypothesis that size of place of residence and urban proximity preferences constitute factors in population dispersal migration behavior, a random sample of 777 Pennsylvania households plus a sample screened for moving probability (N=319) were surveyed via personal interviews in 1974. A follow-up survey on actual migration…

  7. Framing Early Childhood Development: Strategic Communications and Public Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Franklin D.; Bales, Susan Nall

    2004-01-01

    This brief focuses on the potential role that strategic communications can play in helping state (Maternal Child Health) MCH programs and their collaborating partners frame their message to enhance the public's understanding of the importance of early child development and the need for a comprehensive and integrated early childhood system. The…

  8. Exploring Strategic Behavior in an Oligopoly Market Using Classroom Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouhle, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an innovative technique to teach strategic behavior in oligopoly markets. In the classroom exercise, students play the role of a firm that maximizes its profit given the behavior of other firms in the industry. Using classroom clickers to communicate pricing decisions, students explore first-hand the strategic nature of…

  9. Scaling laws of strategic behavior and size heterogeneity in agent dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaglica, Gabriella; Lillo, Fabrizio; Moro, Esteban; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2008-03-01

    We consider the financial market as a model system and study empirically how agents strategically adjust the properties of large orders in order to meet their preference and minimize their impact. We quantify this strategic behavior by detecting scaling relations between the variables characterizing the trading activity of different institutions. We also observe power-law distributions in the investment time horizon, in the number of transactions needed to execute a large order, and in the traded value exchanged by large institutions, and we show that heterogeneity of agents is a key ingredient for the emergence of some aggregate properties characterizing this complex system.

  10. Help Preferences among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e.,…

  11. Fat Preference: a novel model of eating behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Kasper, James M; Johnson, Sarah B; Hommel, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in the United States of America, with more than a third of the population classified as obese. One factor contributing to this multifactorial disorder is the consumption of a high fat diet, a behavior that has been shown to increase both caloric intake and body fat content. However, the elements regulating preference for high fat food over other foods remain understudied. To overcome this deficit, a model to quickly and easily test changes in the preference for dietary fat was developed. The Fat Preference model presents rats with a series of choices between foods with differing fat content. Like humans, rats have a natural bias toward consuming high fat food, making the rat model ideal for translational studies. Changes in preference can be ascribed to the effect of either genetic differences or pharmacological interventions. This model allows for the exploration of determinates of fat preference and screening pharmacotherapeutic agents that influence acquisition of obesity. PMID:24998978

  12. Behavioral and neural correlates of visual preference decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2009-02-01

    Three sets of findings are reported here, all related to behavioral and neural correlates of preference decision. First, when one is engaged in a preference decision task with free observation, one's gaze is biased towards the to-be-chosen stimulus (eg. face) long before (s)he is consciously aware of the decision ("gaze cascade effect"). Second, an fMRI study suggested that implicit activity in a subcortical structure (the Nucleus Accumbens) precedes cognitive and conscious decision of preference. Finally, both novelty and familiarity causally contribute to attractiveness, but differently across object categories (such as faces and natural scenes). Taken together, these results point to dynamical and implicit processes both in short- and long-term, towards conscious preference decision. Finally, some discussion will be given on aesthetic decision (i.e. "beauty").

  13. Brainstem correlates of behavioral and compositional preferences of musical harmony.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-03-30

    Certain chords are preferred by listeners behaviorally and also occur with higher regularity in musical composition. Event-related potentials index the perceived consonance (i.e., pleasantness) of musical pitch relationships providing a cortical neural correlate for such behavioral preferences. Here, we show correlates of these harmonic preferences exist at subcortical stages of audition. Brainstem frequency-following responses were measured in response to four prototypical musical triads. Pitch salience computed from frequency-following responses correctly predicted the ordering of triadic harmony stipulated by music theory (i.e., major >minor >diminished >augmented). Moreover, neural response magnitudes showed high correspondence with listeners' perceptual ratings of the same chords. Results suggest that preattentive stages of pitch processing may contribute to perceptual judgments of musical harmony. PMID:21358554

  14. Brainstem correlates of behavioral and compositional preferences of musical harmony

    PubMed Central

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Certain chords are preferred by listeners behaviorally and also occur with higher regularity in musical composition. Event-related potentials index the perceived consonance (i.e., pleasantness) of musical pitch relationships providing a cortical neural correlate for such behavioral preferences. Here, we demonstrate correlates of these harmonic preferences exist at subcortical stages of audition. Brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) were measured in response to four prototypical musical triads. Pitch salience computed from FFRs correctly predicted the ordering of triadic harmony stipulated by music theory (i.e., major > minor ≫ diminished > augmented). Moreover, neural response magnitudes showed high correspondence with listeners’ perceptual ratings of the same chords. Results suggest that pre-attentive stages of pitch processing may contribute to perceptual judgments of musical harmony. PMID:21358554

  15. Fat Preference: A Novel Model of Eating Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, James M; Johnson, Sarah B; Hommel, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing problem in the United States of America, with more than a third of the population classified as obese. One factor contributing to this multifactorial disorder is the consumption of a high-fat diet, a behavior that has been shown to increase both caloric intake and body fat content. However, the elements regulating preference for high-fat food over other foods remain understudied. To overcome this deficit, a model to quickly and easily test changes in the preference for dietary fat was developed. The Fat Preference model presents rats with a series of choices between foods with differing fat content. Like humans, rats have a natural bias toward consuming high-fat food, making the rat model ideal for translational studies. Changes in preference can be ascribed to the effect of either genetic differences or pharmacological interventions. This model allows for the exploration of determinates of fat preference and screening pharmacotherapeutic agents that influence acquisition of obesity. PMID:24998978

  16. Test-Takers' Strategic Behaviors in Independent and Integrated Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the strategic behaviors that test-takers reported using when responding to integrated and independent speaking tasks in an English oral proficiency test [the Speaking Section of the Internet-based Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL iBT)] and the relationship between test-takers' strategic behaviors and their…

  17. [Effects of environmental change and others' behavior on cooperative behavior and solution preference in social dilemma].

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined how environmental change and others' behavior affected cooperative behavior and solution preference of the person in social dilemma situation. Participants in two experiments played an "environment game," in which gradual pollution in environment and reduction in profit rate were simulated. Information on behavior of other players was manipulated: in "free rider" condition, one person was an extreme free rider, and the others were cooperative; in "loafing" condition, everyone loafed. In both experiments, "Bad Apple Effect" was not observed clearly, and cooperative behavior increased as environmental pollution worsened. In Experiment 2, there was no main effect of others' behavior on solution preference. However, significant correlations were found among solution preference, motivation to control others' behavior, and perceived seriousness of the situation, only when an extreme free rider was among them. PMID:11883324

  18. Behavioral and biochemical characteristics of rats preferring ethanol or water

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikova, O.G.; Borodkin, Y.S.; Razumovskaya, N.I.; Shabanov, P.D.; Sokolovskaya, N.E.

    1985-05-01

    Considering that learning and memory processes are largely determined by the intensity of RNA synthesis in specific brain structure, the authors study the relationship between learning ability of rats preferring ethanol or water and the level of RNA-synthesizing activity of brain cell nuclei. RNA-synthesizing activity of cell nuclei from cortical gray matter of the animals was determined one month after selection by measuring incorporation of deuterium-uridine triphosphate. The numerical results were subjected to statistical analysis by Student's test at P 0.05. It is shown that the altered behavior of animals preferring ethanol is evidently based on disturbed interaction between mediator and genetic structures of brain cells.

  19. Media preferences in scenarios involving relationship closeness and information valence: evidence of strategic self-presentation and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Jan-Are K; Kummervold, Per Egil; Wynn, Rolf

    2014-02-01

    The study investigated strategic self-presentation (relationship closeness, information valence, and sex) on hypothetical choice of media used. 145 participants (73 women, 72 men; M age = 22.3 yr.) were randomly assigned to experimental conditions where they indicated their preference for communicating with either a friend or a stranger using Short Messaging Service (SMS), e-mail, or telephone, compared to face-to-face. Information valence was manipulated as a within-subjects variable by scenarios where information was self-referential and either negative or positive. Preference to mediated channels in the two scenarios was measured as an average of self-reported scores on a scale from 1-5 where 3 indicated face-to-face communication. Relationship closeness and scenario affected media preferences. Participants had higher preference scores for mediated channels when communicating with strangers than with friends and when sharing self-referential and negative information. Only women's preferences appeared to be affected by the manipulation of relationship closeness. PMID:24765722

  20. Drug-Related HIV Risk Behaviors and Cocaine Preference among Injection Drug Users in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared drug-related risk behavior of drug users whose preferred injection drug was cocaine and users with preference for heroin or no preference between the two drugs (total n=422). Found cocaine preference unrelated to likelihood of needle sharing overall, needle sharing with strangers, needle sharing at shooting galleries, and failure to use…

  1. Strategic costs and preferences revelation in the allocation of resources for health care.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Laura; Levaggi, Rosella

    2010-09-01

    This article examines the resources allocation process in the internal market for health care in an environment characterised by asymmetry of information. We analyse the strategic behaviour of the provider and show how, by misreporting its cost function and reservation utility, it might shift the allocation of resources away from the purchaser's objectives. Although the fundamental importance of equity, efficiency and risk aversion considerations which have been the traditional focus of the literature on allocation of resources should not be denied, this paper shows that contracts and internal markets are not neutral instruments and more research should be devoted to studying their effects. PMID:20309636

  2. Simulating Terrorism: Credible Commitment, Costly Signaling, and Strategic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David A.; Young, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    We present two simulations designed to convey the strategic nature of terrorism and counterterrorism. The first is a simulated hostage crisis, designed primarily to illustrate the concepts of credible commitment and costly signaling. The second explores high-level decision making of both a terrorist group and the state, and is designed to…

  3. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity on Children's Behavioral Attributions and Peer Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Judith H.; Stephan, Cookie

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the generality of stereotypes associated with physical attractiveness and assesses the relative contributions of attractiveness and ethnicity in determining children's behavioral attributions and peer preferences. (JMB)

  4. I Don't Want to Pick! Introspection on Uncertainty Supports Early Strategic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Kristen E.; Ghetti, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Although some evidence indicates that even very young children engage in rudimentary forms of strategic behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that uncertainty monitoring underlies such behaviors. Three-, four-, and five-year-old children ("N" = 88) completed a perceptual discrimination task.…

  5. Guided Writing Lessons: Second-Grade Students' Development of Strategic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sharan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes intra-individual change in strategic behavior of five second-grade students during three months of guided writing instruction for informational text. Data sources included sequential coding of writing behavior from videotaped writing events and analytic assessment of writing products. Students' development of self-scaffolding…

  6. Stimulus Duration Preference at Electrode Sites Yielding Elicited Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, V. C.

    1970-01-01

    The latency to display eating or drinking during hypothalamic stimulation was compared with the preferred duration of the same stimulus intensity in a self-stimulation situation. All the animals preferred longer stimulus durations than those required to elicit eating or drinking

  7. An Examination of Behavioral History Effects on Preference for Choice in Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberlin, Alayna T.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the effects of behavioral history on elementary students' preference for making a choice in two studies. Previous research on choice has focused on the arrangement of current contingencies and has not accounted for the effects of behavioral history. Study 1 examined participants' preference for two options (i.e.,…

  8. Preference-Based Teaching: Helping Students with Severe Disabilities Enjoy Learning without Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Dennis H.; Green, Carolyn W.

    2006-01-01

    An impediment to teaching that occurs with many students who have severe disabilities is problem behavior during teaching sessions. This paper describes "preference-based teaching", a recently developed means of reducing problem behavior by making teaching programs enjoyable for students. Preference-based teaching begins with actions taken prior…

  9. Tactical Versus Strategic Behavior: General Aviation Piloting in Convective Weather Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

    2002-01-01

    We commonly describe environments and behavioral responses to environmental conditions as 'tactical' and 'strategic.' However theoretical research defining relevant environmental characteristics is rare, as are empirical investigations that would inform such theory. This paper discusses General Aviation (GA) pilots' descriptions of tactical/strategic conditions with respect to weather flying, and evaluates their ratings along a tactical/strategic scale in response to real convective weather scenarios experienced during a flight experiment with different weather information cues. Perceived risk was significantly associated with ratings for all experimental conditions. In addition, environmental characteristics were found to be predictive of ratings for Traditional IMC (instrument meteorological conditions), i.e., aural weather information only, and Traditional VMC (visual meteorological conditions), i.e., aural information and an external view. The paper also presents subjects' comments regarding use of Graphical Weather Information Systems (GWISs) to support tactical and strategic weather flying decisions and concludes with implications for the design and use of GWISs.

  10. The training and validation of youth-preferred social behaviors of child-care personnel1

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Alan G.; Braukmann, Curtis J.; Kirigin, Kathryn A.; Fixsen, Dean L.; Phillips, Elery L.; Wolf, Montrose M.

    1977-01-01

    This research sought to identify, train, and validate social behaviors preferred by youths to be used by youth-care personnel (called teaching-parents). With training, consistent increases in seven preferred behaviors were observed for the six teaching-parent trainees. These behaviors included offering to help, “getting to the point”, giving reasons why a behavior is important to a youth, providing descriptions of alternative behaviors, positive feedback, smiling, and positive motivational incentives (i.e., points for task mastery exchanged for tangible reinforcers). Increases in these behaviors correlated with increases in the youths' ratings of the quality of the trainees' interactions. Posttraining levels of preferred social behavior and youth ratings for trainees also compared favorably with levels for successful professional teaching-parents. These results suggest that teaching-parents can be successfully trained to interact with youths in ways that are preferred by the youths. PMID:16795551

  11. Aggression and prosocial behaviors in social conflicts mediating the influence of cold social intelligence and affective empathy on children's social preference.

    PubMed

    Carreras, M R; Braza, P; Muñoz, J M; Braza, F; Azurmendi, A; Pascual-Sagastizabal, E; Cardas, J; Sánchez-Martín, J R

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a model in which aggressive and prosocial behaviors exhibited in social conflicts mediate the influence of empathy and social intelligence to children's social preference by same-sex peers. Data were obtained from kindergarten to the end of the first grade. The sample yielded 117 Spanish children (64 girls and 53 boys) with a mean age of 62.8 months (SD = 3.3) at the beginning of the study. For boys, affective empathy contributed to boys' social preference through a decrease in physical aggression as responses to social conflict. For girls, affective empathy had an indirect effect on girls' preference by increasing assistance to others in their conflicts. No mediating effect in the contribution of social intelligence on girls' social preference was detected. Our results suggest that, only for girls, cold social intelligence can promote both indirect aggression (coercive strategic that do not leave social preference, at least at these ages) and behaviors that lead social preference (such as prosocial behaviors). PMID:24766354

  12. Bullying as Strategic Behavior: Relations with Desired and Acquired Dominance in the Peer Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.; Aleva, Elisabeth A.; van der Meulen, Matty

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether bullying is strategic behavior aimed at obtaining or maintaining social dominance, 1129 9- to 12-year-old Dutch children were classified in terms of their role in bullying and in terms of their use of dominance oriented coercive and prosocial social strategies. Multi-informant measures of participants' acquired and desired…

  13. Welfare, Child Support, and Strategic Behavior: Do High Orders and Low Disregards Discourage Child Support Awards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research has documented strategic behavior in response to child support policy. Parents of children on welfare have an incentive to avoid formal child support, since most states limit the amount of formal child support that women on welfare can receive (the "disregard") and have relatively high child support orders for low-income…

  14. Personality Influences Temporal Discounting Preferences: Behavioral and Brain Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Joshua; Hedden, Trey; Wickens, Nina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Prelec, Drazen; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are stable predictors of many life outcomes that are associated with important decisions that involve tradeoffs over time. Therefore, a fundamental question is how tradeoffs over time vary from person to person in relation to stable personality traits. We investigated the influence of personality, as measured by the Five-Factor Model, on time preferences and on neural activity engaged by intertemporal choice. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants made choices between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. For each participant, we estimated a constant-sensitivity discount function that dissociates impatience (devaluation of future consequences) from time sensitivity (consistency with rational, exponential discounting). Overall, higher neuroticism was associated with a relatively greater preference for immediate rewards and higher conscientiousness with a relatively greater preference for delayed rewards. Specifically, higher conscientiousness correlated positively with lower short-term impatience and more exponential time preferences, whereas higher neuroticism (lower emotional stability) correlated positively with higher short-term impatience and less exponential time preferences. Cognitive-control and reward brain regions were more activated when higher conscientiousness participants selected a smaller-sooner reward and, conversely, when higher neuroticism participants selected a larger-later reward. Both cases involved choices that went against predispositions implied by personality. These findings reveal that stable personality traits fundamentally influence how rewards are chosen over time. PMID:24799134

  15. EVALUATION OF THE RATE OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY DIFFERENT REINFORCERS ACROSS PREFERENCE ASSESSMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. PMID:22219533

  16. Evaluation of the rate of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers across preference assessments.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. PMID:22219533

  17. Residential Preferences and Moving Behavior: A Family Life Cycle Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Nutty, Cheri L.

    The relationship of family life cycle changes to housing preferences and residential mobility is examined. Two residential decision-making issues are explored in detail--how family life cycle stages influence what people view as important to their choice of residential setting and what individuals at different family life cycle stages view as the…

  18. Behavioral Variability of Choices versus Structural Inconsistency of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of rational choice often make the structural consistency assumption that every decision maker's binary strict preference among choice alternatives forms a "strict weak order". Likewise, the very concept of a "utility function" over lotteries in normative, prescriptive, and descriptive theory is mathematically equivalent to strict weak…

  19. College Women: Eating Behaviors and Help-Seeking Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prouty, Anne M.; Protinsky, Howard O.; Canady, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Late adolescent college women (N=578) were surveyed regarding eating disorders. Participants found to have eating disorders were younger and more likely to be white, in a sorority, and Christian. Additionally, they were most likely to say that they would prefer a close friend to support them when dealing with disordered eating, followed by their…

  20. College Application Behavior: Who Is Strategic? Does It Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalon, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines whether college application behavior assists members of privileged social groups to preserve their advantages in diversified higher education systems. The study is based on a survey conducted in Israel in 1999 on a sample of 4,061 freshmen in the research universities and the academic colleges, which are often perceived as the…

  1. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  2. Kids Speak: Preferred Parental Behavior at Youth Sport Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fifer, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However, it is unlikely that…

  3. Kids speak: preferred parental behavior at youth sport events.

    PubMed

    Omli, Jens; Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M

    2011-12-01

    News reports (e.g., Abrams, 2008) and scholarly research (e.g., Wiersma & Fife, 2005) have indicated increasing concern that parent-spectator behavior at youth sport events may be problematic. Multiple strategies have been used to influence spectator behavior in youth sport contexts (e.g., "Silent Sundays"). However it is unlikely that interventions aimed at changing parent-spectator behaviors have adequately considered young athletes' perspectives, because little is known about how children want parents to behave during youth sport events. Therefore, children (ages 7-14 years) were asked to describe how parents actually behaved at youth sport events and how they wanted parents to behave. Through grounded theory analysis (Charmaz, 2000), three parent "roles" emerged from the data-supportive parent, demanding coach, and crazed fan. PMID:22276412

  4. Reversal of an Unconditioned Behavioral Preference for Specific Food Pellets by Intervention of Whisker Sensory Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hannah; Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclase type-5 (AC5) is preferentially expressed in the dorsal striatum. Recently, we reported that AC5 knockout (KO) mice preferred food pellets carrying an olfactory cue produced by AC5 KO mice during food consumption (AC5 KO pellets) over food pellets that had been taken by wildtype (WT) mice. In the present study, we demonstrated that whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left in AC5 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Conversely, whisker trimming on the right but not the left in WT mice induced a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Mice lacking D2 dopamine receptor (D2 KO mice) also showed a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. In D2 mice, whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left blocked a behavioral preference for AC5 KO food pellets. AC5 KO mice had increased level of phospho-CaMKIIα in the dorsal striatum, and WT mice with whiskers cut on either side also showed increased p-CaMKIIα level in the dorsal striatum. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of CaMKIIα in the dorsal striatum in either the right or the left hemisphere in AC5 KO mice and D2 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. However, behavioral changes induced by this inhibition on each side showed asymmetrical time courses. These results suggest that an unconditioned behavioral preference for specific food pellets can be switched on or off based on the balance of states of neural activity in the dorsal striatum regulated by a signaling pathway centered on AC5 and D2 and the sensory inputs of whiskers from the right side of the face. PMID:27122994

  5. Thinking Styles and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior among Hong Kong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tak-ming; Chen, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between thinking styles and preferred teacher interpersonal behavior based on the Model for Interpersonal Teacher Behavior (MITB, Wubbels, Creton, & Hooymayers, 1985) among 247 Hong Kong secondary school female students. The Thinking Style Inventory Revised (TSI-R, Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2003) and the…

  6. Best Friends' Preference and Popularity: Associations with Aggression and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ellen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how children's aggression and prosocial behavior are related to the preference and popularity of their best friends. Participants were 1,953 fourth-graders (52.2% boys). Measures included peer nominations of friendship, peer status, overt and relational aggression, and prosocial behavior. A total of 334 reciprocal same-sex best…

  7. Directional and color preference in adult zebrafish: Implications in behavioral and learning assays in neurotoxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Bault, Zachary A; Peterson, Samuel M; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2015-12-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a useful vertebrate model organism for neurological studies. While a number of behavior and learning assays are recently reported in the literature for zebrafish, many of these assays are still being refined. The initial purpose of this study was to apply a published T-maze assay for adult zebrafish that measures how quickly an organism can discriminate between different color stimuli after receiving reinforcement to measure learning in a study investigating the later life impacts of developmental Pb exposure. The original results were inconclusive as the control group showed a directional and color preference. To assess directional preference further, a three-chambered testing apparatus was constructed and rotated in several directions. The directional preference observed in males was alleviated by rotating the arms pointing west and east. In addition, color preference was investigated using all combinations of five different colors (orange, yellow, green, blue and purple). With directional preference alleviated results showed that both male and female zebrafish preferred colors of shorter wavelengths. An additional experiment tested changes in color preference due to developmental exposure to Pb in adult male zebrafish. Results revealed that Pb-exposed males gained and lost certain color preferences compared to control males and the preference for short wavelengths was decreased. Overall, these results show that consideration and pretesting should be completed before applying behavioral and learning assays involving adult zebrafish to avoid innate preferences and confounding changes in neurotoxicology studies and that developmental Pb exposure alters color preferences in adult male zebrafish. PMID:25993913

  8. Design and Construction of a Two-Temperature Preference Behavioral Assay for Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Richard L.; McKemy, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral assays in the undergraduate neuroscience laboratory are useful for illustrating a variety of physiological concepts. An example is homeostatic temperature regulation (thermoregulation). Many model organisms, from flies to mice, regulate internal temperatures in part by moving to suitable climates (thermotaxis). A particularly reliable method of quantifying temperature-dependent thermotactic behaviors is the two-temperature preference behavioral assay. In this preparation, an organism is free to move between two temperature-controlled surfaces, thus revealing its preferred thermal environment. Here we present the design and construction of a two-temperature preference assay chamber. The device uses Peltier-based thermoelectric modules (TECs) for heating and cooling, and is capable of precision control of temperatures from −5ºC to 60ºC. Our approach can be easily adapted for use in a variety of physiological and behavioral assays that require precise temperature control over a wide range of temperatures. PMID:23494724

  9. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Engaging Drug Using/Problem Behavior Adolescents and their Families into Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415

  10. [Economic analysis of strategic behavior in dispensing pharmacies in the separation of dispensing and prescribing functions].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko

    2003-03-01

    In recent years, the system for the separation of dispensing and prescribing functions (SDP) has progressed in Japan. However, because of the failure of the healthcare system, it is difficult to estimate how the system of SDP contributes to the improvement of patient utility and welfare. In this paper, I try to evaluate the SDP by analyzing the strategic behavior of dispensing pharmacies, employing some economic models under imperfect information. In these models, quality is characterized as a strategic variable in monopolistic or duopolistic competition. As a result, I show that competition among dispensing pharmacies in the SDP raises the quality of pharmaceutical services, but there is some possibility of "excess entry" with free entry. PMID:12693020

  11. Effects of rotational side preferences on immobile behavior of normal mice in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Schmidt, Sergio L

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that side preferences in spontaneous rotational behavior are determinant of differences in vulnerability to the effects of the learned helplessness paradigm. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of side preferences of rotational behavior in another animal model of depression, the forced swimming test. Immobility was also investigated upon repeated testing sessions and in interaction with sex. Swiss mice (69 males and 73 females) were submitted to three sessions (test time = 5 min) of forced swimming. Immobile and turning behaviors were measured for each session and within each testing session. Consistency of laterality was defined considering the persistence of the same side turning preference in the three sessions. In general, there was an increase in immobility as test progressed and upon repeated testing sessions. Marked interindividual differences in mice immobile behavior were observed when consistency of laterality was considered. Consistent-right-turners presented greater immobility in the first session and better test-retest reliability, indicating that for this group, the adoption of immobile behavior was faster and more reliable over time. Immobility was higher for side-consistent males than for side-consistent females in the first session. This difference became even greater when consistent-right-turner males were compared to consistent-left-turner females. These results reinforce the idea that side preferences of spontaneous rotational behavior may account for interindividual differences in animal models of depression. PMID:11853109

  12. Preferences for Genetic and Behavioral Health Information: The Impact of Risk Factors and Disease Attributions

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Suzanne C.; McBride, Colleen M.; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased availability of genetic risk information may lead the public to give precedence to genetic causation over behavioral/environmental factors, decreasing behavior change motivation. Few population-based data inform these concerns. Purpose We assess the association of family history, behavioral risks, and causal attributions for diseases and the perceived value of pursuing information emphasizing health habits or genes. Method 1959 healthy adults completed a survey that assessed behavioral risk factors, family history, causal attributions of eight diseases, and health information preferences. Results Participants’ causal beliefs favored health behaviors over genetics. Interest in behavioral information was higher than in genetic information. As behavioral risk factors increased, inclination toward genetic explanations increased; interest in how health habits affect disease risk decreased. Conclusions Those at greatest need for behavior change may hold attributions that diminish interest in behavior change information. Enhancing understanding of gene-environment influences could be explored to increase engagement with health information. PMID:20532842

  13. Microeconomics-based resource allocation in overlay networks by using non-strategic behavior modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Morteza; Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Behavior modeling has recently been investigated for designing self-organizing mechanisms in the context of communication networks in order to exploit the natural selfishness of the users with the goal of maximizing the overall utility. In strategic behavior modeling, the users of the network are assumed to be game players who seek to maximize their utility with taking into account the decisions that the other players might make. The essential difference between the aforementioned researches and this work is that it incorporates the non-strategic decisions in order to design the mechanism for the overlay network. In this solution concept, the decisions that a peer might make does not affect the actions of the other peers at all. The theory of consumer-firm developed in microeconomics is a model of the non-strategic behavior that we have adopted in our research. Based on it, we have presented distributed algorithms for peers' "joining" and "leaving" operations. We have modeled the overlay network as a competitive economy in which the content provided by an origin server can be viewed as commodity and the origin server and the peers who multicast the content to their downside are considered as the firms. On the other hand, due to the dual role of the peers in the overlay network, they can be considered as the consumers as well. On joining to the overlay economy, each peer is provided with an income and tries to get hold of the service regardless to the behavior of the other peers. We have designed the scalable algorithms in such a way that the existence of equilibrium price (known as Walrasian equilibrium price) is guaranteed.

  14. Preference for and discrimination of videos of conspecific social behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-05-01

    We showed mice videos of three conspecific social behaviors, namely sniffing, copulation, and fighting, in pairwise combinations using iPods and evaluated preference as determined by time spent in front of each iPod. Mice preferred the copulation video to the sniffing video, the fighting video to the sniffing video, and the fighting video to the copulation video. In Experiment 1a, we used a single video clip for each social behavior but used multiple video clips for each social behavior in Experiment 2a. Next, we trained mice to discriminate between the fighting and copulation videos using a conditioned-place-preference-like task in which one video was associated with injection of morphine and the other was not. For half of the subjects, the fighting video was associated with morphine injection, and for the other half, the copulation video was associated with morphine injection. After conditioning, the mice stayed longer in the compartment with the morphine-associated video. When tested with still images obtained from the videos, mice stayed longer in the compartment with still images from the video associated with morphine injection (Experiment 1b). When we trained mice with multiple exemplars, the subjects showed generalization of preference for new video clips never shown during conditioning (Experiment 2b). These results demonstrate that mice had a preference among videos of particular behavior patterns and that they could discriminate these videos as visual category. Although relationship between real social behaviors and their videos is still open question, the preference tests suggest that the mice perceived the videos as meaningful stimuli. PMID:26801496

  15. Distributional Preferences, Reciprocity-Like Behavior, and Efficiency in Bilateral Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Under what conditions do distributional preferences, such as altruism or a concern for fair outcomes, generate efficient trade? I analyze theoretically a simple bilateral exchange game: each player sequentially takes an action that reduces his own material payoff but increases the other player’s. Each player’s preferences may depend on both his/her own material payoff and the other player’s. I identify two key properties of the second-mover’s preferences: indifference curves kinked around “fair” material-payoff distributions, and materials payoffs entering preferences as “normal goods.” Either property can drive reciprocity-like behavior and generate a Pareto efficient outcome. PMID:25664144

  16. Intermunicipal health care consortia in Brazil: strategic behavior, incentives and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciana; Bugarin, Mauricio; Dourado, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    This article studies strategic behavior in municipal health care consortia where neighboring municipalities form a partnership to supply high-complexity health care. Each municipality partially funds the organization. Depending on the partnership contract, a free rider problem may jeopardize the organization. A municipality will default its payments if it can still benefit from the services, especially when political pressures for competing expenditure arise. The main result is that the partnership sustainability depends on punishment mechanisms to a defaulting member, the gains from joint provision of services and the overall economic environment. Possible solutions to the incentive problem are discussed. PMID:17175731

  17. Response Competition and Stimulus Preference in the Treatment of Automatically Reinforced Behavior: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groskreutz, Mark P.; Groskreutz, Nicole C.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians are particularly challenged by the development of interventions for behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement because reinforcers that maintain the responses often cannot be directly observed or manipulated. Researchers have conducted either preference assessments or competing items assessments when developing effective treatments…

  18. Ideal Teacher Behaviors: Student Motivation and Self-Efficacy Predict Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komarraju, Meera

    2013-01-01

    Differences in students' academic self-efficacy and motivation were examined in predicting preferred teacher traits. Undergraduates (261) completed the Teaching Behavior Checklist, Academic Self-Concept scale, and Academic Motivation scale. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that academic self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation explained…

  19. Behavioral consequences of innate preferences and olfactory learning in hawkmoth-flower interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatiotemporal variability in floral resources can have ecological and evolutionary consequences for both plants and the pollinators upon which they depend. The behavioral mechanisms that allow floral visitors to persist when a preferred floral resource is scarce, however, rarely have been consider...

  20. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, three independent, intercorrelated biophysical measures have provided the first quantitative measures of a binary form of behavioral laterality called “Hemisity,” a term referring to inherent opposite right or left brain-oriented differences in thinking and behavioral styles. Crucially, the right or left brain-orientation of individuals assessed by these methods was later found to be essentially congruent with the thicker side of their ventral gyrus of the anterior cingulate cortex (vgACC) as revealed by a 3 min MRI procedure. Laterality of this putative executive structural element has thus become the primary standard defining individual hemisity. Methods: Here, the behavior of 150 subjects, whose hemisity had been calibrated by MRI, was assessed using five MRI-calibrated preference questionnaires, two of which were new. Results: Right and left brain-oriented subjects selected opposite answers (p > 0.05) for 47 of the 107 “either-or,” forced choice type preference questionnaire items. The resulting 30 hemisity subtype preference differences were present in several areas. These were: (1) in logical orientation, (2) in type of consciousness, (3) in fear level and sensitivity, (4) in social-professional orientation, and (5) in pair bonding-spousal dominance style. Conclusions: The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed 30 significant differences in their “either-or” type of behavioral preferences. PMID:23130000

  1. Baseline and strategic effects behind mindful emotion regulation: behavioral and physiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Grecucci, Alessandro; De Pisapia, Nicola; Kusalagnana Thero, Derangala; Paladino, Maria Paola; Venuti, Paola; Job, Remo

    2015-01-01

    One of the consequences of extensive mindfulness practice is a reduction of anxiety and depression, but also a capacity to regulate negative emotions. In this study, we explored four key questions concerning mindfulness training: (1) What are the processes by which mindfulness regulates our emotions? (2) Can mindfulness be applied to social emotions? (3) Does mindfulness training affect emotionally driven behavior towards others? (4) Does mindfulness alter physiological reactivity? To address these questions, we tested, in two experiments, the ability of mindfulness meditators to regulate interpersonal emotions (Experiment 1) and interactive behaviors (Experiment 2) as compared to naïve controls. To better understand the mechanisms by which mindfulness regulates emotions, we asked participants to apply two strategies: a cognitive strategy (mentalizing, a form of reappraisal focused on the intentions of others) and an experiential strategy derived from mindfulness principles (mindful detachment). Both groups were able to regulate interpersonal emotions by means of cognitive (mentalizing) and experiential (mindful detachment) strategies. In Experiment 1, a simple effect of meditation, independent from the implementation of the strategies, resulted in reduced emotional and physiological reactivity, as well as in increased pleasantness for meditators when compared to controls, providing evidence of baseline regulation. In Experiment 2, one visible effect of the strategy was that meditators outperformed controls in the experiential (mindful detachment) but not in the cognitive (mentalize) strategy, showing stronger modulation of their interactive behavior (less punishments) and providing evidence of a strategic behavioral regulation. Based on these results, we suggest that mindfulness can influence interpersonal emotional reactions through an experiential mechanism, both at a baseline level and a strategic level, thereby altering the subjective and physiological

  2. Baseline and Strategic Effects behind Mindful Emotion Regulation: Behavioral and Physiological Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Grecucci, Alessandro; De Pisapia, Nicola; Kusalagnana Thero, Derangala; Paladino, Maria Paola; Venuti, Paola; Job, Remo

    2015-01-01

    One of the consequences of extensive mindfulness practice is a reduction of anxiety and depression, but also a capacity to regulate negative emotions. In this study, we explored four key questions concerning mindfulness training: (1) What are the processes by which mindfulness regulates our emotions? (2) Can mindfulness be applied to social emotions? (3) Does mindfulness training affect emotionally driven behavior towards others? (4) Does mindfulness alter physiological reactivity? To address these questions, we tested, in two experiments, the ability of mindfulness meditators to regulate interpersonal emotions (Experiment 1) and interactive behaviors (Experiment 2) as compared to naïve controls. To better understand the mechanisms by which mindfulness regulates emotions, we asked participants to apply two strategies: a cognitive strategy (mentalizing, a form of reappraisal focused on the intentions of others) and an experiential strategy derived from mindfulness principles (mindful detachment). Both groups were able to regulate interpersonal emotions by means of cognitive (mentalizing) and experiential (mindful detachment) strategies. In Experiment 1, a simple effect of meditation, independent from the implementation of the strategies, resulted in reduced emotional and physiological reactivity, as well as in increased pleasantness for meditators when compared to controls, providing evidence of baseline regulation. In Experiment 2, one visible effect of the strategy was that meditators outperformed controls in the experiential (mindful detachment) but not in the cognitive (mentalize) strategy, showing stronger modulation of their interactive behavior (less punishments) and providing evidence of a strategic behavioral regulation. Based on these results, we suggest that mindfulness can influence interpersonal emotional reactions through an experiential mechanism, both at a baseline level and a strategic level, thereby altering the subjective and physiological

  3. Preferences for Pink and Blue: The Development of Color Preferences as a Distinct Gender-Typed Behavior in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    Many gender differences are thought to result from interactions between inborn factors and sociocognitive processes that occur after birth. There is controversy, however, over the causes of gender-typed preferences for the colors pink and blue, with some viewing these preferences as arising solely from sociocognitive processes of gender development. We evaluated preferences for gender-typed colors, and compared them to gender-typed toy and activity preferences in 126 toddlers on two occasions separated by 6-8 months (at Time 1, M = 29 months; range 20-40). Color preferences were assessed using color cards and neutral toys in gender-typed colors. Gender-typed toy and activity preferences were assessed using a parent-report questionnaire, the Preschool Activities Inventory. Color preferences were also assessed for the toddlers' parents using color cards. A gender difference in color preferences was present between 2 and 3 years of age and strengthened near the third birthday, at which time it was large (d > 1). In contrast to their parents, toddlers' gender-typed color preferences were stronger and unstable. Gender-typed color preferences also appeared to establish later and were less stable than gender-typed toy and activity preferences. Gender-typed color preferences were largely uncorrelated with gender-typed toy and activity preferences. These results suggest that the factors influencing gender-typed color preferences and gender-typed toy and activity preferences differ in some respects. Our findings suggest that sociocognitive influences and play with gender-typed toys that happen to be made in gender-typed colors contribute to toddlers' gender-typed color preferences. PMID:25680819

  4. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user's preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information. PMID:26805852

  5. Effects of neonatal treatment with two phytoestrogens on male rat sexual behavior and partner preference.

    PubMed

    Morales-Otal, Adriana; Ferreira-Nuño, Armando; Olayo-Lortia, Jesús; Barrios-González, Javier; Tarragó-Castellanos, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effect of neonatal treatment with the phytoestrogens coumestrol (COU) and genistein (GEN), administered in equimolecular doses, on the sexual behavior and partner preference of male rats. Four groups of male rats were injected daily from day 1 to 5 with 150 µg of GEN, an equivalent amount of COU, 1 µg of β-estradiol 3-benzoato (EB), or olive oil (VEH) (control). A fifth group remained intact. In the GEN group, intromission and ejaculation latencies decreased, whereas ejaculatory frequency increased. Contrasting results were observed in COU males. EB males could not ejaculate and their mount and intromission latencies increased significantly. To determine sexual-partner preferences, a multiple partner preference arena was used and two types of tests were performed, the first one without allowing contact test (CT) with the stimulus animals, followed by a CT. COU and GEN groups did not show preference for any stimulus animal, whereas the EB males preferred the expert male. When CT with the stimulus animals was allowed, GEN-males preferred the receptive female, unlike the COU and EB groups. It is concluded that neonatal treatment with COU and GEN induced opposite effects, the effects of COU being more estrogenic. PMID:27482864

  6. A strategic interaction model of punishment favoring contagion of honest behavior.

    PubMed

    Cremene, Marcel; Dumitrescu, D; Cremene, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    The punishment effect on social behavior is analyzed within the strategic interaction framework of Cellular Automata and computational Evolutionary Game Theory. A new game, called Social Honesty (SH), is proposed. The SH game is analyzed in spatial configurations. Probabilistic punishment is used as a dishonesty deterrence mechanism. In order to capture the intrinsic uncertainty of social environments, payoffs are described as random variables. New dynamics, with a new relation between punishment probability and punishment severity, are revealed. Punishment probability proves to be more important than punishment severity in guiding convergence towards honesty as predominant behavior. This result is confirmed by empirical evidence and reported experiments. Critical values and transition intervals for punishment probability and severity are identified and analyzed. Clusters of honest or dishonest players emerge spontaneously from the very first rounds of interaction and are determinant for the future dynamics and outcomes. PMID:24489917

  7. The Impact of Farmers’ Strategic Behavior on the Spread of Animal Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hammitt, James K.; Thomas, Alban; Raboisson, Didier

    2016-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control the spread of infectious animal diseases is the implementation of movement restrictions. This paper shows a loss in efficiency of the movement restriction policy (MRP) when behavioral responses of farmers are taken into account. Incorporating the strategic behavior of farmers in an epidemiologic model reveals that the MRP can trigger premature animal sales by farms at high risk of becoming infected that significantly reduce the efficacy of the policy. The results are validated in a parameterized network via Monte Carlo simulations and measures to mitigate the loss of efficiency of the MRP are discussed. Financial aid to farmers can be justified by public health concerns, not only for equity. This paper contributes to developing an interdisciplinary analytical framework regarding the expansion of infectious diseases combining economic and epidemiologic dimensions. PMID:27300368

  8. Efficacy of Brief Strategic Family Therapy in Modifying Hispanic Adolescent Behavior Problems and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Daniel A.; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Kurtines, William M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; LaPerriere, Arthur; Szapocznik, José

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) with Hispanic behavior problem and drug using youth, an underrepresented population in the family therapy research literature. One hundred twenty-six Hispanic families with a behavior problem adolescent were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: BSFT or group treatment control (GC). Results showed that, compared to GC cases, BSFT cases showed significantly greater pre- to post-intervention improvement in parent reports of adolescent conduct problems and delinquency, adolescent reports of marijuana use, and observer ratings and self reports of family functioning. These results extend prior findings on the efficacy of family interventions to a difficult to treat Hispanic adolescent sample. PMID:12666468

  9. A Strategic Interaction Model of Punishment Favoring Contagion of Honest Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cremene, Marcel; Dumitrescu, D.; Cremene, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    The punishment effect on social behavior is analyzed within the strategic interaction framework of Cellular Automata and computational Evolutionary Game Theory. A new game, called Social Honesty (SH), is proposed. The SH game is analyzed in spatial configurations. Probabilistic punishment is used as a dishonesty deterrence mechanism. In order to capture the intrinsic uncertainty of social environments, payoffs are described as random variables. New dynamics, with a new relation between punishment probability and punishment severity, are revealed. Punishment probability proves to be more important than punishment severity in guiding convergence towards honesty as predominant behavior. This result is confirmed by empirical evidence and reported experiments. Critical values and transition intervals for punishment probability and severity are identified and analyzed. Clusters of honest or dishonest players emerge spontaneously from the very first rounds of interaction and are determinant for the future dynamics and outcomes. PMID:24489917

  10. Genetic, hormonal, and metabolomic influences on social behavior and sex preference of XXY mice

    PubMed Central

    Erkkila, Krista; Lue, YanHe; Jentsch, J. David; Schwarcz, Monica Dorin; Abuyounes, Deena; Hikim, Amiya Sinha; Wang, Christina; Lee, Paul W.-N.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    XXY men (Klinefelter syndrome) are testosterone deficient, socially isolated, exhibit impaired gender identity, and may experience more homosexual behaviors. Here, we characterize social behaviors in a validated XXY mouse model to understand mechanisms. Sociability and gender preference were assessed by three-chambered choice tasks before and after castration and after testosterone replacement. Metabolomic activities of brain and blood were quantified through fractional synthesis rates of palmitate and ribose (GC-MS). XXY mice exhibit greater sociability than XY littermates, particularly for male mice. The differences in sociability disappear after matching androgen exposure. Intact XXY, compared with XY, mice prefer male mice odors when the alternatives are ovariectomized female mice odors, but they prefer estrous over male mice odors, suggesting that preference for male mice may be due to social, not sexual, cues. Castration followed by testosterone treatment essentially remove these preferences. Fractional synthesis rates of palmitate are higher in the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus of XXY compared with XY mice but not with ribose in these brain regions or palmitate in blood. Androgen ablation in XY mice increases fractional synthesis rates of fatty acids in the brain to levels indistinguishable from those in XXY mice. We conclude that intact XXY mice exhibit increased sociability, differences in gender preference for mice and their odors are due to social rather than sexual cues and, these differences are mostly related to androgen deficiency rather than genetics. Specific metabolic changes in brain lipids, which are also regulated by androgens, are observed in brain regions that are involved in these behaviors. PMID:20570823

  11. The Relationship between Collegiate Band Members' Preferences of Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, Natalie Steele

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe collegiate band members' preferred teacher interpersonal behaviors and perceptions of self-efficacy based on the gender, year in college, instrument, and major and to measure the relationship between preferences of interpersonal teacher behavior and self-efficacy scores. The sample (N = 1,020) was…

  12. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070

  13. Seeking pleasant touch: neural correlates of behavioral preferences for skin stroking

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Irene; Olausson, Håkan; Morrison, India

    2015-01-01

    Affective touch is a dynamic process. In this fMRI study we investigated affective touch by exploring its effects on overt behavior. Arm and palm skin were stroked with a soft brush at five different velocities (0.3, 1, 10, 3, and 30 cm s−1), using a novel feedback-based paradigm. Following stimulation in each trial, participants actively chose whether the caress they would receive in the next trial would be the same speed (“repeat”) or different (“change”). Since preferred stroking speeds should be sought with greater frequency than non-preferred speeds, this paradigm provided a measure of such preferences in the form of active choices. The stimulation velocities were implemented with respect to the differential subjective pleasantness ratings they elicit in healthy subjects, with intermediate velocities (1, 10, and 3 cm s−1) considered more pleasant than very slow or very fast ones. Such pleasantness ratings linearly correlate with changes in mean firing rates of unmyelinated low-threshold C-tactile (CT) afferent nerves in the skin. Here, gentle, dynamic stimulation optimal for activating CT-afferents not only affected behavioral choices, but engaged brain regions involved in reward-related behavior and decision-making. This was the case for both hairy skin of the arm, where CTs are abundant, and glabrous skin of the palm, where CTs are absent. These findings provide insights on central and behavioral mechanisms underlying the perception of affective touch, and indicate that seeking affective touch involves value-based neural processing that is ultimately reflected in behavioral preferences. PMID:25698948

  14. Dairy cattle prefer shade over sprinklers: effects on behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Schütz, K E; Rogers, A R; Cox, N R; Webster, J R; Tucker, C B

    2011-01-01

    Cattle will readily use shade in warm weather, but less is known about voluntary use of sprinklers. We examined preferences of 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (milk yield: 12.7±3.48 kg per day; mean±SD) for sprinklers, shade, or ambient conditions after walking 2.0 km or 0.3 km before afternoon milking (n=48 cows/distance). Each cow was individually tested on 3 consecutive days with a different paired choice each day: 1) shade or sprinklers, 2) shade or ambient conditions, 3) sprinklers or ambient conditions. Average air temperature during testing was 22.3°C. Cows preferred shade over sprinklers (62 vs. 38% ± 5.0%; mean ± SE) and shade over ambient conditions (65 vs. 35% ± 5.1%; mean±SE). Cows showed no preference between sprinklers and ambient conditions (44% of the cows chose sprinklers, SE=5.3%). The preference for shade over sprinklers and ambient conditions increased with air temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed. Walking distance did not influence the preference for any treatment. Respiration rate was decreased most by sprinklers (38% decrease) but also decreased in shade and ambient conditions (17 and 13% decrease, respectively; standard error of the difference=4.7%). Similarly, surface temperature was decreased most by sprinklers (11.4% decrease), compared with that by shade (1.0% decrease), or that by ambient conditions (1.4% increase; standard error of the difference=1.82%). Furthermore, sprinklers reduced insect avoidance behaviors, including number of tail flicks and hoof stamps. In conclusion, dairy cattle preferred to use shade in summer despite sprinklers being more efficient in decreasing heat load and insect avoidance behavior. PMID:21183037

  15. Do sex and age affect strategic behavior and inequity aversion in children?

    PubMed

    Bueno-Guerra, Nereida; Leiva, David; Colell, Montserrat; Call, Josep

    2016-10-01

    The ultimatum game is commonly used to explore fairness in adults in bargaining situations. Although the changes in responses that occur during development have been investigated in children, the results have been mixed. Whereas some studies show that proposers offer more when they grow older, others indicate the opposite. Moreover, these studies are outcome-based and leave intentions out of the scene, although intentions play a relevant role in daily life. The mini-ultimatum game offers the opportunity to test both outcomes and intentions, but one major obstacle for accurately pinpointing developmental transitions in strategic behavior and inequity aversion so far has been the multiple confounds that have plagued previous studies, including different methods, small sample sizes, and reduced age differences. We administered an anonymous direct-method one-shot mini-ultimatum game to 478 6- and 10-year-old children. Strategic behavior was present at 10 years of age; older participants matched more accurately what responders would accept than younger participants. However, this was true only for older girls. No sex differences were detected in younger children. No age group seemed to consider the proposer's intentions given that the rejections of the default option were not significant across conditions. Both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity aversions were present in 6-year-olds. However, older children exhibited significantly more disadvantageous inequity aversion than younger children. This contrast made the pattern of rejection of 6-year-olds look more similar to the pattern of rejection found in adults. No sex differences were found in responders' behavior. PMID:27372561

  16. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seohyun; Kim, Jong Guk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA) for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors. PMID:25384388

  17. Assessment of Cocaine-induced Behavioral Sensitization and Conditioned Place Preference in Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura N; Penrod, Rachel D; Taniguchi, Makoto; Cowan, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that rewarding experiences with drugs create strong contextual associations and encourage repeated intake. In turn, repeated exposures to drugs of abuse make lasting alterations in the brain function of vulnerable individuals, and these persistent alterations likely serve to maintain the maladaptive drug seeking and taking behaviors characteristic of addiction/dependence(2). In rodents, reward experience and contextual associations are frequently measured using the conditioned place preference assay, or CPP, wherein preference for a previously drug-paired context is measured. Behavioral sensitization, on the other hand, is an increase in a drug-induced behavior that develops progressively over repeated exposures. Since sensitized behaviors can often be measured after several months of drug abstinence, depending on the dose and length of initial exposure, they are considered observable correlates of lasting drug-induced plasticity. Researchers have found these assays useful in determining the neurobiological substrates mediating aspects of addiction as well as assessing the potential of different interventions in disrupting these behaviors. This manuscript describes basic, effective protocols for mouse CPP and locomotor behavioral sensitization to cocaine. PMID:26967472

  18. Stimulus qualities of a preferred female partner and sexual behavior of old rhesus males.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, C H; Jensen, J N; Chambers, K C

    1986-01-01

    A vaginal lavage from a preferred female sexual partner (donor) with whom old (21-27 yr) rhesus males readily copulated or a distilled water lavage was applied to the perineum of non-preferred females (N = 8) with whom old males rarely copulated. The donor and recipients were ovariectomized and were treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) before being tested. Sexual performance of the males did not differ under the two conditions of testing, but the rate of sexual solicitation by the females was significantly higher when treated with the vaginal lavage. One month later the non-preferred females were again treated with EB and paired with the old males. In these tests the preferred female was present in a cage adjacent to and in view of the test pairs. Sexual behavior was not altered significantly, but whereas these males had never threatened or aggressed their partners in previous tests, there was a significant increase in the rate at which they threatened their partners and aggression occurred for the first time. When paired with the preferred female, males ejaculated in 100% of the tests and the average ejaculation latency was less than 2.5 minutes. PMID:3823182

  19. Understanding Messaging Preferences to Inform Development of Mobile Goal-Directed Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Markle, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    one type of message over another. Global preferences were indicated for messages that contained accurate spelling and grammar, as well as messages that emphasize the positive over the negative. Research implications and a guide for developing short messages for goal-directed behaviors are presented in this paper. PMID:24500775

  20. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-01

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings. PMID:26378565

  1. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings. PMID:26378565

  2. Impact of Gender on Patient Preferences for Technology-Based Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, David J.; Choo, Esther K.; Ranney, Megan L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Technology-based interventions offer an opportunity to address high-risk behaviors in the emergency department (ED). Prior studies suggest behavioral health strategies are more effective when gender differences are considered. However, the role of gender in ED patient preferences for technology-based interventions has not been examined. The objective was to assess whether patient preferences for technology-based interventions varies by gender. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from a systematic survey of adult (≥18 years of age), English-speaking patients in a large urban academic ED. Subjects were randomly selected during a purposive sample of shifts. The iPad survey included questions on access to technology, preferences for receiving health information, and demographics. We defined “technology-based” as web, text message, e-mail, social networking, or DVD; “non-technology-based” was defined as in-person, written materials, or landline. We calculated descriptive statistics and used univariate tests to compare men and women. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between other demographic factors (age, race, ethnicity, income) and technology-based preferences for information on specific risky behaviors. Results: Of 417 participants, 45.1% were male. There were no significant demographic differences between men and women. Women were more likely to use computers (90.8% versus 81.9%; p=0.03), Internet (66.8% versus 59.0%; p=0.03), and social networks (53.3% versus 42.6%; p=0.01). 89% of men and 90% of women preferred technology-based formats for at least type of health information; interest in technology-based for individual health topics did not vary by gender. Concern about confidentiality was the most common barrier to technology-based use for both genders. Multivariate analysis showed that for smoking, depression, drug/alcohol use, and injury prevention, gender modified the

  3. Behavioral consequences of innate preferences and olfactory learning in hawkmoth-flower interactions.

    PubMed

    Riffell, Jeffrey A; Alarcón, Ruben; Abrell, Leif; Davidowitz, Goggy; Bronstein, Judith L; Hildebrand, John G

    2008-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variability in floral resources can have ecological and evolutionary consequences for both plants and the pollinators on which they depend. Seldom, however, can patterns of flower abundance and visitation in the field be linked with the behavioral mechanisms that allow floral visitors to persist when a preferred resource is scarce. To explore these mechanisms better, we examined factors controlling floral preference in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta in the semiarid grassland of Arizona. Here, hawkmoths forage primarily on flowers of the bat-adapted agave, Agave palmeri, but shift to the moth-adapted flowers of their larval host plant, Datura wrightii, when these become abundant. Both plants emit similar concentrations of floral odor, but scent composition, nectar, and flower reflectance are distinct between the two species, and A. palmeri flowers provide six times as much chemical energy as flowers of D. wrightii. Behavioral experiments with both naïve and experienced moths revealed that hawkmoths learn to feed from agave flowers through olfactory conditioning but readily switch to D. wrightii flowers, for which they are the primary pollinator, based on an innate odor preference. Behavioral flexibility and the olfactory contrast between flowers permit the hawkmoths to persist within a dynamic environment, while at the same time to function as the major pollinator of one plant species. PMID:18305169

  4. Behavioral consequences of innate preferences and olfactory learning in hawkmoth–flower interactions

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben; Abrell, Leif; Davidowitz, Goggy; Bronstein, Judith L.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variability in floral resources can have ecological and evolutionary consequences for both plants and the pollinators on which they depend. Seldom, however, can patterns of flower abundance and visitation in the field be linked with the behavioral mechanisms that allow floral visitors to persist when a preferred resource is scarce. To explore these mechanisms better, we examined factors controlling floral preference in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta in the semiarid grassland of Arizona. Here, hawkmoths forage primarily on flowers of the bat-adapted agave, Agave palmeri, but shift to the moth-adapted flowers of their larval host plant, Datura wrightii, when these become abundant. Both plants emit similar concentrations of floral odor, but scent composition, nectar, and flower reflectance are distinct between the two species, and A. palmeri flowers provide six times as much chemical energy as flowers of D. wrightii. Behavioral experiments with both naïve and experienced moths revealed that hawkmoths learn to feed from agave flowers through olfactory conditioning but readily switch to D. wrightii flowers, for which they are the primary pollinator, based on an innate odor preference. Behavioral flexibility and the olfactory contrast between flowers permit the hawkmoths to persist within a dynamic environment, while at the same time to function as the major pollinator of one plant species. PMID:18305169

  5. Leadership for Evidence-Based Practice: Strategic and Functional Behaviors for Institutionalizing EBP

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. Aims To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Methods Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Results Participants’ descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel “themes,” 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework “Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization” (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Linking Evidence to Action Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should “support” EBP. PMID:24986669

  6. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: An Intervention to Reduce Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Szapocznik, José; Schwartz, Seth J.; Muir, Joan A.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the brief strategic family therapy (BSFT; J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, The effect and degree of treatment comprehensiveness with a Latino drug abusing population. In D. E. Smith, S. M. Anderson, M. Burton, N. Gotlieb, W. Harvey, & T. Chung, Eds, A multicultural view of drug abuse, pp. 563–573, Cambridge, MA: G. K. Hall & J. Szapocznik, M. A. Scopetta, & O. E. King, 1978, Theory and practice in matching treatment to the special characteristics and problems of Cuban immigrants, Journal of Community Psychology, 6, 112–122.) approach to treating adolescent drug abuse and related problem behaviors. The treatment intervention is reviewed, including specialized features such as engagement of difficult families. Empirical evidence supporting the BSFT approach is presented. We then illustrate ways in which clinicians can use the model with troubled families whose adolescents may be at risk for drug use and HIV. Finally, future directions for BSFT research are described. PMID:23936750

  7. Effects of Voluntary Alcohol Intake on Risk Preference and Behavioral Flexibility during Rat Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Matthew S.; Amodeo, Leslie R.; Roitman, Jamie D.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30–50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses. PMID:25007338

  8. Experimental evidence for asymmetric mate preference and aggression: behavioral interactions in a woodrat (Neotoma) hybrid zone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Female mate preferences may be under strong selection in zones of contact between closely related species because of greater variation in available mates and the potential costs of hybridization. We studied female mate preferences experimentally in a zone of secondary contact between Desert and Bryant’s Woodrat (Neotoma lepida and N. bryanti) in the southern foothills of the Sierra Nevada of California. We tested female preference for conspecific versus heterospecific males in paired choice trials in which females could interact freely with males, but males could not interact directly with each other. We compared preferences of females from both allopatric and sympatric sites. Results We did not find evidence of the process of reinforcement as assortative preferences were not stronger in sympatry than in allopatry. Mate preferences, however, were asymmetric, with N. lepida females mating preferentially with conspecifics and N. bryanti females showing no preference by species. Sympatric females were less likely to mate than allopatric females, due in part to an increase in aggressive interactions. However, even in the absence of aggression, courtship led to mating less often in sympatric females, suggesting they were choosier or had lower sexual motivation than allopatric females. Conclusions Patterns of mate choice in this woodrat system appear to be strongly impacted by body size and aggressive behavior. In particular, females of the smaller-bodied species rarely interact with the relatively large heterospecific males. In contrast females of the larger-bodied species accept the relatively small heterospecific males. For sympatric animals, rates of aggression were markedly higher than for allopatric animals and reduced affiliative and reproductive behavior in our trials. Sympatric animals are larger and more aggressive, traits that are likely under strong ecological selection across the sharp resource gradient that characterizes the contact zone

  9. Preference for Sucralose Predicts Behavioral Responses to Sweet and Bittersweet Tastants

    PubMed Central

    Loney, Gregory C.; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Carballo, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Rats can be classified as either sucralose avoiders (SA) or sucralose preferrers (SP) based on their behavioral responses in 2-bottle preference, 1-bottle intake, and brief-access licking tests. The present study demonstrates that this robust phenotypic variation in the preference for sucralose predicts acceptance of saccharin, an artificial sweetener with a purported concentration-dependent “bitter” side taste and a 0.25 M sucrose solution adulterated with increasing concentrations of quinine hydrochloride (QHCl). Specifically, SA displayed decreased preference for and intakes of saccharin (≥41.5 mM) and sucrose–QHCl (>0.5 mM QHCl) solutions, relative to SP. In a second experiment involving brief-access (30-s) tests, SP and SA did not differ in their unconditioned licking responses across a range of sodium chloride or QHCl solutions (0.03–1 mM). However, the acceptability threshold for sucrose was lower in SA, relative to SP (0.06 and 0.13 M, respectively). Our findings suggest that phenotypic differences in sucralose preference are indicative of a more general difference in the hedonic processing of stimuli containing “bittersweet” or “sweet” taste qualities. PMID:22281530

  10. Robot navigation in cluttered 3-D environments using preference-based fuzzy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongqing; Collins, Emmanuel G; Dunlap, Damion

    2007-12-01

    Autonomous navigation systems for mobile robots have been successfully deployed for a wide range of planar ground-based tasks. However, very few counterparts of previous planar navigation systems were developed for 3-D motion, which is needed for both unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles. A novel fuzzy behavioral scheme for navigating an unmanned helicopter in cluttered 3-D spaces is developed. The 3-D navigation problem is decomposed into several identical 2-D navigation subproblems, each of which is solved by using preference-based fuzzy behaviors. Due to the shortcomings of vector summation during the fusion of the 2-D subproblems, instead of directly outputting steering subdirections by their own defuzzification processes, the intermediate preferences of the subproblems are fused to create a 3-D solution region, representing degrees of preference for the robot movement. A new defuzzification algorithm that steers the robot by finding the centroid of a 3-D convex region of maximum volume in the 3-D solution region is developed. A fuzzy speed-control system is also developed to ensure efficient and safe navigation. Substantial simulations have been carried out to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can smoothly and effectively guide an unmanned helicopter through unknown and cluttered urban and forest environments. PMID:18179068

  11. Evolutionary Dynamics of Strategic Behavior in a Collective-Risk Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Abou Chakra, Maria; Traulsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    A collective-risk social dilemma arises when a group must cooperate to reach a common target in order to avoid the risk of collective loss while each individual is tempted to free-ride on the contributions of others. In contrast to the prisoners' dilemma or public goods games, the collective-risk dilemma encompasses the risk that all individuals lose everything. These characteristics have potential relevance for dangerous climate change and other risky social dilemmas. Cooperation is costly to the individual and it only benefits all individuals if the common target is reached. An individual thus invests without guarantee that the investment is worthwhile for anyone. If there are several subsequent stages of investment, it is not clear when individuals should contribute. For example, they could invest early, thereby signaling their willingness to cooperate in the future, constantly invest their fair share, or wait and compensate missing contributions. To investigate the strategic behavior in such situations, we have simulated the evolutionary dynamics of such collective-risk dilemmas in a finite population. Contributions depend individually on the stage of the game and on the sum of contributions made so far. Every individual takes part in many games and successful behaviors spread in the population. It turns out that constant contributors, such as constant fair sharers, quickly lose out against those who initially do not contribute, but compensate this in later stages of the game. In particular for high risks, such late contributors are favored. PMID:22927807

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of strategic behavior in a collective-risk dilemma.

    PubMed

    Abou Chakra, Maria; Traulsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    A collective-risk social dilemma arises when a group must cooperate to reach a common target in order to avoid the risk of collective loss while each individual is tempted to free-ride on the contributions of others. In contrast to the prisoners' dilemma or public goods games, the collective-risk dilemma encompasses the risk that all individuals lose everything. These characteristics have potential relevance for dangerous climate change and other risky social dilemmas. Cooperation is costly to the individual and it only benefits all individuals if the common target is reached. An individual thus invests without guarantee that the investment is worthwhile for anyone. If there are several subsequent stages of investment, it is not clear when individuals should contribute. For example, they could invest early, thereby signaling their willingness to cooperate in the future, constantly invest their fair share, or wait and compensate missing contributions. To investigate the strategic behavior in such situations, we have simulated the evolutionary dynamics of such collective-risk dilemmas in a finite population. Contributions depend individually on the stage of the game and on the sum of contributions made so far. Every individual takes part in many games and successful behaviors spread in the population. It turns out that constant contributors, such as constant fair sharers, quickly lose out against those who initially do not contribute, but compensate this in later stages of the game. In particular for high risks, such late contributors are favored. PMID:22927807

  13. Heavy Metal and Hip-Hop Style Preferences and Externalizing Problem Behavior: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines (a) the stability of Dutch adolescents' preferences for heavy metal and hip-hop youth culture styles, (b) longitudinal associations between their preferences and externalizing problem behavior, and (c) the moderating role of gender in these associations. Questionnaire data were gathered from 931 adolescents between the ages of…

  14. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  15. On the transmission of HIV with self-protective behavior and preferred mixing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frederick H

    2006-02-01

    An epidemic model of HIV transmission with self-protective behavior and preferred mixing is presented. Individuals in the model are assumed to choose their levels of risk behavior by comparing the costs and benefits of self-protective actions. Unlike in models which treat individual risk behavior as exogenously given and fixed, the condition under which an endemic steady state equilibrium exists does not depend on the extent of assortative mixing in the population. Specifically, a unique endemic equilibrium exists when the basic reproductive number of the disease, which is given in the model by the expected number of secondary infections caused by an infected individual in the absence of any self-protection, is strictly greater than one. Otherwise, the disease-free equilibrium is the only steady state equilibrium. With respect to changes in contact patterns, it is shown that, if the degree of preferred mixing is increased, the disease prevalence can decrease in the high-risk subpopulation consisting of individuals who are more likely to engage in unsafe practices. The situation is reversed for the low-risk subpopulation, which is composed of individuals who are less willing to engage in risky practices, so that increasing the likelihood of mixing with members of one's own group may increase the prevalence level within the low-risk subpopulation. PMID:16427658

  16. Design and Analysis of Temperature Preference Behavior and its Circadian Rhythm in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Goda, Tadahiro; Leslie, Jennifer R.; Hamada, Fumika N.

    2014-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates many aspects of life, including sleep, locomotor activity, and body temperature (BTR) rhythms1,2. We recently identified a novel Drosophila circadian output, called the temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which the preferred temperature in flies rises during the day and falls during the night 3. Surprisingly, the TPR and locomotor activity are controlled through distinct circadian neurons3. Drosophila locomotor activity is a well known circadian behavioral output and has provided strong contributions to the discovery of many conserved mammalian circadian clock genes and mechanisms4. Therefore, understanding TPR will lead to the identification of hitherto unknown molecular and cellular circadian mechanisms. Here, we describe how to perform and analyze the TPR assay. This technique not only allows for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms of TPR, but also provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms of the brain functions that integrate different environmental signals and regulate animal behaviors. Furthermore, our recently published data suggest that the fly TPR shares features with the mammalian BTR3. Drosophila are ectotherms, in which the body temperature is typically behaviorally regulated. Therefore, TPR is a strategy used to generate a rhythmic body temperature in these flies5-8. We believe that further exploration of Drosophila TPR will facilitate the characterization of the mechanisms underlying body temperature control in animals. PMID:24457268

  17. Peer Preference and Friendship Quantity in Children with Externalizing Behavior: Distinct Influences on Bully Status and Victim Status.

    PubMed

    Jia, Mary; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the predictive relations between externalizing behavior, peer preference and friendship quantity, and bully status and victim status among children becoming acquainted with one another for the first time. Children ages 6.8-9.8 years (24 with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; 113 typically developing; 72 girls) attended a 2-week summer day camp grouped into same-age, same-sex classrooms with previously unacquainted peers. Externalizing behavior (via parent and teacher ratings) was measured before the start of camp; peer preference and friendship quantity (via peer nominations) were measured in the middle of camp, and bully status and victim status (via peer nominations) were measured at the end of camp. Low peer preference mediated the positive association between externalizing behavior and bully status. Both peer preference and friendship quantity moderated the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as between externalizing behavior and victim status; whereas high peer preference protected against both bully status and victim status, friendship quantity protected against victim status but exacerbated bully status. Some gender differences were found within these pathways. Peer preference, compared to friendship quantity, appears to have a more consistently protective role in the relation between externalizing behavior and bully status as well as victim status. PMID:25411126

  18. Analysis of consumers' preferences and behavior with regard to horse meat using a structured survey questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Oh, Woon Yong; Lee, Ji Woong; Lee, Chong Eon; Ko, Moon Seok; Jeong, Jae Hong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a structured survey questionnaire was used to determine consumers' preferences and behavior with regard to horse meat at a horse meat restaurant located in Jeju, Korea, from October 1 to December 24, 2005. The questionnaire employed in this study consisted of 20 questions designed to characterize six general attributes: horse meat sensory property, physical appearance, health condition, origin, price, and other attributes. Of the 1370 questionnaires distributed, 1126 completed questionnaires were retained based on the completeness of the answers, representing an 82.2% response rate. Two issues were investigated that might facilitate the search for ways to improve horse meat production and marketing programs in Korea. The first step was to determine certain important factors, called principal components, which enabled the researchers to understand the needs of horse meat consumers via principal component analysis. The second step was to define consumer segments with regard to their preferences for horse meat, which was accomplished via cluster analysis. The results of the current study showed that health condition, price, origin, and leanness were the most critical physical attributes affecting the preferences of horse meat consumers. Four segments of consumers, with different demands for horse meat attributes, were identified: origin-sensitive consumers, price-sensitive consumers, quality and safety-sensitive consumers, and non-specific consumers. Significant differences existed among segments of consumers in terms of age, nature of work, frequency of consumption, and general level of acceptability of horse meat. PMID:20163664

  19. Behavioral screening measures delivered with a smartphone app: psychometric properties and user preference.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nigel E; Skopp, Nancy; Smolenski, Derek; Crumpton, Rosa; Fairall, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    The smartphone is an increasingly widespread technological vehicle for general health and psychological health promotion, evaluation, education, and sometimes intervention. However, the psychometric performance of behavioral health screening measures has not been commonly evaluated for the new, small-format, touch-screen medium. Before mobile-based applications for behavioral health screening can be disseminated confidently, the reliability and the validity of measures administered by the smartphone must be evaluated. We compared psychometric properties (i.e., internal consistency and test-retest reliability) of seven behavioral health measures completed on paper, a computer, and an iPhone by 45 army soldiers. The results showed the internal consistencies of the smartphone-delivered measures to be equivalent and very high across all three modalities and the test-retest reliability of the iPhone measures also to be very high. Furthermore, completion of the behavioral screening measures by the iPhone was highly preferred over the other modalities and was reported to be easy and convenient. Our findings help corroborate the use of smartphones and other small mobile devices for behavioral health screening. PMID:24177488

  20. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    PubMed

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. PMID:25017317

  1. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in Person-Environment Fit Theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8 to 10, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program, but only when mothers had strong preferences for education. PMID:22861169

  2. Sigma-1 Receptor Mediates Acquisition of Alcohol Drinking and Seeking behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T.; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists block excessive drinking in both genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1Rs in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  3. [Pup-Associated Conditioned Place Preference and Maternal Behavior in Depressive WAG/Rij Rats].

    PubMed

    Sarkisova, K Yu; Tanaeva, K K; Dobryakova, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Elaboration of conditioned place preference (CPP) associated with own and foster pups, and maternal behavior were compared in females of WAG/Rij and Wistar rats. In addition, behavior of females in the open field, elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests were investigated before pregnancy and after pup delivery. In has been found that females of WAG/Rij rats elaborate worse CPP task associated with both their own (WAG/Rij) and foster (Wistar) pups. Thus, the number of females that increase time spent in initially non-preferred compartment after its association with pups and the number of females that reach criterion of CPP elaboration in WAG/Rij rats were less than in Wistar controls. WAG/Rij females exhibited less maternal care in the place preference test both to their own and foster pups: less number of approaches to pups, pups carrying and the time spent in contact with pups non-associated with feeding. In WAG/Rij females compared with Wistar controls immobility time in the forced swimming test was higher both before pregnancy and after pup delivery indicating a stable depression-like state. Before pregnancy, statistically significant inter-strain differences in the anxiety level have not been revealed. After pup delivery, in WAG/Rij females anxiety level decreased but in Wistar females didn't substantially change. Results suggest that worse elaboration of CPP task and reduced maternal care in depressive WAG/Rij females are not associated with specific features of their own pups but are due to their depression-like state. Put into other words, pups for depressive mothers are less potent reinforcer than for "normal" (non-depressive) mothers. PMID:27538286

  4. The effect of behavioral preferences on skill acquisition in determining unspecified, suitable action patterns to control humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Taiki; Watanabe, Tetsuyou

    2015-08-01

    This research investigated the effect of behavioral preferences on learning efficiency when attempting to determine unspecified, but suitable action sequences for unfamiliar tasks. The goal of this research was to develop a skill acquisition support system for the elderly to aid them in using unfamiliar IT products, particularly those of welfare systems. Here, behavioral preference is defined as the type of action sequences that people would prefer to adopt for completing unfamiliar tasks. To achieve this goal, this research investigated the action sequences of participants when they attempt to control the posture of an unfamiliar humanoid robot with an unfamiliar controller. The participants were assigned the task of making the humanoid stand on one foot. Machine-learning-based methods were presented for analyzing the behavioral preferences. The analysis results indicate that participants having behavioral preferences of adopting random action sequences can complete the task in a much shorter time, compared to participants having a behavioral preference of adopting action sequences similar to those of previous actions. PMID:26738048

  5. β-endorphin neuronal transplantation into the hypothalamus alters anxiety-like behaviors in prenatal alcohol exposed rats and non-preferring and preferring rats

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan; Wynne, Olivia; Maglakelidze, George; Zhang, Changqing; O’Connell, Stephanie; Boyadjieva, Nadka I.; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol exposure has adverse effects on stress physiology and behavioral reactivity. This is suggested to be due, in part, to the effect of alcohol on β-endorphin (β-EP) producing neurons in the hypothalamus. In response to stress, β-EP normally provides negative feedback to the HPA axis and interacts with other neurotransmitter systems in the amygdala to regulate behavior. We examined whether β-EP neuronal function in the hypothalamus reduces the corticosterone response to acute stress, attenuates anxiety-like behaviors, and modulates alcohol drinking in rats. Methods To determine if β-EP neuronal transplants modulate the stress response, anxiety behavior and alcohol drinking, we implanted differentiated β-EP neurons into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of normal, prenatal alcohol exposed, and alcohol-preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) rats. We then assessed corticosterone levels in response to acute restraint stress and other markers of stress response in the brain, and anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and open-field assays. Results We showed that β-EP neuronal transplants into the PVN reduced the peripheral corticosterone response to acute stress and attenuated anxiety-like behaviors. Similar transplants completely reduced the hyper-corticosterone response and elevated anxiety behaviors in prenatal alcohol exposed adult rats. Moreover, we showed that β-EP reduced anxiety behavior in P rats with minimal effects on alcohol drinking during and following restraint stress. Conclusions These data further establish a role of β-EP neurons in the hypothalamus for regulating physiological stress response and anxiety behavior, and resembles a potential novel therapy for treating stress-related psychiatric disorders in prenatal alcohol exposed children and those genetically predisposed to increased alcohol consumption. PMID:25623413

  6. The impact of a mental work on food preferences, eating behavior traits and satiety efficiency.

    PubMed

    Salama, Miram; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie

    2016-02-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, which are partly due to the type of labor being performed, have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In general, labor in a modern context solicits mental work, which has been shown to promote overeating and altered satiety efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge-based work on food preferences, eating behaviors traits and appetite sensations. The relationship between these effects and the morphological profile was also assessed. A cross-over experimental design was used in this study for which 35 healthy adults (22 men and 13 women (mean age: 24±3years)), were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned the one of the two following conditions: mental work (reading a document and writing a summary of 350 words with the use of a computer) or control (rest in seated position). Each condition lasted 45min, and was followed by a standardized ad libitum buffet-type meal. Measurements included anthropometric variables, ad libitum food intake, appetite sensations before and after each condition, and satiety quotient, a marker of satiety efficiency in response to the meal. Eating behavior traits were also evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition) were not associated with the energy intake in both conditions and in both genders. Women appeared to have a higher energy intake after the mental work condition (p<0.05), which was accompanied by an increased carbohydrate intake (p<0.05). Moreover, participants with the highest waist circumference had lower satiety efficiency (r=0.43, p<0.05) in response to mental work. These results suggest that increased energy intake in response to knowledge-based work is associated with food preference and an altered satiety efficiency in women and individuals with higher waist circumference. PMID:26607234

  7. Infant Attention and Visual Preferences: Converging Evidence from Behavior, Event-Related Potentials, and Cortical Source Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Courage, Mary L.; Richards, John E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral measure (paired…

  8. The influence of lifestyle on health behavior and preference for functional foods.

    PubMed

    Szakály, Zoltán; Szente, Viktória; Kövér, György; Polereczki, Zsolt; Szigeti, Orsolya

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this survey is to reveal the relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the consumption of functional foods on the basis of Grunert's food-related lifestyle model. In order to achieve this objective, a nationwide representative questionnaire-based survey was launched with 1000 participants in Hungary. The results indicate that a Hungarian consumer makes rational decisions, he or she seeks bargains, and he wants to know whether or not he gets good value for his money. Further on, various lifestyle segments are defined by the authors: the rational, uninvolved, conservative, careless, and adventurous consumer segments. Among these, consumers with a rational approach provide the primary target group for the functional food market, where health consciousness and moderate price sensitivity can be observed together. Adventurous food consumers stand out because they search for novelty; this makes them an equally important target group. Conservative consumers are another, one characterized by positive health behavior. According to the findings of the research, there is a significant relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the preference for functional food products. PMID:22119479

  9. Associations between young adults' use of sexually explicit materials and their sexual preferences, behaviors, and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how levels of sexually explicit material (SEM) use during adolescence and young adulthood were associated with sexual preferences, sexual behaviors, and sexual and relationship satisfaction. Participants included 782 heterosexual college students (326 men and 456 women; M(age) = 19.9) who completed a questionnaire online. Results revealed high frequencies and multiple types and contexts of SEM use, with men's usage rates systematically higher than women's. Regression analyses revealed that both the frequency of SEM use and number of SEM types viewed were uniquely associated with more sexual experience (a higher number of overall and casual sexual intercourse partners, as well as a lower age at first intercourse). Higher frequencies of SEM use were associated with less sexual and relationship satisfaction. The frequency of SEM use and number of SEM types viewed were both associated with higher sexual preferences for the types of sexual practices typically presented in SEM. These findings suggest that SEM use can play a significant role in a variety of aspects of young adults' sexual development processes. PMID:21259151

  10. Identifying flavor preference subgroups. Genetic basis and related eating behavior traits.

    PubMed

    Törnwall, Outi; Silventoinen, Karri; Hiekkalinna, Tero; Perola, Markus; Tuorila, Hely; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-04-01

    Subgroups based on flavor preferences were identified and their genetic and behavior related characteristics investigated using extensive data from 331 Finnish twins (21-25years, 146 men) including 47 monozygotic (MZ) and 93 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, and 51 twin individuals. The subgroup identification (hierarchical and K-means clustering) was based on liking responses to food names representing sour, umami, and spicy flavor qualities. Furthermore, sensory tests were conducted, a questionnaire on food likes completed, and various eating behavior related traits measured with validated scales. Sensory data included intensity ratings of PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil-impregnated filter paper), hedonic and intensity responses to sourness (orange juice with and without added citric acid, 0.42%), pungency (strawberry jelly with and without added capsaicin 0.00013%) and umami ('mouthfeel flavor' taste solution). Ratings of liking of 41 general food names were categorized into salty-and-fatty, sweet-and-fatty, fruits and vegetables and fish foods. Subgroup differences (complex samples procedure) and the genetics underlying the subgroups (structural equation modeling) were investigated. Of the resulting two groups (basic, n=140, adventurous n=152; non-grouped n=39), the adventurous expressed higher liking for sour and spicy foods, and had more tolerance for capsaicin burn in the sensory-hedonic test. The adventurous were also less food neophobic (25.9±9.1 vs. 32.5±10.6, respectively) and expressed higher liking for fruits and vegetables compared to the basic group. Genetic effects were shown to underlie the subgroups (heritability 72%, CI: 36-92%). Linkage analysis for 27 candidate gene regions revealed suggestively that being adventurous is linked to TAS1R1 and PKD1L3 genes. These results indicate that food neophobia and genetic differences may form a barrier through which individual flavor preferences are generated. PMID:24361469

  11. Conditioned Place Preference to Acetone Inhalation and the Effects on Locomotor Behavior and 18FDG Uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, J.C.; Dewey, S.L.; Schiffer, W.; Lee, D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetone is a component in many inhalants that have been widely abused. While other solvents have addictive potential, such as toluene, it is unclear whether acetone alone contains addictive properties. The locomotor, relative glucose metabolism and abusive effects of acetone inhalation were studied in animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and [18F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) imaging. The CPP apparatus contains two distinct conditioning chambers and a middle adaptation chamber, each lined with photocells to monitor locomotor activity. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16; 90-110 g) were paired with acetone in least preferred conditioning chamber, determined on the pretest day. The animals were exposed to a 10,000 ppm dose for an hour, alternating days with air. A CPP test was conducted after the 3rd, 6th and 12th pairing. In these same animals, the relative glucose metabolism effects were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18FDG. Following the 3rd pairing, there was a significant aversion to the acetone paired chamber (190.9 ± 13.7 sec and 241.7 ± 16.9 sec, acetone and air, respectively). After the 6th pairing, there was no significant preference observed with equal time spent in each chamber (222 ± 21 sec and 207 ± 20 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). A similar trend was observed after the 12th pairing (213 ± 21 sec and 221 ± 22 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). Locomotor analysis indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) from air pairings to acetone pairings on the first and sixth pairings. The observed locomotor activity was characteristic of central nervous system (CNS) depressants, without showing clear abusive effects in this CPP model. In these studies, acetone vapors were not as reinforcing as other solvents, shown by overall lack of preference for the acetone paired side of the chamber. PET imaging indicated a regionally specific distribution of 18FDG uptake following

  12. Parallel encoding of sensory history and behavioral preference during Caenorhabditis elegans olfactory learning

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Christine E; Brueggemann, Chantal; L'Etoile, Noelle D; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-01-01

    Sensory experience modifies behavior through both associative and non-associative learning. In Caenorhabditis elegans, pairing odor with food deprivation results in aversive olfactory learning, and pairing odor with food results in appetitive learning. Aversive learning requires nuclear translocation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in AWC olfactory neurons and an insulin signal from AIA interneurons. Here we show that the activity of neurons including AIA is acutely required during aversive, but not appetitive, learning. The AIA circuit and AGE-1, an insulin-regulated PI3 kinase, signal to AWC to drive nuclear enrichment of EGL-4 during conditioning. Odor exposure shifts the AWC dynamic range to higher odor concentrations regardless of food pairing or the AIA circuit, whereas AWC coupling to motor circuits is oppositely regulated by aversive and appetitive learning. These results suggest that non-associative sensory adaptation in AWC encodes odor history, while associative behavioral preference is encoded by altered AWC synaptic activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14000.001 PMID:27383131

  13. Parallel encoding of sensory history and behavioral preference during Caenorhabditis elegans olfactory learning.

    PubMed

    Cho, Christine E; Brueggemann, Chantal; L'Etoile, Noelle D; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-01-01

    Sensory experience modifies behavior through both associative and non-associative learning. In Caenorhabditis elegans, pairing odor with food deprivation results in aversive olfactory learning, and pairing odor with food results in appetitive learning. Aversive learning requires nuclear translocation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in AWC olfactory neurons and an insulin signal from AIA interneurons. Here we show that the activity of neurons including AIA is acutely required during aversive, but not appetitive, learning. The AIA circuit and AGE-1, an insulin-regulated PI3 kinase, signal to AWC to drive nuclear enrichment of EGL-4 during conditioning. Odor exposure shifts the AWC dynamic range to higher odor concentrations regardless of food pairing or the AIA circuit, whereas AWC coupling to motor circuits is oppositely regulated by aversive and appetitive learning. These results suggest that non-associative sensory adaptation in AWC encodes odor history, while associative behavioral preference is encoded by altered AWC synaptic activity. PMID:27383131

  14. Age-Related Differences in Judgments of Inappropriate Behavior are Related to Humor Style Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jennifer Tehan; Lohani, Monika; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying social gaffes is important for maintaining relationships. Older adults are less able than young to discriminate between socially appropriate and inappropriate behavior in video clips. One open question is how these social appropriateness ratings relate to potential age differences in the perception of what is actually funny or not. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and older adults were equally able to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate social behavior in a diverse set of clips relevant to both age groups. However, young and middle-aged adults rated the gaffe clips as funnier than control clips and young adults smiled more during the inappropriate clips than the control clips. Older adults did not show this pattern, suggesting that they did not find the inappropriate clips funny. Additionally, young adults endorsed a more aggressive humor style than middle-aged and older adults and aggressive humor style endorsement mediated age differences in social appropriateness ratings. Results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms such as cohort differences in humor and developmental prioritization of certain humor styles, as well as the importance of investigating age differences in both abilities and preferences. PMID:25244473

  15. Using Brief Strategic Intervention to Reduce the School Avoidance Behavior of Seventh Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schopen, E. Ann

    1997-01-01

    Describes a form of brief strategic intervention for seventh graders with a history of excessive absenteeism. Presents intervention goals, the necessity of getting the parent(s) involved, identifying the barriers, and removing the barriers. Provides three case samples and discusses preconditions for success. (RJM)

  16. Salinity Preference in the Estuarine Teleost Fish Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus): Halocline Behavior.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W S; Tait, J C; Mercer, E W

    2016-01-01

    Mummichogs prefer seawater (SW) but have wide ability to acclimate to extreme temperatures and salinities. In the field, minnow trapping revealed that mummichogs move progressively into low-salinity warmer water during early spring after ice melt and show significant aversion to colder temperatures and high salinity. First appearance in estuarine shallows occurred above 10°C, and catch increased to 21°C over 4 wk. Three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) also preferred warmer low-salinity locations but preferred slowing streams, whereas mummichogs preferred tidal ponds. In the laboratory, artificial haloclines tested isothermal salinity preference, between 28‰ full-strength SW (below) and 10% SW (3.0‰; above). Mummichogs of both sexes acclimated to 5°C in SW strongly preferred SW. Freshwater (0% SW)-acclimated mummichogs at 21°C also preferred SW, but of sexually mature fish acclimated to 21°C SW, only the males preferred SW; the females showed no significant preference for SW, meaning they freely entered low salinity. SW preference was manifested by a stereotypic passive aversion to the dilute upper layer at the halocline. We conclude that the overall movement of mummichogs into summer breeding grounds of low salinity is driven by maturation of females and their preference for warmer water regardless of salinity. PMID:27153132

  17. Novelty-induced conditioned place preference, sucrose preference, and elevated plus maze behavior in adult rats after repeated exposure to methylphenidate during the preweanling period.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Cynthia A; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Britt, Cynthia E; Varela, Fausto A; Kozanian, Olga O

    2013-06-01

    Early treatment with methylphenidate has a persistent effect on the affective (i.e., anxiety- and depressive-like) behaviors of adult rats and mice. Interestingly, age at methylphenidate exposure appears to be a critical determinant influencing the expression of affective behaviors. In the present study, we exposed rats to methylphenidate during the preweanling period (i.e., PD 11-PD 20) because this ontogenetic period is analogous to early childhood in humans (an age associated with increasing methylphenidate usage). Rats were injected with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5mg/kg) from PD 11 to PD 20 and reactivity to rewarding and aversive stimuli were measured in early adulthood. Specifically, novelty-induced CPP, sucrose preference, and elevated plus maze behavior were assessed on PD 60. Early treatment with 2 or 5mg/kg methylphenidate increased total time spent in the white compartment of the CPP chamber. This methylphenidate-induced effect occurred regardless of exposure condition. Performance on the elevated plus maze was also impacted by early methylphenidate exposure, because rats treated with 5mg/kg methylphenidate spent more time in the closed compartment of the elevated plus maze than vehicle controls. Early methylphenidate exposure did not alter sucrose preference. These data indicate that exposing rats to methylphenidate during the preweanling period differentially affects anxiety-like behavior depending on the type of anxiety-provoking stimulus. Specifically, early methylphenidate exposure decreased aversion to a bright white room when measured on a novelty-induced CPP task, whereas methylphenidate caused a long-term increase in anxiety when measured on the elevated plus maze. PMID:23466690

  18. [Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city].

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe preferences for behavior conducive to physical activity (PA) and to evaluate the influence of these preferences on physical activity of children from Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It involved a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 11. Behavior conducive to PA was evaluated using the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometry. Variance analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate associations between questions from the NPAQ and independent variables and between each form of behavior and time spent in MVPA, respectively. Children in the higher economic bracket liked to draw more and preferred less vigorous games and playing outside than poorer children. Older children were less extrovert and liked to draw less than younger children. Enjoying sports, disliking drawing and liking to play outside were positively associated with daily time spent in MVPA. Some characteristics studied were associated with behavior conducive to PA, and economic status proved to be the most important influence. Preferences like enjoying sports positively influenced the time spent in MVPA. PMID:25014307

  19. Early Child Care Teachers' Socialization Goals and Preferred Behavioral Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernhardt, Ariane; Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Döge, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated early child care teachers' culturally shaped socialization goals and preferred behavioral strategies. The participants were 183 female teachers and trainees, 93 from Osnabrück, Germany, representing an urban Western context, which can be characterized by a primary cultural orientation toward psychological autonomy and…

  20. Maternal Education Preferences Moderate the Effects of Mandatory Employment and Education Programs on Child Positive and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children’s positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years…

  1. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate.

  2. Social exclusion and female mating behavior: rejected women show strategic enhancement of short-term mating interest.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Donald F; Young, Steven G; Brown, Christina M; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Because cost asymmetries in sexual reproduction have historically enabled women to exchange sexual access for other resources, including social resources, we tested the possibility that social exclusion would lead women to display an elevated preference for short-term mating strategies in the service of reaffiliation. In Study 1, women were given false feedback to manipulate social inclusion or exclusion prior to indicating their endorsement of short and long-term mating behaviors. Socially excluded women indicated greater interest in short-term mating and reduced interest in long-term mating. In Study 2, women wrote about a social inclusion, social exclusion, or control experience and then indicated their preference for different male body types. Women in the social exclusion condition preferred more muscular male partners--a pattern of preference typical of short-term mating--than women in the other conditions. Collectively, these results are consistent with a social exchange theory of women's sexual behavior following social exclusion. PMID:22947679

  3. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction †

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user’s preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information. PMID:26805852

  4. Sexual Health Behaviors, Preferences for Care, and Use of Health Services Among Adolescents in Pediatric Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa K.; Pickett, Michelle; Leisner, Kelsee; Sherman, Ashley K.; Humiston, Sharon G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe sexual health behaviors, as well as prior use of and preferences for sexual health services among adolescents in the pediatric Emergency Department (ED). Methods In this cross-sectional study, subjects aged 14-19 years who presented to an urban or suburban ED from a single Midwestern area completed a written survey. The survey included questions on previous sexual activity (PSA), high-risk behaviors (1st sex before age 15, no condom at last sex, substance use at last sex, >3 partners in past 3 months, and >4 lifetime partners) and sexual health service use and preferences. Comparisons of responses between subgroups were analyzed using Chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with high-risk behaviors. Care preferences were scored using a four-point Likert scale; mean scores were ranked. Results Subjects included 306 adolescents (85% of approached). The mean age was 15.5 years. Almost half (45%) reported PSA and, of those, 63% reported ≥1 high-risk behavior (most commonly 1st sex before age 15 [43%] and no condom at last sex [29%]). Almost all wanted to prevent pregnancy, but only one-third received birth control counseling before sexual debut and 14% reported no contraception at last sex. Younger age was associated with ≥1 high-risk behavior (odds ratio = 3.7; confidence interval = 1.39-9.84). Preferences for care included caring, knowledgeable providers and low/no cost. Conclusions Due to high prevalence of high-risk behaviors among adolescents presenting in the ED, strategies should be developed to link these patients to comprehensive sexual health care. PMID:23903671

  5. Mothers say "baby" and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results.

    PubMed

    Moon, Christine; Zernzach, Randall C; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-01-01

    Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP) experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word "baby" depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word "baby" recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results) but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior. PMID:25859203

  6. Heat or Insulation: Behavioral Titration of Mouse Preference for Warmth or Access to a Nest

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Brianna N.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Pajor, Edmond A.; Lucas, Jeffrey R.; Davis, Jerry K.; Garner, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20–24°C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30°C). This increased thermal stress has the potential to alter scientific outcomes. Nesting material should allow for improved behavioral thermoregulation and thus alleviate this thermal stress. Nesting behavior should change with temperature and material, and the choice between nesting or thermotaxis (movement in response to temperature) should also depend on the balance of these factors, such that mice titrate nesting material against temperature. Naïve CD-1, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice (36 male and 36 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in a set of 2 connected cages, each maintained at a different temperature using a water bath. One cage in each set was 20°C (Nesting cage; NC) while the other was one of 6 temperatures (Temperature cage; TC: 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, or 35°C). The NC contained one of 6 nesting provisions (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10g), changed daily. Food intake and nest scores were measured in both cages. As the difference in temperature between paired cages increased, feed consumption in NC increased. Nesting provision altered differences in nest scores between the 2 paired temperatures. Nest scores in NC increased with increasing provision. In addition, temperature pairings altered the difference in nest scores with the smallest difference between locations at 26°C and 29°C. Mice transferred material from NC to TC but the likelihood of transfer decreased with increasing provision. Overall, mice of different strains and sexes prefer temperatures between 26–29°C and the shift from thermotaxis to nest building is seen between 6 and 10 g of material. Our results suggest that under normal laboratory temperatures, mice should be provided with no less than 6 grams of nesting material, but up to 10 grams may be needed to alleviate thermal distress under typical temperatures. PMID:22479340

  7. Heat or insulation: behavioral titration of mouse preference for warmth or access to a nest.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24°C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30°C). This increased thermal stress has the potential to alter scientific outcomes. Nesting material should allow for improved behavioral thermoregulation and thus alleviate this thermal stress. Nesting behavior should change with temperature and material, and the choice between nesting or thermotaxis (movement in response to temperature) should also depend on the balance of these factors, such that mice titrate nesting material against temperature. Naïve CD-1, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice (36 male and 36 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in a set of 2 connected cages, each maintained at a different temperature using a water bath. One cage in each set was 20°C (Nesting cage; NC) while the other was one of 6 temperatures (Temperature cage; TC: 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, or 35°C). The NC contained one of 6 nesting provisions (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10g), changed daily. Food intake and nest scores were measured in both cages. As the difference in temperature between paired cages increased, feed consumption in NC increased. Nesting provision altered differences in nest scores between the 2 paired temperatures. Nest scores in NC increased with increasing provision. In addition, temperature pairings altered the difference in nest scores with the smallest difference between locations at 26°C and 29°C. Mice transferred material from NC to TC but the likelihood of transfer decreased with increasing provision. Overall, mice of different strains and sexes prefer temperatures between 26-29°C and the shift from thermotaxis to nest building is seen between 6 and 10 g of material. Our results suggest that under normal laboratory temperatures, mice should be provided with no less than 6 grams of nesting material, but up to 10 grams may be needed to alleviate thermal distress under typical temperatures. PMID:22479340

  8. The Development of a Preference for Cocaine over Food Identifies Individual Rats with Addiction-Like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Adam N.; Westenbroek, Christel; Becker, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug taking that supercedes other recreational, occupational or social pursuits. We hypothesized that rats vulnerable to addiction could be identified within the larger population based on their preference for cocaine over palatable food rewards. Objectives To validate the choice self-administration paradigm as a preclinical model of addiction, we examined changes in motivation for cocaine and recidivism to drug seeking in cocaine-preferring and pellet-preferring rats. We also examined behavior in males and females to identify sex differences in this “addicted” phenotype. Methods Preferences were identified during self-administration on a fixed-ratio schedule with cocaine-only, pellet-only and choice sessions. Motivation for each reward was probed early and late during self-administration using a progressive-ratio schedule. Reinstatement of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was examined following exposure to their cues and non-contingent delivery of each reward. Results Cocaine preferring rats increased their drug intake at the expense of pellets, displayed increased motivation for cocaine, attenuated motivation for pellets and greater cocaine and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Females were more likely to develop cocaine preferences and recidivism of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was sexually dimorphic. Conclusions The choice self-administration paradigm is a valid preclinical model of addiction. The unbiased selection criteria also revealed sex-specific vulnerability factors that could be differentiated from generalized sex differences in behavior, which has implications for the neurobiology of addiction and effective treatments in each sex. PMID:24260227

  9. Educational attainment, time preference, and health-related behaviors: A mediation analysis from the J-SHINE survey.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    Evidence consistently shows that low education is associated with unhealthy behaviors. A recent study in behavioral economics argued that high time preferences - the tendency to prefer immediate gain to later reward - explain the limited self-control of individuals in making preventive health-related choices. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of time preference on the associations between education and smoking, binge drinking and overweight in young and middle-aged adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area, using a quantitatively measured time discount rate. A population-based probabilistic sample of residents of 25-50 years of age living in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas where economic disparity is relatively large was obtained from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE). Respondents answered the questionnaire items using a computer-aided personal instrument (CAPI). Data from 3457 respondents were used in this study. Time preferences measured as categorical responses were converted into a continuous number of time discount rates by using the maximum likelihood method. Smoking habit, binge drinking, and body mass index were regressed on educational attainment with demographics and other confounders. The mediating effects of the time discount rate were examined with the bootstrapping method. Results showed that the time discount rate did not mediate the association between education and binge drinking and BMI. Even for smoking, the mediating effect of time discount rate was quite limited, indicating that the proportion of total effect of education mediated was only 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. The results suggest that modifying time preferences through educational intervention has only limited efficacy in closing disparities in health-related behaviors, and that other mediators fostered by schooling, such as knowledge/skills, group norms and supportive peers

  10. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered. PMID:26415598

  11. Type of hemodialysis and preference for behavioral involvement: interactive effects on adherence in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A J; Smith, T W; Turner, C W; Holman, J M; Gregory, M C

    1990-01-01

    Examined the effects of hemodialysis type (i.e., staff controlled, in center vs. patient controlled, home) and patient preference for behavioral involvement on adherence and emotional adjustment in a sample of 53 patients with end-stage renal disease. Consistent with person x treatment interaction models, higher levels of preference for behavioral involvement were associated with better dietary adherence (i.e., lower serum potassium) for patients receiving dialysis at home but worse dietary adherence for patients receiving treatment in a dialysis center. A similar though weaker patient x treatment type matching pattern was observed for fluid-intake adherence (i.e., interdialytic weight gain). No effects were observed for patients' self-reported depression levels. Possible mechanisms for the interactional effect on adherence are discussed. PMID:2331980

  12. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  13. The National Strategic Plan and Action Agenda for Agricultural Education: Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020. Creating the Preferred Future for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Agricultural Education, Alexandria, VA.

    The Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020 initiative, a project conducted during 1996-1999 with a diverse group of more than 10,000 people from across the United States, resulted in this strategic plan designed to achieve the mission set by the initiative. That mission has a two-part focus: preparing students for career success in…

  14. A behavioral switch: cGMP and PKC signaling in olfactory neurons reverses odor preference in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Tsunozaki, Makoto; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Innate chemosensory preferences are often encoded by sensory neurons that are specialized for attractive or avoidance behaviors. Here we show that one olfactory neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans, AWCON, has the potential to direct both attraction and repulsion. Attraction, the typical AWCON behavior, requires a receptor-like guanylate cyclase GCY-28 that acts in adults and localizes to AWCON axons. gcy-28 mutants avoid AWCON–sensed odors; they have normal odor-evoked calcium responses in AWCON, but reversed turning biases in odor gradients. In addition to gcy-28, a diacylglycerol/protein kinase C pathway that regulates neurotransmission switches AWCON odor preferences. A behavioral switch in AWCON may be part of normal olfactory plasticity, as odor conditioning can induce odor avoidance in wild-type animals. Genetic interactions, acute rescue, and calcium imaging suggest that the behavioral reversal results from presynaptic changes in AWCON. These results suggest that alternative modes of neurotransmission can couple one sensory neuron to opposite behavioral outputs. PMID:18817734

  15. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task.

    PubMed

    Radell, Milen L; Myers, Catherine E; Beck, Kevin D; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Allen, Michael Todd

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU), i.e., a preference for familiar over unknown (possibly better) options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP), which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward (i.e., rich) and one contains less frequent reward (i.e., poor). Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously rich and previously poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate which may indicate a foraging behavior. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, the personality factor of high IU may produce a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction. PMID:27555829

  16. The Personality Trait of Intolerance to Uncertainty Affects Behavior in a Novel Computer-Based Conditioned Place Preference Task

    PubMed Central

    Radell, Milen L.; Myers, Catherine E.; Beck, Kevin D.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Allen, Michael Todd

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has found that personality factors that confer vulnerability to addiction can also affect learning and economic decision making. One personality trait which has been implicated in vulnerability to addiction is intolerance to uncertainty (IU), i.e., a preference for familiar over unknown (possibly better) options. In animals, the motivation to obtain drugs is often assessed through conditioned place preference (CPP), which compares preference for contexts where drug reward was previously received. It is an open question whether participants with high IU also show heightened preference for previously rewarded contexts. To address this question, we developed a novel computer-based CPP task for humans in which participants guide an avatar through a paradigm in which one room contains frequent reward (i.e., rich) and one contains less frequent reward (i.e., poor). Following exposure to both contexts, subjects are assessed for preference to enter the previously rich and previously poor room. Individuals with low IU showed little bias to enter the previously rich room first, and instead entered both rooms at about the same rate which may indicate a foraging behavior. By contrast, those with high IU showed a strong bias to enter the previously rich room first. This suggests an increased tendency to chase reward in the intolerant group, consistent with previously observed behavior in opioid-addicted individuals. Thus, the personality factor of high IU may produce a pre-existing cognitive bias that provides a mechanism to promote decision-making processes that increase vulnerability to addiction. PMID:27555829

  17. Selective Supports: An Exploratory Study of Urban Educators' Preferred Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Responding to inappropriate student behavior is a significant challenge for many educators. Behavioral interventions and strategies are tools that teachers can use to reduce the occurrence of difficult behaviors while promoting positive alternatives. Factors that influence teacher "selection" of behavioral interventions are well-documented by the…

  18. A comparative analysis of homosexual behaviors, sex role preferences, and anal sex proclivities in Latino and non-Latino men.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, William L

    2009-10-01

    Machismo prescribes that homosexual encounters among Latino men are conducted along highly gendered lines: men tend to be anally insertive or receptive over the lifecourse, but not both. Some have argued that Latino men have more lifecourse homosexual behaviors in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. This is often due to the perception that Latin America has quasi-institutionalized homosexuality, which sharply contrasts it with the United States. Although scholars suggest that sex role preferences and greater likelihoods for homosexual behaviors exist among Latino men in the United States, limited empirical data validate these claims. Latino/non-Latino differences in male homosexual behaviors and sex role preferences were analyzed by using the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative, probability sample of 4,928 men. Findings revealed that non-Mexican Latino, but not Mexican, men had increased likelihoods of ever having anal sex than non-Latino Whites and oral sex than non-Latino Blacks. These relationships remained after controlling for age, education, and foreign birth. Latino men preferred insertive or receptive sex in comparison to non-Latino Blacks and Whites, but this difference disappeared after education was controlled. In full and reduced models, Mexican men tended to be orifice-specific (oral or anal), while non-Mexican Latinos were more oriented to both oral and anal sex. Controlling for other factors, all Latinos were more likely than non-Latino Blacks and Whites to refuse to answer male homosexual behavior questions. The implications of race/ethnicity are discussed for homosexual behavior patterns among U.S. men. PMID:17968645

  19. A Strategic Approach to Urban Research and Development: Social and Behavioral Science Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    The Committee on Social and Behavioral Urban Research was asked to advise the Housing and Urban Development Department (HUD) on elements of its long-range research and development program (R & D). Federal, state, and local governments have had access to only small amounts of relevant social and behavioral science knowledge or small numbers of…

  20. Strategic Persuasive Writing Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Irby Cerar, Nancy; Guckert, Mary; Thompson, Catherine; Bronaugh, Danette Allen; Jakulski, Jill; Abdulalim, Latif; Mills, Sara; Evmenova, Anya; Regan, Kelley; Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna

    2015-01-01

    Expressive writing is important for school and life success, but remains challenging for many students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Emerging evidence reveals promise for teaching students with learning and behavioral issues to improve written expression with self-regulated strategy development instruction. In that research, students…

  1. On the organization of partner preference behavior in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Brand, T; Slob, A K

    1991-03-01

    The possible prenatal organizing effects of testosterone (T) on adult sexual partner preference, i.e., sexual orientation in female rats, were studied through prenatal exposure (days 11-22) of female fetuses to the antiandrogens flutamide (Sch 13521; 4'-nitro-3'-trifluoromethylisobutyranilide; 5 or 10 mg/day; Experiment 1) or anandron [RU 23908; 5,5-dimethyl-3-(4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)- 2,4-imidazolidinedione; 35 mg/kg/day; Experiment 2]. The neonatal organizing effects of T were further studied by giving T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or oil within 9 h after birth to female pups (Experiment 3). In adulthood sexual orientation was ascertained, after ovariectomy followed by hormone treatment, in an automated open field (AOF), with stimulus animals behind wire mesh, and in a 3-compartment box (3-CB), with stimulus animals tethered. When given the choice between an estrous female and a sexually active male in the AOF, flutamide females, as well as controls, preferred the male partner. After long-term T treatment and 3 weekly pair-tests with an estrous female, flutamide females as well as controls switched their preference to the estrous female partner. In anadron females similar results were obtained. Thus the prenatal antiandrogens had no significant effect on sexual orientation in female rats. This suggests that adult sexual orientation in female rats is not organized prenatally through endogenous T. The change in preference after sexual experience corroborates earlier findings from our laboratory. When given the choice between an estrous female and a sexually active male in the 3-CB (sexual interaction with incentives possible), neonatally DHTP-treated females preferred the male; neonatally TP- or oil-treated females showed no preference.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2062933

  2. Children's Search Strategies and Accompanying Verbal and Motor Strategic Behavior: Developmental Trends and Relations with Task Performance among Children Age 5 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsler, Adam; Naglieri, Jack; Manfra, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Children's reported use of single and multiple search strategies during a matching numbers task, along with accompanying verbal (private speech, self-talk) and motoric (finger pointing, place-holding) strategic behaviors were examined with a large, nationally representative cross-sectional sample ("n"=1,979) of children between the ages of 5 and…

  3. Caffeine Reinforces Flavor Preference and Behavior in Moderate Users but Not in Low Caffeine Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of caffeine consumption in caffeine reinforcement. Previous findings have shown that caffeine reinforced flavor preference in moderate caffeine consumers who are caffeine deprived. However, most of these studies have employed rating procedures only, and have not shown the effectiveness of caffeine to reinforce behaviors…

  4. Intergenerational Influences on the Entry into Parenthood: Mothers' Preferences for Family and Nonfamily Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jennifer S.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of long-term longitudinal data on White married mothers and their children found that both sons and daughters whose mothers preferred early marriage, large families, low levels of education, and stay-at-home mothers had children earlier than their peers. Analyses support both socialization and social control mechanisms. (Contains 56…

  5. Some observations on the granivorous feeding behavior preferences of mice (Mus musculus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) is a highly successful mammal worldwide, in part, due to its adaptive consumption of a wide range of seeds, especially those of the agricultural cereal crops. Preferences or avoidances of specific grain (kernel) attributes of wheat have not been fully characterized....

  6. Higher Childhood Peer Reports of Social Preference Mediates the Impact of the Good Behavior Game on Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Alison R; Roth, Kimberly B; Kellam, Sheppard G; Wang, Wei; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Hart, Shelley R; Wagner, Barry M; Wilcox, Holly C

    2016-02-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal classroom-based preventive intervention directed at reducing early aggressive, disruptive behavior and improving children's social adaptation into the classroom. The GBG is one of the few universal preventive interventions delivered in early elementary school that has been shown to reduce the risk for future suicide attempts. This paper addresses one potential mechanism by which the GBG lowers the risk of later suicide attempt. In this study, we tested whether the GBG, by facilitating social adaptation into the classroom early on, including the level of social preference by classmates, thereby lowers future risk of suicide attempts. The measure of social adaptation is based on first and second grade peer reports of social preference ("which children do you like best?"; "which children don't you like?"). As part of the hypothesized meditational model, we examined the longitudinal association between childhood peer social preference and the risk of future suicide attempt, which has not previously been examined. Data were from an epidemiologically based randomized prevention trial, which tested the GBG among two consecutive cohorts of first grade children in 19 public schools and 41 classrooms. Results indicated that peer social preference partially mediated the relationship between the GBG and the associated reduction of risk for later suicide attempts by adulthood, specifically among children characterized by their first grade teacher as highly aggressive, disruptive. These results suggest that positive childhood peer relations may partially explain the GBG-associated reduction of risk for suicide attempts and may be an important and malleable protective factor for future suicide attempt. PMID:26297498

  7. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Michael G.; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair. PMID:26903892

  8. Cognitive Model of Trust Dynamics Predicts Human Behavior within and between Two Games of Strategic Interaction with Computerized Confederate Agents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael G; Juvina, Ion; Gluck, Kevin A

    2016-01-01

    When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner's Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game's optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game's optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The reciprocal trust players develop during the first game is thought to mediate transfer of learning effects. Recently, a computational cognitive model using a novel trust mechanism has been shown to account for human behavior in both games, including the transfer between games. We present the results of a study in which we evaluate the model's a priori predictions of human learning and transfer in 16 different conditions. The model's predictive validity is compared against five model variants that lacked a trust mechanism. The results suggest that a trust mechanism is necessary to explain human behavior across multiple conditions, even when a human plays against a non-human agent. The addition of a trust mechanism to the other learning mechanisms within the cognitive architecture, such as sequence learning, instance-based learning, and utility learning, leads to better prediction of the empirical data. It is argued that computational cognitive modeling is a useful tool for studying trust development, calibration, and repair. PMID:26903892

  9. Oviposition preference for and positional avoidance of acetic acid provide a model for competing behavioral drives in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Ryan M.; Devineni, Anita V.; King, Ian F. G.; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Selection of appropriate oviposition sites is essential for progeny survival and fitness in generalist insect species, such as Drosphila melanogaster, yet little is known about the mechanisms regulating how environmental conditions and innate adult preferences are evaluated and balanced to yield the final substrate choice for egg-deposition. Female D. melanogaster are attracted to food containing acetic acid (AA) as an oviposition substrate. However, our observations reveal that this egg-laying preference is a complex process, as it directly opposes an otherwise strong, default behavior of positional avoidance for the same food. We show that 2 distinct sensory modalities detect AA. Attraction to AA-containing food for the purpose of egg-laying relies on the gustatory system, while positional repulsion depends primarily on the olfactory system. Similarly, distinct central brain regions are involved in AA attraction and repulsion. Given this unique situation, in which a single environmental stimulus yields 2 opposing behavioral outputs, we propose that the interaction of egg-laying attraction and positional aversion for AA provides a powerful model for studying how organisms balance competing behavioral drives and integrate signals involved in choice-like processes. PMID:19541615

  10. Bending the Rules: Strategic Behavioral Differences Are Reflected in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensteller, Uta; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of higher-order conditional motor behavior was investigated in the present fMRI study with the objective of answering three questions: (a) what happens in situations where one stimulus dimension alone does not sufficiently determine the correct response?; (b) does the implementation of second-order stimulus-response (S-R) rules…

  11. Essays on Online Reviews: Reviewers' Strategic Behaviors and Contributions over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Wenqi

    2010-01-01

    Online reviews play an important role in consumers' purchasing decisions. Researchers are increasingly interested in studying the dynamic impact of online reviews on product sales. However, the antecedent of online reviews, online reviewers' behaviors, has not been fully explored. Understanding how online reviewers make review decisions can assist…

  12. Behavioral assessment of acoustic parameters relevant to signal recognition and preference in a vocal fish.

    PubMed

    McKibben, J R; Bass, A H

    1998-12-01

    Acoustic signal recognition depends on the receiver's processing of the physical attributes of a sound. This study takes advantage of the simple communication sounds produced by plainfin midshipman fish to examine effects of signal variation on call recognition and preference. Nesting male midshipman generate both long duration (> 1 min) sinusoidal-like "hums" and short duration "grunts." The hums of neighboring males often overlap, creating beat waveforms. Presentation of humlike, single tone stimuli, but not grunts or noise, elicited robust attraction (phonotaxis) by gravid females. In two-choice tests, females differentiated and chose between acoustic signals that differed in duration, frequency, amplitude, and fine temporal content. Frequency preferences were temperature dependent, in accord with the known temperature dependence of hum fundamental frequency. Concurrent hums were simulated with two-tone beat stimuli, either presented from a single speaker or produced more naturally by interference between adjacent sources. Whereas certain single-source beats reduced stimulus attractiveness, beats which resolved into unmodulated tones at their sources did not affect preference. These results demonstrate that phonotactic assessment of stimulus relevance can be applied in a teleost fish, and that multiple signal parameters can affect receiver response in a vertebrate with relatively simple communication signals. PMID:9857511

  13. Comparisons of Conceptual Preference for Cultural and Leadership Behavior in an Information Technology Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valley, Amina B.

    2009-01-01

    The primary focus of the research study conducted was to analyze the predictive leadership behaviors of Southern Asian and United States individuals in the information technology career field. This research validates the leadership traits and behaviors of information technology types of United States individuals that enhance the impact of…

  14. Assessing Preferences for Positive and Negative Reinforcement during Treatment of Destructive Behavior with Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Adelinis, John D.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Keeney, Kris M.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Hovanetz, Alyson

    2005-01-01

    Results of prior studies (e.g. [J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 32 (1999) 285]) showing that participants chose alternative behavior (compliance) over escape-reinforced destructive behavior when this latter response produced escape and the former response produced positive reinforcement may have been due to (a) the value of the positive reinforcer…

  15. Strategic Provider Behavior Under Global Budget Payment with Price Adjustment in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bradley; Fan, Victoria Y

    2015-11-01

    Global budget payment is one of the most effective strategies for cost containment, but its impacts on provider behavior have not been explored in detail. This study examines the theoretical and empirical role of global budget payment on provider behavior. The study proposes that global budget payment with price adjustment is a form of common-pool resources. A two-product game theoretic model is derived, and simulations demonstrate that hospitals are expected to expand service volumes, with an emphasis on products with higher price-marginal cost ratios. Next, the study examines the early effects of Taiwan's global budget payment system using a difference-in-difference strategy and finds that Taiwanese hospitals exhibited such behavior, where the pursuit of individual interests led to an increase in treatment intensities. Furthermore, hospitals significantly increased inpatient service volume for regional hospitals and medical centers. In contrast, local hospitals, particularly for those without teaching status designation, faced a negative impact on service volume, as larger hospitals were better positioned to induce demand and pulled volume away from their smaller counterparts through more profitable services and products such as radiology and pharmaceuticals. PMID:25132007

  16. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  17. The Effects of 4-Methylethcathinone on Conditioned Place Preference, Locomotor Sensitization, and Anxiety-Like Behavior: A Comparison with Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Qiu, Yi; Zhang, Yizhi; Βai, Yanping; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: 4-Methylethcathinone is a drug that belongs to the second generation of synthetic cathinones, and recently it has been ranked among the most popular “legal highs”. Although it has similar in vitro neurochemical actions to other drugs such as cocaine, the behavioral effects of 4-methylethcathinone remain to be determined. Methods: The addictive potential and locomotor potentiation by 4-methylethcathinone were investigated in rats using the conditioned place preference and sensitization paradigm. Methamphetamine was used as a positive control. Because synthetic cathinones can have psychological effects, we also examined anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze. Results: A conditioning dose of 10mg/kg 4-methylethcathinone was able to induce conditioned place preference and reinstatement (following 2 weeks of withdrawal). Acute or repeated injections of 4-methylethcathinone at 3 or 10mg/kg failed to alter locomotor activity. At 30mg/kg, however, acute 4-methylethcathinone increased locomotor activity compared with saline, while chronic 4-methylethcathinone induced a delayed and attenuated sensitization compared with methamphetamine. Additionally, repeated daily injections of 4-methylethcathinone (30mg/kg) reduced, whereas methamphetamine increased time spent by rats in the open arm of an elevated plus maze compared with saline injections. Interestingly, a 2-week withdrawal period following chronic injections of 4-methylethcathinone or methamphetamine increased time spent in the open arm in all rats. Conclusions: The rewarding properties of 4-methylethcathinone were found to be dissociated from its effects on locomotor activity. Additionally, chronic 4-methylethcathinone use may trigger abnormal anxious behaviors. These behavioral effects caused by 4-methylethcathinone appear to last even after a withdrawal period. PMID:26612552

  18. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) – inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing – administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion – but not saccharin preference – in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference – but not in locomotion – was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be

  19. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  20. Distinct behavioral phenotypes in ethanol-induced place preference are associated with different extinction and reinstatement but not behavioral sensitization responses.

    PubMed

    Pildervasser, João V N; Abrahao, Karina P; Souza-Formigoni, Maria L O

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a model to study the role of drug conditioning properties. In outbred strains, individual variability may affect some behavioral measures. However, there are few studies focusing on understanding how different phenotypes of ethanol conditioned behavior may influence its extinction, reinstatement, and behavioral adaptation measures. We used male Swiss Webster mice to study different phenotypes related to ethanol conditioning strength, reinstatement and behavioral sensitization. Mice went through a CPP procedure with ethanol (2.2 g/kg, i.p.). After that, one group of mice was submitted to repeated extinction sessions, while another group remained in their home cages without any drug treatment. Mice went through environmental and ethanol priming (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) reinstatement tests. Ethanol priming test reinstated the conditioned behavior only in the animals kept in the home-cage during the abstinence period. Besides, the ethanol conditioned behavior strength was positively correlated with the time required to be extinguished. In the second set of experiments, some mice went through a CPP protocol followed by behavioral sensitization (five i.p. administrations of ethanol 2.2 g/kg or saline per week, for 3 weeks) and another group of mice went through sensitization followed by CPP. No positive correlation was observed between ethanol CPP strength and the intensity of behavioral sensitization. Considering that different phenotypes observed in CPP strength predicted the variability in other CPP measures, we developed a statistics-based method to classify mice according to CPP strength to be used in the evaluation of ethanol conditioning properties. PMID:25152719

  1. Androgen and the Development of Human Sex-Typical Behavior: Rough-and-Tumble Play and Sex of Preferred Playmates in Children with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Melissa; Kaufman, Francine R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the rough-and-tumble play and gender of preferred playmates in three- to eight-year olds with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)--hypothesized to masculinize behaviors that show sex differences--and in unaffected three- to eight-year-old relatives. Found that CAH girls did not exhibit increased levels of masculine behavior when compared…

  2. Multi-Sensory Rooms: Comparing Effects of the Snoezelen and the Stimulus Preference Environment on the Behavior of Adults with Profound Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether Snoezelen and Stimulus Preference environments have differential effects on disruptive and pro-social behaviors in adults with profound mental retardation and autism. In N = 27 adults these target behaviors were recorded for a total of 20 sessions using both multi-sensory rooms. Three comparison groups were…

  3. Preferences, Information, and Parental Choice Behavior in Public School Choice. NBER Working Paper No. 12995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Van Weelden, Richard; Weinstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    The incentives and outcomes generated by public school choice depend to a large degree on parents' choice behavior. There is growing empirical evidence that low-income parents place lower weights on academics when choosing schools, but there is little evidence as to why. We use a field experiment in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public School district…

  4. The Secure-Base Phenomenon across Cultures: Children's Behavior, Mothers' Preferences, and Experts' Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the universality of children's use of their mothers as a secure base. Found that, on average, children in all seven of the countries and contexts studied were characterized as using their mothers as a secure base, but that they differed across cultures in the degree to which their behavior conformed to the definition of a securely…

  5. Influences of age, gender, and parents' educational level in knowledge, behavior and preferences regarding noise, from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to loud sound during leisure activities for long periods of time is an important area to implement preventive health education, especially among young people. The aim was to identify the relations among awareness about the damaging effects of loud levels of sounds, previous exposures do loud sounds, preferences-related to sound levels and knowledge about hearing protection with age, gender, and their parent's educational level among children. Prospective cross-sectional. Seven hundred and forty students (5-16 years old) and 610 parents participated in the study. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and linear regression. About 86.5% of the children consider that loud sounds damage the ears and 53.7% dislike noisy places. Children were previously exposed to parties and concerts with loud music, Mardi Gras, firecrackers and loud music at home or in the car and loud music with earphones. About 18.4% of the younger children could select the volume of the music, versus 65.3% of the older ones. Children have poor information about hearing protection and do not have hearing protection device. Knowledge about the risks related to exposures to loud sounds and about strategies to protect their hearing increases with age, but preference for loud sounds and exposures to it increases too. Gender and parents' instructional level have little influence on the studied variables. Many of the children's recreational activities are noisy. It is possible that the tendency of increasing preference for loud sounds with age might be a result of a learned behavior. PMID:25387530

  6. Economic Behavior under the Influence of Alcohol: An Experiment on Time Preferences, Risk-Taking, and Altruism

    PubMed Central

    Corazzini, Luca; Filippin, Antonio; Vanin, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects’ risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic. PMID:25853520

  7. Identifying Context-Specific Gene Profiles of Social, Reproductive, and Mate Preference Behavior in a Fish Species with Female Mate Choice

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Mary E.; Maginnis, Tara L.; Wong, Ryan Y.; Brock, Chad; Cummings, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA receptor, tPA, stathmin-2, β-1 adrenergic receptor) or with female sociosexual behaviors in other taxa (vasotocin, isotocin, brain aromatase, α-1 adrenergic receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase). We exposed females to four social conditions, including pairings of differing mate choice complexity (large males, large/small males, small males), and a social control (two females). Female mate preference differed significantly by context. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) of behaviors revealed a primary axis (explaining 50.2% between-group variance) highlighting differences between groups eliciting high preference behaviors (LL, LS) vs. other contexts, and a secondary axis capturing general measures distinguishing a non-favored group (SS) from other groups. Gene expression MDA revealed a major axis (68.4% between-group variance) that distinguished amongst differential male pairings and was driven by suites of “preference and receptivity genes”; whereas a second axis, distinguishing high affiliation groups (large males, females) from low (small males), was characterized by traditional affiliative-associated genes (isotocin, vasotocin). We found context-specific correlations between behavior and gene MDA, suggesting gene suites covary with behaviors in a socially relevant context. Distinct associations between “affiliative” and “preference” axes suggest mate preference may be mediated by distinct clusters from those of social affiliation. Our results highlight the need to incorporate natural complexity of mating systems into behavioral

  8. Strategic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Barbara; Davies, Brent

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the nature of strategic leadership and assesses whether a framework can be established to map the dimensions of strategic leadership. In particular it establishes a model which outlines both the organizational abilities and the individual characteristics of strategic leaders.

  9. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health. PMID:21242603

  10. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  11. Acquisition and production of skilled behavior in dynamic decision-making tasks: Modeling strategic behavior in human-automation interaction: Why and aid can (and should) go unused

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Advances in computer and control technology offer the opportunity for task-offload aiding in human-machine systems. A task-offload aid (e.g., an autopilot, an intelligent assistant) can be selectively engaged by the human operator to dynamically delegate tasks to an automated system. Successful design and performance prediction in such systems requires knowledge of the factors influencing the strategy the operator develops and uses for managing interaction with the task-offload aid. A model is presented that shows how such strategies can be predicted as a function of three task context properties (frequency and duration of secondary tasks and costs of delaying secondary tasks) and three aid design properties (aid engagement and disengagement times, aid performance relative to human performance). Sensitivity analysis indicates how each of these contextual and design factors affect the optimal aid aid usage strategy and attainable system performance. The model is applied to understanding human-automation interaction in laboratory experiments on human supervisory control behavior. The laboratory task allowed subjects freedom to determine strategies for using an autopilot in a dynamic, multi-task environment. Modeling results suggested that many subjects may indeed have been acting appropriately by not using the autopilot in the way its designers intended. Although autopilot function was technically sound, this aid was not designed with due regard to the overall task context in which it was placed. These results demonstrate the need for additional research on how people may strategically manage their own resources, as well as those provided by automation, in an effort to keep workload and performance at acceptable levels.

  12. A computer-based interview to identify HIV risk behaviors and to assess patient preferences for HIV-related health states.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, G. D.; Owens, D. K.; Padian, N.; Cardinalli, A. B.; Sullivan, A. N.; Nease, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    We developed a computer-based utility assessment tool to assess the preferences of patients towards HIV-related health states and identify risk behaviors (both sexual and drug related) of the patient being interviewed. The reliability of the computer-based interview was assessed through comparison with person-to-person interviews. Our pilot study included 22 patients. Twelve of these patients were also interviewed by the research assistants in person-to-person interviews. The agreement between the person-to-person and computer-based interviews was excellent (3 discrepancies of 180 compared answers), and the majority of the patients preferred to use the computer to disclose sensitive information regarding risk behaviors. Our study suggests that assessment of patient preferences and risk factors can be performed reliably through a computer-based interview. PMID:7949919

  13. Paths to Bullying in Online Gaming: The Effects of Gender, Preference for Playing Violent Games, Hostility, and Aggressive Behavior on Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a sample of adolescent online game players and explored the relationships between their gender, preference for video games (VG), hostility, aggressive behavior, experiences of cyberbullying, and victimization. The path relationships among the variables were further validated with structure equation modeling. Among the…

  14. Strategic weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper describes the Defense Department's process for formulating its strategic weapons targeting policy and translating that policy into a nuclear war plan-the Single Integrated Operational Plan. GAO provides information on the relationship between the strategic nuclear targeting process and the determination of requirements for nuclear weapons and related delivery systems, level of civilian oversight, and categories and types of targets. These strategic nuclear weapons systems, commonly known as the triad, include land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers armed with nuclear bombs and missiles.

  15. Multi-sensory rooms: comparing effects of the Snoezelen and the Stimulus Preference environment on the behavior of adults with profound mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether Snoezelen and Stimulus Preference environments have differential effects on disruptive and pro-social behaviors in adults with profound mental retardation and autism. In N=27 adults these target behaviors were recorded for a total of 20 sessions using both multi-sensory rooms. Three comparison groups were created by diagnosis and motor respective linguistic abilities. Each client was exposed to only one multi-sensory room. Results showed that Snoezelen intervention decreased disruptive behaviors only in individuals with autism, while Stimulus Preference increased pro-social behaviors only in participants with profound mental retardation with co-occurring poor motor and linguistic abilities. Furthermore, several trend analyses of the improved behaviors were conducted throughout all sessions toward short and mid term effects of the multi-sensory room applications. These findings support both the prudence of using the Snoezelen room in individuals with developmental disabilities and the importance of using a Stimulus Preference assessment in multi-sensory environments in clients with profound mental retardation. PMID:19815373

  16. Estradiol induces region-specific inhibition of ZENK but does not affect the behavioral preference for tutored song in adult female zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Svec, Lace A.; Wade, Juli

    2009-01-01

    Female zebra finches display a preference for songs of males raised with tutors compared to those from males without tutors. To determine howthis behavioral preference may bemediated by auditory perception sites, the social behavior network, and the dopamine reward system, and whether responses of these regions are affected by estradiol, females were treated with hormone or blank implants.An auditory choice test was conducted followed by exposure to tutored or untutored song or silence to examine induction of the immediate early gene, ZENK. Birds spent significantly more time near tutored than untutored song, regardless of estrogen treatment, and estradiol significantly decreased the density of ZENK immunore-active neurons within the ventromedial hypothalamus. These results suggest that selective neural and behavioral responses can be induced by both high quality vocalizations and estradiol, although they are not necessarily correlated. PMID:19124043

  17. Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the strategic elements of an institutional plan: assessment of the external environment, auditing of institutional strengths and weaknesses, and matching of institutional strengths with external opportunities through the process of strategic goal setting. Urges community colleges to take action-oriented, dynamic, purposeful steps to shape…

  18. The Impact of Cooking Classes on Food-Related Preferences, Attitudes, and Behaviors of School-Aged Children: A Systematic Review of the Evidence, 2003–2014

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Laura; Ambroz, Teresa; Boucher, Jackie L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cooking programs have been used to promote healthful eating among people of all ages. This review assesses the evidence on childhood cooking programs and their association with changes in food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases. We included primary research articles that involved cooking education programs for children and searched reference lists for eligible articles. Studies considered for review contained a hands-on cooking intervention; had participants aged 5 to 12 years; were published in a peer-reviewed journal on or after January 1, 2003; and were written in English. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies to rate the strength of each article and assess bias. The following information was extracted from each study: study design, sample size, location, duration, intervention components, data collection methods, and outcomes. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and used cooking education to influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Programs varied in duration, evaluation methods, and outcomes of interest. Self-reported food preparation skills, dietary intake, cooking confidence, fruit and vegetable preferences, attitudes toward food and cooking, and food-related knowledge were among the outcomes measured. Program exposure ranged from 2 sessions to regular instruction over 2 years, and the effect of cooking programs on children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors varied among the reviewed studies. Conclusions Findings suggest that cooking programs may positively influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. However, because study measurements varied widely, determining best practices was difficult. Further research is

  19. Music Preferences and Family Language Background: A Computer-Supported Study of Children's Listening Behavior in the Context of Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrants are the largest national group in Germany. Nevertheless, neither in music psychology research nor in intercultural research can empirical data on the music preferences of Turkish-German primary schoolchildren in the migrational context be found. This study thus examined the music preference responses of children with Turkish…

  20. Teacher Preferences for Professional Development Delivery Models and Delivery Model Influence on Teacher Behavior in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Eve R.

    2011-01-01

    Current trends and research in education indicated that teacher learning is a crucial link to student achievement. There is a void in the research regarding teacher preferences for delivery models in professional development. Determining teacher preferences is an important component in professional development planning and the driving inquiry for…

  1. Phase Structure and Site Preference Behavior of Ternary Alloying Additions to PdTi and PtTi Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Mosca, Hugo O.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    The phasc structure and concentration dependence of the lattice parameter and energy of formation of ternary Pd-'I-X and Pt-Ti-X alloys for a large number of ternary alloying additions X (X = Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc. V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir) are investigated with an atomistic modeling approach. In addition, a detailed description of the site preference behavior of such additions showing that the elements can be grouped according to their absolute preference for a specific site, regardless of concentration, or preference for available sites in the deficient sublattice is provided.

  2. Mothers say “baby” and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Christine; Zernzach, Randall C.; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2015-01-01

    Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP) experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word “baby” depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word “baby” recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results) but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior. PMID:25859203

  3. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; ver Hoeve, Elizabeth; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2012-01-18

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats. PMID:21907226

  4. Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A dissociation between hand preference and skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Berke, Leslie; Williams, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Hand preferences were recorded for 35 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they manipulated a joystick in response to 2 computerized tasks. These preferences were then used to contrast 8 left- and 10 right-handed subjects on performance measures of hand skill. Individual hand preferences were found, but no significant population asymmetry was observed across the sample. However, the performance data reveal substantial benefits of right-handedness for joystick manipulation, as this group of monkeys mastered the 2 psychomotor tasks significantly faster than did their left-handed counterparts. The data support earlier reports of a right-hand advantage for joystick manipulation and also support the importance of distinguishing between hand preference and manual performance in research on functional asymmetries.

  5. Factors underlying the psychological and behavioral characteristics of Office of Strategic Services candidates: the assessment of men data revisited.

    PubMed

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    During World War II, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency, sought the assistance of clinical psychologists and psychiatrists to establish an assessment program for evaluating candidates for the OSS. The assessment team developed a novel and rigorous program to evaluate OSS candidates. It is described in Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS Assessment Staff, 1948). This study examines the sole remaining multivariate data matrix that includes all final ratings for a group of candidates (n = 133) assessed near the end of the assessment program. It applies the modern statistical methods of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to this rich and highly unique data set. An exploratory factor analysis solution suggested 3 factors underlie the OSS assessment staff ratings. Confirmatory factor analysis results of multiple plausible substantive models reveal that a 3-factor model provides the best fit to these data. The 3 factors are emotional/interpersonal factors (social relations, emotional stability, security), intelligence processing (effective IQ, propaganda skills, observing and reporting), and agency/surgency (motivation, energy and initiative, leadership, physical ability). These factors are discussed in terms of their potential utility for personnel selection within the intelligence community. PMID:25036728

  6. Roots of sex preference.

    PubMed

    Lee H-t; Choe, E H

    1982-12-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of not yet fully analyzed 1974 World Fertility Survey for Korea data on sex preference, and also parental gender role stereotyping and gender preference, as they relate to sex preference and fertility behavior of the individual parents of childbearing age. The data includes the mother's background and numbers of children desired. Fertility preferences reflect sociocultural, economic and psychological aspects of individual parents' habits and perceptions of the world. Attitude, which is difficult to measure, is often connected to and can predict behavior. Age, residence, educational level, and spouse's occupation are related. Sex preference for sons is affected by how many parents hope to send a son to college (75.2%), compared to those hoping to send a daughter to college (52%). Parents under 25 also prefer boys. Gender preference is the pattern of sociocultural behavior associated with the awareness of being masculine or feminine. Sex preference is the patterns arising from the biological fact of being male or female. A 1981 son preference survey covered the province of Kyongbuk, conservative in gender preference, polling 832 women, ages 15 to 49. The survey covered questions about gender associated activities, occupations and personality traits. These items were divided into 4 gender role discriminant scales, covering most and least masculine or feminine degrees within each category. Respondents with less extreme gender role stereotyping are less sex biased; extreme sex preference is closely related to the respondents' extreme gender role stereotypic traits. Korean society has conferred differential value upon gender specific work and the main criterion for the division of labor is gender, not biological sex. This contributes to a parent's sex preferential attitude, which is unlikely to change without a modification of premodern neoconfucian gender based behaviors. PMID:12264918

  7. Cocaine-conditioned place preference is predicted by previous anxiety-like behavior and is related to an increased number of neurons in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J; Castilla-Ortega, Estela

    2016-02-01

    The identification of behavioral traits that could predict an individual's susceptibility to engage in cocaine addiction is relevant for understanding and preventing this disorder, but investigations of cocaine addicts rarely allow us to determinate whether their behavioral attributes are a cause or a consequence of drug use. To study the behaviors that predict cocaine vulnerability, male C57BL/6J mice were examined in a battery of tests (the elevated plus maze, hole-board, novelty preference in the Y-Maze, episodic-like object recognition and forced swimming) prior to training in a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to assess the reinforcing value of the drug. In a second study, the anatomical basis of high and low CPP in the mouse brain was investigated by studying the number of neurons (neuronal nuclei-positive) in two addiction-related limbic regions (the medial prefrontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala) and the number of dopaminergic neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive) in the ventral tegmental area by immunohistochemistry and stereology. Correlational analyses revealed that CPP behavior was successfully predicted by anxiety-like measures in the elevated plus maze (i.e., the more anxious mice showed more preference for the cocaine-paired compartment) but not by the other behaviors analyzed. In addition, increased numbers of neurons were found in the basolateral amygdala of the high CPP mice, a key brain center for anxiety and fear responses. The results support the theory that anxiety is a relevant factor for cocaine vulnerability, and the basolateral amygdala is a potential neurobiological substrate where both anxiety and cocaine vulnerability could overlap. PMID:26523857

  8. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide disrupts maternal behavior, reduces nest odor preference in pups, and induces anxiety: studies of F1 and F2 generations.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Sandra H W; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Kirsten, Thiago B; Eluf, Bianca P; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Acenjo, Michelli K; de Melo, Rafael C; Suffredini, Ivana B; Bernardi, Maria M

    2014-09-01

    The present study analyzed the transgenerational effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) administration on gestational day 18 (GD18) of parental generation on maternal-pups interaction of F1 and F2 generations. Also the long term behavioral effects were observed in male of F2 generation. In F1 generation, the reproductive performance, maternal behavior, maternal aggressive behavior, and general activity in the open field in adulthood were analyzed. In F2 generation, body weight at birth and at weaning, nest odor preference, and general activity in the open field and elevated plus maze in adulthood were assessed. Compared to controls, results showed that in the F1 generation, prenatal LPS exposure (1) increased the latency to full maternal behavior, but all of the females grouped the pups and presented full maternal behavior, (2) reduced the total time boxing and fighting, increased the frequency of retrieving the pups, and increased the number of bites, and (3) did not affect reproductive performance or general activity. In F2 generation, compared with controls, the LPS group exhibited (1) a decrease in body weight at weaning, (2) a decrease in nest odor preference, (3) a decrease in the percentage of time spent in the open arms, a decrease in the percentage of time spent in the center, and an increase in the time spent in the closed arms in the elevated plus maze, and (Huang et al.) no affect behavior in the open field. Prenatal LPS exposure improved maternal care in the F1 generation with regard to nursing and pup survival but did not improve the motivational parameters of maternal behavior likely because of a reduction of maternal stimulation by the pups. In the F2 generation, the reduction of nest odor preference in the pups suggests a less maternal recognition. In adulthood, these rats exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior. These data did not result from motor alterations because rats in both the F1 and F2 generations did not show alterations in

  9. Application of the multi-mechanism deformation model for three-dimensional simulations of salt : behavior for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bean, James E.

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in 62 solution-mined caverns in salt domes located in Texas and Louisiana. Historically, three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the behavior of the caverns have been performed using a power law creep model. Using this method, and calibrating the creep coefficient to field data such as cavern closure and surface subsidence, has produced varying degrees of agreement with observed phenomena. However, as new salt dome locations are considered for oil storage facilities, pre-construction geomechanical analyses are required that need site-specific parameters developed from laboratory data obtained from core samples. The multi-mechanism deformation (M-D) model is a rigorous mathematical description of both transient and steady-state creep phenomena. Recent enhancements to the numerical integration algorithm within the model have created a more numerically stable implementation of the M-D model. This report presents computational analyses to compare the results of predictions of the geomechanical behavior at the West Hackberry SPR site using both models. The recently-published results using the power law creep model produced excellent agreement with an extensive set of field data. The M-D model results show similar agreement using parameters developed directly from laboratory data. It is also used to predict the behavior for the construction and operation of oil storage caverns at a new site, to identify potential problems before a final cavern layout is designed.

  10. Health Behavior and Behavioral Economics: Economic Preferences and Physical Activity Stages of Change in a Low-Income African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. Design A cross-sectional, community-based study. Setting A low-income, urban, African American neighborhood. Subjects 169 adults Measures Self-reported physical activity stages of change—precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured BMI and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Analysis Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Results Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (OR=1.31, p<0.05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR=1.68, p<0.01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g. from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each 1 unit increase in financial risk tolerance or 1 unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Conclusions Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples. PMID:23448410

  11. The Speaking Section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT): Test-Takers' Reported Strategic Behaviors. TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Huang, Li-Shih; Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study responds to the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) research agenda concerning the need to understand the processes and knowledge that test-takers utilize. Specifically, it investigates the strategic behaviors test-takers reported using when taking the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT). It also investigates…

  12. Characterization of greenbug feeding behavior and aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) host preference in relation to resistant and susceptible tetraploid switchgrass populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two choice studies were performed to evaluate geenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes), preference for two tetraploid switchgrass populations, Summer and Kanlow, and one experimental hybrid, KxS, derived by crossing Kanlow (male) x Summer (female) plan...

  13. Effects of the novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on fear-potentiated startle and alcohol-seeking behaviors in mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Matthew S.; Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Mlinac, Nate S.; Barker, Eric L.; Chester, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol-use disorders often occur together with anxiety disorders in humans which may be partly due to common inherited genetic factors. Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of individuals with anxiety and/or alcohol-use disorders. Objectives The present study assessed the effects of a novel endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor, LY2183240, on anxiety- and alcohol-seeking behaviors in a unique animal model that may represent increased genetic risk to develop comorbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders in humans. Mice selectively bred for high alcohol preference (HAP) show greater fear-potentiated startle (FPS) than mice selectively bred for low alcohol preference (LAP). We examined the effects of LY2183240 on the expression of FPS in HAP and LAP mice and on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and limited-access alcohol drinking behavior in HAP mice. Results Repeated administration of LY2183240 (30 mg/kg) reduced the expression of FPS in HAP but not LAP mice when given prior to a second FPS test 48 h after fear conditioning. Both the 10 and 30 mg/kg doses of LY2183240 enhanced the expression of alcohol-induced CPP and this effect persisted in the absence of the drug. LY2183240 did not alter limited-access alcohol drinking behavior, unconditioned startle responding, or locomotor activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that ECS modulation influences both conditioned fear and conditioned alcohol reward behavior. LY2183240 may be an effective pharmacotherapy for individuals with anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, but may not be appropriate for individuals with co-morbid anxiety and alcohol-use disorders. PMID:20838777

  14. Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivelo, Frank Robert

    1992-01-01

    Describes the future environment facing community colleges, addressing the service population, demands for accountability and quality, and the need for currency. Identifies seven areas a strategic plan should address (e.g., mission, student success, instructional quality, resource development, diversity, operational efficiency, and community…

  15. Strategic Staffing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    Business and industry leaders do not flinch at the idea of placing top talent in struggling departments and divisions. This is not always the case in public education. The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools made a bold statement to its community in its strategic plan by identifying two key reform levers--(1) an effective principal leading each school;…

  16. Final Draft Strategic Marketing Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-02-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has developed a marketing plan to define how BPA can be viable and competitive in the future, a result important to BPA`s customers and constituents. The Marketing Plan represents the preferred customer outcomes, marketplace achievements, and competitive advantage required to accomplish the Vision and the Strategic Business Objectives of the agency. The Marketing Plan contributes to successful implementation of BPA`s Strategic Business Objectives (SBOs) by providing common guidance to organizations and activities throughout the agency responsible for (1) planning, constructing, operating, and maintaining the Federal Columbia River Power System; (2) conducting business with BPA`s customers; and (3) providing required internal support services.

  17. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans - Implementing Sustainability: The Institutional-Behavioral Dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Sanquist, Tom; Wolfe, Amy K.; Diamond, Rick; Payne, Christopher; Dion, Jerry

    2013-06-01

    This document is part of a larger, programmatic effort to assist federal agencies in taking action and changing their institutions to achieve and maintain federal sustainability goals, while meeting their mission goals. FEMP is developing guidance for federal agency efforts to enable institutional behavior change for sustainability, and for making sustainability “business as usual.” The driving requirement for this change is Executive Order (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. FEMP emphasizes strategies for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy utilization as critical components of attaining sustainability, and promotes additional non-energy action pathways contained in EO 13514. This report contributes to the larger goal by laying out the conceptual and evidentiary underpinnings of guidance to federal agencies. Conceptual frameworks focus and organize the development of guidance. We outline a series of progressively refined conceptual frameworks, including a multi-layer approach, key steps in sustainability implementation, a process view of specific approaches to institutional change, the agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans (SSPPs), and concepts related to context-specific rules, roles and tools for sustainability. Additionally, we tap pertinent bodies of literature in drawing eight evidence-based principles for behavior change. These principles are important foundations upon which to build in selecting strategies to effect change in organizations. Taken together, this report presents a suite of components that inform the training materials, presentations, web site, and other products that provide guidance to federal agencies.

  18. High versus low fat/sugar food affects the behavioral, but not the cortisol response of marmoset monkeys in a conditioned-place-preference task.

    PubMed

    Duarte, R B M; Patrono, E; Borges, A C; Tomaz, C; Ventura, R; Gasbarri, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Barros, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with chocolate chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence. PMID:25447426

  19. Maternal and littermate deprivation disrupts maternal behavior and social-learning of food preference in adulthood: tactile stimulation, nest odor, and social rearing prevent these effects.

    PubMed

    Melo, Angel I; Lovic, Vedran; Gonzalez, Andrea; Madden, Melissa; Sinopoli, Katia; Fleming, Alison S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal and littermate (social) separation, through artificial rearing (AR), disrupts the development of subsequent maternal behavior and social learning in rats. The addition of maternal-licking-like stimulation during AR, partially reverses some of these effects. However, little is know about the role of social stimuli from littermates and nest odors during the preweaning period, in the development of the adult maternal behavior and social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer- and peer-and-odor rearing on the development of maternal behavior and social learning in rats. Female pups were reared with mothers (mother reared-MR) or without mothers (AR) from postnatal day (PND) 3. AR rats received three different treatments: (1) AR-CONTROL group received minimal tactile stimulation, (2) AR-ODOR females received exposure to maternal nest material inside the AR-isolation-cup environment, (3) AR-SOCIAL group was reared in the cup with maternal nest material and a conspecific of the same-age and same-sex and received additional tactile stimulation. MR females were reared by their mothers in the nest and with conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were tested for maternal behavior towards their own pups and in a social learning task. Results confirm our previous report that AR impairs performance of maternal behavior and the development of a social food preference. Furthermore, social cues from a littermate, in combination with tactile stimulation and the nest odor, reversed the negative effects of complete isolation (AR-CONTROL) on some of the above behaviors. Exposure to the odor alone also had effects on some of these olfactory-mediated behaviors. These studies indicate that social stimulation from littermates during the preweaning period, in combination with odor from the nest and tactile stimulation, contributes to the development of affiliative behaviors. PMID:16568415

  20. Effect of ASF (a Compound of Traditional Chinese Medicine) on Behavioral Sensitization Induced by Ethanol and Conditioned Place Preference in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Da-chao; Li, Yi-bei; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Lin, Wu; Jia, Ling-yan; Zhong, Sen

    2014-01-01

    ASF composed by semen and epimedium herbal is a traditional plant compound that is widely used in the treatment of insomnia. Studies have shown that saponins and flavonoids contained in semen can significantly decrease the content of excitatory neurotransmitter Glu in mice. And the total flavone of YinYangHuo can increase the release of GABA in the anterior periventricular system of rat and increase the affinity of GABA for the receptors GABAA. It can be inferred that their synergism may have effect on the neurotransmitter that causes behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference in experimental animals and affects their drinking behaviors, which is the starting point of this research. The present study found that ASF can inhibit development and expression of behavioral sensitization induced by ethanol and the development of CPP in mice. We demonstrate the inhibition of ASF on behavioral sensitization partly due to its effect on the mesolimbic neurotransmitter system, including decreasing level of DA and Glu and increasing the content of GABA. It suggested that the ASF may have pharmacological effects in the treatment of alcohol addiction. PMID:25530778

  1. Maternal nicotine exposure during lactation alters food preference, anxiety-like behavior and the brain dopaminergic reward system in the adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Younes-Rapozo, V; Santos-Silva, A P; Lotufo, B M; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-10-01

    The mesolimbic reward pathway is activated by drugs of abuse and palatable food, causing a sense of pleasure, which promotes further consumption of these substances. Children whose parents smoke are more vulnerable to present addictive-like behavior to drugs and food.We evaluated the association between maternal nicotine exposure during lactation with changes in feeding, behavior and in the dopaminergic reward system. On postnatal day (PN) 2,Wistar rat dams were implanted with minipumps releasing nicotine (N; 6 mg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline (C) for 14 days. On PN150 and PN160, offspring were divided into 4 groups for a food challenge: N and C that received standard chow(SC); and N and C that could freely self-select (SSD) between high-fat and high-sugar diets (HFD and HSD, respectively). Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) arena on PN152–153. On PN170, offspring were euthanized for central dopaminergic analysis. SSD animals showed an increased food intake compared to SC ones and a preference for HFD. However, N-SSD animals consumed relatively more HSD than C-SSD ones. Regarding behavior, N animals showed an increase in the time spent in the EPM center and a reduction in relative activity in the OF center. N offspring presented lower dopamine receptor (D2R) and transporter (DAT) contents in the nucleus accumbens, and lower D2R in the arcuate nucleus. Postnatal exposure to nicotine increases preference for sugar and anxiety levels in the adult progeny possibly due to a decrease in dopaminergic action in the nucleus accumbens and arcuate nucleus. PMID:26048299

  2. When does "economic man" dominate social behavior?

    PubMed

    Camerer, Colin F; Fehr, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    The canonical model in economics considers people to be rational and self-regarding. However, much evidence challenges this view, raising the question of when "Economic Man" dominates the outcome of social interactions, and when bounded rationality or other-regarding preferences dominate. Here we show that strategic incentives are the key to answering this question. A minority of self-regarding individuals can trigger a "noncooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for the majority of other-regarding individuals to mimic the minority's behavior. Likewise, a minority of other-regarding individuals can generate a "cooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for a majority of self-regarding people to behave cooperatively. Similarly, in strategic games, aggregate outcomes can be either far from or close to Nash equilibrium if players with high degrees of strategic thinking mimic or erase the effects of others who do very little strategic thinking. Recently developed theories of other-regarding preferences and bounded rationality explain these findings and provide better predictions of actual aggregate behavior than does traditional economic theory. PMID:16400140

  3. The Varied Uses of Conditioned Place Preference in Behavioral Neuroscience Research: An Investigation of Alcohol Administration in Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Place conditioning procedures have been used to study human addiction to alcohol for the past several years. This experimental resource has been utilized successfully due to the fact that investigators can carefully manipulate the experimental design in order to explore specific hypotheses. Only three choices exist regarding animal response to place conditioning: aversion, preference, or no change. This review provides an in-depth analysis of five variables commonly adjusted or changed in place conditioning experiments with ethanol. These include: apparatus design, administration methods, choice of model organism, age of model organism, and model paradigms. It is suggested that the two-chamber design, the intragastric administration, the mouse model, the adolescent age group, and the pre-exposure to stress paradigm are the best current options available in place conditioning experiments with ethanol. The basis for evaluation used throughout this review is that investigators should adjust the variables employed in place conditioning experiments in a manner that most accurately represents and models complex human addiction to alcohol.

  4. PC1, a non-peptide PKR1-preferring antagonist, reduces pain behavior and spinal neuronal sensitization in neuropathic mice.

    PubMed

    Guida, F; Lattanzi, R; Boccella, S; Maftei, D; Romano, R; Marconi, V; Balboni, G; Salvadori, S; Scafuro, M A; de Novellis, V; Negri, L; Maione, S; Luongo, L

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is characterized by abnormal pain responses triggered by the release of several mediators and neuronal hyperexcitability at the spinal cord level. Emerging evidence indicates that the enhanced activity of dorsal horn neurons requires communication with glia and microglia, cells that are physiologically involved in neuronal wellbeing. Prokineticins (PKs), which include PK1 and PK2, represent a novel family of chemokines characterized by a unique structural motif comprising five disulfide bonds. They are expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system. PKs bind two G protein coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2, and participate in the regulation of several biological processes, including pain sensation. This study aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of PC1, a non-peptide PKR1-preferring antagonist, in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. To do this, we assessed the activity of spinal cord nociceptive neurons as well as astrocyte and microglia phenotypes after repeated administration of PC1 in vivo. PC1 treatment strongly delayed the development of thermal hyperalgesia and tactile and mechanical allodynia. It also reduced spinal microglial and glial activation 8 days post injury in spared nerve injury (SNI) mice. Neuropathic mice showed an increased level of PK2 protein in the spinal cord, mostly in astrocytes. PC1 treatment completely reversed the increased responsiveness to mechanical stimuli, the decreased threshold of neuronal activation, and the increased spontaneous activity that were observed in nociceptive specific (NS) neurons of SNI mice. PMID:25434589

  5. Differences in cocaine-induced place preference persistence, locomotion and social behaviors between C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Jian-Li; WANG, Bei; CHEN, Wen

    2014-01-01

    C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice display significant differences in sociability and response to drugs, but the phenotypic variability of their susceptibility to cocaine is still not well known. In this study, the differences between these two mice strains in the persistence of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), as well as the locomotion and social behaviors after the 24-hour withdrawal from a four-day cocaine (20 mg/kg/day) administration were investigated. The results showed that the cocaine-induced CPP persisted over two weeks in C57BL/6J mice, while it diminished within one week among BALB/cJ mice. After 24-hours of cocaine withdrawal, high levels of locomotion as well as low levels of social interaction and aggressive behavior were found in C57BL/6J mice, but no significant changes were found in BALB/cJ mice, indicating that cocaine-induced CPP persistence, locomotion and social behavior are not consistent between these two strains, and that overall C57BL/6J mice are more susceptible to cocaine than BALB/cJ mice at the tested doses. PMID:25297083

  6. Brain regional and adrenal monoamine concentrations and behavioral responses to stress in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Korpi, E R; Sinclair, J D; Kaheinen, P; Viitamaa, T; Hellevuo, K; Kiianmaa, K

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of monoamines, precursors and metabolites in various brain regions and the levels of catecholamines in the adrenal glands were determined from naive rats of the AA and ANA lines, and from ones immediately after an escapable shock test. The brain determinations were made with a new step-gradient ion-pair elution method on a reversed phase column and coulometric detection. Several significant differences were observed in the amine concentrations, largely confirming and extending the findings made before the genetic revitalization of the lines: in particular, the AAs, unlike other alcohol-preferring rodents, had higher 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations. The AA rats tended to have smaller changes than the ANAs in brain aminergic systems and had significantly less change in adrenal epinephrine and dopamine levels after the shock test. The AAs were consistently found to be less active than ANAs in this shock test and in a warm-water swim test, but whether this was a cause or an effect of their brain and adrenal changes could not be determined. Our behavioral results might suggest a reduced reaction of the alcohol-preferring rats to aversive stimulation. PMID:3219191

  7. A qualitative assessment of the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of women in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michelle S.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in Ghana. Despite the availability of cervical cancer screening in healthcare facilities throughout the country, less than 4% of Ghanaian women seek preventive cervical cancer screenings regularly. There is a lack of culturally relevant cervical cancer education material available in Ghana. The aims of this study were to assess the social cultural factors that influence cervical cancer screening behaviors and the health communication preferences of Ghanaian women. A focus group guide based on the constructs of the PEN-3 model was used to conduct six focus groups that were stratified by educational attainment. Thirty-four women participated in the study. The qualitative data revealed that most participants were not aware of cervical cancer or cervical cancer screening. However, many of the participants were willing to seek screening if they knew more about it. The most common sources of health information were television, radio, friends, and family. And the participants preferred inspirational cervical cancer screening messages that would be delivered by a doctor and a cancer survivor. PMID:24488557

  8. A selective D3 receptor antagonist YQA14 attenuates methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Song, Rui; Chen, Ying; Yang, Ri-fang; Wu, Ning; Su, Rui-bin; Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We have reported that a selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist YQA14 attenuates cocaine reward and relapse to drug-seeking in mice. In the present study, we investigated whether YQA14 could inhibit methamphetamine (METH)-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. Methods: Locomotor activity was monitored in mice treated with METH (1 mg/kg, ip) daily on d 4–13, followed by a challenge with METH (0.5 mg/kg) on d 21. CPP was examined in mice that were administered METH (1 mg/kg) or saline alternately on each other day for 8 days (METH conditioning). YQA14 was injected intraperitoneally 20 min prior to METH or saline. Results: Both repetitive (daily on d 4–13) and a single injection (on the day of challenge) of YQA14 (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the acquisition and expression of METH-induced locomotor sensitization. However, repetitive injection of YQA14 (daily during the METH conditioning) did not alter the acquisition of METH-induced CPP, whereas a single injection of YQA14 (prior to CPP test) dose-dependently attenuated the expression of METH-induced CPP. In addition, the repetitive injection of YQA14 dose-dependently facilitated the extinction and decreased the reinstatement of METH-induced CPP. Conclusion: Brain D3 receptors are critically involved in the reward and psychomotor-stimulating effects of METH. Thus, YQA14 deserves further study as a potential medication for METH addiction. PMID:26687935

  9. Nonlinear Dynamical Behavior in BS Evolution Model Based on Small-World Network Added with Nonlinear Preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Yue; Yang, Qiu-Ying; Chen, Tian-Lun

    2007-07-01

    We introduce a modified small-world network adding new links with nonlinearly preferential connection instead of adding randomly, then we apply Bak-Sneppen (BS) evolution model on this network. We study several important structural properties of our network such as the distribution of link-degree, the maximum link-degree, and the length of the shortest path. We further argue several dynamical characteristics of the model such as the important critical value fc, the f0 avalanche, and the mutating condition, and find that those characteristics show particular behaviors.

  10. Strategic Planning: What's so Strategic about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Bart

    2005-01-01

    The words "strategic" and "planning" used together can lead to confusion unless one spent the early years of his career in never-ending, team-oriented, corporate training sessions. Doesn't "strategic" have something to do with extremely accurate bombing or a defensive missile system or Star Wars or something? Don't "strategic" and "planning" both…

  11. The Effect of a Depth Gradient on the Mating Behavior, Oviposition Site Preference, and Embryo Production in the Zebrafish, Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Anna K.; White, Richard; Houvras, Yariv; Burke, Christopher; Pugach, Emily; Baker, Barry; Gilbert, Rharaka; Look, A. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Captive zebrafish (Danio rerio) exhibit a limited repertoire of mating behaviors, likely due to the somewhat unnatural environment of aquaria. Observations in their natural habitat led us to believe that a depth gradient within the mating setup would positively affect fish mating. By tilting the tank to produce a depth gradient, we observed novel behaviors along with a preference for oviposition in the shallow area. Although we did not see an increase in the likelihood of a pair of fish to mate, we did see an increase in the embryo output in both adults and juveniles. In the adults, tilting led to a significant increase in embryo production (436 ± 35 tilted vs. 362 ± 34 untilted; p < 0.05). A similar effect was seen in juvenile fish as they progressed through sexual maturity. These results suggest that tilting of mating cages in the laboratory setting will lead to demonstrable improvements in embryo production for zebrafish researchers, and highlights the possibility of other manipulations to increase fecundity. PMID:19133832

  12. Glycogen is a preferred glutamate precursor during learning in 1-day-old chick: biochemical and behavioral evidence.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Marie E; Lloyd, Hilary G E; Santa, Thomas; Hertz, Leif

    2007-11-15

    Bead discrimination training in chicks sets in motion a tightly timed series of biochemical events, including glutamate release, increase in forebrain level of glutamate and utilization of glycogen and glucose. Inhibition of glycogen breakdown by the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB) around the time of training abolishes the increase in glutamate 5 min posttraining in the left hemisphere, in spite of uninhibited glucose metabolism. It also reduces the contents of glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate in the right hemisphere. Behavioral evidence supports the conclusion that glucose breakdown serves to provide energy, whereas glycogen acts as a substrate for glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate formation, requiring both pyruvate dehydrogenation to acetyl coenzyme A and pyruvate carboxylation in astrocytes. Inhibition of memory consolidation caused by DAB or 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of glucose phosphorylation without effect on glycogen metabolism, was challenged by intracerebral administration of acetate, aspartate, glutamine, lactate or glucose. DAB-mediated memory inhibition was successfully challenged by administration at 0 or 20 min posttraining of acetate (an astrocyte-specific acetyl CoA precursor) together with aspartate, substituting for pyruvate carboxylation, or of glutamine at 0-2.5 or 30 min posttraining. 2-DG-mediated memory impairment was not challenged by acetate with or without aspartate at 0 time but was challenged by acetate without aspartate at 20 min. Lactate, a substrate for both dehydrogenation and pyruvate carboxylation challenged both DAB and 2-DG. Doses of DAB and 2-DG which, on their own were subeffective, were not additive, further supporting the existence of one pathway using glucose and another using glycogen. PMID:17455305

  13. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  14. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an “inverted V” dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  15. Teacher Preferences for Various Positive Reinforcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Rose, Malcolm I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between applied behavioral training and reinforcement preferences of classroom teachers. Data obtained from the Positive Reinforcement Observation Schedule, a paired comparison task, indicated minimal differential reinforcement preferences for classroom teachers with no training, limited training, or extensive…

  16. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Evelyn L.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID

  17. Behavioral attitudes and preferences in cooking practices with traditional open-fire stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: implications for improved cookstove interventions.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Evelyn L; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth M; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M; Miranda, J Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20-49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a "one size fits all" improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID:25286166

  18. Squirrel Foraging Preferences: Gone Nuts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2007-01-01

    This field exercise examines the feeding preferences of Gray Squirrels ("Sciurus carolinensis"). Students present squirrels with a variety of food types in a cafeteria-style arrangement in order to test hypotheses about foraging preferences. This exercise, which is appropriate for introductory biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes, is…

  19. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary. PMID:26549651

  20. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Preference and Behavioral Response to Animated Images of Conspecifics Altered in Their Color, Aspect Ratio, and Swimming Depth

    PubMed Central

    Polverino, Giovanni; Liao, Jian Cong; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world’s hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species. PMID:23342131

  1. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior.

    PubMed

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary. PMID:26549651

  2. Hand Preference for Writing and Associations with Selected Demographic and Behavioral Variables in 255,100 Subjects: The BBC Internet Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael; Reimers, Stian; Manning, John T.

    2006-01-01

    In an Internet study unrelated to handedness, 134,317 female and 120,783 male participants answered a graded question as to which hand they preferred for writing. This allowed determination of hand preference patterns across 7 ethnic groups. Sex differences in left-handedness were found in 4 ethnic groups, favoring males, while no significant sex…

  3. NASA Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The aforementioned strategic decisions and the overarching direction for America's aeronautics and space program are addressed in the Strategic Plan. Our Strategic Plan is critical to our ability to meet the challenges of this new era and deliver a vibrant aeronautics and space program that strengthens and inspires the Nation. The Plan is our top-level strategy.

  4. Strategic Leadership Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Brent; Davies, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will address the challenge of how strategic leadership can be defined and articulated to provide a framework for developing a strategically focused school drawing on a NCSL research project. The paper is structured into three main parts. Part one outlines the elements that comprise a strategically focused school, develops an…

  5. Strategic orientations of small multihospital systems.

    PubMed Central

    Luke, R D; Begun, J W

    1988-01-01

    Strategic behaviors of organizations can be classified along two dimensions--growth orientations, or patterns of evolution over time, and action orientations, or strategic aggressiveness in undertaking a particular growth orientation. We create measures of growth and action orientations for small multihospital systems and test the validity of the growth and action orientation typologies, using data from a sample of small multihospital systems. Growth and action orientations do appear to exist independently of each other, and they are related to the ownership status of the systems. Not-for-profit and church-other systems exhibit similar strategic orientations, unlike those of Catholic and investor-owned systems. PMID:3060448

  6. Strategic orientations of small multihospital systems.

    PubMed

    Luke, R D; Begun, J W

    1988-12-01

    Strategic behaviors of organizations can be classified along two dimensions--growth orientations, or patterns of evolution over time, and action orientations, or strategic aggressiveness in undertaking a particular growth orientation. We create measures of growth and action orientations for small multihospital systems and test the validity of the growth and action orientation typologies, using data from a sample of small multihospital systems. Growth and action orientations do appear to exist independently of each other, and they are related to the ownership status of the systems. Not-for-profit and church-other systems exhibit similar strategic orientations, unlike those of Catholic and investor-owned systems. PMID:3060448

  7. Self-Presentation, Desired Partner Characteristics, and Sexual Behavior Preferences in Online Personal Advertisements of Men Seeking Non-Gay-Identified Men

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board. Ads by men who explicitly desired encounters with NGI men were compared with those by men who did not indicate this preference in potential partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that NGI-seeking men had significantly increased odds of identifying as discreet (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.82), seeking a discreet encounter (AOR = 4.68), seeking a masculine partner (AOR = 2.18), being willing to host (AOR = 2.77), as well as seeking oral-receptive sex (AOR = 2.69), unprotected oral sex (AOR = 6.76), and anal-receptive sex (AOR = 2.18). Further, NGI-seeking ads were more likely to not mention condom use or safer sex practices (AOR = 4.13) and were less likely to indicate a desire for oral-insertive sex (AOR = 0.34) and rimming (AOR = 0.21). Findings suggest that some men may deliberately present themselves in ways that they perceive as being attractive to NGI men, and have research implications for NGI MSM, their partners, and the risk outcomes of these online ads. PMID:25750927

  8. Stress and opioids: role of opioids in modulating stress-related behavior and effect of stress on morphine conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-04-01

    Research studies have defined the important role of endogenous opioids in modulating stress-associated behavior. The release of β-endorphins in the amygdala in response to stress helps to cope with a stressor by inhibiting the over-activation of HPA axis. Administration of mu opioid agonists reduces the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following a traumatic event by inhibiting fear-related memory consolidation. Similarly, the release of endogenous enkephalin and nociceptin in the basolateral amygdala and the nucleus accumbens tends to produce the anti-stress effects. An increase in dynorphin levels during prolonged exposure to stress may produce learned helplessness, dysphoria and depression. Stress also influences morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) depending upon the intensity and duration of the stressor. Acute stress inhibits morphine CPP, while chronic stress potentiates CPP. The development of dysphoria due to increased dynorphin levels may contribute to chronic stress-induced potentiation of morphine CPP. The activation of ERK/cyclic AMP responsive element-binding (CREB) signaling in the mesocorticolimbic area, glucocorticoid receptors in the basolateral amygdala, and norepinephrine and galanin system in the nucleus accumbens may decrease the acute stress-induced inhibition of morphine CPP. The increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and augmentation of GABAergic transmission in the median prefrontal cortex may contribute in potentiating morphine CPP. Stress exposure reinstates the extinct morphine CPP by activating the orexin receptors in the nucleus accumbens, decreasing the oxytocin levels in the lateral septum and amygdala, and altering the GABAergic transmission (activation of GABAA and inactivation of GABAB receptors). The present review describes these varied interactions between opioids and stress along with the possible mechanism. PMID:25636946

  9. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  10. Strategic groups, performance, and strategic response in the nursing home industry.

    PubMed Central

    Zinn, J S; Aaronson, W E; Rosko, M D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examines the effect of strategic group membership on nursing home performance and strategic behavior. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Data from the 1987 Medicare and Medicaid Automated Certification Survey were combined with data from the 1987 and 1989 Pennsylvania Long Term Care Facility Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 383 Pennsylvania nursing homes. STUDY DESIGN. Cluster analysis was used to place the 383 nursing homes into strategic groups on the basis of variables measuring scope and resource deployment. Performance was measured by indicators of the quality of nursing home care (rates of pressure ulcers, catheterization, and restraint usage) and efficiency in services provision. Changes in Medicare participation after passage of the 1988 Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (MCCA) measured strategic behavior. MANOVA and Turkey HSD post hoc means tests determined if significant differences were associated with strategic group membership. FINDINGS. Cluster analysis produced an optimal seven-group solution. Differences in group means were significant for the clustering, performance, and conduct variables (p < .0001). Strategic groups characterized by facilities providing a continuum of care services had the best patient care outcomes. The most efficient groups were characterized by facilities with high Medicare census. While all strategic groups increased Medicare census following passage of the MCCA, those dominated by for-profits had the greatest increases. CONCLUSIONS. Our analysis demonstrates that strategic orientation influences nursing home response to regulatory initiatives, a factor that should be recognized in policy formation directed at nursing home reform. PMID:8005789

  11. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regenwetter, Michel

    2009-07-01

    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so? PMID:26158988

  12. Children’s strategic theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people’s behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children’s behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children’s behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children’s behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships. PMID:25197065

  13. Strategic Analysis Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Reeves, J. D.; Stromgren, Chel; Andraschko, Mark R.; Merrill, R. Gabe

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program employs a strategic analysis methodology in providing an integrated analysis capability of Lunar exploration scenarios and to support strategic decision-making regarding those scenarios. The strategic analysis methodology integrates the assessment of the major contributors to strategic objective satisfaction performance, affordability, and risk and captures the linkages and feedbacks between all three components. Strategic analysis supports strategic decision making by senior management through comparable analysis of alternative strategies, provision of a consistent set of high level value metrics, and the enabling of cost-benefit analysis. The tools developed to implement the strategic analysis methodology are not element design and sizing tools. Rather, these models evaluate strategic performance using predefined elements, imported into a library from expert-driven design/sizing tools or expert analysis. Specific components of the strategic analysis tool set include scenario definition, requirements generation, mission manifesting, scenario lifecycle costing, crew time analysis, objective satisfaction benefit, risk analysis, and probabilistic evaluation. Results from all components of strategic analysis are evaluated a set of pre-defined figures of merit (FOMs). These FOMs capture the high-level strategic characteristics of all scenarios and facilitate direct comparison of options. The strategic analysis methodology that is described in this paper has previously been applied to the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs and is now being used to support the development of the baseline Constellation Program lunar architecture. This paper will present an overview of the strategic analysis methodology and will present sample results from the application of the strategic analysis methodology to the Constellation Program lunar architecture.

  14. Review: Thermal preference in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Michael E.; Wang, George; Garrity, Paul A.; Huey, Raymond B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental temperature strongly affects physiology of ectotherms. Small ectotherms, like Drosophila, cannot endogenously regulate body temperature so must rely on behavior to maintain body temperature within a physiologically permissive range. Here we review what is known about Drosophila thermal preference. Work on thermal behavior in this group is particularly exciting because it provides the opportunity to connect genes to neuromolecular mechanisms to behavior to fitness in the wild. PMID:20161211

  15. Precocious hand use preference in reach-to-eat behavior versus manual construction in 1- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Arnold, Benjamin; Whishaw, Ian Q; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

    2013-12-01

    The variation in hand use as a function of task and developmental age poses a problem for understanding how and when "handedness," preferred use of one hand, develops. The present cross-section study is the first to contrast hand preference use for the natural and frequently used reach-to-eat movement with a constructional task that requires a very similar reach-to-grasp movement. Thirty children between the ages of 1 and 3 years completed an eating task, in which they grasped small food items (Cheerios™ or Froot Loops™) that they brought to the mouth for eating. Thirty children between the ages of 3 and 5 years completed the construction task, in which they grasped LEGO® pieces to construct 3D models. Hand use preference for grasping in the eating and construction tasks was calculated by comparing the percentage of grasps made by the right hand and by the left hand. There were two main findings: First, right hand preference for grasping in the eating task is present as early as 1 year of age, whereas right hand preference for grasping in the construction task does not develop until 4 years of age. Second, right hand preference for grasping is greater in the eating than in the construction task. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that a consideration for task constraints (e.g., unimanual vs. bimanual; eating vs. construction; natural vs. praxic) should be incorporated into the experimental design when measuring hand use in children. PMID:23129422

  16. Son preference in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Haughton, J; Haughton, D

    1995-01-01

    This article assesses the strength of son preference in Vietnam, as reflected in fertility behavior. It formulates and estimates a proportional hazards model applied to birth intervals, and a contraceptive prevalence model, using household survey data from 2,636 ever-married women aged 15-49 with at least one living child who were interviewed for the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-1993. Son preference is found to be strong by world standards, but nevertheless, it has a minor effect on fertility; in its absence, the total fertility rate would fall by roughly 10 percent from the current level of about 3.2 children per woman of reproductive age. PMID:8826072

  17. One more time: what do we mean by strategic management?

    PubMed

    Smith, D P

    1987-05-01

    Health care executives and planners struggling to improve their organizations' ability to cope with the pace of change in today's hospital environment are advised to consider the concepts and practices of strategic management. This approach has been prescribed in other industries as a remedy to the failure of the strategic planning of the 1970s to guide American businesses in the past decade's unstable business environment successfully. Strategic management expands the domain of strategic planning beyond the traditional focus on technical, externally oriented problem solving. Strategically managed companies have excelled at execution of strategy because they are adept at building new capabilities consistent with strategy, heed behavioral aspects of planning and change, and skillfully blend the roles of line managers and planning staff. While strategically managed hospitals or hospital systems are few and far between, the nature and pace of change in the environment are propelling more in the direction of strategic management. PMID:10301616

  18. Strategic planning to drive integrated continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    McChesney, H

    1995-11-01

    This case study describes how one company involved multiple levels of all functions to develop a comprehensive strategic plan that drives the continuous improvement initiative. The process involves clearly defining a mission, assessing the current situation, developing goals designed to achieve a preferred future status, and establishing the specific tactics to move toward that preferred future. The plan then drives integrated efforts throughout the organization to help manage the business of providing the highest quality products and services to meet current and anticipated customer requirements. PMID:10152530

  19. Sandia Strategic Plan 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Sandia embarked on its first exercise in corporate strategic planning during the winter of 1989. The results of that effort were disseminated with the publication of Strategic Plan 1990. Four years later Sandia conducted their second major planning effort and published Strategic Plan 1994. Sandia`s 1994 planning effort linked very clearly to the Department of Energy`s first strategic plan, Fueling a Competitive Economy. It benefited as well from the leadership of Lockheed Martin Corporation, the management and operating contractor. Lockheed Martin`s corporate success is founded on visionary strategic planning and annual operational planning driven by customer requirements and technology opportunities. In 1996 Sandia conducted another major planning effort that resulted in the development of eight long-term Strategic Objectives. Strategic Plan 1997 differs from its predecessors in that the robust elements of previous efforts have been integrated into one comprehensive body. The changes implemented so far have helped establish a living strategic plan with a stronger business focus and with clear deployment throughout Sandia. The concept of a personal line of sight for all employees to this strategic plan and its objectives, goals, and annual milestones is becoming a reality.

  20. Definitions of Tactical and Strategic: An Informal Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    Seventeen subject matter experts defined tactical and strategic within the aviation domain. They provided five verbs and a sentence describing both behaviors. The verbs for strategic behavior were Plan, Think, Arrange, Formulate, Intend, Devise, Anticipate, and Order. The verbs for tactical behavior were Act, Fly, Respond, Do, Avoid, Control, React, and Move. Verbs that were common to both were Get Information, Navigate, Know, Execute, Manage, Perceive, Understand, Direct, Concentrate, and Point. The responses highlight the difference between planning (strategic) and carrying out those plans (tactical). Tactical verbs are more action-oriented that change the state of the world after they have been accomplished. Strategic verbs are more prescriptive in that they do not change the state of the world but offer a procedure or program for changing the world. The pilot is in a tactical mode when actually moving the aircraft and in a strategic mode when thinking about moving it.

  1. Strategic sophistication of individuals and teams. Experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Matthias; Czermak, Simon; Feri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many important decisions require strategic sophistication. We examine experimentally whether teams act more strategically than individuals. We let individuals and teams make choices in simple games, and also elicit first- and second-order beliefs. We find that teams play the Nash equilibrium strategy significantly more often, and their choices are more often a best response to stated first order beliefs. Distributional preferences make equilibrium play less likely. Using a mixture model, the estimated probability to play strategically is 62% for teams, but only 40% for individuals. A model of noisy introspection reveals that teams differ from individuals in higher order beliefs. PMID:24926100

  2. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions

    PubMed Central

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality—inequality aversion and efficiency—as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently. PMID:26074799

  3. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions.

    PubMed

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality-inequality aversion and efficiency-as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently. PMID:26074799

  4. SUBMITTED TO NEW JOURNAL (12/06/2002): EFFECT OF PEANUT PLANT FUNGAL INFECTION ON OVIPOSITION PREFERENCE BY SPODOPTERA EXIGUA AND ON HOST SEARCHING BEHAVIOR BY COTESIA MARGINIVENTRIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    (1.) In the present study we tested the effect of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Leguminosae), stem infection by the white mold fungus, Sclerotium rolfsii Saccodes (Basidiomycetes), on the oviposition preference of beet armyworms (BAW), Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) and on the host...

  5. 11. Strategic planning.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned. PMID:24785808

  6. Strategic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  7. Strategic Leadership in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Henry S.; Johnson, Teryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Strategic leadership is built upon traits and actions that encompass the successful execution of all leadership styles. In a world that is rapidly changing, strategic leadership in schools guides school leader through assuring constant improvement process by anticipating future trends and planning for them and noting that plans must be flexible to…

  8. Strategic Investments Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Doug

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the organizational hierarchy for strategic management and strategic investments at NASA. The presentation also relates these topics to the budgets it submits to Congress, strategies for space exploration research and development, and systems analysis.

  9. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  10. Developing Strategic Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Patricia; Terwilliger, Leatha; Alfred, Richard L.; Hartleb, David; Simone, Beverly

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the importance of developing community college leaders capable of demonstrating strategic leadership and responding to the global forces that influence community college education. Discusses the Consortium for Community College Development's Strategic Leadership Forum and its principles, format, content, and early results. (RC)

  11. The Strategic Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, James T., Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    To add a foundation to the growing excitement among educators about the central role they play in helping learners become strategic readers, the articles in this thematic journal provide insight into current reading theory and practice. Richard Telfer's article reviews research on strategic reading and clarifies what is meant by the phrase…

  12. An Analysis of Preference Relative to Teacher Implementation of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LeAnne D.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Symons, Frank J.; Moore, Tara C.; Maggin, Daniel M.; Sutherland, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preference trial as a preliminary test of preference effects on teacher behavior relative to implementation (adoption, adherence, quality). Teachers were randomly assigned to "preference" or "no-preference" groups and then trained to implement the intervention. Direct observation…

  13. Eye Movements in Strategic Choice

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Noguchi, Takao; Mullett, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In risky and other multiattribute choices, the process of choosing is well described by random walk or drift diffusion models in which evidence is accumulated over time to threshold. In strategic choices, level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models have been offered as accounts of the choice process, in which people simulate the choice processes of their opponents or partners. We recorded the eye movements in 2 × 2 symmetric games including dominance‐solvable games like prisoner's dilemma and asymmetric coordination games like stag hunt and hawk–dove. The evidence was most consistent with the accumulation of payoff differences over time: we found longer duration choices with more fixations when payoffs differences were more finely balanced, an emerging bias to gaze more at the payoffs for the action ultimately chosen, and that a simple count of transitions between payoffs—whether or not the comparison is strategically informative—was strongly associated with the final choice. The accumulator models do account for these strategic choice process measures, but the level‐k and cognitive hierarchy models do not. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Student Teachers' Classroom Management Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, John W.; Boisvert, Gloria

    1989-01-01

    Investigated student teachers' preferences for several methods of classroom management. Fourth-year education students (N=70) were presented with four typical classroom problem behavior scenarios and were offered a choice of four approaches to manage problem. Results revealed that subjects strongly favored humanistic approaches to classroom…

  15. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  16. American Strategic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, John H., Jr.; Chidester, Alfred H.

    American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned “to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington.” The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Delaware: “Strategic minerals and world stability” V. Anthony Cammarota, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines: “America's dependence on strategic minerals” John D. Morgan, U.S. Bureau of Mines: “Future demands of the United States for strategic minerals” J. Robert Moore, University of Texas: “Alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed” Allan I. Mendelowitz and John E. Watson, U.S. General Accounting Office: “U.S. mining investments in developing countries” and James W. Curlin, Nautilus Press: “The political dimensions of strategic minerals.”

  17. Human preference for individual colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  18. The strategic security officer.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of the strategic security officer, and the potential that it brings to the healthcare security operational environment. The author believes that training and development, along with strict hiring practices, can enable a security department to reach a new level of professionalism, proficiency and efficiency. The strategic officer for healthcare security is adapted from the "strategic corporal" concept of US Marine Corps General Charles C. Krulak which focuses on understanding the total force implications of the decisions made by the lowest level leaders within the Corps (Krulak, 1999). This article focuses on the strategic organizational implications of every security officer's decisions in the constantly changing and increasingly volatile operational environment of healthcare security. PMID:24707753

  19. Strategic EDP Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Geoffrey H.

    1988-01-01

    School districts need a strategic, comprehensive, electronic data processing resources plan that would include the following major elements: (1) systems; (2) hardware; (3) software; (4) staffing; (5) control; and (6) projected budgets. (MLF)

  20. Transitivity of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  1. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior☆

    PubMed Central

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition. PMID:23576829

  2. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Trovero, Fabrice; David, Sabrina; Bernard, Philippe; Puech, Alain; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively) blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v) and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs. PMID:26968030

  3. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Trovero, Fabrice; David, Sabrina; Bernard, Philippe; Puech, Alain; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively) blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v) and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France) and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs. PMID:26968030

  4. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  5. Guidelines for strategic planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Strategic planning needs to be done as one of the integral steps in fulfilling our overall Departmental mission. The role of strategic planning is to assure that the longer term destinations, goals, and objectives which the programs and activities of the Department are striving towards are the best we can envision today so that our courses can then be set to move in those directions. Strategic planning will assist the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Under Secretary in setting the long-term directions and policies for the Department and in making final decisions on near-term priorities and resource allocations. It will assist program developers and implementors by providing the necessary guidance for multi-year program plans and budgets. It is one of the essential steps in the secretary's Strategic Planning Initiative. The operational planning most of us are so familiar with deals with how to get things done and with the resources needed (people, money, facilities, time) to carry out tasks. Operating plans like budgets, capital line item projects, R D budgets, project proposals, etc., are vital to the mission of the Department. They deal, however, with how to carry out programs to achieve some objective or budget assumption. Strategic planning deals with the prior question of what it is that should be attempted. It deals with what objectives the many programs and activities of the Department of Department should be striving toward. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to those organizations and personnel starting the process for the first time as well as those who have prepared strategic plans in the past and now wish to review and update them. This guideline should not be constructed as a rigid, restrictive or confining rulebook. Each organization is encouraged to develop such enhancements as they think may be useful in their planning. The steps outlined in this document represent a very simplified approach to strategic planning. 9 refs.

  6. Strategic forces briefing

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.; Chrzanowski, P.; May, M.; Nordyke, M.

    1989-04-06

    The Strategic Forces Briefing'' is our attempt, accomplished over the past several months, to outline and highlight the more significant strategic force issues that must be addressed in the near future. Some issues are recurrent: the need for an effective modernized Triad and a constant concern for force survivability. Some issues derive from arms control: the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (SALT) are sufficiently advanced to set broad numerical limits on forces, but not so constraining as to preclude choices among weapon systems and deployment modes. Finally, a new administration faced with serious budgetary problems must strive for the most effective strategic forces limited dollars can buy and support. A review of strategic forces logically begins with consideration of the missions the forces are charged with. We begin the briefing with a short review of targeting policy and implementation within the constraints of available unclassified information. We then review each element of the Triad with sections on SLBMs, ICBMs, and Air-Breathing (bomber and cruise missile) systems. A short section at the end deals with the potential impact of strategic defense on offensive force planning. We consider ABM, ASAT, and air defense; but we do not attempt to address the technical issues of strategic defense per se. The final section gives a brief overview of the tritium supply problem. We conclude with a summary of recommendations that emerge from our review. The results of calculation on the effectiveness of various weapon systems as a function of cost that are presented in the briefing are by Paul Chrzanowski.

  7. Strategic arms limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Greb, G.A.; Johnson, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1969, the focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some form of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus that enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  8. Modulation of opiate-related signaling molecules in morphine-dependent conditioned behavior: conditioned place preference to morphine induces CREB phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Morón, José A; Gullapalli, Srinivas; Taylor, Chirisse; Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2010-03-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic, relapsing behavioral disorder where learned associations that develop between the abused opiate and the environment in which it is consumed are brought about through Pavlovian (classical) conditioning processes. However, the signaling mechanisms/pathways regulating the mechanisms that underlie the responses to opiate-associated cues or the development of sensitization as a consequence of repeated context-independent administration of opiates are unknown. In this study we examined the phosphorylation levels of various classic signaling molecules in brain regions implicated in addictive behaviors after acute and repeated morphine administration. An unbiased place conditioning protocol was used to examine changes in phosphorylation that are associated with (1) the expression of the rewarding effects of morphine and (2) the sensitization that develops to this effect. We also examined the effects of a delta-receptor antagonist on morphine-induced conditioned behavior and on the phosphorylation of classic signaling molecules in view of data showing that blockade of delta-opioid receptor (deltaOR) prevents the development of sensitization to the rewarding effects of morphine. We find that CREB phosphorylation is specifically induced upon the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-induced conditioned behavior in brain areas related to memory consolidation, such as the hippocampus and cortex. A similar effect is also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the case of the GluR1 subunit of AMPA glutamate receptor. These increases in the phosphorylation levels of CREB and pGluR1 are significantly blocked by pretreatment with a deltaOR antagonist. These results indicate a critical role for phospho-CREB, AMPA, and deltaOR activities in mediating the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-dependent conditioned behavior. PMID:19956087

  9. Successful Manipulation in Stable Marriage Model with Complete Preference Lists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hirotatsu; Matsui, Tomomi

    This paper deals with a strategic issue in the stable marriage model with complete preference lists (i.e., a preference list of an agent is a permutation of all the members of the opposite sex). Given complete preference lists of n men over n women, and a marriage µ, we consider the problem for finding preference lists of n women over n men such that the men-proposing deferred acceptance algorithm (Gale-Shapley algorithm) adopted to the lists produces µ. We show a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a set of preference lists of women over men. Our condition directly gives an O(n2) time algorithm for finding a set of preference lists, if it exists.

  10. Rats prefer mutual rewards in a prosocial choice task

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Srejic, Milan; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Pro-sociality, i.e., the preference for outcomes that produce benefits for other individuals, is ubiquitous in humans. Recently, cross-species comparisons of social behavior have offered important new insights into the evolution of pro-sociality. Here, we present a rodent analog of the Pro-social Choice Task that controls strategic components, de-confounds other-regarding choice motives from the animals' natural tendencies to maximize own food access and directly tests the effect of social context on choice allocation. We trained pairs of rats—an actor and a partner rat—in a double T-maze task where actors decided between two alternatives only differing in the reward delivered to the partner. The “own reward” choice yielded a reward only accessible to the actor whereas the “both reward” choice produced an additional reward for a partner (partner condition) or an inanimate toy (toy Condition), located in an adjacent compartment. We found that actors chose “both reward” at levels above chance and more often in the partner than in the toy condition. Moreover, we show that this choice pattern adapts to the current social context and that the observed behavior is stable over time. PMID:25642162

  11. Developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dychtwald, K; Zitter, M

    1988-09-01

    The initial stages of developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals are explored in this excerpt from the book, The Role of the Hospital in an Aging Society: A Blueprint for Action. The elderly have unique perceptual, cognitive, social, and psychological needs and preferences, and a marketing strategy for eldercare services must reflect these factors, as well as the financial role of third-party payers and the decision-making influence of families and physicians. Among the elements the hospital must address when developing a marketing strategy are market selection and segmentation, targeting markets with specific services, pricing, and positioning the hospital for a maximum share of the eldercare market. PMID:10302744

  12. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  13. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M.; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  14. NASA strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan is a living document. It provides far-reaching goals and objectives to create stability for NASA's efforts. The Plan presents NASA's top-level strategy: it articulates what NASA does and for whom; it differentiates between ends and means; it states where NASA is going and what NASA intends to do to get there. This Plan is not a budget document, nor does it present priorities for current or future programs. Rather, it establishes a framework for shaping NASA's activities and developing a balanced set of priorities across the Agency. Such priorities will then be reflected in the NASA budget. The document includes vision, mission, and goals; external environment; conceptual framework; strategic enterprises (Mission to Planet Earth, aeronautics, human exploration and development of space, scientific research, space technology, and synergy); strategic functions (transportation to space, space communications, human resources, and physical resources); values and operating principles; implementing strategy; and senior management team concurrence.

  15. Strategic Analysis of Terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Daniel G.; Sandler, Todd

    Two areas that are increasingly studied in the game-theoretic literature on terrorism and counterterrorism are collective action and asymmetric information. One contribution of this chapter is a survey and extension of continuous policy models with differentiable payoff functions. In this way, policies can be characterized as strategic substitutes (e. g., proactive measures), or strategic complements (e. g., defensive measures). Mixed substitute-complement models are also introduced. We show that the efficiency of counterterror policy depends upon (i) the strategic substitutes-complements characterization, and (ii) who initiates the action. Surprisingly, in mixed-models the dichotomy between individual and collective action may disappear. A second contribution is the consideration of a signaling model where indiscriminant spectacular terrorist attacks may erode terrorists’ support among its constituency, and proactive government responses can create a backlash effect in favor of terrorists. A novel equilibrium of this model reflects the well-documented ineffectiveness of terrorism in achieving its stated goals.

  16. The shy prefer familiar congeners.

    PubMed

    Benhaïm, David; Ferrari, Sébastien; Chatain, Béatrice; Bégout, Marie-Laure

    2016-05-01

    The shy-bold continuum is both a fundamental aspect of human behavior and a relatively stable behavioral trait for many other species. Here we assessed whether shy individuals prefer familiar congeners, taking the European sea bass, a recently domesticated fish showing similar behavioral responses to wild fish, as a model to better understand the inter-individual variability in social behavior previously observed in this species. In the wild, the link between familiarity i.e., the preference of fish for familiar congeners and boldness could be part of the mechanism underlying shoaling formation in fish. Thirty fish were individually tested in a device designed to assess the preference for a familiar vs. an unfamiliar congener on the basis of visual cues only. An open field test (OFT) with shelter was performed on the same fish 32 days later to assess the boldness of each individual. Variables of interest included the proportion of time spent in the shelter, border and center zone of the arena and variables of activity. Variables measured in OFT were collapsed into first principal component scores using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which allowed characterizing a shy-bold continuum. Time spent near the familiar congener was negatively correlated with boldness i.e., shy individuals spent most of the time near the familiar congener. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the understanding of the behavior of European sea bass and suggest that the link between familiarity and shyness is a general aspect of both animal and human behavior. PMID:26995491

  17. Effects of UMB24 and (±)-SM 21, putative σ2-preferring antagonists, on behavioral toxic and stimulant effects of cocaine in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Rae R.; Pouw, Buddy; Mack, Aisha L.; Daniels, Antawan; Coop, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that antagonism of σ1 receptors attenuates the convulsive, lethal, locomotor stimulatory and rewarding actions of cocaine in mice. In contrast, the contribution of σ2 receptors is unclear because experimental tools to selectively target this subtype are unavailable. To begin addressing this need, we characterized UMB24 (1-(2-phenethyl)-4-(2-pyridyl)-piperazine) and (±)-SM 21 (3α-tropanyl-2-(4-chorophenoxy)butyrate) in receptor binding and behavioral studies. Receptor binding studies confirmed that UMB24 and (±)-SM 21 display preferential affinity for σ2 over σ1 receptors. In behavioral studies, pretreatment of Swiss Webster mice with UMB24 or (±)-SM 21 significantly attenuated cocaine-induced convulsions and locomotor activity, but not lethality. When administered alone, (±)-SM 21 produced no significant effects compared to control injections of saline, but UMB24 had locomotor depressant actions. Together, the data suggest that σ2 receptor antagonists have the potential to attenuate some of the behavioral effects of cocaine, and further development of more selective, high affinity ligands are warranted. PMID:17241657

  18. Strategic avionics technology planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Kenneth J.; Brown, Don C.

    1991-01-01

    NASA experience in development and insertion of technology into programs had led to a recognition that a Strategic Plan for Avionics is needed for space. In the fall of 1989 an Avionics Technology Symposium was held in Williamsburg, Virginia. In early 1990, as a followon, a NASA wide Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group was chartered by NASA Headquarters. This paper will describe the objectives of this working group, technology bridging, and approaches to incentivize both the federal and commercial sectors to move toward rapidly developed, simple, and reliable systems with low life cycle cost.

  19. Microgravity strategic planning exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Richard; Downey, Jim; Harvey, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space and Advanced Technology supported a planning exercise for the Microgravity Program management at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The effort focused on the status of microgravity work at MSFC and elsewhere with the objective of preparing a goal-oriented strategic planning document which could be used for informational/brochure purposes. The effort entailed numerous interactions and presentations with Field Center programmatic components and Headquarters personnel. Appropriate material was consolidated in a draft format for a MSFC Strategic Plan.

  20. Measuring Children's Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann L.; Sullivan, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Measures of preference are useful predictors of children's food consumption patterns. The paper discusses children's affective response to food and describes the preference assessment procedure which obtains information on children's likes and dislikes. The methodology helps investigate factors influencing development of preferences and food…

  1. Mouse Model for Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase D (PTPRD) Associations with Restless Leg Syndrome or Willis-Ekbom Disease and Addiction: Reduced Expression Alters Locomotion, Sleep Behaviors and Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference

    PubMed Central

    Drgonova, Jana; Walther, Donna; Wang, Katherine J; Hartstein, G Luke; Lochte, Bryson; Troncoso, Juan; Uetani, Noriko; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Uhl, George R

    2015-01-01

    The receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase D (PTPRD) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development and connections of addiction-, locomotion- and sleep-related brain circuits in which it is expressed. The PTPRD gene harbors genome-wide association signals in studies of restless leg syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease [WED]/restless leg syndrome [RLS]; p < 10−8) and addiction-related phenotypes (clusters of nearby single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] with 10−2 > p > 10−8 associations in several reports). We now report work that seeks (a) association between PTPRD genotypes and expression of its mRNA in postmortem human brains and (b) RLS-related, addiction-related and comparison behavioral phenotypes in hetero- and homozygous PTPRD knockout mice. We identify associations between PTPRD SNPs and levels of PTPRD mRNA in human brain samples that support validity of mouse models with altered PTPRD expression. Knockouts display less behaviorally defined sleep at the end of their active periods. Heterozygotes move more despite motor weakness/impersistence. Heterozygotes display shifted dose-response relationships for cocaine reward. They display greater preference for places paired with 5 mg/kg cocaine and less preference for places paired with 10 or 20 mg/kg. The combined data provide support for roles for common, level-of-expression PTPRD variation in locomotor, sleep and drug reward phenotypes relevant to RLS and addiction. Taken together, mouse and human results identify PTPRD as a novel therapeutic target for RLS and addiction phenotypes. PMID:26181631

  2. The Attributes Adolescents Associate with Peer Popularity and Teacher Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Kim, Janna; Schimmelbusch, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Investigates perceived popularity and teacher preference in a sample of 351 10th-graders. Analyses revealed that different behaviors were associated with perceived popularity and teacher preference. Low GPA, low submissiveness, and high rates of absenteeism were associated with high perceived popularity and a low perceived teacher preference.…

  3. Preferred and Actual Homework Style: A Cross-Cultural Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Milgram, Roberta M.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of 272 U.S. and 219 Korean seventh graders showed that those who had homework preferences often were not able to do their homework the preferred way. Students in the two countries had substantially different homework preferences and styles, many reflecting different cultural behavior norms. (SK)

  4. Strategic Enrollment Management Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jim, Ed.

    The chapters of this collection describe a transformational period in higher education. The paradigm shift in higher education requires new organizational models, new strategies, new resources, and new tools, with new ways of thinking, especially about strategic enrollment management (SEM). The chapters of part 1, "The Contextual Framework for…

  5. The Strategic Revolution.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andy

    2016-09-01

    On the 40(th) anniversary of the publication of Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene, we explore the origins of cynical, strategic thinking in evolutionary biology, investigate how this illuminated the sexual and social lives of animals, and assess Dawkins's suggestion that evolution is best understood by taking the gene's-eye view. PMID:27610556

  6. Strategic BI for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2008-01-01

    Implementing a complex business intelligence (BI) system at a small school or one with limited resources can seem daunting. For small to midsize schools and community colleges, a strategic BI initiative may still be an elusive goal. This article discusses how schools with limited resources are making the dream a reality.

  7. Strategic Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavan, Thomas N.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews literature on strategic human resource development (HRD) focusing on the characteristics of such activities, conditions necessary for the promotion of HRD, and the benefits to an organization pursuing such activities. Empirical evidence is presented on HRD policy formation and planning processes in Irish high technology companies. (JOW)

  8. Strategic Education Research Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, M. S., Ed.; Wigdor, A. K., Ed.; Snow, C. E., Ed.

    This book is a proposal for the Strategic Education Research Partnership (SERP), a large-scale coherent program of research and development carried out through a partnership between researchers and practitioners. The program would put the problems of educational practice at its center and focus on carrying research and development through all the…

  9. Using Collaborative Strategic Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Janette K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    Describes collaborative strategic reading (CSR), a technique for teaching students, such as those with learning disabilities, reading comprehension and vocabulary skills in a cooperative setting. Covers teaching the four strategies of CSR (preview, click and clunk, get the gist, and wrap up), as well as teaching students cooperative learning group…

  10. Strategic Marketing for Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The steps for strategic market planning are discussed including: (1) assessing the situation with market conditions, customers, competitors, and your firm; and (2) crafting a strategy to prioritize target markets, develop a core strategy, and create a marketing mix. Examples of agribusiness successes are presented. The booklet concludes with a…

  11. ACNW - 1998 strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This plan provides strategic direction to The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) in 1998 and beyond for focusing on issues most important to the NRC in carrying out its mission of protecting public health and safety, promoting the common defense and security, and protecting the environment.

  12. EMSL Strategic Plan 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2008-08-15

    This Strategic Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges of the Department of Energy and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Strategic Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE and its Office of Science. We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Strategic Plan should be viewed as a living document for which we will continually evaluate changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly.

  13. Strategic Tutor Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee-kwong, Kenneth Chao

    1996-01-01

    Discusses effective tutor monitoring strategies based on experiences at the Open Learning Institute of Hong Kong. Highlights include key performance and strategic control points; situational factors, including tutor expectations and relevant culture; Theory X versus Theory Y leadership theories; and monitoring relationships with tutors. (LRW)

  14. External Strategic Planning Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA. Office of Research and Planning.

    In response to a community reputation that has grown increasingly negative, the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) devised a strategic plan in 1998 to improve its programs and services and assure the educational success of its students. The planning process involved several steps: (1) revisiting the district mission statement; (2)…

  15. Manufacturing research strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This plan provides an overall strategic roadmap for the DOE-defense programs advanced manufacturing research program which supports the national science based stockpile stewardship program. This plan represents a vision required to develop the knowledge base needed to ensure an enduring national capability to rapidly and effectively manufacture nuclear weapons.

  16. Grappling with Strategic Dissonance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowie, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case study of the Virtual Retina project (an instructional CD-ROM for ophthalmology students) at the University of Alberta as an example of strategic dissonance in an educational technology unit. Offers methods to analyze the external competitive environment and internal capabilities of educational technology units. (EV)

  17. The Strategic Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    This book presents six papers focusing on the application of the strategic assessment model (SAM) to the management of higher education facilities. The papers are part of an ongoing effort by the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers to provide comparative cost and staffing information and to develop a benchmarking process. The…

  18. Strategic Goals for 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Toni

    This is the report of the 2000 New Mexico Association of Community Colleges (NMACC) Strategic Planning Conference. Participants worked in small groups to identify the most probable and the most desirable world for the year 2000. Results for the most probable world include: (1) education would be available to many consumers, using many delivery…

  19. Strategic Marketing for Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Richard J., Ed.

    Designed to inform the marketing efforts of community college presidents, this document describes the importance of marketing, presents a targeted approach, and outlines the specific roles and skills needed by the president to ensure successful efforts and effective institutions. The first chapter, "Developing a Marketing-Strategic Plan," by…

  20. Social and strategic imitation: the way to consensus

    PubMed Central

    Vilone, Daniele; Ramasco, José J.; Sánchez, Angel; Miguel, Maxi San

    2012-01-01

    Humans do not always make rational choices, a fact that experimental economics is putting on solid grounds. The social context plays an important role in determining our actions, and often we imitate friends or acquaintances without any strategic consideration. We explore here the interplay between strategic and social imitative behavior in a coordination problem on a social network. We observe that for interactions on 1D and 2D lattices any amount of social imitation prevents the freezing of the network in domains with different conventions, thus leading to global consensus. For interactions on complex networks, the interplay of social and strategic imitation also drives the system towards global consensus while neither dynamics alone does. We find an optimum value for the combination of imitative behaviors to reach consensus in a minimum time, and two different dynamical regimes to approach it: exponential when social imitation predominates, power-law when strategic considerations prevail. PMID:23008751

  1. Being Strategic in HE Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The call to be strategic--and with it the concept of strategic management--can bring to mind a wide range of definitions, and there is now a huge array of academic literature supporting the different schools of thought. At a basic level, however, strategic thinking is probably most simply about focusing on the whole, rather than the part. In…

  2. The Possibilities of Strategic Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

  3. Strategic Planning and Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conneely, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Strong financial management is a strategy for strategic planning success in student affairs. It is crucial that student affairs professionals understand the necessity of linking their strategic planning with their financial management processes. An effective strategic planner needs strong financial management skills to implement the plan over…

  4. Strategic Partnerships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of strategic partnerships between community colleges and key stakeholders; to specifically examine strategic partnerships; leadership decision-making; criteria to evaluate strategic partnerships that added value to the institution, value to the students, faculty, staff, and the local…

  5. Strategic arms limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1983-10-01

    Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  6. Financing strategic healthcare facilities: the growing attraction of alternative capital.

    PubMed

    Zismer, Daniel K; Fox, James; Torgerson, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Community health system leaders often dismiss use of alternative capital to finance strategic facilities as being too expensive and less strategically useful, preferring to follow historical precedent and use tax-exempt bonding to finance such facilities. Proposed changes in accounting rules should cause third-party-financed facility lease arrangements to be treated similarly to tax-exempt debt financings with respect to the income statement and balance sheet, increasing their appeal to community health systems. An in-depth comparison of the total costs associated with each financing approach can help inform the choice of financing approaches by illuminating their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23678696

  7. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  8. Strategic Choice and Collective Action: Organizational Determinants of Teachers Militancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; And Others

    Conceptualizing militant behavior as a strategic choice involving collective action and occurring within a specific organizational context, this paper examines the impact of various organizational factors on elementary and secondary school teachers' willingness to engage in militant behavior. Teachers in 83 New York districts were surveyed as to…

  9. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  10. Mapping the Strategic Thinking of Public Relations Managers in a Crisis Situation: An Illustrative Example Using Conjoint Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronn, Peggy Simcic; Olson, Erik L.

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the operationalization of the conjoint analysis multivariate technique for the study of the public relations function within strategic decision making in a crisis situation. Finds that what the theory describes as the strategic way of handling a crisis is also the way each of the managers who were evaluated would prefer to conduct…

  11. Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana). Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results In dichotomous choice tests predator-naïve (lab-reared) females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught) females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions Our study highlights that (a) predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection), and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b) Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c) Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators. PMID:21726456

  12. Self-Love or Other-Love? Explicit Other-Preference but Implicit Self-Preference

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Jochen E.; Göritz, Anja S.; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Sedikides, Constantine

    2012-01-01

    Do humans prefer the self even over their favorite other person? This question has pervaded philosophy and social-behavioral sciences. Psychology’s distinction between explicit and implicit preferences calls for a two-tiered solution. Our evolutionarily-based Dissociative Self-Preference Model offers two hypotheses. Other-preferences prevail at an explicit level, because they convey caring for others, which strengthens interpersonal bonds–a major evolutionary advantage. Self-preferences, however, prevail at an implicit level, because they facilitate self-serving automatic behavior, which favors the self in life-or-die situations–also a major evolutionary advantage. We examined the data of 1,519 participants, who completed an explicit measure and one of five implicit measures of preferences for self versus favorite other. The results were consistent with the Dissociative Self-Preference Model. Explicitly, participants preferred their favorite other over the self. Implicitly, however, they preferred the self over their favorite other (be it their child, romantic partner, or best friend). Results are discussed in relation to evolutionary theorizing on self-deception. PMID:22848605

  13. Advanced strategic missile development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickler, R. L.

    1981-05-01

    The M-X program is taking two paths: (1) the current development and projected deployment of a survivable land based ICBM (the M-X) in a multiple protective structure system, and (2) a building block development of readiness posture and strategic futures technology that could be used for a wide range of projected needs in the event of major changes in the threat or the political climate. The blend of aerospace and civil engineering technologies which has resulted in the systems concept necessary to assure the continued survivability of the land based strategic missile force is summarized. Recent advanced technology development activities, which have been focused on systems upgrade options to the current ICBM force, basing options which may be required for special force elements, small missile options for airborne applications, penetration technology to counter SAM and ABM threats, and systems concepts for unique targeting requirements are reviewed.

  14. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  15. Microgravity strategic plan, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA agency-wide microgravity strategic plan is presented, and its research, applications, and commercialization for the 1990's is addressed. The plan presents an analysis of the current situation, identifies critical factors, and defines goals, objectives, and strategies, which are intended to: (1) provide a context for decision making; (2) assure realism in long-range planning and direction for hardware development; and (3) establish a framework for developing a national microgravity research plan.

  16. Strategic plan, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Lewis Strategic Plan was updated for 1985 and beyond. Major programs for the space station, the advanced turboprop, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), and the Altitude Wind Tunnel were begun or greatly expanded during 1984. In parallel, The Lewis aeropropulsion research and technology program was extensively evaluated and reviewed; a reduced and reoriented program emerged. The thrusts and implementation plans for these programs are described as they pertain to the individual directorates. Other key accomplishments and plans are summarized.

  17. Do Children Prefer Contingencies? An Evaluation of the Efficacy of and Preference for Contingent versus Noncontingent Social Reinforcement during Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczynski, Kevin C.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and…

  18. Preference assessments in the zoo: Keeper and staff predictions of enrichment preferences across species.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is widely used in the management of zoo animals, and is an essential strategy for increasing the behavioral welfare of these populations. It may be difficult, however, to identify potentially effective enrichment strategies that are also cost-effective and readily available. An animal's preference for a potential enrichment item may be a reliable predictor of whether that individual will reliably interact with that item, and subsequently enable staff to evaluate the effects of that enrichment strategy. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of preference assessments for identifying potential enrichment items across six different species--each representing a different taxonomic group. In addition, we evaluated the agreement between zoo personnel's predictions of animals' enrichment preferences and stimuli selected via a preference assessment. Five out of six species (nine out of 11 individuals) exhibited clear, systematic preferences for specific stimuli. Similarities in enrichment preferences were observed among all individuals of primates, whereas individuals within ungulate and avian species displayed individual differences in enrichment preferences. Overall, zoo personnel, regardless of experience level, were significantly more accurate at predicting least-preferred stimuli than most-preferred stimuli across species, and tended to make the same predictions for all individuals within a species. Preference assessments may therefore be a useful, efficient husbandry strategy for identifying viable enrichment items at both the individual and species levels. PMID:26179195

  19. Class Scheduling Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Irving E.; And Others

    In order to ascertain students' preferences for the number of times a class should meet each week, 375 questionnaires administered to students during the 1989 summer session at Cuyahoga Community College, Western Campus (Ohio) were evaluated. Results indicated that 49% of respondents preferred classes meeting twice each week, and 29% preferred…

  20. The Learning Preference Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezler, Agnes G.; Rezmovic, Victor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the development, validity, and reliability of the Learning Preference Inventory (LPI) and its use with health professions students and practitioners. Use of the LPI allows identification of individual learning preferences with a fair degree of accuracy. Ways to improve motivation for learning are suggested. (JOW)

  1. Sensory determinants of behavioral dynamics in Drosophila thermotaxis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Mason; Afonso, Bruno; Vonner, Ashley J; Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Berck, Matthew; Tabone, Christopher J; Kane, Elizabeth A; Pieribone, Vincent A; Nitabach, Michael N; Cardona, Albert; Zlatic, Marta; Sprecher, Simon G; Gershow, Marc; Garrity, Paul A; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2015-01-13

    Complex animal behaviors are built from dynamical relationships between sensory inputs, neuronal activity, and motor outputs in patterns with strategic value. Connecting these patterns illuminates how nervous systems compute behavior. Here, we study Drosophila larva navigation up temperature gradients toward preferred temperatures (positive thermotaxis). By tracking the movements of animals responding to fixed spatial temperature gradients or random temperature fluctuations, we calculate the sensitivity and dynamics of the conversion of thermosensory inputs into motor responses. We discover three thermosensory neurons in each dorsal organ ganglion (DOG) that are required for positive thermotaxis. Random optogenetic stimulation of the DOG thermosensory neurons evokes behavioral patterns that mimic the response to temperature variations. In vivo calcium and voltage imaging reveals that the DOG thermosensory neurons exhibit activity patterns with sensitivity and dynamics matched to the behavioral response. Temporal processing of temperature variations carried out by the DOG thermosensory neurons emerges in distinct motor responses during thermotaxis. PMID:25550513

  2. Sensory determinants of behavioral dynamics in Drosophila thermotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Mason; Afonso, Bruno; Vonner, Ashley J.; Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Berck, Matthew; Tabone, Christopher J.; Kane, Elizabeth A.; Pieribone, Vincent A.; Nitabach, Michael N.; Cardona, Albert; Zlatic, Marta; Sprecher, Simon G.; Gershow, Marc; Garrity, Paul A.; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.

    2015-01-01

    Complex animal behaviors are built from dynamical relationships between sensory inputs, neuronal activity, and motor outputs in patterns with strategic value. Connecting these patterns illuminates how nervous systems compute behavior. Here, we study Drosophila larva navigation up temperature gradients toward preferred temperatures (positive thermotaxis). By tracking the movements of animals responding to fixed spatial temperature gradients or random temperature fluctuations, we calculate the sensitivity and dynamics of the conversion of thermosensory inputs into motor responses. We discover three thermosensory neurons in each dorsal organ ganglion (DOG) that are required for positive thermotaxis. Random optogenetic stimulation of the DOG thermosensory neurons evokes behavioral patterns that mimic the response to temperature variations. In vivo calcium and voltage imaging reveals that the DOG thermosensory neurons exhibit activity patterns with sensitivity and dynamics matched to the behavioral response. Temporal processing of temperature variations carried out by the DOG thermosensory neurons emerges in distinct motor responses during thermotaxis. PMID:25550513

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  4. National strategic petroleum reserve.

    PubMed

    Davis, R M

    1981-08-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is intended to reduce the vulnerability of the United States to interruptions in the oil supply from foreign sources. Storage for 248 million barrels of crude oil in salt caverns and mines, with equipment for pumping and distribution, was constructed and operationally tested in a 4-year period. Its present inventory is the largest known crude oil reserve in the world. Facilities for expanding the reserve's capacity by another 290 million barrels are being developed by solution-mining in salt domes. PMID:17847458

  5. NASA strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Plan summarizes the Agency's vision, mission, and values. Specific goals are listed for each externally focused Enterprise: Mission to Planet Earth, Aeronautics, Human Exploration and Development of Space, Space Science, and Space Technology. These Enterprises satisfy the needs of customers external to NASA. The Strategic Functions (Space Communications, Human Resources, and Physical Resources) are necessary in order to meet the goals of the Enterprises. The goals of these Functions are also presented. All goals must be met while adhering to the discussed values and operating principles of NASA. A final section outlines the implementing strategy.

  6. Guam Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    Describes various energy strategies available to Guam to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020.The information presented in this strategic energy plan will be used by the Guam Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, reducing energy consumption at federal facilities, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including buildings energy efficiency and conservation, renewable electricity production, and alternative transportation. The strategies are categorized based on the time required to implement them.

  7. Strategic implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Life Science Division of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) describes its plans for assuring the health, safety, and productivity of astronauts in space, and its plans for acquiring further fundamental scientific knowledge concerning space life sciences. This strategic implementation plan details OSSA's goals, objectives, and planned initiatives. The following areas of interest are identified: operational medicine; biomedical research; space biology; exobiology; biospheric research; controlled ecological life support; flight programs and advance technology development; the life sciences educational program; and earth benefits from space life sciences.

  8. Strategic Responses to Financial Challenges. Strategic Decisions. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    1998-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education offers guidelines for strategic financial decisions required in light of the financial challenges higher education faces in the 1990s and beyond. "Strategic response" is defined as a decision that requires changing a major policy, program, or practice and involves some risk. Five…

  9. Game Theory, Conditional Preferences, and Social Influence

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, Wynn C.; Felin, Teppo

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences. PMID:23451078

  10. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  11. FGF21 Regulates Sweet and Alcohol Preference.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Saswata; Owen, Bryn M; Song, Parkyong; Hernandez, Genaro; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Yingjiang; Scott, William T; Paratala, Bhavna; Turner, Tod; Smith, Andrew; Bernardo, Barbara; Müller, Christian P; Tang, Hao; Mangelsdorf, David J; Goodwin, Bryan; Kliewer, Steven A

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone induced by various metabolic stresses, including ketogenic and high-carbohydrate diets, that regulates energy homeostasis. In humans, SNPs in and around the FGF21 gene have been associated with macronutrient preference, including carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake. Here we show that FGF21 administration markedly reduces sweet and alcohol preference in mice and sweet preference in cynomolgus monkeys. In mice, these effects require the FGF21 co-receptor β-Klotho in the central nervous system and correlate with reductions in dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. Since analogs of FGF21 are currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes, our findings raise the possibility that FGF21 administration could affect nutrient preference and other reward behaviors in humans. PMID:26724861

  12. Perinatal depression treatment preferences among Latina mothers.

    PubMed

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Wisner, Katherine L; Burns, Rachel M; Chaves-Gnecco, Diego

    2014-02-01

    The study described here was designed to determine treatment preferences among Latinas to identify treatment options that meet their needs and increase their engagement. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 prenatal and postpartum Latinas at risk for depression. The group interviews were conducted in Spanish and English using a standardized interview protocol. Focus group transcripts were analyzed to identify themes regarding perinatal depression coping strategies, preferred approaches to treating perinatal depression, and recommendations for engaging perinatal Latinas in treatment. The results suggest that Latinas' treatment preferences consist of a pathway (i.e., hierarchical) approach that begins with the use of one's own resources, followed by the use of formal support systems (e.g., home-visiting nurse), and supplemented with the use of behavioral therapy. Antidepressant use was judged to be acceptable only in severe cases or after delivery. The data indicate that to increase health-seeking behaviors among perinatal Latinas, practitioners should first build trust. PMID:24469693

  13. Pension Participation: Do Parents Transmit Time Preference?

    PubMed Central

    Chiteji, Ngina; Stafford, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of economic and health behaviors are influenced by individuals’ attitudes toward the future – including investments in human capital, health capital and financial capital. Intergenerational correlations in such behaviors suggest an important role the family may play in transmitting time preferences to children. This article presents a model of parental investment in future-oriented capital, where parents shape their children’s time preference rates. The research identifies a dual role for a parent’s time preference rate in the process of shaping the offspring’s attitude toward the future, and discusses paths through which parents may socialize children to be patient. The model’s implications are studied by investigating the parent-child correlation in pension participation using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics PMID:23807825

  14. Strategic Planning Is an Oxymoron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    The thinking on "strategic thinking" has evolved significantly over the years. In the previous century, the independent school strategy was to focus on long-range planning, blithely projecting 10 years into the future. For decades this worked well enough, but in the late 20th century, independent schools shifted to "strategic planning," with its…

  15. Strategic Partnerships in International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treat, Tod; Hartenstine, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a framework and recommendations for development of strategic partnerships in a variety of cultural contexts. Additionally, this study elucidates barriers and possibilities in interagency collaborations. Without careful consideration regarding strategic partnerships' approaches, functions, and goals, the ability to…

  16. The Search for Strategic Silence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Richard

    Media content analysts seldom observe the principle that editorial omissions are as telling as what is published or broadcast; hence, the purpose of this paper is to explore, and thus stimulate debate about, editorial omissions or "strategic silence." It is observed that as a concept, strategic silence embraces both tact and strategy--the former…

  17. NASA Space Sciences Strategic Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of strategic planning roadmap is to:Fulfill the strategic planning requirements; Provide a guide to the science community in presenting research requests to NASA; Inform and inspire; Focus investments in technology and research for future missions; and Provide the scientific and technical justification for augmentation requests.

  18. Strategic Human Resource Development. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on strategic human resource (HR) development. "Strategic HR Orientation and Firm Performance in India" (Kuldeep Singh) reports findings from a study of Indian business executives that suggests there is a positive link between HR policies and practices and workforce motivation and loyalty and sustainable…

  19. Strategic planning for the board.

    PubMed

    Davies, A

    1991-04-01

    Although the planning operation is regarded by some observers as unrealistic in conditions of rapid change and increasing competition, the discipline of strategic thinking and the need for strategic leadership continue to be of vital importance. The author examines the purpose of the Board of Directors and its role in the management of strategy. PMID:10111271

  20. Strategic Evaluation in University Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavernier, Karel

    1991-01-01

    Improved evaluation of higher education teaching and research is urged, citing need for quantitative and qualitative indicators of an institution's strategic capacity to adapt to external demands and for closer links between evaluation and institutional goals. Industry's strategic management methods and difficulties of evaluation in different…

  1. Strategic Marketing for Educational Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark; Henry, Walter

    1992-01-01

    Private-sector strategic marketing processes can significantly benefit schools desiring to develop public confidence and support and establish guidelines for future development. This article defines a strategic marketing model for school systems and articulates the sequence of related research and operational steps comprising it. Although schools…

  2. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  3. Developing the Strategically Focused School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Brent

    2004-01-01

    This article builds a conceptual framework to examine how school leaders can move away from a planning framework that emphasizes only short-term target setting and move to an effective strategic approach. It examines early evidence from research on what dimensions are critical in establishing a strategically focused school within a medium-term…

  4. Strategic Planning--Definition, Process, and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, G. Kent; Bailey, Gerald D.

    1991-01-01

    Strategic planning provides a comprehensive, systematic, and flexible approach to charting direction. Lists an eight-step process and questions for strategic planning. Emphasizes the role of architects in strategic planning. (five references) (MLF)

  5. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through…

  6. Strategic cycling: shaking complacency in healthcare strategic planning.

    PubMed

    Begun, J; Heatwole, K B

    1999-01-01

    As the conditions affecting business and healthcare organizations in the United States have become more turbulent and uncertain, strategic planning has decreased in popularity. Strategic planning is criticized for stiffling creative responses to the new marketplace and for fostering compartmentalized organizations, adherence to outmoded strategies, tunnel vision in strategy formulation, and overemphasis on planning to the detriment of implementation. However, effective strategic planning can be a force for mobilizing all the constituents of an organization, creating discipline in pursuit of a goal, broadening an organization's perspective, improving communication among disciplines, and motivating the organization's workforce. It is worthwhile for healthcare organizations to preserve these benefits of strategic planning at the same time recognizing the many sources of turbulence and uncertainty in the healthcare environment. A model of "strategic cycling" is presented to address the perceived shortcomings of traditional strategic planning in a dynamic environment. The cycling model facilitates continuous assessment of the organization's mission/values/vision and primary strategies based on feedback from benchmark analysis, shareholder impact, and progress in strategy implementation. Multiple scenarios and contingency plans are developed in recognition of the uncertain future. The model represents a compromise between abandoning strategic planning and the traditional, linear model of planning based on progress through predetermined stages to a masterpiece plan. PMID:10621138

  7. 2006 NASA Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration, a new directive for the Nation's space program. The fundamental goal of this directive is "to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program." In issuing it, the President committed the Nation to a journey of exploring the solar system and beyond: returning to the Moon in the next decade, then venturing further into the solar system, ultimately sending humans to Mars and beyond. He challenged NASA to establish new and innovative programs to enhance understanding of the planets, to ask new questions, and to answer questions that are as old as humankind. NASA enthusiastically embraced the challenge of extending a human presence throughout the solar system as the Agency's Vision, and in the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, Congress endorsed the Vision for Space Exploration and provided additional guidance for implementation. NASA is committed to achieving this Vision and to making all changes necessary to ensure success and a smooth transition. These changes will include increasing internal collaboration, leveraging personnel and facilities, developing strong, healthy NASA Centers,a nd fostering a safe environment of respect and open communication for employees at all levels. NASA also will ensure clear accountability and solid program management and reporting practices. Over the next 10 years, NASA will focus on six Strategic Goals to move forward in achieving the Vision for Space Exploration. Each of the six Strategic Goals is clearly defined and supported by multi-year outcomes that will enhance NASA's ability to measure and report Agency accomplishments in this quest.

  8. A neural circuit encoding sexual preference in humans.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Langguth, Berthold; Rupprecht, Rainer; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Sexual preference determines mate choice for reproduction and hence guarantees conservation of species in mammals. Despite this fundamental role in human behavior, current knowledge on its target-specific neurofunctional substrate is based on lesion studies and therefore limited. We used meta-analytic remodeling of neuroimaging data from 364 human subjects with diverse sexual interests during sexual stimulation to quantify neural regions associated with sexual preference manipulations. We found that sexual preference is encoded by four phylogenetically old, subcortical brain structures. More specifically, sexual preference is controlled by the anterior and preoptic area of the hypothalamus, the anterior and mediodorsal thalamus, the septal area, and the perirhinal parahippocampus including the dentate gyrus. In contrast, sexual non-preference is regulated by the substantia innominata. We anticipate the identification of a core neural circuit for sexual preferences to be a starting point for further sophisticated investigations into the neural principles of sexual behavior and particularly of its aberrations. PMID:27339689

  9. Ethics Content in Strategic Management Textbooks: A Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of ethics content in strategic management textbooks. The importance of ethical behavior within organizations has been highlighted in the past by organizations, such as Enron and WorldCom, and more recently by British Petroleum and Toyota. The data collected from two different editions of five…

  10. A comparison of verbal and tangible stimulus preference assessments.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Almeida, D; Graff, R B; Ahearn, W H

    2000-01-01

    Tangible preference assessments were compared with verbal preference assessments for 6 individuals with mental retardation, behavior disorders, or both. In the tangible assessment, items were placed in front of the participant. In the verbal assessment, participants were asked, "Do you want X or Y?" and the items were not present. The two assessments yielded similar high-preference items for 4 of the 6 participants. The verbal assessment was typically completed in less time than the tangible assessment. PMID:11051576

  11. The preference for potential.

    PubMed

    Tormala, Zakary L; Jia, Jayson S; Norton, Michael I

    2012-10-01

    When people seek to impress others, they often do so by highlighting individual achievements. Despite the intuitive appeal of this strategy, we demonstrate that people often prefer potential rather than achievement when evaluating others. Indeed, compared with references to achievement (e.g., "this person has won an award for his work"), references to potential (e.g., "this person could win an award for his work") appear to stimulate greater interest and processing, which can translate into more favorable reactions. This tendency creates a phenomenon whereby the potential to be good at something can be preferred over actually being good at that very same thing. We document this preference for potential in laboratory and field experiments, using targets ranging from athletes to comedians to graduate school applicants and measures ranging from salary allocations to online ad clicks to admission decisions. PMID:22775472

  12. [Food preferences among students].

    PubMed

    Maldonado, R; Villalbí, J R

    1993-07-01

    The results of a food preference survey using a questionnaire on 2,567 schoolchildren of sixth, seventh and eighth grade (11 to 14 years of age) from 26 public schools in the city of Barcelona (Spain) are presented. Foods based on potatoes and cereals have the maximum acceptability, followed by dairy and meat products. Chicken is the meat with highest acceptance. Fish has a medium acceptance, and preference for dry beans and peas, fruits and vegetables is lower, although it is high for some specific foods. Important differences among sexes are observed. Boys have higher preference for meat, milk and yogurt, and girls for fish and some vegetables. Differences among genders increase with increasing age. These results are relevant for planning interventions on diet in schools from a health promotion perspective, and for the planning of school lunch programs. PMID:8363142

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-15

    This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

  14. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    PubMed Central

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent-chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through changes in the duration of the initial links. Consistent with previous findings, preference for a richer terminal link was less extreme with longer initial links across three experiments with pigeons. In Experiment 1, relative resistance to change and preference were related inversely when responding was disrupted with response-independent food presentations during initial links, replicating a previous finding with rats. However, more food was presented with longer initial links, confounding the disrupter and initial-link duration. In Experiment 2, presession feeding was used instead and eliminated the negative relation between relative resistance to change and preference, but relative resistance to change was not sensitive to relative terminal-link reinforcement rates. In Experiment 3, with more extreme relative terminal-link reinforcement rates, increasing initial-link duration similarly decreased preference and relative resistance to change for the richer terminal link. Thus, when conditions of disruption are equal and assessed under the appropriate reinforcement conditions, changes in temporal context impact relative resistance to change and preference similarly. PMID:21909164

  15. Constraint-based Temporal Reasoning with Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca; Sperduti, Alessandro; Venable, K. Brent

    2005-01-01

    Often we need to work in scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. Soft temporal constraints allow one to describe in a natural way problems arising in such scenarios. In general, solving soft temporal problems require exponential time in the worst case, but there are interesting subclasses of problems which are polynomially solvable. In this paper we identify one of such subclasses giving tractability results. Moreover, we describe two solvers for this class of soft temporal problems, and we show some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. We also compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and robustness. Sometimes, however, temporal local preferences are difficult to set, and it may be easier instead to associate preferences to some complete solutions of the problem. To model everything in a uniform way via local preferences only, and also to take advantage of the existing constraint solvers which exploit only local preferences, we show that machine learning techniques can be useful in this respect. In particular, we present a learning module based on a gradient descent technique which induces local temporal preferences from global ones. We also show the behavior of the learning module on randomly-generated examples.

  16. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ∼25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ∼70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  17. The Value of Strategic Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Josh; Narayan, Amit; McNutt, Ty

    2015-02-10

    Strong strategic partnerships can be the difference between those technologies that only achieve success in the lab and those that actually break into the marketplace. Two ARPA-E awardees—AutoGrid and APEI—have forged strategic partnerships that have positioned their technologies to achieve major success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Josh Gould and interviews with technologists at AutoGrid and APEI, who each tell the story of how their company leveraged relationships with strategic partners to broaden their customer base and bring their technology to life.

  18. Socialization Preferences and Intentions: Does One Size Fit All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student preferences for socialization tactics and their intentions to be proactive when they begin a new job. We examined the relationship between the Five Factor Model of personality and proactive personality with socialization tactics preferences and proactive behavior intentions in a sample of 243…

  19. Heat Waves, Droughts, and Preferences for Environmental Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Ann L.; Conover, Emily; Videras, Julio; Wu, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a new household survey on environmental attitudes, behaviors, and policy preferences, we find that current weather conditions affect preferences for environmental regulation. Individuals who have recently experienced extreme weather (heat waves or droughts) are more likely to support laws to protect the environment. We find…

  20. The Soundtrack of Recklessness: Musical Preferences among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Adolescents (n=248) with various musical preferences were compared. Adolescents who preferred hard rock or heavy metal music reported higher rates of reckless behavior and were associated with higher levels of sensation seeking, negative family relationships, and, among girls, lower self-esteem. The relationship between sensation seeking, reckless…

  1. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  2. Preference Reversal: A New Look at an Old Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shu

    2006-01-01

    A generalized "weak dominance" approach is used to test the documented preference reversal (PR) phenomenon. This approach simply models risky choice behavior in PR as a choice between the best possible outcomes or a choice between the worst possible outcomes by equating smaller paired outcome difference between bets. The preference reversals are…

  3. Perspectives in avoidance-preference bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.W.; Taylor, D.H.; Strickler-Shaw, S.

    1996-12-31

    Although behavioral endpoints are used in hazard assessment, establishment of water quality criteria and assessment of a contaminant`s hazard to aquatic life rely primarily on standard acute and chronic toxicity tests. Sublethal effects of pollutants should, however, be of major concern because more organisms experience sublethal rather than acutely or chronically lethal exposures of contaminants. The avoidance-preference approach to behavioral bioassays is very useful in screening pollutants for which the mechanisms of perception or response are largely unknown. The underlying philosophy of these studies is that an animal which perceives a chemical can be attracted or repulsed by it. No response is frequently assumed to indicate lack of perception. All three responses have broad ecological implications. The authors discuss the conditions required for performing avoidance-preference bioassays, as well as their sensitivities, advantages, and limitations. In this regard, a comparative approach is used in examining the results of avoidance-preference bioassays with zebrafish in two different apparatuses. Finally, they compare the results of avoidance-preference studies with other measures of the behavioral toxicity of lead to tadpoles.

  4. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W; Hensch, Takao K

    2012-10-16

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a "critical period" for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of the Nogo receptor (NgR(-/-)) unmasked a strong plasticity of preference consistent with a reopening of the critical period as seen in other systems. Imaging of cFos expression revealed a prominent neuronal activation in response to the exposed music in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex only under conditions of open plasticity. Neither behavioral changes nor selective medial prefrontal cortex activation was observed in response to pure tone exposure, indicating a music-specific effect. Open-field center crossings were increased concomitant with shifts in music preference, suggesting a potential anxiolytic effect. Thus, music may offer both a unique window into the emotional state of mice and a potentially efficient assay for molecular "brakes" on critical period plasticity common to sensory and higher order brain areas. PMID:23045690

  5. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W.; Hensch, Takao K.

    2012-01-01

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a “critical period” for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of the Nogo receptor (NgR−/−) unmasked a strong plasticity of preference consistent with a reopening of the critical period as seen in other systems. Imaging of cFos expression revealed a prominent neuronal activation in response to the exposed music in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex only under conditions of open plasticity. Neither behavioral changes nor selective medial prefrontal cortex activation was observed in response to pure tone exposure, indicating a music-specific effect. Open-field center crossings were increased concomitant with shifts in music preference, suggesting a potential anxiolytic effect. Thus, music may offer both a unique window into the emotional state of mice and a potentially efficient assay for molecular “brakes” on critical period plasticity common to sensory and higher order brain areas. PMID:23045690

  6. Preferring the Contemporary Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Marc

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study that indicated that readers of college newspapers prefer a front page style that is contemporary and emphasizes a horizontal layout to either an avant-garde style that features an entirely horizontal layout or a traditional layout having a vertical page. (TJ)

  7. Cognitive Preferences and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.; O'Donnell, Teresa Flores

    This document reports on a study into the relationships between cognitive preferences, achievement, and ethnicity of first year algebra students. The sample consisted of 175 students from two high schools in the Denver (Colorado) metropolitan area. The two schools were chosen because of the diversity of ethnic groups in the student populations.…

  8. Strategic Decisions in Task-Oriented Reading.

    PubMed

    Salmerón, Ladislao; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martínez, Tomás; Mañá, Amelia; Gil, Laura; Naumann, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Answering questions from texts are assessment and instructional activities that are frequently used in schools. Nevertheless, little is known about the strategic processes that students take while performing these tasks. We explored the amount and frequency that students initially read of a text before they answered questions pertaining to the material. In a procedure similar to the one used in the PISA (Program for International Students Assessment), one-hundred-seventy students between 7th and 9th grade read and answered several questions designed to assess task-oriented reading in three specific texts. We recorded on-line indexes that evaluated student behavior (e.g., the amount of text that students read before answering questions raised within a given text), performance, and comprehension skill. The results revealed that students skilled in comprehension initially read a high proportion of the texts, which in turn improved their overall performance in two of the three texts read (text 1: CI95%: 0.01 to 0.09; text 2: CI95%: -0.01 to 0.05; text 3: CI95%: 0.04 to 0.20). Therefore, we conclude that this strategic behavior should be considered during the assessment and instruction of reading literacy. PMID:26707969

  9. Differential sensitivity of the caudal and rostral nucleus accumbens to the rewarding effects of a H1-histaminergic receptor blocker as measured with place-preference and self-stimulation behavior.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, P; Privou, C; Huston, J P

    1999-01-01

    A recent series of studies in rats has demonstrated positively reinforcing and memory enhancing effects following lesions of the nucleus tuberomammillaris, which is the only known source of neuronal histamine. The aim of the present experiments was to assess whether inhibition of histaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum has positively reinforcing effects. In Experiment 1 rats with chronically-implanted cannulae were injected with the H1 receptor blocker d-( + )-chlorpheniramine at doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 microg into the rostral or caudal parts of the nucleus accumbens, a brain region known to be involved in reward-related processes. Immediately after the treatment the animals were placed into one of four restricted quadrants of a circular open field (closed corral) for a single conditioning trial. During the drug-free test for conditioned place preference, when a choice among the four quadrants was provided, those rats injected with 10.0 microg chlorpheniramine in the caudal nucleus accumbens spent more time in the treatment corral, indicative of a positively rewarding drug action. In Experiment 2 the question was posed whether injection of chlorpheniramine into the nucleus accumbens influences electrical self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. For this purpose rats were chronically implanted with two bipolar electrodes aimed at the lateral-hypothalami and with two additional guide cannulae aimed either at the rostral or caudal nucleus accumbens. After having established reliable self-stimulation behavior at one of the two electrode sites the animals were allowed to self-stimulate for one hour (baseline). Then they were unilaterally injected with 10.0 microg chlorpheniramine or vehicle and allowed to self-stimulate for another hour (test). On the next day the same procedure took place, except for the difference that the animals received an injection aimed at the hemisphere not treated so far. Animals treated with chlorpheniramine in the

  10. BTS strategic plan executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-06

    This Strategic Plan positions the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) to be more effective in reducing energy consumption in homes, offices, schools and other buildings, and in reducing environmental impacts associated with energy use.

  11. Financial Management and Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan

    1982-01-01

    Strategic planning involves analysis of risks and opportunities; financial management entails balancing risks and resources to achieve institutional goals. A framework is suggested to help college administrators integrate the two functions. (Author/MSE)

  12. 7 CFR 25.202 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strategic plan. 25.202 Section 25.202 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Nomination Procedure § 25.202 Strategic plan. (a) Principles of strategic plan. The strategic plan included in the application must be developed in accordance...

  13. Strategic power: USA/USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, C.G. )

    1989-01-01

    This uniquely comprehensive book details the impact on U.S. and Soviet strategic perceptions of different strategic cultures. It compares and contrasts power, their sometimes quite different interpretation of strategic concepts and reality, and the relevance of analogous yet distinct processes (e.g. decision-making in defence) and dynamics (the impact of military - industrial complexes). It also details the ramifications of new thinking East and West. It is designed for policy-makers, media and lay people who wish to understand the similarities and peculiarities of U.S. and Soviet strategic mindsets, and their approach to strategic opportunity, threat and dilemma. The author list reads like a veritable Who's Who of the best and the brightest of U.S., Soviet, British, Australian and Canadian strategic analysts- a truly exceptional assemblage of expertise. Each chapter may be read alone, for succinct coverage of either U.S. or Soviet though, approach or reality on any particular issue; together, they provide an encyclopedic reference source for governments, students and others.

  14. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Conflict: Strategic Insights for California's Policymakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moazezi, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta - a major water supply source in California and a unique habitat for many native and invasive species--is on the verge of collapse due to a prolonged conflict over how to manage the Delta. There is an urgent need to expedite the resolution of this conflict because the continuation of the status quo would leave irreversible environmental consequences for the entire state. In this paper a systematic technique is proposed for providing strategic insights into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta conflict. Game theory framework is chosen to systematically analyze behavioral characteristics of decision makers as well as their options in the conflict with respect to their preferences using a formal mathematical language. The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR), a recent game-theoretic technique, is applied to model and analyze the Delta conflict in order to better understand the options, preferences, and behavioral characteristics of the major decision makers. GMCR II as a decision support system tool based on GMCR concept is used to facilitate the analysis of the problem through a range of non-cooperative game theoretic stability definitions. Furthermore, coalition analysis is conducted to analyze the potential for forming partial coalitions among decision makers, and to investigate how forming a coalition can influence the conflict resolution process. This contribution shows that involvement of the State of California is necessary for developing an environmental-friendly resolution for the Delta conflict. It also indicates that this resolution is only achievable through improving the fragile levee systems and constructing a new water export facility.

  15. IPPF's strategic vision 2000.

    PubMed

    Mahler, H

    1994-09-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) supports the objectives of the International Conference on Population and Development. The draft conference document displays the linkages between women's rights, poverty, population, and sustainable development. In the next two to three decades the global population will grow by a staggering 50% and that reality requires sustained socioeconomic growth. The 6 components of IPPF's Strategic Vision 2000 and the action agenda for meeting these challenges are as follows: 1) The small family is rapidly becoming the cultural norm everywhere, as more than 60% of all fertile women and men are using safe and effective contraceptive methods. 2) Sexual and reproductive health is becoming an integral part of the physical, mental, and social health culture and not just the absence of pregnancy, disease or injury. The members of IPPF have been developing programs concentrating on adolescent sexuality. IPPF is also concerned about HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases as they relate to the work undertaken by family planning associations. 3) The quality of care has been heightened by the right of informed choice, service sustainability, and the maintenance of the highest standards. 4) Vigorous programs are in place to eliminate unsafe abortion and to increase access to safe abortion. 5) Young people are systematically supported to give voice to the need for understanding their sexuality and services. There are currently more than 500 million young women and men between the ages of 15 and 19, and their numbers increase for a long time to come. 6) Women are fast moving towards full participation in all aspects of local and global development demanding reproductive rights. IPPF and its associations, through Vision 2000, are committed to the objective of sexual and reproductive health at the national and international levels. PMID:12288265

  16. Preferences, needs and QALYs.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J

    1996-01-01

    Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) have become a household word among health economists. Their use as a means of comparing the value of health programmes and medical interventions has stirred up controversy in the medical profession and the academic community. In this paper, I argue that QALY analysis does not adequately take into account the differentiated nature of the health state values it measures. Specifically, it does not distinguish between needs and preferences with respect to its valuation of health states. I defend the view that needs and preferences are clearly distinguishable, and that the concept of needs cannot be dispensed with, as many health economists suggest. It is argued that the scale along which health states are measured in QALY analysis is not a continuous interval scale, but one which concerns two distinctly different value dimensions. Measuring the values of health state intervals may reveal the weighting attached to the different value dimensions. PMID:8910777

  17. Learning What to Want: Context-Sensitive Preference Learning

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nisheeth; Schrater, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a method for learning relative preferences from histories of choices made, without requiring an intermediate utility computation. Our method infers preferences that are rational in a psychological sense, where agent choices result from Bayesian inference of what to do from observable inputs. We further characterize conditions on choice histories wherein it is appropriate for modelers to describe relative preferences using ordinal utilities, and illustrate the importance of the influence of choice history by explaining all major categories of context effects using them. Our proposal clarifies the relationship between economic and psychological definitions of rationality and rationalizes several behaviors heretofore judged irrational by behavioral economists. PMID:26496645

  18. Learning What to Want: Context-Sensitive Preference Learning.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nisheeth; Schrater, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a method for learning relative preferences from histories of choices made, without requiring an intermediate utility computation. Our method infers preferences that are rational in a psychological sense, where agent choices result from Bayesian inference of what to do from observable inputs. We further characterize conditions on choice histories wherein it is appropriate for modelers to describe relative preferences using ordinal utilities, and illustrate the importance of the influence of choice history by explaining all major categories of context effects using them. Our proposal clarifies the relationship between economic and psychological definitions of rationality and rationalizes several behaviors heretofore judged irrational by behavioral economists. PMID:26496645

  19. A Neural Mechanism of Preference Shifting Under Zero Price Condition

    PubMed Central

    Votinov, Mikhail; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    In everyday life, free products have a strong appeal to us, even if we do not need them. Behavioral studies demonstrated that people have a tendency to switch their preference from preferred more expensive products to less preferable, cheaper alternatives, when the cheaper option becomes free. However, the neural representation of this behavioral anomaly called “Zero price” is still unclear. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they performed binary preference choice task for items with different prices. We found that zero-related change of preference was associated with activation of the choice network, which includes inferior parietal lobule (IPL), posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the amount of activation in medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated with the subjective happiness score of getting free products. Our findings suggest that the Zero-price effect is driven by affective evaluations during decision-making. PMID:27148024

  20. A Neural Mechanism of Preference Shifting Under Zero Price Condition.

    PubMed

    Votinov, Mikhail; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    In everyday life, free products have a strong appeal to us, even if we do not need them. Behavioral studies demonstrated that people have a tendency to switch their preference from preferred more expensive products to less preferable, cheaper alternatives, when the cheaper option becomes free. However, the neural representation of this behavioral anomaly called "Zero price" is still unclear. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they performed binary preference choice task for items with different prices. We found that zero-related change of preference was associated with activation of the choice network, which includes inferior parietal lobule (IPL), posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the amount of activation in medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated with the subjective happiness score of getting free products. Our findings suggest that the Zero-price effect is driven by affective evaluations during decision-making. PMID:27148024

  1. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches. PMID:6525751

  2. Clay Mineral Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of the orientation of clay minerals, often referred to as texture, may be unique to sediments' deposition, composition, deformation or diagenetic history. The literature is rich with studies that include preferred orientation generation in fault gouge, low-grade metamorphic rocks, sediments with variable clay content and during the smectite-to-illite transformation. Untangling the interplay between many competing factors in any one geologic situation has proven a significant challenge over many years. Understanding how, where and when clay minerals develop a preferred orientation has significant implications for permeability anisotropy in shallow burial, the way mechanical properties are projected from shallower to deeper settings in basin modeling packages and the way velocity anisotropy is accounted for in seismic data processing. The assessment of the anisotropic properties of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks is gaining significant momentum in rock physics research. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of how clay minerals develop a preferred orientation in space and time is crucial to the understanding of anisotropy of physical properties. The current study brings together a wealth of data that may be used in a predictive sense to account for fabric anisotropy that may impact any number of rock properties.

  3. Preference reversal in quantum decision theory

    PubMed Central

    Yukalov, Vyacheslav I.; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We consider the psychological effect of preference reversal and show that it finds a natural explanation in the frame of quantum decision theory. When people choose between lotteries with non-negative payoffs, they prefer a more certain lottery because of uncertainty aversion. But when people evaluate lottery prices, e.g., for selling to others the right to play them, they do this more rationally, being less subject to behavioral biases. This difference can be explained by the presence of the attraction factors entering the expression of quantum probabilities. Only the existence of attraction factors can explain why, considering two lotteries with close utility factors, a decision maker prefers one of them when choosing, but evaluates higher the other one when pricing. We derive a general quantitative criterion for the preference reversal to occur that relates the utilities of the two lotteries to the attraction factors under choosing vs. pricing and test successfully its application on experiments by Tversky et al. We also show that the planning paradox can be treated as a kind of preference reversal. PMID:26500592

  4. Hand preferences in captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    O'malley, Robert C; McGrew, W C

    2006-07-01

    The strength of the evidence for population-level handedness in the great apes is a topic of considerable debate, yet there have been few studies of handedness in orangutans. We conducted a study of manual lateralization in a captive group of eight orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) ranking the degrees of manual preference according to a defined framework. We analyzed five behavioral patterns: eat (one- and two-handed), make/modify tool, oral tool-use, and manual tool-use. Although some individuals showed significant manual preferences for one or more tasks, at the group-level both one-handed and two-handed eating, oral tool-use, and make/modify tool were ranked at level 1 (unlateralized). Manual tool-use was ranked at level 2, with four subjects demonstrating significant hand preferences, but no group-level bias to the right or left. Four subjects also showed hand specialization to the right or left across several tasks. These results are consistent with most previous studies of manual preference in orangutans. The emergence of manual lateralization in orangutans may relate to more complex manipulative tasks. We hypothesize that more challenging manual tasks elicit stronger hand preferences. PMID:16604276

  5. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We

  6. 1995-1996 Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    In a rapidly changing world, effective governmental organizations must anticipate and plan for the future. Nowhere is this more true than in the realm of information generation and dissemination. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) faces a future of great opportunity and also significant challenge. Technological advances are providing opportunities to improve our work processes and the way we serve our customers. This year`s Strategic Plan was developed by an EIA Strategic Planning Group with a membership that spans the entire organization. The Strategic Plan provides both a broad vision and a clear map of EIA`s near-term future. The Strategic Planning Group conducted an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of EIA as an organization, and of the opportunities and constraints facing EIA in the future. Opportunities exist in the future in technological advances and staff training; constraints lie in federal budget trends and staff demographics. This will require a Strategic Plan that recognizes the need to prioritize services and products across EIA, standardize technology across EIA where possible, lead with fewer layers of management, and be acutely aware of customer needs. Developing and training EIA employees to meet the challenges of rapidly changing technology and decreasing budgets were given high priority.

  7. Strategic control in decision-making under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vinod; Huettel, Scott A

    2012-04-01

    Complex economic decisions - whether investing money for retirement or purchasing some new electronic gadget - often involve uncertainty about the likely consequences of our choices. Critical for resolving that uncertainty are strategic meta-decision processes, which allow people to simplify complex decision problems, evaluate outcomes against a variety of contexts, and flexibly match behavior to changes in the environment. In recent years, substantial research has implicated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in the flexible control of behavior. However, nearly all such evidence comes from paradigms involving executive function or response selection, not complex decision-making. Here, we review evidence that demonstrates that the dmPFC contributes to strategic control in complex decision-making. This region contains a functional topography such that the posterior dmPFC supports response-related control, whereas the anterior dmPFC supports strategic control. Activation in the anterior dmPFC signals changes in how a decision problem is represented, which in turn can shape computational processes elsewhere in the brain. Based on these findings, we argue for both generalized contributions of the dmPFC to cognitive control, and specific computational roles for its subregions depending upon the task demands and context. We also contend that these strategic considerations are likely to be critical for decision-making in other domains, including interpersonal interactions in social settings. PMID:22487037

  8. Impaired strategic decision making in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Daeyeol; Shin, Young-Min; Chey, Jeanyung

    2007-11-14

    Adaptive decision making in dynamic social settings requires frequent re-evaluation of choice outcomes and revision of strategies. This requires an array of multiple cognitive abilities, such as working memory and response inhibition. Thus, the disruption of such abilities in schizophrenia can have significant implications for social dysfunctions in affected patients. In the present study, 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects completed two computerized binary decision-making tasks. In the first task, the participants played a competitive zero-sum game against a computer in which the predictable choice behavior was penalized and the optimal strategy was to choose the two targets stochastically. In the second task, the expected payoffs of the two targets were fixed and unaffected by the subject's choices, so the optimal strategy was to choose the target with the higher expected payoff exclusively. The schizophrenia patients earned significantly less money during the first task, even though their overall choice probabilities were not significantly different from the control subjects. This was mostly because patients were impaired in integrating the outcomes of their previous choices appropriately in order to maintain the optimal strategy. During the second task, the choices of patients and control subjects displayed more similar patterns. This study elucidated the specific components in strategic decision making that are impaired in schizophrenia. The deficit, which can be characterized as strategic stiffness, may have implications for the poor social adjustment in schizophrenia patients. PMID:17905200

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  10. Strategic Asia 2002 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ellings; Aaron Friedberg; Michael Wills

    2002-09-01

    The Strategic Asia Program made considerable progress over the course of 2002--the program's first year with support from the Department of Energy--and completed all its tasks on schedule and within budget. Following a planning meeting in Washington in February 2002, a team of leading specialists wrote a series of original assessments regarding the impact of September 11 on the strategic environment in Asia, examining how perceptions and strategies of countries in the region changed following the terrorist attacks. The final products, Strategic Asia 2002-03: Asian Aftershocks and its accompanying executive summary, were published in September 2002. The program's research findings (some of which are summarized) were presented to policymakers in Washington and elsewhere throughout the year, and almost 2,000 copies of the book had been distributed by mid-2003.

  11. Shifting Preferences in Pornography Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that subjects with considerable prior exposure to common, nonviolent pornography preferred to watch uncommon pornography. Male nonstudents preferred it almost exclusively, as did male students to a lesser extent. Females also exhibited this consumption preference, though it was far less pronounced, especially in female students. (JD)

  12. Neural correlates of depth of strategic reasoning in medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie

    2009-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate human mental processes in a competitive interactive setting—the “beauty contest” game. This game is well-suited for investigating whether and how a player's mental processing incorporates the thinking process of others in strategic reasoning. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject's choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. According to this model, high-level reasoners expect the others to behave strategically, whereas low-level reasoners choose based on the expectation that others will choose randomly. The data show that high-level reasoning and a measure of strategic IQ (related to winning in the game) correlate with the neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, demonstrating its crucial role in successful mentalizing. This supports a cognitive hierarchy model of human brain and behavior. PMID:19470476

  13. Science and Strategic - Climate Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, J. A.; Moran, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    Energy of weather systems greatly exceeds energy produced and used by humans. Variation in this energy causes climate variability potentially resulting in local, national, and/or global catastrophes beyond our ability to deter the loss of life and economic destabilization. Large scale natural disasters routinely result in shortages of water, disruption of energy supplies, and destruction of infrastructure. The resulting unforeseen and disastrous events occurring beyond national emergency preparation, as related to climate variability, could insight civil unrest due to dwindling and/or inaccessible resources necessary for survival. Lack of these necessary resources in impacted countries often leads to wars. Climate change coupled with population growth, which exposes more of the population to potential risks associated with climate and environmental change, demands faster technological response. Understanding climate/associated environmental changes, the relation to human activity and behavior, and including this in national and international emergency/security management plans would alleviate shortcomings in our present and future technological status. The scale of environmental change will determine the potential magnitude of civil unrest at the local, national, and/or global level along with security issues at each level. Commonly, security issues related to possible civil unrest owing to temporal environmental change is not part of a short and/or long-term strategy, yet recent large-scale disasters are reminders that system failures (as in hurricane Katrina) include acknowledged breaches to individual, community, and infrastructure security. Without advance planning and management concerning environmental change, oncoming and climate related events will intensify the level of devastation and human catastrophe. Depending upon the magnitude and period of catastrophic events and/or environmental changes, destabilization of agricultural systems, energy supplies, and

  14. Strategic materials availability and supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the supply sources and current availability of elements involved in superalloy compositions, as well as of development trends in the substitution of strategic materials for superalloys, giving attention to the results thus far achieved by NASA's Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials program, which formally operated only from 1980 to 1984 but whose various research initiatives have been continued under other NASA programs. Peacetime and wartime economies' need and probable availability analyses are presented for bauxite/aluminum, the Pt-group metals, and the alloying elements Mn, Nb, Ta, Co, Cr, Ni, W, Fe, Cu, Ti, Mo, and Mg.

  15. The Strategic Data Project's Strategic Performance Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Lindsay C.; Fullerton, Jon; Bacher-Hicks, Andrew; Owens, Antoniya; Cohodes, Sarah R.; West, Martin R.; Glover, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Strategic Performance Indicators (SPIs) are summary measures derived from parallel, descriptive analyses conducted across educational agencies. The SPIs are designed to inform agency management and efforts to improve student outcomes. We developed the SPIs to reveal patterns common across partner agencies, to highlight exceptions to those…

  16. Strategic Planning and Strategic Thinking Clothed in STRATEGO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baaki, John; Moseley, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article shares experiences that participants had playing the game of STRATEGO and how the activity may be linked to strategic planning and thinking. Among the human performance technology implications of playing this game are that gamers agreed on a framework for rules, took stock on where they wanted to go in the future, and generated a risk…

  17. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  18. Testing Mixture Models of Transitive Preference: Comment on Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    This article contrasts 2 approaches to analyzing transitivity of preference and other behavioral properties in choice data. The approach of Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober (2011) assumes that on each choice, a decision maker samples randomly from a mixture of preference orders to determine whether "A" is preferred to "B." In contrast, Birnbaum…

  19. Nine-Month-Old Infants Prefer Unattractive Bodies over Attractive Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Quinn, Paul C.; Lee, Kang; Slater, Alan M.; Pascalis, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Infant responses to adult-defined unattractive male body shapes versus attractive male body shapes were assessed using visual preference and habituation procedures. Looking behavior indicated that 9-month-olds have a preference for unattractive male body shapes over attractive ones; however, this preference is demonstrated only when head…

  20. Patient Preferences for OCD treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapana R.; Simpson, Helen Blair

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore preferences for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that OCD patients will select a combination of medication and psychotherapy as their most preferred choice overall. Methods The authors designed a treatment preference survey using two health economics methods, forced choice and contingent ranking methods, to elicit preferences for OCD treatment available in mainstream care (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors [SRIs]), Exposure and Ritual Prevention [EX/RP], and their combination), and for novel treatments under development at OCD research clinics. This survey was given by telephone to 89 individuals with OCD who called the OCD research clinic at the New York State Psychiatric Institute between July 2008 and January 2009. Results Most participants chose combination treatment (43%) or EX/RP (42%) over SRI medication (16%). Participants ranked investigational psychotherapy as their most preferred novel treatment (endorsed by 48% of participants) and deep brain stimulation as their least preferred novel treatment (endorsed by 77% of participants). Qualitative data suggest that prior treatment experience, concerns about medications, and logistical and practical concerns about treatment regimens affect preferences. Conclusions Patients with OCD have identifiable treatment preferences. In this sample of convenience, most preferred either combination treatment or psychotherapy. Future studies should investigate prospectively what modifies these preferences and how these preferences affect treatment outcome. PMID:21114948

  1. Divide and conquer: strategic decision areas

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Nils; Hunt, Laurence T

    2016-01-01

    Human decisions are often strategic, but this can prove difficult to study experimentally. The board game shogi is used to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of strategic decisions, revealing different brain areas to other forms of choice. PMID:25919959

  2. Pharmacy Students' Opinions on Civility and Preferences Regarding Professors

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Catherine; Broedel-Zaugg, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine the types of classroom behavior that pharmacy students consider uncivil, participation in such behaviors, what type of professor and classroom setting they prefer, and changes in these opinions over time. Methods A survey instrument was used to collect data about students' feelings concerning incivility, participation in uncivil behaviors, and preferences concerning classroom experience. Demographic data were used to identify characteristics of student populations and ensure the same students were studied over different time periods. Results Younger students felt cheating was the most uncivil classroom behavior while older students most disliked cell phone/beeper use. Chewing gum was least offensive for all groups. Students desired that teachers cared about their learning experience, but few would phone a professor at home. Conclusions Differences in views concerning civility were found among pharmacy students in their first, third, and fourth years, which may indicate that students' beliefs, actions, and preferences change as they progress through the curriculum. PMID:17136207

  3. Strategic Planning for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patricia; Marshall, Margaret

    Strategic planning is a process designed to move an educational organization through the steps of understanding changes in the external environment, assessing organizational strengths and weaknesses, developing a vision of a desired future and ways to achieve that mission, developing and implementing specific plans, and motivating that…

  4. Strategic Change in AAS Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Julie

    2015-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society has embarked on a process of strategic change in its publishing program. The process has incuded authors, AAS leaders, editors, publishing experts, librarians, and data scientists. This session will outline the still ongoing process and present some both upcoming and already available new AAS Publishing features and services to the global astronomy community.

  5. Entrepreneurial Spirit in Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Donald E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a model which merges the concepts of entrepreneurship with those of strategic planning to create a library management system. Each step of the process, including needs assessment and policy formation, strategy choice and implementation, and evaluation, is described in detail. (CLB)

  6. Strategic Audit and Marketing Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lianna S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this audit was to revise the marketing plan for ADSum Professional Development School and give the owner a long-term vision of the school to operate competitively in the crowded field of for-profit schools. It is fairly simple to create a strategic plan but harder to implement and execute. Execution requires weeks and months of…

  7. Powerful Metrics: Strategic and Transformative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    To be a valuable partner at the strategic level, human resources can and should contribute to both institutional effectiveness measurement and workforce metrics. In this article, the author examines how to link HR initiatives with key institutional strategies, clarifies essential HR responsibilities for workforce results, explores return on human…

  8. Consultancy on Strategic Information Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejova, Zdravka, Ed.; Horton, Forest W., Ed.

    At the workshop, better management through strategic planning of information and consultancy was discussed as one way in which developing and Eastern European countries could tackle the complex information problems they are facing during the transition to a market economy. The sixteen papers in this volume are grouped into three basic categories:…

  9. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  10. Strategic development: a new focus.

    PubMed

    Lefko, J J

    1989-03-01

    Despite popular convention, a health-care organization's chief executive officer should be the organization's chief strategist. Planners and marketers must begin to function as strategic development officers responsible for sending the right information to the right decision makers so that they can make the right decisions as quickly as possible. PMID:10292364

  11. Strategic Planning of Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    Using the Ohio Technology Transfer Organization (OTTO) as its primary example, this paper offers a strategic planning perspective on technology transfer and human resources development. First, a brief overview is provided of the maturation of mission priorities and planning processes in higher education in the United States, followed by a…

  12. NASA Strategic Roadmap Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott; Bauer, Frank; Stetson, Doug; Robey, Judee; Smith, Eric P.; Capps, Rich; Gould, Dana; Tanner, Mike; Guerra, Lisa; Johnston, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    In response to the Vision, NASA commissioned strategic and capability roadmap teams to develop the pathways for turning the Vision into a reality. The strategic roadmaps were derived from the Vision for Space Exploration and the Aldrich Commission Report dated June 2004. NASA identified 12 strategic areas for roadmapping. The Agency added a thirteenth area on nuclear systems because the topic affects the entire program portfolio. To ensure long-term public visibility and engagement, NASA established a committee for each of the 13 areas. These committees - made up of prominent members of the scientific and aerospace industry communities and senior government personnel - worked under the Federal Advisory Committee Act. A committee was formed for each of the following program areas: 1) Robotic and Human Lunar Exploration; 2) Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; 3) Solar System Exploration; 4) Search for Earth-Like Planets; 5) Exploration Transportation System; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Universe Exploration; 9) Earth Science and Applications from Space; 10) Sun-Solar System Connection; 11) Aeronautical Technologies; 12) Education; 13) Nuclear Systems. This document contains roadmap summaries for 10 of these 13 program areas; The International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and Education are excluded. The completed roadmaps for the following committees: Robotic and Human Exploration of Mars; Solar System Exploration; Search for Earth-Like Planets; Universe Exploration; Earth Science and Applications from Space; Sun-Solar System Connection are collected in a separate Strategic Roadmaps volume. This document contains memebership rosters and charters for all 13 committees.

  13. Strategic Plan 2013 to 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumina Foundation for Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, Lumina Foundation released its first strategic plan, based on the goal that 60% of Americans obtain a high-quality postsecondary degree or credential by 2025-- a goal now known as Goal 2025. Much has changed even in the short time since that plan was written, both in the external environment and in what has been learned from this work.…

  14. Strategic Planning for School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jerry J.

    1993-01-01

    Strategic planners concerned with such matters as high-achieving students, high-performing teachers, broad-based community support, and a two-way involvement with the community must analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats existing in the school's internal and external environment. A sample SWOT analysis is included. (MLH)

  15. Strategic Listening for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Jeannine S.; Dunklee, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to communicate effectively with multiple constituencies is recognized as an essential characteristic of effective leaders. Listening strategically is a way of showing parents, students, faculty, staff, and others that their ideas and beliefs are of value. The authors' practitioner-friendly book concentrates on the importance of…

  16. Strategic Planning: The Catastrophic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Stanley J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews and defines continuity of care, or long term care, as a potential economic catastrophe which requires strategic planning. Proposes a Medicare revision that provides integrated funding for acute, sub-acute, and long-term care as elements of continuity of care. (Author/ABB)

  17. Strategic School Planning in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zboon, Mohammad Saleem; Hasan, Manal Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to measuring the applying degree of the strategic school planning stages at the Governmental high schools from the educational supervisors and principals perspective in the directorates related to Amman city, the study society was formed of the educational supervisors and principals working at Educational directorates related to…

  18. How To Institutionalize Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Sally J.

    1999-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso instituted a strategic planning framework with the intent of expanding and maintaining long-term participation by faculty, staff, and other constituents. The four-phase process included generating more open dialog about the future; responding to a powerful external incentive for self-assessment; preparing for…

  19. Strategic Approaches with Resistant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breit, Miranda; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes the operation of a 10-session brief therapy unit for families who have failed in more traditional treatment modalities. Case material is presented to exemplify five different treatment strategies: symptom prescription, reframing, illusion of alternatives, role play, and strategic alliances. Advantages and limitations are discussed.…

  20. Strategic Planning in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilfoil, Wendy R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of strategic planning is to align the institution with the external environment. In fact, it is a complex solution to a complex problem. Environmental change is inevitable and it will always impact one's institution sooner or later. It is better to be proactive, thoughtful, and in charge of change, than to be always in a reactive mode…

  1. Strategic Planning for Technological Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Strategic planning can become downright treacherous if one's institution depends heavily on technology, because technology changes course frequently. Technological change is somewhat predictable, and doing nothing is not an option. A number of complex factors hasten technological change. Limits on performance, breakthrough technology, market…

  2. Characteristics of Useful and Practical Organizational Strategic Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Most organizational strategic plans are not strategic but rather tactical or operational plans masquerading as "strategic." This article identifies the basic elements required in a useful and practical strategic plan and explains why they are important.

  3. 75 FR 22561 - Federal Advisory Committee; United States Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group; Charter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; United States Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group... notice that it is renewing the charter for the United States Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group... Management Officer for the Department of Defense, 703-601-6128. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Group is...

  4. Strategic Alliance Poker: Demonstrating the Importance of Complementary Resources and Trust in Strategic Alliance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, Christopher R.; Worthington, William J.; Collins, Jamie D.

    2012-01-01

    Strategic Alliance Poker (SAP) provides instructors with an opportunity to integrate the resource based view with their discussion of strategic alliances in undergraduate Strategic Management courses. Specifically, SAP provides Strategic Management instructors with an experiential exercise that can be used to illustrate the value creation…

  5. Strategic plan for the geothermal energy program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Geothermal energy (natural heat in the Earth`s crust) represents a truly enormous amount of energy. The heat content of domestic geothermal resources is estimated to be 70,000,000 quads, equivalent to a 750,000-year supply of energy for the entire Nation at current rates of consumption. World geothermal resources (exclusive of resources under the oceans) may be as much as 20 times larger than those of the US. While industry has focused on hydrothermal resources (those containing hot water and/or steam), the long-term future of geothermal energy lies in developing technology to enable use of the full range of geothermal resources. In the foreseeable future, heat may be extracted directly from very hot rocks or from molten rocks, if suitable technology can be developed. The US Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) endorses a vision of the future in which geothermal energy will be the preferred alternative to polluting energy sources. The mission of the Program is to work in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to the US and world energy supply. In executing its mission and achieving its long-term vision for geothermal energy, the Program has identified five strategic goals: electric power generation; direct use applications and geothermal heat pumps; international geothermal development; science and technology; and future geothermal resources. This report discusses the objectives of these five goals.

  6. 12 CFR 228.27 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strategic plan. 228.27 Section 228.27 Banks and...) COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.27 Strategic plan. (a... assessment area(s) under a strategic plan if: (1) The bank has submitted the plan to the Board as...

  7. 12 CFR 228.27 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strategic plan. 228.27 Section 228.27 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.27 Strategic plan. (a) Alternative...(s) under a strategic plan if: (1) The bank has submitted the plan to the Board as provided for...

  8. 23 CFR 1335.6 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Strategic plan. 1335.6 Section 1335.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.6 Strategic plan. A strategic plan shall— (a) Be a multi-year plan that identifies and...

  9. 12 CFR 563e.27 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Strategic plan. 563e.27 Section 563e.27 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.27 Strategic plan. (a) Alternative election. The OTS will assess a... strategic plan if: (1) The savings association has submitted the plan to the OTS as provided for in...

  10. 12 CFR 563e.27 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strategic plan. 563e.27 Section 563e.27 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.27 Strategic plan. (a) Alternative election. The OTS will assess a... strategic plan if: (1) The savings association has submitted the plan to the OTS as provided for in...

  11. 13 CFR 313.6 - Strategic Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strategic Plans. 313.6 Section 313... § 313.6 Strategic Plans. (a) General. An Impacted Community that intends to apply for a grant for implementation assistance under § 313.7 shall develop and submit a Strategic Plan to EDA for evaluation...

  12. 12 CFR 345.27 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strategic plan. 345.27 Section 345.27 Banks and... REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 345.27 Strategic plan. (a) Alternative election. The FDIC... strategic plan if: (1) The bank has submitted the plan to the FDIC as provided for in this section; (2)...

  13. 12 CFR 228.27 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strategic plan. 228.27 Section 228.27 Banks and...) COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.27 Strategic plan. (a... assessment area(s) under a strategic plan if: (1) The bank has submitted the plan to the Board as...

  14. 23 CFR 1335.6 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Strategic plan. 1335.6 Section 1335.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.6 Strategic plan. A strategic plan shall— (a) Be a multi-year plan that identifies and...

  15. 23 CFR 1335.6 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Strategic plan. 1335.6 Section 1335.6 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.6 Strategic plan. A strategic plan shall— (a) Be a multi-year plan that identifies and...

  16. Overview of Strategic Planning. Administrative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raze, Nasus

    Strategic planning is a process by which the guiding members of an organization envision its future and develop tactics to achieve that future. This paper discusses the nature and purposes of strategic planning in educational organizations, and presents a 10-step generic model to illustrate the basic components of strategic planning. These 10…

  17. A Strategic Plan Is Just the Beginning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. B.

    2009-01-01

    The process of strategic planning wears out institutions. Strategic planning, pursued with high purpose and energy, is enervating and exhausting. In this article, the author describes the value-added work of trustees in high-performing boards and discusses the role boards of trustees play as the process of continuous strategic planning unfolds.…

  18. Collaborative Strategic Planning: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua, Flora; Rarieya, Jane F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The concept and practice of strategic planning, while entrenched in educational institutions in the West, is just catching on in Kenya. While literature emphasizes the importance of collaborative strategic planning, it does not indicate the challenges presented by collaboratively engaging in strategic planning. This article reports on findings of…

  19. Rethinking Strategy and Strategic Leadership in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Brent

    2003-01-01

    Reviews nature of strategy and strategic leadership in schools. Considers how leaders can map and reconceptualize the nature of strategy and develop strategic capabilities for longer-term sustainability. Questions hierarchical models of leadership. Highlights three characteristics of strategically oriented schools; suggests ways to improve art of…

  20. Data and information quality strategic plan.

    PubMed

    Bethell, C

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Strategic Plan was developed in response to internal and external concerns about the integrity, consistency, and accuracy of EPA's environmental data. This document explains why a Strategic Plan is needed and the methodology used in its development, cites Agency models of excellence, and presents the six recommendations of EPA's Data and Information Quality Strategic Plan. PMID:12512550

  1. Strategic Activism, Educational Leadership and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, James

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the strategic activism of educational leaders who promote social justice. Given the risks, educational leaders need to be strategic about the ways in which they pursue their activism. Citing current research, this article explores the ways in which leaders strategically pursue their social justice agendas within their own…

  2. Odor preferences shape discrimination learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joshua; Linster, Christiane; Devore, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Forced-choice discrimination is a standard behavioral paradigm used to test animals’ abilities in learning and memory. In this type of task, a reward association is made between a sensory stimulus and a food or water reward and the frequency of correct choice for the stimulus associated with the reward is measured. We here show that when olfactory sensory stimuli are used, spontaneous preferences for odors can influence speed of acquisition in a forced-choice discrimination task. We first show that among a battery of 53 odorants, some odorants elicit longer bouts of spontaneous investigation than others. We confirm that these odor preferences are robust and reliable by measuring relative spontaneous investigation times for pairs of simultaneously presented odorants. Finally, we show that performance on a forced-choice olfactory discrimination depends on relative spontaneous preferences between the rewarded and unrewarded odorants. Namely, rats acquire novel forced-choice odor discrimination problems significantly faster if the preferred odorant, as assessed by relative spontaneous investigation time, is associated with the reward. These results indicate that even subtle differences in the tendency for an animal to approach and investigate one odorant over another can lead to substantial biases in basic learning and memory tasks. PMID:23895061

  3. Social Identity and Preferences*

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Choi, James J.; Strickland, A. Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Social identities prescribe behaviors for people. We identify the marginal behavioral effect of these norms on discount rates and risk aversion by measuring how laboratory subjects’ choices change when an aspect of social identity is made salient. When we make ethnic identity salient to Asian-American subjects, they make more patient choices. When we make racial identity salient to black subjects, non-immigrant blacks (but not immigrant blacks) make more patient choices. Making gender identity salient has no effect on intertemporal or risk choices. PMID:20871741

  4. Strategic targeting of advance care planning interventions: the Goldilocks phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Billings, J Andrew; Bernacki, Rachelle

    2014-04-01

    Strategically selecting patients for discussions and documentation about limiting life-sustaining treatments-choosing the right time along the end-of-life trajectory for such an intervention and identifying patients at high risk of facing end-of-life decisions-can have a profound impact on the value of advance care planning (ACP) efforts. Timing is important because the completion of an advance directive (AD) too far from or too close to the time of death can lead to end-of-life decisions that do not optimally reflect the patient's values, goals, and preferences: a poorly chosen target patient population that is unlikely to need an AD in the near future may lead to patients making unrealistic, hypothetical choices, while assessing preferences in the emergency department or hospital in the face of a calamity is notoriously inadequate. Because much of the currently studied ACP efforts have led to a disappointingly small proportion of patients eventually benefitting from an AD, careful targeting of the intervention should also improve the efficacy of such projects. A key to optimal timing and strategic selection of target patients for an ACP program is prognostication, and we briefly highlight prognostication tools and studies that may point us toward high-value AD interventions. PMID:24493203

  5. Epidemic Spreading on Preferred Degree Adaptive Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jolad, Shivakumar; Liu, Wenjia; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the standard SIS model of epidemic spreading on networks where individuals have a fluctuating number of connections around a preferred degree . Using very simple rules for forming such preferred degree networks, we find some unusual statistical properties not found in familiar Erdös-Rényi or scale free networks. By letting depend on the fraction of infected individuals, we model the behavioral changes in response to how the extent of the epidemic is perceived. In our models, the behavioral adaptations can be either ‘blind’ or ‘selective’ – depending on whether a node adapts by cutting or adding links to randomly chosen partners or selectively, based on the state of the partner. For a frozen preferred network, we find that the infection threshold follows the heterogeneous mean field result and the phase diagram matches the predictions of the annealed adjacency matrix (AAM) approach. With ‘blind’ adaptations, although the epidemic threshold remains unchanged, the infection level is substantially affected, depending on the details of the adaptation. The ‘selective’ adaptive SIS models are most interesting. Both the threshold and the level of infection changes, controlled not only by how the adaptations are implemented but also how often the nodes cut/add links (compared to the time scales of the epidemic spreading). A simple mean field theory is presented for the selective adaptations which capture the qualitative and some of the quantitative features of the infection phase diagram. PMID:23189133

  6. Depressed patients’ preferences for type of psychotherapy: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yrondi, Antoine; Rieu, Julie; Massip, Claire; Bongard, Vanina; Schmitt, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background The treatment recommendations for depressed patients by the American Psychiatric Association encourage a focus on the patient’s preferences. The focus of this study was the preference of depressed inpatients for the type of psychotherapy. Methods Twenty-nine subjects of both sexes who were hospitalized with a major depressive episode were interviewed at 5-day intervals with the same questions after the depressive episode resolved, as indicated by a score less than 7 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The selection of items was performed by expert consensus. Results The supportive psychotherapy scores were the highest, followed by psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The two sessions conducted at 5-day intervals showed no significant difference, which reflected the stability of choices and preferences of patients. Conclusion In this study, the patients preferred supportive psychotherapy as first-line therapy compared to psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:26491265

  7. Effect of Preferred Music on Agitation After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyun; Williams, Reg Arthur; Lee, Donghyun

    2016-04-01

    Agitation is a common behavioral problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI), which threatens the safety of patients and caregivers and disrupts the rehabilitation process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a preferred music intervention on the reduction of agitation in TBI patients and to compare the effects of preferred music with those of classical "relaxation" music. A single group, within-subjects, randomized crossover trial design was formed, consisting of 14 agitated patients with cognitive impairment after severe TBI. Patients listened to preferred music and classical "relaxation" music, with a wash-out period in between. Patients listening to the preferred music reported a significantly greater reduction in agitation compared with the effect seen during the classical "relaxation" music intervention (p = .046). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the preferred music intervention may be effective as an environmental therapeutic approach for reducing agitation after TBI. PMID:26129873

  8. Music-induced Context Preference Following Cocaine Conditioning in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Polston, J.E.; Glick, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional models of drug-seeking behavior have shown that exposure to associated environmental cues can trigger relapse. These learned associations take place during repeated drug administration, resulting in conditioned reinforcement. Although considerable investigation has occurred regarding simple conditioned stimuli, less is known about complex environmental cues, particularly those that may be salient in human addiction. Recent studies indicate that music can serve as a contextual conditioned stimulus in rats and influence drug-seeking behavior during abstinence. The purpose of the present study was to further assess the effectiveness of music as a conditioned stimulus in rats, to determine rats’ preferences for two contrasting pieces of music, and to determine rats’ preferences for music versus silence. To this end, we created an apparatus that gave instrumental control of musical choice (Miles Davis vs. Beethoven) to the rats themselves. After determining baseline musical preference, animals were conditioned with cocaine (10 mg/kg) to the music they initially preferred least, with alternating conditioning sessions pairing saline with the music preferred most. The animals were subsequently tested in a drug-free state to determine what effect this conditioning had on musical preference. The results indicate that music serves as an effective contextual conditioned stimulus, significantly increasing both musical preference and locomotor activity after repeated cocaine conditioning. Furthermore, we found that rats initially favor silence over music, but that this preference can be altered as a result of cocaine-paired conditioning. These findings demonstrate that, after repeated association with reward (cocaine), music can engender a conditioned context preference in rats; these findings are consistent with other evidence showing that musical contextual cues can reinstate drug-seeking behavior in rats. PMID:21688895

  9. Developing strategic thinking in senior management.

    PubMed

    Zabriskie, N B; Huellmantel, A B

    1991-12-01

    Chief Executive Officers have recently stated that their greatest staffing challenge for the 1990s is the development of strategic leadership in their senior management. In order to do this, it is necessary to identify the substance of strategic thinking, and the capabilities that must be mastered. Writers on strategy have identified six major elements of strategic thinking and these have been organized to reveal the tasks, questions, decisions, and skills that senior executives must acquire in order to lead their organizations strategically. Finally, the article identifies training programme elements which are used by Directors of Manpower Development to develop strategic leadership ability. PMID:10118696

  10. On the role of preference in response competition.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, William H; Clark, Kathy M; DeBar, Ruth; Florentino, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A duration-based preference assessment identified items that matched and did not match the sensory consequences hypothesized to maintain stereotypy. When evaluated in treatment, these items effectively competed with the occurrence of stereotypy, regardless of their sensory properties. It is suggested that relative preference, as measured in duration-based assessment, can be as significant as type of stimulation produced in interventions that reduce automatically reinforced problem behavior. PMID:16033172

  11. Sex of Client as a Factor in Preference for an Approach to Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashen, Valjean M.

    1979-01-01

    After viewing tapes of two simulated vocational-educational counseling sessions, one using a behavioral and the other a client-centered approach, college students were asked which counseling style they preferred. Both males and females preferred the behavioral approach, apparently for the "structure" it offers. (SJL)

  12. Preferences and beliefs in ingroup favoritism

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Jim A. C.; Faber, Nadira S.; Crockett, Molly

    2015-01-01

    Ingroup favoritism—the tendency to favor members of one’s own group over those in other groups—is well documented, but the mechanisms driving this behavior are not well understood. In particular, it is unclear to what extent ingroup favoritism is driven by preferences concerning the welfare of ingroup over outgroup members, vs. beliefs about the behavior of ingroup and outgroup members. In this review we analyze research on ingroup favoritism in economic games, identifying key gaps in the literature and providing suggestions on how future work can incorporate these insights to shed further light on when, why, and how ingroup favoritism occurs. In doing so, we demonstrate how social psychological theory and research can be integrated with findings from behavioral economics, providing new theoretical and methodological directions for future research. PMID:25762906

  13. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  14. Strategic leadership: the essential skills.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Paul J H; Krupp, Steve; Howland, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    The more uncertain your environment, the greater the opportunity--if you have the leadership skills to capitalize on it. Research at the Wharton school and at the authors' consulting firm, involving more than 20,000 executives to date, has identified six skills that, when mastered and used in concert, allow leaders to think strategically and navigate the unknown effectively. They are the abilities to anticipate, challenge, interpret, decide, align, and learn. This article describes the six skills in detail and includes a self-assessment that will enable you to identify the ones that most need your attention. The authors have found that strength in one skill cannot easily compensate for a deficit in another. An adaptive strategic leader has learned to apply all six at once. PMID:23390746

  15. Strategic planning for every manager.

    PubMed

    Reeves, P N

    1990-01-01

    All managers plan, but many managers of small organizations limit their planning activities to developing and guiding discrete projects. This decision stems from two erroneous assumptions: strategic planning is useful only in large organizations, and it is too complex for a small organization. As a result, these managers deprive their organizations of an essential tool for long-term survival and prosperity. Strategic planning helps any organization effectively use its scarce resources by relating every decision to the organization's mission. The process for doing this consists of a sequence of decisions that applies in all cases. However, the effort involved in reaching each of these decisions varies with the size and complexity of the organization. Consequently, leaders of small units need not forego using this essential managerial tool. In this article, each decision is described and illustrated with an example from a typical small enterprise. PMID:10106892

  16. Building a strategic security organisation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In everyone's day-to-day jobs there is constant need to deal with current and newly detected matters. This is now a world of immediacy, driven by the cadence of the business and its needs. These concerns should not be ignored, as failing to deal with these issues would not bode well for the future. It is essential that the gears are kept spinning. The challenge for any security organisation is to identify its short-term tactical requirements, while developing longer-term strategic needs. Once done, the differences can be accounted for and strides can be made toward a desired future state. This paper highlights several steps that the author and his team have taken in their own journey. There is no magic answer, each organisation will have its own unique challenges. Nevertheless, some of the approaches to building a strategic security organisation described in this paper are applicable to all organisations, irrespective of their size. PMID:27318284

  17. Strategic alliances and market risk.

    PubMed

    Havenaar, Matthias; Hiscocks, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Strategic alliances in product development and marketing are crucial to the biotechnology industry. Many alliances, however, are terminated before the drug reaches the market. In this article we make the case that strategic alliances can fail because of how they are negotiated. Alliance contracts are often inflexible and do not allow for changes in market conditions. We propose a model for contract valuation that can assist biotech and/or pharma deal makers in negotiating alliances that have a higher chance of survival in uncertain market conditions. The model makes use of variable royalties and milestone payments. Because licensing is key to the biotech and/or pharma business model this article will be of interest not only to professionals in licensing, but to all professionals active in the industry. PMID:22484547

  18. Strategic Defense Initiative - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A general framework for developing the concept and implementing options for strategic ballistic missile defense systems is emerging. The objective of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program is to conduct research on those technologies for defensive system which could intercept ballistic missiles after they have been launched and prevent them from hitting their targets. Its goal is to acquire the technical knowledge as a basis for a later decision on deployment, not a program for deployment or star wars. Abrahamson reviews the basic technological questions facing researchers, outlines the multi-layered defense possibilities and summarizes the status of technology to date. He argues for a continuity of resources to conduct the program. 4 figures.

  19. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  20. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  1. Voter-Weighted Environmental Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Jason; Huber, Joel; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the political economy of preferences with respect to the environment using a new stated preference survey that presents the first benefit values for national water quality levels. The mean valuation greatly exceeds the median value, as the distribution of valuations is highly skewed. The study couples the survey valuations…

  2. Music, Hemisphere Preference and Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette H.

    Two experiments were conducted to determine a possible relationship between the right hemisphere, music perception, and mental imagery. The first experiment compared two groups of college students, one of which showed a preference for left hemisphere thinking (n=22) and the other a preference for right hemisphere thinking (n=20), in order to test…

  3. Preferences for Academic Advising Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Susan B.; Dickman, Marcia M.; Fuqua, Dale R.

    2005-01-01

    This psychometric study was designed to test the feasibility of measuring college students' preferences for developmental and prescriptive advising styles as separate constructs. Part 5 of the Academic Advising Inventory (Winston & Sandor, 1984b) was revised into two independent scales, one for measuring preferences for developmental advising and…

  4. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  5. Gender Preferences in Learning Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rae; Gray, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Reports on preference patterns among gender and age groups for school-science topics and learning experiences among respondents chosen to be nationally representative of Scottish primary and secondary pupils. Finds that girls have a stronger preference for biological topics than boys. Concludes that much of what goes on in science classrooms is…

  6. Children Reason about Shared Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…

  7. Temporal Constraint Reasoning With Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time (specifically, associated with durations or orderings of events) on the basis of preferences. For example. a pair of events might be constrained to occur in a certain order, and, in addition. it might be preferable that the delay between them be as large, or as small, as possible. This paper explores problems in which a set of temporal constraints is specified, where each constraint is associated with preference criteria for making local decisions about the events involved in the constraint, and a reasoner must infer a complete solution to the problem such that, to the extent possible, these local preferences are met in the best way. A constraint framework for reasoning about time is generalized to allow for preferences over event distances and durations, and we study the complexity of solving problems in the resulting formalism. It is shown that while in general such problems are NP-hard, some restrictions on the shape of the preference functions, and on the structure of the preference set, can be enforced to achieve tractability. In these cases, a simple generalization of a single-source shortest path algorithm can be used to compute a globally preferred solution in polynomial time.

  8. Communication as a Strategic Activity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    2010-12-01

    Effective communication requires preparation. The first step is explicit analysis of the decisions faced by audience members, in order to identify the facts essential to their choices. The second step is assessing their current beliefs, in order to identify the gaps in their understanding, as well as their natural ways of thinking. The third step is drafting communications potentially capable of closing those gaps, taking advantage of the relevant behavioral science. The fourth step is empirically evaluating those communications, refining them as necessary. The final step is communicating through trusted channels, capable of getting the message out and receiving needed feedback. Executing these steps requires a team involving subject matter experts (for ensuring that the science is right), decision analysts (for identifying the decision-critical facts), behavioral scientists (for designing and evaluating messages), and communication specialists (for creating credible channels). Larger organizations should be able to assemble those teams and anticipate their communication needs. However, even small organizations, individuals, or large organizations that have been caught flat-footed can benefit from quickly assembling informal teams, before communicating in ways that might undermine their credibility. The work is not expensive, but does require viewing communication as a strategic activity, rather than an afterthought. The talk will illustrate the science base, with a few core research results; note the risks of miscommunication, with a few bad examples; and suggest the opportunities for communication leadership, focusing on the US Food and Drug Administration.

  9. Hidden profiles and concealed information: strategic information sharing and use in group decision making.

    PubMed

    Toma, Claudia; Butera, Fabrizio

    2009-06-01

    Two experiments investigated the differential impact of cooperation and competition on strategic information sharing and use in a three-person group decision-making task. Information was distributed in order to create a hidden profile so that disconfirmation of group members' initial preferences was required to solve the task. Experiment 1 revealed that competition, compared to cooperation, led group members to withhold unshared information, a difference that was not significant for shared information. In competition, compared to cooperation, group members were also more reluctant to disconfirm their initial preferences. Decision quality was lower in competition than in cooperation, this effect being mediated by disconfirmation use and not by information sharing. Experiment 2 replicated these findings and revealed the role of mistrust in predicting strategic information sharing and use in competition. These results support a motivated information processing approach of group decision making. PMID:19332434

  10. Dynamical Field Model of Hand Preference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschetti, Donald R.; Cantalupo, Claudio

    2000-11-01

    Dynamical field models of information processing in the nervous system are being developed by a number of groups of psychologists and physicists working together to explain The details of behaviors exhibited by a number of animal species. Here we adapt such a model to the expression of hand preference in a small primate, the bushbaby (Otolemur garnetti) . The model provides a theoretical foundation for the interpretation of an experiment currently underway in which a several of these animals are forced to extend either right or left hand to retrieve a food item from a rotating turntable.

  11. Experiments in Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polt, James M.

    1971-01-01

    Describes experiments in conditioning, sensory processes, social behavior, imprinting, innate preferences for color and form, and discrimination learning suitable for secondary school students. Mealworms, crickets, and chicks are used as subjects. (AL)

  12. Effects of pairing aggressive and nonaggressive children in strategic peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Hektner, Joel M; August, Gerald J; Realmuto, George M

    2003-08-01

    Examined the behavior of 118 second graders who participated in a 6-week summer school program that incorporated strategic peer affiliation (a "buddy system"). Moderately aggressive children (the targets of the intervention) were paired with nonaggressive peers throughout the program. All participants were observed playing foosball with their buddies and with aggressive and nonaggressive nonbuddies as teammates. Aggressive children had lower levels of disruptive behavior when their teammate was nonaggressive, regardless of whether the teammate was a buddy. Nonaggressive children showed elevated disruptive behavior when playing with an aggressive nonbuddy, but not when playing with an aggressive buddy. The highest level of aggressive behavior was seen in pairs of aggressive teammates who were friends. One year later, no increase in peer-rated aggressive behavior was found in either group. Results suggest that unidirectional peer influence is possible and that strategic peer affiliation can be an effective intervention that does not put nonaggressive children at risk for acquiring undesired behaviors. PMID:12831229

  13. The essential ingredients of successful strategic planning and its implementation

    PubMed Central

    DeRoth, Laszlo

    1990-01-01

    The strategic planning process initiated by the Pew Foundation through the Pritchard Report became a major preoccupation of all of the 31 faculties of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada. It is proposed that, in order to be successful in the strategic planning process, three determinants related to perception, to personality, and to psychosocial behavior are necessary ingredients. First, the professional program should evolve in a team-spirited milieu which can inspire future veterinarians to work in teams. Second, all channels of communication should be kept open. Third, passion and enthusiasm should be the prevailing and all-encompassing characteristics of faculty endeavors. Team-spirit, communication and enthusiasm are the essential ingredients which will be needed to confront the challenges facing the profession, to look towards the future with tremendous hope, and to embrace the 21st century with eagerness. PMID:17423658

  14. Strategic information management plans: the basis for systematic information management in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Winter, A F; Ammenwerth, E; Bott, O J; Brigl, B; Buchauer, A; Gräber, S; Grant, A; Häber, A; Hasselbring, W; Haux, R; Heinrich, A; Janssen, H; Kock, I; Penger, O S; Prokosch, H U; Terstappen, A; Winter, A

    2001-12-01

    Information management in hospitals is a complex task. In order to reduce complexity, we distinguish strategic, tactical, and operational information management. This is essential, because each of these information management levels views hospital information systems from different perspectives, and therefore uses other methods and tools. Since all these management activities deal only in part with computers, but mainly with human beings and their social behavior, we define a hospital information system as a sociotechnical subsystem of a hospital. Without proper strategic planning it would be a matter of chance, if a hospital information system would fulfil the information strategies goals. In order to support strategic planning and to reduce efforts for creating strategic plans, we propose a practicable structure. PMID:11734379

  15. NERSC Strategic Implementation Plan 2002-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William; Bethel, Wes; Craw, James; Draney, Brent; Fortney, William; Gorda, Brend; Harris, William; Meyer, Nancy; Ng, Esmond; Verdier, Francesca; Walter, Howard; Welcome, Tammy

    2002-09-01

    This strategic proposal presents NERSC's vision for its activities and new directions over the next five years. NERSC's continuing commitment to providing high-end systems and comprehensive scientific support for its users will be enhanced, and these activities will be augmented by two new strategic thrusts: support for Scientific Challenge Teams and deployment of a Unified Science Environment. The proposal is in two volumes, the Strategic Plan and the Implementation Plan.

  16. The Evolution of Altruistic Preferences: Mothers versus Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Alger, Ingela; Cox, Donald

    2013-01-01

    What can evolutionary biology tell us about male-female differences in preferences concerning family matters? Might mothers be more solicitous toward offspring than fathers, for example? The economics literature has documented gender differences—children benefit more from money put in the hands of mothers rather than fathers, for example—and these differences are thought to be partly due to preferences. Yet for good reason family economics is mostly concerned with how prices and incomes affect behavior against a backdrop of exogenous preferences. Evolutionary biology complements this approach by treating preferences as the outcome of natural selection. We mine the well-developed biological literature to make a prima facie case for evolutionary roots of parental preferences. We consider the most rudimentary of traits—sex differences in gamete size and internal fertilization—and explain how they have been thought to generate male-female differences in altruism toward children and other preferences related to family behavior. The evolutionary approach to the family illuminates connections between issues typically thought distinct in family economics, such as parental care and marriage markets. PMID:23976890

  17. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676

  18. The Evolution of Altruistic Preferences: Mothers versus Fathers.

    PubMed

    Alger, Ingela; Cox, Donald

    2013-09-01

    What can evolutionary biology tell us about male-female differences in preferences concerning family matters? Might mothers be more solicitous toward offspring than fathers, for example? The economics literature has documented gender differences-children benefit more from money put in the hands of mothers rather than fathers, for example-and these differences are thought to be partly due to preferences. Yet for good reason family economics is mostly concerned with how prices and incomes affect behavior against a backdrop of exogenous preferences. Evolutionary biology complements this approach by treating preferences as the outcome of natural selection. We mine the well-developed biological literature to make a prima facie case for evolutionary roots of parental preferences. We consider the most rudimentary of traits-sex differences in gamete size and internal fertilization-and explain how they have been thought to generate male-female differences in altruism toward children and other preferences related to family behavior. The evolutionary approach to the family illuminates connections between issues typically thought distinct in family economics, such as parental care and marriage markets. PMID:23976890

  19. Preferences in Data Production Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

  20. Get in my belly: food preferences trigger approach and avoidant postural asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Hayes, Jackie F; Mahoney, Caroline R; Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2013-01-01

    Appetitive motivational states are fundamental neural and behavioral mechanisms underlying healthy and abnormal eating behavior, though their dynamic influence on food-related behavior is unknown. The present study examined whether personal food-related preferences would activate approach and avoidance systems, modulating spontaneous postural sway toward and away from food items. Participants stood on a balance board that collected real-time data regarding postural sway along two axes (x, y) while they viewed a series of images depicting food items varying in nutritional value and individual preferences. Overall, participants showed reliable postural sway toward highly preferred and away from highly non-preferred items. This effect became more pronounced over time; sway along the mediolateral axis showed no reliable variation by preference. Results carry implications for two-factor (homeostatic versus hedonic) neurobehavioral theories of hunger and appetitive motivation, and carry applied clinical implications for the measurement and management of abnormal eating behavior. PMID:24023618

  1. Get in My Belly: Food Preferences Trigger Approach and Avoidant Postural Asymmetries

    PubMed Central

    Brunyé, Tad T.; Hayes, Jackie F.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Gardony, Aaron L.; Taylor, Holly A.; Kanarek, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Appetitive motivational states are fundamental neural and behavioral mechanisms underlying healthy and abnormal eating behavior, though their dynamic influence on food-related behavior is unknown. The present study examined whether personal food-related preferences would activate approach and avoidance systems, modulating spontaneous postural sway toward and away from food items. Participants stood on a balance board that collected real-time data regarding postural sway along two axes (x, y) while they viewed a series of images depicting food items varying in nutritional value and individual preferences. Overall, participants showed reliable postural sway toward highly preferred and away from highly non-preferred items. This effect became more pronounced over time; sway along the mediolateral axis showed no reliable variation by preference. Results carry implications for two-factor (homeostatic versus hedonic) neurobehavioral theories of hunger and appetitive motivation, and carry applied clinical implications for the measurement and management of abnormal eating behavior. PMID:24023618

  2. Reflections on strategic nurse leadership.

    PubMed

    White, Jean

    2012-10-01

    This paper sets out some personal reflections by the Chief Nursing Officer for Wales on the challenges facing nurses and midwives as they undertake strategic leadership roles in NHS organisations. The paper looks at the national approach taken in Wales where behavioural competencies for executive nurse directors have been implemented. It considers the implications of the breadth of responsibilities executive nurse directors have and the importance of developing and supporting middle grade nurse managers and clinical directors. It concludes by looking at who is responsible for care within an organisation. PMID:23050616

  3. Strategic workshops on cancer nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Larry A; Lee, Jerry S H; Molnar, Linda K; Panaro, Nicholas J; Farrell, Dorothy; Ptak, Krzysztof; Alper, Joseph; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2010-06-01

    Nanotechnology offers the potential for new approaches to detecting, treating, and preventing cancer. To determine the current status of the cancer nanotechnology field and the optimal path forward, the National Cancer Institute's Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer held three strategic workshops, covering the areas of in vitro diagnostics and prevention, therapy and post-treatment, and in vivo diagnosis and imaging. At each of these meetings, a wide range of experts from academia, industry, the nonprofit sector, and the U.S. government discussed opportunities in the field of cancer nanotechnology and barriers to its implementation. PMID:20460532

  4. Strategic defense initiative: Folly or future

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, P.E.; Merritt, J.

    1986-01-01

    This collection of analyses is a guide through the maze of claims and criticisms about ''Star Wars,'' the controversial effort of the Reagan administration to reorient United States nuclear strategy to strategic defense. The text starts with an introduction by the editors followed by individual chapters outlining the strategic defense initiative as originally conceived and subsequently modified by the Reagan administration; the arguments for and against the plan's strategic and technical feasibility; and assessments of the harmful and constructive effects of strategic defense on U.S.-Soviet and U.S.-allied relations.

  5. Variable Substrate Preference among Phospholipase D Toxins from Sicariid Spiders*

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Daniel M.; Roberts, Sue A.; Zobel-Thropp, Pamela A.; Delahaye, Jared L.; Bandarian, Vahe; Binford, Greta J.; Cordes, Matthew H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Venoms of the sicariid spiders contain phospholipase D enzyme toxins that can cause severe dermonecrosis and even death in humans. These enzymes convert sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates to cyclic phosphates by activating a hydroxyl nucleophile present in both classes of lipid. The most medically relevant substrates are thought to be sphingomyelin and/or lysophosphatidylcholine. To better understand the substrate preference of these toxins, we used 31P NMR to compare the activity of three related but phylogenetically diverse sicariid toxins against a diverse panel of sphingolipid and lysolipid substrates. Two of the three showed significantly faster turnover of sphingolipids over lysolipids, and all three showed a strong preference for positively charged (choline and/or ethanolamine) over neutral (glycerol and serine) headgroups. Strikingly, however, the enzymes vary widely in their preference for choline, the headgroup of both sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine, versus ethanolamine. An enzyme from Sicarius terrosus showed a strong preference for ethanolamine over choline, whereas two paralogous enzymes from Loxosceles arizonica either preferred choline or showed no significant preference. Intrigued by the novel substrate preference of the Sicarius enzyme, we solved its crystal structure at 2.1 Å resolution. The evolution of variable substrate specificity may help explain the reduced dermonecrotic potential of some natural toxin variants, because mammalian sphingolipids use primarily choline as a positively charged headgroup; it may also be relevant for sicariid predatory behavior, because ethanolamine-containing sphingolipids are common in insect prey. PMID:25752604

  6. Neighborhood Preference, Walkability and Walking in Overweight/Obese Men

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Gregory J.; Carlson, Jordan A.; O’Mara, Stephanie; Sallis, James F.; Patrick, Kevin; Frank, Lawrence D.; Godbole, Suneeta V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether self-selection moderated the effects of walkability on walking in overweight and obese men. Methods 240 overweight and obese men completed measures on importance of walkability when choosing a neighborhood (selection) and preference for walkable features in general (preference). IPAQ measured walking. A walkbility index was derived from geographic information systems (GIS). Results Walkability was associated with walking for transportation (p = .027) and neighborhood selection was associated with walking for transportation (p = .002) and total walking (p = .001). Preference was associated with leisure walking (p = .045) and preference moderated the relationship between walkability and total walking (p = .059). Conclusion Walkability and self-selection are both important to walking behavior. PMID:23026109

  7. 77 FR 54615 - Strategic Management Program; Fiscal Year 2013-2016 Strategic Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Strategic Management Program; Fiscal Year 2013-2016 Strategic Plan AGENCY: National....ntsb.gov/doclib/agency_reports/Strategic-Plan_2013-2016.pdf . DATES: Parties should submit comments...

  8. How Preferences For Eager Versus Vigilant Judgment Strategies Affect Self-Serving Conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Molden, Daniel C.; Higgins, E. Tory

    2008-01-01

    People are often motivated to reach self-serving conclusions during judgment. This article examines how such self-serving judgment outcomes are influenced by preferences for different judgment strategies. Two studies tested how preferences for eager (promotion-oriented) versus vigilant (prevention-oriented) judgment strategies affected self-serving explanations for success or failure. Regardless of their performance, those preferring vigilant strategies selectively endorsed a few explanations above others, whereas those preferring eager strategies more evenly endorsed multiple explanations. Furthermore, although the explanations selected by those preferring vigilant strategies were indeed self-serving (emphasizing personal responsibility for success and external circumstances for failure), the more balanced endorsement of multiple explanations by those preferring eager strategies was associated with attenuated self-serving tendencies. Finally, those preferring eager strategies were also less self-serving in their generalization from explanations of current performance to predictions of future performance. The larger implications of these findings for the role of strategic preferences in judgment are discussed. PMID:19727421

  9. Hospital development plans: a new tool to break ground for strategic thinking in Tanzanian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Flessa, Steffen

    2005-12-01

    Tanzanian hospitals suffer from underfunding and poor management. In particular, planning and strategic thinking need improvement. Cultural values such as subordination, risk aversion, and high time preference, together with a long history of socialist government, result in lack of responsibility, accountability, and planning. This has been addressed by the health sector reform with its focus on decentralization, strengthened by the introduction of basket funding facilitated by the Comprehensive Council Health Plans. As a consequence of this the next logical step is to improve the authority of regional and district hospitals in the use of their resources by introducing hospital development plans. These strategic plans were introduced as tools of strategic planning in 2001 by the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau in close collaboration with the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, binding the release of rehabilitation funds to presentation of a strategic hospital plan. This study examines the rationale and content of hospital development plans. Initial experiences are discussed. The quality of presented plans has steadily improved, but there is a tendency for hospitals with a close connection to development partners to present well prepared reports while other hospitals have severe problems fulfilling the requirements. For many hospitals it is in fact the first time that they have had to define their functions and future role, thus breaking ground for strategic thinking. PMID:16267658

  10. Verbal framing of statistical evidence drives children's preference inferences.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Laura E; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-05-01

    Although research has shown that statistical information can support children's inferences about specific psychological causes of others' behavior, previous work leaves open the question of how children interpret statistical information in more ambiguous situations. The current studies investigated the effect of specific verbal framing information on children's ability to infer mental states from statistical regularities in behavior. We found that preschool children inferred others' preferences from their statistically non-random choices only when they were provided with verbal information placing the person's behavior in a specifically preference-related context, not when the behavior was presented in a non-mentalistic action context or an intentional choice context. Furthermore, verbal framing information showed some evidence of supporting children's mental state inferences even from more ambiguous statistical data. These results highlight the role that specific, relevant framing information can play in supporting children's ability to derive novel insights from statistical information. PMID:25704581

  11. Alcohol demand and risk preference

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6–8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  12. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use. PMID:19956353

  13. College Students' Therapy Preferences: The Role of Psychological Mindedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined expectations and preferences of psychotherapy approach in 225 college students. Psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques were generally favored over cognitive-behavioral (CB) techniques both in expectations of what is characteristic of a typical therapy session and perceived helpfulness. There was no difference in…

  14. Peer Preferences in Toddlerhood: Influences of Friendship and Activity Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee

    Are children's same-sex affiliations due to genetically sex-linked behavioral tendencies or are they a result of power and privilege differentials in the larger society that discourage girls from engaging in cross-sex interaction? Sex cleavages in naturally occurring toddler peer groups were investigated by examining playmate preferences and…

  15. Training Staff to Implement Brief Stimulus Preference Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldy, Christina R.; Rapp, John T.; Capocasa, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    We trained 9 behavioral staff members to conduct 2 brief preference assessments using 30-min video presentations that contained instructions and modeling. After training, we evaluated each staff member's implementation of the assessments in situ. Results indicated that 1 or 2 training sessions for each method were sufficient for teaching each…

  16. Efficiency of Forced Choice Preference Assessment: Comparing Multiple Presentation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cheryl J.; Brock, Michele D.; McNulty, Kristin; Rosswurm, Mary L.; Bruneau, Benjamin; Zane, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Determining effective reinforcers for individuals with disabilities is imperative for skill acquisition and behavior reduction. Various methodologies exist to determine reinforcer preference, and past research has shown that results vary across different techniques. The purpose of the current study was to assess which presentation methods were…

  17. Evolutionary Preference/Utility Functions: A Dynamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSarbo, Wayne S.; Fong, Duncan K. H.; Liechty, John; Coupland, Jennifer Chang

    2005-01-01

    The collection of repeated measures in psychological research is one of the most common data collection formats employed in survey and experimental research. The behavioral decision theory literature documents the existence of the dynamic evolution of preferences that occur over time and experience due to learning, exposure to additional…

  18. Strategic planning for power system restorations

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Van Hententyck, Pascal; Coffrin, Carleton

    2010-10-12

    This paper considers the power system restoration planning problem (PSRPP) for disaster recovery, a fundamental problem faced by all populated areas. PSRPPs are complex stochastic optimization problems that combine resource allocation, warehouse location, and vehicle routing considerations. Furthermore, electrical power systems are complex systems whose behavior can only be determined by physics simulations. Moreover, these problems must be solved under tight runtime constraints to be practical in real-world disaster situations. This work is three fold: (1) it formalizes the specification of PSRPPs; (2) introduces a simple optimization-simulation hybridization necessary for solving PSRPPs; and (3) presents a complete restoration algorithm that utilizes the strengths of mixed integer programming, constraint programming, and large neighborhood search. This paper studied a novel problem in the field of humanitarian logistics, the Power System Restoration Problem (PSRPP). The PSRPP models the strategic planning process for post disaster power system recovery. The paper proposed a multi-stage stochastic hybrid optimization algorithm that yields high quality solutions to real-world benchmarks provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The algorithm uses a variety of technologies, including MIP, constraint programming, and large neighborhood search, to exploit the structure of each individual optimization subproblem. The experimental results on hurricane disaster benchmarks indicate that the algorithm is practical from a computational standpoint and produce significant improvements over existing relief delivery procedures.

  19. Collaborative Strategic Planning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanaghan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This book outlines a simple, five-phase collaborative approach to strategic planning that has worked effectively on many campuses. Specifically, Collaborative Strategic Planning (CSP) refers to the disciplined and thoughtful process of meaningfully engaging relevant stakeholders in creating a shared future vision and goals for their institution.…

  20. Strategic Teaching: Some Concepts for Instructional Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beau Fly

    1988-01-01

    Discusses strategic teaching, a process for organizing and representing subject content, for helping students think about their own learning processes, for organizing skills instruction, and for managing classroom instruction. Provides an example of strategic instructional planning and a graphic that shows step-by-step procedures for the planning…