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Sample records for pregnant female models

  1. Pregnant female anthropometry from ct scans for finite element model development.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Kathryn; Halsey, Michael; Anthony, Evelyn; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel

    2008-01-01

    In this study, anthropometry data is collected from a CT scan of a pregnant abdomen at 32 weeks gestation. Over 1500 fetal losses occur each year in the United States due to motor vehicles crashes. Pregnant occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes are at risk for pregnancy-specific injuries. Masks of the fetus, uterus, placenta, and each of the abdominal organs are created by segmentation of the CT slices and three-dimensional volume renderings are formed. The volume and Hounsfield unit ranges for the masks of each abdominal organ are calculated. The total volume of the uterus in the 3rd trimester is measured as 3378 cm3. By measuring the length of bones on the fetal skeleton from CT slices and the 3D rendering, the gestational age of the fetus is estimated to be 32 weeks by comparison with literature values. Measurements of each of the abdominal organs are also obtained from the 3D rendering to create a blueprint of the pregnant anatomy. The masks developed and the anthropometric measurements taken will be used to develop a more accurate FE model of the pregnant female for use in the research and development in academia, industry, and government. PMID:19141941

  2. PRRSV and the pregnant female

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pregnant Gilt Model (PGM) is substantially complete and has provided substantive deliverables for the swine industry in Canada and beyond. The success of the PGM was largely dependent on a team of more than 30 researchers, students and technicians, along with external collaborators and instituti...

  3. SAF values for internal photon emitters calculated for the RPI-P pregnant-female models using Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, C. Y.; Xu, X. George; Stabin, Michael G.

    2008-07-15

    Estimates of radiation absorbed doses from radionuclides internally deposited in a pregnant woman and her fetus are very important due to elevated fetal radiosensitivity. This paper reports a set of specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for use with the dosimetry schema developed by the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee. The calculations were based on three newly constructed pregnant female anatomic models, called RPI-P3, RPI-P6, and RPI-P9, that represent adult females at 3-, 6-, and 9-month gestational periods, respectively. Advanced Boundary REPresentation (BREP) surface-geometry modeling methods were used to create anatomically realistic geometries and organ volumes that were carefully adjusted to agree with the latest ICRP reference values. A Monte Carlo user code, EGS4-VLSI, was used to simulate internal photon emitters ranging from 10 keV to 4 MeV. SAF values were calculated and compared with previous data derived from stylized models of simplified geometries and with a model of a 7.5-month pregnant female developed previously from partial-body CT images. The results show considerable differences between these models for low energy photons, but generally good agreement at higher energies. These differences are caused mainly by different organ shapes and positions. Other factors, such as the organ mass, the source-to-target-organ centroid distance, and the Monte Carlo code used in each study, played lesser roles in the observed differences in these. Since the SAF values reported in this study are based on models that are anatomically more realistic than previous models, these data are recommended for future applications as standard reference values in internal dosimetry involving pregnant females.

  4. A comparison of foetal SAR in three sets of pregnant female models.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, Peter J; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Xu, X George

    2009-05-01

    This paper compares the foetal SAR in the HPA hybrid mathematical phantoms with the 26-week foetal model developed at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, and the set of 13-, 26- and 38-week boundary representation models produced at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. FDTD calculations are performed at a resolution of 2 mm for a plane wave with a vertically aligned electric field incident upon the body from the front, back and two sides from 20 MHz to 3 GHz under isolated conditions. The external electric field values required to produce the ICNIRP public exposure localized restriction of 2 W kg(-1) when averaged over 10 g of the foetus are compared with the ICNIRP reference levels. PMID:19369706

  5. A boundary-representation method for designing whole-body radiation dosimetry models: pregnant females at the ends of three gestational periods—RPI-P3, -P6 and -P9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. George; Taranenko, Valery; Zhang, Juying; Shi, Chengyu

    2007-12-01

    Fetuses are extremely radiosensitive and the protection of pregnant females against ionizing radiation is of particular interest in many health and medical physics applications. Existing models of pregnant females relied on simplified anatomical shapes or partial-body images of low resolutions. This paper reviews two general types of solid geometry modeling: constructive solid geometry (CSG) and boundary representation (BREP). It presents in detail a project to adopt the BREP modeling approach to systematically design whole-body radiation dosimetry models: a pregnant female and her fetus at the ends of three gestational periods of 3, 6 and 9 months. Based on previously published CT images of a 7-month pregnant female, the VIP-Man model and mesh organ models, this new set of pregnant female models was constructed using 3D surface modeling technologies instead of voxels. The organ masses were adjusted to agree with the reference data provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and previously published papers within 0.5%. The models were then voxelized for the purpose of performing dose calculations in identically implemented EGS4 and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes. The agreements of the fetal doses obtained from these two codes for this set of models were found to be within 2% for the majority of the external photon irradiation geometries of AP, PA, LAT, ROT and ISO at various energies. It is concluded that the so-called RPI-P3, RPI-P6 and RPI-P9 models have been reliably defined for Monte Carlo calculations. The paper also discusses the needs for future research and the possibility for the BREP method to become a major tool in the anatomical modeling for radiation dosimetry.

  6. The vanished pregnant body in psychoanalytic female developmental theory.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2003-01-01

    The author contends that the pregnant body-the premier icon of the mature female body-has vanished from our psychoanalytic theory of female development. Until we are able to restore this missing entity on a par with the phallus, the developmental theory for both sexes remains fixated in phallocentricism. The author traces some of the evidence for this claim in a brief overview of the literature, a study of the relevant aspects of the case of Little Hans, and a look at the history of medical teaching, in particular illustrations from the first dissections of female bodies in the sixteenth century, which demonstrate a view of the female body as essentially male. A puzzle remains about the marked tendencies that both males and females had, and still have, to distort the female body image. The author offers a clinical example, and the suggestion that the plasticity of the female form in all its developmental phases may underlie the paradoxical requirement that stable mental representations be established upon an elusive set of shifting images. PMID:14713009

  7. Fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients for neutron beams from 0.001 eV to 100 GeV calculated for a set of pregnant female and fetus models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X. George

    2008-03-01

    Protection of fetuses against external neutron exposure is an important task. This paper reports a set of absorbed dose conversion coefficients for fetal and maternal organs for external neutron beams using the RPI-P pregnant female models and the MCNPX code. The newly developed pregnant female models represent an adult female with a fetus including its brain and skeleton at the end of each trimester. The organ masses were adjusted to match the reference values within 1%. For the 3 mm cubic voxel size, the models consist of 10-15 million voxels for 35 organs. External monoenergetic neutron beams of six standard configurations (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, ROT and ISO) and source energies 0.001 eV-100 GeV were considered. The results are compared with previous data that are based on simplified anatomical models. The differences in dose depend on source geometry, energy and gestation periods: from 20% up to 140% for the whole fetus, and up to 100% for the fetal brain. Anatomical differences are primarily responsible for the discrepancies in the organ doses. For the first time, the dependence of mother organ doses upon anatomical changes during pregnancy was studied. A maximum of 220% increase in dose was observed for the placenta in the nine months model compared to three months, whereas dose to the pancreas, small and large intestines decreases by 60% for the AP source for the same models. Tabulated dose conversion coefficients for the fetus and 27 maternal organs are provided.

  8. Megaloblastic hematopoiesis in a 20 year old pregnant female

    PubMed Central

    Trivette, Evan T.; Hoedebecke, Kyle; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S.; Jacobs, Brandy R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Nitrous oxide can cause disordered blood cell proliferation and lead to pancytopenia and altered immune function. Case Report: A young pregnant female patient presented after binge nitrous oxide abuse with altered mental status and abnormal vital signs. From her initial assessment she was noted to have pancytopenia and was found to have megaloblastic, hyper-cellular changes in a subsequent bone marrow biopsy. This presentation was determined to be secondary to toxic effects after heavy use of nitrous oxide. Conclusions: Nitrous oxide exposure, including use as an inhalant, over 12 hours can lead to bone marrow abnormalities such as megaloblastic hematopoiesis. PMID:23569553

  9. Bone strontium in pregnant and lactating females from archaeological samples.

    PubMed

    Blakely, R L

    1989-10-01

    Because plants and animals consume or absorb different amounts of strontium and calcium, anthropologists are able to use strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios from archaeologically recovered human bone to estimate the relative contributions of meat and plants to paleodiets. Often females exhibit higher Sr/Ca ratios than males, a fact usually attributed to lower meat intake among women. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments with laboratory animals show that pregnancy and lactation elevate maternal bone strontium and depress maternal bone calcium because 1) strontium is discriminated against in favor of calcium in the transport of ions to the placenta and mammary glands and 2) pregnancy and lactation facilitate absorption of alkaline earth metals from the gut. In this study, bone Sr/Ca ratios and strontium concentrations were compared between reproductive-age females, postmenopausal females, and adult males from two late prehistoric Native American sites in Georgia: the King site (N = 43) and the Etowah site (N = 51). At the King site, the mean Sr/Ca ratio of females was over 14% greater than that of males. At Etowah, the mean strontium level of reproductive-age females exceeded that of postmenopausal females by almost 25%. Most of the difference, it is argued, is due to pregnancy and lactation. A dietary preference among pregnant and lactating women for foods high in alkaline earths, particularly nuts and corn, may also be partially responsible. Until we assess the influence variables other than nutrition exert on trace element concentrations, our reconstructions of paleodiets will be suspect. PMID:2801910

  10. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-01

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. PMID:24182770

  11. Fear of becoming pregnant among female healthcare students in Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Arroyo-Sebastián, María Del Ángel; Gómez-Pérez, Luis; Sepehri, Armina; Martínez-Pérez, Salvador; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The inconsistent use of hormonal contraceptive methods can result, during the first year of use, in one in twelve women still having an undesired pregnancy. This may lead to women experiencing fear of becoming pregnant (FBP). We have only found one study examining the proportion of FBP among women who used hormonal contraceptives. To gather further scientific evidence we undertook an observational, cross-sectional study involving 472 women at a Spanish university in 2005-2009. The inclusion criteria were having had vaginal intercourse with a man in the previous three months and usual use for contraception of a male condom or hormonal contraceptives, or no method of contraception. The outcome was FBP. The secondary variables were contraceptive method used (oral contraceptives; condom; none), desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, the sexual partner not always able to ejaculate, desire to increase the partner's time before orgasm, age and being in a stable relationship. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the associated factors. Of the 472 women, 171 experienced FBP (36.2%). Factors significantly associated (p < 0.05) with this FBP were method of contraception (condom and none), desire to increase the partner's ability to delay orgasm and higher frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner. There was a high proportion of FBP, depending on the use of efficient contraceptive methods. A possible solution to this problem may reside in educational programmes. Qualitative studies would be useful to design these programmes. PMID:26336643

  12. Fear of becoming pregnant among female healthcare students in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Arroyo-Sebastián, María del Ángel; Gómez-Pérez, Luis; Sepehri, Armina; Martínez-Pérez, Salvador; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The inconsistent use of hormonal contraceptive methods can result, during the first year of use, in one in twelve women still having an undesired pregnancy. This may lead to women experiencing fear of becoming pregnant (FBP). We have only found one study examining the proportion of FBP among women who used hormonal contraceptives. To gather further scientific evidence we undertook an observational, cross-sectional study involving 472 women at a Spanish university in 2005–2009. The inclusion criteria were having had vaginal intercourse with a man in the previous three months and usual use for contraception of a male condom or hormonal contraceptives, or no method of contraception. The outcome was FBP. The secondary variables were contraceptive method used (oral contraceptives; condom; none), desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, the sexual partner not always able to ejaculate, desire to increase the partner’s time before orgasm, age and being in a stable relationship. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the associated factors. Of the 472 women, 171 experienced FBP (36.2%). Factors significantly associated (p < 0.05) with this FBP were method of contraception (condom and none), desire to increase the partner’s ability to delay orgasm and higher frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner. There was a high proportion of FBP, depending on the use of efficient contraceptive methods. A possible solution to this problem may reside in educational programmes. Qualitative studies would be useful to design these programmes. PMID:26336643

  13. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul Min; Seo, Hye-Jin; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong, Seong-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Hur, Min Hee; Song, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity. Methods Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Results Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive Mood Disorder Questionnaire scores, suggesting the presence of bipolarity, and were significantly more likely to score high on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Antenatal depression was associated with bad marital communication and marital dissatisfaction. Conclusion These results suggest that spousal interactions play a significant role in antenatal depression, and pregnant women with bipolarity may be more depressed than those without bipolarity. PMID:24966674

  14. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of guaifenesin using pregnant female rats

    PubMed Central

    Shabbir, Arham; Shamsi, Sadia; Shahzad, Muhammad; Butt, Hajra Ikram; Aamir, Khurram; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Guaifenesin possesses expectorant, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive properties. To the best of our knowledge, the promising data regarding the developmental toxicity of guaifenesin are scarce. The current study investigates the developmental toxic effects of guaifenesin in detail using female rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five dams were divided into five groups. Group 1 served as a control, while Group-2, -3, -4, and -5 were administered with 250, 350, 500, and 600 (mg/kg b.w.) doses of guaifenesin, respectively, starting from gestation day 6 to day 17. Half of the total recovered fetuses was subjected to morphologic and morphometric analysis, while other half was subjected to skeletal examination. Results: A significant reduction in maternal weight, and food/water intake, was observed, however, no mortality and morbidity were observed. About 14 dead fetuses were found in Group-3 and -4 each, while 26 in Group 5. Morphological analysis revealed 21.2%, 45.4%, 67.2%, and 86.9% of total fetuses having hemorrhagic spots in Group-2, -3, -4, and -5, respectively. Dropping wrist/ankle and kinky tail were found in Group-4 and -5 only. Morphometric analysis showed a significant decline in fetal weight, full body length, skull length, forelimb length, hindlimb length, and tail length in all guaifenesin treated groups. Skeletal examination displayed that only Group 5 fetuses had increased intercostal space between 7th and 8th rib. We also observed improper development of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, and metatarsals of the Group 5 fetuses. Conclusion: Guaifenesin showed a significant developmental toxicity at selected test doses; therefore, a careful use is suggested during pregnancy. PMID:27298495

  15. [One case of a pregnant femal taking realgar induceing congenital inner ear malformation].

    PubMed

    Diao, Mingfang; Sun, Jianjun; Liu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    A pregnant female taken realgar because of superstition, which caused the baby congenital deafness. Auditory test indicated that bilateral auditory brainstem response (ABR) hearing threshold level was greater than 90 dB nHL and auditory steady state response (ASSR) hearing level ranging from 0.5 kHz to 4 kHz was beyond 110 dB HL. Temporal bone CT showed that bilateral cochlear and semicircular canal malformations, with internal auditory canal broadened. PMID:26685413

  16. The UF Family of hybrid phantoms of the pregnant female for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Long, Nelia S.; Moawad, Nash S.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Geyer, Amy M.; Fong, Grant; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2014-08-01

    Efforts to assess in utero radiation doses and related quantities to the developing fetus should account for the presence of the surrounding maternal tissues. Maternal tissues can provide varying levels of protection to the fetus by shielding externally-emitted radiation or, alternatively, can become sources of internally-emitted radiation following the biokinetic uptake of medically-administered radiopharmaceuticals or radionuclides located in the surrounding environment—as in the case of the European Union’s SOLO project (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations). The University of Florida had previously addressed limitations in available computational phantom representation of the developing fetus by constructing a series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms at eight different ages and three weight percentiles. Using CT image sets of pregnant patients contoured using 3D-DOCTORTM, the eight 50th percentile fetal phantoms from that study were systematically combined in RhinocerosTM with the UF adult non-pregnant female to yield a series of reference pregnant female phantoms at fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. Deformable, non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces were utilized to alter contoured maternal anatomy in order to (1) accurately position and orient each fetus and surrounding maternal tissues and (2) match target masses of maternal soft tissue organs to reference data reported in the literature.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of female sexual dysfunction among Turkish pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Küçükdurmaz, Faruk; Efe, Erkan; Malkoç, Önder; Kolus, Eyüp; Amasyalı, Akın Soner; Resim, Sefa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of female sexual dysfunction together with the concerns of women about sexuality during pregnancy. Material and methods A total of 207 healthy, sexually active pregnant women were enrolled in the study. Demographic data of all participants were noted and sexual functions were evaluated by Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Each FSFI domain score was calculated and mean scores were noted. Concerns of women about sexuality were also investigated. Results Mean age of participant women was 27.0±5.9 (range 15–44) years. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction was found to be 87% in study population. Mean FSFI score was 18.6±1.21. The rate of sexual dysfunction was higher in the first (87%) and third (92.6%) trimesters when compared to the second (80.6%) trimester (p=0.243). Among demographic variables, education levels of partners and preconceptional sexual dysfunction were found to be significantly related to FSD. The most common concerns of women about sexual relationship have been reported as the fear of having pain (35%), risk of abortion (21.3%) and religious factors (10%). Conclusion Prevalence of sexual dysfunction is relatively high among pregnant women. Educational levels and preconceptional sexual functions were found to have an impact on this high rate. Accurate counseling of partners about sexuality during pregnancy may help to reduce misbeliefs, concerns and, thereby, decrease this high rate of female sexual dysfunction.

  18. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M.; Hoffman, Gary M.; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by {sup 19}F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ► Rapid and similar metabolite

  19. Metabolism and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of flumioxazin in pregnant animals

    SciTech Connect

    Takaku, Tomoyuki Nagahori, Hirohisa; Sogame, Yoshihisa

    2014-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the concentration of flumioxazin, in the blood and fetus of pregnant humans during a theoretical accidental intake (1000 mg/kg). The data on flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats (30 mg/kg po) was used to develop the PBPK model in pregnant rats using physiological parameters and chemical specific parameters. The rat PBPK model developed was extrapolated to a human model. Liver microsomes of female rats and a mixed gender of humans were used for the in vitro metabolism study. To determine the % of flumioxazin absorbed after administration at a dose of 1000 mg/kg assuming maximum accidental intake, the biliary excretion study of [phenyl-U-{sup 14}C]flumioxazin was conducted in bile duct-cannulated female rats (Crl:CD (SD)) to collect and analyze the bile, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tract, and residual carcass. The % of flumioxazin absorbed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg in rats was low (12.3%) by summing up {sup 14}C of the urine, bile, and residual carcass. The pregnant human model that was developed demonstrated that the maximum flumioxazin concentration in the blood and fetus of a pregnant human at a dose of 1000 mg/kg po was 0.86 μg/mL and 0.68 μg/mL, respectively, which is much lower than K{sub m} (202.4 μg/mL). Because the metabolism was not saturated and the absorption rate was low at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, the calculated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was thought to be relatively low, considering the flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg. For the safety assessment of flumioxazin, these results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of flumioxazin in pregnant humans was developed. • Simulated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was relatively low. • The results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments.

  20. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M; Hoffman, Gary M; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1h. For metabolite identification by (19)F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. PMID:22664346

  1. True hermaphroditism in six female littermates after administration of synthetic androgens to a pregnant bitch.

    PubMed

    de Rooster, H; Vercauteren, G; Görtz, K; Saunders, J; Polis, I; Rijsselaere, T

    2006-02-01

    A pregnant bitch was treated with a synthetic testosterone mixture on approximately day 40. The female offspring (six pups) showed an increased anogenital distance, vaginal enlargement and a variable amount of vaginal discharge. The urinary orifice was found dorsally in the vestibulum, stooled on a protruding phallus-like structure. All six pups underwent a laparotomy and subsequent spaying and a modified ventral episioplasty technique to lift up the labia to a more vertical position in order to prevent urine accumulation. Histopathological examination of the genital tracts demonstrated the presence of bilateral ovotestis and remnants of the Wolffian duct system in all cases. The finding of true hermaphroditism of the offspring after exogenous androgen administration during gestation of the bitch has not yet been reported elsewhere. PMID:16420323

  2. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  3. Strontium biokinetic model for the pregnant woman and fetus: application to Techa River studies.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Fell, T P; Tolstykh, E I; Harrison, J D; Degteva, M O

    2015-09-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium (Sr) for the pregnant woman and fetus (Sr-PWF model) has been developed for use in the quantification of doses from internal radiation exposures following maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes before or during pregnancy. The model relates in particular to the population of the Techa River villages exposed to significant amounts of ingested Sr radioisotopes as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. The biokinetic model for Sr metabolism in the pregnant woman was based on a biokinetic model for the adult female modified to account for changes in mineral metabolism during pregnancy. The model for non-pregnant females of all ages was developed earlier with the use of extensive data on (90)Sr-body measurements in the Techa Riverside residents. To determine changes in model parameter values to take account of changing mineral metabolism during pregnancy, data from longitudinal studies of calcium homeostasis during human pregnancy were analysed and applied. Exchanges between maternal and fetal circulations and retention in fetal skeleton and soft tissues were modelled as adaptations of previously published models, taking account of data on Sr and calcium (Ca) metabolism obtained in Russia (Southern Urals and Moscow) relating to dietary calcium intakes, calcium contents in maternal and fetal skeletons and strontium transfer to the fetus. The model was validated using independent data on (90)Sr in the fetal skeleton from global fallout as well as unique data on (90)Sr-body burden in mothers and their still-born children for Techa River residents. While the Sr-PWF model has been developed specifically for ingestion of Sr isotopes by Techa River residents, it is also more widely applicable to maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes at different times before and during pregnancy and different ages of pregnant women in a general population. PMID:26295413

  4. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mahek; Patnaik, Soumya; Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Alhamshari, Yaser; Alnabelsi, Talal

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are <20 cases of B. cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy) with an unusual outcome (B. cereus) on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve). PMID:26793477

  5. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mahek; Patnaik, Soumya; Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Alhamshari, Yaser; Alnabelsi, Talal

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are <20 cases of B. cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy) with an unusual outcome (B. cereus) on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve). PMID:26793477

  6. Fulminant hepatic failure from hepatitis E in a non-pregnant female traveller.

    PubMed

    Chris, Robert B; Keystone, Jay S

    2016-04-01

    A non-pregnant Canadian woman returning from India presented with a 1-week history of jaundice and malaise. Subsequently, she developed fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV can cause fulminant hepatic failure, most commonly in pregnant women and those with chronic liver disease; however, all travellers are at risk. PMID:27069000

  7. A case of semi-combusted pregnant female in the Phoenician-Punic necropolis of Monte Sirai (Carbonia, Sardinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Piga, G; Guirguis, M; Thompson, T J U; Isidro, A; Enzo, S; Malgosa, A

    2016-02-01

    We present a case of a pregnant woman with the fetus skeletal remains in situ, belonging to the Phoenician-Punic necropolis of Monte Sirai (Sardinia, Italy). The burial dates back to the late 6th to early 5th century BCE. Of the unborn fetal cases documented in the literature this is amongst the oldest four and it represents the first documented case of a pregnant woman in the Phoenician and Punic necropolis literature. A physico-chemical investigation of bones combining X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy suggests that the female skeleton and fetus were subjected to an incomplete heat treatment according to a funerary practice, perhaps limited to the period of early 5th century BCE, that appears to be peculiar to this site. PMID:26421607

  8. To Madagascar and back: long-distance, return migration across open ocean by a pregnant female bull shark Carcharhinus leucas.

    PubMed

    Lea, J S E; Humphries, N E; Clarke, C R; Sims, D W

    2015-12-01

    A large, pregnant, female bull shark Carcharhinus leucas was tracked migrating from Seychelles across open ocean to south-east Madagascar, c. 2000 km away, and back again. In Madagascar, the shark spent a prolonged period shallower than 5 m, consistent with entering estuarine habitat to pup, and upon return to Seychelles the shark was slender and no longer gravid. This represents an unprecedented return migration across the open ocean for a C. leucas and highlights the need for international collaboration to manage the regional C. leucas population sustainably. PMID:26511427

  9. Toxoplasmosis screening and risk factors amongst pregnant females in Natal, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; de Carvalho Xavier Holanda, Cecília Maria; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis results in systemic disease, and if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, the fetus may suffer substantial damage. Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in most states of northeastern Brazil. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant woman was studied in Natal, capital of Rio Grande do Norte State, in northeastern Brazil, from March to December 2007. The sera were tested for IgM and avidity of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence was high [126/190 (66.3%)]; prevalence increased with age indicating that in this setting most infections occur in adulthood (third decade of life). Only one pregnant woman was IgM positive and had high-avidity antibodies. The high percentage of pregnant women who are vulnerable to this parasite (33.1%) favors primary infection during pregnancy. Our studies show that direct contact with cats or dogs was highly associated with toxoplasmosis (odds ratio 2.72, P<0.001, 95% CI 1.46-5.02). The number of years in school (P<0.001), precarious socioeconomic status and limited knowledge about the disease (P

  10. Raccoonpoxvirus safety in immunocompromised and pregnant mouse models.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gwendolyn J B; Boles, Corey; Roper, Rachel L

    2014-06-30

    Numerous poxviruses infect humans and animal hosts, and a poxvirus vaccine with an improved safety profile is needed as the current vaccinia virus vaccine is contraindicated in individuals that have a history of eczema or heart disease, or are immunocompromised or pregnant. In addition, poxviruses make excellent vaccine vectors for other infectious diseases and cancer. Raccoonpoxvirus is a naturally occurring attenuated North American poxvirus, and thus it is of interest as a vaccine vector platform. This study explores the effects of raccoonpoxvirus in SCID and Nude immunocompromised and pregnant mouse models to assess its virulence and probable safety for human and animal populations. We also analyzed the safety of recombinant raccoonpox carrying a gene expressing a foreign antigen, rabies virus glycoprotein, designed for heterologous vaccine protection. Our data show that recombinant raccoonpoxviruses are avirulent in many cases and are much safer than vaccinia virus (strain WR). Raccoonpoxviruses also have the advantage of being able to replicate in mammalian cells. This allows increased immunogenicity and production efficiency, giving an advantage over non replicating vectors such as Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA or canarypoxvirus. PMID:24837508

  11. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Mairos, J C

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made. PMID:17277329

  12. A BBDR-HPT Axis Model for the Pregnant Rat and Fetus: Evaluation of Iodide Deficiency

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biologically based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitarythyroid (HPT) axis for the pregnant rat and fetus is being developed to advance understanding of thyroid hormone disruptions and developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The model for the pregnant rat and fet...

  13. Vaginal and endocervical microorganisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic non-pregnant females: risk factors and rates of occurrence.

    PubMed

    Tibaldi, C; Cappello, N; Latino, M A; Masuelli, G; Marini, S; Benedetto, C

    2009-07-01

    Physiological or non-physiological factors may affect the vaginal flora. The occurrence of genital microorganisms in non-pregnant females of all ages was studied, as were the risk factors associated with each microorganism. A retrospective analysis of vaginal and endocervical cultures and wet smears from 27,172 non-pregnant women, between 1996 to 2005, was performed taking into consideration clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. No microorganisms were observed in 55.7% of the individuals studied and 44.3% had positive cultures. There was no microbiological aetiology in 49% of women with genital symptoms. Poor hygiene, chemical irritants, sexual behaviour, vaginal blood, birth control type, and/or the lack of an oestrogen effect may have caused the symptoms. The highest occurrence of Gram-negative bacteria (p<0.01), mainly Escherichia coli, was observed in prepubescent girls. The highest occurrence of Candida species (p<0.01) was in women of childbearing age, and of Gram-positive bacteria (p<0.01) in menopausal women. Adolescents, particularly asymptomatic girls, carried more frequently Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis (p<0.01). Hormonal contraception and consistent condom use was protective against bacterial vaginosis and U. urealyticum colonization. Users of intrauterine devices had an increased risk of bacterial vaginosis or of contracting U. urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Candida species. Genital complaints were an independent indicator of Candida species, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis.Chlamydia trachomatis infections were often asymptomatic. It is concluded that the hormonal milieu and non-physiological factors are major determinants of the vaginal flora. If diagnosis of genital infections is based on symptoms alone and not on culture results, it may be erroneous. Sexual abuse should be investigated when a child presents with a sexually transmitted disease. PMID:19558525

  14. Foetal dose conversion coefficients for ICRP-compliant pregnant models from idealised proton exposures.

    PubMed

    Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X George

    2009-01-01

    Protection of pregnant women and their foetus against external proton irradiations poses a unique challenge. Assessment of foetal dose due to external protons in galactic cosmic rays and as secondaries generated in aircraft walls is especially important during high-altitude flights. This paper reports a set of fluence to absorbed dose conversion coefficients for the foetus and its brain for external monoenergetic proton beams of six standard configurations (the antero-posterior, the postero-anterior, the right lateral, the left lateral, the rotational and the isotropic). The pregnant female anatomical definitions at each of the three gestational periods (3, 6 and 9 months) are based on newly developed RPI-P series of models whose organ masses were matched within 1% with the International Commission on Radiological Protection reference values. Proton interactions and the transport of secondary particles were carefully simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX) and the phantoms consisting of several million voxels at 3 mm resolution. When choosing the physics models in the MCNPX, it was found that the advanced Cascade-Exciton intranuclear cascade model showed a maximum of 9% foetal dose increase compared with the default model combination at intermediate energies below 5 GeV. Foetal dose results from this study are tabulated and compared with previously published data that were based on simplified anatomy. The comparison showed a strong dependence upon the source geometry, energy and gestation period: the dose differences are typically less than 20% for all sources except ISO where systematically 40-80% of higher doses were observed. Below 200 MeV, a larger discrepancy in dose was found due to the Bragg peak shift caused by different anatomy. The tabulated foetal doses represent the latest and most detailed study to date offering a useful set of data to improve radiation protection dosimetry against external protons. PMID:19246483

  15. Relationships between postweaning residual feed intake in heifers and forage use, body composition, feeding behavior, physical activity, and heart rate of pregnant beef females.

    PubMed

    Hafla, A N; Carstens, G E; Forbes, T D A; Tedeschi, L O; Bailey, J C; Walter, J T; Johnson, J R

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) classification of beef heifers affected efficiency of forage utilization, body composition, feeding behavior, heart rate, and physical activity of pregnant females. Residual feed intake was measured in growing Bonsmara heifers for 2 yr (n=62 and 53/yr), and heifers with the lowest (n=12/yr) and highest (n=12/yr) RFI were retained for breeding. Of the 48 heifers identified as having divergent RFI, 19 second-parity and 23 first-parity females were used in the subsequent pregnant-female trial. Pregnant females were fed a chopped hay diet (ME=2.11 Mcal kg(-1) DM) in separate pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks to measure individual intake and feeding behavior. Body weights were measured at 7-d intervals and BCS and ultrasound measurements of 12th-rib fat depth, rump fat depth, and LM area obtained on d 0 and 77. Heart rate and physical activity were measured for 7 consecutive d. First-parity females had lower (P<0.05) initial BW, BW gain, and initial hip height and tended (P=0.07) to have lower DMI compared to second-parity females. Females with low RFI as heifers consumed 17% less (P<0.01) forage compared to females with high RFI as heifers but maintained the same BW, BW gain, and body composition. Likewise, RFI classification did not affect calving date. An interaction (P=0.04) between heifer RFI classification and parity was found for calf birth weight. Calves from first-parity low-RFI females were lighter at birth (P<0.01) than calves from high-RFI females, but RFI classification did not affect BW of calves born to second-parity females. Residual feed intake classification did not affect bunk visit frequency, but low-RFI females spent 26% less time (P<0.01) at the bunk compared to high-RFI females. First-parity females had more (P<0.05) daily step counts and greater lying-bout frequencies compared to second-parity females, but physical activity was not affected by RFI classification. Heart

  16. Zinc Insufficiency Mediates Ethanol-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Dysfunction in the Pregnant Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Konomi, Juna V.; Harris, Frank L.; Ping, Xiao-Du; Gauthier, Theresa W.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (a) Establish the minimum number of weeks of chronic ethanol ingestion needed to perturb zinc homeostasis, (b) Examine intracellular zinc status in the alveolar macrophages (AMs) when ethanol ingestion is combined with pregnancy, (c) Investigate whether in vitro zinc treatment reverses the effects of ethanol ingestion on the AM. Methods: C57BL/6 female mice were fed a liquid diet (±25% ethanol-derived calories) during preconception and pregnancy. The control group was pair-fed to the ethanol group. In the isolated AMs, we measured intracellular AM zinc levels, zinc transporter expression, alternative activation and phagocytic index. Zinc acetate was added to some cells prior to analysis. Results: Intracellular zinc levels in the AM decreased within 3 weeks of ethanol ingestion. After ethanol ingestion prior to and during pregnancy, zinc transporter expression and intracellular zinc levels were decreased in the AMs when compared with controls. Bacterial clearance was decreased because the AMs were alternatively activated. In vitro additions of zinc reversed these effects of ethanol. Conclusion: Ethanol ingestion prior to and during pregnancy perturbed AM zinc balance resulting in impaired bacterial clearance, but these effects were ameliorated by in vitro zinc treatments. PMID:25371044

  17. Soluble histocompatibility class I antigens and beta 2-microglobulin in pregnant females and cord blood samples.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, J; Ferrada, J; Navarrete, C; Sorensen, R U

    1997-04-15

    Pregnancy can be considered a successful transplantation of allogeneic paternal tissue to the mother. Soluble HLA class I serum levels have been found to increase during solid organ rejection episodes and during graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation. We wished to determine whether significant changes in sHLA class I and beta 2-microglobulin light chain levels occurred during pregnancy, because these may reflect adaptive changes permitting the acceptance of the fetal graft. Serum samples were obtained from women at different stages of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Cord blood samples and serum samples from nonpregnant female and male controls living in the same geographic area in Southern Chile were also studied. The levels of sHLA class I heterodimers were determined by an ELISA sandwich technique; beta 2-microglobulin levels were measured by MEIA IMX-Abbott. There was a significant elevation of sHLA class I levels in the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy, followed by a significant drop below normal levels at the end of pregnancy, with normalization in the post-partum period. beta 2-microglobulin levels did not change significantly during pregnancy and did not correlate with sHLA class I levels. In cord blood samples, sHLA class I levels were lower and beta 2-microglobulin levels higher than those of adult controls and of mothers at the time of delivery. The variations in sHLA class I levels during pregnancy may reflect or contribute to immunoregulatory events related to the acceptance of the fetal graft. PMID:9154459

  18. Intraperitoneal Administration of Muramyl Dipeptide β-Heptylglycoside to Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Female Mice Modulates Production of Th1/Th2/Th17/Tr1 Cytokines by Splenocytes Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhin, O V; Artem'eva, K A; Boltovskaya, M N; Bunyatyan, K A; Inviyayeva, E V; Vinnitskii, L I; Karaulov, A V

    2015-05-01

    Muramyl dipeptide β-heptylglycoside (C7MDP) was administered to non-pregnant CBA female mice and pregnant mice after non-abortion-prone mating (CBA×BALB/c) and mating associated with a high rate of spontaneous abortion (CBA×DBA/2). In non-pregnant females, C7MDP increased the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17, IFNγ, TNFα, and GM-CSF at constant production of IL-1α and IL-10. C7MDP increased the production of IL-10 and IL-17 and suppressed the production of IFNγ on day 8 of gestation in non-abortion-prone mouse couples and stimulated the synthesis of IL-4 and IFNγ, reduced IL-5 production, and slightly increased IL-1α secretion after abortion-prone mating. On day 14 of gestation, C7MDP elevated the yield of IL-2, IL-4, IFNγ, TNFα, and GM-CSF in CBA×BALB/c and CBA×DBA/2 couples and IL-17 in the fi rst variant of mating. PMID:26033590

  19. A social psychologic model of female adolescents' compliance with contraceptives.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Jay, M S

    1987-06-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to help the clinician organize the multiple interrelationships between factors that may influence a female adolescent's compliance with her birth control method. 1 variable that has been found to be predictive for compliance in adults that was not included in the model is the quality of the patient-physician relationship. This variable was excluded because the model is a social psychological model that focuses on the attitudes and behavior of the female adolescent. The female adolescent's perception of the quality of her relationship with her health care provider can be accounted for under the component of the model discussing costs of acquiring birth control. A table contains a checklist of information the clinician may want to obtain from a patient to help determine if she may be at risk for noncompliance. Factors that influence contraceptive compliance are reviewed: frequency of sexual intercourse, perceived probability of pregnancy, premarital sexual standards and experiences, intimacy of sexual relationship, physical and emotional development, cognitive assessment of pregnancy, parental and peer support, and personality development. Lindemann and DeLamater argue that frequency of intercourse is the "prime mover" in the process of acquiring and using birth control. As the frequency of coitus increases or decreases, awareness of the possibility will increase or decrease. DeLamater hypothesizes that before assessing that pregnancy may be undesirable and thus initiating contraceptive use to prevent pregnancy, a woman 1st must perceive that she is at significant risk for becoming pregnant. Russ proposes that a major reason that sexually active female adolescents fail to use effective birth control is that they do not fully accept sexual intercourse as morally acceptable for themselves and thus are unable to rationally prepare for it. Rains argues that when a female adolescent initiates sexual activity, she is in a state of moral

  20. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  1. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements. PMID:24953790

  2. Actions of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin in the immature female rat: correlative changes in blood steroids, gonadotropins, and cytoplasmic estradiol receptors of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Parker, C R; Costoff, A; Muldoon, T G; Mahesh, V B

    1976-01-01

    Several blood steroids, serum gonadotropins and cytosol estradiol receptors of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus were quantified in immature female rats which were induced to ovulate with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Studies revealed that serum levels of progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, androstenedione and estradiol were initially elevated at 6 PM (day 30) after administration of 8 IU of PMSG at 10 AM day 30. Serum levels of estradiol and testosterone rose progressively from day 30 through the AM of day 32. A further increase in serum concentrations of progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone occurred on the PM of day 32 whereas serum estradiol levels declined. Serum levels of all steroids declined on the day of estrus (33) and only progesterone levels were further elevated on day 34 (diestrus). Dihydrotestosterone concentrations were minimally altered by PMSG treatment. Saline administration resulted in no significant alterations in levels of any steroid quantified from day 29 to 34 in control animals. A progressive decline in cytosol estradiol receptor content of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus was documented following PMSG treatment of intact female rats; there was no depletion of receptors following PMSG administration to ovariectomized immature rats. Maximal depletion of cytosol estradiol receptors occurred on day 32 with replenishment of cytosol estradiol receptor levels on estrus (day 33). The preovulatory gonadotropin surge was found to occur on the PM of day 32 after maximal receptor depletion. The cycle of depletion and replenishment of receptors was repeated during a second spontaneous estrous cycle four days later which coincided with a rise and fall in serum estradiol levels. It is suggested that the depletion of cytosol estradiol receptors of the anterior pituitary/hypothalamic unit may be causally related to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge

  3. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for bisphenol A in pregnant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, Yuko; Matsuyama, Wakoto; Wada, Masahiro; Hishikawa, Junko; Chan, Melissa Pui Ling; Nakayama, Aki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2007-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used to produce polymers for food contact and other applications, so there is potential for oral exposure of humans to trace amounts via ingestion. To date, no physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been located for BPA in pregnant mice with or without fetuses. An estimate by a mathematical model is essential since information on humans is difficult to obtain experimentally. The PBPK model was constructed based on the pharmacokinetic data of our experiment following single oral administration of BPA to pregnant mice. The risk assessment of bisphenol A (BPA) on the development of human offspring is an important issue. There have been limited data on the exposure level of human fetuses to BPA (e.g. BPA concentration in cord blood) and no information is available on the pharmacokinetics of BPA in humans with or without fetuses. In the present study, we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing the pharmacokinetics of BPA in a pregnant mouse with the prospect of future extrapolation to humans. The PBPK model was constructed based on the pharmacokinetic data of an experiment we executed on pregnant mice following single oral administration of BPA. The model could describe the rapid transfer of BPA through the placenta to the fetus and the slow disappearance from fetuses. The simulated time courses after three-time repeated oral administrations of BPA by the constructed model fitted well with the experimental data, and the simulation for the 10 times lower dose was also consistent with the experiment. This suggested that the PBPK model for BPA in pregnant mice was successfully verified and is highly promising for extrapolation to humans who are expected to be exposed more chronically to lower doses.

  4. The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus.

    PubMed

    Csányi, Adrienn; Bóta, Judit; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Robert; Ducza, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen. PMID:27556454

  5. The Effects of Female Sexual Hormones on the Expression of Aquaporin 5 in the Late-Pregnant Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Csányi, Adrienn; Bóta, Judit; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Robert; Ducza, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen mammalian aquaporin (AQP) water channels are known, and few of them play a role in the mammalian reproductive system. In our earlier study, the predominance of AQP5 in the late-pregnant rat uterus was proven. Our current aim was to investigate the effect of estrogen- and gestagen-related compounds on the expression of the AQP5 channel in the late-pregnant rat uterus. Furthermore, we examined the effect of hormonally-induced preterm delivery on the expression of AQP5 in the uterus. We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats subcutaneously with 17β-estradiol, clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate, progesterone, levonorgestrel, and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Preterm delivery was induced by subcutaneous mifepristone and intravaginal prostaglandin E2. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot techniques were used for the detection of the changes in AQP5 mRNA and protein expressions. The amount of AQP5 significantly increased after progesterone and progesterone analogs treatment on 18 and 22 days of pregnancy. The 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor agonists did not influence the AQP5 mRNA level; however, estradiol induced a significant increase in the AQP5 protein level on the investigated days of gestation. Tamoxifen increased the AQP5 protein expression on day 18, while clomiphene citrate was ineffective. The hormonally-induced preterm birth significantly decreased the AQP5 level similarly to the day of delivery. We proved that AQP5 expression is influenced by both estrogen and progesterone in the late-pregnant rat uterus. The influence of progesterone on AQP5 expression is more predominant as compared with estrogen. PMID:27556454

  6. Development of a Gravid Uterus Model for the Study of Road Accidents Involving Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-01-01

    Car accident simulations involving pregnant women are well documented in the literature and suggest that intra-uterine pressure could be responsible for the phenomenon of placental abruption, underlining the need for a realistic amniotic fluid model, including fluid-structure interactions (FSI). This study reports the development and validation of an amniotic fluid model using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation in the LS-DYNA environment. Dedicated to the study of the mechanisms responsible for fetal injuries resulting from road accidents, the fluid model was validated using dynamic loading tests. Drop tests were performed on a deformable water-filled container at acceleration levels that would be experienced in a gravid uterus during a frontal car collision at 25 kph. During the test device braking phase, container deformation induced by inertial effects and FSI was recorded by kinematic analysis. These tests were then simulated in the LS-DYNA environment to validate a fluid model under dynamic loading, based on the container deformations. Finally, the coupling between the amniotic fluid model and an existing finite-element full-body pregnant woman model was validated in terms of pressure. To do so, experimental test results performed on four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) (in which a physical gravid uterus model was inserted) were used. The experimental intra-uterine pressure from these tests was compared to intra uterine pressure from a numerical simulation performed under the same loading conditions. Both free fall numerical and experimental responses appear strongly correlated. The relationship between the amniotic fluid model and pregnant woman model provide intra-uterine pressure values correlated with the experimental test responses. The use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation allows the analysis of FSI between the amniotic fluid and the gravid uterus during a road accident involving pregnant women. PMID:26592419

  7. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Ayodeji M; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun O; Cadmus, Eniola O

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%. Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1%) had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5%) were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years), had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0%) respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs. Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under

  8. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Ayodeji M.; Cadmus, Eniola O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%. Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1%) had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5%) were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years), had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0%) respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs. Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under

  9. Pregnant and Operating”: Evaluation of a Germany-wide Survey Among Female Gynaecologists and Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Knieper, C.; Ramsauer, B.; Hancke, K.; Woeckel, A.; Ismail, L.; Bühren, A.; Toth, B.

    2014-01-01

    The current law on the protection of expectant and nursing mothers largely rules out surgical activities during pregnancy for female doctors who perform surgical roles in hospitals. The proportion of female junior staff in gynaecology amounts to 80 %, and, for many of these women, surgical further training is not possible following official notification of an existing pregnancy. In a Germany-wide survey of female gynaecologists and surgeons using a questionnaire, it was determined to what extent female doctors worked in surgery during pregnancy, whether it led to complications in the pregnancy, when the employer was notified about the pregnancy, and what desire for change there is with regard to the law on the protection of expectant and nursing mothers. The data from 164 female doctors, of which 136 are gynaecologists and 28 surgeons, was evaluated. On average, the pregnancy was announced during the 14th week of pregnancy (WOP), and the doctor was not allowed to perform surgical activities in the 21st WOP. Female doctors in higher professional roles tended to announce the pregnancy later and ended their surgical activities later. There was no link between the time of ceasing surgical activities and an increased occurrence of complaints or complications during the pregnancy. In total, only 53 % of respondents had an appraisal during pregnancy and 75 % wanted a change in the law on the protection of expectant and nursing mothers. PMID:25278630

  10. SAR Computation inside Fetus by RF Coil during MR Imaging Employing Realistic Numerical Pregnant Woman Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi; Ikehira, Hiroo

    This paper presents the computational electromagnetic dosimetry inside an anatomically based pregnant woman models exposed to electromagnetic wave during magnetic resonance imaging. The two types of pregnant woman models corresponding to early gestation and 26 weeks gestation were used for this study. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in and around a fetus were calculated by radiated electromagnetic wave from highpass and lowpass birdcage coil. Numerical calculation results showed that high SAR region is observed at the body in the vicinity of gaps of the coil, and is related to concentrated electric field in the gaps of human body such as armpit and thigh. Moreover, it has confirmed that the SAR in the fetus is less than International Electrotechnical Commission limit of 10W/kg, when whole-body average SARs are 2W/kg and 4W/kg, which are the normal operating mode and first level controlled operating mode, respectively.

  11. A comprehensive tool for image-based generation of fetus and pregnant women mesh models for numerical dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Serrurier, A.; De la Plata, J.-P.; Anquez, J.; Angelini, E. D.; Wiart, J.; Bloch, I.

    2014-08-01

    Fetal dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the pregnant woman and the fetus. This paper proposes a 3D articulated fetal growth model covering the main phases of pregnancy and a pregnant woman model combining the utero-fetal structures and a deformable non-pregnant woman body envelope. The structures of interest were automatically or semi-automatically (depending on the stage of pregnancy) segmented from a database of images and surface meshes were generated. By interpolating linearly between fetal structures, each one can be generated at any age and in any position. A method is also described to insert the utero-fetal structures in the maternal body. A validation of the fetal models is proposed, comparing a set of biometric measurements to medical reference charts. The usability of the pregnant woman model in dosimetry studies is also investigated, with respect to the influence of the abdominal fat layer.

  12. Biomechanical modeling of pregnant occupants in far-side vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Moorcroft, David M; Stitzel, Joel D; Duma, Greg G

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the largest single cause of death for pregnant women and the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the risk of fetal injury in pregnant occupants exposed to far-side vehicle crashes. A test matrix of nine computer simulations was performed using a computational model of a 30-week pregnant occupant. Three separate far-side impact severities were modeled including velocity changes of 5 mph, 15 mph, and 25 mph over the same 100 ms period. Three restraint conditions were modeled including no restraint, lap-belt only, and the three-point belt. All simulations at 5 mph resulted in very low risk of maternal or fetal injury. The simulations at 15 mph and 25 mph demonstrated the protective benefit of the three-point belt as both the lap-belt and no restraint tests resulted in the mother's head contacting the opposite door resulting in severe head injuries with HIC values above 2000. All simulations at 15 mph and 25 mph indicate possible fetal injury risk regardless of restraint condition as the peak strain values at the utero-placental interface were between 27.1% and 44.9% which equate to fetal injury risks between 36.9% and 61.0%. Direct abdominal contact from the shoulder strap of the three-point belt caused this strain in contrast to the inertial loading induced strain in the lap-belt and unbelted cases. Overall, the console was not a potential fetal injury mechanism in these simulations as the occupant either passed over it in the unrestrained simulations or rotated above it for the lap-belt and three-point belt tests. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies that show the three-point belt is the best and most important safety device for protecting pregnant occupants. PMID:16817601

  13. Y are you not pregnant: identification of Y chromosome segments in female cattle with decreased reproductive efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive efficiency is of economic importance in commercial beef cattle production, as failure to achieve pregnancy reduces the number of calves marketed. Identification of genetic markers with predictive merit for reproductive success would facilitate early selection of females and avoid ineff...

  14. A mathematical model of the nine-month pregnant woman for calculating specific absorbed fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Existing models that allow calculation of internal doses from radionuclide intakes by both men and women are based on a mathematical model of Reference Man. No attempt has been made to allow for the changing geometric relationships that occur during pregnancy which would affect the doses to the mother's organs and to the fetus. As pregnancy progresses, many of the mother's abdominal organs are repositioned, and their shapes may be somewhat changed. Estimation of specific absorbed fractions requires that existing mathematical models be modified to accommodate these changes. Specific absorbed fractions for Reference Woman at three, six, and nine months of pregnancy should be sufficient for estimating the doses to the pregnant woman and the fetus. This report describes a model for the pregnant woman at nine months. An enlarged uterus was incorporated into a model for Reference Woman. Several abdominal organs as well as the exterior of the trunk were modified to accommodate the new uterus. This model will allow calculation of specific absorbed fractions for the fetus from photon emitters in maternal organs. Specific absorbed fractions for the repositioned maternal organs from other organs can also be calculated. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Female Role Models: Implications for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.

    1995-01-01

    The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)

  16. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  17. Female Leaders: Injurious or Inspiring Role Models for Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Crystal L.; Simon, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The impact of female role models on women's leadership aspirations and self-perceptions after a leadership task were assessed across two laboratory studies. These studies tested the prediction that upward social comparisons to high-level female leaders will have a relatively detrimental impact on women's self-perceptions and leadership aspirations…

  18. Family health advocacy: an empowerment model for pregnant and parenting African American women in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K

    2006-01-01

    The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472

  19. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L.; Marshall, D.; Gehlen, M.K.

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  20. Modelling female mating success during mass trapping and natural competitive attraction of searching males or females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two types of simulation models of mass trapping were developed: (1) male-searching insects (e.g., moths and many insect species) and (2) female-searching insects (e.g., true bugs, beetles, and flies). The searching sex moved based on correlated random walks (CRW), while the opposite sex remained sta...

  1. Gender Equity Model: High School Female Students and Technology Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Martha; Wark, Alan; Zimmerman, Sara

    A model for gender equity in a rural Appalachia school system is approaching its second year of implementation at the high school level. This model focuses on equity issues, student motivation, and nontraditional coursework. In addition, it addresses career awareness for females, including a strong emphasis on technology and the sciences. Specific…

  2. A Physiologically Based Model for Methylmercury in Female American Kestrels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury (CH3Hg) in female American kestrels. The model consists of six tissue compartments corresponding to the brain, liver, kidney, gut, red blood cel...

  3. Female Faculty Role Models and Student Outcomes: A Caveat about Aggregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Iryna Y.

    2014-01-01

    The idea that female faculty might serve as role models for female students has led to studies of the effect of female faculty on female student performance. Due to varying levels of aggregation of the measure of student exposure to female faculty--percentage of female faculty at an institution or department, percentage of classes taught by…

  4. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  5. Effects of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Dietary Behaviors of Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Khoramabadi, M.; Dolatian, M.; Hajian, S.; Zamanian, M.; Taheripanah, R.; Sheikhan, Z.; Mahmoodi, Z.; Seyedi-Moghadam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mothers and children are the most vulnerable members of every society. As a result many deaths occur in these two groups, so caring for these two groups is very important. Today, it is believed that the health of an infant is related to the health of their mother. Maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy, and optimal weight gain during pregnancy by appropriate and sufficient nutrition, are two effective measures for the prevention of low birth weight.To provide successful health interventions, it is essential to design and implement effective health education programs. Successful education also depends on the proper use of theories and models in health education. The Health Belief Model is a model that illustrates the relationship between beliefs and health, and it is based on the hypothesis that preventive health behavior consists of personal beliefs. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of training on the Health Belief Model on dietary behaviors of a sample of pregnant Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial, involving 130 pregnant women who attended two health care centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire in three parts and seven sub-scales (including demographic characteristics, knowledge and dietary behaviors) based on the Health Belief Model. Principles of education were based on the Health Belief Model and performed twice during two-hour sessions in the intervention group. Women in the control group received routine care and did not receive training on the above model. In order to evaluate the intervention, the previously mentioned questionnaire was administered one month after completion of the intervention, and filled by participants in both groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and reported with diagrams and tables. Results: The mean score for each variable before the intervention, except for the

  6. Dynamic material properties of the pregnant human uterus.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah J; Bisplinghoff, Jill A; Kemper, Andrew R; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-06-01

    Given that automobile crashes are the largest single cause of death for pregnant females, scientists are developing advanced computer models of pregnant occupants. The purpose of this study is to quantify the dynamic material properties of the human uterus in order to increase the biofidelity of these models. A total of 19 dynamic tension tests were performed on pregnant human uterus tissues taken from six separate donors. The tissues were collected during full term Cesarean style deliveries and tested within 36 h of surgery. The tissues were processed into uniform coupon sections and tested at 1.5 strains/s using linear motors. Local stress and strain were determined from load data and optical markers using high speed video. The experiments resulted in a non-linear stress versus strain curves with an overall average peak failure true strain of 0.32±0.112 and a corresponding peak failure true stress of 656.3±483.9 kPa. These are the first data available for the dynamic response of pregnant human uterus tissues, and it is anticipated they will increase the accuracy of future pregnant female computational models. PMID:22542221

  7. Female role models in physics education in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormaic, Síle Nic; Fee, Sandra; Tobin, Laura; Hennessy, Tara

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics on undergraduate student representation in Irish universities and look at student numbers in secondary (high) schools in one region in Ireland. There seems to be no significant change in female participation in physics from 2002 to 2011. Additionally, we have studied the influence of an educator's gender on the prevalence of girls studying physics in secondary schools in Co. Louth, Ireland, and at the postgraduate level in Irish universities. It would appear that strong female role models have a positive influence and lead to an increase in girls' participation in physics.

  8. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  9. Repurposing of antiparasitic drugs: the hydroxy-naphthoquinone buparvaquone inhibits vertical transmission in the pregnant neosporosis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Joachim; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Manser, Vera; Wong, Ho Ning; Haynes, Richard K; Hemphill, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The three anti-malarial drugs artemiside, artemisone, and mefloquine, and the naphthoquinone buparvaquone known to be active against theileriosis in cattle and Leishmania infections in rodents, were assessed for activity against Neospora caninum infection. All four compounds inhibited the proliferation of N. caninum tachyzoites in vitro with IC50 in the sub-micromolar range, but artemisone and buparvaquone were most effective (IC50 = 3 and 4.9 nM, respectively). However, in a neosporosis mouse model for cerebral infection comprising Balb/c mice experimentally infected with the virulent isolate Nc-Spain7, the three anti-malarial compounds failed to exhibit any activity, since treatment did not reduce the parasite burden in brains and lungs compared to untreated controls. Thus, these compounds were not further evaluated in pregnant mice. On the other hand, buparvaquone, shown earlier to be effective in reducing the parasite load in the lungs in an acute neosporosis disease model, was further assessed in the pregnant mouse model. Buparvaquone efficiently inhibited vertical transmission in Balb/c mice experimentally infected at day 7 of pregnancy, reduced clinical signs in the pups, but had no effect on cerebral infection in the dams. This demonstrates proof-of-concept that drug repurposing may lead to the discovery of an effective compound against neosporosis that can protect offspring from vertical transmission and disease. PMID:26883424

  10. [Sexuality of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Malarewicz, Andrzej; Szymkiewicz, Jadwiga; Rogala, Jerzy

    2006-09-01

    Over the time when the sexual intercourse has been considered merely one of a number of forms of sexual contact, views on sexuality during pregnancy have undergone considerable transformation. A great many of authors emphasise, that the pregnancy is a stimulus for partners to search for ways to maintain mutual emotional bond, close physical affinity and satisfy sexual needs not necessarily finished with an intercourse. The fact, that one of the two partners is pregnant, imposes some restrictions on sexual life. Not rarely, in particular in the first trimester of pregnancy, a female is little interested in sex. It is due to, inter alia, hormonal changes resulting in nausea, fatigue and increased nervosity. These symptoms contribute to general feebleness and reduction of the level of sexual needs and difficulty to become aroused and sexually ready. In spite of that, a lot of women have the need to keep physical and emotional contact with their partners. For a number of couples, pregnancy becomes a stimulus to search for new ways of pleasing each other in love play, that does not necessarily leads with an intercourse. Most studies concerning sexuality during pregnancy focus on observing sexual activity, physiological changes, mutual relationship of partners, analysis of sexual intercourses and investigation of so-called sexual satisfaction. Examination of sexual satisfaction ruchedes the frequency of sexual contacts, intercourses, foreplay, concurrence of orgasms in the two partners, partners' happiness, sexual satisfaction and mutual heartiness. In some researchers' opinion, sexual satisfaction correlates with the feeling of happiness resulting form being pregnant, pregnant woman's feeling still attractive and experience of orgasm. However, some researchers observe reduced sexual activity during pregnancy, except for the second trimester, when sexual activity is similar to the one outside pregnancy. Pregnant women prefer the following types of sexual activity: non

  11. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of 2-methoxyethanol and 2-methoxyacetic acid disposition in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Hays, S M; Elswick, B A; Blumenthal, G M; Welsch, F; Conolly, R B; Gargas, M L

    2000-02-15

    An accurate description of developing embryos' exposure to a xenobiotic is a desirable component of mechanism-based risk assessments for humans exposed to potential developmental toxicants during pregnancy. 2-Methoxyethanol (2-ME), a solvent used in the manufacture of semiconductors, is embryotoxic and teratogenic in all species tested including nonhuman primates. 2-Methoxyacetic acid (2-MAA) is the primary metabolite of 2-ME and the proximate embryotoxic agent. The objective of the work described here was to adapt an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for 2-ME and 2-MAA kinetics during midorganogenesis in mice to rats on gestation days (GD) 13 and 15. Blood and tissue data were analyzed using the extrapolated PBPK model that was modified to simulate 2-ME and 2-MAA kinetics in maternal plasma and total embryo tissues in pregnant rats. The original mouse model was simplified by combining the embryos and placenta with the richly perfused tissue compartment. The model includes a description of the growth of the developing embryo and changes in the physiology of the dam during pregnancy. Biotransformation pathways of 2-ME to either ethylene glycol (EG) or to 2-MAA were described as first-order processes based on the data collected from rats by Green et al., (Occup. Hyg. 2, 67-75, 1996). Tissue partition coefficients (PCs) for 2-ME and 2-MAA were determined for a variety of maternal tissues and the embryos. Model simulations closely reflected the biological measurement of 2-ME and 2-MAA concentrations in blood and embryo tissue following gavage or iv administration of 2-ME or 2-MAA. The PBPK model for rats as described here is well suited for extrapolation to pregnant women and for assessment of 2-MAA dosimetry under various conditions of possible human exposure to 2-ME. PMID:10662606

  12. Recent female mouse models displaying advanced reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Danilovich, Natalia; Ram Sairam, M

    2006-02-01

    Reproductive senescence occurs in all female mammals with resultant changes in numerous body functional systems and several important features may be species-specific. Those features that appear to parallel human menopause and aging include general similarity of hormone profiles across the menopausal transition, progression to cycle termination through irregular cycles, declining fertility with age, disturbances in thermogenesis, age-related gains in body weight, fat distribution and disposition towards metabolic syndrome. Structural and hormonal changes in the brain and ovary play a critical role in determining the onset of reproductive senescence. The short life span of rodents such as mice (compared to humans) and the ability to generate specific and timed gene deletions, provide powerful experimental paradigms to understand the molecular and functional changes that precede and follow the loss of reproductive capacity. In theory, any manipulation that compromises ovarian function either partly or totally would impact reproductive events at various levels followed by other dysfunctions. In this article, we provide an overview of three mouse models for the study of female reproductive aging. They are derived from different strategies and their age related phenotypes have been characterized to varying degrees. The follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse, in its null and haploinsufficient state as well as the dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knockout mouse, serve as two examples of single gene deletions. A third model, using administration of a chemical toxicant such as 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) in the adult state, produces ovarian deficiencies accompanied by aging changes. These will serve as useful alternatives to previously used radical ovariectomy in young adults. It is anticipated that these new models and more that will be forthcoming will extend opportunities to understand reproductive aging and resolve controversies that abound on issues

  13. The effect of an instructional program based on health belief model in decreasing cesarean rate among primiparous pregnant mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Laleh; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Ghanbarnejad, Amin; Dadipoor, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although cesarean section has saved many mothers’ and infants’ lives, the problem is in its increasing prevalence. According to recent statistics, the current rate of cesarean in Iran is in fact 3–4 times as more than the standard rate defined by WHO. Therefore, the present study is aimed to estimate the effect of an instructional program based on health belief model on reducing cesarean rate among primiparous pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental research, 60 primiparous women who had visited Bandar Abbas Healthcare Centers were selected as the subjects. They were in their 26–30th week of pregnancy. They were selected in a multi-stage cluster sampling method (a combination of clustering and simple randomization), and were divided into two groups, subjects and control group. The data were gathered using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The instructional intervention was done after the completion of the pretest questionnaire based on the sub-constructs of the health belief model in six instructional sessions. 1 month after the intervention, posttest questionnaires were completed by the subjects in both groups. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, standard deviation, independent t-test, and paired t-test. The significance level was set at <0.05. Results: Two groups had a significant difference between awareness score, perceived sensitivity, intensity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, and the performance (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, nine subjects (30%) had a natural delivery. Conclusion: According to the findings of the current research, an instructional program illuminated (designed) by the health belief model can significantly influence pregnant women's awareness, intention, and choice of delivery type. PMID:27512693

  14. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Bernhard; Wallwiener, Christian; Rajab, Taufiek K.; Brochhausen, Christoph; Wallwiener, Markus; Rothmund, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1), brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2), sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3), ischemic buttons by grasping the parietal peritoneum and ligating the base with Vicryl suture (group 4), bipolar electrocoagulation of the peritoneum (group 5), and traumatisation by electrocoagulation followed by closure of the resulting peritoneal defect using Vicryl sutures (group 6). Upon second look, there were significant differences in the adhesion incidence between the groups (P < 0.01). Analysis of the fraction of adhesions showed that groups 2 (0%) and 5 (4%) were significantly less than the other groups (P < 0.01). Furthermore, group 6 (69%) was significantly higher than group 1 (48%) (P < 0.05) and group 4 (47%) (P < 0.05). There was no difference between group 3 (60%) and group 6 (P = 0.2). From a clinical viewpoint, comparison of different electrocoagulation modes and pharmaceutical adhesion barriers is possible with standardised models. PMID:24809049

  15. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants. PMID:25463946

  16. Model of Care for Chemically Dependent Pregnant and Postpartum Women and Their Drug-Exposed Children from Birth to Age Three. California Policy Seminar Technical Assistance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soman, Laurie A.; And Others

    Designed to help social service agencies achieve a comprehensive system of care for chemically dependent pregnant and postpartum women and their drug-exposed children, the model described in this report was developed by a panel of 12 experts in the field of perinatal addiction and drug exposure in infants. The report begins with an overview of…

  17. A Physiologically-based Model for Methylmercury Uptake and Accumulation in Female American Kestrels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury in female American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). The model was adapted from established models for methylmercury in rodents. Features unique to the model include meth...

  18. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  19. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development. PMID:10533172

  20. Studies of different female rat models of hypothalamic obesity.

    PubMed

    Elfers, Clinton; Ralston, Melissa; Roth, Christian L

    2011-01-01

    Hypothalamic obesity (HO) is a major and unsolved problem in patients with medial hypothalamic lesions and is associated with hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. The purpose of this study was to create a rodent model that mimics metabolic changes in HO for use in therapeutic testing. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to test the individual and combined effects of two types of medial hypothalamic lesions: arcuate nucleus (ARC) lesions by injection of monosodium glutamate at neonatal age, and ventromedial nucleus (VMN) lesions by passing an anodal current through an electrode placed in the VMN at age 80 days. Adiposity in ARC-lesioned animals was associated with decreased food intake and stunted growth, while VMN lesions were associated with hyperphagia but not reduced growth. The greatest weight gain (weight at age 200 days 712 +/- 65 vs. 451 +/- 19 g in controls), hyperphagia (food intake 10 days following surgery 33 +/- 0.8 vs. 18.5 +/- 0.7 g/day in sham-treated rats), hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia occurred in rats that received both ARC and VMN lesions. Thus, the combined medial hypothalamic lesions result in an obesity phenotype similar to that of patients that suffer from HO and are consequently more suitable for testing potential therapeutics for this disorder than lesions of single hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:21648279

  1. The "Decorative" Female Model: Sexual Stimuli and the Recognition of Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChance, Charles C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the impact of the decorative or functionless female models in print advertising and indicates that models facilitate recognition of model/related information but do little to increase the recognition of brand names.

  2. Spatial modelling and mapping of female genital mutilation in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is still prevalent in several communities in Kenya and other areas in Africa, as well as being practiced by some migrants from African countries living in other parts of the world. This study aimed at detecting clustering of FGM/C in Kenya, and identifying those areas within the country where women still intend to continue the practice. A broader goal of the study was to identify geographical areas where the practice continues unabated and where broad intervention strategies need to be introduced. Methods The prevalence of FGM/C was investigated using the 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) data. The 2008 KDHS used a multistage stratified random sampling plan to select women of reproductive age (15–49 years) and asked questions concerning their FGM/C status and their support for the continuation of FGM/C. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using SaTScan™ to test for statistically significant clustering of the practice of FGM/C in the country. The risk of FGM/C was also modelled and mapped using a hierarchical spatial model under the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation approach using the INLA library in R. Results The prevalence of FGM/C stood at 28.2% and an estimated 10.3% of the women interviewed indicated that they supported the continuation of FGM. On the basis of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), hierarchical spatial models with spatially structured random effects were found to best fit the data for both response variables considered. Age, region, rural–urban classification, education, marital status, religion, socioeconomic status and media exposure were found to be significantly associated with FGM/C. The current FGM/C status of a woman was also a significant predictor of support for the continuation of FGM/C. Spatial scan statistics confirm FGM clusters in the North-Eastern and South-Western regions of Kenya (p < 0.001). Conclusion This suggests that the

  3. Modelling the evolution of female choice strategies under inbreeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Klaus

    2002-11-01

    Recently, many mate choice studies have discussed the role of genetic compatibility and inbreeding for the evolution of mate choice. With population genetic simulations I compared the potential advantage of three different female choice strategies under inbreeding conditions. Females were assumed to benefit indirectly via a preference for (i) complementary males, (ii) males with few detrimental mutations, and (iii) non-inbred males. Probably related to the reduced inbreeding depression in offspring of choosy females, the choice-allele increased for all three strategies. However, the advantage of the strategies differed widely. Choice of males with fewer mutations provided a comparatively large advantage, choice of complementary males led to a reasonable advantage, and choice of non-inbred males only resulted in a minor advantage of female choice. My results show that complementary mate choice can be almost as beneficial as conventional good-genes choice of mates with lower genetic load. Compared to the two other mate choice strategies, choice of non-inbred males is less likely to contribute to the evolution of costly mate choice. The results of a recent study showing that female sticklebacks prefer males with a larger number of MHC-loci is thus unlikely to be related to an indirect benefit of choosing non-inbred males. PMID:12555777

  4. The role of model female quality in the mate choice copying behaviour of sailfin mollies

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Sarah E; Ryan, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Female mate choice copying is a socially mediated mate choice behaviour, in which a male's attractiveness to females increases if he was previously chosen by another female as a mate. Although copying has been demonstrated in numerous species, little is known about the specific benefits it confers to copying females. Here we demonstrate that the mate choice behaviour of female sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) is influenced by the phenotypic quality of model females with whom males are observed consorting. Test females choosing between two males of similar body length were found to significantly increase time spent with previously non-preferred males after having observed them with a relatively high-quality female. Conversely, females were found to significantly decrease time spent with previously preferred males after having observed them with a relatively low-quality female. Female mate choice copying might be maintained by selection based on the heuristic value it provides females choosing between males whose quality differences are not easily distinguishable. PMID:17148362

  5. Exposure of the pregnant rat to warfarin and vitamin K1: an animal model of intraventricular hemorrhage in the fetus.

    PubMed

    Howe, A M; Webster, W S

    1990-10-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily oral doses of sodium warfarin (100 mg/kg) and concurrent intramuscular injections of vitamin K1 (10 mg/kg). This dosing regimen did not have any apparent deleterious effect on the dams and did not affect the fetuses when administered from day 1 to day 12 of pregnancy. However, similar treatment from day 9 to 20 caused hemorrhage in the fetuses examined on day 21 of gestation. There were no hemorrhages in the control fetuses from dams receiving vitamin K1 only. The lowest effective dose of warfarin, in conjunction with daily doses of vitamin K1, was 3 mg/kg. This dose caused hemorrhage in 28% of fetuses; the incidence of affected fetuses was not further increased by doses of warfarin up to 100 mg/kg. Hemorrhages affected the fetal brain, face, eyes, and ear and occasionally the limbs. Brain hemorrhages were frequently intraventricular and caused various degrees of hydrocephaly. Bony defects were not a feature of prenatal exposure to warfarin. These results show that prenatal exposure of the rat to warfarin and vitamin K duplicates the hemorrhagic abnormalities and pathology associated with prenatal exposure to warfarin in the human. It did not induce bony or facial defects probably because the vitamin K-dependent components of bone development occur postnatally in the rat. This model should allow detailed determination of the role of vitamin K-dependent proteins in development. PMID:2256004

  6. Pregnancy-Related Health Information-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Pregnant Women in India: Validating the Wilson Model in the Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Methods: Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. Results: The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Conclusion: Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families

  7. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  8. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development. PMID:26148093

  9. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day 102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development. PMID:26148093

  10. Use of novel inhalation kinetic studies to refine physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic models for ethanol in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces a variety of concentration-dependent neurological and developmental effects in the rat. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to predict the inhalation exposure concentrations necessary to produce blood EtOH concentrat...

  11. Implementation and evaluation of a harm-reduction model for clinical care of substance using pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use during pregnancy is associated with many pregnancy complications, including preterm birth, small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and abruption. Hawaii has lead the nation in MA use for many years, yet prior to 2007, did not have a comprehensive plan to care for pregnant substance-using women. In 2006, the Hawaii State Legislature funded a pilot perinatal addiction clinic. The Perinatal Addiction Treatment Clinic of Hawaii was built on a harm-reduction model, encompassing perinatal care, transportation, child-care, social services, family planning, motivational incentives, and addiction medicine. We present the implementation model and results from our first one hundred three infants (103) seen over 3 years of operation of the program. Methods Referrals came from community health centers, hospitals, addiction treatment facilities, private physician offices, homeless outreach services and self-referral through word-of-mouth and bus ads. Data to describe sample characteristics and outcome was obtained prospectively and retrospectively from chart abstraction and delivery data. Drug use data was obtained from the women's self-report and random urine toxicology during the pregnancy, as well as urine toxicology at the time of birth on mothers, and urine and meconium toxicology on the infants. Post-partum depression was measured in mothers with the Edinburgh Post-Partum depression scale. Data from Path clinic patients were compared with a representative cohort of women delivering at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children during the same time frame, who were enrolled in another study of pregnancy outcomes. Ethical approval for this study was obtained through the University of Hawaii Committee for Human Studies. Results Between April 2007 and August 2010, 213 women with a past or present history of addiction were seen, 132 were pregnant and 97 delivered during that time. 103 live-born infants were delivered. There were 3 first

  12. Female Genital Cutting: Applying the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model To Understand the Incentives for the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Leila

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the practice of female circumcision and the significance of considering social, cultural, economic, and educational opportunities available to females in developing countries when creating intervention programs to help end this practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a tool that can assess various elements present in a girls' life that…

  13. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Premji, Shahirose S; Yim, Ilona S; Dosani Mawji, Aliyah; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Sulaiman, Salima; Musana, Joseph W; Samia, Pauline; Shaikh, Kiran; Letourneau, Nicole; MiGHT Group

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. PMID:26413524

  14. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Shahirose S.; Yim, Ilona S.; Dosani (Mawji), Aliyah; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Sulaiman, Salima; Musana, Joseph W.; Samia, Pauline; Shaikh, Kiran; Letourneau, Nicole; MiGHT Group

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. PMID:26413524

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota in a Pregnant Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; Azhar, Esam I.; Abbas, Aymn T.; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie K.; Raoult, Didier; Yasir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA)-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM) that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyze the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor) on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus, and Helicobacter were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei, and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment. PMID:27199748

  16. Metagenomic Analysis of Antibiotic-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota in a Pregnant Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Azhar, Esam I; Abbas, Aymn T; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie K; Raoult, Didier; Yasir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA)-approved category B antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota (GM) that occur during pregnancy. The 16S rRNA amplicon deep-sequencing method was used to analyze the effect of category B antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefaclor) on GM during pregnancy using a rat model. The GM composition was substantially modulated by pregnancy and antibiotics administration. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced Firmicutes. The genera Shigella, Streptococcus, Candidatus Arthromitus, and Helicobacter were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant during pregnancy. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but increased that of Enterobacter. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus gallinarum and Lactobacillus crispatus during pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment reduced bacterial diversity; the lowest number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in the cefaclor-treated groups. Antibiotics significantly (p < 0.05) promoted weight gain during pregnancy, and increased relative abundance of Shigella sonnei, Enterococcus hormaechei, and Acinetobacter sp. GM perturbations were accompanied by increases in Proteobacteria abundance and weight gain in pregnancy following antibiotic treatment. PMID:27199748

  17. A Female Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model Validated for Physiological Loads.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Svensson, Mats Y; Linder, Astrid

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical cervical spine models allow for studying of impact loading that can cause whiplash associated disorders (WAD). However, existing models only cover the male anthropometry, despite the female population being at a higher risk of sustaining WAD in automotive rear-end impacts. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a ligamentous cervical spine intended for biomechanical research on the effect of automotive impacts. A female model has the potential to aid the design of better protection systems as well as improve understanding of injury mechanisms causing WAD. A finite element (FE) mesh was created from surface data of the cervical vertebrae of a 26-year old female (stature 167 cm, weight 59 kg). Soft tissues were generated from the skeletal geometry and anatomical literature descriptions. Ligaments were modeled with nonlinear elastic orthotropic membrane elements, intervertebral disks as composites of nonlinear elastic bulk elements, and orthotropic anulus fibrosus fiber layers, while cortical and trabecular bones were modeled as isotropic plastic-elastic. The model has geometrical features representative of the female cervical spine-the largest average difference compared with published anthropometric female data was the vertebral body depth being 3.4% shorter for the model. The majority the cervical segments compare well with respect to biomechanical data at physiological loads, with the best match for flexion-extension loads and less biofidelity for axial rotation. An average female FE ligamentous cervical spine model was developed and validated with respect to physiological loading. In flexion-extension simulations with the developed female model and an existing average male cervical spine model, a greater range of motion (ROM) was found in the female model. PMID:26974520

  18. Developmental Implications for Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxins: Consumption Habits of Pregnant Women and Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in a Mouse Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Sarah Emily

    This dissertation provides a discussion of the effects of maternal consumption of environmental toxins, and will hopefully contribute to the prevention and understanding of developmental disorders and physiological deficits. Developing systems are particularly susceptible to toxic insults, and small changes in utero can result in long-term deficits. Chapter one of this dissertation reviews the potential teratogenicity of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, MeHg, PCBs, BPA, and tap water contaminants, so as to characterize the current body of literature detailing the effects and implications of prenatal exposure to toxins. In chapter two, research on maternal consumption habits is presented, with an emphasis on commonly-consumed, potentially-teratogenic substances. Occurrences and frequencies of maternal intake of healthy and unhealthy foods, beverages, and medications in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California were assessed using the Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ). The described study reveals that a proportion of pregnant women consumed BPA, MeHg, caffeine, and alcohol at varied levels during pregnancy. The following chapters provide an in-depth analysis of the postnatal effects of a particular neuroteratogen, nicotine, which has been shown to impart various detrimental postnatal effects on exposed offspring. A CD-1 mouse model of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) was used to analyze aspects of the brain and neocortex that may underly some of the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes seen with PNE. Analyses included postnatal measurements of brain weight, brain widths and lengths, development of neocortical circuitry, and cortical thickness measures. Exposed mice were found to exhibit reduced brain and body weights at birth, a phenotype that recovered by postnatal day 10. No changes in neocortical circuity or thickness in sensory and motor areas were found. PNE also resulted in persistent behavioral effects, including

  19. Models to increase enrollment of minority females in science-based careers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, V S; Erwin, K W; Ghose, M; Perry-Thornton, E

    2001-02-01

    Enrollment of African-American females in academic pathways that lead to science based-careers may be limited by gender discrepancies in standardized test scores, academic preparation, selecting "college-prep" course work in the high school curriculum, and lack of mentors or role models. Barriers related to teacher characteristics are: (a) lack of self-confidence, (b) learning environment, (c) teacher behavior, (d) lack of female role models, and (e) failure to see the relevance between the classes and a female's expected role in life. Other limiting factors include differences in access to educational resources, differences in economic status, differences in interest or choice, cultural barriers, and lack of encouragement. Confidence building models that improve enrollment of minority females in science-based careers include equitable teaching instruction, inquiry-based pedagogy, and cooperative learning. Practices that correlate with achievement and success include challenging curricula, a nurturing learning environment, high expectations, community service, research experiences, and mentoring relationships. PMID:12653386

  20. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    PubMed

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  1. Modelling effective diagnosis of risk complications in gestational diabetes mellitus: an e-diabetic expert system for pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedevi, E.; Vijaya Lakshmi, K.; Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Padmavathamma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuous medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. This paper deals with study and development of algorithm to develop an initial stage expert system to provide diagnosis to the pregnant women who are suffering from Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) by means of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT).

  2. A Genetic Model for the Female Sterility Barrier Between Asian and African Cultivated Rice Species

    PubMed Central

    Garavito, Andrea; Guyot, Romain; Lozano, Jaime; Gavory, Frédérick; Samain, Sylvie; Panaud, Olivier; Tohme, Joe; Ghesquière, Alain; Lorieux, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    S1 is the most important locus acting as a reproductive barrier between Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. It is a complex locus, with factors that may affect male and female fertility separately. Recently, the component causing the allelic elimination of pollen was fine mapped. However, the position and nature of the component causing female sterility remains unknown. To fine map the factor of the S1 locus affecting female fertility, we developed a mapping approach based on the evaluation of the degree of female transmission ratio distortion (fTRD) of markers. Through implementing this methodology in four O. sativa × O. glaberrima crosses, the female component of the S1 locus was mapped into a 27.8-kb (O. sativa) and 50.3-kb (O. glaberrima) region included within the interval bearing the male component of the locus. Moreover, evidence of additional factors interacting with S1 was also found. In light of the available data, a model where incompatibilities in epistatic interactions between S1 and the additional factors are the cause of the female sterility barrier between O. sativa and O. glaberrima was developed to explain the female sterility and the TRD mediated by S1. According to our model, the recombination ratio and allelic combinations between these factors would determine the final allelic frequencies observed for a given cross. PMID:20457876

  3. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; Silvan, Gema; Illera, Maria J.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Reuben, James M.; Illera, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors. PMID:27195300

  4. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; Silvan, Gema; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Illera, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6-8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 10(6)IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors. PMID:27195300

  5. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    PubMed

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. PMID:21500105

  6. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  7. Metabolic Effects of Sleeve Gastrectomy in a Female Rat Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brinckerhoff, Tatiana Z.; Bondada, Sandhya; Lewis, Catherine E.; French, Sam; DeUgarte, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background While females disproportionately undergo bariatric surgery, rodent models investigating mechanisms of bariatric surgery have been limited to males. Female rodent models can also potentially allow us to understand the effects of surgical intervention on future generations of offspring. Sleeve gastrectomy is an attractive weight loss procedure for reproductive-age female patients as it avoids the malabsorption associated with intestinal bypass. Objectives We sought to evaluate the impact of sleeve gastrectomy on young female rats with diet-induced obesity. Settings David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Methods Sprague Dawley female rats were fed a 60% high-fat diet. At 12 weeks of age, animals underwent either sleeve gastrectomy or sham surgery. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery. A chemistry panel was performed, and serum adipokines and gut hormones were assayed. Homeostasis model assessment score (HOMA) was calculated. Liver histology was graded for steatosis. Two-sample t-test was used to compare groups. Results Sleeve gastrectomy was associated with significant weight loss (5±6% vs. −4±6%; p<0.001), lower leptin levels (1.3±1.2 vs. 3.5±2.3 ng/ml; p<0.01), and higher adiponectin levels (0.43 ± 0.19 vs. 0.17 ± 0.14 ng/ml; p<0.004) when compared to sham animals. There were no significant differences in fasting ghrelin. Furthermore, we did not observe evidence of insulin resistance or steatohepatitis after 11 weeks of high-fat diet. Despite these limitations, further gender-specific studies are warranted given that the majority of bariatric surgeries are performed in females. Conclusion Sleeve gastrectomy appears to result in weight loss and improvements in adiponectin and leptin via mechanisms independent of ghrelin in a female model of diet-induced obesity. PMID:22093377

  8. Maternal Smoke Exposure Impairs the Long-Term Fertility of Female Offspring in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Nicole J; Sobinoff, Alexander P; Sutherland, Jessie M; Beckett, Emma L; Jarnicki, Andrew G; Vanders, Rebecca L; Hansbro, Philip M; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Holt, Janet E

    2016-02-01

    The theory of fetal origins of adult disease was first proposed in 1989, and in the decades since, a wide range of other diseases from obesity to asthma have been found to originate in early development. Because mammalian oocyte development begins in fetal life it has been suggested that environmental and lifestyle factors of the mother could directly impact the fertility of subsequent generations. Cigarette smoke is a known ovotoxicant in active smokers, yet disturbingly 13% of Australian and 12% of US women continue to smoke throughout pregnancy. The focus of our investigation was to characterize the adverse effects of smoking on ovary and oocyte quality in female offspring exposed in utero. Pregnant mice were nasally exposed to cigarette smoke for 12 wk throughout pregnancy/lactation, and ovary and oocyte quality of the F1 (maternal smoke exposed) generation was examined. Neonatal ovaries displayed abnormal somatic cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, leading to a reduction in follicle numbers. Further investigation found that altered somatic cell proliferation and reduced follicle number continued into adulthood; however, apoptosis did not. This reduction in follicles resulted in decreased oocyte numbers, with these oocytes found to have elevated levels of oxidative stress, altered metaphase II spindle, and reduced sperm-egg interaction. These ovarian and oocyte changes ultimately lead to subfertility, with maternal smoke-exposed animals having smaller litters and also taking longer to conceive. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that in utero and lactational exposure to cigarette smoke can have long-lasting effects on the fertility of the next generation of females. PMID:26764348

  9. Hollow-fiber pharmacodynamic studies and mathematical modeling to predict the efficacy of amoxicillin for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis in pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    Louie, Arnold; Vanscoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G L

    2013-12-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ≥94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 μg/ml and troughs of >1.75 μg/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children. PMID:24041894

  10. Pregnant Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Pregnant Guppy is a modified Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser used to transport the S-IV (second) stage for the Saturn I launch vehicle between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. The fuselage of the B-377 was lengthened to accommodate the S-IV stage and the plane's cabin section was enlarged to approximately double its normal volume. The idea was originated by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, in Van Nuys, California. The former Stratocruiser became a B-377 PG: the Pregnant Guppy. This photograph depicts the Pregnant Guppy in flight.

  11. Effect of exposure to photographs of thin models on self-consciousness in female college students.

    PubMed

    Wegner, B S; Hartmann, A M; Geist, C R

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the immediate influence of brief exposure to images taken from print media on the general self-consciousness and body self-consciousness of 67 college women. After viewing photographs of either thin female models or control photographs, the women completed the Self-consciousness Scale and the Body Self-consciousness Questionnaire. Although alpha was .45, the college women who looked at images of thin female models gave immediate ratings significantly (p < .001) higher on both general Self-consciousness and Body Self-consciousness than those who looked at control images. PMID:10932572

  12. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

    PubMed

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined. PMID:17096277

  13. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: A model for MRKH syndrome✩

    PubMed Central

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Furr, Johnathan; Gray, L. Earl

    2014-01-01

    Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phenomenon that is better studied in male offspring than females. The current study reports female reproductive tract malformations in the Sprague–Dawley rat similar to those characteristic of MRKH syndrome, following in utero exposure to a mixture of 5 PEs. We determined that females are ~2-fold less sensitive to the effects of the 5-PE mixture than males for reproductive tract malformations. We were not fully successful in defining the critical exposure period for females; however, incidence of malformations was 88% following dosing from GD8 to 19 versus 22% and 0% for GD8–13 and GD14–19, respectively. Overall, this study provides valuable information regarding female vulnerability to in utero phthalate exposure and further characterizes a potential model for the human MRKH syndrome. PMID:23542816

  14. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Fernanda; Oliveira, Carlos A L; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Resende, Emiko K; Povh, Jayme A; Fornari, Darci C; Barreto, Rogério V; McManus, Concepta; Streit, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a) and relative growth rate to maturity (k) were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g), which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day) than females (9.34 g / day), however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001). PMID:26628036

  15. Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant and Parenting Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bernie Sue; Campbell, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of mutual violence among a sample of pregnant and parenting Latina adolescent females and their partners. The sample consisted of 73 Latina adolescent females between the ages of 14 and 20 who were referred to a community-based organization for case management, education, and…

  16. Wage Equity and Female Job Satisfaction: The Role of Wage Differentials in a Job Satisfaction Causal Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    1996-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of faculty, a study examined the role of male/female wage differentials in a model of job satisfaction for full-time female faculty. Results indicated that as gender-based wage differentials increased, females' global job satisfaction decreased, with the effect mainly in faculty perceptions of the institution.…

  17. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Predict Disposition of CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 Metabolized Drugs in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Alice Ban; Nallani, Srikanth C.; Zhao, Ping; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Isoherranen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Conducting pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in pregnant women is challenging. Therefore, we asked if a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model could be used to evaluate different dosing regimens for pregnant women. We refined and verified our previously published pregnancy PBPK model by incorporating cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 suppression (based on caffeine PK) and CYP2D6 induction (based on metoprolol PK) into the model. This model accounts for gestational age–dependent changes in maternal physiology and hepatic CYP3A activity. For verification, the disposition of CYP1A2–metabolized drug theophylline (THEO) and CYP2D6–metabolized drugs paroxetine (PAR), dextromethorphan (DEX), and clonidine (CLO) during pregnancy was predicted. Our PBPK model successfully predicted THEO disposition during the third trimester (T3). Predicted mean postpartum to third trimester (PP:T3) ratios of THEO area under the curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration, and minimum plasma concentration were 0.76, 0.95, and 0.66 versus observed values 0.75, 0.89, and 0.72, respectively. The predicted mean PAR steady-state plasma concentration (Css) ratio (PP:T3) was 7.1 versus the observed value 3.7. Predicted mean DEX urinary ratio (UR) (PP:T3) was 2.9 versus the observed value 1.9. Predicted mean CLO AUC ratio (PP:T3) was 2.2 versus the observed value 1.7. Sensitivity analysis suggested that a 100% induction of CYP2D6 during T3 was required to recover the observed PP:T3 ratios of PAR Css, DEX UR, and CLO AUC. Based on these data, it is prudent to conclude that the magnitude of hepatic CYP2D6 induction during T3 ranges from 100 to 200%. Our PBPK model can predict the disposition of CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A drugs during pregnancy. PMID:23355638

  18. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to predict disposition of CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 metabolized drugs in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ke, Alice Ban; Nallani, Srikanth C; Zhao, Ping; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Isoherranen, Nina; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2013-04-01

    Conducting pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in pregnant women is challenging. Therefore, we asked if a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model could be used to evaluate different dosing regimens for pregnant women. We refined and verified our previously published pregnancy PBPK model by incorporating cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 suppression (based on caffeine PK) and CYP2D6 induction (based on metoprolol PK) into the model. This model accounts for gestational age-dependent changes in maternal physiology and hepatic CYP3A activity. For verification, the disposition of CYP1A2-metabolized drug theophylline (THEO) and CYP2D6-metabolized drugs paroxetine (PAR), dextromethorphan (DEX), and clonidine (CLO) during pregnancy was predicted. Our PBPK model successfully predicted THEO disposition during the third trimester (T3). Predicted mean postpartum to third trimester (PP:T3) ratios of THEO area under the curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration, and minimum plasma concentration were 0.76, 0.95, and 0.66 versus observed values 0.75, 0.89, and 0.72, respectively. The predicted mean PAR steady-state plasma concentration (Css) ratio (PP:T3) was 7.1 versus the observed value 3.7. Predicted mean DEX urinary ratio (UR) (PP:T3) was 2.9 versus the observed value 1.9. Predicted mean CLO AUC ratio (PP:T3) was 2.2 versus the observed value 1.7. Sensitivity analysis suggested that a 100% induction of CYP2D6 during T3 was required to recover the observed PP:T3 ratios of PAR Css, DEX UR, and CLO AUC. Based on these data, it is prudent to conclude that the magnitude of hepatic CYP2D6 induction during T3 ranges from 100 to 200%. Our PBPK model can predict the disposition of CYP1A2, 2D6, and 3A drugs during pregnancy. PMID:23355638

  19. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice. Methods The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc). At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions. Results The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of differentially methylated regions of Zac1. Conclusion The results from this study indicated that early exposure to AgNPs has the potential to disrupt fetal and postnatal health through epigenetic changes in the embryo and abnormal development of the placenta. These results can contribute to research involved in the safe use of

  20. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... animals presents risk of trauma to the abdomen. INFECTIOUS DISEASES Pregnant women who develop travelers’ diarrhea or other ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) ...

  1. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth after changing a litter box, or while gardening without gloves. Fruits and vegetables may have contact ... pregnant. Keep outdoor sandboxes covered. Wear gloves when gardening and during contact with soil or sand because ...

  2. Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring

  3. Effects of Successful Female Role Models on Young Women's Attitudes toward Traditionally Male Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    A study was conducted to examine the effects on young women of reading about nontraditional role models in the sciences and engineering, and discussing various aspects of participating in science and engineering careers with a trained instructor. Subjects for the study were 153 female students enrolled in advanced, elective science courses (10th…

  4. Adaptive Response in Female Modeling of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  5. A Student's Perspective: Fictional Characters in Books as Positive Role Models for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    Any girl who watches TV or listens to the radio is bombarded not only with negative stereotypes of females, but also with the message that the most important qualities to possess are physical and aesthetic. From where, then, are girls supposed to derive positive role models? The author began asking herself this question two years ago as an eighth…

  6. Female-Headed Families: An Ecological Model of Residential Concentration in a Small City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Roncek, Dennis W.

    1980-01-01

    Proposed an ecological model to explain the concentration of female-headed families in a small city. Data for city blocks provided patterns of concentration. Of the physical variables, only historical development of the city and market decisions by nonresidential consumers were important predictors of concentration; spatial concentration was not…

  7. Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Are Necessary for the Recruitment of CD8+ T Cells in the Liver in a Pregnant Mouse Model of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci Serotype 1) Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Oca, Roberto Montes; Buendía, Antonio J.; Del Río, Laura; Sánchez, Joaquín; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the development of the specific immune response against Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection was studied in a pregnant mouse model involving treatment with RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody. PMN depletion significantly affected the immune response in the liver, in which the T-lymphocyte and F4/80+ cell populations decreased, particularly the CD8+ T-cell population. A Th1-like response, characterized by high levels of gamma interferon without detectable levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in serum, was observed in both depleted and nondepleted mice, although an increased production of IL-10 was detected in the depleted group. Our results suggest that PMNs play a very important role in the recruitment of other leukocyte populations to the inflammatory foci but have little influence in the polarization of the immune specific response toward a Th1-like response. PMID:10679002

  8. Prenatal LPS-exposure--a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia--differentially affects cognitive functions, myelination and parvalbumin expression in male and female offspring.

    PubMed

    Wischhof, Lena; Irrsack, Ellen; Osorio, Carmen; Koch, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. Gender differences can be seen in various features of the illness and sex steroid hormones (e.g. estrogen) have strongly been implicated in the disease pathology. In the present study, we evaluated sex differences in the effects of prenatal exposure to a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in rats. Pregnant dams received LPS-injections (100 μg/kg) at gestational day 15 and 16. The offspring was then tested for prepulse inhibition (PPI), locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior and object recognition memory at various developmental time points. At postnatal day (PD) 33 and 60, prenatally LPS-exposed rats showed locomotor hyperactivity which was similar in male and female offspring. Moreover, prenatal LPS-treatment caused PPI deficits in pubertal (PD45) and adult (PD90) males while PPI impairments were found only at PD45 in prenatally LPS-treated females. Following prenatal LPS-administration, recognition memory for objects was impaired in both sexes with males being more severely affected. Additionally, we assessed prenatal infection-induced alterations of parvalbumin (Parv) expression and myelin fiber density. Male offspring born to LPS-challenged mothers showed decreased myelination in cortical and limbic brain regions as well as reduced numbers of Parv-expressing cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. In contrast, LPS-exposed female rats showed only a modest decrease in myelination and Parv immunoreactivity. Collectively, our data indicate that some of the prenatal immune activation effects are sex dependent and further strengthen the importance of taking into account gender differences in animal models of schizophrenia. PMID:25455585

  9. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-08-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n = 207) and non-pregnant women (n = 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p = 0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p = 0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p = 0.008), but not in pregnant women (p = 0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  10. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment. PMID:24125786

  11. A PBPK Model to Predict Disposition of CYP3A-Metabolized Drugs in Pregnant Women: Verification and Discerning the Site of CYP3A Induction.

    PubMed

    Ke, A B; Nallani, S C; Zhao, P; Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Unadkat, J D

    2012-01-01

    Besides logistical and ethical concerns, evaluation of safety and efficacy of medications in pregnant women is complicated by marked changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs. For example, CYP3A activity is induced during the third trimester (T3). We explored whether a previously published physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model could quantitatively predict PK profiles of CYP3A-metabolized drugs during T3, and discern the site of CYP3A induction (i.e., liver, intestine, or both). The model accounted for gestational age-dependent changes in maternal physiological function and hepatic CYP3A activity. For model verification, mean plasma area under the curve (AUC), peak plasma concentration (Cmax), and trough plasma concentration (Cmin) of midazolam (MDZ), nifedipine (NIF), and indinavir (IDV) were predicted and compared with published studies. The PBPK model successfully predicted MDZ, NIF, and IDV disposition during T3. A sensitivity analysis suggested that CYP3A induction in T3 is most likely hepatic and not intestinal. Our PBPK model is a useful tool to evaluate different dosing regimens during T3 for drugs cleared primarily via CYP3A metabolism.CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology (2012) 1, e3; doi:10.1038/psp.2012.2; advance online publication 26 September 2012. PMID:23835883

  12. Distribution and frequency of intranuclear inclusions in female CGG KI mice modeling the fragile X premutation☆

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Erik W.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Greco, Claudia M.; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    The fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder caused by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The neuropathological hallmark of FXTAS is the presence of ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions in neurons and in astroglia. Intranuclear inclusions have also been reported in the neurons of male CGG KI mice carrying an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat and used to model FXTAS, but no study has been carried out quantifying inclusions in female CGG KI mice heterozygous for the fragile X premutation. We used histologic and immunocytochemical methods to determine the pathological features of intranuclear inclusions in astroglia and neurons. In female CGG KI mice, ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions were found in neurons and astroglia throughout the brain in cortical and subcortical regions. These inclusions increased in number and became larger with advanced age and increasing CGG repeat length, supporting hypotheses that these pathologic features are progressive across the lifespan. The number of inclusions in neurons was reduced by ~25% in female CGG KI mice compared to male CGG KI mice, but not so low as the 50% predicted. These data emphasize the need to evaluate the neurocognitive and pathological features in female carriers of the fragile X premutation with and without FXTAS symptomatology is warranted, as this population shows similar neuropathological features present in male FXTAS patients. PMID:22796595

  13. Progesterone Treatment Shows Benefit in Female Rats in a Pediatric Model of Controlled Cortical Impact Injury

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, Rastafa I.; Peterson, Bethany L.; Stein, Donald G.; Sayeed, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We recently showed that progesterone treatment can reduce lesion size and behavioral deficits after moderate-to-severe bilateral injury to the medial prefrontal cortex in immature male rats. Whether there are important sex differences in response to injury and progesterone treatment in very young subjects has not been given sufficient attention. Here we investigated progesterone’s effects in the same model of brain injury but with pre-pubescent females. Methods Twenty-eight-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats received sham (n = 14) or controlled cortical impact (CCI) (n = 21) injury, were given progesterone (8 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID) 1–7, and underwent behavioral testing from PID 9–27. Brains were evaluated for lesion size at PID 28. Results Lesion size in vehicle-treated female rats with CCI injury was smaller than that previously reported for similarly treated age-matched male rats. Treatment with progesterone reduced the effect of CCI on extent of damage and behavioral deficits. Conclusion Pre-pubescent female rats with midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex have reduced morphological and functional deficits following progesterone treatment. While gender differences in susceptibility to this injury were observed, progesterone treatment produced beneficial effects in young rats of both sexes following CCI. PMID:26799561

  14. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Marc W; Schmidt, Anja; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods ("omics") now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis). Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes. PMID:26579157

  15. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Marc W.; Schmidt, Anja; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods (“omics”) now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis). Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes. PMID:26579157

  16. Female involvement in U.S. nonfatal crashes under a three-level hierarchical crash model.

    PubMed

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo

    2010-11-01

    Men have long held the lead in motor-vehicle crashes; however, research indicates that women are closing the gap. To further investigate this problem, we applied a hierarchical model to investigate female involvement in fatal crashes in the United States. The hierarchical model recognizes that decisions at higher levels affect the decisions at lower levels. At the top level, the model assumes that the driver's condition (e.g., inattention, fatigue, impairment) affects the next level (e.g., speeding or other failures to obey traffic laws), which subsequently affects the basic maneuvering skills (i.e., the lowest level) were either nonexistent, or largely explained by gender differences in alcohol consumption. We found that although female involvement in skill-related crashes was not different from that of males, females were more likely than males to apply wrong maneuvers when speeding was involved. We also found that the most important contributing factor to gender differences in nonfatal crashes can be traced back to gender-based differences in alcohol consumption. PMID:20728655

  17. Development of a microfluidics model for studying migration of sperm in the female reproductive tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Ardón, Florencia; Wu, Mingming; Suárez, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Infertility is a significant issue, both for humans and dairy cattle. In order for fertilization to happen, sperm must migrate through the female reproductive tract to reach the egg in the oviduct (fallopian tube). There is strong evidence that sperm interact with the female tract via both chemical and physical mechanisms. In this work, we focus on how the physical environment of the female tract influences the migration of bull sperm, which also serve as models for human sperm. In order for bull and human sperm to pass from the vagina into the uterus, they must swim through the cervical canal, which is lined by microchannels. Then, sperm must swim through the uterotubal junction, which also contains microchannels, in order to reach the oviduct. In both passageways, sperm must swim against a fluid flow, which would be less in the microchannels than in the central passageways. We have developed a microfluidic model for studying the sperm migration effects of the geometry of the cervix and uterotubal junction and the fluid flow within. Supported by NIH grant 1R01HD070038.

  18. Are Indians and females less tolerant to pain? An observational study using a laboratory pain model.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, E; Zailinawati, A H; Lim, A W; Chan, J B; Yap, S H; Hla, Y Y; Kamil, M A; Teng, C L

    2009-06-01

    In Malaysia, it is a common belief among health care workers that females and Indians have lower pain threshold. This experience, although based on anecdotal experience in the healthcare setting, does not allow differentiation between pain tolerance, and pain expression. To determine whether there is a difference in the tolerance to pain between the three main ethnic groups, namely the Malays, Chinese and Indians as well as between males and females. This was a prospective study, using a laboratory pain model (ischaemic pain tolerance) to determine the pain tolerance of 152 IMU medical students. The mean age of the students was 21.8 years (range 18-29 years). All of them were unmarried. The median of ischaemic pain tolerance for Malays, Chinese and Indians were 639s, 695s and 613s respectively (p = 0.779). However, statistically significant difference in ischaemic pain tolerance for males and females Indian students were observed. Possible ethnic difference in pain tolerance in casual observation is not verified by this laboratory pain model. Difference in pain tolerance between genders is shown only for Indians. PMID:20058568

  19. A model of premarital coitus and contraceptive behavior among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strahle, W M

    1983-02-01

    At the most general level, I seek to model female adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior in terms of the social context in which it occurs. Drawing on emerging theoretical literature pertaining to social exchange theory and changes in the social positions of women (and men) and also on existing substantive literature, I apply these notions to adolescent sexuality and contraceptive usage. The reviews of the literature reveal a number of inconsistencies among those factors (variables) advanced to explain both the prevalence and frequency of premarital coitus and contraceptive employment. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of well-developed theoretical models that might explain these inconsistencies, what is needed is an additional study that seeks to examine the net effects of those variables used in the literature to explain variations in female premarital coitus and contraceptive use. The present formulation is a two-stage causal model that can be used to estimate the impact of these variables on premarital coital behavior (stage 1) and subsequent contraceptive usage (stage 2). These models, and a concomitant set of hypotheses, take into account an array of the more significant sociological and social psychological variables as far as the prediction of the two phenomena in question are concerned. These models may be useful in guiding future research as they graphically display the relationships between these sets of variables within the context of a more general theory of human behavior. PMID:6838356

  20. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Xiao-yan; Xiong, Zheng-fang; Liu, Hui-shu; Zheng, Zheng; Ma, Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated. This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice. Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests. Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controls, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group. Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome. PMID:21602842

  1. Maternal models of risk: links between substance use and risky sexual behavior in African American female caregivers and daughters.

    PubMed

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-08-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior and substance use in a sample of 214 low-income, urban AA female caregivers and daughters recruited from outpatient mental health clinics in Chicago. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that sexual risk reported by female caregivers was associated with adolescent sexual risk, and illicit drug use reported by female caregivers was related to adolescent-reported substance use, which was in turn associated with adolescent-reported sexual risk behavior. These findings suggest that female caregivers' sexual behavior and substance use both relate to girls' sexual risk. Thus, results emphasize the role of female caregivers in transmitting risk. PMID:22353241

  2. Pregnant Students in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory: Policies and Practices at Chiropractic Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duray, Stephen M.; Mekow, Craig L.

    2011-01-01

    Chiropractic and medical colleges have experienced a significant increase in the number of female applicants in recent years, a percentage of whom are pregnant or become pregnant following admission. It is therefore important to ask the question: How do institutions that educate future health care providers address the issue of pregnancy and the…

  3. Angiogenesis in the caprine caruncles in non-pregnant and pregnant normal and swainsonine-treated does.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microvascular corrosion casts of caruncles from non-pregnant and pregnant goats were examined in great detail by scanning electron microscopy at 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 18 weeks of gestation. This model was used to evaluate the effects of the locoweed toxin, swainsonine, on placental angiogenesis. Sw...

  4. Female mating preferences determine system-level evolution in a gene network model.

    PubMed

    Fierst, Janna L

    2013-06-01

    Environmental patterns of directional, stabilizing and fluctuating selection can influence the evolution of system-level properties like evolvability and mutational robustness. Intersexual selection produces strong phenotypic selection and these dynamics may also affect the response to mutation and the potential for future adaptation. In order to to assess the influence of mating preferences on these evolutionary properties, I modeled a male trait and female preference determined by separate gene regulatory networks. I studied three sexual selection scenarios: sexual conflict, a Gaussian model of the Fisher process described in Lande (in Proc Natl Acad Sci 78(6):3721-3725, 1981) and a good genes model in which the male trait signalled his mutational condition. I measured the effects these mating preferences had on the potential for traits and preferences to evolve towards new states, and mutational robustness of both the phenotype and the individual's overall viability. All types of sexual selection increased male phenotypic robustness relative to a randomly mating population. The Fisher model also reduced male evolvability and mutational robustness for viability. Under good genes sexual selection, males evolved an increased mutational robustness for viability. Females choosing their mates is a scenario that is sufficient to create selective forces that impact genetic evolution and shape the evolutionary response to mutation and environmental selection. These dynamics will inevitably develop in any population where sexual selection is operating, and affect the potential for future adaptation. PMID:23584953

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Screening and Pregnant Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Michael; Shoultz, Jan; Richardson, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about factors associated with healthcare screening of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) for Latinas during pregnancy. This study builds on current research examining IPV-associated outcomes among Latinas by analyzing 210 pregnant Latina responses to a patient survey. A multivariate logistic regression model examined factors associated with being screened for IPV. One-third of pregnant women reported being screened for IPV. Factors related to being screened for IPV are reported and did not match those associated with having experienced IPV. While most pregnant Latinas were not screened for IPV, having systematic processes in place for IPV screening and fostering good patient-provider communication may facilitate identification of IPV. Having a greater awareness of the risk factors associated with IPV may also provide cues for clinicians to better address the issue of IPV. PMID:19694355

  6. Bioenergetics model for estimating food requirements of female Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noren, S.R.; Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens use sea ice as a platform for resting, nursing, and accessing extensive benthic foraging grounds. The extent of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea has decreased substantially in recent decades, causing walruses to alter habitat use and activity patterns which could affect their energy requirements. We developed a bioenergetics model to estimate caloric demand of female walruses, accounting for maintenance, growth, activity (active in-water and hauled-out resting), molt, and reproductive costs. Estimates for non-reproductive females 0–12 yr old (65−810 kg) ranged from 16359 to 68960 kcal d−1 (74−257 kcal d−1 kg−1) for years with readily available sea ice for which we assumed animals spent 83% of their time in water. This translated into the energy content of 3200–5960 clams per day, equivalent to 7–8% and 14–9% of body mass per day for 5–12 and 2–4 yr olds, respectively. Estimated consumption rates of 12 yr old females were minimally affected by pregnancy, but lactation had a large impact, increasing consumption rates to 15% of body mass per day. Increasing the proportion of time in water to 93%, as might happen if walruses were required to spend more time foraging during ice-free periods, increased daily caloric demand by 6–7% for non-lactating females. We provide the first bioenergetics-based estimates of energy requirements for walruses and a first step towards establishing bioenergetic linkages between demography and prey requirements that can ultimately be used in predicting this population’s response to environmental change.

  7. Heterologous Infection of Pregnant Mice Induces Low Birth Weight and Modifies Offspring Susceptibility to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankur; Conteh, Solomon; Langhorne, Jean; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups. Parasites were detected in placental blood without evidence of sequestration, unlike P. falciparum but similar to other malaria species that infect pregnant women. Inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in pregnant females during malaria, and associated with intensity of infection and with poor outcomes. Pups born to dams during heterologous infection were more resistant to malaria infections at 6–7 weeks of age, compared to pups born to malaria-experienced but uninfected dams or to malaria-naïve dams. In summary, our mouse model reproduces several features of human PM, including recrudescences, heterologous infections, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of offspring susceptibility to malaria. This model should be further studied to explore mechanisms underlying PM pathogenesis. PMID:27467392

  8. Heterologous Infection of Pregnant Mice Induces Low Birth Weight and Modifies Offspring Susceptibility to Malaria.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ankur; Conteh, Solomon; Langhorne, Jean; Duffy, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy malaria (PM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, and can arise due to relapse, recrudescence or a re-infection with heterologous parasites. We have used the Plasmodium chabaudi model of pregnancy malaria in C57BL/6 mice to examine recrudescence and heterologous infection using CB and AS parasite strains. After an initial course of patent parasitemia and first recrudescence, CB but not AS parasites were observed to recrudesce again in most animals that became pregnant. Pregnancy exacerbated heterologous CB infection of AS-experienced mice, leading to mortality and impaired post-natal growth of pups. Parasites were detected in placental blood without evidence of sequestration, unlike P. falciparum but similar to other malaria species that infect pregnant women. Inflammatory cytokine levels were elevated in pregnant females during malaria, and associated with intensity of infection and with poor outcomes. Pups born to dams during heterologous infection were more resistant to malaria infections at 6-7 weeks of age, compared to pups born to malaria-experienced but uninfected dams or to malaria-naïve dams. In summary, our mouse model reproduces several features of human PM, including recrudescences, heterologous infections, poor pregnancy outcomes associated with inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of offspring susceptibility to malaria. This model should be further studied to explore mechanisms underlying PM pathogenesis. PMID:27467392

  9. Development of a 9-months pregnant hybrid phantom and its internal dosimetry for thyroid agents.

    PubMed

    Hoseinian-Azghadi, E; Rafat-Motavalli, L; Miri-Hakimabad, H

    2014-07-01

    As a consequence of fetal radiosensitivity, the estimation of internal dose received by a fetus from radiopharmaceuticals applied to the mother is often important in nuclear medicine. A new 9-months pregnant phantom based on magnetic resonance (MR) images tied to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantom has been developed. Maternal and fetal organs were segmented from a set of pelvic MR images of a 9-months pregnant subject using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported into the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for combining with the adult female ICRP voxel phantom and further modeling. Next, the phantom organs were rescaled to match with reference masses described in ICRP Publications. The internal anatomy of previous pregnant phantom models had been limited to the fetal brain and skeleton only, but the fetus model developed in this study incorporates 20 different organs. The current reference phantom has been developed for application in comprehensive dosimetric study in nuclear medicine. The internal dosimetry calculations were performed for thyroid agents using the Monte Carlo transport method. Biokinetic data for these radiopharmaceuticals were used to estimate cumulated activity during pregnancy and maternal and fetal organ doses at seven different maximum thyroid uptake levels. Calculating the dose distribution was also presented in a sagittal view of the pregnant model utilizing the mesh tally function. The comparisons showed, in general, an overestimation of the absorbed dose to the fetus and an underestimation of the fetal thyroid dose in previous studies compared with the values based on the current hybrid phantom. PMID:24515254

  10. Development of a 9-months pregnant hybrid phantom and its internal dosimetry for thyroid agents

    PubMed Central

    Hoseinian-Azghadi, E.; Rafat-Motavalli, L.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of fetal radiosensitivity, the estimation of internal dose received by a fetus from radiopharmaceuticals applied to the mother is often important in nuclear medicine. A new 9-months pregnant phantom based on magnetic resonance (MR) images tied to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantom has been developed. Maternal and fetal organs were segmented from a set of pelvic MR images of a 9-months pregnant subject using 3D-DOCTORTM and then imported into the 3D modeling software package RhinocerosTM for combining with the adult female ICRP voxel phantom and further modeling. Next, the phantom organs were rescaled to match with reference masses described in ICRP Publications. The internal anatomy of previous pregnant phantom models had been limited to the fetal brain and skeleton only, but the fetus model developed in this study incorporates 20 different organs. The current reference phantom has been developed for application in comprehensive dosimetric study in nuclear medicine. The internal dosimetry calculations were performed for thyroid agents using the Monte Carlo transport method. Biokinetic data for these radiopharmaceuticals were used to estimate cumulated activity during pregnancy and maternal and fetal organ doses at seven different maximum thyroid uptake levels. Calculating the dose distribution was also presented in a sagittal view of the pregnant model utilizing the mesh tally function. The comparisons showed, in general, an overestimation of the absorbed dose to the fetus and an underestimation of the fetal thyroid dose in previous studies compared with the values based on the current hybrid phantom. PMID:24515254

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder among female Vietnam veterans: a causal model of etiology.

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, A; Schwartz, L S; Rosenheck, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars have awakened people to the realization that military service can be traumatizing for women as well as men. This study investigated the etiological roles of both war and sexual trauma in the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder among female Vietnam veterans. METHODS: Data from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study for 396 Vietnam theater women and 250 Vietnam era women were analyzed with structural equation modeling. RESULTS: An etiological model with highly satisfactory fit and parsimony was developed. Exposure to war trauma contributed to the probability of posttraumatic stress disorder in theater women, as did sexual trauma in both theater and era women. Lack of social support at the time of homecoming acted as a powerful mediator of trauma for both groups of women. CONCLUSIONS: Within the constraints and assumptions of causal modeling, there is evidence that both war trauma and sexual trauma are powerful contributors to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder among female Vietnam veterans. PMID:9103092

  12. The effects of female sexual hormones on the expression and function of α1A- and α1D-adrenoceptor subtypes in the late-pregnant rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Bóta, Judit; Hajagos-Tóth, Judit; Ducza, Eszter; Samavati, Reza; Borsodi, Anna; Benyhe, Sándor; Gáspár, Róbert

    2015-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the roles of α1-adrenoceptor subtypes in the last-day pregnant rat uterus in vitro by the administration of subtype-specific antagonists (the α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist WB 4101 and the α1D-adrenoceptor antagonist BMY 7378) after 17β-estradiol or progesterone pretreatment. In isolated organ bath studies, contractions were elicited with (-)-noradrenaline (10(-8)-10(-5)M) in the presence of propranolol (10(-5)M) and yohimbine (10(-6)M) in order to avoid β-, and α2-adrenergic action. The myometrial expressions of the α1-adrenoceptor subtypes were determined by means of the real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting techniques. The activated G protein levels were investigated through radiolabelled GTP binding assays. Both 17β-estradiol and progesterone pretreatment changed the myometrial contracting effect of (-)-noradrenaline. In the presence of WB 4101, progesterone pretreatment decreased the (-)-noradrenaline-induced myometrial contraction. In the presence of BMY 7378, both the 17β-estradiol and the progesterone pretreatment reduced the effect of (-)-noradrenaline. The mRNA and protein expressions of the α1A-adrenoceptors were decreased after 17β-estradiol pretreatment. (-)-Noradrenaline increased the [(35)S]GTPγS binding of the α1-adrenoceptors, which was most markedly elevated by progesterone. Pertussis toxin inhibited the [(35)S]GTPγS binding-stimulating effect of (-)-noradrenaline, indicating the role of Gi proteins in the signal mechanisms. 17β-estradiol pretreatment blocks the expression of the α1A-adrenoceptors, whereas it does not influence the expression of the α1D-adrenoceptors. Progesterone pretreatment does not have any effect on the myometrial mRNA and protein expressions of the α1-adrenoceptors, but it alters the G protein coupling of these receptors, promoting a Gi-dependent pathway. PMID:26593425

  13. A Mouse Model to Dissect Progesterone Signaling in the Female Reproductive Tract and Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Valdivia, Rodrigo; Jeong, Jaewook; Mukherjee, Atish; Soyal, Selma M.; Li, Jie; Ying, Yan; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Considering the regulatory complexities of PR action throughout the female reproductive axis and mammary gland, we generated a mouse model that enables conditional ablation of PR function in a spatiotemporal specific manner. Exon 2 of the murine PR gene was floxed to generate a conditional PR allele (PRflox) in mice. Crossing the PRflox/flox mouse with the ZP3-cre transgenic demonstrated that the PRflox allele recombines to a PR null allele (PRd). Mice homozygous for the recombined null PR allele (PRd/d) exhibit uterine, ovarian, and mammary gland defects that phenocopy those of our previously described PR Knockout (PRKO) model. Therefore this conditional mouse model for PR ablation represents an invaluable resource with which to further define in a developmental and/or reproductive stage-specific manner the individual and integrative roles of distinct PR populations resident in multiple progesterone-responsive target sites. PMID:20029965

  14. Dose-dependent effects of experimental infection with the virulent Neospora caninum Nc-Spain7 isolate in a pregnant mouse model.

    PubMed

    Arranz-Solís, David; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Müller, Joachim; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-07-30

    Pregnant BALB/c mice have been widely used as an in vivo model to study Neospora caninum infection biology and to provide proof-of-concept for assessments of drugs and vaccines against neosporosis. The fact that this model has been used with different isolates of variable virulence, varying infection routes and differing methods to prepare the parasites for infection, has rendered the comparison of results from different laboratories impossible. In most studies, mice were infected with similar number of parasites (2 × 10(6)) as employed in ruminant models (10(7) for cows and 10(6) for sheep), which seems inappropriate considering the enormous differences in the weight of these species. Thus, for achieving meaningful results in vaccination and drug efficacy experiments, a refinement and standardization of this experimental model is necessary. Thus, 2 × 10(6), 10(5), 10(4), 10(3) and 10(2) tachyzoites of the highly virulent and well-characterised Nc-Spain7 isolate were subcutaneously inoculated into mice at day 7 of pregnancy, and clinical outcome, vertical transmission, parasite burden and antibody responses were compared. Dams from all infected groups presented nervous signs and the percentage of surviving pups at day 30 postpartum was surprisingly low (24%) in mice infected with only 10(2) tachyzoites. Importantly, infection with 10(5) tachyzoites resulted in antibody levels, cerebral parasite burden in dams and 100% mortality rate in pups, which was identical to infection with 2 × 10(6) tachyzoites. Considering these results, it is reasonable to lower the challenge dose to 10(5) tachyzoites in further experiments when assessing drugs or vaccine candidates. PMID:26104964

  15. Evaluation of Transtheoretical Model-Based Family Education Among Females of Zahedan (Southeast of Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Kamalikhah, Tahereh; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Gholian Avval, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: It cannot be denied that many improvements in female and child health have been achieved worldwide through international family planning programs. More than half of the females (57%) with unintended pregnancy admitted that they had not used birth control the month before conception. Objectives: The aim of this study was to promote family planning practice among females of Zahedan (southeast of Iran) through the transtheoretical model (TTM). Patients and Methods: The current quasi-experimental study was conducted on 96 eligible females, who were allocated either to the case or the control group and were selected from homes in the border of Zahedan city (southeast of Iran) during 2010. Convenience sampling by door-to-door visits was used for finding eligible cases. A TTM-based self-administrated family planning questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants in the intervention group received education in two groups, based on their stage of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and all groups were followed for three months. Results: The result of the chi-square test did not show any significant difference in the stage of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance before education between the control and intervention groups (P = 0.55). After education, subjects in the intervention group moved forward through stage of change and got at least one step closer to the family planning behavior., with this change being significant (P < 0.001), while the movement of participants through stage of change not being significant in control group (P = 1). The results of statistical tests illustrated that the mean knowledge of the intervention group was 7.5 ± 7.1 versus 0.5 ± 4 for the control group (P < 0.001), mean of attitude of the intervention group was 5.5 ± 5.41 versus 0.09 ± 2.04 for the control group (P < 0.001), and practicing family planning methods (P < 0.007) in the intervention

  16. A model for cryobanking female germplasm in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2013-10-01

    Cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue can be used for cryobanking female germplasm of avian species. Here we report a model of cryobanking ovarian tissue of Japanese quail. Ovaries of 1-wk-old quail chicks from the recessive white-breasted (WB) line were cryopreserved using a vitrification method. The cryopreserved tissue was warmed and transplanted orthotopically into ovariectomized, 1-wk-old female quail chicks from the homozygous wild-type QO line. At sexual maturation, recipients were mated with WB males and the plumage coloration was used as a marker to determine the origin of their ovaries. Seven of the 15 recipients laid eggs and produced donor-derived offspring, and 5 produced 100% donor-derived offspring. No difference was seen in egg production between recipients and untreated birds. The high efficiency of the vitrification and transplantation procedures in preserving and recovering quail ovarian tissue shows that this model can be used for maintaining commercial and experimental quail strains and may benefit other poultry species and endangered avian species. PMID:24046426

  17. An ecological process model of female sex offending: the role of victimization, psychological distress, and life stressors.

    PubMed

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Rowland, Sarah E; Kaplan, Stephanie P; Lynch, Shannon M

    2015-06-01

    Female sex offenders may be implicated in up to one fifth of all sex crimes committed in the United States. Despite previous research findings that suggest unique patterns of offending among female sex offenders, limited empirical research has investigated the motivations and processes involved. The present study qualitatively examined female sex offenders' offense-related experiences and characterized the internal and external factors that contributed to offending. Semi-structured interviews with 24 female sex offenders were analyzed by a team of coders with limited exposure to the existing literature using grounded theory analysis. A conceptual framework emerged representing distinctive processes for solo- and co-offending, contextualized within ecological layers of social and environmental influence. This model extends previous work by offering an example of nested vulnerabilities proximal to female sexual offending. Implications for future research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. PMID:25413945

  18. The influence of female social models in corporate STEM initiatives on girls' math and science attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task

  19. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model

    PubMed Central

    Oezel, Lisa; Schwarzbach, Hans; Ocker, Matthias; Thieme, Kati; Di Fazio, Pietro; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS), we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice. Methods Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4°C/room temperature [22°C]); mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen–cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy. Results In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA), which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%)-, MuRF+ (14.7%)-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%)-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm2) of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice. Conclusion The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or

  20. Development of Multi-Route Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic Models for Ethanol in the Adult, Pregnant, and Neonatal Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuel blends of 10% ethanol (EtOH) and gasoline are common in the United States, and higher EtOH concentrations are being considered (15-85%). Currently, no physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are available to describe the kinetics of EtOH-based biofuels. PBPK...

  1. A1M/α1-Microglobulin Protects from Heme-Induced Placental and Renal Damage in a Pregnant Sheep Model of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Wester-Rosenlöf, Lena; Casslén, Vera; Axelsson, Josefin; Edström-Hägerwall, Anneli; Gram, Magnus; Holmqvist, Madlene; Johansson, Martin E.; Larsson, Iréne; Ley, David; Marsal, Karel; Mörgelin, Matthias; Rippe, Bengt; Rutardottir, Sigurbjörg; Shohani, Behnaz; Åkerström, Bo; Hansson, Stefan R.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious pregnancy complication that manifests as hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th gestation week. Previously, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) has been identified as a plausible causative factor. Cell-free Hb and its degradation products are known to cause oxidative stress and tissue damage, typical of the PE placenta. A1M (α1-microglobulin) is an endogenous scavenger of radicals and heme. Here, the usefulness of A1M as a treatment for PE is investigated in the pregnant ewe PE model, in which starvation induces PE symptoms via hemolysis. Eleven ewes, in late pregnancy, were starved for 36 hours and then treated with A1M (n = 5) or placebo (n = 6) injections. After injections, the ewes were re-fed and observed for additional 72 hours. They were monitored for blood pressure, proteinuria, blood cell distribution and clinical and inflammation markers in plasma. Before termination, the utero-placental circulation was analyzed with Doppler velocimetry and the kidney glomerular function was analyzed by Ficoll sieving. At termination, blood, kidney and placenta samples were collected and analyzed for changes in gene expression and tissue structure. The starvation resulted in increased amounts of the hemolysis marker bilirubin in the blood, structural damages to the placenta and kidneys and an increased glomerular sieving coefficient indicating a defect filtration barrier. Treatment with A1M ameliorated these changes without signs of side-effects. In conclusion, A1M displayed positive therapeutic effects in the ewe starvation PE model, and was well tolerated. Therefore, we suggest A1M as a plausible treatment for PE in humans. PMID:24489717

  2. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for methylmercury in female American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.W.; Bennett, R.S.; Rossmann, R.; French, J.B.; Sappington, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe the uptake, distribution, and elimination of methylmercury (CH 3Hg) in female American kestrels. The model consists of six tissue compartments corresponding to the brain, liver, kidney, gut, red blood cells, and remaining carcass. Additional compartments describe the elimination of CH3Hg to eggs and growing feathers. Dietary uptake of CH 3Hg was modeled as a diffusion-limited process, and the distribution of CH3Hg among compartments was assumed to be mediated by the flow of blood plasma. To the extent possible, model parameters were developed using information from American kestrels. Additional parameters were based on measured values for closely related species and allometric relationships for birds. The model was calibrated using data from dietary dosing studies with American kestrels. Good agreement between model simulations and measured CH3Hg concentrations in blood and tissues during the loading phase of these studies was obtained by fitting model parameters that control dietary uptake of CH 3Hg and possible hepatic demethylation. Modeled results tended to underestimate the observed effect of egg production on circulating levels of CH3Hg. In general, however, simulations were consistent with observed patterns of CH3Hg uptake and elimination in birds, including the dominant role of feather molt. This model could be used to extrapolate CH 3Hg kinetics from American kestrels to other bird species by appropriate reassignment of parameter values. Alternatively, when combined with a bioenergetics-based description, the model could be used to simulate CH 3Hg kinetics in a long-term environmental exposure. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  3. Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response (SCAR): A Model of Sexual Trauma that Disrupts Maternal Learning and Plasticity in the Female Brain.

    PubMed

    Shors, Tracey J; Tobόn, Krishna; DiFeo, Gina; Durham, Demetrius M; Chang, Han Yan M

    2016-01-01

    Sexual aggression can disrupt processes related to learning as females emerge from puberty into young adulthood. To model these experiences in laboratory studies, we developed SCAR, which stands for Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response. During puberty, a rodent female is paired daily for 30-min with a sexually-experienced adult male. During the SCAR experience, the male tracks the anogenital region of the female as she escapes from pins. Concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone were significantly elevated during and after the experience. Moreover, females that were exposed to the adult male throughout puberty did not perform well during training with an associative learning task nor did they learn well to express maternal behaviors during maternal sensitization. Most females that were exposed to the adult male did not learn to care for offspring over the course of 17 days. Finally, females that did not express maternal behaviors retained fewer newly-generated cells in their hippocampus whereas those that did express maternal behaviors retained more cells, most of which would differentiate into neurons within weeks. Together these data support SCAR as a useful laboratory model for studying the potential consequences of sexual aggression and trauma for the female brain during puberty and young adulthood. PMID:26804826

  4. Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response (SCAR): A Model of Sexual Trauma that Disrupts Maternal Learning and Plasticity in the Female Brain

    PubMed Central

    Shors, Tracey J.; Tobόn, Krishna; DiFeo, Gina; Durham, Demetrius M.; Chang, Han Yan M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual aggression can disrupt processes related to learning as females emerge from puberty into young adulthood. To model these experiences in laboratory studies, we developed SCAR, which stands for Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response. During puberty, a rodent female is paired daily for 30-min with a sexually-experienced adult male. During the SCAR experience, the male tracks the anogenital region of the female as she escapes from pins. Concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone were significantly elevated during and after the experience. Moreover, females that were exposed to the adult male throughout puberty did not perform well during training with an associative learning task nor did they learn well to express maternal behaviors during maternal sensitization. Most females that were exposed to the adult male did not learn to care for offspring over the course of 17 days. Finally, females that did not express maternal behaviors retained fewer newly-generated cells in their hippocampus whereas those that did express maternal behaviors retained more cells, most of which would differentiate into neurons within weeks. Together these data support SCAR as a useful laboratory model for studying the potential consequences of sexual aggression and trauma for the female brain during puberty and young adulthood. PMID:26804826

  5. A developmental-contextual model of depressive symptoms in Mexican-origin female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gayles, Jochebed G

    2012-03-01

    The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among Mexican-origin, female early and middle adolescents and their mothers. The final sample comprised 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents' depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence). PMID:21967564

  6. Deficient Purposeful Use of Forepaws in Female Mice Modelling Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Filippis, Bianca; Musto, Mattia; Altabella, Luisa; Romano, Emilia; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioural and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases. Motor abnormalities represent a significant part of the spectrum of RTT symptoms. In the present study we investigated motor coordination and fine motor skill domains in MeCP2-308 female mice, a validated RTT model. This was complemented by the in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) analysis of metabolic profile in behaviourally relevant brain areas. MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice (Het, 10-12 months of age) were impaired in tasks validated for the assessment of purposeful and coordinated forepaw use (Morag test and Capellini handling task). A fine-grain analysis of spontaneous behaviour in the home-cage also revealed an abnormal handling pattern when interacting with the nesting material, reduced motivation to explore the environment, and increased time devoted to feeding in Het mice. The brain MRS evaluation highlighted decreased levels of bioenergetic metabolites in the striatal area in Het mice compared to controls. Present results confirm behavioural and brain alterations previously reported in MeCP2-308 males and identify novel endpoints on which the efficacy of innovative therapeutic strategies for RTT may be tested. PMID:26185689

  7. The development, validation and application of a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner model for assessing organ doses to the pregnant patient and the fetus using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J.; Bednarz, B.; Caracappa, P. F.; Xu, X. G.

    2009-05-01

    The latest multiple-detector technologies have further increased the popularity of x-ray CT as a diagnostic imaging modality. There is a continuing need to assess the potential radiation risk associated with such rapidly evolving multi-detector CT (MDCT) modalities and scanning protocols. This need can be met by the use of CT source models that are integrated with patient computational phantoms for organ dose calculations. Based on this purpose, this work developed and validated an MDCT scanner using the Monte Carlo method, and meanwhile the pregnant patient phantoms were integrated into the MDCT scanner model for assessment of the dose to the fetus as well as doses to the organs or tissues of the pregnant patient phantom. A Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, was used to simulate the x-ray source including the energy spectrum, filter and scan trajectory. Detailed CT scanner components were specified using an iterative trial-and-error procedure for a GE LightSpeed CT scanner. The scanner model was validated by comparing simulated results against measured CTDI values and dose profiles reported in the literature. The source movement along the helical trajectory was simulated using the pitch of 0.9375 and 1.375, respectively. The validated scanner model was then integrated with phantoms of a pregnant patient in three different gestational periods to calculate organ doses. It was found that the dose to the fetus of the 3 month pregnant patient phantom was 0.13 mGy/100 mAs and 0.57 mGy/100 mAs from the chest and kidney scan, respectively. For the chest scan of the 6 month patient phantom and the 9 month patient phantom, the fetal doses were 0.21 mGy/100 mAs and 0.26 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. The paper also discusses how these fetal dose values can be used to evaluate imaging procedures and to assess risk using recommendations of the report from AAPM Task Group 36. This work demonstrates the ability of modeling and validating an MDCT scanner by the Monte Carlo method, as well as

  8. Vaccinations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician–gynecologists are well-suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease–related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and infant benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and provider resources. PMID:25560127

  9. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  10. Evolution of female multiple mating: A quantitative model of the "sexually selected sperm" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the evolution and maintenance of polyandry remains a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. One appealing explanation is the sexually selected sperm (SSS) hypothesis, which proposes that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male fertilization efficiency, and hence with a male's success in postcopulatory competition for paternity. However, the SSS hypothesis relies on verbal analogy with "sexy-son" models explaining coevolution of female preferences for male displays, and explicit models that validate the basic SSS principle are surprisingly lacking. We developed analogous genetically explicit individual-based models describing the SSS and "sexy-son" processes. We show that the analogy between the two is only partly valid, such that the genetic correlation arising between polyandry and fertilization efficiency is generally smaller than that arising between preference and display, resulting in less reliable coevolution. Importantly, indirect selection was too weak to cause polyandry to evolve in the presence of negative direct selection. Negatively biased mutations on fertilization efficiency did not generally rescue runaway evolution of polyandry unless realized fertilization was highly skewed toward a single male, and coevolution was even weaker given random mating order effects on fertilization. Our models suggest that the SSS process is, on its own, unlikely to generally explain the evolution of polyandry. PMID:25330405

  11. Evolution of female multiple mating: A quantitative model of the “sexually selected sperm” hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the evolution and maintenance of polyandry remains a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. One appealing explanation is the sexually selected sperm (SSS) hypothesis, which proposes that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male fertilization efficiency, and hence with a male's success in postcopulatory competition for paternity. However, the SSS hypothesis relies on verbal analogy with “sexy-son” models explaining coevolution of female preferences for male displays, and explicit models that validate the basic SSS principle are surprisingly lacking. We developed analogous genetically explicit individual-based models describing the SSS and “sexy-son” processes. We show that the analogy between the two is only partly valid, such that the genetic correlation arising between polyandry and fertilization efficiency is generally smaller than that arising between preference and display, resulting in less reliable coevolution. Importantly, indirect selection was too weak to cause polyandry to evolve in the presence of negative direct selection. Negatively biased mutations on fertilization efficiency did not generally rescue runaway evolution of polyandry unless realized fertilization was highly skewed toward a single male, and coevolution was even weaker given random mating order effects on fertilization. Our models suggest that the SSS process is, on its own, unlikely to generally explain the evolution of polyandry. PMID:25330405

  12. HIV Prevalence and Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women in a Large Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ndege, Samson; Washington, Sierra; Kaaria, Alice; Prudhomme-O’Meara, Wendy; Were, Edwin; Nyambura, Monica; Keter, Alfred K.; Wachira, Juddy; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the uptake of and factors associated with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in a large-scale home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT) program in western Kenya. Methods In 2007, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Program (AMPATH) initiated HBCT to all individuals aged ≥13 years and high-risk children <13 years. Included in this analysis were females aged 13–50 years, from 6 catchment areas (11/08-01/12). We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to describe factors associated with HIV prevalence. Results There were 119,678 women eligible for analysis; median age 25 (interquartile range, IQR: 18–34) years. Of these, 7,396 (6.2%) were pregnant at the time of HBCT; 4,599 (62%) had ever previously tested for HIV and 2,995 (40.5%) had not yet attended ANC for their current pregnancy. Testing uptake among pregnant women was high (97%). HBCT newly identified 241 (3.3%) pregnant HIV-positive women and overall HIV prevalence among all pregnant women was 6.9%. HIV prevalence among those who had attended ANC in this pregnancy was 5.4% compared to 9.0% among those who had not. Pregnant women were more likely to newly test HIV-positive in HBCT if they had not attended ANC in the current pregnancy (AOR: 6.85, 95% CI: 4.49–10.44). Conclusions Pregnant women who had never attended ANC were about 6 times more likely to newly test HIV-positive compared to those who had attended ANC, suggesting that the cascade of services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission should optimally begin at the home and village level if elimination of perinatal HIV transmission is to be achieved. PMID:26784957

  13. Pregnant rats show enhanced spatial memory, decreased anxiety, and altered levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Macbeth, A.H.; Gautreaux, C.; Luine, V.N.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial memory, anxiety and central monoaminergic activities were measured in non-pregnant (NP) and pregnant females during two time periods of pregnancy: gestational day 7–9 (GD7, GD9) & gestation day 16–18 (GD16, GD18). Pregnant females discriminated between object locations on both test days on an object placement task, whereas NP females were unable to discriminate between locations. Pregnant females displayed decreased anxiety on the elevated plus maze on GD9 compared to NP females, followed by increased anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze on GD18. Monoamine levels and activity (as indexed by turnover ratio) were measured in prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus (areas important for memory), and medial preoptic area (mPOA, an area important in display of maternal behaviors). In the PFC, NP females generally had higher monoamine levels and turnover ratios; however, norepinephrine (NE) turnover was higher in pregnant females at GD18. In the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus, monoamine levels and turnover ratios were generally higher during pregnancy, particularly on GD9. In the mPOA, pregnancy was associated with increases in NE activity, a previously unreported finding. The present study expands upon existing research indicating that pregnancy is beneficial to spatial memory and may decrease anxiety. Changes in monoamine levels and activity in specific brain regions indicate that the dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin systems may contribute to the observed behavioral differences. PMID:18823955

  14. Uteroplacental insufficiency programmes vascular dysfunction in non-pregnant rats: compensatory adaptations in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mazzuca, Marc Q; Tare, Marianne; Parkington, Helena C; Dragomir, Nicoleta M; Parry, Laura J; Wlodek, Mary E

    2012-07-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adulthood. We have previously shown that intrauterine growth restriction caused by uteroplacental insufficiency programmes uterine vascular dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness in adult female rat offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate vascular adaptations in growth restricted female offspring when they in turn become pregnant. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced in WKY rats by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (Restricted) or sham surgery (Control) on day 18 of pregnancy. F0 pregnant females delivered naturally at term. F1 Control and Restricted offspring were mated at 4 months of age and studied on day 20 of pregnancy. Age-matched non-pregnant F1 Control and Restricted females were also studied. Wire and pressure myography were used to test endothelial and smooth muscle function, and passive mechanical wall properties, respectively, in uterine, mesenteric, renal and femoral arteries of all four groups. Collagen and elastin fibres were quantified using polarized light microscopy and qRT-PCR. F1 Restricted females were born 10–15% lighter than Controls (P <0.05). Non-pregnant Restricted females had increased uterine and renal artery stiffness compared with Controls (P <0.05), but this difference was abolished at day 20 of pregnancy. Vascular smooth muscle and endothelial function were preserved in all arteries of non-pregnant and pregnant Restricted rats. Collagen and elastin content were unaltered in uterine arteries of Restricted females. Growth restricted females develop compensatory vascular changes during late pregnancy, such that region-specific vascular deficits observed in the non-pregnant state did not persist in late pregnancy. PMID:22586217

  15. Who’s Asking the Important Questions? Sexual Topics Discussed among Young Pregnant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, Tashuna; Day, Kyla M.; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim was to examine gender differences in sexual risk communication among young couples and factors influencing communication. Methods Sample consisted of 296 young pregnant couples. We assessed individual, interpersonal, and community factors on sexual risk communication. The Actor-Partner Independence Model was used to assess actor and partner effects on sexual risk communication. Results For actor effects, being female, older, not being Hispanic, and higher condom use self-efficacy was associated with sexual risk communication. The significant partner effect was avoidant romantic attachment. Gender interactions were significant for high risk behaviors and family functioning. High risk behaviors and family functioning were associated with sexual risk communication for females but not for males. Conclusion The study emphasizes the need to promote sexual risk communication among young high risk couples, particularly for males. Family support could serve as a catalyst for sexual risk communication and other sexual protective behaviors among young couples. PMID:24043405

  16. Understanding Female Sport Attrition in a Stereotypical Male Sport within the Framework of Eccles's Expectancy-Value Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillet, Emma; Sarrazin, Philippe; Fontayne, Paul; Brustad, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    An empirical research study based upon the expectancy-value model of Eccles and colleagues (1983) investigated the effect of gender-role orientations on psychological dimensions of female athletes' sport participation and the likelihood of their continued participation in a stereotypical masculine activity. The model (Eccles et al., 1983) posits…

  17. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  18. Modelling training response in elite female gymnasts and optimal strategies of overload training and taper.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Anthony M J; Galbès, Olivier; Fabre-Guery, Frédérique; Thomas, Luc; Douillard, Aymeric; Py, Guillaume; Busso, Thierry; Candau, Robin B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is the modelling of training responses with a variable dose-response model in a sport discipline that requires highly complex coordination. We propose a method to optimise the training programme plan using the potential maximal performance gain associated with overload and tapering periods. Data from five female elite gymnasts were collected over a 3-month training period. The relationship between training amounts and performance was then assessed with a non-linear model. The optimal magnitude of training load reduction and its duration were investigated with and without an overload period using simulation procedures based on individual responses to training. The correlation between actual and modelled performances was significant (R² = 0.81 ± 0.02, P < 0.01). The standard error was 2.7%. Simulations revealed that taper preceded by an overload period allows a higher performance to be achieved compared to an absence of overload period (106.3 ± 0.3% vs. 105.1 ± 0.3%). With respect to the pre-taper load, the model predicts that optimal load reductions during taper were 48.4 ± 0.7% and 42.5 ± 1.0% for overloading and non-overloading strategies, respectively. Moreover, optimal durations of the taper period were 34 ± 0.5 days and 22 ± 0.5 days for overloading and non-overloading strategies, respectively. In conclusion, the study showed that the variable dose-response model describes precisely the training response in gymnasts. PMID:23656356

  19. Multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a Geographic Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Dunn, James E.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1993-01-01

    Simple univariate statistical techniques may not adequately assess the multidimensional nature of habitats used by wildlife. Thus, we developed a multivariate method to model habitat-use potential using a set of female black bear (Ursus americanus) radio locations and habitat data consisting of forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to roads, distance to streams, and forest cover type diversity score in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. The model is based on the Mahalanobis distance statistic coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. That statistic is a measure of dissimilarity and represents a standardized squared distance between a set of sample variates and an ideal based on the mean of variates associated with animal observations. Calculations were made with the GIS to produce a map containing Mahalanobis distance values within each cell on a 60- × 60-m grid. The model identified areas of high habitat use potential that could not otherwise be identified by independent perusal of any single map layer. This technique avoids many pitfalls that commonly affect typical multivariate analyses of habitat use and is a useful tool for habitat manipulation or mitigation to favor terrestrial vertebrates that use habitats on a landscape scale.

  20. The female runner: gender specifics.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. PMID:20610034

  1. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  2. Incorporating Gender Specific Approaches for Incarcerated Female Adolescents: Multilevel Risk Model for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…

  3. Industry Perspective of Drug Development for Pregnant/Breastfeeding Women.

    PubMed

    Korth-Bradley, J M

    2016-07-01

    As part of drug development, drug companies conduct experiments to gather data about the potential toxicity of medications in pregnant and lactating animals. Increasingly, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are developed to simulate drug concentrations in pregnant and lactating women. As these women are not usually included in clinical trials, targeted postapproval safety monitoring, registries, or clinical studies may be performed to gather safety and efficacy information about drug use in these special populations. PMID:27082822

  4. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  5. Swimming of pregnant rats at different water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Osorio, R A L; Silveira, V L F; Maldjian, S; Morales, A; Christofani, J S; Russo, A K; Silva, A C; Piçarro, I C

    2003-08-01

    We studied the chronic effect of exercise during water immersion, associated with thermal stress (water temperature at 22, 35 and 40 degrees C) at an intensity of 80% of maximal work load supported in pregnant rats (P) and non-pregnant female rats (NP). P and NP were subdivided into three subgroups according to water temperature during exercise (P22 and NP22; P35 and NP35; P40 and NP40). The animals were submitted to daily swimming sessions of 10-15 min, for 19 days of pregnancy (P) or experimental conditions (NP). Plasma concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, albumin and corticosterone were determined 24 h after the last exercise session. Weight gain and rectal temperature pre- and post-swimming session were also determined. The offspring were examined just after caesarian section on the 20th day of pregnancy to check weight, length and litter size. Pregnant rats showed an increase of triglycerides, reduction of glycemia, total protein and albumin and cholesterol (at 35 degrees C) when compared to non-pregnant animals. Such effects probably lead to an adequate delivery of substrate to the fetus and prepare the mother for lactation. Daily thermal stress did not modify metabolic responses to exercise in pregnant rats. Results also show a deleterious effect on offspring when the mother is exposed daily to extreme temperatures during swimming. These results suggest that water temperature (cold and hot) in swimming have to be considered to avoid damage in fetal development. PMID:12890550

  6. Pathways to Postsecondary Education for Pregnant and Parenting Teens. Working Paper #C418

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Cynthia B.

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on pathways to postsecondary education (PSE), including high school completion, for pregnant and parenting teens. Although birth rates among teens have declined in the United States over the last 20 years, one in seven adolescent females (14.4 percent) is expected to give birth before age 20 with females of color (24 percent of…

  7. Prediction of seizure incidence probability in PTZ model of kindling through spatial learning ability in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Narges-Al-Sadat; Palizvan, Mohammad Reza; Sadegh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Zohre; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disease characterized by periodic seizures. Cognitive deficits and impairments in learning and memory are also associated with epilepsy. Neuronal changes and synaptic modifications in kindling model of epilepsy are similar to those occur during the learning procedure and memory formation. Herein we investigated whether seizure susceptibility in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model of kindling is predictable based on the learning ability in the Morris water maze (MWM) task in male and female rats. Allocentric learning was tested using MWM in present of light while egocentric learning was evaluated by MWM in dark room. The results indicated no significant differences in allocentric learning abilities between male and female rats. However, male rats were able to memorize the location of the platform more effectively compared to females in egocentric test. In addition, a statistically significant negative correlation between learning abilities (working memory) and seizure susceptibility in male rats was found while this correlation was positive in female rats. On the other hand, although there was no significant correlation between retrieval (reference memory) of spatial memories and seizure parameters in male rats, female rats showed a significant negative correlation. These findings may provide some evidences for prediction of seizure susceptibility according to learning ability and memory retention. PMID:27098273

  8. The sex difference in tumor incidence is related to the female condition: models for Europe and Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Benigni, R; Giaimo, R; Matranga, D; Giuliani, A

    2001-01-01

    A remarkable aspect of cancer distribution in Europe is the large spatial variability of the male-female incidence ratio, from no difference up to 50%. Given the evidence of the predominantly environmental origin of cancer, we studied the ability of a set of socioeconomic indicators of the female condition to model the spatial variability of the sex difference in tumor incidence at two different scales: between countries (Europe) and between provinces (Italy). The sex difference in tumor incidence correlated with female socioeconomic condition indicators at the same extent (r = 0.73) in both situations, but in opposite directions. In the European study the higher the sexual social equality the lower the differential tumor incidence, whereas the opposite result was shown by the between-provinces Italian study. We also investigated the relation of the female condition indicator with other social and cultural descriptors of the same populations, and we suggest explanatory models linking female condition and pathology at the continental and local scales. Overall, our analysis supports the predominantly environmental origin of cancer and stresses the importance of relating cancer patterns to societal determinants. Our analysis also suggests that the sex difference in tumor incidence is a very useful probe for exploring the social-economic cultural correlates of cancer in human populations. We emphasize the need for a thorough analysis of the empirical correlations highlighted in ecologic studies. PMID:11485869

  9. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ...

  10. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Extract in an Experimental Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Vitale, Giovanni; Massi, Maurizio; Cifani, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The present study evaluated the effect of Hypericum perforatum dry extract in an experimental model of binge eating (BE). Methods. BE for highly palatable food (HPF) was evoked in female rats by three 8-day cycles of food restriction/re-feeding and acute stress on the test day (day 25). Stress was induced by preventing access to HPF for 15 min, while rats were able to see and smell it. Hypericum perforatum dry extract was given by gavage. Results. Only rats exposed to both food restrictions and stress exhibited BE. The doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum extract significantly reduced the BE episode, while 125 mg/kg was ineffective. The same doses did not affect HPF intake in the absence of BE. The dose of 250 mg/kg did not significantly modify stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels, suggesting that the effect on BE is not due to suppression of the stress response The combined administration of 125 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum together with Salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea, produced a synergic effect on BE. Conclusions. The present results indicate for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extracts may have therapeutic properties in bingeing-related eating disorders. PMID:22997570

  11. Thyroid autoimmunity in pregnant Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Oluwatosin O.; Odeniyi, Ifedayo A.; Iwuala, Sandra; Olopade, Oluwarotimi B.; Fasanmade, Olufemi A.; Ohwovoriole, Augustine E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid autoimmunity is a recognized disorder in pregnancy and is associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: This study set out to determine the relationship between pregnancy and thyroid autoimmunity in Nigerian women. Settings and Design: This was an analytical cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary hospital in South Western Nigeria with a total study population of 108 pregnant and 52 nonpregnant women. Subjects and Methods: Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) were quantitatively determined using enzyme linked immuno-assays. Pregnant women were grouped into three categories (<14 weeks, 14–28 weeks and > 28 weeks). The relationship between pregnancy and thyroid autoimmunity was determined using Spearman correlation. Analysis of variance was used in comparison of means, Chi-square test used in analyzing proportions while P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean age of the pregnant women was 30.4 ± 6.0 years while the mean gestational age of all pregnant women was 20.6 ± 9.6 weeks. The mean TPO-Ab of 11.58 IU/ml in the pregnant was significantly higher than that of the controls of 7.23 IU/ml (P < 0.001). Out of 108 pregnant women, 27 (25%) had elevated TPO-Ab as against about 2% of the nonpregnant women levels P < 0.001. The number of pregnant women with elevated TPO-Ab levels decreased from 33.3% in the first group to 25.6% and 15.2% in the second and third groups. Conclusion: Thyroid autoimmunity expressed by the presence of TPO-Ab is high among pregnant Nigerian women and the frequency of autoimmunity appears to decline with advancing gestational age. PMID:26425470

  12. Two-Dimensional Sectioned Images and Three-Dimensional Surface Models for Learning the Anatomy of the Female Pelvis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Hwang, Sung Bae; Har, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Young Lae; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic…

  13. Adaptive Response in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to an Aromatase Inhibitor: Computational Modeling of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Health Knowledge, Practices and Attitude of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women, and Their Awareness Regarding Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashish; Mohan, Sugandha; Bhaskar, Nandini; Walia, Prabhjot Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse pregnancy outcomes are undesirable events occurring during pregnancy and childbirth in mother or child, such as Preterm Low Birth Weight (PLBW) and preeclampsia. There is growing evidence that periodontitis may be a risk factor for preterm birth even after adjusting for known risk factors. Aim 1. To determine the knowledge and attitude of pregnant females about oral health. 2. To evaluate the oral hygiene practices of pregnant females. 3. To evaluate their awareness regarding effect of oral health on adverse pregnancy outcomes. 4. To assess whether there was any significant difference from their non pregnant counter parts. 5. To evaluate whether their awareness towards dental treatment had increased after conceiving. Materials and Methods 200 pregnant and 200 non-pregnant women filled up a validated questionnaire which comprised of questions on personal data, oral hygiene knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and their awareness regarding the correlation of oral health to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Statistical Analysis Analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows (version 15.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The results indicate no statistically significant differences in the variables assessed in both the groups, indicating that no further knowledge had been imparted to the women after they conceived. 96% women of both groups (p>0.05) had received no knowledge from the gynaecologist regarding the impact of oral health on pregnancy outcomes. 93.9% of pregnant women, and 89.5% of non pregnant women (p>0.05) did not go for routine dental check-ups. Only 3% of pregnant women were aware of oral health having a correlation with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion In our study, pregnancy did little to change future attitudes to dental care. To provide better oral health care, more knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and the medical community. PMID:26674176

  15. Effects of Testosterone on Erythropoiesis in a Female Mouse Model of Anemia of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen; Schmidt, Paul J; Fleming, Mark D; Bhasin, Shalender

    2016-07-01

    The anemia of inflammation is a common problem in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We characterized a mouse model of anemia of chronic inflammation induced by repeated injections of low doses of heat-killed Brucella abortus (HKBA), and determined the effects of T administration on erythropoiesis in this model. Female C57BL/6NCrl mice were injected weekly with HKBA for 10 wk. Weekly injections of T or vehicle oil were started 4 wk later. Control mice were injected with saline and vehicle oil in parallel. HKBA-injected mice had significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, reticulocyte hemoglobin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), and tissue nonheme iron in liver and spleen, enlarged spleen, and up-regulated hepatic expression of inflammatory markers, serum amyloid A1, and TNFα, but down-regulated IL-6, bone morphogenic protein 6, and hepcidin compared with saline controls. HKBA also reduced serum hepcidin and increased serum erythropoietin. Bone marrow erythroid precursors were substantially reduced in HKBA-injected mice. Cotreatment with T increased the percentage of late-stage erythroid precursors in the bone marrow relative to HKBA-injected and saline controls and reversed HKBA-induced suppression of hemoglobin and hematocrit. T also normalized serum erythropoietin, TSAT, and reticulocyte hemoglobin without correcting the expression of the hepatic inflammation markers. Conclusions are that low-dose HKBA induces moderate anemia characterized by chronic inflammation, decreased iron stores, and suppression of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow. T administration reverses HKBA-induced anemia by stimulating erythropoiesis, which is associated with a shift toward accelerated maturation of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow. PMID:27074351

  16. Role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal motility in pregnant and non-pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Juliana Fernandes; Americo, Madileine Francely; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Corá, Luciana Aparecida; Calabresi, Marcos Felipe Freitas; Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Miranda, Jose Ricardo Arruda

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To correlate gastric contractility, gastrointestinal transit, and hormone levels in non-pregnant (estrous cycle) and pregnant rats using noninvasive techniques. METHODS: Female rats (n = 23) were randomly divided into (1) non-pregnant, (contractility, n = 6; transit, n = 6); and (2) pregnant (contractility, n = 5; transit, n = 6). In each estrous cycle phase or at 0, 7, 14, and 20 d after the confirmation of pregnancy, gastrointestinal transit was recorded by AC biosusceptometry (ACB), and gastric contractility was recorded by ACB and electromyography. After each recording, blood samples were obtained for progesterone and estradiol determination. RESULTS: In the estrous cycle, despite fluctuations of sex hormone levels, no significant changes in gastrointestinal motility were observed. Days 7 and 14 of pregnancy were characterized by significant changes in the frequency of contractions (3.90 ± 0.42 cpm and 3.60 ± 0.36 cpm vs 4.33 ± 0.25 cpm) and gastric emptying (168 ± 17 min and 165 ± 15 min vs 113 ± 15 min) compared with day 0. On these same days, progesterone levels significantly increased compared with control (54.23 ± 15.14 ng/mL and 129.96 ± 30.52 ng/mL vs 13.25 ± 6.31 ng/mL). On day 14, we observed the highest level of progesterone and the lowest level of estradiol compared with day 0 (44.3 ± 15.18 pg/mL vs 24.96 ± 5.96 pg/mL). CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal motility was unaffected by the estrous cycle. In our data, high progesterone and low estradiol levels can be associated with decreased contraction frequency and slow gastric emptying. PMID:27433089

  17. Direct Effects, Compensation, and Recovery in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to a Model Aromatase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Martinović, Dalma; Makynen, Elizabeth A.; Kahl, Michael D.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Durhan, Elizabeth J.; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Bencic, David; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Several chemicals in the environment have the potential to inhibit aromatase, an enzyme critical to estrogen synthesis. Objectives The objective of this study was to provide a detailed characterization of molecular and biochemical responses of female fathead minnows to a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (FAD). Methods Fish were exposed via water to 0, 3, or 30 μg FAD/L for 8 days and then held in clean water for 8 days, with samples collected at four time points during each 8-day period. We quantified ex vivo steroid production, plasma steroids, and plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations and analyzed relative transcript abundance of 10 key regulatory genes in ovaries and 3 in pituitary tissue by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Ex vivo 17β-estradiol (E2) production and plasma E2 and Vtg concentrations were significantly reduced after a single day of exposure to 3 μg or 30 μg FAD/L. However, plasma E2 concentrations recovered by the eighth day of exposure in the 3-μg/L group and within 1 day of cessation of exposure in the 30-μg/L group, indicating concentration- and time-dependent physiologic compensation and recovery. Concentration-dependent increases in transcripts coding for aromatase (A isoform), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor all coincided with increased E2 production and recovery of plasma E2 concentrations. Conclusions Results of this research highlight the need to consider compensation/adaptation and recovery when developing and interpreting short-term bioassays or biomarkers or when trying to predict the effects of chemical exposures based on mode of action. PMID:19440503

  18. Surfactant dysfunction and lung inflammation in the female mouse model of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N; Guo, Chang-Jiang; Abramova, Elena; Golden, Thea N; Sims, Michael; James, Melane L; Beers, Michael F; Gow, Andrew J; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease caused by mutations of the tumor suppressor genes, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 or TSC2. LAM affects women almost exclusively, and it is characterized by neoplastic growth of atypical smooth muscle-like TSC2-null LAM cells in the pulmonary interstitium, cystic destruction of lung parenchyma, and progressive decline in lung function. In this study, we hypothesized that TSC2-null lesions promote a proinflammatory environment, which contributes to lung parenchyma destruction. Using a TSC2-null female murine LAM model, we demonstrate that TSC2-null lesions promote alveolar macrophage accumulation, recruitment of immature multinucleated cells, an increased induction of proinflammatory genes, nitric oxide (NO) synthase 2, IL-6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1)/keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and up-regulation of IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and transforming growth factor-β1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid also contained an increased level of surfactant protein (SP)-D, but not SP-A, significant reduction of SP-B levels, and a resultant increase in alveolar surface tension. Consistent with the growth of TSC2-null lesions, NO levels were also increased and, in turn, modified SP-D through S-nitrosylation, forming S-nitrosylated SP-D, a known consequence of lung inflammation. Progressive growth of TSC2-null lesions was accompanied by elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9. This report demonstrates a link between growth of TSC2-null lesions and inflammation-induced surfactant dysfunction that might contribute to lung destruction in LAM. PMID:25474372

  19. Surfactant Dysfunction and Lung Inflammation in the Female Mouse Model of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chang-Jiang; Abramova, Elena; Golden, Thea N.; Sims, Michael; James, Melane L.; Beers, Michael F.; Gow, Andrew J.; Krymskaya, Vera P.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung disease caused by mutations of the tumor suppressor genes, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 or TSC2. LAM affects women almost exclusively, and it is characterized by neoplastic growth of atypical smooth muscle–like TSC2-null LAM cells in the pulmonary interstitium, cystic destruction of lung parenchyma, and progressive decline in lung function. In this study, we hypothesized that TSC2-null lesions promote a proinflammatory environment, which contributes to lung parenchyma destruction. Using a TSC2-null female murine LAM model, we demonstrate that TSC2-null lesions promote alveolar macrophage accumulation, recruitment of immature multinucleated cells, an increased induction of proinflammatory genes, nitric oxide (NO) synthase 2, IL-6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1)/keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and up-regulation of IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and transforming growth factor-β1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid also contained an increased level of surfactant protein (SP)-D, but not SP-A, significant reduction of SP-B levels, and a resultant increase in alveolar surface tension. Consistent with the growth of TSC2-null lesions, NO levels were also increased and, in turn, modified SP-D through S-nitrosylation, forming S-nitrosylated SP-D, a known consequence of lung inflammation. Progressive growth of TSC2-null lesions was accompanied by elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9. This report demonstrates a link between growth of TSC2-null lesions and inflammation-induced surfactant dysfunction that might contribute to lung destruction in LAM. PMID:25474372

  20. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  1. Female Preference and Predation Risk Models Can Explain the Maintenance of a Fallow Deer (Dama dama) Lek and Its ‘Handy’ Location

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Marco; De Cena, Fabio; Bongi, Paolo; Ciuti, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We tested the predictions of three models (female preference; hotspot; predator avoidance) on lek formation in the fallow deer population of San Rossore, Tuscany. We collected behavioural observations in two leks and radiotracking data on 67 deer over 7 years. Two deer sub-populations were present in the northern and southern sides of the area, respectively, the two sectors being delimited by a river and including one lek each. Predictions were tested for one lek (SG), located in the south-side where we set up our 7-year radiotracking program. Data from a second lek (FO, north-side) were used to test those predictions which imply the occurrence of multiple leks in the same population. We showed that the majority of females made one single visit to one lek, only during the rut. The lek was located outside areas of higher female traffic and home range overlap, and females increased home range sizes during the rut to reach it. Twilight routes of females never crossed the lek; instead, females walked atypical routes and at a faster pace to reach the lek and mate. The distance between the two leks was higher than the average diameter of female home ranges, and only one lek was present within female home ranges. Males reached the lek one month before the arrival of females, corroborating that lekking is a female-initiated process (females moving towards large clumped male aggregations) rather than a male-initiated process (males moving towards female hotspots). Our results supported the female preference model, and rejected the predictions of the hotspot model. Also, leks were located far from areas with higher predation risk, supporting the predator avoidance model. The position of lek SG resulted ‘handy’ at the sub-population level because of the optimal trade-off between travel costs for females to reach it and avoidance of human predators. PMID:24599036

  2. RF dosimetry: a comparison between power absorption of female and male numerical models from 0.1 to 4 ghz.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, L; Vaccari, A; Malacarne, C; Cristoforetti, L; Pontalti, R

    2004-11-21

    Realistic numerical models of human subjects and their surrounding environment represent the basic points of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic dosimetry. This also involves differentiating the human models in men and women, possibly with different body shapes and postures. In this context, the aims of this paper are, firstly, to propose a female dielectric anatomical model (fDAM) and, secondly, to compare the power absorption distributions of a male and a female model from 0.1 to 4 GHz. For realizing the fDAM, a magnetic resonance imaging tomographer to acquire images and a recent technique which avoids the discrete segmentation of body tissues into different types have been used. Simulations have been performed with the FDTD method by using a novel filtering-based subgridding algorithm. The latter is applied here for the first time to dosimetry, allowing an abrupt mesh refinement by a factor of up to 7. The results show that the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) of the female model is higher than that of the male counterpart, mainly because of a thicker subcutaneous fat layer. In contrast, the maximum averaged SAR over 1 g (1gA-SAR) and 10 g (10gA-SAR) does not depend on gender, because it occurs in regions where no subcutaneous fat layer is present. PMID:15609567

  3. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  4. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies. PMID:24740724

  5. Reproductive state and rank influence patterns of meat consumption in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Robert C; Stanton, Margaret A; Gilby, Ian C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2016-01-01

    An increase in faunivory is a consistent component of human evolutionary models. Animal matter is energy- and nutrient-dense and can provide macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins that are limited or absent in plant foods. For female humans and other omnivorous primates, faunivory may be of particular importance during the costly periods of pregnancy and early lactation. Yet, because animal prey is often monopolizable, access to fauna among group-living primates may be mediated by social factors such as rank. Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) across Africa habitually consume insects and/or vertebrates. However, no published studies have examined patterns of female chimpanzee faunivory during pregnancy and early lactation relative to non-reproductive periods, or by females of different rank. In this study, we assessed the influence of reproductive state and dominance rank on the consumption of fauna (meat and insects) by female chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using observational data collected over 38 years, we tested (a) whether faunivory varied by reproductive state, and (b) if high-ranking females spent more time consuming fauna than lower-ranking females. In single-factor models, pregnant females consumed more meat than lactating and baseline (meaning not pregnant and not in early lactation) females, and high-ranking females consumed more meat than lower-ranking females. A two-factor analysis of a subset of well-sampled females identified an interaction between rank and reproductive state: lower-ranking females consumed more meat during pregnancy than lower-ranking lactating and baseline females did. High-ranking females did not significantly differ in meat consumption between reproductive states. We found no relationships between rank or reproductive state with insectivory. We conclude that, unlike insectivory, meat consumption by female chimpanzees is mediated by both reproductive state and social rank. We outline possible mechanisms for these

  6. Expansion of a PBPK model to predict disposition in pregnant women of drugs cleared via multiple CYP enzymes, including CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Alice Ban; Nallani, Srikanth C; Zhao, Ping; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2014-01-01

    Aim Conducting PK studies in pregnant women is challenging. Therefore, we asked if a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model could be used to predict the disposition in pregnant women of drugs cleared by multiple CYP enzymes. Methods We expanded and verified our previously published pregnancy PBPK model by incorporating hepatic CYP2B6 induction (based on in vitro data), CYP2C9 induction (based on phenytoin PK) and CYP2C19 suppression (based on proguanil PK), into the model. This model accounted for gestational age-dependent changes in maternal physiology and hepatic CYP3A, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 activity. For verification, the pregnancy-related changes in the disposition of methadone (cleared by CYP2B6, 3A and 2C19) and glyburide (cleared by CYP3A, 2C9 and 2C19) were predicted. Results Predicted mean post-partum to second trimester (PP : T2) ratios of methadone AUC, Cmax and Cmin were 1.9, 1.7 and 2.0, vs. observed values 2.0, 2.0 and 2.6, respectively. Predicted mean post-partum to third trimester (PP : T3) ratios of methadone AUC, Cmax and Cmin were 2.1, 2.0 and 2.4, vs. observed values 1.7, 1.7 and 1.8, respectively. Predicted PP : T3 ratios of glyburide AUC, Cmax and Cmin were 2.6, 2.2 and 7.0 vs. observed values 2.1, 2.2 and 3.2, respectively. Conclusions Our PBPK model integrating prior physiological knowledge, in vitro and in vivo data, allowed successful prediction of methadone and glyburide disposition during pregnancy. We propose this expanded PBPK model can be used to evaluate different dosing scenarios, during pregnancy, of drugs cleared by single or multiple CYP enzymes. PMID:23834474

  7. In Utero Phthalate Effects in the Female Rat: A Model for MRKH Syndrome

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly define etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthlate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero. a phenome...

  8. The Influence of Female Social Models in Corporate STEM Initiatives on Girls' Math and Science Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college…

  9. Providing Educational Support for Female Ex-Inmates: Project PROVE as a Model for Social Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Patricia; Fasenfest, David; Sarri, Rosemary; Phillips, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The number of female prisoners continues to grow in the United States, yet most examinations of how to increase reintegration and reduce recidivation focus on the needs of the predominantly male prisoner population. As a result, prison education programs and post-release environments often leave women unprepared and facing special risks. This…

  10. Postnatal development of Mongolian gerbil female prostate: An immunohistochemical and 3D modeling study.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Bruno D A; Zani, Bruno C; Maldarine, Juliana S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-05-01

    The development of the prostate in male rodents, which involves complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE) and the urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM), has been deeply studied. In females, however, this process is not very clear. In this study, the postnatal development of the prostate in female Mongolian gerbils employing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, histochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques was characterized. It was observed that prostatic branching and differentiation in females was induced by a single mesenchyme localized at a ventrolateral position, which was named as ventrolateral mesenchyme (VLM); furthermore, the canalization of solid buds began on the third postnatal day (P3) and the branching morphogenesis on P5. We observed secretions in the acini at the end of the first month, and, on P45, the acini were completely differentiated. The strong cell proliferation phase in the first week coincided with the mesenchymal expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The expression of androgen receptor (AR) paralleled cell differentiation, and, on P30, immunolabelling with p63 was restricted to basal cells. This study serves as a baseline parameter for future research on disruptions that could affect the development of the female prostate. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:438-446, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26971884

  11. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: a model for MRKH syndrome##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phen...

  12. A multi-level model of condom use among male and female upper primary school students in Nyanza, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2010-08-01

    Although several studies have emphasized the relevance of community level variables to AIDS prevention among young people in sub-Saharan Africa, few have tested the empirical connections between such variables and sexual behaviors. Using data from 3645 sexually experienced grade 6 and 7 students from 160 schools, modeled on Fisher and Fisher's information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (2000, 1993) and Campbell's identification of community influences (2003), this study applies hierarchical linear models to estimate the effects of individual and community level variables on condom use among youth in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Four separate models were fit for both males and females. Results show significant differences across schools and communities regarding condom use. The predictors of reported condom use at last intercourse for both males and females were ethnicity, pressure to engage in sexual intercourse, and condom self efficacy. While age, religion, rejecting myths about the spread of HIV, and talking to male relatives about HIV/AIDS were all positively related to condom use for males, risk perception, socio-economic status of the school and school sponsorship by a religious group were negatively related to the outcome variable. For females, abstinence self efficacy and HIV prevention programming in community festivals were additional significant predictors, both increasing the odds of condom use. Our results suggest that there are marked differences in factors influencing reported condom use among males and females in Nyanza, Kenya. While some of these factors exist at the individual level, others exist at the school/community level. Based on our findings, we recommend that AIDS prevention interventions take account not only of individual-level factors, but also school/community influences on the sexual behaviors of youth. PMID:20570426

  13. Female workers and in vivo lung monitoring: a simple model for morphological dependence of counting efficiency curves.

    PubMed

    Farah, J; Broggio, D; Franck, D

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the question of the morphological dependence of counting efficiency curves for in vivo lung monitoring of workers, with a particular focus on the case of female workers for whom different chest girth and cup size are considered. A library of 24 female torsos, with chest girth varying from 85 to 120 and cup size from A to F, was constructed using mesh and NURBS formats. The anatomical realism and usefulness of these models for simulating in vivo counting measurements are illustrated and simulations are reported for a typical 4-germanium (Ge) counting system. A simple analytic formula describing the relation between efficiency curves obtained for each female phantom is given. This formula uses the mass attenuation coefficient for adipose tissue and two parameters which are dependant on lung volume and breast weight. The model is tested against Monte Carlo simulated data, experimental data obtained with the Livermore phantom and published data. The model correctly describes the efficiency curve and, since the parameters depend on the counting geometry, it is shown how to estimate them from experimental measurements. PMID:21081821

  14. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers short-term protection to ... News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new study indicates. The researchers also ...

  15. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers ... MONDAY, May 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new ...

  16. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  17. Toxoplasmosis in Kosovo pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dentico, Pietro; Volpe, Anna; Putoto, Giovanni; Ramadani, Naser; Bertinato, Luigi; Berisha, Merita; Schinaia, Nicola; Quaglio, Gianluca; Maggi, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    This study presents the initial results of a collaborative project aimed at the evaluation of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in a population of Kosovar pregnant women. The serum samples of 334 pregnant women were tested to detect IgG, IgM, IgG avidity for toxoplasmosis. Data regarding age, occupation, area of origin and education were also obtained for the pregnant women examined; 97/334 (29.4%) resulted positive for IgG antibodies, four of whom (4.1%) were also positive for IgM, (1.2% of the total population examined). All four IgM-positive pregnant women also demonstrated low avidity tests. The rate of IgG seroprevalence found in our study was lower than that observed in various European countries, especially those of western Europe. Conversely, the percentage of recent infections was higher than expected. The higher rate of infections could be the result of a recent toxoplasmosis epidemic in Kosovo, most likely due to the altered hygienic conditions caused by the forced transfer of the ethnic-Albanian population from an area of low (Serbia) to high (Kosovo) toxoplasmosis prevalence. PMID:21617833

  18. Nutrition and the Pregnant Teen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody

    This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…

  19. Japan Women's University Multi-Career Path Support Model for Female Researchers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyama, Yoshikazu; Kodate, Kashiko

    2009-04-01

    The overall goal of this project, funded by MEXT-Japan (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Technology), is to implement prototypical programs to foster and proactively engage female researchers. The project aims to provide comprehensive support for female researchers who wish to raise a family and pursue an academic career, and increase opportunities for female researchers to play more active roles. To achieve these objectives, three core actions are taken. First, with out-of-office/out-of-lab research support (ubiquitous research support), an assistant researcher is provided to help perform experiments while the ubiquitous researcher is out of the laboratory. A communication network is introduced to connect the laboratory with home to facilitate in-home research. Second, with human resources support, researchers' career paths, abilities, and experiences are accumulated in e-portfolios. This enables researchers coming from different fields of employment to pursue other career paths. Third, a follow-up survey and project planning are conducted. We believe through science education, science can be demystified, and made more accessible and fascinating for children. This would bode well for future generations. Alumni questionnaires show that 80% of respondents were very satisfied to have graduated with a science background.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU) in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU) was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation) enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62) in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45) in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively). However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants). Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600) PMID:23268736

  1. Effects of exposure to microwaves on cellular immunity and placental steroids in pregnant rats.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, H; Seto, T; Nagase, H; Yoshida, M; Dan, S; Ogino, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Microwaves produce various detrimental changes based on actions of heat or non-specific stress, although the effects of microwaves on pregnant organisms has not been uniform. This study was designed to clarify the effect of exposure to microwaves during pregnancy on endocrine and immune functions. METHODS: Natural killer cell activity and natural killer cell subsets in the spleen were measured, as well as some endocrine indicators in blood--corticosterone and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) as indices of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis--beta-endorphin, oestradiol, and progesterone in six female virgin rats and six pregnant rats (nine to 11 days gestation) exposed to microwaves at 10 mW/cm2 incident power density at 2450 MHz for 90 minutes. The same measurements were performed in control rats (six virgin and six pregnant rats). RESULTS: Skin temperature in virgin and pregnant rats increased immediately after exposure to microwaves. Although splenic activity of natural killer cells and any of the subset populations identified by the monoclonal antibodies CD16 and CD57 did not differ in virgin rats with or without exposure to microwaves, pregnant rats exposed to microwaves showed a significant reduction of splenic activity of natural killer cells and CD16+CD57-. Although corticosterone and ACTH increased, and oestradiol decreased in exposed virgin and pregnant rats, microwaves produced significant increases in beta-endorphin and progesterone only in pregnant rats. CONCLUSIONS: Microwaves at the power of 10 mW/cm2 produced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased oestradiol in both virgin and pregnant rats, suggesting that microwaves greatly stress pregnant organisms. These findings in pregnant rats suggest that--with exposure to microwaves--pregnancy induces immunosuppression, which could result in successful maintainance of pregnancy. This enhancement of adaptability to heat stress with pregnancy may be mediated by

  2. The response of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant female rats to a space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Cleek, Tammy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have tested the hypothesis that differences in vitamin D metabolism would render the Dahl S rat more susceptible than the Dahl R rat to the effects of a space flight model. Dahl female rats were tail suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a low salt (3 g/kg sodium chloride) diet. Plasma 25-OHD concentrations of S rats were significantly lower than that of R rats. Plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration was 50% lower in unloaded than in loaded S rats, but was unaffected in unloaded R rats. The left soleus muscle weight and breaking strength of the left femur (torsion test) were 50% and 25% lower in unloaded than in loaded S and R rats. The mineral content of the left femur, however, was significantly lower (by 11%) only in unloaded S rats. We conclude that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration and femur mineral content during hind limb unloading, but equally vulnerable to muscle atrophy and reduced breaking strength of the femur.

  3. HIV Testing and Engagement in Care among Highly Vulnerable Female Sex Workers: Implications for Treatment as Prevention Models

    PubMed Central

    Surratt, Hilary L.; O’Grady, Catherine; Kurtz, Steven P.; Buttram, Mance E.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although emerging Treatment as Prevention models can be effective in reducing HIV incidence among high-risk populations, many HIV infected individuals remain undiagnosed or fail to engage in HIV care. Methods This study examined the factors associated with HIV testing and care among a population of substance using female sex workers. Results Recent HIV testing was associated with higher education level, having a regular health care provider or clinic, recent crack use, and higher sexual risk behaviors; HIV treatment utilization was associated with higher levels of social support, having a regular health care provider or clinic, housing stability and insurance coverage. Qualitative data revealed HIV-related stigma, denial, social isolation, and substance use as barriers to HIV testing and treatment; social support and accessibility of services were key enablers. Conclusions Improving HIV testing and linkage to treatment among female sex workers will require structural initiatives to reduce stigma and increase service seeking support. PMID:25130245

  4. Latent Growth Trajectories of Substance Use among Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Gwendolyn V.; Stein, Judith A.; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    We examine changes among adolescent girls in substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Three separate latent growth curve analyses assessed the impact of psychosocial, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors on resumption of or change in use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. The Vulnerable Populations Model for Research and Clinical Practice (Flaskerud & Winslow, 1998) provided the theoretical foundation for this study. This is a secondary analysis of data from a sample of 305 ethnic minority females (245 Latina, 60 African-American), aged 13–18 years, who were pregnant at baseline and were participating in an HIV prevention study conducted in inner-city alternative schools in Los Angeles County. Data collected at four time points captured changes in substance use from pregnancy through the postpartum period. Baseline predictors included ethnicity/race, partner substance use, childhood abuse history, religiosity, acculturation, depressive symptoms, length of gestation at baseline, and prior substance use. Common predictors of greater resumption and/or greater level of use included greater history of use prior to pregnancy, partner substance use, childhood abuse, and a longer time since childbirth. African Americans were more likely to be smoking at baseline when they were still pregnant and to use marijuana postpartum; Latinas were more likely to use alcohol over the course of pregnancy and postpartum. Other variables exerted an influence on specific substances. For instance, religiosity impacted cigarette and alcohol use. Findings may assist prenatal care providers to identify and counsel pregnant adolescents at risk for perinatal substance use and to prevent resumption or initiation of substance use following childbirth. PMID:20565158

  5. Two-dimensional sectioned images and three-dimensional surface models for learning the anatomy of the female pelvis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Hwang, Sung Bae; Har, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Young Lae; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic structures were outlined with additional surface reconstruction to prepare the image data. Second, the sectioned and outlined images (in a browsing software) as well as the surface models (in a PDF file) were placed on the Visible Korean homepage in a readily-accessible format. Third, all image data were visualized with interactive elements to stimulate creative learning. Fourth, two-dimensional (2D) images and three-dimensional (3D) models were superimposed on one another to provide context and spatial information for students viewing these data. Fifth, images were designed such that structure names would be shown when the mouse pointer hovered over the 2D images or the 3D models. The state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models, arranged and systematized as described in this study, will aid students in understanding the anatomy of female pelvis. The graphic data accompanied by corresponding magnetic resonance images and computed tomographs are expected to promote the production of 3D simulators for clinical practice. PMID:23463707

  6. Changes in responsiveness to newborn pups in pregnant, nulliparous golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Buntin, J D; Jaffe, S; Lisk, R D

    1984-03-01

    Virgin female hamsters were mated and tested once daily for maternal retrieving behavior beginning on days 0, 5, 9, 13, 15, of the 16 day gestation period to determine if responsiveness toward newborn pups changes as pregnancy proceeds. Upon initial exposure to 3 newborn pups, only a small percentage of early-to-mid-pregnant females exhibited maternal retrieving behavior spontaneously. In contrast, over half of the 15 day pregnant females displayed retrieving during the first test. Despite the high frequency of initial pup-directed aggression and cannibalism, maternal retrieval was induced in the majority of the females in all groups by repeated daily exposure to 3 newborn pups. However, no significant differences were observed in the number of pup exposure periods required to induce maternal retrieving in 0, 5, and 9 day pregnant females. It is concluded that the high level of maternal responsiveness observed in the parturient hamster develops somewhat abruptly during late pregnancy. In this respect, the pattern observed in the hamster differs from the more gradual increase in maternal responsiveness reported in mid-to-late-pregnant mice and rats. PMID:6540458

  7. Analysis of FMR1 gene expression in female premutation carriers using robust segmented linear regression models.

    PubMed

    García-Alegría, Eva; Ibáñez, Berta; Mínguez, Mónica; Poch, Marisa; Valiente, Alberto; Sanz-Parra, Arantza; Martinez-Bouzas, Cristina; Beristain, Elena; Tejada, Maria-Isabel

    2007-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence or reduction of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) because FMR1 gene expression is reduced. Alleles with repeat sizes of 55-200 are classified as premutations, and it has been demonstrated that FMR1 expression is elevated in the premutation range. However, the majority of the studies reported were performed in males. We studied FMR1 expression in 100 female fragile X family members from the northern region of Spain using quantitative (fluorescence) real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of these 100 women, 19 had normal alleles, 19 were full mutation carriers, and 62 were premutation carriers. After confirming differences between the three groups of females, and increased levels of the FMR1 transcript among premutation carriers, we found that the relationship between mRNA levels and repeat size is nonlinear. These results were obtained using a novel methodology that, based on the size of the CGG repeats, allows us to find out the most probable threshold from which the relationship between CGG repeat number and mRNA levels changes. Using this approach, a significant positive correlation between CGG repeats and total mRNA levels has been found in the premutation range <100 CGG, but this correlation diminishes from 100 onward. However, when correcting by the X inactivation ratio, mRNA levels increase as the number of CGG repeats increases, and this increase is highly significant over 100 CGG. We suggest that due to skewed X inactivation, mRNA levels tend to normalize in females when the number of CGG repeats increases. PMID:17449730

  8. Analysis of FMR1 gene expression in female premutation carriers using robust segmented linear regression models

    PubMed Central

    García-Alegría, Eva; Ibáñez, Berta; Mínguez, Mónica; Poch, Marisa; Valiente, Alberto; Sanz-Parra, Arantza; Martinez-Bouzas, Cristina; Beristain, Elena; Tejada, Maria-Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence or reduction of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) because FMR1 gene expression is reduced. Alleles with repeat sizes of 55–200 are classified as premutations, and it has been demonstrated that FMR1 expression is elevated in the premutation range. However, the majority of the studies reported were performed in males. We studied FMR1 expression in 100 female fragile X family members from the northern region of Spain using quantitative (fluorescence) real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of these 100 women, 19 had normal alleles, 19 were full mutation carriers, and 62 were premutation carriers. After confirming differences between the three groups of females, and increased levels of the FMR1 transcript among premutation carriers, we found that the relationship between mRNA levels and repeat size is nonlinear. These results were obtained using a novel methodology that, based on the size of the CGG repeats, allows us to find out the most probable threshold from which the relationship between CGG repeat number and mRNA levels changes. Using this approach, a significant positive correlation between CGG repeats and total mRNA levels has been found in the premutation range <100 CGG, but this correlation diminishes from 100 onward. However, when correcting by the X inactivation ratio, mRNA levels increase as the number of CGG repeats increases, and this increase is highly significant over 100 CGG. We suggest that due to skewed X inactivation, mRNA levels tend to normalize in females when the number of CGG repeats increases. PMID:17449730

  9. Romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and nonpregnant, nonparenting teens.

    PubMed

    Medora, N P; Goldstein, A; von der Hellen, C

    1994-10-01

    Feelings of romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and a control group of nonpregnant, nonparenting adolescents were investigated. The Bachman Self-Esteem Scale (Bachman, O'Malley, & Johnston, 1978) and the Dean Romanticism Scale (Dean, 1961) were distributed to 649 U.S. female adolescents--255 pregnant adolescents, 121 adolescent mothers, and 273 teenagers in the control group. For romanticism, the results indicated a significant main effect for group (pregnant teens, teen mothers, and a control group consisting of nonpregnant, nonparenting teenagers) and ethnicity (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian) but not for age (13 to 15 years and 16 to 19 years). The pregnant teens and teen mothers thus had a higher degree of romanticism than the control group did. For self-esteem, there was a significant main effect for race, but not for group or for age. This main effect was qualified by a significant interaction between ethnicity and age. PMID:7807975

  10. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups

    PubMed Central

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause. PMID:24966311

  11. Environmental enrichment rescues female-specific hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in a model of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Du, X; Leang, L; Mustafa, T; Renoir, T; Pang, T Y; Hannan, A J

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) has long been regarded as a disease of the central nervous system, partly due to typical disease symptoms that include loss of motor control, cognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disturbances. However, the huntingtin gene is ubiquitously expressed throughout the body. We had previously reported a female-specific depression-related behavioural phenotype in the R6/1 transgenic mouse model of HD. One hypothesis suggests that pathology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the key physiological stress-response system that links central and peripheral organs, is a cause of depression. There is evidence of HPA axis pathology in HD, but whether it contributes to the female R6/1 behavioural phenotype is unclear. We have examined HPA axis response of R6/1 mice following acute stress and found evidence of a female-specific dysregulation of the HPA axis in R6/1 mice, which we further isolated to a hyper-response of adrenal cortical cells to stimulation by adrenocorticotrophin hormone. Interestingly, the adrenal pathophysiology was not detected in mice that had been housed in environmentally enriching conditions, an effect of enrichment that was also reproduced in vitro. This constitutes the first evidence that environmental enrichment can in fact exert a lasting influence on peripheral organ function. Cognitive stimulation may therefore not only have benefits for mental function, but also for overall physiological wellbeing. PMID:22760557

  12. Industrial shifts, female employment, and occupational differentiation: a dynamic model for American cities, 1960-1970.

    PubMed

    Semyonov, M; Scott, R I

    1983-05-01

    Sex-linked occupational differentiation has been seen as influenced by both the industrial structure of the economy and the sex composition of the labor force. Here, with a sample of 70 SMSAs, it was found (a) that the odds of men relative to women of joining professional and managerial occupations increased between 1960 and 1970, and (b) that this increase was dependent on the growth of tertiary industries and the greater number of women joining the cash economy. The observed effect of industrial shifts on sex-occupational differentiation, however, is argued to be a spurious consequence of the gender-composition of the work force. Specifically, the development of tertiary industries generates greater demand for female labor. Intensive recruitment of women to the labor force in turn increases occupational differentiation because females, in sex-typed labor markets, are likely to be channeled in disproportionate numbers away from upper-status occupations. The findings demonstrate that traditional modernization theory is unable to account for this. However, the results lend support to expectations derived from a labor market sex-segmentation approach. PMID:6862060

  13. Interpretation of Opposite-Sex Friendship Based on Social Ecology Model in Iranian Females

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Keramat, Afsaneh; Vakilian, Katayon; Chaman, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Objective: One of the main cultural issues in universities is relationships between male and female students. Due to the adverse consequences of this issue, explaining of the beyond the causes of friendship with opposite-sex, is one of the first steps in planning for youth issues. Methods: This qualitative research was conducted based on content analysis. Nineteen female university students were enrolled. Semi-structured questions through four sessions were used to gather required data. Two themes were extracted. One was the behaviors leading friendship which consisted of 5 subsets including self and extra-self, meso, exo-, and macro-systems. The other theme was the actions against with consequences of sex which are made of 2 subsets of the quality and the consequences of sex. Results: Various factors such as person attitude, felling lonely, and community atmosphere, including the university environment, family, friends, religious beliefs and media that promote the Western culture can be effective in friendship before marriage. Conclusion: Since the society of our country is considered a young populated one and the culture of the West through the media currently influences on our culture, reproductive health programs should be developed in a high priority focusing on youth fitted with their current needs according to Islamic-Iranian culture. PMID:24644485

  14. Validation of a measure of the Satter eating competence model with low-income females

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct validity of a version of the ecSatter Inventory (ecSI), a measure of eating competence (EC), as adapted for use in a low-income (LI) population. Methods Females (n = 507), aged 18 to 45 years, living in households with a history of participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program completed a web-based survey that included the ecSI for LI (ecSI/LI) and valid measures of cognitive and affective eating behavior, food preference and practice, and food preparation. Results Most correlations and differences between eating competent and non-eating competent categories and among EC tertiles were compatible with hypothesized relationships. ecSI/LI scores were positively related with self-reported physical activity, food acceptance, fruit and vegetable intake, and food planning/resource management. ecSI/LI scores were negatively associated with body mass index, dissatisfaction with body weight, tendency to overeat in response to external or emotional stimuli, and indices of psychosocial attributes related to disordered eating. Conclusions The ecSI/LI is a valid measure of EC for low-income females and provides a tool for researchers and educators to assess intervention outcomes and further explore the EC construct. PMID:21473765

  15. Effects of maternal exposure to aflatoxin B1 during pregnancy on fertility output of dams and developmental, behavioral and reproductive consequences in female offspring using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Ch; Akhila, B; Pratap Reddy, K; Girish, B P; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2016-01-01

    A suboptimal in utero environment can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse "programing" effects on the offspring. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the potent reproductive toxicants and currently detected in both milk and tissues. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal exposure to graded doses of aflatoxin B1 on the pregnancy outcomes of dams and postnatal developments of the female offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intramuscularly with vehicle or aflatoxin B1 (10, 20, 50 or 100 μg/kg body weight/day) on days 12-19 of gestation. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and survival. The female offspring were examined through a battery of tests in order to evaluate their developmental, behavioral and reproductive end points. All animals were born alive. The litter size of the aflatoxin B1 treated rats was comparable to the controls. However, the birth weight of the pups in the experimental group was significantly lower when compared to controls. Significant and persistent lags in cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity and ascending wire mesh, with a delay in elapsed time for vaginal opening were detected in the female progeny exposed to aflatoxin B1 during embryonic development. The locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in experimental females were significantly decreased than that of controls. Embryonic exposure to aflatoxin B1 also resulted in prolonged stress response, irregular estrus and suppressed fertility output in the progeny at their adulthood. These results indicate that in utero exposure to aflatoxin B1 severely compromised postnatal development of neonatal rats and caused irregular estrus that was accompanied by suppressed fertility output. PMID:26956420

  16. Impact of Ethanol and Saccharin on Fecal Microbiome in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Labrecque, Matthew T; Malone, D’eldra; Caldwell, Katharine E; Allan, Andrea M

    2015-01-01

    Research identifying connections between the gastrointestinal flora and human health has developed at a rapid pace. Several studies link the gut microbiome to a variety of biological functions beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in our diets, including the consumption of artificial sweeteners, have profound effects on the composition of the gut microbiome and can, in turn, affect brain function, glucose tolerance, and inflammation. Sweeteners are often used to encourage consumption of agents such as ethanol and nicotine in laboratory studies using rodents. Studies aiming to examine the effects of agents like ethanol on the developing nervous system administer these agents during pregnancy. To date, there have been no studies exploring the impact of the combination of dietary ethanol and saccharin during pregnancy on the gut microbiome in either humans or laboratory animal models. In the study presented, we evaluated the impact of ethanol in either water or saccharin on the fecal microbiome in pregnant and non-pregnant mice using a qPCR approach. We found that the combination of ethanol and saccharin produced different effects than ethanol in water, depending on pregnancy status. Levels of Clostridium were reduced in ethanol-saccharin but not ethanol-water drinking mice, even though the total levels of ethanol consumed were the same for the two groups. Eubacteria were increased in the pregnant, but decreased in the non-pregnant, ethanol-saccharin drinking group. These treatment and pregnancy specific changes could impact the development of the offspring. In developing and quality checking our primer sets for these studies we identified several problems within previous research in the field. The technical drawbacks in previous studies, as well as our own study, are discussed. Despite some progress in the ability to study the gut microbiome, more advances and standardization of practices should be established to improve the reliability and validity of

  17. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue. PMID:11369952

  18. Adolescent contraceptive risk-taking behavior: a social psychological model of females' use of and compliance with birth control.

    PubMed

    Durant, R H; Sanders Jm; Jay, S; Levinson, R

    1990-01-01

    Assuming that contraceptives are readily available and affordable to most adolescents, but that insufficient contraceptive use and high pregnancy rates stem from adolescent female risk-taking, a multivariate model of adolescent female contraceptive risk-taking behavior is described. Derived from behavioral science theory and empirical research, the model postulates direct and indirect associations between relevant variables. It also assumes behavior is comprised of deciding to initiate birth control, choosing a contraceptive method, complying with the method, and deciding to change methods or discontinue birth control. Premarital sexual standards and experiences, length of sexual relationship, religiosity and traditional values, and physical and sexual development are discussed as variables that directly affect the frequency of sexual intercourse. The frequency of sexual intercourse and perceived risk of pregnancy, and the perceived probability of pregnancy and outcome experiences of sexual activity are also examined. Variables that mediate the impact of coital frequency on contraceptive risk-taking include the cognitive assessment of pregnancy and contraception, support by significant others, personality development, and experience with contraceptives. Empirical tests of the model are discussed. PMID:12317634

  19. Breastfeeding Intentions Among Pregnant Adolescents and Young Adults and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Hansen, Nathan; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Rates of breastfeeding remain disproportionately low among young mothers in the United States. Although breastfeeding behavior may be most directly related to breastfeeding intention, little is known about breastfeeding intentions among young women who are expecting a baby. Subjects and Methods Pregnant adolescents and young adults (14–21 years old) and their male partners were recruited for participation. Females were asked if they intended to breastfeed, and their partners were asked if they wanted their partners to breastfeed; participants indicated reasons for their responses. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between breastfeeding intentions and sociodemographic characteristics, relationship characteristics, and partner's intention to breastfeed. Results Approximately 73% of females reported intending to breastfeed, and 80% of males reported wanting his partner to breastfeed, most commonly because it is “healthier for the baby” and “a more natural way to feed the baby.” Sociodemographic and relationship characteristics explained a small amount of variance of breastfeeding intention (15% and 4% among females, respectively, and 8% and 4% among males, respectively). Partner intention explained an additional 23% and 24% of the variance in individual intention for females and males, respectively. Females who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) from their current partner had lower odds of intending to breastfeed (odds ratio=0.37; 95% confidence interval=0.16, 0.84). Race/ethnicity modified associations among both genders. Conclusions These findings emphasize the importance of dyadic approaches and suggest strategies for improving breastfeeding intentions and behavior among young couples expecting a baby. These results are also among the first to document the relationship between IPV and breastfeeding intentions among young women. PMID:23611330

  20. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    PubMed Central

    LOTH, Eduardo Alexandre; CECATTO, Vanessa; BIAZIM, Samia Khalil; FERREIRA, José Henrique Fermino; DANIELLI, Caroline; GENSKE, Rodrigo Daniel; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira; de FRANCO, Marcello Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring. PMID:27049707

  1. Selection for nutrients by pregnant goats on a microphyll desert scrub.

    PubMed

    Mellado, M; Aguilar, C N; Arévalo, J R; Rodríguez, A; García, J E; Mellado, J

    2011-05-01

    The behavioral consequences of pregnancy in goats were studied to test the hypothesis that pregnant females on rangeland select a diet richer in nutrients once the demands of gestation increase, and that nutrient content in goat diets changes with the grazing season. A total of 12 mature mixed breed goats either pregnant (n = 6) or non-pregnant (n = 6) were used during the dry period (February to May). Dietary samples obtained from the oral cavity of grazing goats (restrained with a short light rope permanently tightened around their neck) were used for chemical analyses. Across months, pregnant goats selected diets higher (P < 0.01) in crude protein (CP) than non-pregnant goats; this nutrient did not meet the requirements of late gestating goats. Pregnant goats made use of less (P < 0.01) fibrous feeds than non-pregnant goats. In order to cope with changing nutrient demands for pregnancy, goats adjusted their diet by increasing the selection of plants with 32% higher calcium content compared to forages selected by non-pregnant goats. The physiological state of goats did not alter the levels of phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) in their diets; these minerals were adequate to meet the demands of pregnancy. There were no effects of physiological state on concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in the goat diets during the dry season, with levels adequate for sustainability of pregnancy. Pregnant goats did not seek forages lower in tannins, alkaloids, saponins and terpenes. It was concluded that to cope with increasing pregnancy costs, goats adjusted their diets increasing selection of forages or plant parts with high nutritional value to maximize their net nutrient budget. PMID:22440037

  2. The Female Condom: Effectiveness and Convenience, Not "Female Control," Valued by U.S. Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latka, Mary H.; Kapadia, Farzana; Fortin, Princess

    2008-01-01

    Data on adolescents' views regarding the female condom are limited. We conducted seven single-gender focus groups with 47 New York City boys and girls aged 15-20 years (72% African American; 43% ever on public assistance; 72% sexually active; 25% had either been pregnant or fathered a pregnancy). Conceptual mapping was performed by participants to…

  3. Comparison of the validity of the use of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in males and females.

    PubMed

    Bayless, Daniel W; Perez, Maria C; Daniel, Jill M

    2015-06-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a commonly used and well-studied rodent model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the cognitive symptoms of ADHD are reported. However, the female SHR rat is much less studied than its male counterpart. The goal of the current study was to assess the validity of the SHR rodent model of ADHD by examining attentional performance, inhibitory control, and hyperactivity in both male and female SHR rats. Adult SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto rats were trained on the 5-choice serial reaction time task, a self-paced test of attention and inhibitory control. This task requires animals to identify the location of a brief light stimulus among five possible locations under several challenging conditions. Analyses of percent correct revealed that attentional performance in SHR females was not significantly different from control females, whereas attentional performance in SHR males was significantly different from control males. Analyses of the number of premature responses revealed that SHR rats made more inhibitory control errors than did control rats and that this decrease in inhibitory control was present in both SHR males and females. Analyses of activity in the open field revealed that SHR rats were more hyperactive than were control rats and that this increased hyperactivity was present in both SHR males and females. The current findings have implications for the study of sex differences in ADHD and for the use of SHR rats as a model of ADHD in females. PMID:25724583

  4. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  5. A polynomial hyperelastic model for the mixture of fat and glandular tissue in female breast.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Gallego, Jose L; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    In the breast of adult women, glandular and fat tissues are intermingled and cannot be clearly distinguished. This work studies if this mixture can be treated as a homogenized tissue. A mechanical model is proposed for the mixture of tissues as a function of the fat content. Different distributions of individual tissues and geometries have been tried to verify the validity of the mixture model. A multiscale modelling approach was applied in a finite element model of a representative volume element (RVE) of tissue, formed by randomly assigning fat or glandular elements to the mesh. Both types of tissues have been assumed as isotropic, quasi-incompressible hyperelastic materials, modelled with a polynomial strain energy function, like the homogenized model. The RVE was subjected to several load cases from which the constants of the polynomial function of the homogenized tissue were fitted in the least squares sense. The results confirm that the fat volume ratio is a key factor in determining the properties of the homogenized tissue, but the spatial distribution of fat is not so important. Finally, a simplified model of a breast was developed to check the validity of the homogenized model in a geometry similar to the actual one. PMID:25950862

  6. Stressful Life Events and the Tripartite Model: Relations to Anxiety and Depression in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…

  7. A female black bear denning habitat model using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.D.; Hayes, S.G.; Pledger, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic and a raster geographic information system (GIS) to model potential black bear (Ursus americanus) denning habitat in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. The Mahalanobis distance statistic was used to represent the standard squared distance between sample variates in the GIS database (forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to roads, and forest cover richness) and variates at known bear dens. Two models were developed: a generalized model for all den locations and another specific to dens in rock cavities. Differences between habitat at den sites and habitat across the study area were represented in 2 new GIS themes as Mahalanobis distance values. Cells similar to the mean vector derived from the known dens had low Mahalanobis distance values, and dissimilar cells had high values. The reliability of the predictive model was tested by overlaying den locations collected subsequent to original model development on the resultant den habitat themes. Although the generalized model demonstrated poor reliability, the model specific to rock dens had good reliability. Bears were more likely to choose rock den locations with low Mahalanobis distance values and less likely to choose those with high values. The model can be used to plan the timing and extent of management actions (e.g., road building, prescribed fire, timber harvest) most appropriate for those sites with high or low denning potential. 

  8. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the

  9. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B

    2013-09-01

    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers. PMID:23957687

  10. Testing an etiological model for male juvenile sexual offending against females.

    PubMed

    Knight, Raymond A; Sims-Knight, Judith E

    2004-01-01

    Research on the origin of sexual aggression has identified several important contributing factors: (a) early abuse (physical and sexual), (b) personality/behavioral traits (callousness and unemotionality, antisocial behavior/impulsivity, and hypersexuality), and (c) attitudinal/cognitive variables (negative masculinity, hostility toward women, misogynistic fantasies). We developed and tested an etiological model of sexual coercion on adult samples of sexual offenders and community controls. The model proposes three major causal pathways to sexual coercion. Using data gathered from a computerized interview, we employed this same model to predict sexually coercive behavior in a sample of 218 juvenile sexual offenders. The cross- sample consistency of the model provides support for a unified theory of sexual aggression against women. PMID:15914389

  11. Management of Pregnant Heifers in the Feedlot.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Ryan D; Warr, Brian N; Booker, Calvin W

    2015-07-01

    Pregnant heifers in the feedlot pose many economic and management issues to the producer. Heifers that enter the feedlot pregnant will have increased costs associated with them regardless of the management strategy implemented. It is imperative that practitioners be aware of management concerns associated with pregnant heifers in order to provide sound recommendations for their clients. The purpose of this article is to provide the bovine practitioner with a summary of current literature and present common options for managing pregnant heifers in a feedlot setting. PMID:26139188

  12. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for lifetime exposure to PCB 153 in male and female harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): model development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Yang, Raymond S H; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna; Blust, Ronny

    2010-09-15

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for the most persistent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB 153) in male and female harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) to elucidate processes such as uptake, distribution, and elimination. Due to its limited metabolic capacities, long life span, and top position in marine food chains, this species is highly sensitive to pollution. The models consist of 5 compartments, liver, blubber, kidney, brain, and a compartment which accounts for the rest of the body, all connected through blood. All physiological and biochemical parameters were extracted from the literature, except for the brain/blood partition coefficient and rate of excretion, which were both fitted to data sets used for validation of the models. These data sets were compiled from our own analyses performed with GC-MS on tissue samples of harbor porpoises. The intake of PCB 153 was from milk from birth to 4 months, and after weaning fish was the main food source. Overall, these models reveal that concentrations of PCB 153 in males increase with age but suggest that, as the animals grow older, metabolic transformation can be a possible pathway for elimination as well. In contrast, the model for females confirms that gestation and lactation are key processes for eliminating PCB 153 as body burdens decrease with age. These PBPK models are capable of simulating the bioaccumulation of PCB 153 during the entire life span of approximately 20 years of the harbor porpoises. PMID:20718467

  13. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hasenauer, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L.; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2007-07-01

    Anthropomorphic computational phantoms are computer models of the human body for use in the evaluation of dose distributions resulting from either internal or external radiation sources. Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed and widely utilized for organ dose assessment: (1) stylized phantoms and (2) voxel phantoms which describe the human anatomy via mathematical surface equations or 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Although stylized phantoms based on mathematical equations can be very flexible in regard to making changes in organ position and geometrical shape, they are limited in their ability to fully capture the anatomic complexities of human internal anatomy. In turn, voxel phantoms have been developed through image-based segmentation and correspondingly provide much better anatomical realism in comparison to simpler stylized phantoms. However, they themselves are limited in defining organs presented in low contrast within either magnetic resonance or computed tomography images—the two major sources in voxel phantom construction. By definition, voxel phantoms are typically constructed via segmentation of transaxial images, and thus while fine anatomic features are seen in this viewing plane, slice-to-slice discontinuities become apparent in viewing the anatomy of voxel phantoms in the sagittal or coronal planes. This study introduces the concept of a hybrid computational newborn phantom that takes full advantage of the best features of both its stylized and voxel counterparts: flexibility in phantom alterations and anatomic realism. Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces, a mathematical modeling tool traditionally applied to graphical animation studies, was adopted to replace the limited mathematical surface equations of stylized phantoms. A previously developed whole-body voxel phantom of the newborn female was utilized as a realistic anatomical framework for hybrid phantom construction. The construction of a hybrid

  14. Women who sexually offend display three main offense styles: a reexamination of the descriptive model of female sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Theresa A; Waugh, Greg; Taylor, Kelly; Blanchette, Kelly; O'Connor, Alisha; Blake, Emily; Ciardha, Caoilte Ó

    2014-06-01

    This study examined a theory constructed to describe the offense process of women who sexually offend-the Descriptive Model of Female Sexual Offending (DMFSO). In particular, this report sets out to establish whether the original three pathways (or offending styles) identified within United Kingdom convicted female sexual offenders and described within the DMFSO (i.e., Explicit-Approach, Directed-Avoidant, Implicit-Disorganized) were applicable to a small sample (N = 36) of North American women convicted of sexual offending. Two independent raters examined the offense narratives of the sample and-using the DMFSO-coded each script according to whether it fitted one of the three original pathways. Results suggested that the three existing pathways of the DMFSO represented a reasonable description of offense pathways for a sample of North American women convicted of sexual offending. No new pathways were identified. A new "Offense Pathway Checklist" devised to aid raters' decision making is described and future research and treatment implications explored. PMID:23676187

  15. Multivariate Modeling of Proteins Related to Trapezius Myalgia, a Comparative Study of Female Cleaners with or without Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hadrevi, Jenny; Ghafouri, Bijar; Larsson, Britt; Gerdle, Björn; Hellström, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic trapezius myalgia is high in women with high exposure to awkward working positions, repetitive movements and movements with high precision demands. The mechanisms behind chronic trapezius myalgia are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in protein content between healthy and myalgic trapezius muscle using proteomics. Muscle biopsies from 12 female cleaners with work-related trapezius myalgia and 12 pain free female cleaners were obtained from the descending part of the trapezius. Proteins were separated with two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and selected proteins were identified with mass spectrometry. In order to discriminate the two groups, quantified proteins were fitted to a multivariate analysis: partial least square discriminate analysis. The model separated 28 unique proteins which were related to glycolysis, the tricaboxylic acid cycle, to the contractile apparatus, the cytoskeleton and to acute response proteins. The results suggest altered metabolism, a higher abundance of proteins related to inflammation in myalgic cleaners compared to healthy, and a possible alteration of the contractile apparatus. This explorative proteomic screening of proteins related to chronic pain in the trapezius muscle provides new important aspects of the pathophysiology behind chronic trapezius myalgia. PMID:24023854

  16. Tryptophan requirement of pregnant sows.

    PubMed

    Franco, D J; Josephson, J K; Moehn, S; Pencharz, P B; Ball, R O

    2014-10-01

    Amino acid requirements of sows may change from early to late gestation due to the accelerated growth of products of conception after d 70 of pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine the Trp requirement, Phe kinetics, and energy expenditure in early (d 35 to 53) and late (d 92 to 111) pregnancy using the indicator amino acid oxidation method and indirect calorimetry. The same 6 second parity sows were fed 6 diets in a Latin square design in both early and late pregnancy. The diets based on corn, corn starch, and sugar provided 20 to 120% of the current recommended Trp intake (2.5 g/d) in early pregnancy and 60 to 180% in late pregnancy. Feed allowance was constant for each sow at 2.41 kg/d (SE 0.029). Expired air and blood were collected every 30 min for 5 1/2 h. After three 30-min periods to determine background (13)C enrichment in expired CO2 and plasma Phe, L[1-(13)C]Phe was given orally at a rate of 2 mg/(kg BW · h) with 8 1/2 hourly meals. Expired air and plasma were analyzed for (13)CO2 and (13)C-Phe enrichment, respectively. Requirements were determined as the breakpoint of 2-phase linear models. Sows grew from 167.7 kg (SE 3.93) at breeding to 211.9 kg (SE 5.18) post-farrowing and had litters of 14.5 piglets (SE 0.43) weighing 19.0 kg (SE 1.41) at birth. The Trp requirement was 1.7 g/d (SE 0.29, P = 0.001) in early pregnancy and 2.6 g/d (SE 0.37, P = 0.013) in late pregnancy, or 0.7 g/kg and 1.1 g/kg diet of total Trp, respectively, for a feed allowance of 2.4 kg/d. The Trp requirement in late pregnancy tended (P = 0.056) to be greater than in early pregnancy. Quantitative Phe kinetics were not affected by Trp intake except for a quadratic response of Phe oxidation and retention (P < 0.1) to Trp intake in early pregnancy. In late pregnancy, sows oxidized less Phe and retained more Phe (P = 0.001) than in early pregnancy, indicating that young, growing pregnant sows increase the efficiency of utilizing AA in late pregnancy to maintain protein

  17. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. Are female daycare workers at greater risk of cytomegalovirus infection? A secondary data analysis of CMV seroprevalence between 2010 and 2013 in Hamburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stranzinger, Johanna; Kozak, Agnessa; Schilgen, Benjamin; Paris, Diana; Nießen, Thomas; Schmidt, Lutz; Wille, Andreas; Wagner, Norbert L.; Nienhaus, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Close contact with asymptomatic children younger than three years is a risk factor for a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. In pregnant women, such primary infection increases the risk of CMV-induced feto- or embryopathy. Daycare providers have therefore implemented working restrictions for pregnant daycare workers (DCWs) in accordance with legislation and guidelines for maternity protection. However, little is known about the infection risk for DCWs. We therefore compared the prevalence of CMV antibodies of pregnant DCWs to that of female blood donors (BDs). Method: In a secondary data analysis, the prevalence of anti-CMV IgG among pregnant DCWs (N=509) in daycare centers (DCCs) was compared to the prevalence of female first-time BDs (N=14,358) from the greater region of Hamburg, Germany. Data collection took place between 2010 and 2013. The influence of other risk factors such as age, pregnancies and place of residence was evaluated using logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of CMV antibodies in pregnant DCWs was higher than in female BDs (54.6 vs 41.5%; OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3–1.9). The subgroup of BDs who had given birth to at least one child and who lived in the city of Hamburg (N=2,591) had a prevalence of CMV antibodies similar to the prevalence in pregnant DCWs (53.9 vs 54.6%; OR 0.9; 95%CI 0.8–1.2). Age, pregnancy history and living in the center of Hamburg were risk factors for CMV infections. Conclusion: The comparison of pregnant DCWs to the best-matching subgroup of female first-time BDs with past pregnancies and living in the city of Hamburg does not indicate an elevated risk of CMV infection among DCWs. However, as two secondary data sets from convenience samples were used, a more detailed investigation of the risk factors other than place of residence, age and maternity was not possible. Therefore, the CMV infection risk in DCWs should be further studied by taking into consideration the potential preventive effect of

  19. Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's α was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

  20. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  1. A female pelvic bone shape model for air/bone separation in support of synthetic CT generation for radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lianli; Cao, Yue; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Jolly, Shruti; Balter, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Separating bone from air in MR data is one of the major challenges in using MR images to derive synthetic CT. The problem is further complicated when the anatomic regions filled with air are altered across scans due to air mobility, for instance, in pelvic regions, thereby the air regions estimated using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence are invalid in other image series acquired for multispectral classification. This study aims to develop and investigate a female pelvic bone shape model to identify low intensity regions in MRI where air is unlikely to be present in support of synthetic CT generation without UTE imaging. CT scans of 30 patients were collected for the study, 17 of them also have corresponding MR scans. The shape model was built from the CT dataset, where the reference image was aligned to each of the training images using B-spline deformable registration. Principal component analysis was performed on B-spline coefficients for a compact model where shape variance was described by linear combination of principal modes. The model was applied to identify pelvic bone in MR images by deforming the corresponding MR data of the reference image to target MR images, where the search space of the deformation process was constrained within the subspace spanned by principal modes. The local minima in the search space were removed effectively by the shape model, thus supporting an efficient binary search for the optimal solution. We evaluated the model by its efficacy in identifying bone voxels and excluding air regions. The model was tested across the 17 patients that have corresponding MR scans using a leave-one-out cross validation. A simple model using the first leading principal mode only was found to achieve reasonable accuracy, where an averaged 87% of bone voxels were correctly identified. Finally dilation of the optimally fit bone mask by 5 mm was found to cover 96% of bone voxels while minimally impacting the overlap with air (below 0.4%).

  2. Maternal immunocompetence. I. The graft-versus-host reactivity of lymphocytes from pregnant rats and the distribution pattern of 51Cr-labeled lymphocytes in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M R

    1976-01-01

    Lymphocytes from the peripheral blood, spleen, or para-aortic lymph nodes of prrimigravida L rats carrying (L X BN) F1 (LBN) fetuses are fully capable of mounting graft-versus-host (GVH) reactions in LBN F1 recipients. The reactivity of lymphocytes from interstrain pregnant (L X BN) or intrastrain pregnant (L X L) rats, or from rats postpartum from these pregnancies, is equivalent to that of normal virgin females over a full dose-response curve, ruling out both specific and nonspecific effects of pregnancy on the intrinsic GVH competence of the maternal thymus-derived (T) lymphocyte. Attempts to block GVH reactivity with serum from pregnant rats were unsuccessful. In addition, when the distribution pattern of 51Cr-labeled syngeneic and semiallogeneic lymphocytes was studied in intact primigravida mice, there was no difference between interstrain and intrastrain pregnant mice, and there was no evidence of immunologically specific 'trapping' in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the interstrain pregnant uterus. PMID:8832

  3. The Michigan Model Pilot: Increasing the Number of Female Administrators in Michigan Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    The Michigan Model provides a 3-year plan for school districts to increase the number of women in administration. Nineteen objectives address six key role groups--three external to the school district (professional educational organizations, local community groups, and parent/community members) and three internal to the district…

  4. Direct Effects, Compensation, and Recovery in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to a Model Aromatase Inhibitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on the effects of a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, on molecular and biochemical endpoints within the fathead minnow reproductive axis. Unlike previous studies, this work incorporated extensive time-course characterization over the course of an 8 d exposu...

  5. A COMBINED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOENERGETICS-BASED MODEL FOR METHYLMERCURY IN FEMALE AMERICAN KESTRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of this combined dose-response and modeling effort will be used to improve effects characterizations for methylmercury in avian wildlife. This information will reduce uncertainty in risk assessments for methylmercury in the environment and contribute to the developme...

  6. Coping styles of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Myors, K; Johnson, M; Langdon, R

    2001-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the coping styles and specific strategies used by a group of pregnant adolescents attending an adolescent family support service. Seventy-one adolescents, with a mean age of 17 years, and a mean gestation of 25 weeks, completed the Revised Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS-R). The findings demonstrated that the optimistic coping style (emotion-focused) was the most frequently used and most effective coping style for these young women. A confrontive coping style (problem-focused) was also used and found to be effective. A combination of problem-focused and emotion-focused styles is recommended, with an increased emphasis on problem-focused approaches. The focus by the adolescents on optimistic approaches is suggestive of a lack of understanding of the challenges that motherhood will place upon them, but is consistent with their age and developmental stage. A longitudinal study of coping styles and changes in style throughout pregnancy and early motherhood is recommended. Initial assessment and monitoring of coping styles of pregnant adolescents is proposed. This assessment would be the beginning point for a teaching program that highlights increased use of adaptive coping styles (problem-focused) with decreased use of maladaptive approaches, and includes emotion-focused styles. By expanding the repertoire of coping styles and strategies available to the adolescent, the public health nurse (PHN) prepares these vulnerable mothers for the challenges ahead. PMID:11251870

  7. The Impact of HPV Female Immunization in Italy: Model Based Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Guzzetta, Giorgio; Faustini, Luca; Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2014-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical cancer. Since 2008 a vaccination program targeting 12-year-old girls has been initiated in Italy, backing up the cervical screening program already active since 1996. We propose a mathematical model of HPV transmission dynamics with the aim of evaluating the impact of these prevention strategies. The model considers heterosexual transmission of HPV types 16 and 18, structured by sex, age and sexual activity level, where transition to sexual activity is explicitly modeled from recent survey data. The epidemiological structure is a hybrid SIS/SIR, where a fraction of individuals recovering from infection develops permanent immunity against reinfection. Infections may progress to cervical lesions and cancer and heal spontaneously or upon treatment. Women undergoing hysterectomy (either after treatment of HPV lesions or by other causes) also transmit HPV infection. The model fits well both the age-specific prevalence of HPV infections and the incidence of cervical cancers in Italy, and accurately reproduces the decreasing trend in cancer incidence due to the introduction of the screening program. The model predicts that if the screening coverage is maintained at current levels, even in the absence of vaccination, such trend will continue in the next few decades, eventually plateauing at 25% below the current level. The additional initiation of routine vaccination targeting 12-year-old girls will further reduce cervical cancer incidence by two thirds at equilibrium, under realistic assumptions of 70% coverage and a duration of protective immunity of 50 years. If catch-up immunization of 25-year-old women at first cervical screening is also introduced, about 3,000 cervical cancer cases overall can be averted, corresponding to 9.6% of all cases expected in the scenario without catch-up. We conclude that HPV vaccination in addition to cervical screening will significantly reduce the burden

  8. Deep, prolonged torpor by pregnant, free-ranging bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Craig K. R.; Brigham, R. Mark; Geiser, Fritz

    2006-02-01

    Many mammals save energy during food shortage or harsh weather using controlled reductions in body temperature and metabolism called torpor. However, torpor slows offspring growth, and reproductive individuals are thought to avoid using it because of reduced fitness resulting from delayed offspring development. We tested this hypothesis by investigating torpor during reproduction in hoary bats ( Lasiurus cinereus, Vespertilionidae) in southern Canada. We recorded deep, prolonged torpor bouts, which meet the definition for hibernation, by pregnant females. Prolonged torpor occurred during spring storms. When conditions improved females aroused and gave birth within several days. Our observations imply a fitness advantage of torpor in addition to energy conservation because reduced foetal growth rate could delay parturition until conditions are more favourable for lactation and neonatal survival.

  9. An animal model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure elicits a long-lasting deficit in presynaptic long-term plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Jonathan W; Corches, Alex; Vieira, Philip A; Hiroto, Alex S; Mackie, Ken; Korzus, Edward

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis continues to be the most accessible and popular illicit recreational drug. Whereas current data link adolescence cannabinoid exposure to increased risk for dependence on other drugs, depression, anxiety disorders and psychosis, the mechanism(s) underlying these adverse effects remains controversial. Here we show in a mouse model of female adolescent cannabinoid exposure deficient endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated signaling and presynaptic forms of long-term depression at adult central glutamatergic synapses in the prefrontal cortex. Increasing endocannabinoid levels by blockade of monoacylglycerol lipase, the primary enzyme responsible for degrading the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with the specific inhibitor JZL 184 ameliorates eCB-LTD deficits. The observed deficit in cortical presynaptic signaling may represent a neural maladaptation underlying network instability and abnormal cognitive functioning. Our study suggests that adolescent cannabinoid exposure may permanently impair brain functions, including the brain's intrinsic ability to appropriately adapt to external influences. PMID:25979486

  10. Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Kutima, H L; Ouma, J; Churcher, T S; Changoma, J M; Mwalisetso, M A; French, M D; Mwandawiro, C S

    2015-01-01

    Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five villages (known for their high prevalence of infection of S. haematobium) in Kwale County. Serum samples were analysed to determine levels of urea and creatinine as proxy indicators of kidney function. Data revealed that pregnant women did not, on average, have a higher prevalence or intensity of infection of urinary schistosomiasis than non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, the level of prevalence and intensity of infection of S. haematobium was highest in the first trimester (0-13 weeks), dropped in the second trimester (14-26 weeks) and rose again in the third trimester (27-40 weeks). In addition, 24.8% of women were infected with hookworm, while none were diagnosed with malaria parasites. Of 250 samples analysed for serum urea and creatinine, none had significant levels of pathology, either in pregnant or non-pregnant women. Despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations that pregnant women should be treated with praziquantel after the first trimester, in practice this has not been the case in many countries, including Kenya. In view of this, healthcare providers should be informed to consider treatment of pregnant women infected with schistosomiasis during antenatal visits and whenever there is mass drug administration as recommended by the WHO. PMID:24103656

  11. Improving Breast Cancer Preventive Behavior among Female Medical Staff: The Use of Educational Intervention based on Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    TORBAGHAN, Ameneh Eskandari-; FARMANFARMA, Khadijah Kalan-; MOGHADDAM, Alireza Ansari-; ZAREI, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer prevalent among women worldwide. Preventive behaviors such as early diagnosis through screening tests play an important role in prevention and control of the disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of educational intervention using a health belief model on breast cancer preventive behaviors. Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 130 female employees of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences who were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. A questionnaire, made and validated by the researcher, was completed before and one month after training by the study subjects. Data were analysed using regression analysis, independent sample T-test, chi-square and Pearson’s correlation coefficient using the SPSS software 18. Results: There were significant changes in the training group, following educational intervention in the awareness construct and in some constructs of the model including perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, as well as in practice compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, perceived barriers remained as the only predictor in the model, such that for every unit increase in this variable, the behavior score increased by 18%. Conclusion: The use of educational intervention based on Health Belief Model had positive effect on knowledge of breast cancer preventive behaviors among participants. PMID:25977633

  12. How Australian Female Adolescents Prioritize Pregnancy Protection: A Grounded Theory Study of Contraceptive Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory principles were systematically employed to reveal key differences in pregnancy risk and underlying disparities in contraceptive use in (a) never-pregnant (b) pregnant-terminated and (c) pregnant-continued teenagers. Analysis of 69 semistructured interviews revealed a bicausal model of pregnancy protection that accounted for…

  13. Modulation of Rho GTPases rescues brain mitochondrial dysfunction, cognitive deficits and aberrant synaptic plasticity in female mice modeling Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Valenti, Daniela; Chiodi, Valentina; Ferrante, Antonella; de Bari, Lidia; Fiorentini, Carla; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Ricceri, Laura; Vacca, Rosa Anna; Fabbri, Alessia; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Rho GTPases are molecules critically involved in neuronal plasticity and cognition. We have previously reported that modulation of brain Rho GTPases by the bacterial toxin CNF1 rescues the neurobehavioral phenotype in MeCP2-308 male mice, a model of Rett syndrome (RTT). RTT is a rare X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder and a genetic cause of intellectual disability, for which no effective therapy is available. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to be involved in the mechanism of the disease pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that modulation of Rho GTPases by CNF1 rescues the reduced mitochondrial ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation in the brain of MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the condition which more closely recapitulates that of RTT patients. In RTT mouse brain, CNF1 also restores the alterations in the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes and of ATP synthase, the molecular machinery responsible for the majority of cell energy production. Such effects were achieved through the upregulation of the protein content of those MRC complexes subunits, which were defective in RTT mouse brain. Restored mitochondrial functionality was accompanied by the rescue of deficits in cognitive function (spatial reference memory in the Barnes maze), synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation) and Tyr1472 phosphorylation of GluN2B, which was abnormally enhanced in the hippocampus of RTT mice. Present findings bring into light previously unknown functional mitochondrial alterations in the brain of female mice modeling RTT and provide the first evidence that RTT brain mitochondrial dysfunction can be rescued by modulation of Rho GTPases. PMID:25890884

  14. Asexual and sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigerian pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinic

    PubMed Central

    Balogun, S T; Fehintola, F A; Adeyanju, O A; Adedeji, A A

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility to infection by Plasmodium falciparum is increased in pregnant women. In sub-Saharan Africa, the consequences of maternal malaria include preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and increased infant mortality. Malaria transmission requires the circulation of viable gametocytes that can be ingested by the female mosquito taking a blood meal. This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of asexual and sexual stages of P. falciparum in pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinics in south-western Nigeria, an area hyper-endemic for malaria. Gametocyte carriage was about 13%, similar to that documented for children symptomatic for malaria in our area of study.

  15. RISK FACTORS OF THYROID PATHOLOGY FORMATION IN OUTPATIENT PREGNANT POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Morchiladze, N; Tkeshelashvili, B; Gagua, D; Gagua, T

    2016-06-01

    Several medical - biological and social - hygienic factors have been found to account for the definite increase in the incidence of thyroid gland disorders in reproductive age and pregnant women. Aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for development of thyroid gland pathology in outpatient pregnant women. Observational study - "case - control" study has been conducted at the base of David Gagua Hospital Ltd. Main (study) group involved 292 pregnant patients with established thyroid pathology. Control group included 58 conditionally healthy pregnant participants without any demonstrated thyroid pathology. Study of risk factors was performed by initial interviewing and specialized questionnaire recording process (so-called two-stage model of interviewing). Characteristics of diet, sleep, physical activity, including harmful habits, socio-economic and hereditary factors were studied; quantitative indices of risk for each component were calculated: odds ratio (OR) and attributable risk (AR), taking into account 95% confidence interval (CI). The Pearson's criterion χ2 with respective P value and the calculator developed by International Society of Evidence-based Medicine were used to obtain the final results. Statistically significant risk factors for development of thyroid pathology were identified, which included: Thyroid gland diseases and hereditary history of diabetes mellitus; low economic income, unfavorable living conditions, unhealthy dietary habits. Despite of the difficulty of assessment of causative relationship between above mentioned components, their strong correlation should be taken into account when defining the strategy of preventive measures, moreover the most part of identified risk factors are manageable. PMID:27441534

  16. Expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the corpus luteum and uterus from non-pregnant and pregnant llamas.

    PubMed

    Powell, Susan A; Smith, Bradford B; Timm, Karen I; Menino, Alfred R

    2007-08-01

    Because estrogen may be involved in maternal recognition of pregnancy and embryonic migration in llamas, expression of estrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) was evaluated in corpus luteum (CL), endometrium, and uterus using relative RT-PCR. Tissues were recovered from sterile-mated (SM) and pregnant (PG) females during Days 7-11 and 7-13 (Day 0 = day of mating), respectively, and follicular phase and juvenile females. Luteal expression of ERalpha and beta was similar (P > 0.10) in SM and PG females and within Days 7-11, however, expression of ERalpha in ovarian tissue from follicular phase females was greater (P < 0.05) than Days 7 and 9 CL. Uterus expressed less ERalpha and beta compared to endometrium (P = 0.07 and P < 0.01, respectively). Expression of ERalpha was greater (P < 0.05) in Day 7 and follicular phase uteri than Days 9 and 11, Day 13 PG and juvenile uteri. Uterine ERbeta expression was greater (P = 0.09) in PG versus SM females and in mated compared to follicular phase females (P < 0.05). Endometrial expression of ERalpha and beta did not differ (P > 0.10) between SM and PG females or by day. The presence of luteal ER during this period may mean a role for estradiol in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Observed increases in uterine ER expression with no changes in endometrium suggest expression increased in myometrium and/or perimetrium. Upregulation of myometrial ERbeta in PG females may be involved in supporting uterine migration of the embryo. PMID:17219432

  17. Appropriate Physical Education Practices for Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David; Barnett, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses medical and pedagogical issues of concern to physical educators as they confront and respond to adolescent pregnancy in their schools, making recommendations for the role higher education can play in facilitating exercise programs for pregnant students and discussing an exercise program for pregnant adolescents that has served students…

  18. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You will then ...

  19. Pregnant Adolescent Substance Abuse Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, A. James

    This document is the final report on the Pregnant Adolescent Substance Abuse Project (PASAP) conducted in Prince Georges County (Maryland) in 1987 and 1988. The PASAP consisted of two components that operated independently: an Early Intervention Program that increased the proportion of pregnant adolescent substance users who were using various…

  20. An Alternative Program for Pregnant Schoolgirls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Patricia W.

    The paper describes the Lafayette Parish Homebound Program (Louisiana) for students in grades K-12, with particular emphasis on the program's services for pregnant girls. Procedures for admitting students into the program, objectives for the pregnant girls (12-18 years old), and program components are considered. It is explained that the special…

  1. Neuroactive gonadal drugs for neuroprotection in male and female models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Litim, Nadhir; Morissette, Marc; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-08-01

    The existence of sex differences in Parkinson's disease (PD) incidence is well documented with greater prevalence and earlier age at onset in men than in women. These reported sex differences could be related to estrogen exposure. In PD animal models, estrogen is well documented to be neuroprotective against dopaminergic neuron loss induced by neurotoxins. Using the 1-methyl 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model, we showed that several compounds are neuroprotective on dopaminergic neurons including estrogen, the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist PPT as well as the G protein-coupled membrane estrogen receptor (GPER1) specific agonist G1. Accumulating evidence suggests that GPER1 could be implicated in the neuroprotective effects of estrogen, raloxifene and G1 in collaboration with ERα. We recently reported that the 5α-reductase inhibitor Dutasteride is also neuroprotective and could bring an alternative to estrogens for therapy in male. Additional studies are needed to optimize therapies with these gonadal drugs into safe personalized treatments according to sex for treatment of PD. PMID:26708712

  2. Wage Equity and Female Faculty Job-Satisfaction: The Role of Wage Differentials in a Job Satisfaction Causal Model. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    This study examined the role of female/male wage differentials in a model of job satisfaction. It is based on data from 5,021 respondents to the 1989 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching national faculty survey. The model considers the interrelated effects of the calculated wage differential, stress, social perceptions of students,…

  3. Factor Structure and Reliability of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales' (CTS2) 10-Factor Model in a Community-Based Female Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Sung Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure and reliability of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales' (CTS2) 10-factor model in a community-based female sample (N = 261). The underlying factor structure of the 10-factor model was tested by the confirmatory multiple group factor analysis, which demonstrated complex factor cross-loadings…

  4. The ecological and evolutionary drivers of female-biased sex ratios: two-sex models of perennial seagrasses.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Andrew Olaf

    2010-03-01

    Among sexually reproducing species, differences between the sexes within species are ubiquitous. Despite the clear effect of sex differences on sex ratios and population growth rates, demographic models rarely consider both sexes explicitly. Here I explore the causes of extreme female-biased sex ratios in two marine angiosperms (Phyllospadix spp.). Using demographic data, I develop two-sex matrix projection models to assess the magnitude of demographic differences necessary to generate observed sex ratios and the consequences of sex differences for population growth rates. I demonstrate that small sex differences in survival can generate biased sex ratios, but the importance of sexual reproduction differs markedly between species. Even in the absence of a direct trade-off between sexual and asexual reproduction, the presence of two reproductive modes affects both the importance of sex and the sex-ratio bias. Using sensitivity analyses, I quantify the contribution of shared and sex-specific vital rates and show that until males become rare, the sensitivity of sex-specific vital rates is small relative to that of shared vital rates. I demonstrate that placing sex differences in the context of a demographic model that includes biologically motivated life-history trade-offs can explain the maintenance of sex-specific life histories and the persistence of skewed sex ratios. PMID:20109068

  5. Predictors of FIFA 11+ Implementation Intention in Female Adolescent Soccer: An Application of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model.

    PubMed

    McKay, Carly D; Merrett, Charlotte K; Emery, Carolyn A

    2016-01-01

    The Fédération Internationale de Football (FIFA) 11+ warm-up program is efficacious at preventing lower limb injury in youth soccer; however, there has been poor adoption of the program in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) behavior change model in predicting intention to use the FIFA 11+ in a sample of 12 youth soccer teams (coaches n = 10; 12-16 year old female players n = 200). A bespoke cross-sectional questionnaire measured pre-season risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, task self-efficacy, facilitators, barriers, and FIFA 11+ implementation intention. Most coaches (90.0%) and players (80.0%) expected the program to reduce injury risk but reported limited intention to use it. Player data demonstrated an acceptable fit to the hypothesized model (standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08; root mean square of error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06 (0.047-0.080); comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.93; Tucker Lewis index (TLI) = 0.91) Task self-efficacy (β = 0.53, p ≤ 0.01) and outcome expectancies (β = 0.13 p ≤ 0.05) were positively associated with intention, but risk perceptions were not (β = -0.02). The findings suggest that the HAPA model is appropriate for use in this context, and highlight the need to target task self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in FIFA 11+ implementation strategies. PMID:27399746

  6. Long-lasting beneficial effects of central serotonin receptor 7 stimulation in female mice modeling Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Chiodi, Valentina; Adriani, Walter; Lacivita, Enza; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Leopoldo, Marcello; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Fuso, Andrea; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R). This member of the serotonin receptor family-crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes-can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days) rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test), spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test) and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation) in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein (rp) S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to 2 months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R. PMID:25926782

  7. Long-lasting beneficial effects of central serotonin receptor 7 stimulation in female mice modeling Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Filippis, Bianca; Chiodi, Valentina; Adriani, Walter; Lacivita, Enza; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Leopoldo, Marcello; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Fuso, Andrea; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R). This member of the serotonin receptor family—crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes—can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days) rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test), spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test) and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation) in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein (rp) S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to 2 months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R. PMID:25926782

  8. An update on the cognitive impact of clinically-used hormone therapies in the female rat: models, mazes, and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, J.I.; Hiroi, R.; Camp, B.W.; Talboom, J.S.; Bimonte-Nelson, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    In women, ovarian hormone loss associated with menopause has been associated with cognitive decline. Hormone therapy (HT) may ameliorate some of these changes. Understanding the cognitive impact of female steroids, including estrogens, progestogens, and androgens, is key to discovering treatments that promote brain health in women. The preclinical literature has presented elegant and methodical experiments allowing a better understanding of parameters driving the cognitive consequences of ovarian hormone loss and HT. Animal models have been a valuable tool in this regard, and will be vital to future discoveries. Here, we provide an update on the literature evaluating the impact of female steroid hormones on cognition, and the putative mechanisms mediating these effects. We focus on preclinical work that was done with an eye toward clinical realities. Parameters that govern the cognitive efficacy of HT, from what we know thus far, include but are not limited to: type, dose, duration, and route of HT, age at HT initiation, timing of HT relative to ovarian hormone loss, memory type examined, menopause history, and hormone receptor status. Researchers have identified intricate relationships between some of these factors by studying their individual effects on cognition. As of late, there is increased focus on studying interactions between these variables as well as multiple hormone types when administered concomitantly. This is key to translating preclinical data to the clinic, wherein women typically have concurrent exposure to endogenous ovarian hormones as well as exogenous combination HTs, which include both estrogens and progestins. Gains in understanding the parameters of HT effects on cognition provide exciting novel avenues that can inform clinical treatments, eventually expanding the window of opportunity to optimally enhance cognition and brain health in aging women. PMID:23333453

  9. Utilizing the Health Belief Model to predicting female middle school students' behavioral intention of weight reduction by weight status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Weight reduction behavior is common among adolescent girls. The present study examined the status of weight reduction behavior and factors affecting the behavioral intention of weight reduction using the Health Belief Model (HBM) for female middle school students by weight category. Survey data was collected from three girl's middle schools in Gyeongju, Korea. A total of 299 female middle school students participated in this study. The questionnaire had questions about general characteristics, weight reduction behavior, and variables of HBM (perceived threat, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, and behavioral intention of weight reduction). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to analyze the variables. A higher percentage of students in the overweight group attempted weight reduction than those in the underweight and the normal weight groups (P < 0.001). Among students who had attempted weight reduction, 73% tried diet therapy, while 78% tried exercise. Students in the normal and overweight groups showed significantly higher threat (P < 0.01) and cues to action (P < 0.001) than those in the underweight group. As for perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, there were no significant differences among weight groups. Students in the overweight group showed the strongest intention of weight reduction and there were significant differences among the three weight groups (P < 0.001). Perceive threat (P < 0.01), cues to action (P < 0.001), and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were significantly associated to behavioral intention of weight reduction for all respondents. For the underweight group, perceived threat (P < 0.05) and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were the significant variables. For the overweight group, cue to action was the significant variable (P < 0.05). PMID:21994529

  10. Stress, Depression, and Coronary Artery Disease: Modeling Comorbidity in Female Primates

    PubMed Central

    Shively, Carol A.; Musselman, Dominique L.; Willard, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    Depression and coronary heart disease (CHD) are leading contributors to disease burden in women. CHD and depression are comorbid; whether they have common etiology or depression casues CHD is unclear. The underlying pathology of CHD, coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA), is present decades before CHD, and the temporal relationship between depression and CAA is unclear. The evidence of involvement of depression in early CAA in cynomolgus monkeys, an established model of CAA and depression, is summarized. Like people, monkeys may respond to the stress of low social status with depressive behavior accompanied by perturbations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), autonomic nervous system, lipid metabolism, ovarian, and neural serotonergic system function, all of which are associated with exacerbated CAA. The primate data are consistent with the hypothesis that depression may cause CAA, and also with the hypothesis that CAA and depression may be the result of social stress. More study is needed to discriminate between these two possibilities. The primate data paint a compelling picture of depression as a whole-body disease. PMID:18619999

  11. Metformin regulates ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development in a female polycystic ovary syndrome rat model.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; Pascuali, Natalia; Bas, Diana; Bianchi, María Silvia; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent pathology that affects more than 5% of women of reproductive age. Among other heterogeneous symptoms, PCOS is characterized by abnormalities in angiogenesis. Metformin has been introduced in the treatment of PCOS to manage insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Besides its metabolic effects, metformin has been shown to improve ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in PCOS patients. In the present study, we used a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced PCOS rat model to analyze the effect of metformin administration on ovarian angiogenesis. We found that metformin was able to restore the increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin (ANGPT)1, and ANGPT1/ANGPT2 ratio and the decreased levels of platelet-derived growth factor B and platelet-derived growth factor D observed in the dehydroepiandrosterone-treated rats. These effects could take place, at least in part, through a decrease in the levels of serum insulin. We also found an improvement in follicular development, with a lower percentage of small follicles and cysts and a higher percentage of antral follicles and corpora lutea after metformin administration. The improvement in ovarian angiogenesis is likely to restore the accumulation of small follicles observed in PCOS rats and to reduce cyst formation, thus improving follicular development and the percentage of corpora lutea. These results open new insights into the study of metformin action not only in glucose metabolism but also in ovarian dysfunction in PCOS women. PMID:25590243

  12. The different effects of LPS and poly I:C prenatal immune challenges on the behavior, development and inflammatory responses in pregnant mice and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Dany; St-Amour, Isabelle; Cisbani, Giulia; Rousseau, Louis-Simon; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, in vivo animal models of prenatal infection have been developed in an attempt to recreate behavioral and neuropathological features associated to a number of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, these models are still in their emerging phase and a better understanding of how these types of infections relate to adult-onset of brain-related disorders is needed. Here, we undertook an extensive behavioral characterization of both pregnant females and their pups following late gestational exposure (from gestational days (GD) 15-17) to either lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 120μg/kg i.p.) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C; 5mg/kg i.v.). We observed that both LPS and poly I:C treatments produced anxiety-like behaviors in treated pregnant females, although to a lesser extent with LPS. LPS injections, but not poly I:C, led to reduced food intake and consequently decreased weight gain in pregnant dams. In pups, poly I:C treatments triggered a delay in growth and sensorimotor development, as evaluated by righting, geotaxis and grasping reflexes. At the cellular level, both toxins induced an initial inflammatory response while only LPS reduced the expression of brain cell markers in foetuses (GFAP and NeuN), which was no longer observable at postnatal day (PnD) 10. Higher levels of IL-2, IL-5 and IL-6 in plasma and an upregulation of the metabotropic receptor 5 (mGluR5) in foetal brains of 10-day-old offspring prenatally exposed to poly I:C was also observed. Interestingly, the increased mGluR5 expression correlated with impairments of the righting reflex. This study is the first to directly compare reflex development following LPS and poly I:C prenatal immune challenges in mice and sheds light onto the different patterns of behavior and pathology in dams and their offspring. PMID:24384468

  13. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    PubMed

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-04-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world's population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential. PMID:27134703

  14. Housing of pregnant rats in metabolism cages: maternal and developmental effects.

    PubMed

    Bosque, M A; Domingo, J L; Corbella, J

    1994-10-01

    The influence of the caging conditions on maternal and gestational variables was assessed for pregnant rats housed individually in two cage types. Plug-positive Sprague-Dawley females were caged either in Makrolon or in metabolism (Tecniplast) cages, and were not disturbed throughout all the gestational period. Cesarean sections were performed on gestation day 20. All live fetuses were examined for external, internal, and skeletal malformations and variations. Pregnant rats were affected by the housing system, as evidenced by a significant weight loss and reduced food consumption in the animals housed in metabolism cages. A moderate increase in the number of total skeletal defects was also observed in the fetuses of dams housed in metabolism cages. An important implication of these results would be that in maternal and developmental toxicity studies of xenobiotics, pregnant animals should not be housed in metabolism cages. PMID:7894240

  15. Organ dose conversion coefficients for voxel models of the reference male and female from idealized photon exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlattl, H.; Zankl, M.; Petoussi-Henss, N.

    2007-04-01

    A new series of organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients for whole body external photon exposure is presented for a standardized couple of human voxel models, called Rex and Regina. Irradiations from broad parallel beams in antero-posterior, postero-anterior, left- and right-side lateral directions as well as from a 360° rotational source have been performed numerically by the Monte Carlo transport code EGSnrc. Dose conversion coefficients from an isotropically distributed source were computed, too. The voxel models Rex and Regina originating from real patient CT data comply in body and organ dimensions with the currently valid reference values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the average Caucasian man and woman, respectively. While the equivalent dose conversion coefficients of many organs are in quite good agreement with the reference values of ICRP Publication 74, for some organs and certain geometries the discrepancies amount to 30% or more. Differences between the sexes are of the same order with mostly higher dose conversion coefficients in the smaller female model. However, much smaller deviations from the ICRP values are observed for the resulting effective dose conversion coefficients. With the still valid definition for the effective dose (ICRP Publication 60), the greatest change appears in lateral exposures with a decrease in the new models of at most 9%. However, when the modified definition of the effective dose as suggested by an ICRP draft is applied, the largest deviation from the current reference values is obtained in postero-anterior geometry with a reduction of the effective dose conversion coefficient by at most 12%.

  16. Organ dose conversion coefficients for voxel models of the reference male and female from idealized photon exposures.

    PubMed

    Schlattl, H; Zankl, M; Petoussi-Henss, N

    2007-04-21

    A new series of organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients for whole body external photon exposure is presented for a standardized couple of human voxel models, called Rex and Regina. Irradiations from broad parallel beams in antero-posterior, postero-anterior, left- and right-side lateral directions as well as from a 360 degrees rotational source have been performed numerically by the Monte Carlo transport code EGSnrc. Dose conversion coefficients from an isotropically distributed source were computed, too. The voxel models Rex and Regina originating from real patient CT data comply in body and organ dimensions with the currently valid reference values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the average Caucasian man and woman, respectively. While the equivalent dose conversion coefficients of many organs are in quite good agreement with the reference values of ICRP Publication 74, for some organs and certain geometries the discrepancies amount to 30% or more. Differences between the sexes are of the same order with mostly higher dose conversion coefficients in the smaller female model. However, much smaller deviations from the ICRP values are observed for the resulting effective dose conversion coefficients. With the still valid definition for the effective dose (ICRP Publication 60), the greatest change appears in lateral exposures with a decrease in the new models of at most 9%. However, when the modified definition of the effective dose as suggested by an ICRP draft is applied, the largest deviation from the current reference values is obtained in postero-anterior geometry with a reduction of the effective dose conversion coefficient by at most 12%. PMID:17404459

  17. A female pelvic bone shape model for air/bone separation in support of synthetic CT generation for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianli; Cao, Yue; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Jolly, Shruti; Balter, James M

    2016-01-01

    Separating bone from air in MR data is one of the major challenges in using MR images to derive synthetic CT. The problem is further complicated when the anatomic regions filled with air are altered across scans due to air mobility, for instance, in pelvic regions, thereby the air regions estimated using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence are invalid in other image series acquired for multispectral classification. This study aims to develop and investigate a female pelvic bone shape model to identify low intensity regions in MRI where air is unlikely to be present in support of synthetic CT generation without UTE imaging. CT scans of 30 patients were collected for the study, 17 of them also have corresponding MR scans. The shape model was built from the CT dataset, where the reference image was aligned to each of the training images using B-spline deformable registration. Principal component analysis was performed on B-spline coefficients for a compact model where shape variance was described by linear combination of principal modes. The model was applied to identify pelvic bone in MR images by deforming the corresponding MR data of the reference image to target MR images, where the search space of the deformation process was constrained within the subspace spanned by principal modes. The local minima in the search space were removed effectively by the shape model, thus supporting an efficient binary search for the optimal solution. We evaluated the model by its efficacy in identifying bone voxels and excluding air regions. The model was tested across the 17 patients that have corresponding MR scans using a leave-one-out cross validation. A simple model using the first leading principal mode only was found to achieve reasonable accuracy, where an averaged 87% of bone voxels were correctly identified. Finally dilation of the optimally fit bone mask by 5 mm was found to cover 96% of bone voxels while minimally impacting the overlap with air (below 0.4%). PMID

  18. Effects of local anesthetics on contractions of pregnant and non-pregnant rat myometrium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jin-Song; Jin, Zhe-Bin; Yin, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Qiang-Min; Chen, Ji-Qiang; Li, Zi-Gang; Tang, Hui-Fang

    2014-06-01

    In order to determine whether local anesthetics directly affect the propagation and strength of myometrial contractions, we compared the effects of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine and tetracaine on the contractions of myometrium isolated from pregnant and non-pregnant rats. Full-thickness myometrial strips were obtained from 18- to 21-day pregnant and non-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and incubated in an organ bath. When spontaneous contractions became regular, strips were exposed to cumulative concentrations of the four local anesthetics ranging from 0.01 to 300 μmol/L and the amplitude and frequency of contraction were recorded. All four compounds caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the contractility of pregnant and non-pregnant uterine muscle. In pregnant myometrium, the concentration that caused 50% inhibition (IC(50)) was 100 μmol/L for bupivacaine, 157 μmol/L for ropivacaine, > 1000 μmol/L for lidocaine, and 26.3 μmol/L for tetracaine. In non-pregnant myometrium, the IC(50) was 26.9 μmol/L for bupivacaine, 40 μmol/L for ropivacaine, 384 μmol/L for lidocaine, and 7.4 μmol/L for tetracaine. These results suggested that local anesthetics do inhibit myometrial contractions in pregnant and non-pregnant rats in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:24901082

  19. Vascular dysfunction in the offspring of AT1 receptor antibody-positive pregnant rats during high-salt diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Su-Li; Xiong, Hai-Yan; DU, Yun-Hui; Quan, Lin; Yang, Jie; Ma, Xiu-Rui; Liu, Hui-Rong

    2011-04-25

    Antibody against the angiotensin AT1 receptor (AT1-Ab) could disturb placental development. The placenta is the key organ between mother and fetus. Placental damage will seriously impair fetal growth and development in utero, leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Based on the fetal origins of adult disease (FOAD) hypothesis, IUGR could increase a propensity to develop adult onset cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study was designed to determine whether vascular function has changed in the adult offspring of AT1-Ab positive pregnant rats. Twenty four female rats (8-week-old, AT1-Ab negative) were randomly divided into two groups, immunized and vehicle groups. Immunized group received active immunization to establish AT1-Ab-positive model, while vehicle group was subjected to Freund's adjuvant without antigen. After 8 weeks of immunization, the antibody titers in sera from the female rats were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then all the female rats were mated with normal Wistar male rats and became pregnant. Immunized/vehicle group offspring rats (I offspring/V offspring) were raised to 40-week-old under standard chow feeding. Then the two groups' offspring rats were given a high-salt diet for 12 weeks (4% NaCl in chow feeding). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured dynamically by noninvasive blood pressure system. The vascular ring experiment was performed to detect vascular function and reactivity. As detected by ELISA, the titers of antibody peaked at the 8th week (OD values: 2.75 ± 0.08 vs 0.33 ± 0.01, P < 0.01 vs vehicle group at the same time point). There was no significant difference of SBP between the two groups' offspring rats during the high-salt diet (P > 0.05). Isolated thoracic aortic rings of I offspring had significantly decreased constriction under norepinephrine treatment (P < 0.01 vs V offspring) and significantly decreased dilation under acetylcholine treatment (P < 0.05 vs V offspring). These

  20. The low prevalence of female smoking in the developing world: gender inequality or maternal adaptations for fetal protection?

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Edward H.; Garfield, Melissa J.; Sullivan, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female smoking prevalence is dramatically lower in developing countries (3.1%) than developed countries (17.2%), whereas male smoking is similar (32% vs 30.1%). Low female smoking has been linked to high gender inequality. Alternatively, to protect their offspring from teratogenic substances, pregnant and lactating women appear to have evolved aversions to toxic plant substances like nicotine, which are reinforced by cultural proscriptions. Higher total fertility rates (TFRs) in developing countries could therefore explain their lower prevalence of female smoking. Objective: To compare the associations of TFR and gender inequality with national prevalence rates of female and male smoking. Methods: Data from a previous study of smoking prevalence vs gender inequality in 74 countries were reanalysed with a regression model that also included TFR. We replicated this analysis with three additional measures of gender equality and 2012 smoking data from 173 countries. Results: A 1 SD increase in TFR predicted a decrease in female smoking prevalence by factors of 0.58–0.77, adjusting for covariates. TFR had a smaller and unexpected negative association with male smoking prevalence. Increased gender equality was associated with increased female smoking prevalence, and, unexpectedly, with decreased male smoking prevalence. TFR was also associated with an increase in smoking prevalence among postmenopausal women. Conclusions: High TFR and gender inequality both predict reduced prevalence of female smoking across nations. In countries with high TFR, adaptations and cultural norms that protect fetuses from plant toxins might suppress smoking among frequently pregnant and lactating women. PMID:27193200

  1. Potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Bangalore, India: a mathematical modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kate M; Prudden, Holly J; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Rajaram, Subramanian P; Foss, Anna M; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Bangalore, new HIV infections of female sex workers and men who have sex with men continue to occur, despite high condom use. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high anti-HIV efficacy for men who have sex with men. PrEP demonstration projects are underway amongst Indian female sex workers. We estimated the impact and efficiency of prioritizing PrEP to female sex workers and/or men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Methods A mathematical model of HIV transmission and treatment for female sex workers, clients, men who have sex with men and low-risk groups was parameterized and fitted to Bangalore data. The proportion of transmission attributable (population attributable fraction) to commercial sex and sex between men was calculated. PrEP impact (infections averted, life-years gained) and efficiency (life-years gained/infections averted per 100 person-years on PrEP) were estimated for different levels of PrEP adherence, coverage and prioritization strategies (female sex workers, high-risk men who have sex with men, both female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men, or female sex workers with lower condom use), under current conditions and in a scenario with lower baseline condom use amongst key populations. Results Population attributable fractions for commercial sex and sex between men have declined over time, and they are predicted to account for 19% of all new infections between 2016 and 2025. PrEP could prevent a substantial proportion of infections amongst female sex workers and men who have sex with men in this setting (23%/27% over 5/10 years, with 60% coverage and 50% adherence), which could avert 2.9%/4.3% of infections over 5/10 years in the whole Bangalore population. Impact and efficiency in the whole population was greater if female sex workers were prioritized. Efficiency increased, but impact decreased, if only female sex workers with lower condom use were given PrEP. Greater impact and efficiency was predicted for the

  2. Deficits in odor-guided behaviors in the transgenic 3xTg-AD female mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Coronas-Sámano, G; Portillo, W; Beltrán Campos, V; Medina-Aguirre, G I; Paredes, R G; Diaz-Cintra, S

    2014-07-14

    Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) is characterized by a number of alterations including those in cognition and olfaction. An early symptom of AD is decreased olfactory ability, which may affect odor-guided behaviors. To test this possibility we evaluated alterations in sexual incentive motivation, sexual olfactory preference, sexual olfactory discrimination, nursing-relevant olfactory preference and olfactory discrimination in female mice. We tested 3xTg-AD (a triple transgenic model, which is a "knock in" of PS1M146V, APPSwe, and tauP300L) and wild type (WT) female mice when receptive (estrous) and non-receptive (anestrous). Subjects were divided into three groups of different ages: (1) 4-5 months, (2) 10-11 months, and (3) 16-18 months. In the sexual incentive motivation task, the receptive 3xTg-AD females showed no preference for a sexually active male at any age studied, in contrast to the WT females. In the sexual olfactory preference test, the receptive WT females were able to identify sexually active male secretions at all ages, but the oldest (16-18 months old) 3xTg-AD females could not. In addition, the oldest 3xTg-AD females showed no preference for nursing-relevant odors in dam secretions and were unable to discriminate between cinnamon and strawberry odors, indicating olfactory alterations. Thus, the present study suggests that the olfactory deficits in this mouse model are associated with changes in sexual incentive motivation and discrimination of food-related odors. PMID:24842003

  3. Predictors of FIFA 11+ Implementation Intention in Female Adolescent Soccer: An Application of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Carly D.; Merrett, Charlotte K.; Emery, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    The Fédération Internationale de Football (FIFA) 11+ warm-up program is efficacious at preventing lower limb injury in youth soccer; however, there has been poor adoption of the program in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) behavior change model in predicting intention to use the FIFA 11+ in a sample of 12 youth soccer teams (coaches n = 10; 12–16 year old female players n = 200). A bespoke cross-sectional questionnaire measured pre-season risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, task self-efficacy, facilitators, barriers, and FIFA 11+ implementation intention. Most coaches (90.0%) and players (80.0%) expected the program to reduce injury risk but reported limited intention to use it. Player data demonstrated an acceptable fit to the hypothesized model (standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08; root mean square of error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06 (0.047–0.080); comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.93; Tucker Lewis index (TLI) = 0.91) Task self-efficacy (β = 0.53, p ≤ 0.01) and outcome expectancies (β = 0.13 p ≤ 0.05) were positively associated with intention, but risk perceptions were not (β = −0.02). The findings suggest that the HAPA model is appropriate for use in this context, and highlight the need to target task self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in FIFA 11+ implementation strategies. PMID:27399746

  4. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Voegtline, Kristin M.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Methods Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n = 47) and 36 weeks (n = 45) gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. Results As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10 s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30 s following stimulation. Conclusion Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. PMID:24119937

  5. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  6. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  7. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182

  8. Nutrition education based on health belief model improves dietary calcium intake among female students of junior high schools.

    PubMed

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students. PMID:25395905

  9. Factors for performing breast and cervix cancer screening by Iranian female workers: a qualitative-model study.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Zohreh; Simbar, Masroumeh; Ramezankhani, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancers impose large costs on society. Performing breast and cervical cancer screening tests (BCCST), considered as a health promotion behavior, is therefore important. This qualitative study based on the "integrated model of planned behavior and self-efficacy (PBSEIM)" was conducted to assess influencing factors. A total of seventy female workers aged between 20-45 years from Tehran suburban factories were recruited by purposeful sampling to participate in ten focus group discussions. Data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. The majority had an appropriate attitude toward BCCST, stressing the importance of family' s especially husband' s encouragement as the subjective norm. Low knowledge, depression, fatigue, shyness and fear of examination and diagnosis of cancer, poor quality of services and financial barriers were mentioned as effective negative factors. The majority reported low self efficacy for planning to perform the behavior and had no intention to undergo screening in the next three months. So interventions are necessary to overcome effective barriers and improve women's health. PMID:22126491

  10. Inhibitory Effect of the Noncamptothecin Topoisomerase I Inhibitor LMP-400 on Female Mice Models and Human Pheochromocytoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Schovanek, Jan; Bullova, Petra; Tayem, Yasin; Giubellino, Alessio; Wesley, Robert; Lendvai, Nikoletta; Nölting, Svenja; Kopacek, Juraj; Frysak, Zdenek; Pommier, Yves; Kummar, Shivaani; Pacak, Karel

    2015-11-01

    Metastatic pheochromocytoma continues to be an incurable disease, and treatment with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy offers limited efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor, LMP-400, as a potential treatment for this devastating disease. We found a high expression of topoisomerase I in human metastatic pheochromocytoma, providing a basis for the evaluation of a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor as a therapeutic strategy. LMP-400 inhibited the cell growth of established mouse pheochromocytoma cell lines and primary human tumor tissue cultures. In a study performed in athymic female mice, LMP-400 demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth with two drug administration regimens. Furthermore, low doses of LMP-400 decreased the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α), one of a family of factors studied as potential metastatic drivers in these tumors. The HIF-1α decrease resulted in changes in the mRNA levels of HIF-1 transcriptional targets. In vitro, LMP-400 showed an increase in the growth-inhibitory effects in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs that are currently used for the treatment of pheochromocytoma. We conclude that LMP-400 has promising antitumor activity in preclinical models of metastatic pheochromocytoma and its use should be considered in future clinical trials. PMID:26267380

  11. A model for autumn pelagic distribution of adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Seas, 1987-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    We made predictions of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) autumn distribution in the Chukchi Sea with a Resource Selection Function (RSF) developed from 1198 satellite radio-collar locations on 124 adult female polar bears, 1987 – 1994. The RSF was created to assist in an aerial survey design for polar bears proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The RSF was based on bathymetry and daily sea ice covariates extracted from passive microwave satellite imagery within the pelagic region > 25 km from shore. The RSF indicated that polar bears selected habitats with intermediate amounts (~50%) of ice cover in close proximity to higher ice concentrations, and over relatively shallow waters. The RSF showed good predictive abilities for the years of its construct, worked best in October, and was robust to inter-annual variability. When evaluated with recent (1997 – 2005) data, the RSF performed well for October and November but poorly in September. This loss of predictive abilities appeared to be related to recent changes in habitat due to longer melt seasons and younger sea ice, and testing the retrospective model with a small sample of recent polar bears locations from a limited region of the Chukchi Sea. Contemporary applications of this RSF must consider three factors that could limit its utility: 1) 2 different sea ice phenology; 2) distributions of males and sub-adults; and 3) occupancy in nearshore habitats.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Secretome from a Model Filarial Nematode (Litomosoides sigmodontis) Reveals Maximal Diversity in Gravid Female Parasites*

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Stuart D.; Babayan, Simon A.; Lhermitte-Vallarino, Nathaly; Gray, Nick; Xia, Dong; Martin, Coralie; Kumar, Sujai; Taylor, David W.; Blaxter, Mark L.; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Makepeace, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Filarial nematodes (superfamily Filarioidea) are responsible for an annual global health burden of ∼6.3 million disability-adjusted life-years, which represents the greatest single component of morbidity attributable to helminths affecting humans. No vaccine exists for the major filarial diseases, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis; in part because research on protective immunity against filariae has been constrained by the inability of the human-parasitic species to complete their lifecycles in laboratory mice. However, the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis has become a popular experimental model, as BALB/c mice are fully permissive for its development and reproduction. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of excretory-secretory products from L. sigmodontis across five lifecycle stages and identifications of host proteins associated with first-stage larvae (microfilariae) in the blood. Applying intensity-based quantification, we determined the abundance of 302 unique excretory-secretory proteins, of which 64.6% were present in quantifiable amounts only from gravid adult female nematodes. This lifecycle stage, together with immature microfilariae, released four proteins that have not previously been evaluated as vaccine candidates: a predicted 28.5 kDa filaria-specific protein, a zonadhesin and SCO-spondin-like protein, a vitellogenin, and a protein containing six metridin-like ShK toxin domains. Female nematodes also released two proteins derived from the obligate Wolbachia symbiont. Notably, excretory-secretory products from all parasite stages contained several uncharacterized members of the transthyretin-like protein family. Furthermore, biotin labeling revealed that redox proteins and enzymes involved in purinergic signaling were enriched on the adult nematode cuticle. Comparison of the L. sigmodontis adult secretome with that of the human-infective filarial nematode Brugia malayi (reported previously in three independent published studies

  13. Comparative analysis of the secretome from a model filarial nematode (Litomosoides sigmodontis) reveals maximal diversity in gravid female parasites.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart D; Babayan, Simon A; Lhermitte-Vallarino, Nathaly; Gray, Nick; Xia, Dong; Martin, Coralie; Kumar, Sujai; Taylor, David W; Blaxter, Mark L; Wastling, Jonathan M; Makepeace, Benjamin L

    2014-10-01

    Filarial nematodes (superfamily Filarioidea) are responsible for an annual global health burden of ∼6.3 million disability-adjusted life-years, which represents the greatest single component of morbidity attributable to helminths affecting humans. No vaccine exists for the major filarial diseases, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis; in part because research on protective immunity against filariae has been constrained by the inability of the human-parasitic species to complete their lifecycles in laboratory mice. However, the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis has become a popular experimental model, as BALB/c mice are fully permissive for its development and reproduction. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of excretory-secretory products from L. sigmodontis across five lifecycle stages and identifications of host proteins associated with first-stage larvae (microfilariae) in the blood. Applying intensity-based quantification, we determined the abundance of 302 unique excretory-secretory proteins, of which 64.6% were present in quantifiable amounts only from gravid adult female nematodes. This lifecycle stage, together with immature microfilariae, released four proteins that have not previously been evaluated as vaccine candidates: a predicted 28.5 kDa filaria-specific protein, a zonadhesin and SCO-spondin-like protein, a vitellogenin, and a protein containing six metridin-like ShK toxin domains. Female nematodes also released two proteins derived from the obligate Wolbachia symbiont. Notably, excretory-secretory products from all parasite stages contained several uncharacterized members of the transthyretin-like protein family. Furthermore, biotin labeling revealed that redox proteins and enzymes involved in purinergic signaling were enriched on the adult nematode cuticle. Comparison of the L. sigmodontis adult secretome with that of the human-infective filarial nematode Brugia malayi (reported previously in three independent published studies

  14. Computational Modeling of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis to Predict Adaptive Responses in Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to an Aromatase Inhibitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose response and time-course...

  15. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... on eating seafood while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Learn more from the link below. Check with ... or concern. Food safety advice while you are breastfeeding your baby: Follow the food safety advice for ...

  16. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  17. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... shot. Top of Page Can pregnant women with egg allergies get vaccinated? Most people who have an ... reaction following a flu shot. Special Consideration Regarding Egg Allergy The recommendations for vaccination of people with ...

  18. Profile: Pregnant Teens Who Choose Childbirth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulvedal, Susan K.; Feeg, Veronica D.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristics of pregnant students attending the Family Center, an alternative educational program in Arlington County, Virginia, are described. Investigated are variables such as family configuration and relationships, substance use, special problems, and outcome of pregnancy. (CJ)

  19. Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160106.html Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works Nicotine patches, Zyban helped 4 out of 5 ... cessation programs implemented in the general population." Zyban works by reducing nicotine cravings and other withdrawal effects. ...

  20. Counselor Values and the Pregnant Adolescent Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Bebe C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews options counselors can suggest to pregnant adolescents, including abortion, adoption, marriage, and single parenthood. Discusses the need for counselors to be aware of their own values and help the client explore her values. (JAC)

  1. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the ...

  2. Steps to take before you get pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... in pregnancy. Stop Smoking, Alcohol, and Drugs. Limit Caffeine If you smoke, drink alcohol, or use drugs, ... your life. You should also cut down on caffeine when you are trying to get pregnant. Women ...

  3. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 2, 2016 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  4. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  5. Cancer treatment in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Basta, Pawel; Bak, Anna; Roszkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    In general, strategies for the treatment of cancer in pregnancy should not differ significantly from the treatment regimens in non-pregnant women. However, this is difficult due to either the effects of anticancer drugs on the developing foetus or the possibility of long-term complications after the exposure to drugs and radiation. The decision about the introduction and continuation of treatment in the event of pregnancy should be preceded by a detailed analysis of the potential benefits and risks. There are no data to suggest that pregnancy termination alters the biological behaviour of the tumour or patient prognosis in the presence of appropriate antineoplastic therapy. All patients should be given appropriate advice and informed that there are insufficient scientific data to determine any generally accepted consensus. It is very important to always respect the will of the patient, and the moral judgment of the physician should have no impact on the decisions taken by the woman. If the woman decides to undergo active treatment and maintain her pregnancy, it is necessary to carry out consultations with experts in the field appropriate to the type of cancer. This paper presents a basic review of the literature on the targeted therapies currently used in selected cancers diagnosed during pregnancy: breast cancer, cervical cancer, Hodgkin's disease, melanoma, thyroid cancer, ovarian cancer, and colorectal cancer. PMID:26793018

  6. Stability of the Acetic Acid-Induced Bladder Irritation Model in Alpha Chloralose-Anesthetized Female Cats

    PubMed Central

    Kullmann, F. Aura; Wells, Grace I.; Langdale, Christopher L.; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B.

    2013-01-01

    Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min “quiet period” (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function. PMID:24040064

  7. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, F Aura; Wells, Grace I; Langdale, Christopher L; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B

    2013-01-01

    Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8(th). Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function. PMID:24040064

  8. Ultrasonic vocalizations during male-female interaction in the mouse model of Down syndrome Ts65Dn.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Bruna L; Fernandez, Fabian; Pearson, Jennifer N; Stasko, Melissa R; Costa, Alberto C S

    2014-04-10

    Down syndrome (DS) is the leading cause of genetically defined intellectual disability. Although speech and language impairments are salient features of this disorder, the nature of these phenotypes and the degree to which they are exacerbated by concomitant oromotor dysfunction and/or hearing deficit are poorly understood. Mouse models like Ts65Dn, the most extensively used DS animal model, have been critical to understanding the genetic and developmental mechanisms that contribute to intellectual disability. In the present study, we characterized the properties of the ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by Ts65Dn males during courtship episodes with female partners. USVs emitted by mice in this setting have been proposed to have some basic correlation to human speech. Data were collected and analyzed from 22 Ts65Dn mice and 22 of their euploid littermates. We found that both the minimum and maximum peak frequencies of Ts65Dn calls were lower than those produced by euploid mice, whereas the mean individual duration of "down" and "complex" syllable types was significantly longer. Peak, minimal and maximal, and the fundamental frequencies of short syllables generated by Ts65Dn mice were lower compared to those by euploid mice. Finally, Ts65Dn males made fewer multiple jumps calls during courtship and the mean total duration of their "arc", "u", and "complex" syllables was longer. We discuss the human correlates to these findings, their translational potential, and the limitations of this approach. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of differences between adult Ts65Dn and euploid control mice with respect to USVs. PMID:24534182

  9. Noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure control in normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Margulies, M; Zin, C; Margulies, N D; Voto, L S

    1989-12-01

    Twenty-four hour noninvasive, automatic and ambulatory control of blood pressure (BP) was carried out on 11 normotensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with a Del Mar Avionics Model 1978 Pressurometer III System at 7.5 min intervals during 24 h. The patients kept a detailed record of their activities during those 24 h. BP increased from 9 AM to a peak between 7 and 10 PM. Mean (+/- SD) waking and sleeping values were 110.56 +/- 6.68 mm Hg and 96.5 +/- 10.01 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic BP, and 71.41 +/- 5.35 mm Hg and 62.82 +/- 5.47 mm Hg, respectively, for diastolic BP. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between sleeping hours and waking hours. We believe that 24-h control of BP behavior in normotensive pregnant women allows us to adequately diagnose hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:2610998

  10. Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Methods Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2α receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Results Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P < 0.05), endothelial/pericyte and luteal cell proliferation on day 10 and 14 (p < 0.05), apoptotic cell numbers on day 19 (p < 0.05) and the expression of Flk-1 and VEGF on day 14 and 19, respectively (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroidism increased the expression of COX-2 on day 19 (P < 0.05) and the proliferative activity of endothelial/pericytes cells on day 14 (p <0.05), as well as the expression of VEGF and Flk-1 on day 19 (P < 0.05). Conclusions Hypothyroidism reduces the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2in the corpus luteum of pregnant rats, contrary to what is observed in hyperthyroid animals, being this effect dependent of the gestational period. PMID:25298361

  11. Model-Based Analysis of Unbound Lopinavir Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Supports Standard Dosing in the Third Trimester.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Malone, S; Prince, Hma; Patterson, K B; Dumond, J B

    2016-03-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy can affect drug pharmacokinetics. Here we present a population pharmacokinetic model to describe the longitudinal change of unbound lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) PK parameters with gestational age, and to predict unbound LPV concentrations under different dosing regimens. The changes in apparent intrinsic clearances of LPV and RTV during pregnancy are described using an exponential function of gestational age. The unbound fractions of LPV/RTV are not significantly different between pregnancy and postpartum. Simulation reveals that despite increases in LPV intrinsic clearance, effective LPV inhibitory quotient (IQ) values are predicted with the standard dosing (400/100 mg b.i.d.) in >90% of simulations, with ≤4-fold increase in viral IC50. As viral susceptibility decreases, higher doses increase the likelihood of efficacy. With ≥40-fold increases in IC50, IQs suggest alternate regimens be considered. This approach refines previous LPV PK reports, and supports that standard dosing is effective with susceptible virus. PMID:27069778

  12. Unit: Males and Females, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of an Australian Science Education Project unit entitled Males and Females. Materials provided consist of a teacher's edition of the written materials, a student record book, and seven large black and white photographs showing various stages in the dissection of a pregnant rat. This unit has been written to help…

  13. Vaccines in pregnancy: The dual benefit for pregnant women and infants.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H; McMillan, M; Andrews, R M; Macartney, K; Edwards, K

    2016-04-01

    Maternal immunization has the potential to reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the pregnant woman and her infant. Many countries now recommend immunization against influenza at any stage of pregnancy and against pertussis in the third trimester. Despite evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these vaccines when administered during pregnancy, uptake generally remains low for influenza and moderate for pertussis vaccine. Enhancing confidence in both immunization providers and pregnant women by increasing the evidence-base for the safety and effectiveness of vaccines during pregnancy, improving communication and access by incorporating immunization into standard models of antenatal care are likely to improve uptake. Developing a framework for implementation of vaccines for pregnant women which is cognizant of local and national cultural, epidemiological, behavioral and societal factors will enable a smooth transition and high uptake for new vaccines currently in development for pregnant women. PMID:26857450

  14. Interplay between Endometriosis and Pregnancy in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bilotas, Mariela Andrea; Olivares, Carla Noemí; Ricci, Analía Gabriela; Baston, Juan Ignacio; Bengochea, Tatiana Soledad; Meresman, Gabriela Fabiana; Barañao, Rosa Inés

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of endometriosis on fertility and the levels of the IL-2 and IFN-γ in the peritoneal fluid in a mouse model; to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on endometriotic lesion growth, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Study Design Two month old C57BL/6 female mice underwent either a surgical procedure to induce endometriosis or a sham surgery. Four weeks after surgery mice were mated and sacrificed at day 18 of pregnancy. Number of implantation sites, fetuses and fetal weight were recorded. Endometriotic lesions were counted, measured, excised and fixed. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were evaluated in lesions by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry for PCNA respectively. Levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were assessed by ELISA in the peritoneal fluid. Results Pregnancy rate (i.e. pregnant mice/N) decreased in mice with endometriosis. However there were no significant differences in resorption rate, litter size and pup weight between groups. IFN-γ augmented in endometriosis mice independently of pregnancy outcome. Additionally IFN-γ increased in pregnant endometriosis mice compared to pregnant sham animals. While IFN-γ increased in non pregnant versus pregnant mice in the sham group, IL-2 was increased in non pregnant mice in the endometriosis group. The size of endometriotic lesions increased in pregnant mice while apoptosis increased in the stroma and cell proliferation decreased in the epithelium of these lesions. Additionally, leukocyte infiltration, necrosis and decidualization were increased in the same lesions. Conclusions Pregnancy rate is reduced in this mouse model of endometriosis. Levels of IL-2 are increased in the peritoneal fluid of mice with endometriosis suggesting a role of this cytokine in infertility related to this disease. The size of endometriotic lesions is increased in pregnant mice; however pregnancy has a beneficial effect on lesions by decreasing cell proliferation and by increasing apoptosis, decidualization and

  15. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1985-05-01

    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts.

  16. Determinants of female dispersal in Thomas langurs.

    PubMed

    Sterck, E H

    1997-01-01

    Female dispersal occurs in a number of primate species. It may be related to: avoidance of inbreeding, reduction in food competition, reduction of predation risk, or avoidance of infanticide in combination with mate choice. Female dispersal was studied for a 5-year period in a wild population of Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) that lived in one-male multi-female groups. Juvenile and adult individuals of both sexes were seen to disperse. Females appeared to transfer unhindered between groups, mostly from a larger group to a recently formed smaller one. They transferred without their infants and when not pregnant, and seemed to transfer preferentially during periods when extra-group males were harassing their group. During these inter-group encounters extra-group males seemed to try to commit infanticide. Thus, the timing of female transfer was probably closely linked to infanticide avoidance. Moreover, females seemed to transfer when the resident male of their group was no longer a good protector. The observations in the present study suggest that females transferred to reduce the risk of infanticide. Female dispersal may have another ultimate advantage as well, namely inbreeding avoidance. Due to the dispersal of both females and males the social organization of Thomas langurs was rather fluid. New groups were formed when females joined a male; male takeovers were not observed. Bisexual groups had only a limited life span, because all adult females of a bisexual group could emigrate. This pattern of unhindered female dispersal affects male reproductive strategies, and in particular it might lead to infanticidal behavior during inter-group encounters. PMID:9209584

  17. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in undergraduate university female students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, M M; Al-Sheyab, N A; Bani Salman, A E; Lafi, S Q

    2015-07-01

    This study estimated the seroprevalence and risk factors for acquiring Toxoplasma gondii infection by undergraduate female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional study from September 2013 to July 2014 analysed 202 blood samples for IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a semi-constructed questionnaire was completed by participants to gather information about Toxoplasma infection risk factors. T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 66.5% of the females. Only one sample was positive for both IgG and IgM. Using χ2 test, six factors showed significant association with T. gondii infection (P ⩽ 0.01). The multivariate logistic regression model showed that female students living in houses, wet areas, with income >US $750/month and using spring (untreated) water were 47.42, 10.20, 5.00, 3.25 more times at risk to be seropositive for T. gondii, respectively, compared to female students living in apartments, dry areas, with income ≤ US $750/month and using treated water, respectively. This study concluded that T. gondii infection in female university students in Jordan is high and most women become infected before marriage; however, congenital toxoplasmosis is still likely to occur in Jordan. Thus, dissemination of protective measures and knowledge by healthcare professionals is essential especially for pregnant women. PMID:25543692

  18. Mapping of photon distribution and imaging of MR-derived anatomically accurate optical models of the female breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, San-Lian S.; Barbour, Randall L.; Koo, Ping C.; Graber, Harry L.; Chang, Jenghwa

    1995-05-01

    We have computed optical images of the female breast based on analysis of tomographic data obtained from simulated time-independent optical measurements of anatomically accurate maps derived from segmented 3D magnetic resonance (MR) images. Images were segmented according to the measured MR contrast levels for fat and parenchymal tissue from T1 weighted acquisitions. Computed images were obtained from analysis of solutions to the forward problem for breasts containing 'added pathologies', representing tumors, to breasts lacking these inclusions. Both breast size and its optical properties have been examined in tissue. In each case, two small simulated tumors were 'added' to the background issue. Values of absorption and scattering coefficients of the tumors have been examined that are both greater and less than the surrounding tissue. Detector responses and the required imaging operators were computed by numerically solving the diffusion equation for inhomogeneous media. Detectors were distributed uniformly, in a circular fashion, around the breast in a plane positioned parallel and half-way between the chest wall and the nipple. A total of 20 sources were used, and for each 20 detectors. Reconstructed images were obtained by solving a linear perturbation equation derived from transport theory. Three algorithms were tested to solve the perturbation equation and include, the methods of conjugate gradient decent (CGD), projection onto convex sets (POCS), and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). Results obtained showed that in each case, high quality reconstructions were obtained. The computed images correctly resolved and identified the spatial position of the two tumors. Additional studies showed that computed images were stable to large systematic errors in the imaging operators and to added noise. Further, examination of the computed detector readings indicate that images of tissue up to approximately 10 cm in thickness should be possible. The

  19. Role of Orexin-1 Receptor Mechanisms on Compulsive Food Consumption in a Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Laura; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Cifani, Carlo; Costantini, Vivian J A; Massagrande, Mario; Montanari, Dino; Martinelli, Prisca; Antolini, Marinella; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Massi, Maurizio; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Di Fabio, Romano; Corsi, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Orexins (OX) and their receptors (OXR) modulate feeding, arousal, stress, and drug abuse. Neural systems that motivate and reinforce drug abuse may also underlie compulsive food seeking and intake. Therefore, the effects of GSK1059865 (5-bromo-N-[(2S,5S)-1-(3-fluoro-2-methoxybenzoyl)-5-methylpiperidin-2-yl]methyl-pyridin-2-amine), a selective OX1R antagonist, JNJ-10397049 (N-(2,4-dibromophenyl)-N′-[(4S,5S)-2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl]urea), a selective OX2R antagonist, and SB-649868 (N-[((2S)-1-{[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]carbonyl}-2-piperidinyl)methyl]-1-benzofuran-4-carboxamide), a dual OX1/OX2R antagonist were evaluated in a binge eating (BE) model in female rats. BE of highly palatable food (HPF) was evoked by three cycles of food restriction followed by stress, elicited by exposing rats to HPF, but preventing them from having access to it for 15 min. Pharmacokinetic assessments of all compounds were obtained under the same experimental conditions used for the behavioral experiments. Topiramate was used as the reference compound as it selectively blocks BE in rats and humans. Dose-related thresholds for sleep-inducing effects of the OXR antagonists were measured using polysomnography in parallel experiments. SB-649868 and GSK1059865, but not JNJ-10397049, selectively reduced BE for HPF without affecting standard food pellet intake, at doses that did not induce sleep. These results indicate, for the first time, a major role of OX1R mechanisms in BE, suggesting that selective antagonism at OX1R could represent a novel pharmacological treatment for BE and possibly other eating disorders with a compulsive component. PMID:22569505

  20. Rural, Pregnant, and Opioid Dependent: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jumah, Naana Afua

    2016-01-01

    The nature, impact, and treatment of substance use during pregnancy are well described for women living in urban settings. Less is known about pregnant substance-using women living in rural communities. The objective of this review is to describe the existing evidence for the management of substance use in pregnant women living in rural areas. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Twenty-two articles that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Descriptive studies document high rates of smoking, marijuana, and polysubstance use among rural, substance-using pregnant women compared to their urban counterparts. Management of substance use disorders is limited by access to and acceptability of treatment modalities. Several innovative, integrated addiction and prenatal care programs have been developed, which may serve as models for management of substance use during pregnancy in rural settings. PMID:27375357

  1. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  2. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  3. Circular protecting female students, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988 the Ministry of Education of Benin issued a Circular designed to protect female students from sexual advances from male students and teachers. Teachers who are suspected of having sexual relations with a student are to receive a note in their file or can be suspended for a month. Teachers who have raped a student or are responsible for a student's pregnancy are to be suspended for three months if the student was not in their class, and six months if she was. Teachers who have incited their sexual partner to have an abortion are subject to demotion. Teachers who are repeat offenders or whose actions have led to an abortion resulting in death are to be fired. Students who have made a female student pregnant are to be suspended from school until delivery of the child and then are to be enrolled in a different school. The directors of schools are asked to put an end to the provocative clothes, make-up, and hairstyles of female students. PMID:12289212

  4. Ovariectomy Induces a Shift in Fuel Availability and Metabolism in the Hippocampus of the Female Transgenic Model of Familial Alzheimer's

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fan; Yao, Jia; Zhao, Liqin; Mao, Zisu; Chen, Shuhua; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that reproductive senescence in female triple transgenic Alzheimer's (3×TgAD) mice was paralleled by a shift towards a ketogenic profile with a concomitant decline in mitochondrial activity in brain, suggesting a potential association between ovarian hormone loss and alteration in the bioenergetic profile of the brain. In the present study, we investigated the impact of ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol replacement on brain energy substrate availability and metabolism in a mouse model of familial Alzheimer's (3×TgAD). Results of these analyses indicated that ovarian hormones deprivation by ovariectomy (OVX) induced a significant decrease in brain glucose uptake indicated by decline in 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake measured by microPET-imaging. Mechanistically, OVX induced a significant decline in blood-brain-barrier specific glucose transporter expression, hexokinase expression and activity. The decline in glucose availability was accompanied by a significant rise in glial LDH5 expression and LDH5/LDH1 ratio indicative of lactate generation and utilization. In parallel, a significant rise in ketone body concentration in serum occurred which was coupled to an increase in neuronal MCT2 expression and 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase (SCOT) required for conversion of ketone bodies to acetyl-CoA. In addition, OVX-induced decline in glucose metabolism was paralleled by a significant increase in Aβ oligomer levels. 17β-estradiol preserved brain glucose-driven metabolic capacity and partially prevented the OVX-induced shift in bioenergetic substrate as evidenced by glucose uptake, glucose transporter expression and gene expression associated with aerobic glycolysis. 17β-estradiol also partially prevented the OVX-induced increase in Aβ oligomer levels. Collectively, these data indicate that ovarian hormone loss in a preclinical model of Alzheimer's was paralleled by a shift towards the metabolic pathway required for metabolism of

  5. Recruitment and Retention of Pregnant Women Into Clinical Research Trials: An Overview of Challenges, Facilitators, and Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Isaacs, Margaret Brewinski; Kim, Sonnie; Swamy, Geeta K.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Villafana, Tonya; Kamagate, Ouda; Ault, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women are a vulnerable group who are needed in clinical research studies to advance prevention and treatment options for this population. Yet, pregnant women remain underrepresented in clinical research. Through the lens of the socioecological model, we highlight reported barriers and facilitators to recruitment and retention of pregnant women in studies that sought their participation. We trace historical, policy-based reasons for the exclusion of pregnant women in clinical studies to present-day rationale for inclusion of this group. The findings highlight why it has been difficult to recruit and retain this population over time. A body of literature suggests that integrative sampling and recruitment methods that leverage the influence and reach of prenatal providers will overcome recruitment challenges. We argue that these strategies, in combination with building strong engagement with existing community-based organizations, will enable teams to more effectively promote and retain pregnant women in future longitudinal cohort studies. PMID:25425718

  6. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view. PMID:26267767

  7. Food Insecurity and Alcohol Use Among Pregnant Women at Alcohol Serving Establishments in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. DESIGN Women completed computed assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. SETTING Women attending alcohol serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. PARTICIPANTS Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. RESULTS High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65% of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29% consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty four percent of the women reported having 6 or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87%) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g. food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. CONCLUSIONS Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

  8. Food insecurity and alcohol use among pregnant women at alcohol-serving establishments in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N

    2014-06-01

    South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women. PMID:23526080

  9. Effect of Transverse Aortic Constriction on Cardiac Structure, Function and Gene Expression in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Songstad, Nils Thomas; Johansen, David; How, Ole-Jacob; Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increased risk of heart failure and pulmonary edema in pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders. However, in a previous study we found that pregnancy protects against fibrosis and preserves angiogenesis in a rat model of angiotensin II induced cardiac hypertrophy. In this study we test the hypothesis that pregnancy protects against negative effects of increased afterload. Methods Pregnant (gestational day 5.5–8.5) and non-pregnant Wistar rats were randomized to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgery. After 14.2±0.14 days echocardiography was performed. Aortic blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume loops were obtained using a conductance catheter. LV collagen content and cardiomyocyte circumference were measured. Myocardial gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Heart weight was increased by TAC (p<0.001) but not by pregnancy. Cardiac myocyte circumference was larger in pregnant compared to non-pregnant rats independent of TAC (p = 0.01), however TAC per se did not affect this parameter. Collagen content in LV myocardium was not affected by pregnancy or TAC. TAC increased stroke work more in pregnant rats (34.1±2.4 vs 17.5±2.4 mmHg/mL, p<0.001) than in non-pregnant (28.2±1.7 vs 20.9±1.5 mmHg/mL, p = 0.06). However, it did not lead to overt heart failure in any group. In pregnant rats, α-MHC gene expression was reduced by TAC. Increased in the expression of β-MHC gene was higher in pregnant (5-fold) compared to non-pregnant rats (2-fold) after TAC (p = 0.001). Nine out of the 19 genes related to cardiac remodeling were affected by pregnancy independent of TAC. Conclusions This study did not support the hypothesis that pregnancy is cardioprotective against the negative effects of increased afterload. Some differences in cardiac structure, function and gene expression between pregnant and non-pregnant rats following TAC indicated that afterload

  10. Breastfeeding, pregnant, and non-breastfeeding nor pregnant women's food consumption: A matched within-household analysis in India

    PubMed Central

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Methods Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005–2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n = 20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding/pregnant (NBP), and pregnant women (n = 3,409) matched within households and five-year age bands. We tested whether breastfeeding women had greater advantages in the 18 high-focus states of India's National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Results Vegetarianism, caste, and religion were the strongest predictors of breastfeeding women's nutrition. Breastfeeding women had no nutritional advantage compared to NBP women, and were disadvantaged in their consumption of milk (b = −0.14) in low-focus states. Pregnant women were similarly disadvantaged in their consumption of milk in low-focus states (b = −0.32), but consumed vegetables more frequently (b = 0.12) than NBP women in high-focus states. Conclusions Breastfeeding women do not receive nutritional advantages compared to NBP women. Targeted effort is needed to assess and improve nutritional adequacy for breastfeeding Indian women. PMID:26826049

  11. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97. PMID:24155583

  12. [Plasma amino acids profile of healthy pregnant adolescents in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Castejón, Haydée V; Argotte, María G; Gómez, Gisela; Bohorquez, Lissette; Urrieta, Jesús R

    2003-06-01

    One hundred female adolescents (13-18 y) were clinical and anthropometrically studied to select only those with adequate nutrition. Most adolescents belonged to IV socio-economic stratum families (worker class). Height, weight, age, body mass index and medial arm circumference were used as anthropometric parameters. After screening, only 41 non pregnant girls (control) and 42 pregnant girls with adequate nutrition were selected to analyze plasma amino acids. Fasting peripheral venous blood was drawn, and plasma amino acids were analyzed by HPLC. Amino acid concentrations were expressed as umol/L +/- SE. SAS/STAT program was used for statistical analysis. Amino acid values of control adolescent group were found in ranges reported by other investigators, with slight variations, mostly in diminution, presumably due to nutritional, metabolic or genetic conditions of people living in tropical regions. In pregnant healthy adolescents, distributed according to gestational age: < 32 weeks (n = 30) and > 32 weeks (n = 12), a diminution of total molar plasma amino acids was found, by comparing with control values. Ten amino acids (Pro, Gly, Gln, Arg, Ser, Orn, Tau, Leu, Thr and Val) appeared significantively diminished throughout gestation, being Gly. Gln and Arg most affected since earlier weeks. During the 2nd period. Thr and Val increased their grade of affectation; whereas some amino acids values (Orn, Pro and Tau) tended to recuperate. Several of affected amino acids are gluconegoenic, thus, they could be utilized to supply the energy required by the pregnant adolescent against her double stress: the fetus development and her own development. The plasma amino acid values reported in both, healthy non pregnant and pregnant adolescents, could be taken as regional referential profile of plasma amino acids in this poblational group for further research on adolescent and fetal--maternal malnutrition. PMID:14528605

  13. Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Acculturation Challenges Faced by Saudi Female Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakami, Samah Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the major acculturation challenges faced by Saudi female students who study in the U.S. and to develop a scale to measure potential acculturation challenges. The construction of the scale was based on a table of specification that included nine domains of possible acculturation challenges: (a)…

  14. Meet Jessica and Elizabeth from Sweet Valley: Who Are the Female Role Models in Popular Romance Novels for Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    Jessica and Elizabeth are two female characters, twins, featured throughout Francine Pascal's Sweet Valley series, the Bantam Publishers popular series for girls from elementary school through junior high, high school, university, and well into adulthood. This paper notes that these books are a part of the same formula that are used for romance…

  15. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  16. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  17. Challenges in Interventional Radiology: The Pregnant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunice K.; Wang, Weiping; Newman, James S.; Bayona-Molano, Maria Del Pilar

    2013-01-01

    A pregnant patient presenting to interventional radiology (IR) has a different set of needs from any other patient requiring a procedure. Often, the patient's care can be in direct conflict with the growth and development of the fetus, whether it be optimal fluoroscopic imaging, adequate sedation of the mother, or the timing of the needed procedure. Despite the additional risks and complexities associated with pregnancy, IR procedures can be performed safely for the pregnant patient with knowledge of the special and general needs of the pregnant patient, use of acceptable medications and procedures likely to be encountered during pregnancy, in addition to strategies to protect the patient and her fetus from the hazards of radiation. PMID:24436567

  18. Distance of response to host tree models by female apple maggot flies,Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Interaction of visual and olfactory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Green, T A; Prokopy, R J; Hosmer, D W

    1994-09-01

    Mature female apple maggot flies,Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), were released individually onto a single potted, fruitless hawthorne tree in the center of an open field. The tree was surrounded by four 1-m(2) plywood host tree models painted green or white, with or without synthetic host fruit odor (butyl hexanoate), and placed at one of several distances from the release tree. Each fly was permitted to forage freely on the release tree for up to 1 hr, or until it left the tree. Flies left the tree significantly sooner when green models with host fruit were present at 0.5, 1.5, or 2.5 m distance from the release tree than when these models were placed at a greater distance (4.5 m) from the release tree or when no models were present. Flies responded detectably to 1-m(2) models without odor up to a maximum distance of 1.5 m. These results suggest that female apple maggot flies did not detect green 1-m(2) models with odor 4.5 m away or models without odor 2.5 m or more away. Flies responded to white models with and without odor to a much lesser extent, both in terms of response distance and flight to and alightment upon models. Increasing model size to 2 m(2) increased the distance to 2.5 m at which flies responded to green models without odor. Decreasing model size to 0.5 m(2) reduced fly responsiveness to green or white models. The presence of host fruit odor alone, without the visual stimulus of a green model, did not influence residence time on the release tree. PMID:24242813

  19. Body composition in young female eating-disorder patients with severe weight loss and controls: evidence from the four-component model and evaluation of DXA

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J C K; Haroun, D; Williams, J E; Nicholls, D; Darch, T; Eaton, S; Fewtrell, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Whether fat-free mass (FFM) and its components are depleted in eating-disorder (ED) patients is uncertain. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used to assess body composition in pediatric ED patients; however, its accuracy in underweight populations remains unknown. We aimed (1) to assess body composition of young females with ED involving substantial weight loss, relative to healthy controls using the four-component (4C) model, and (2) to explore the validity of DXA body composition assessment in ED patients. Subjects/Methods: Body composition of 13 females with ED and 117 controls, aged 10–18 years, was investigated using the 4C model. Accuracy of DXA for estimation of FFM and fat mass (FM) was tested using the approach of Bland and Altman. Results: Adjusting for age, height and pubertal stage, ED patients had significantly lower whole-body FM, FFM, protein mass (PM) and mineral mass (MM) compared with controls. Trunk and limb FM and limb lean soft tissue were significantly lower in ED patients. However, no significant difference in the hydration of FFM was detected. Compared with the 4C model, DXA overestimated FM by 5±36% and underestimated FFM by 1±9% in ED patients. Conclusion: Our study confirms that ED patients are depleted not only in FM but also in FFM, PM and MM. DXA has limitations for estimating body composition in individual young female ED patients. PMID:26173868

  20. Sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine oxidation and the methionine and folate cycles in female cystathionine gamma-lyase null mice: a serendipitous model of the methylfolate trap.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Hurt, K Joseph; Breen, Kelsey; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Orlicky, David J; Maclean, Kenneth N

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its role in the endogenous synthesis of cysteine, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL) is a major physiological source of the vasorelaxant hydrogen sulfide. Cgl null mice are potentially useful for studying the influence of this compound upon vascular tone and endothelial function. Here, we confirm a previous report that female Cgl null mice exhibit an approximate 45-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine compared to wild type controls. This level of homocysteine is approximately 3.5-fold higher than that observed in male Cgl null mice and is essentially equivalent to that observed in mouse models of cystathionine beta synthase deficient homocystinuria. Cgl null mice of both sexes exhibited decreased expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase compared to WT controls. Female Cgl null mice exhibited a sex-specific induction of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha and a 70% decrease in methionine synthase expression accompanied by significantly decreased plasma methionine. Decreased plasma cysteine levels in female Cgl null mice were associated with sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression. Comparative histological assessment between cystathionine beta-synthase and Cgl null mice indicated that the therapeutic potential of cystathionine against liver injury merits possible further investigation. Collectively, our data demonstrates the importance of considering sex when investigating mouse models of inborn errors of metabolism and indicate that while female Cgl null mice are of questionable utility for studying the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide, they could serve as a useful model for studying the consequences of methionine synthase deficiency and the methylfolate trap. PMID:26276101

  1. Sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine oxidation and the methionine and folate cycles in female cystathionine gamma-lyase null mice: a serendipitous model of the methylfolate trap

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Hurt, K. Joseph; Breen, Kelsey; Stabler, Sally P.; Allen, Robert H.; Orlicky, David J.; Maclean, Kenneth N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In addition to its role in the endogenous synthesis of cysteine, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL) is a major physiological source of the vasorelaxant hydrogen sulfide. Cgl null mice are potentially useful for studying the influence of this compound upon vascular tone and endothelial function. Here, we confirm a previous report that female Cgl null mice exhibit an approximate 45-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine compared to wild type controls. This level of homocysteine is approximately 3.5-fold higher than that observed in male Cgl null mice and is essentially equivalent to that observed in mouse models of cystathionine beta synthase deficient homocystinuria. Cgl null mice of both sexes exhibited decreased expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase compared to WT controls. Female Cgl null mice exhibited a sex-specific induction of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha and a 70% decrease in methionine synthase expression accompanied by significantly decreased plasma methionine. Decreased plasma cysteine levels in female Cgl null mice were associated with sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression. Comparative histological assessment between cystathionine beta-synthase and Cgl null mice indicated that the therapeutic potential of cystathionine against liver injury merits possible further investigation. Collectively, our data demonstrates the importance of considering sex when investigating mouse models of inborn errors of metabolism and indicate that while female Cgl null mice are of questionable utility for studying the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide, they could serve as a useful model for studying the consequences of methionine synthase deficiency and the methylfolate trap. PMID:26276101

  2. Development of realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models of Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight, and application of models to radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Sakurai, Kiyoko; Kunieda, Etsuo; Watanabe, Satoshi; Taki, Masao; Yamanaka, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    With advances in computer performance, the use of high-resolution voxel models of the entire human body has become more frequent in numerical dosimetries of electromagnetic waves. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have developed realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel models for Japanese adult males and females of average height and weight. The developed models consist of cubic voxels of 2 mm on each side; the models are segmented into 51 anatomic regions. The adult female model is the first of its kind in the world and both are the first Asian voxel models (representing average Japanese) that enable numerical evaluation of electromagnetic dosimetry at high frequencies of up to 3 GHz. In this paper, we will also describe the basic SAR characteristics of the developed models for the VHF/UHF bands, calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.

  3. Caring for Pets When You're Pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant? Pregnant women need to be careful of toxoplasmosis when handling their cat. This is an infection ... cats may have been. You also can get toxoplasmosis from eating undercooked meat, especially pork, lamb or ...

  4. Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses from Malaria in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157683.html Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses From Malaria in Study Findings ... widely used to treat malaria in adults also protects pregnant women and their fetuses from the disease, ...

  5. Effects of impending ovarian failure induced by 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide on fertility in C57BL/6 female mice.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jamie R; Christian, Patricia J; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2007-10-01

    Repeated daily dosing of mice with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) causes a gradual onset of ovarian failure, providing a model for perimenopause. Because increasing numbers of women are delaying starting a family, infertility in aging women is of concern. This study was designed to determine the effects of impending ovarian failure on fertility in VCD-treated mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were dosed daily (17 d) with vehicle control or VCD (160 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) to deplete primordial follicles and then were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was mated soon after dosing; group 2 was mated on day 20 after dosing, during impending ovarian failure. Fertility was evaluated on gestational day 16. In group 1, cycle length, pregnancy rate, and number of live fetuses did not differ between VCD-treated animals and controls, but VCD-treated mice required more matings to become pregnant and had more resorptions. In group 2, VCD-treated mice demonstrated proestrus and copulatory plugs, but only 1 animal became pregnant, and she had no viable fetuses. Ovaries from pregnant and nonpregnant controls contained similar numbers of follicles and corpora lutea. Ovaries from VCD-treated animals contained no follicles, and corpora lutea were seen only in pregnant animals. In VCD-treated mice mated soon after dosing, conception was more difficult and more resorbed fetuses were seen, whereas in those mated closer to impending ovarian failure, no successful pregnancies were achieved. These results demonstrate that VCD-treated mice can be used to model infertility in perimenopausal women. PMID:17974126

  6. Vaccination against influenza in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Brydak, Lidia Bernadeta; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy places otherwise healthy women at an increased risk of complications arising from an influenza infection. It is suggested that physiological changes such as immunological changes, increased cardiac output and oxygen consumption, as well as lung tidal volume might increase the susceptibility to influenza complications if infection occurs during pregnancy. Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is currently recommended in many countries and has been proven to be safe and effective in reducing rates and severity of the disease in vaccinated mothers and their children. Influenza vaccination is also cost-effective. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage remains low in pregnant women. This might stem from the lack of healthcare workers' education, a feeling among the general public that influenza is not a serious disease and a failure of prenatal care providers to offer the vaccine. In order to protect pregnant women and infants from influenza related morbidity and mortality an educational programme targeting healthcare workers in charge of pregnant women should be implemented. PMID:25195141

  7. Acute maduramicin toxicosis in pregnant gilts.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Britzi, Malka; Pozzi, Paolo S; Edery, Nir; Berkowitz, Asaf; Bouznach, Arieli; Cuneah, Olga; Soback, Stefan; Bellaiche, Michel; Younis, Ahmad; Blech, Einat; Oren, Pnina; Galon, Nadav; Shlosberg, Alan; Perl, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Ionophores are used as feed additives for the control of coccidiosis and growth promotion in farm animals. Reports of maduramicin toxicosis in farm animals are scarce. The present work describes an acute maduramicin toxicosis affecting 22 pregnant gilts, 2 pregnant sows and 2 boars, resulting in a total mortality of 65% within 2days. The clinical and histopathological findings observed shared similar characteristics to acute ionophore toxicosis in pigs, being characterized by severe myodegeneration in skeletal muscle and degenerative changes in the myocardium. Important clinical pathology indices found were elevated levels of CPK and ALT. In contrast to the pregnant gilts, the two pregnant sows completely recovered after 1month and farrowed 2months after the intoxication event healthy piglets. The lack of effect of maduramicin on the fetuses might be indicative of poor placental penetration of maduramicin. Moreover, the present work reports for the first time maduramicin levels in livers (0.5mg/kg) of gilts exposed to lethal concentrations of maduramicin (18.5mg/kg) in the feed. As the average feed intake of the gilts was estimated to be 3.5kg feed/day, the mean maduramicin intake leading to the observed high mortality rate was 0.4mg/kg body weight/day. PMID:24705019

  8. Physical activity and sleep among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study from prenatal clinics at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. Women self-reported sleep quality and duration and physical activity in the past week. We used cluster analysis to create seven physical activity profiles and multivariable logistic regression analysis, with adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, self-rated general health, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Women with higher levels of occupational physical activity were more likely to report either short or normal sleep duration than longer duration. Women with higher levels of indoor household physical activity were less likely to report normal sleep duration than shorter duration. Women in the recreational-indoor household activity cluster were less likely than women in the inactivity cluster to report normal sleep duration as compared with longer duration. Our data suggest weak associations of physical activity with sleep duration and quality in late pregnancy. Physical activity is recommended to pregnant women for health benefits, yet more research is needed to understand if physical activity should be recommended for improving sleep. PMID:20078829

  9. Journaling for Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Michael B.; Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Wittstruck, Guriana; Berger, Thomas J.; Leigh, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to assist pregnant and parenting adolescents through the use of journaling techniques. Concludes that journaling can increase the adolescents' receptivity to social and emotional introspection and may be beneficial as an opening exercise to clinical interventions. (JDM)

  10. Population Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy. PMID:25070097

  11. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees. PMID:8194968

  12. Seeking Success: Educating Pregnant and Parenting Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conference of Large City Boards of Education, Albany, NY.

    This report presents case studies of pregnant and parenting teenagers in the "Big Five School Districts," New York State's five largest urban school districts: Buffalo, New York City, Rochester, Syracuse, and Yonkers. Adolescent parents and their children depend heavily on a number of services to survive, including education, health, and social…

  13. Advising pregnant women on miminising travel risks.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Rosemary

    Pregnant women may face additional risks when travelling overseas, which must be considered with assessment and travel health advice before they decide to travel. A careful risk assessment should be completed to identify the key risks and strategies for staying safe while travelling. PMID:24772798

  14. Imaging the pregnant patient with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Graham W; Davis, Melissa A; Semelka, Richard C; Fielding, Julia R

    2012-10-01

    Imaging of pregnant patients with non-obstetric abdominal pain is reviewed, with an accompanying pictorial essay of cases with concentration on magnetic resonance imaging. Non-obstetric causes of abdominal pain during pregnancy are similar to those of non-pregnant patients. The most common causes are appendicitis and cholecystitis. Other causes are myriad and include biliary, gastrointestinal, infectious, inflammatory, and malignant etiologies, among others. The approach to imaging in pregnant patient is unique, as it is imperative to minimize potentially harmful radiation exposures to the fetus. Ultrasound and MRI are the primary modalities for evaluation of the pregnant patient with abdominal pain. The use of intravenous contrast is discouraged, except in highly-selected patients where there is no other way to obtain vital diagnostic information. CT is still used as the mainstay of evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma and is commonly used for diagnosis of small bowel obstruction, stone disease, and work-up of malignancy during pregnancy. A discussion of test selection and underlying rationale is presented. PMID:22160283

  15. Multidetector CT of the female pelvis.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Kristina A; Rubens, Deborah J

    2005-11-01

    In the emergency room setting, multidetector detector CT (MDCT) offers rapid, noninvasive, multiplanar evaluation of female patients who have acute pelvic pain. MDCT has been integrated into several of the major trauma centers, and its use may surpass the use of ultrasound in the trauma evaluation of the pregnant patient. In the nonemergent setting, MDCT can be used to stage gynecologic malignancy and to evaluate tumor recurrence. Multiplanar MDCT has received some acceptance for evaluation of small primary tumor volume and small metastatic implants. MDCT also has a role in the evaluation of pelvic varices and suspected pelvic congestion syndrome. PMID:16253664

  16. Effects of female steroid hormones on A-type K+ currents in murine colon.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Elizabeth A H; McCloskey, Conor; O'Kane, Neil; Sanders, Kenton M; Koh, Sang Don

    2006-06-01

    Idiopathic constipation is higher in women of reproductive age than postmenopausal women or men, suggesting that female steroid hormones influence gastrointestinal motility. How female hormones affect motility is unclear. Colonic motility is regulated by ion channels in colonic myocytes. Voltage-dependent K(+) channels serve to set the excitability of colonic muscles. We investigated regulation of Kv 4.3 channel expression in response to acute or chronic changes in female hormones. Patch clamp experiments and quantitative PCR were used to compare outward currents and transcript expression in colonic myocytes from male, non-pregnant, pregnant and ovariectomized mice. Groups of ovariectomized mice received injections of oestrogen or progesterone to investigate the effects of hormone replacement. The capacitance of colonic myocytes from non-pregnant females was larger than in males. Net outward current density in male and ovariectomized mice was higher than in non-pregnant females and oestrogen-treated ovariectomized mice. Current densities in late pregnancy were lower than in female controls. Progesterone had no effect on outward currents. A-type currents were decreased in non-pregnant females compared with ovariectomized mice, and were further decreased by pregnancy or oestrogen replacement. Kv 4.3 transcripts did not differ significantly between groups; however, expression of the potassium channel interacting protein KChIP1 was elevated in ovariectomized mice compared with female controls and oestrogen-treated ovariectomized mice. Delayed rectifier currents were not affected by oestrogen. In the mouse colon, oestrogen suppresses A-type currents, which are important for regulating excitability. These observations suggest a possible link between female hormones and altered colonic motility associated with menses, pregnancy and menopause. PMID:16581861

  17. Sympathetic baroreflex gain in normotensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure

  18. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print A A A Text Size I ... weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine or will it affect my pregnancy? – Eliza* ...

  19. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  20. WE-E-BRE-01: An Image-Based Skeletal Dosimetry Model for the ICRP Reference Adult Female - Internal Electron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    O'Reilly, S; Maynard, M; Marshall, E; Bolch, W; Sinclair, L; Rajon, D; Wayson, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Limitations seen in previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used software today, include the lack of consideration of electron escape and cross-fire from cortical bone, the modeling of infinite spongiosa, the disregard of the effect of varying cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation, and the lack of use of the more recent ICRP definition of a 50 micron surrogate tissue region for the osteoprogenitor cells - shallow marrow. These limitations were addressed in the present dosimetry model. Methods: Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to active marrow and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the adult female. The bone macrostructure was obtained from the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of reference phantoms, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 year-old female cadaver. The target tissue regions were active marrow and shallow marrow. The source tissues were active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume and cortical bone surfaces. The marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or modeled analytically. Results: The method of combining macro- and microstructure absorbed fractions calculated using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model for the UF adult male in the Hough et al. study. Conclusion: The calculated skeletal averaged absorbed fractions for each source-target combination were found to follow similar trends of more recent dosimetry models (image-based models) and did not follow current models used in nuclear medicine dosimetry at high energies (due to that models use of an infinite expanse of trabecular spongiosa)

  1. Use of urinary renal biomarkers to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of melamine or cyanuric acid in non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Bandele, O J; Stine, C B; Ferguson, M; Black, T; Olejnik, N; Keltner, Z; Evans, E R; Crosby, T C; Reimschuessel, R; Sprando, R L

    2014-12-01

    Although traditional assessments of renal damage detect loss of kidney function, urinary renal biomarkers are proposed to indicate early changes in renal integrity. The recent adulteration of infant formula and other milk-based foods with melamine revealed a link between melamine ingestion and nephropathy. Thus, the effects of melamine and related analogs (e.g., cyanuric acid) should be assessed in other potentially sensitive groups. We evaluated whether urinary Kim-1, clusterin, and osteopontin could detect the effects of high doses of melamine or cyanuric acid in pregnant and non-pregnant female rats gavaged with 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 10 days. We demonstrate that these biomarkers can differentiate the severity of effects induced by melamine or cyanuric acid. All melamine-treated animals experienced adverse effects; however, pregnant rats were most sensitive as indicated by increased SCr, BUN, and kidney weights, decreased body weight, and presence of renal crystals. These effects coincided with elevated urinary biomarker levels as early as day 2 of exposure. One cyanuric acid-treated rat displayed effects similar to melamine, including increased urinary biomarker levels. This work illustrates that these biomarkers can detect early effects of melamine or cyanuric acid crystal-induced nephropathy and further supports the use of urinary protein immunoassays as a powerful, non-invasive method to assess nephrotoxicity. PMID:25455896

  2. Distribution of Methylene Blue after Injection into the Epidural Space of Anaesthetized Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Xavier; García, Felix; Ferrer, Rosa Isabel; Santos, Laura; Aguilar, Adrià; Andaluz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of different volumes of methylene blue solution injected into the epidural space in anaesthetized pregnant and non-pregnant sheep, to evaluate its cranial distribution and to compare between them. Fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant sheep were included in the study. Sheep were anaesthetized and received 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mL/kg of a lumbosacral epidural solution containing 0.12% methylene blue in 0.9% saline. Thirty minutes after the epidural injection, the ewes were euthanized. The extension of the dye within the epidural space was measured, and the correlation between the volume of the dye injected and the number of stained vertebrae was evaluated. The cranial migration of the dye between pregnant and non-pregnant sheep was also compared. The results show that the volume of methylene blue injected epidurally into pregnant and non-pregnant sheep correlated directly with its cephalic distribution into the epidural space; and a volume of 0.1 mL/kg or 0.2 mL/kg stained up to the first lumbar segment in pregnant and non-pregnant sheep, respectively. Also, the results suggest that the volume of drugs administered into the epidural space of pregnant sheep should be half the volume that would be used in non-pregnant sheep. PMID:24709655

  3. Can eggs in a cavity be a female secondary sexual signal? Male nest visits and modelling of egg visual discrimination in blue tits.

    PubMed

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Doutrelant, Claire; Guerreiro, Romain; Perret, Philippe; Gomez, Doris; Grégoire, Arnaud

    2010-08-23

    Eggshell colouration is thought to function as a female-specific secondary sexual trait. While tests of this idea are rapidly accumulating in cavity-nesting birds, some fundamental underlying assumptions remain rarely investigated: namely, can males see eggshell coloration and perceive colour differences between the eggs of different females? We tested these two key assumptions in a natural population of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Using transponders, we tracked male nest visits and found that all males visited their nest-boxes while eggs were present and often visually accessible. Interestingly, some males also visited neighbouring nests. We then tested whether birds could detect eggshell coloration using models of avian colour vision; models were performed with and without limitations on visual performance owing to dim light. Both models found that differences in eggshell brightness were often easier to discriminate than differences in colour; there was more contrast in white eggshell background between clutches than within and its contrast against nest background was repeatable within clutches, suggesting these features could act as signals. Yet, the detectability of these contrasts depended entirely on model assumptions of visual limitations. Consequently, we need a better understanding of underlying visual mechanisms in dim-light environments and behavioural discrimination experiments before confirming the signalling potential of eggshell coloration. PMID:20164078

  4. Can eggs in a cavity be a female secondary sexual signal? Male nest visits and modelling of egg visual discrimination in blue tits

    PubMed Central

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Doutrelant, Claire; Guerreiro, Romain; Perret, Philippe; Gomez, Doris; Grégoire, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    Eggshell colouration is thought to function as a female-specific secondary sexual trait. While tests of this idea are rapidly accumulating in cavity-nesting birds, some fundamental underlying assumptions remain rarely investigated: namely, can males see eggshell coloration and perceive colour differences between the eggs of different females? We tested these two key assumptions in a natural population of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Using transponders, we tracked male nest visits and found that all males visited their nest-boxes while eggs were present and often visually accessible. Interestingly, some males also visited neighbouring nests. We then tested whether birds could detect eggshell coloration using models of avian colour vision; models were performed with and without limitations on visual performance owing to dim light. Both models found that differences in eggshell brightness were often easier to discriminate than differences in colour; there was more contrast in white eggshell background between clutches than within and its contrast against nest background was repeatable within clutches, suggesting these features could act as signals. Yet, the detectability of these contrasts depended entirely on model assumptions of visual limitations. Consequently, we need a better understanding of underlying visual mechanisms in dim-light environments and behavioural discrimination experiments before confirming the signalling potential of eggshell coloration. PMID:20164078

  5. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rakchanok, Noochpoung; Amporn, Dejpitak; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to identify dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant women, and to compare it with those in non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected from 197 women (94 pregnant and 103 non-pregnant) from June to August, 2008. Dental caries and gingivitis was defined clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Over 74.0% of pregnant women had caries, and 86.2% had gingivitis. There were significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with regard to dental caries (p < 0.001) and gingivitis (p = 0.021). The pregnant women were 2.9 times more likely to suffer from dental caries (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.6-5.4), and 2.2 times more (95% CI, 1.1-4.7) from gingivitis compared to non-pregnant women. Farmers (Odd ratio (OR), 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-26.3), high school graduation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3), and universal health insurance coverage (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3) were significant predictors for gingivitis. Only high school graduates were found to be significant predictors of dental caries with an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.3). Poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.5), lack of knowledge (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-6.3), and poor oral hygiene habits (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6) were important risk factors for dental caries. Similarly, inadequate oral hygiene status (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 5.5-112.2), and poor oral health habits (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-25.2) were found to be significant risk factors for gingivitis among pregnant women indicating, that most women should be trained in proper oral hygiene practices. Community awareness programs should be conducted to increase women's awareness of such hygienic practices. PMID:20229702

  6. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  7. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088

  8. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Irving L. M. H.; Rosario, Fredrick J.; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088

  9. [THE ORGANIZATION OF PREVENTION OF RENAL PATHOLOGY IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN BAKU].

    PubMed

    Kadimova, Sh G

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing of renal pathology, especially of its chronic forms characterized by long clinical duration and frequent exacerbations is observed in pregnant women. The study was carried out to analyze prevalence and structure of renal pathology in pregnant women with further development of social economic basics of its prevention. The epidemiological analysis established that during 2009-2011 in Baku prevalence of renal pathology in pregnant women amounted to 11%. The analysis of structure and dynamics of renal pathology in pregnant women during the same period revealed that leading positions are taken by chronic pyelonephritis (27.2%), hydronephrosis (14.8%) and eclampsia (12%). The percentage of cystitis amounted to 4.8%, urolithiasis - 3.2%, renal colic - 2.4% and renal anomalies - 0.8%. The study established that under application of scientifically valid preventive measures an effective prevention of disease is achieved. In particular risk of morbidity is decreased up to 4.18 times. After 10-12 months after implementation of explanatory work degree of implementation of preventive measures among female patients with close adherence to these measures attained maximal level (88.6±2.8%) and among female patients attaching no importance to them in many ways implementation remained low (41±5.6%). At the same time, organization and implementation of developed complex of preventive measures are available. They have no requirement in an additional manpower and material technical resources and are applied using sanitary agitation among population. The task-oriented and permanent explanatory work increases responsibility of population for one's own health, activates population to implement complex of preventive measure. On the whole, workable premises both to stabilize level of morbidity of renal pathology and its consistent decreasing are established. PMID:26411170

  10. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or soy protein isolate did not attenuate disease progression in a female rat model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Maditz, Kaitlin H; Oldaker, Chris; Nanda, Nainika; Benedito, Vagner; Livengood, Ryan; Tou, Janet C

    2014-06-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an incurable genetic disorder that is characterized by multiple benign cysts. As PKD advances, cyst growth increases kidney volume, decreases renal function, and may lead to end-stage renal disease; however, in a PKD rat model, feeding soy protein isolate (SPI) reduced cyst proliferation and growth. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are noted for their anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore, diet therapy could offer a potentially efficacious, safe, and cost-effective strategy for treating PKD. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of soy protein and/or n-3 PUFAs on PKD progression and severity in the rat model of autosomal recessive PKD. We hypothesized that the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory actions associated with soy protein and n-3 PUFA supplementation will attenuate PKD progression in female PCK rats. For 12 weeks, young (age, 28 days) female PCK rats were randomly assigned (n=12/group) to 4 different diets: casein±corn oil, casein±soybean oil, SPI±soybean oil, or SPI±1:1 soybean/salmon oil (SPI±SB). The feeding of the different protein and lipid sources had no significant effect on relative kidney weight. Histologic evaluation showed no significant differences in cortical or medullary cyst size, interstitial inflammation, and fibrosis among diet groups. However, rats fed SPI±SB diet had cortical cyst obstruction and the highest (P<.01) serum blood urea nitrogen concentration. Rats fed SPI±SB diet had the highest (P<.001) renal docosahexaeonic acid, but there were no significant differences in renal tissue inflammation and proliferation gene expression among the diet groups. Based on these results, dietary soy protein and/or n-3 PUFAs did not attenuate disease progression or severity in the female PCK rat model of autosomal recessive PKD. PMID:25026920

  11. The Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iranian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghafari, Mahin; Baigi, Vali; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women. Methods Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17). The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16), respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary. PMID:27336476

  12. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  13. PVP formulated Fullerene (C60) increases Rho-kinase dependent Vascular Tissue Contractility in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vidanapathirana, Achini K.; Thompson, Leslie C.; Mann, Erin. E.; Odom, Jillian T.; Holland, Nathan A.; Sumner, Susan J.; Han, Li; Lewin, Anita H.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Brown, Jared M.; Wingard, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a unique physiological state, in which C60 fullerene is reported to be distributed in both maternal and fetal tissues. Tissue distribution of C60 differs between pregnant and non-pregnant states, presumably due to functional changes in vasculature during pregnancy. We hypothesized that, polyvinylpyrorrolidone (PVP) formulated C60 (C60/PVP) increases vascular tissue contractility during pregnancy by increasing Rho-kinase activity. C60/PVP was administered intravenously to pregnant and non-pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats. Vascular responses were assessed using wire myography 24 hours post-exposure. Increased stress generation was observed in uterine artery, thoracic aorta and umbilical vein. Rho-Rho-kinase mediated force maintenance was increased in arterial segments from C60/PVP exposed pregnant rats when compared to PVP exposed rats. Our findings suggest that intravenous exposure to C60/PVP during pregnancy increases vascular tissue contractility of the uterine artery through elements of Rho-Rho-kinase signaling during late stages of pregnancy. PMID:25088243

  14. Development of an in vitro dual-chamber model of the female genital tract as a screening tool for epithelial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gali, Youssef; Ariën, Kevin K; Praet, Marleen; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Temmerman, Marleen; Delezay, Olivier; Vanham, Guido

    2010-05-01

    Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is the predominant mode of infection worldwide. However, the early steps of transepithelial infection still need to be clarified. Using epithelial cells, originating from the female genital tract, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells as subepithelial target cells, an in vitro dual-chamber model of the female genital tract was developed. Remarkably, an intact layer of some cell types (HEC-1A, CaSki and Ect1) served as a protective barrier against cell-free but not against cell-associated HIV-1 that crossed the epithelial barrier through transmigration. Furthermore, dysfunctions of the epithelial layers were assessed by monitoring transepithelial electric resistance and transepithelial passage of FluoSpheres and HIV-1 after treatment with nonoxynol-9 (N-9). Most of the functional assays showed dysfunction of the epithelial barrier at lower concentrations compared to a widely used colorimetric toxicity assay (WST-1). Finally, N-9 treatment caused a significant increase in the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha) and a decrease of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) in this model. In conclusion, this model is a useful tool to (1) study HIV-1 transmission mechanisms and (2) evaluate epithelial toxicity of candidate microbicides. PMID:20138087

  15. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa

    2013-11-15

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  16. Butyrate alleviates metabolic impairments and protects pancreatic β cell function in pregnant mice with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-Ping; Chen, Xuan; Li, Ming-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The relative or absolute deficiency of pancreatic β-cell mass function underlies the pathogenesis of diabetes. It is necessary to alleviate the metabolic stress and reduce the demand for insulin to decrease the effects of mutations affecting β-cell expansion. Butyrate is a natural nutrient existed in food and can also be produced physiologically through the intestinal fermentation of fiber. Pregnancy and obesity model would be helpful for understanding how β-cell adapt to insulin resistance and how butyrate alleviate the metabolic impairment and protect pancreatic β cell function in pregnant mice with obesity. C57BL/6J female mice were divided into three groups and fed with high fat food (HF group, 40% energy from fat), high fat with sodium butyrate food (HSF group, 95% HF with 5% butyrate), or control food (CF group, 14% energy from fat), respectively. The feeding would last for 14 weeks before mating and throughout the gestation period. A subset of dams were sacrificed at gestational day (GD) 14.5 to evaluate the changes of metabolism and β-cell function, mass, proliferation and apoptosis, inflammatory reaction of islet from different diet. Pancreases were double immuno-labeled to assess the islet morphology, insulin expression, expression of proliferation gene PCNA and anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2. Moreover, we detected the expression of NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB (pNF-κB) to evaluate the islet inflammatory response with immunohistochemistry. Mice fed with HSF showed obviously changes including the decreased values of weight gain, glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol level of blood compared with high fat diet group, and the reduced circulating maternal pro-inflammation factors at GD14.5. Mice fed with HF displayed β-cell hyperplasia with a greater β-cell size and β-cell area in pancreas. Furthermore, the higher ratio of apoptosis and inflammatory response were found in HF group compared with HSF and CF group, while the proliferation

  17. Ovarian hormones, but not fluoxetine, impart resilience within a chronic unpredictable stress model in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Chaiton, Jessica A; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-08-01

    Depression is more prevalent in women than in men, and women are at a heightened risk for depression during the postpartum and perimenopause. There is also evidence to suggest that the ovarian hormone milieu may dictate antidepressant efficacy. Thus, it is important to investigate the role of ovarian hormones in the pathogenesis of depression and in the mechanisms that may underlie antidepressant efficacy. In the present study, we used 10-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats to examine the effects of long-term ovarian hormone deprivation on the development of depressive-like endophenotypes after chronic stress, and on antidepressant efficacy. Four months following ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, all rats were subjected to 6 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). During the last 3 weeks of CUS, rats received daily injections of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) or vehicle. All rats were assessed on measures of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) negative feedback inhibition, and on markers of neurogenesis and microglia in the dentate gyrus. Our findings demonstrate that long-term ovarian hormone deprivation increased anxiety and depressive-like behavior, as seen by increased immobility in the forced swim test and latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding test, and decreased sucrose preference. Further, long-term OVX resulted in impaired HPA negative feedback inhibition, as seen in the dexamethasone suppression test. Fluoxetine treatment showed limited behavioral and neuroendocrine efficacy, however it reduced microglial (Iba-1) expression, and increased cell proliferation, neurogenesis (via cell survival), and the expression of the polysialylated neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in the dentate gyrus, although these effects varied by region (dorsal, ventral) and ovarian status. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that ovarian hormones may impart resilience against the behavioral and neuroendocrine

  18. Psychological Stress on Female Mice Diminishes the Developmental Potential of Oocytes: A Study Using the Predatory Stress Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Xiang; Cheng, Ya-Nan; Miao, Yi-Long; Wei, De-Li; Zhao, Li-Hua; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2012-01-01

    Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators. Beginning 24 h after injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin, female mice were subjected to predatory stress for 24 h. Evaluation of mouse responses showed that the predatory stress system that we established increased anxiety-like behaviors and plasma cortisol concentrations significantly and continuously while not affecting food and water intake of the mice. In vitro experiments showed that whereas oocyte maturation and Sr2+ activation or fertilization were unaffected by maternal predatory stress, rate of blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in stressed mice compared to non-stressed controls. In vivo embryo development indicated that both the number of blastocysts recovered per donor mouse and the average number of young per recipient after embryo transfer of blastocysts with similar cell counts were significantly lower in stressed than in unstressed donor mice. It is concluded that the predatory stress system we established was both effective and durative to induce mouse stress responses. Furthermore, predatory stress applied during the oocyte pre-maturation stage significantly impaired oocyte developmental potential while exerting no measurable impact on nuclear maturation, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes was more vulnerable to maternal stress than nuclear maturation. PMID:23118931

  19. [BLOOD AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PURINES IN PREGNANT].

    PubMed

    Oreshnikov, E V; Oreshnikov, S F

    2015-01-01

    The research includes 88 pregnant women, that had their purine basis and malondialdehyde in water thermocoagulate extract of venous blood and cerebrospinal fluid examined (along with common standards clinical-laboratory tests) before the spinal anesthesia for the caesarian section was provided It was detected that preeclampsy and HELLP-syndine feature the increased adenine guanine hypoxantine and uric acid levels in cerebrospinal fluid, as well as increased concentrations of blood malondyaldehyde (higher than upper normal level), accompany with the increased hemotaencephalic barrier permeability for adenine, guanine and hypoxantine. It's demonstrated that level of guanine in blood serum can be used as a prognostic factor of spinal anesthesia quality in obstetrics. It is supposed to examine purine levels in pregnant women not only in blood but also in cere brospinal fluid. PMID:26596029

  20. Acute aortic dissection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaohua; Yang, Shouguo; Wang, Fangshun; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic dissection occurring during pregnancy represents a lethal risk to both the mother and fetus. Management of parturient with acute aortic dissection is complex. We report our experience of two pregnancies with type A acute aortic dissection. One patient is a 31-year-old pregnant woman (33rd gestational week) with a bicuspid aortic valve and the other is a 32-year-old pregnant woman (30th gestational week) with the Marfan syndrome. In both cases, a combined emergency operation consisting of Cesarean section, total hysterectomy prior to corrective surgery for aortic dissection was successfully performed within a relatively short period of time after the onset. Both patients' postoperative recovery was uneventful, and we achieved a favorable maternal and fetal outcome. PMID:25085319

  1. Renal scans in pregnant transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1988-08-01

    This study demonstrates the normal technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA) renal scan in pregnant patients with transplanted kidneys. Five pregnant renal transplant patients had seven (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA renal studies to assess allograft perfusion and function. All scans showed the uteroplacental complex. The bladder was always compressed and distorted. The transplanted kidney was frequently rotated to a more vertical position. In all patients allograft flow and function were maintained. There was calyceal retention on all studies and ureteral retention activity in three of five patients. Using the MIRD formalism, the total radiation absorbed dose to the fetus was calculated to be 271 mrad. This radiation exposure is well within NRCP limits for the fetus of radiation workers and an acceptable low risk in the management of these high risk obstetric patients.

  2. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  3. Anti S enigma in a pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Paramjit; Kaur, Gagandeep; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet

    2014-04-01

    Among the antibodies of the MNS blood group system, anti S antibody is generally IgG antibody reacting at 37 °C. It is rarely implicated in hemolytic transfusion reaction; however, it can lead to potentially severe transfusion reactions. Anti S is also capable of causing mild to severe fatal hemolytic disease of newborn. We report a case of anti S antibody in a pregnant patient with complicated falciparum malaria. PMID:24485071

  4. Characterization of a shortened model of diet alternation in female rats: effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on food intake and anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Angelo; Rice, Kenner C; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders and obesity in western societies is epidemic and increasing in severity. Preclinical research has focused on the development of animal models that can mimic the maladaptive patterns of food intake observed in certain forms of eating disorders and obesity. This study was aimed at characterizing a recently established model of palatable diet alternation in female rats. For this purpose, females rats were fed either continuously with a regular chow diet (Chow/Chow) or intermittently with a regular chow diet for 2 days and a palatable, high-sucrose diet for 1 day (Chow/Palatable). Following diet cycling, rats were administered rimonabant (0, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally) during access to either palatable diet or chow diet and were assessed for food intake and body weight. Finally, rats were pretreated with rimonabant (0, 3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and tested in the elevated plus maze during withdrawal from the palatable diet. Female rats with alternating access to palatable food cycled their intake, overeating during access to the palatable diet and undereating upon returning to the regular chow diet. Rimonabant treatment resulted in increased chow hypophagia and anxiety-like behavior in Chow/Palatable rats. No effect of drug treatment was observed on the compulsive eating of palatable food in the diet-cycled rats. The results of this study suggest that withdrawal from alternating access to the palatable diet makes individuals vulnerable to the anxiogenic effects of rimonabant and provides etiological factors potentially responsible for the emergence of severe psychiatric side-effects following rimonabant treatment in obese patients. PMID:25011007

  5. [Young children, pregnant women and travelling abroad].

    PubMed

    Sandbu, Synne; Nøkleby, Hanne

    2002-06-20

    Pregnant women and parents of young children travelling to non-western countries should consider the risks to which they expose themselves and their children. Travelling during these periods of life needs to be particularly well planned. Travel insurance should cover the whole family, and for pregnant women also the risk of premature birth. Travelling long distances during pregnancy involves a certain amount of risk in itself. This risk could be increased if complications were to occur in areas with a lower standard of health service. As a rule, infants and young children easily adapt to new environments but children abroad should be expected to need a doctor at least as often as at home. Some vaccines and antimalarials must not be used for children below a certain age. Only a few vaccines and antimalarials have been systematically studied in pregnant women in order to exclude teratogenicity. We present some aspects of vaccination and malaria prevention, transport, climate and environment, nutrition, food and drinking water hygiene. PMID:12119785

  6. Anthropometric equations for studying body fat in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Paxton, A; Lederman, S A; Heymsfield, S B; Wang, J; Thornton, J C; Pierson, R N

    1998-01-01

    Anthropometric data from 200 pregnant women were used to estimate body fat at gestation weeks 14 and 37 and changes in body fat from week 14 to week 37 with four formulas from the literature. The resulting estimates were evaluated against the estimation of fat by a four-compartment model that determined fat from weight, total body water, bone mineral mass, and body density. The estimates of fat by existing anthropometric models were statistically different from those by the four-compartment model in both early and late pregnancy. Most importantly, the change in body fat estimated by the anthropometric models (all > 4 kg) was considerably higher than that estimated by the four-compartment model (3.3 kg). Two new anthropometric equations were developed, both of which used the four-compartment model as the reference method. The equation for predicting change in fat mass from week 14 to 37 of pregnancy was as follows: 0.77 (change in weight, kg)+ 0.07 (change in thigh skinfold thickness, mm)-6.13 (r2 = 0.73). The equation for determining fat (kg) at term was as follows: 0.40 (weight at week 37, kg)+ 0.16 (biceps skinfold thickness at week 37, mm) + 0.15 (thigh skinfold thickness at week 37, mm)-0.09 (wrist circumference at week 37. mm)+ 0.10 (prepregnancy weight.kg)-6.56 (r2 = 0.89). Both equations were derived on a randomly selected half of the total sample and validated on the remaining half. Both equations were found to be valid for use in studying pregnant women with different prepregnancy body mass indexes, different gestational weight gains, different ethnicities, and different socioeconomic status. PMID:9440383

  7. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Sílvia Regina; Coutinho, Sônia Bechara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ≥4 mm and an attachment loss ≥3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene. PMID:22249477

  8. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women. PMID:27293974

  9. Vitamin D Status Affects Serum Metabolomic Profiles in Pregnant Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Pressman, Eva K; Cooper, Elizabeth M; Kent, Tera R; Bar, Haim Y; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D is linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes through largely unknown mechanisms. This study was conducted to examine the role of vitamin D status in metabolomic profiles in a group of 30 pregnant, African American adolescents (17.1 ± 1.1 years) at midgestation (26.8 ± 2.8 weeks), in 15 adolescents with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥20 ng/mL, and in 15 teens with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum metabolomic profiles were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A novel hierarchical mixture model was used to evaluate differences in metabolite profiles between low and high groups. A total of 326 compounds were identified and included in subsequent statistical analyses. Eleven metabolites had significantly different means between the 2 vitamin D groups, after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing: pyridoxate, bilirubin, xylose, and cholate were higher, and leukotrienes, 1,2-propanediol, azelate, undecanedioate, sebacate, inflammation associated complement component 3 peptide (HWESASXX), and piperine were lower in serum from adolescents with 25(OH)D ≥20 ng/mL. Lower maternal vitamin D status at midgestation impacted serum metabolic profiles in pregnant adolescents. PMID:25367051

  10. Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gotardo, André T.; Hueza, Isis M.; Manzano, Helena; Maruo, Viviane M.; Maiorka, Paulo C.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0 mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis. PMID:26101526

  11. Entire litters developed from transferred eggs in whole body x-irradiated female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.P.

    1980-07-01

    The sensitivity of mouse eggs to sublethal x-irradiation was determined in vitro and in vivo with regard to the development of donor litters in foster mothers. One thousand seven hundred fifty-eight unfertilized eggs of agouti dark-eyed donor mice were transferred into 293 unirradiated or x-irradiated, mated female pink-eyed mice. Two hundred thirty-nine recipients became pregnant; of these 35 produced litters containing solely dark-eyed fetuses. Sublethal doses of x-radiation administered to donor eggs in vitro before transferring into unirradiated recipients did not influence significantly the number of litters of exclusively dark-eyed fetuses produced. However, recipients irradiated by 250 roentgens (r) produced more solely dark-eyed litters than did those irradiated with 100 r. In 21 pregnant females irradiated by 100 r, only 3 (14%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses as compared to 22 pregnant females irradiated by 250 r, of which 13 (59%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses, all from unirradiated, transferred eggs. Of another group of 22 pregnant females which received 250 r body irradiation and subsequently received eggs also irradiated by 250 r, only 7 (32%) produced litters of dark-eyed fetuses. No one female of these three groups carried native fetuses. Such radiation-induced infertility resulting from damage of native eggs rather than loss of mother's ability to carry a pregnancy, is frequently remedied by egg transfer.

  12. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  13. Changes in leukocyte subsets of pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of more than two decades of extensive research, the understanding of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) immunity is still incomplete. A PRRSv infection of the late term pregnant female can result in abortions, early farrowings, fetal death, and the birth of weak, co...

  14. Female vulnerability to the development of depression-like behavior in a rat model of intimate partner violence is related to anxious temperament, coping responses, and amygdala vasopressin receptor 1a expression.

    PubMed

    Poirier, G L; Cordero, M I; Sandi, C

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to violence is traumatic and an important source of mental health disturbance, yet the factors associated with victimization remain incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors related to vulnerability to depression-like behaviors in females. An animal model of intimate partner violence, which was previously shown to produce long-lasting behavioral effects in females as a result of male partner aggression, was used. The associations among the degree of partner aggression, the long-term consequences on depressive-like behavior, and the impact of the anxious temperament of the female were examined. In a separate group, pre-selected neural markers were evaluated in the amygdala and the lateral septum of females. Expression was examined by analyses of targeted candidate genes, serotonin transporter (slc6a4), vasopressin receptor 1a, (avpr1a), and oxytocin receptor (oxtr). Structural equation modeling revealed that the female's temperament moderated depressive-like behavior that was induced by cohabitation aggression from the male partner. More specifically, increased floating in the forced swim test following male aggression was most apparent in females exhibiting more anxiety-like behavior (i.e., less open arm exploration in an elevated plus-maze) prior to the cohabitation. Aggression reduced slc6a4 levels in the lateral septum. However, the interaction between partner aggression and the anxious temperament of the female affected the expression of avpr1a in the amygdala. Although, aggression reduced levels of this marker in females with high anxiety, no such pattern was observed in females with low anxiety. These results identify important characteristics in females that moderate the impact of male aggression. Furthermore, these results provide potential therapeutic targets of interest in the amygdala and the lateral septum to help improve post-stress behavioral pathology and increase resilience to social adversity. PMID

  15. Female vulnerability to the development of depression-like behavior in a rat model of intimate partner violence is related to anxious temperament, coping responses, and amygdala vasopressin receptor 1a expression

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, G. L.; Cordero, M. I.; Sandi, C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to violence is traumatic and an important source of mental health disturbance, yet the factors associated with victimization remain incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors related to vulnerability to depression-like behaviors in females. An animal model of intimate partner violence, which was previously shown to produce long-lasting behavioral effects in females as a result of male partner aggression, was used. The associations among the degree of partner aggression, the long-term consequences on depressive-like behavior, and the impact of the anxious temperament of the female were examined. In a separate group, pre-selected neural markers were evaluated in the amygdala and the lateral septum of females. Expression was examined by analyses of targeted candidate genes, serotonin transporter (slc6a4), vasopressin receptor 1a, (avpr1a), and oxytocin receptor (oxtr). Structural equation modeling revealed that the female's temperament moderated depressive-like behavior that was induced by cohabitation aggression from the male partner. More specifically, increased floating in the forced swim test following male aggression was most apparent in females exhibiting more anxiety-like behavior (i.e., less open arm exploration in an elevated plus-maze) prior to the cohabitation. Aggression reduced slc6a4 levels in the lateral septum. However, the interaction between partner aggression and the anxious temperament of the female affected the expression of avpr1a in the amygdala. Although, aggression reduced levels of this marker in females with high anxiety, no such pattern was observed in females with low anxiety. These results identify important characteristics in females that moderate the impact of male aggression. Furthermore, these results provide potential therapeutic targets of interest in the amygdala and the lateral septum to help improve post-stress behavioral pathology and increase resilience to social adversity. PMID

  16. Evaluation of selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Mohammadzadeh Vatanchi, Atieh; Tara, Fatemeh; Pourali, Leila; Dadgar, Salmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the common complications during pregnancy with considerable maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Hypercoagulability due to thrombophilic factors is discussed as the etiology involved in this disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 pregnant women at third trimester of pregnancy between 2012 and 2013. 100 pregnant women admitted to Qaem and Imam Reza hospitals of Mashhad, due to preeclampsia, were selected as case group and 100 pregnant women without preeclampsia referred to OB/GYN clinic of these hospitals as control group. Blood samples were taken from two groups for evaluation of the coagulation factors including factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, and lupus anticoagulant antibodies. Results: Two groups were not significantly different in terms of maternal age and parity (p>0.05). Levels of factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant antibodies were compared between two groups. The number of patients with abnormal factor V Leiden and protein C was significantly higher in case group than in the control group (p<0.01 respectively), but other factors were not significant different between two groups. Thrombophilia disorders were significantly more in case group compared to control (p<0.001). Conclusion: The risk of thrombophilia disorders is higher in preeclamptic patients than normal pregnant women. PMID:25709635

  17. Fetus absorbed dose evaluation in head and neck radiotherapy procedures of pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Etieli C; da Rosa, Luiz Antonio R; Batista, Delano Valdivino S

    2015-06-01

    In this work the head and neck cancer treatment of a pregnant patient was experimentally simulated. A female anthropomorphic Alderson phantom was used and the absorbed dose to the fetus was evaluated protecting the patient's abdomen with a 7cm lead layer and using no abdomen shielding. The target volume dose was 50Gy. The fetus doses evaluated with and without the lead shielding were, respectively, 0.52±0.039 and 0.88±0.052cGy. PMID:25620113

  18. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  19. Metabolic Outcome of Female Mice Exposed to a Mixture of Low-Dose Pollutants in a Diet-Induced Obesity Model

    PubMed Central

    Naville, Danielle; Labaronne, Emmanuel; Vega, Nathalie; Pinteur, Claudie; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle; Vidal, Hubert; Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Pollutants are suspected to contribute to the etiology of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Apart from occupational exposure which concerns a subset of chemicals, humans are mostly exposed to a large variety of chemicals, all life-long and at low doses. Food ingestion is a major route of exposure and it is suggested that pollutants have a worsened impact when combined with a high-fat diet. In the experimental studies described herein, we aimed to add further evidence on the metabolic impact of food pollutants using a recently set up model in which mice are life-long fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFSD) with/without common food pollutants shown to exhibit metabolic disrupting activities. Specifically, this mixture comprised bisphenol A, dioxin, polychlorobiphenyl PCB153, and phthalate and was added in HFSD at doses resulting in mice exposure at the Tolerable Daily Intake dose range for each pollutant. We herein focused on the 7-week-old females which exhibited early signs of obesity upon HFSD feeding. We observed no signs of toxicity and no additional weight gain following exposure to the mixture but alleviated HFSD-induced glucose intolerance in the absence of alteration of gluconeogenesis and steatosis. It suggested that the observed metabolic improvement was more likely due to effects on muscle and/or adipose tissues rather than on the liver. Consistently, female mice exhibited enhanced lean/fat mass ratio and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Moreover, expression levels of inflammatory markers were reduced in adipose tissue at 7 but enhanced at 12 weeks of age in agreement with the inverse alterations of glucose tolerance observed at these ages upon pollutant exposure in the HFSD-fed females. Collectively, these data suggest apparent biphasic effects of pollutants upon HFSD feeding along with obesity development. These effects were not observed in males and may depend on interactions between diet and pollutants. PMID:25909471

  20. Risk of cognitive impairment in female premutation carriers of fragile X premutation: analysis by means of robust segmented linear regression models.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, Mónica; Ibáñez, Berta; Ribate, Maria-Pilar; Ramos, Feliciano; García-Alegría, Eva; Fernández-Rivas, Aránzazu; Ruiz-Parra, Eduardo; Poch, Marisa; Alonso, Angel; Martinez-Bouzas, Cristina; Beristain, Elena; Tejada, Maria-Isabel

    2009-03-01

    This report describes a study focused on the relationship between CGG repeat length, FMRP, mRNA levels and cognitive functioning in premutation carriers (PM) carriers of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). We studied 60 females-43 with PM and 17 with normal (N) alleles-from 25 FXS Spanish families. The Wechsler scales were administered to all subjects and new blood samples and hair roots were taken to study mRNA and FMRP levels. Using lowess curves together with segmented models we showed that within the premutation range, IQ scores tend to decrease when the number of CGG repeats increases and the FMRP values decrease. Furthermore, we discovered cut-off points in the molecular variables that seem to change the probability of having some cognitive impairment. Specifically, for those PM females in the upper premutation range (CGG > or = 100) and with FMRP expression < 60% in hair roots, a 10% decrement of FMRP expression represents a significant decrease in IQ scores of about six points, which is more evident for Full-Scale IQ (P-value = 0.035) and Performance IQ (P-value = 0.045) than for Verbal IQ (P-value = 0.074). On the contrary, we did not find any significant correlation between FMR1 mRNA levels and the IQ scores, probably due to the fact that mRNA levels were measured in blood. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the PM can have some effect on cognitive ability in female carriers, although these effects may be subtle. In these cases, it would be advisable to carry out a hair root analysis of FMRP. PMID:18563710

  1. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  2. A Predictive Model to Estimate Knee-Abduction Moment: Implications for Development of a Clinically Applicable Patellofemoral Pain Screening Tool in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Foss, Kim D. Barber; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Paterno, Mark V.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prospective measures of high external knee-abduction moment (KAM) during landing identify female athletes at increased risk of patellofemoral pain (PFP). A clinically applicable screening protocol is needed. Objective: To identify biomechanical laboratory measures that would accurately quantify KAM loads during landing that predict increased risk of PFP in female athletes and clinical correlates to laboratory-based measures of increased KAM status for use in a clinical PFP injury-risk prediction algorithm. We hypothesized that we could identify clinical correlates that combine to accurately determine increased KAM associated with an increased risk of developing PFP. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Biomechanical laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Adolescent female basketball and soccer players (n = 698) from a single-county public school district. Main Outcome Measure(s): We conducted tests of anthropometrics, maturation, laxity, flexibility, strength, and landing biomechanics before each competitive season. Pearson correlation and linear and logistic regression modeling were used to examine high KAM (>15.4 Nm) compared with normal KAM as a surrogate for PFP injury risk. Results: The multivariable logistic regression model that used the variables peak knee-abduction angle, center-of-mass height, and hip rotational moment excursion predicted KAM associated with PFP risk (>15.4 NM of KAM) with 92% sensitivity and 74% specificity and a C statistic of 0.93. The multivariate linear regression model that included the same predictors accounted for 70% of the variance in KAM. We identified clinical correlates to laboratory measures that combined to predict high KAM with 92% sensitivity and 47% specificity. The clinical prediction algorithm, including knee-valgus motion (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31, 1.63), center-of-mass height (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.26), and hamstrings strength/body fat percentage (OR

  3. Validation of vaginal discharge syndrome among pregnant women attending obstetrics clinic, in the tertiary hospital of Western India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maitri; Deshmukh, Shetal; Patel, Sangita V.; Mehta, Kedar; Marfatia, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health problem. The laboratory tests for diagnosing STI are often unavailable or too expensive. Therefore, World Health Organization has recommended a syndromic approach for diagnosis and management of STI/reproductive tract infections (RTIs). Very few studies so far had evaluated effectiveness of the syndromic approach in diagnosing STI/RTIs in pregnancy. Aims and Objectives: Validation of syndromic management for vaginal discharge syndrome in pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out which included 233 pregnant females attending obstetric clinic. They were subjected to clinical examination, vaginal swab collection, and serological tests. Results: A total of 183 (78.54%) pregnant females had vaginal discharge on clinical examination and Candida albicans was the most common clinical diagnosis among them. Of 183 cases diagnosed clinically as vaginal discharge syndrome, 38 (20.7%) were tested positive in laboratory investigations. Out of 50 clinically negative cases, 9 (18%) were detected positive for one of the STIs on laboratory testing. Conclusion: Syndromic approach for management of vaginal discharge syndrome resulted in over-treatment of 78% (false positive) and under-diagnosis of 19.1% (false negative) pregnant females. Hence, integration of antenatal screening services in the form of laboratory tests for vaginal discharge is recommended. PMID:26396446

  4. Urinary ochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Klapec, T; Sarkanj, B; Banjari, I; Strelec, I

    2012-12-01

    This study determined exposure of pregnant women to ochratoxin A (OTA). Forty samples of first-void urine samples from Croatian women in the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed for OTA and its major metabolite ochratoxin alpha (OTα). The subjects filled a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Analysis was performed by HPLC-FLD following liquid-liquid extraction. All samples were subjected in parallel to enzymatic treatment (β-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase) to release OTA and OTα from the conjugates. The median urinary levels of OTA and OTα before treatment were 0.02 (range: nd-1.07) ng/mL and 0.16 (nd-1.86) ng/mL; the concentrations after enzyme hydrolysis were 0.02 (nd-1.11) ng/mL and 1.18 (0.11-7.57) ng/mL. While OTα levels increased significantly following enzymatic treatment, evidence for OTA conjugation was weak. The ratio of urinary OTα medians after and before hydrolysis was 1.5 times higher than previously reported for nonpregnant female subjects, possibly indicating upregulated metabolism and/or elimination of the mycotoxin and metabolites in pregnancy. The mean daily dietary OTA intake calculated from FFQs (1.08±0.57 ng/kg body weight) was well below the provisional tolerable daily intake and the greatest contributors to intake were cereal products, fruit juices, chocolate and coffee. PMID:23041474

  5. Microcytic anemia in a pregnant woman: beyond iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rollón, Noelia; Fernández-Jiménez, María Cristina; Moreno-Carralero, María Isabel; Murga-Fernández, María José; Morán-Jiménez, María Josefa

    2015-05-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by anemia of varying severity and the presence of ringed sideroblasts in bone marrow. The most common form of inherited sideroblastic anemia is X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA). In many XLSA patients, anemia responds variably to supplementation with pyridoxine (vitamin B6). We describe the case of a pregnant female with XLSA who had a novel mutation on the ALAS2 gene (c.1218G > T, p.Leu406Phe). Oral chelation therapy was contraindicated and high-dose vitamin B6 would have possible side effects in pregnancy. Serum hepcidin level was very low, indicating increased absorption of iron secondary to ineffective erythropoiesis. Therapy was begun with a low dose of pyridoxine that was increased post-partum. The patient's liver showed moderate iron deposits. During a subsequent 3-month period of pyridoxine supplementation, serum ferritin level and transferrin saturation decreased, hemoglobin content and serum hepcidin level normalized, and morphologic red cell abnormalities improved markedly. The patient responded well to treatment, showing the pyridoxine responsiveness of this novel ALAS2 mutation. The baby girl had the same mutation heterozygously, and although she was neither anemic nor showed abnormalities in a peripheral blood smear, she had a mild increment in RDW and her condition is now being followed. PMID:25547425

  6. In utero and lactational exposure to fipronil in female rats: Pregnancy outcomes and sexual development.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Aline Lima; Rosa, Josiane Lima; Cavariani, Marília Martins; Borges, Cibele Santos; Villela E Silva, Patrícia; Bae, Julie Heejoo; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Cristina Arena, Arielle

    2016-01-01

    Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, is used in agriculture, veterinary medicine, and public health. Because this insecticide is considered a potential endocrine disruptor, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of perinatal exposure to fipronil on neonatal female reproductive system development. Pregnant rats were exposed (via gavage) daily to fipronil (0.03, 0.3, or 3 mg/kg) from gestational day 15 to day 7 after birth, and effects on the reproductive functions assessed on postnatal day (PND) 22. No signs of maternal toxicity were observed during daily treatment with fipronil. Perinatal exposure to the highest dose of fipronil (3 mg/kg) delayed the age of vaginal opening (VO) and first estrus without markedly affecting the anogenital distance (AGD). Further, exposure to 0.3 mg/kg fipronil produced a significantly shorter estrus cycle and reduced number of cycles during the period of evaluation. However, the other reproductive parameters analyzed, including fertility, hormone levels, sexual behavior, and histology of ovaries and uterus, displayed no marked alterations. In this experimental model, fipronil interfered with development of neonatal female reproductive system as evidenced by delay in VO and estrus cycle alterations without apparent significant effects on fertility. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action associated with the observed female reproductive system changes. PMID:27074097

  7. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  8. Antifertility mechanisms of gossypol acetic acid in female rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Q; Wu, X Y

    1987-07-01

    Gossypol acetic acid was administered orally (30, 60, 90 and 120 mg/kg/day) on Days 1-5 post coitum to mature female rats. At autopsy on Day 10, pregnancy in most treated animals (6/7 and 6/8) was blocked at high doses (90 and 120 mg/kg/day respectively). As the daily dose decreased to 60 mg/kg/day half (4/8) were not pregnant. However, at a lower dose (30 mg/kg/day), or at a single dose of 200 mg/kg at Day 1 p.c., pregnancy was not blocked. The concentrations of progesterone in the serum of these females were significantly decreased except at the low dose. The numbers of implantation sites in the treated females that did remain pregnant were similar to those in control females except at the dose of 120 mg/kg/day. Gossypol did not retard the development of the preimplantation embryo or cavitation. The Pontamine Blue test revealed that the drug did not interfere with the initiation of implantation. We suggest that gossypol has an antifertility effect in the female rat because it is luteolytic and disrupts post-implantation development. PMID:3656277

  9. Investigation of the use of thermography for research and clinical applications in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topalidou, Anastasia; Downe, Soo

    2016-03-01

    Background: The possibility of using thermal imaging, as a non-invasive method, in medicine may provide potential ability of advanced imaging. Objective: The conduction of a preliminary study in healthy non-pregnant females in order to investigate the imaging ability of thermography and its implementation; and to determine hot and cold areas in order to create a "map" of temperature distribution of the abdomen and the torso. Methods: Participants were 18-45 years old non-pregnant women (n = 10), who were measured at 4 different distances. Two thermal imaging cameras and their corresponding software were used to measure abdomen, low back, left and right side of the torso. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the mean values of the exported temperatures according the distance and the angle between the camera and the subject. The inferior part of the rectus abdominis muscle recorded the coldest zone and the umbilicus appeared as the most prominent hot spot. Conclusions: Thermography shows to be a potential non-invasive technique offering new options in the evaluation of pregnant and laboring women.

  10. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world’s population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential. PMID:27134703

  11. Non-rigid registration of a 3D ultrasound and a MR image data set of the female pelvic floor using a biomechanical model

    PubMed Central

    Verhey, Janko F; Wisser, Josef; Warfield, Simon K; Rexilius, Jan; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Background The visual combination of different modalities is essential for many medical imaging applications in the field of Computer-Assisted medical Diagnosis (CAD) to enhance the clinical information content. Clinically, incontinence is a diagnosis with high clinical prevalence and morbidity rate. The search for a method to identify risk patients and to control the success of operations is still a challenging task. The conjunction of magnetic resonance (MR) and 3D ultrasound (US) image data sets could lead to a new clinical visual representation of the morphology as we show with corresponding data sets of the female anal canal with this paper. Methods We present a feasibility study for a non-rigid registration technique based on a biomechanical model for MR and US image data sets of the female anal canal as a base for a new innovative clinical visual representation. Results It is shown in this case study that the internal and external sphincter region could be registered elastically and the registration partially corrects the compression induced by the ultrasound transducer, so the MR data set showing the native anatomy is used as a frame for the US data set showing the same region with higher resolution but distorted by the transducer Conclusion The morphology is of special interest in the assessment of anal incontinence and the non-rigid registration of normal clinical MR and US image data sets is a new field of the adaptation of this method incorporating the advantages of both technologies. PMID:15777475

  12. [FEATURES MORPHOLOGICAL PICTURE FACIES ORAL LIQUID IN PREGNANT].

    PubMed

    Iakovets, O V

    2015-01-01

    The features of morphological picture facies oral fluid of pregnant women with intact periodontal inflammatory diseases periodontal tissues. Results of the study were compared with the clinical picture. The features of morphological picture of the oral liquid with a healthy non-pregnant and periodontal inflammatory periodontal diseases in pregnant women. Revealed signs of inflammation markers in oral fluid facies in inflammatory processes in periodontal tissues. PMID:27089718

  13. [Caries incidence assessment in young and mature nulliparous pregnant].

    PubMed

    Bakhmudov, B R; Alieva, Z B; Bakhmudov, M B

    2011-01-01

    Caries incidence was assessed in young (15-17 years) and mature (30-34 years) nulliparous pregnant. In young women the incidence was 1.62 +/- 0.16, while in mature pregnant--1.38 +/- 0.17. This values are significantly higher than in non-pregnant women of the same age: 0.48 +/- 0.09 and 0.24 +/- 0.08, correspondently. PMID:22332376

  14. [Specific features of emergency dental care in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, E N; Axamit, L A; Manukhina, E I; Letunova, N Yu; Golikova, A M; Fedotova, T M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the algorithm of safe emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Eighty-five pregnant women aged 20-35 were included in the study. The paper presents elaborated state-of-the-art guidelines for emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:200,000 is recommended as a choice agent for local anesthesia in these patients. PMID:27239992

  15. Host Nectin-1 Promotes Chlamydial Infection in the Female Mouse Genital Tract, but Is Not Required for Infection in a Novel Male Murine Rectal Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Jessica A.; Hall, Jennifer V.; Kintner, Jennifer; Phillips-Campbell, Regenia; Schoborg, Robert V.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen, but more than 70% of patients fail to seek treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of these infections. Women suffer from numerous complications from chronic chlamydial infections, which include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. We previously demonstrated in culture that host cell nectin-1 knockdown significantly reduced chlamydial titers and inclusion size. Here, we sought to determine whether nectin-1 was required for chlamydial development in vivo by intravaginally infecting nectin-1-/- mice with Chlamydia muridarum and monitoring chlamydial shedding by chlamydial titer assay. We observed a significant reduction in chlamydial shedding in female nectin-1-/- mice compared to nectin-1+/+ control mice, an observation that was confirmed by PCR. Immunohistochemical staining in mouse cervical tissue confirmed that there are fewer chlamydial inclusions in Chlamydia-infected nectin-1-/- mice. Notably, anorectal chlamydial infections are becoming a substantial health burden, though little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. We therefore established a novel male murine model of rectal chlamydial infection, which we used to determine whether nectin-1 is required for anorectal chlamydial infection in male mice. In contrast to the data from vaginal infection, no difference in rectal chlamydial shedding was observed when male nectin-1+/+ and nectin-1-/- mice were compared. Through the use of these two models, we have demonstrated that nectin-1 promotes chlamydial infection in the female genital tract but does not appear to contribute to rectal infection in male mice. These models could be used to further characterize tissue and sex related differences in chlamydial infection. PMID:27486990

  16. Host Nectin-1 Promotes Chlamydial Infection in the Female Mouse Genital Tract, but Is Not Required for Infection in a Novel Male Murine Rectal Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jessica A; Hall, Jennifer V; Kintner, Jennifer; Phillips-Campbell, Regenia; Schoborg, Robert V

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen, but more than 70% of patients fail to seek treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of these infections. Women suffer from numerous complications from chronic chlamydial infections, which include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. We previously demonstrated in culture that host cell nectin-1 knockdown significantly reduced chlamydial titers and inclusion size. Here, we sought to determine whether nectin-1 was required for chlamydial development in vivo by intravaginally infecting nectin-1-/- mice with Chlamydia muridarum and monitoring chlamydial shedding by chlamydial titer assay. We observed a significant reduction in chlamydial shedding in female nectin-1-/- mice compared to nectin-1+/+ control mice, an observation that was confirmed by PCR. Immunohistochemical staining in mouse cervical tissue confirmed that there are fewer chlamydial inclusions in Chlamydia-infected nectin-1-/- mice. Notably, anorectal chlamydial infections are becoming a substantial health burden, though little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. We therefore established a novel male murine model of rectal chlamydial infection, which we used to determine whether nectin-1 is required for anorectal chlamydial infection in male mice. In contrast to the data from vaginal infection, no difference in rectal chlamydial shedding was observed when male nectin-1+/+ and nectin-1-/- mice were compared. Through the use of these two models, we have demonstrated that nectin-1 promotes chlamydial infection in the female genital tract but does not appear to contribute to rectal infection in male mice. These models could be used to further characterize tissue and sex related differences in chlamydial infection. PMID:27486990

  17. Gastrointestinal endoscopy in the pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Friedel, David; Stavropoulos, Stavros; Iqbal, Shahzad; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    About 20000 gastrointestinal endoscopies are performed annually in America in pregnant women. Gastrointestinal endoscopy during pregnancy raises the critical issue of fetal safety in addition to patient safety. Endoscopic medications may be potentially abortifacient or teratogenic. Generally, Food and Drug Administration category B or C drugs should be used for endoscopy. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) seems to be relatively safe for both mother and fetus based on two retrospective studies of 83 and 60 pregnant patients. The diagnostic yield is about 95% when EGD is performed for gastrointestinal bleeding. EGD indications during pregnancy include acute gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia > 1 wk, or endoscopic therapy. Therapeutic EGD is experimental due to scant data, but should be strongly considered for urgent indications such as active bleeding. One study of 48 sigmoidoscopies performed during pregnancy showed relatively favorable fetal outcomes, rare bad fetal outcomes, and bad outcomes linked to very sick mothers. Sigmoidoscopy should be strongly considered for strong indications, including significant acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, chronic diarrhea, distal colonic stricture, suspected inflammatory bowel disease flare, and potential colonic malignancy. Data on colonoscopy during pregnancy are limited. One study of 20 pregnant patients showed rare poor fetal outcomes. Colonoscopy is generally experimental during pregnancy, but can be considered for strong indications: known colonic mass/stricture, active lower gastrointestinal bleeding, or colonoscopic therapy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) entails fetal risks from fetal radiation exposure. ERCP risks to mother and fetus appear to be acceptable when performed for ERCP therapy, as demonstrated by analysis of nearly 350 cases during pregnancy. Justifiable indications include symptomatic or complicated choledocholithiasis, manifested by jaundice, cholangitis, gallstone

  18. Population Pharmacokinetics of Lumefantrine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women With Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kloprogge, F; Piola, P; Dhorda, M; Muwanga, S; Turyakira, E; Apinan, S; Lindegårdh, N; Nosten, F; Day, N P J; White, N J; Guerin, P J; Tarning, J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many antimalarial compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda after a standard fixed oral artemether–lumefantrine treatment. Dense venous (n = 26) and sparse capillary (n = 90) lumefantrine samples were drawn from pregnant patients. A total of 17 nonpregnant women contributed with dense venous lumefantrine samples. Lumefantrine pharmacokinetics was best described by a flexible absorption model with multiphasic disposition. Pregnancy and body temperature had a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of lumefantrine. Simulations from the final model indicated 27% lower day 7 concentrations in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women and a decreased median time of 0.92 and 0.42 days above previously defined critical concentration cutoff values (280 and 175 ng/ml, respectively). The standard artemether–lumefantrine dose regimen in P. falciparum malaria may need reevaluation in nonimmune pregnant women. PMID:24226803

  19. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women. PMID:26333611

  20. [Pregnant women, children and international travel].

    PubMed

    Høgh, Birthe; Rønn, Anita Mandrup

    2005-10-17

    Pregnant women and children have special needs and vulnerabilities that should be addressed when preparing for travel abroad. The most stable time for travel during pregnancy is the second trimester. Live vaccines should be avoided during pregnancy. Children should be up to date on both routine and travel-related vaccines. Elective travel to malarious areas, especially where chloroquine-resistant malaria is endemic, should be avoided, as some vaccines and antimalarial drugs may not be used during pregnancy and for children below a certain age. Guidelines on preventive measures are given. PMID:16232399

  1. Effect of endotoxin administration in pregnant camels

    PubMed Central

    AL-Dughaym, A.M.; Homeida, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin at a dose of 0.05 μg/kg bodyweight to pregnant camels resulted in abortion. The injection of endotoxin caused significant increases in the plasma concentration of 13,14-dihydro-15-prostaglandin F2α, the metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PG F2α) and cortisol and a significant decrease in the concentration of progesterone. It is suggested that endotoxin caused abortion in camels was a consequence of endotoxin induced PG F2α secretion resulting in luteal regression and decreased progesterone concentration. PMID:23961064

  2. Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women in the healthcare system in Poland: Is it worth the effort?

    PubMed

    Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena; Religioni, Urszula; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Czerw, Aleksandra; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew; Soszyński, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is globally recognized as a serious public health concern. Current statistics indicate that approximately 2% of people worldwide and 1.9% of people in Poland suffer from HCV infection.This study was conducted to assess the anti-HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Poland and subsequently provide recommendations on the rationale for obligatory screening.A total of 42,274 women participated in our study, of which 16,130 were pregnant. We were granted access to their health data stored in the form of electronic medical records kept by the network of outpatient clinics throughout Poland.The lowest rate of positive anti-HCV test results was found in women ages 25 to 34 (0.73%); however, younger and older age groups had similar rates (15-24 = 0.86%; 35-44 = 0.84%). Additional analysis of data from the period between 2011 and 2014 revealed a downward trend in the proportion of positive anti-HCV tests among pregnant women (mean positive anti-HCV = -0.001 × year + 1.9451; R = 0.7274). Regardless of the gradual increase in the number of female patients undergoing screening between 2004 and 2015, there has been a constant decrease in the rate of positive cases. The rate of pregnant women potentially infected with HCV was twice as lower than that in a control group of women undergoing tests for other medical circumstances: 0.76% vs 1.67% (P < 0.0001).Analysis of real-world data of female patients in Poland provides evidence that screening based on an individual's medical history and behavioral risk factors in clinical circumstances would be more effective than obligatory testing of all pregnant women. PMID:27472714

  3. Social stressors and coping mechanisms in wild female baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus).

    PubMed

    Crockford, Catherine; Wittig, Roman M; Whitten, Patricia L; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2008-01-01

    We examined the social correlates of fecal glucocorticoid (GC) levels in wild female baboons during a period of social and demographic stability. Females' GC levels were not affected by individual attributes such as number of kin or dominance rank, nor could we detect any significant seasonal effects. Instead, GC levels were influenced by behavioral attributes that varied between individuals and within individuals across time. Pregnant and cycling females who received high rates of aggression had higher GC levels than others. In contrast, pregnant and cycling females who received grunts - vocal signals of benign intent - at high frequencies from dominant females had lower GC levels than females who received grunts at lower frequencies. Lactating females showed the opposite trend, apparently as a consequence of the high rate of grunting and intense, unsolicited attention that their infants received from others. All females experienced lower GC levels in months when they concentrated their grooming among a small number of partners than when their grooming was more evenly distributed among many partners. Although GC levels in female baboons are most strongly influenced by events that directly affect their reproductive success, subtle social factors associated with the loss of predictability and control also seem to exert an effect. Loss of control may be mitigated if a female is able to predict others' intentions - for example, if others grunt to her to signal their intentions - and if she is able to express some preference over the timing and identities of her grooming partners. PMID:18076884

  4. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening for incarcerated pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Resch, Stephen; Altice, Frederick L; Paltiel, A David

    2005-02-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated on a prenatal basis in HIV-infected pregnant women is a highly effective method for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. We developed a decision analytic model to project the clinical and economic outcomes of alternative HIV screening strategies (voluntary prenatal screening [VPS], routine prenatal screening [RPS], and mandatory newborn screening [MNS]) for a high-risk population of incarcerated pregnant women. Data for the decision model came from the HIV voluntary counseling and testing program at Connecticut's sole correctional facility for women and a comprehensive anonymously linked serosurvey of all inmates who entered the facility during the 2-year period beginning in October 1994. Based on serosurvey results, in the absence of any HIV screening program, 2.5 cases of pediatric HIV infection would be expected per 1000 pregnancies. Multiplied by the discounted lifetime cost per case of $247,000, this translates to a cost of $624 per testing-eligible prison entrant. Entrants were considered eligible if they were pregnant and their HIV status was unknown. MNS would save money, cost $364 per eligible entrant, and simultaneously reduce the rate of infections to 1.1 per 1000 pregnancies. Doing both MNS and RPS is most effective in reducing the rate of new infections (down to 0.2 per 1000 pregnancies). It would, however, increase costs to $430 per eligible entrant. This would result in an incremental cost of $73,603 per additional pediatric HIV case averted when compared with MNS alone. If mandatory newborn testing was not considered a feasible option, RPS would dominate VPS and would be cost-saving compared with no screening. RPS compares favorably with alternative uses of HIV prevention and treatment resources. In correctional facilities where voluntary newborn screening is already in place, our findings show that there remains a small marginal benefit to be realized from switching to RPS. In settings where HIV

  5. Development of a Computational Model for Female Fathead Minnows Exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol and 17B-trenbolone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fathead minnow (FHM) is a valuable small fish model for genomic research in ecotoxicology. Our recent studies have successfully used genomic and metabolomic analyses to evaluate responses to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in urine of the FHM, but these results indicate...

  6. A Model to Explain At-Risk/Problem Gambling among Male and Female Adolescents: Gender Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57).…

  7. Insights into the latent multinomial model through mark-resight data on female grizzly bears with cubs-of-the-year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgs, Megan D.; Link, William; White, Gary C.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    Mark-resight designs for estimation of population abundance are common and attractive to researchers. However, inference from such designs is very limited when faced with sparse data, either from a low number of marked animals, a low probability of detection, or both. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, yearly mark-resight data are collected for female grizzly bears with cubs-of-the-year (FCOY), and inference suffers from both limitations. To overcome difficulties due to sparseness, we assume homogeneity in sighting probabilities over 16 years of bi-annual aerial surveys. We model counts of marked and unmarked animals as multinomial random variables, using the capture frequencies of marked animals for inference about the latent multinomial frequencies for unmarked animals. We discuss undesirable behavior of the commonly used discrete uniform prior distribution on the population size parameter and provide OpenBUGS code for fitting such models. The application provides valuable insights into subtleties of implementing Bayesian inference for latent multinomial models. We tie the discussion to our application, though the insights are broadly useful for applications of the latent multinomial model.

  8. The Origins and Maintenance of Female Genital Modification across Africa : Bayesian Phylogenetic Modeling of Cultural Evolution under the Influence of Selection.

    PubMed

    Ross, Cody T; Strimling, Pontus; Ericksen, Karen Paige; Lindenfors, Patrik; Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff

    2016-06-01

    We present formal evolutionary models for the origins and persistence of the practice of Female Genital Modification (FGMo). We then test the implications of these models using normative cross-cultural data on FGMo in Africa and Bayesian phylogenetic methods that explicitly model adaptive evolution. Empirical evidence provides some support for the findings of our evolutionary models that the de novo origins of the FGMo practice should be associated with social stratification, and that social stratification should place selective pressures on the adoption of FGMo; these results, however, are tempered by the finding that FGMo has arisen in many cultures that have no social stratification, and that forces operating orthogonally to stratification appear to play a more important role in the cross-cultural distribution of FGMo. To explain these cases, one must consider cultural evolutionary explanations in conjunction with behavioral ecological ones. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our study for policies designed to end the practice of FGMo. PMID:26846688

  9. Male Partner’s Role during Pregnancy, Labour and Delivery: Expectations of Pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Abiodun S.; Aboyeji, Abiodun P.; Fawole, Adegboyega A.; Balogun, Olayinka R.; Adesina, Kikelomo T.; Adeniran, Peace I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the expectations of pregnant women on the role of the male partner during conception and delivery. Methodology A prospective multi-centre observational study comprising 506 pregnant women at eight health facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Consenting women were recruited at antenatal clinics using multistage purposive sampling and a self-administered questionnaire was administered with provision for interpreters in local dialects for those without western education. The data was analyzed using SPSS using percentages and chi-square test; p <0.05 was termed significant. Results Participants were aged 17 to 49 years (mean 30.23±4.81), 82.4% desire male partners company during antenatal clinic visits and 59.1% experienced this in index pregnancy. During labour and delivery, 427(84.4%) want company; 345(80.8%) chose the male partner with 211(57.7%) hoping men will appreciate the value of females afterwards although 27.9% feared the men may disturb the health workers, 72(14.2%) male partners attended previous delivery and 84.8% of the women were satisfied with the experience. Significant predictors of support for male partner’s presence at delivery were maternal age (p=0.001), secondary or higher education (p=0.001) and parity less than four (p=0.001); religion (x21.010; p>0.001) and social status (p>0.001) were statistically insignificant. Pregnant women wanted education for male partners on care of pregnant women (77.0%) and sex during conception (25.2%). Conclusion Parturient desire male partners’ presence at deliveries but their past participation was low; health facility modifications and education for men are required to meet the desires. PMID:26609295

  10. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. Material/Methods This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. Results The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Conclusions Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM. PMID:26084958

  11. Standing working posture compared in pregnant and non-pregnant conditions.

    PubMed

    Paul, J A; Frings-Dresen, M H

    1994-09-01

    During pregnancy, an increase in body weight occurs together with changes in body weight distribution and in fit between body dimensions and workplace layout. These changes may cause alterations in working posture which may, in turn, have adverse consequences for the biomechanical load on the musculoskeletal system and so increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Using photographic posture registration, the standing working posture was studied in 27 women during the last stage of pregnancy and after delivery (the experimental group). The women performed an assembly task while standing at various workplace layouts. The postural differences between the pregnant condition and the non-pregnant condition were studied and the effect of the various workplace layouts assessed. Ten non-pregnant controls were also studied twice to establish the effect of the time interval between the measuring occasions. We found that the women of the experimental group stood further from the work surface in the pregnant condition compared to the non-pregnant condition, the hips were positioned more backwards, and, in order to reach the tesk, they increased the flexion of the trunk, increased the anteflexion of the upper arms, and extended the arms more. At the workplace layout in which the work surface height was self-selected, the postural differences due to pregnancy were smallest or even absent, compared to the postural differences in the other workplace layouts studied. Ergonomists and workers in occupational health services should be alert to the consequences for the biomechanical load on the musculoskeletal system and the risk of development of health complaints caused by postural changes due to pregnancy. An adjustable workplace layout may prevent some problems. PMID:7957032

  12. TRPV3 expression and vasodilator function in isolated uterine radial arteries from non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy V; Kanagarajah, Arjna; Toemoe, Sianne; Bertrand, Paul P; Grayson, T Hilton; Britton, Fiona C; Leader, Leo; Senadheera, Sevvandi; Sandow, Shaun L

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the expression and function of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-3 ion channels (TRPV3) in uterine radial arteries isolated from non-pregnant and twenty-day pregnant rats. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) suggested TRPV3 is primarily localized to the smooth muscle in arteries from both non-pregnant and pregnant rats. IHC using C' targeted antibody, and qPCR of TRPV3 mRNA, suggested pregnancy increased arterial TRPV3 expression. The TRPV3 activator carvacrol caused endothelium-independent dilation of phenylephrine-constricted radial arteries, with no difference between vessels from non-pregnant and pregnant animals. Carvacrol-induced dilation was reduced by the TRPV3-blockers isopentenyl pyrophosphate and ruthenium red, but not by the TRPA1 or TRPV4 inhibitors HC-030031 or HC-067047, respectively. In radial arteries from non-pregnant rats only, inhibition of NOS and sGC, or PKG, enhanced carvacrol-mediated vasodilation. Carvacrol-induced dilation of arteries from both non-pregnant and pregnant rats was prevented by the IKCa blocker TRAM-34. TRPV3 caused an endothelium-independent, IKCa-mediated dilation of the uterine radial artery. NO-PKG-mediated modulation of TRPV3 activity is lost in pregnancy, but this did not alter the response to carvacrol. PMID:27073026

  13. Changes in cumulus-oocyte complexes of pregnant and non-pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius) during maturation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Torner, H; Heleil, B; Alm, H; Ghoneim, I M; Srsen, V; Kanitz, W; Tuchscherer, A; Fattouh, E M

    2003-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cumulus morphology and the oocyte chromatin quality of camel cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) at the time of recovery, and to monitor changes in oocyte chromatin configuration and apoptosis in cumulus cells from camel COCs during in vitro maturation (IVM) (0, 12, 24, 32, 36, 42, and 48 p.IVM) depending on pregnancy of donors. A total of 1023 COCs were isolated from sliced ovaries after slaughtering of 47 pregnant and 43 non-pregnant camels in an abattoir. The mean number of COCs per donor was 10.3 in pregnant and 12.5 in non-pregnant donors. The cumulus morphology of COCs was independent of the type of donor and was divided in COCs with compact (26.9 and 28%), dispersed (39.3 and 46%), corona radiata cumulus investment (27.9 and 21.7%) and without cumulus (6 and 4.2%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. The highest proportion of COCs exhibited dispersed cumulus (P<0.05). Oocytes with meiotic stages of diplotene >50% were found only in compact (55 and 56.5%) and in dispersed COCs (58.4 and 60%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. During IVM (0-48h) the first significant onset of specific meiotic stages were different in oocytes from pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24-32h), metaphase 2 (36-42h), versus oocytes from non-pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24h), metaphase 2 (32-48h) (P<0.05). The level of apoptotic cells in cumuli of matured COCs increased during IVM and was higher in matured COCs from non-pregnant donors for each time point during IVM (P<0.01). Camel oocytes meiosis during IVM is accompanied by a drastic increase of apoptosis in the surrounding cumulus cells 0-32 and 0-24h during IVM, respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. The oocytes of pregnant camels require 36h of maturation to reach levels of >50% metaphase 2 stage in comparison to oocytes from non-pregnant donors where 32h are sufficient. The earlier onset of apoptosis in the COCs derived from non-pregnant donors

  14. Female alternative reproductive behaviors: the effect of female group size on mate assessment and copying.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Bernard J; Flaxman, Samuel M; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2008-08-01

    Extensive theoretical and empirical research has focused on male alternative reproductive tactics. In comparison, female alternative tactics have attracted little attention, and further theoretical and empirical research are needed. Using a game theoretical model, we examine female choice alternatives (1) by considering assessment errors in a novel and more realistic manner than done previously, and (2) for the first time, by highlighting the formation of groups of females as an important consequence of copying behavior. We consider two alternatives: direct assessment of male quality by females and female copying of the choice of other females. Assessment and copying are predicted to coexist under a wide variety of circumstances and copying is favored when females make assessment errors, when high-quality males are either common or very rare, and when female fitness declines with the number of other females choosing the same male. We also find that the frequency of copying at equilibrium is predicted to decrease when the presence of other females mating with the same male has a positive effect on female fitness (e.g. through increased male parental effort, decreased predation risk or cooperation among females). Female alternative choice tactics also influence the potential for sexual selection. In our model, when the frequency of copying females is low, the potential for sexual selection can be higher than in the absence of female copying. However, contrary to previous theory, we find that as copying females become more common than assessing females, the potential for sexual selection will be low as more females copy the mate choice of other copiers without assessment. PMID:18511084

  15. Acute pulmonary oedema in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dennis, A T; Solnordal, C B

    2012-06-01

    Acute pulmonary oedema in pregnant women is an uncommon but life-threatening event. The aims of this review are to address why pulmonary oedema occurs in pregnant women and to discuss immediate management. We performed a systematic literature search of electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, using the key words obstetrics, pregnancy, acute pulmonary oedema, pregnancy complications, maternal, cardiac function and haemodynamics. We present a simple clinical classification of acute pulmonary oedema in pregnancy into pulmonary oedema occurring in normotensive or hypotensive women (i.e. without hypertension), and acute pulmonary oedema occurring in hypertensive women, which allows focused management. Pre-eclampsia remains an important cause of hypertensive acute pulmonary oedema in pregnancy and preventive strategies include close clinical monitoring and restricted fluid administration. Immediate management of acute pulmonary oedema includes oxygenation, ventilation and circulation control with venodilators. Pregnancy-specific issues include consideration of the physiological changes of pregnancy, the risk of aspiration and difficult airway, reduced respiratory and metabolic reserve, avoidance of aortocaval compression and delivery of the fetus. PMID:22420683

  16. [Intracranial arteriovenous malformations in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Perquin, D A; Kloet, A; Tans, J T; Witte, G N; Dörr, P J

    1999-03-01

    Three women, aged 27, 32 and 30 years, respectively, suffered from headache, nausea and neurological abnormalities and were found to have an intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM). One of them after diagnosis had two pregnancies, both ended by caesarean section with good results. Another woman was 32 weeks pregnant when the AVM manifested itself with a haemorrhage; she recovered well and was delivered by caesarean section. After the AVM proved radiologically to have been obliterated, she delivered after her subsequent pregnancy by the vaginal route with vacuum extraction. The third woman was 15 weeks pregnant when major abnormalities developed. There was a large intracerebral haematoma with break-through to the ventricular system; this patient died. Intracranial haemorrhage during pregnancy is rate. It can result in maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. It appears that pregnancy does not increase the rate of first cerebral haemorrhage from an AVM. The management of AVM rupture during pregnancy should be based primarily on neurosurgical rather than on obstetric considerations. Close collaboration with a team of neurologists, neurosurgeons, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists is mandatory. PMID:10321255

  17. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

  18. The Effect of a First Child on Female Labor Supply: Evidence from Women Seeking Fertility Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristia, Julian P.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating the causal effect of a first child on female labor supply is complicated by the endogeneity of fertility. This paper addresses this problem by focusing on a sample of women from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) who sought help to become pregnant. After a certain period, only some of these women gave birth. Results using this…

  19. Racial Identity Attitudes and Academic Achievement among At-Risk Black Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Manns, Nicole N.; Ford, Donna Y.

    2009-01-01

    Racial identity attitudes, a construct proposed as a measure of the world view of Blacks (Cross & Vandiver, 2001), and academic performance of a group of Black females attending a high-poverty, failing high school with a 42% graduation rate were examined. These young women were either pregnant or parenting and attended a parenting support group at…

  20. Vulnerable but aloof versus naughty and nice: contrasting the presentation of male and female nude models in Viva and Playboy.

    PubMed

    Beggan, James K; Vencill, Jennifer A; Garos, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    The current research examined contested meanings of nudity by comparing images of nude men and women that appeared in Viva, a 1970s women's magazine founded with the intention of foregrounding male nudity, to corresponding issues of Playboy. A major difference was obtained between male models and Playboy Playmates regarding direction of gaze and nudity. Although gaze aversion is often interpreted as a sign of submission and direct gaze is seen as a dominance cue, men in Viva displayed a high level of gaze aversion and women in Playboy often gazed directly at the camera, especially when their pubic area was exposed. Additional content analysis examined the personality characteristics attributed to male models in Viva and Playmates in Playboy in their biographical sketches. In Viva, men were presented as possessing "bad boy" traits that may have been intended to compensate for the loss of power associated with male nudity. Playmates could be viewed as being naughty (by virtue of posing nude) and nice in the characterization of their personalities. PMID:23829482

  1. Change in sexual behaviour and decline in HIV infection among young pregnant women in urban Uganda.

    PubMed

    Asiimwe-Okiror, G; Opio, A A; Musinguzi, J; Madraa, E; Tembo, G; Caraël, M

    1997-11-15

    Repeated serologic surveys conducted in consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in three urban sites--Nsambya, Rubaga, and Jinja--in Uganda in 1989-95 documented substantial declines (27-47%) in HIV prevalence. Multiple population-based behavioral surveys conducted in urban Uganda in 1989 and 1995 suggest this decline in HIV prevalence among pregnant women may be a result of three key changes in sexual practices: a 2-year delay in the onset of sexual intercourse among young people 15-24 years of age, a 9% decrease in the practice of casual sex among males 15-24 years old, and increases in the experience of condom use of 40% among males and 30% among females. Proportions of male and female youth reporting they had never had sexual intercourse increased from 31% and 26%, respectively, in 1989 to 56% and 46%, respectively, in 1995. The prevalence among men in the past year of sex outside relationships that had lasted more than 12 months declined from 22.6% in 1989 to 18.1% in 1995. The proportion of men and women who reported exchanging sex for money dropped by almost 50%. Finally, the proportion of sexually active respondents who reported ever-use of condoms increased from 15.4% to 55.2% among men and from 5.8% to 38.7% among women from 1989 to 1995. In two of the three urban areas, the decline in HIV prevalence was sharpest among pregnant women in the youngest age group (15-24 years), suggesting a true decrease. The finding of substantial changes in the sexual behavior of urban Ugandan youth confirms the efficacy of AIDS prevention and control interventions. PMID:9386811

  2. Exercise Improves Glucose Disposal and Insulin Signaling in Pregnant Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Woollett, Laura A; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been suggested as a non-pharmacological intervention that can be used to improve glucose homeostasis in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voluntary exercise on glucose tolerance and body composition in pregnant high fat diet fed mice. Methods Female mice were put on a standard diet or high fat diet for two weeks. The mice were then split into 4 groups; control standard diet fed, exercise standard diet fed, control high fat diet fed, and exercise high fat diet fed. Exercise mice had voluntary access to a running wheel in their home cage one week prior to mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy. Glucose tolerance and body composition were measured during pregnancy. Akt levels were quantified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue isolated from saline or insulin injected pregnant dams as a marker for insulin signaling. Results Consumption of the high fat diet led to significantly increased body weight, fat mass, and impaired glucose tolerance in control mice. However, voluntary running in the high fat diet fed dams significantly reduced weight gain and fat mass and ultimately improved glucose tolerance compared to control high fat diet fed dams. Further, body weight, fat mass, and glucose disposal in exercise high fat diet dams were indistinguishable from control dams fed the standard diet. High fat diet fed exercise dams also had significantly increased insulin stimulated phosphorylated Akt expression in adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, compared to control dams on high fat diet. Conclusion The use of voluntary exercise improves glucose homeostasis and body composition in pregnant female mice. Thus, future studies could investigate potential long-term health benefits in offspring born to obese exercising dams. PMID:26966635

  3. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  4. Preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis in pregnant adolescents in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy, it can be transmitted to the fetus causing severe lesions in the first two gestational trimesters. This study analyzed the main factors associated with the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis among pregnant adolescents in the city of Fortaleza in northeast Brazil. Methods It is a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2009 to November 2010, with a sample of 320 pregnant adolescents, ages ranging from 12 to 19 years old, receiving prenatal care in the Public Health Care System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model analyses were used to identify the association between preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis, and the independent variables and 95% confidence interval. Results We observed that 16.3% of the pregnant adolescents showed preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis. The factors positively associated to the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis were: age group between 12 and 14 years old (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.23-6.12) and more than two prenatal consultations (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.17-4.09). Conclusions Noteworthy is the importance of a serologic follow-up for pregnant adolescents with clearer and more precise information about risk factors and the importance of adopting preventive behaviors. Thus, it is necessary to establish educational measures for handling food and raising kittens during prenatal care. PMID:22272659

  5. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  6. Influenza Illness in Pregnant Indian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Parvaiz A.; Bali, Nargis K.; Mir, Hyder; Jabeen, Farhat; Ahmad, Abida

    2016-01-01

    Data about burden of influenza in pregnancy in India are scant. In order to assess the contribution of influenza to acute respiratory illness (ARI) in pregnancy, 266 north Indian pregnant females with febrile ARI were studied from December 2014 to May 2015. Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were obtained and tested for influenza viruses by RT-PCR. Fifty (18.8%) patients tested positive for influenza (A/H1N1pdm09 in 41, A/H3N2 in 8, and influenza B Yamagata in 1). Rigors, headache, and a family history of ARI were significantly more frequent in influenza positive patients. Oseltamivir and supportive therapy were administered to all confirmed cases. Nine influenza positive cases needed hospitalization for their respiratory illness, and 5 developed respiratory failure. Of these, 4 (3 in third trimester) succumbed to their illness. We conclude that influenza viruses are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality among pregnant females with ARI in north India. As such, appropriate preventive strategies of influenza vaccination and early initiation of antiviral therapy during illness are stressed. PMID:26903762

  7. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are

  8. Brief Report: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin; Chalem, Elisa; Barros, Marina Carvalho Moraes; Guinsburg, Ruth; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in a population of pregnant teenage women from a Brazilian public hospital. Method: 1000 pregnant teenage women were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a structured interview which establishes diagnoses according to the International Classification…

  9. Reassigning the Identity of the Pregnant and Parenting Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    Learning about students' literacy practices at a school for pregnant and parenting teens is a tool for educators and scholars in rethinking the identity of the pregnant and parenting student. Though this population of students has been historically marginalized in U.S. school settings, programs such as the one described here have the potential to…

  10. Pregnant? Drugs and Alcohol Can Hurt Your Unborn Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This brochure, directed towards pregnant women, describes the dangers of alcohol, street drugs, smoking, and prescription drugs or over-the-counter medicines. It presents a story (in the mother's words) of a woman who took drugs to get high while pregnant and the ill effects on her son. The brochure claims being drug free means being a better…

  11. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  12. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with Pregnant Adolescents: Two Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa; Gur, Merav; Shanok, Arielle; Weissman, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and helpfulness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-PA) for depression in pregnant adolescents. Method: Two open clinical trials were conducted of IPT-PA delivered in group format in a New York City public school for pregnant girls. Study 1 tests IPT-PA for management of…

  13. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in...

  14. Mercury 203 distribution in pregnant and nonpregnant rats following systemic infusions with thiol-containing amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Aschner, M.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Near-term pregnant (gestational day 17) and nonpregnant Long-Evans female rats were continuously infused into the external jugular vein with 0.1 mmole/hour L-cysteine, 0.1 mmole/hour L-leucine, or saline. At 24, 48, and 72 hours, 50 mumole/hour (/sup 203/Hg)-MeHgCl was administered over 1 hour. Total /sup 203/Hg body burden, brain, kidney, liver, and blood /sup 203/Hg concentrations were determined at 96 hours by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Despite significantly greater /sup 203/Hg whole body retention in the pregnant animals /sup 203/Hg concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver were higher in nonpregnant rats. In addition, brain /sup 203/Hg concentrations in both pregnant and virgin rats were significantly higher in L-cysteine-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that the fetus may act as a sink for MeHg, thus decreasing /sup 203/Hg concentrations in maternal blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, the data indicate that brain uptake of methylmercury in both pregnant and nonpregnant rats is enhanced by chronic L-cysteine infusion, lending support to the hypothesis that methylmercury in the rat may be translocated across the blood-brain barrier by the neutral amino acid carrier transport system.

  15. Targeting expression of a transforming growth factor beta 1 transgene to the pregnant mammary gland inhibits alveolar development and lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Jhappan, C; Geiser, A G; Kordon, E C; Bagheri, D; Hennighausen, L; Roberts, A B; Smith, G H; Merlino, G

    1993-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) possesses highly potent, diverse and often opposing cell-specific activities, and has been implicated in the regulation of a variety of physiologic and developmental processes. To determine the effects of in vivo overexpression of TGF-beta 1 on mammary gland function, transgenic mice were generated harboring a fusion gene consisting of the porcine TGF-beta 1 cDNA placed under the control of regulatory elements of the pregnancy-responsive mouse whey-acidic protein (WAP) gene. Females from two of four transgenic lines were unable to lactate due to inhibition of the formation of lobuloalveolar structures and suppression of production of endogenous milk protein. In contrast, ductal development of the mammary glands was not overtly impaired. There was a complete concordance in transgenic mice between manifestation of the lactation-deficient phenotype and expression of RNA from the WAP/TGF-beta 1 transgene, which was present at low levels in the virgin gland, but was greatly induced at mid-pregnancy. TGF-beta 1 was localized to numerous alveoli and to the periductal extracellular matrix in the mammary gland of transgenic females late in pregnancy by immunohistochemical analysis. Glands reconstituted from cultured transgenic mammary epithelial cells duplicated the inhibition of lobuloalveolar development observed in situ in the mammary glands of pregnant transgenic mice. Results from this transgenic model strongly support the hypothesis that TGF-beta 1 plays an important in vivo role in regulating the development and function of the mammary gland. Images PMID:8491177

  16. An open system for automatic home-cage behavioral analysis and its application to male and female mouse models of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zarringhalam, Kourosh; Ka, Minhan; Kook, Yeon-Hee; Terranova, Joseph I; Suh, Yongjoon; King, Oliver D; Um, Moonkyoung

    2012-04-01

    Changes in routine mouse home-cage behavioral activities have been used recently to study alterations of neural circuits caused by genetic and environmental modifications and by drug administration. Nevertheless, automatic assessment of mouse home-cage behaviors remains challenging due to the cost of proprietary systems and to the difficulty in adjusting systems to different monitoring conditions. Here we present software for the automatic quantification of multiple facets of mouse home-cage behaviors, suitable for continuous 24 h video monitoring. We used this program to assess behavioral changes in male and female R6/2 transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease over a 10-week period. Consistent with the well-known progressive motor coordination deficits of R6/2 mice, their hanging, rearing, and climbing activity declined as the disease progressed. R6/2 mice also exhibited frequent disturbances in their resting activity compared to wild-type mice, suggesting that R6/2 mice are more restless and wakeful. Behavioral differences were seen earlier for male R6/2 mice than female R6/2 mice, and "behavioral signatures" based on multiple behaviors enabled us to distinguish male R6/2 mice from sex- and age-matched wild-type controls as early as 5 weeks of age. These results demonstrate that the automated behavioral classification software that we developed ("OpenCage") provides a powerful tool for analyzing natural home-cage mouse behaviors, and for constructing behavioral signatures that will be useful for assessing therapeutic strategies. The OpenCage software is available under an open-source GNU General Public License, allowing other users to freely modify and extend it to suit their purposes. PMID:22266926

  17. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D.; McCall, John W.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Geary, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6–24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM—10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  18. An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Maeghan; Mansour, Abdelmoneim; DiCosty, Utami; Geary, James; Dzimianski, Michael; McCall, Scott D; McCall, John W; Mackenzie, Charles D; Geary, Timothy G

    2016-05-01

    Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6-24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM-10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment. PMID:27145083

  19. Salutary effect of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in two different stress urinary incontinence models in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Jandric, Ivan; Vrcic, Hrvoje; Balen, Marica Jandric; Kolenc, Danijela; Brcic, Luka; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Background Since an originally anti-ulcer stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (PL 14736) was shown to promote healing of injured striated muscle and smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal tract, we explored its therapeutic potentials for leak point pressure (LPP) recovery in rat stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after transabdominal urethrolysis (TU) and prolonged vaginal dilatation (VD). Material/Methods During a 7-day period, TU-rats and VD-rats (or healthy rats) received BPC 157, either (i) intraperitoneally, 10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg, once daily (first administration 30 min after surgery, last 24 h before LPP-testing and sacrifice), or (ii) per-orally, 10 μg/kg in drinking water (0.16 μg/mL, 12 mL/rat/day). Vesicourethral segments were harvested for immunohistochemical evaluation. Results All BPC 157 regimens counteracted decrease of LPP values in TU-rats and VD-rats. Additionally, BPC 157-TU rats (μg-intraperitoneally or per-orally) and BPC 157-VD rats (μg intraperitoneally) reached LPP values originally noted in healthy rats. Conversely, in healthy rats, BPC 157 did not alter LPP. Immunohistochemical studies revealed higher desmin (delineates striated organization of skeletal muscle), smooth muscle actin, and CD34 (angiogenic marker) positivity within the urethral wall in BPC 157-treated rats vs. controls, as well as overall preserved muscle/connective tissue ratio assessed with Mallory’s trichrome staining. Conclusions Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, applied parenterally or per-orally, appears to ameliorate the SUI in rat models, improving the otherwise detrimental course of healing after VD and TU, which may be analogous to human injury. These beneficial effects may possibly be selectively used in future strategies for treatment of SUI. PMID:23478678

  20. Behaviour and cognitive changes correlated with hippocampal neuroinflammaging and neuronal markers in female SAMP8, a model of accelerated senescence.

    PubMed

    Griñan-Ferré, Christian; Palomera-Ávalos, Verónica; Puigoriol-Illamola, Dolors; Camins, Antoni; Porquet, David; Plá, Virginia; Aguado, Fernando; Pallàs, Mercè

    2016-07-01

    Senescence accelerated mice P8 (SAMP8) is a phenotypic model of age, characterized by deficits in memory and altered behaviour. Here, we determined the effect of age in SAMP8, and compared with the resistant strain, SAMR1, in behaviour and learning parameters linking these disturbances with oxidative stress environment. We found impairment in emotional behaviour with regard to fear and anxiety in young SAMP8 vs. age-mated SAMR1. Differences were attenuated with age. In contrast, learning capabilities are worse in SAMP8, both in young and aged animals, with regard to SAMR1. These waves in behaviour and cognition were correlated with an excess of oxidative stress (OS) in SAMP8 at younger ages that diminished with age. In this manner, we found changes in the hippocampal expression of ALDH2, IL-6, HMOX1, COX2, CXCL10, iNOS, and MCP-1 with an altered amyloidogenic pathway by increasing the Amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) and BACE1, and reduced ADAM10 expression; in addition, astrogliosis and neuronal markers decreased. Moreover, Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and Nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kβ) expression and protein levels were higher in younger SAMP8 than in SAMR1. In conclusion, the accelerated senescence process present in SAMP8 can be linked with an initial deregulation in redox homeostasis, named neuroinflammaging, by inducing molecular changes that lead to neuroinflammation and the neurodegenerative process. These changes are reflected in the emotional and cognitive behaviour of SAMP8 that differs from that of SAMR1 and that highlighted the importance of earlier oxidative processes in the onset of neurodegeneration. PMID:27094468

  1. [Pollution and smoking in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    André, E

    1988-01-01

    For nine months the pregnant woman, and indirectly her fetus, is exposed to an aerosol composed of different pollutants. With some of these, as for smoking, it has been possible to define objectively and statistically an alteration of the health status and of the satisfactory outcome of pregnancy; with others it has not been possible at present to define a dose relation effect or a threshold of risk. In this study, known connections were studied between pregnancy and smoking (specific risks, perinatal mortality, childhood cancer and breastfeeding), industrial pollution and particularly those related to lead, fertilisers and pesticides, opiates and cannabis derivatives (in particular their effect on reproductive function), radioactivity and its correlation with the genetic code and the risk of cancer and pollution by micro-organisms. If these risks exist, even it they are not all assessable objectively, the short term action of the most benefit is certainly a change in individual behaviour, for example with tobacco consumption. PMID:2840722

  2. Development of a provisional model to improve transitional care for female adolescents with a rare genital malformation as an example for orphan diseases.

    PubMed

    Simoes, Elisabeth; Kronenthaler, Andrea; Emrich, Christine; Rieger, Monika A; Rall, Kristin Katharina; Schäffeler, Norbert; Hiltner, Hanna; Ueding, Esther; Brucker, Sara Y

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of care exist during the transitional period, when young people with ongoing needs of support to achieve their physical, social, and psychological potential are entering adulthood. This study aims to develop a patient oriented, structured provisional model to improve transitional care for adolescents with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser-Syndrome as an example for orphan diseases, where problems of access and continuity are even more complex. The study is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF-Funding Code 01GY1125). The target patient group are young females with this disorder, treated at the Centre for Rare Genital Malformations in Women (ZSGF), University Hospital of Tuebingen. The study comprises five phases: an appraisal of literature, assessment of patients (n = 25), parents', partners', and health and social care providers' (n = 24) needs and experienced deficits in care and support in a qualitative approach, construction of a provisional model via scenario technique, followed by communicative validation (including interested public, n = 100), preference finding, and identification of patient-oriented quality aims for follow-up. Quantitative data from questionnaires and chart review (as sociodemographic data, nonresponder analysis, and preference rating) are worked up for descriptive statistics. The results provide a platform for the development of future multidisciplinary transitional intervention programs in orphan diseases. PMID:25544945

  3. Predictors of Condom Use Behaviors Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinzhu; Song, Fujian; Ren, Shuhua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wei; Wan, Ying; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Tian; Bazzano, Lydia; Sun, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou) in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the ‘low-tier’ entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r = 0.07). Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r = 0.23 and r = −0.62, respectively). Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r = 0.36). Conclusions/Significance The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:23185355

  4. Timing of peak bone mass in Caucasian females and its implication for the prevention of osteoporosis. Inference from a cross-sectional model.

    PubMed Central

    Matkovic, V; Jelic, T; Wardlaw, G M; Ilich, J Z; Goel, P K; Wright, J K; Andon, M B; Smith, K T; Heaney, R P

    1994-01-01

    To determine the timing of peak bone mass and density, we conducted a cross-sectional study of bone mass measurements in 265 premenopausal Caucasian females, aged 8-50 yr. Bone mass and bone mineral density were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry at the spine (anteroposterior, lateral), proximal femur, radius shaft, distal forearm, and the whole body. Bone mass parameters were analyzed using a quadratic regression model and segmented regression models with quadratic-quadratic or quadratic-linear form. The results show that most of the bone mass at multiple skeletal locations will be accumulated by late adolescence. This is particularly notable for bone mineral density of the proximal femur and the vertebral body. Bone mass of the other regions of interest is either no different in women between the age of 18 yr and the menopause or it is maximal in 50-yr-old women, indicating slow but permanent bone accumulation continuing at some sites up to the time of menopause. This gain in bone mass in premenopausal adult women is probably the result of continuous periosteal expansion with age. Since rapid skeletal mineral acquisition at all sites occurs relatively early in life, the exogenous factors which might optimize peak bone mass need to be more precisely identified and characterized. Images PMID:8113412

  5. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Duguna Fango District, Wolayta Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care, especially during childbirth, based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduces delays in obtaining this care. Objective This study was conducted to assess birth preparedness and complication readiness and its associated factors among pregnant woman in Duguna Fango District in Wolayta Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013, on a sample of 578 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 16.0. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least three steps was considered being well-prepared. Results Among 578 pregnant women only one tenth (10.7%) of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 103 (18.1%) arranged transportation to health facility. Two hundred forty eight (43.6%) identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. more than half (54.1%) of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. only few 17(3%) identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Two hundred sixty four (46.4%) of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and more than half (53.6) planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall less than one fifth 18.3% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (AOR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.62–5.37), being pregnant for the first time (AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.45–7.82), having knowledge of at least two danger signs during

  6. Comparative Assessment of Female Mouse Model of Graves' Orbitopathy Under Different Environments, Accompanied by Proinflammatory Cytokine and T-Cell Responses to Thyrotropin Hormone Receptor Antigen.

    PubMed

    Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Utta; Moshkelgosha, Sajad; Diaz-Cano, Salvador; Edelmann, Bärbel; Görtz, Gina-Eva; Horstmann, Mareike; Noble, Alistair; Hansen, Wiebke; Eckstein, Anja; Banga, J Paul

    2016-04-01

    We recently described a preclinical model of Graves' orbitopathy (GO), induced by genetic immunization of eukaryotic expression plasmid encoding human TSH receptor (TSHR) A-subunit by muscle electroporation in female BALB/c mice. The onset of orbital pathology is characterized by muscle inflammation, adipogenesis, and fibrosis. Animal models of autoimmunity are influenced by their environmental exposures. This follow-up study was undertaken to investigate the development of experimental GO in 2 different locations, run in parallel under comparable housing conditions. Functional antibodies to TSHR were induced in TSHR A-subunit plasmid-immunized animals, and antibodies to IGF-1 receptor α-subunit were also present, whereas control animals were negative in both locations. Splenic T cells from TSHR A-subunit primed animals undergoing GO in both locations showed proliferative responses to purified TSHR antigen and secreted interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-α cytokines. Histopathological evaluation showed orbital tissue damage in mice undergoing GO, manifest by adipogenesis, fibrosis, and muscle damage with classic signs of myopathy. Although no inflammatory infiltrate was observed in orbital tissue in either location, the appearances were consistent with a "hit-and-run" immune-mediated inflammatory event. A statistically significant increase of cumulative incidence of orbital pathology when compared with control animals was shown for both locations, confirming onset of orbital dysimmune myopathy. Our findings confirm expansion of the model in different environments, accompanied with increased prevalence of T cell-derived proinflammatory cytokines, with relevance for pathogenesis. Wider availability of the model makes it suitable for mechanistic studies into pathogenesis and undertaking of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26872090

  7. Proteoglycan metabolism in the connective tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant human cervix. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Norman, M; Ekman, G; Ulmsten, U; Barchan, K; Malmström, A

    1991-04-15

    Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were recorded. After longer periods of incubation the proportion of heparan sulphate proteoglycans increased considerably. The pregnant tissue showed a clearly different composition of labelled proteoglycans. An increased accumulation of the two larger dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans was seen in addition to the dominant small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan of the non-pregnant cervix. The rate of accumulation of these two proteoglycans was about 3 times higher in the pregnant tissue, whereas that of the small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was only increased 2-fold. The fact that the concentration of proteoglycans in the pregnant cervix is approximately one-half of that in the non-pregnant cervix indicates that the turnover of proteoglycans in pregnant cervical tissue is significantly increased. The major effect of this profound change of metabolism was a 50% decrease in proteoglycan content and a 2-fold increased proportion of a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan with an

  8. Proteoglycan metabolism in the connective tissue of pregnant and non-pregnant human cervix. An in vitro study.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, M; Ekman, G; Ulmsten, U; Barchan, K; Malmström, A

    1991-01-01

    Profound changes occur in the cervix during pregnancy. In particular, the connective tissue is remodelled. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this process, the metabolism of cervical connective tissue was studied using tissue cultures. Cervical biopsies from non-pregnant and pregnant women were incubated with [35S]sulphate. The proteoglycans of the tissue specimens were purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography and characterized by SDS/PAGE and by enzymic degradation. In the non-pregnant cervix, the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into the proteoglycans was linear for 48 h. During the first 6 h of incubation the accumulation of chiefly one small labelled proteoglycan (apparent Mr 110,000) substituted with dermatan sulphate was recorded. This is in accordance with the known proteoglycan composition of non-pregnant cervical tissue. In addition, small amounts of two larger radioactive dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (apparent Mr values 220,000 and greater than 500,000) were recorded. After longer periods of incubation the proportion of heparan sulphate proteoglycans increased considerably. The pregnant tissue showed a clearly different composition of labelled proteoglycans. An increased accumulation of the two larger dermatan/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans was seen in addition to the dominant small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan of the non-pregnant cervix. The rate of accumulation of these two proteoglycans was about 3 times higher in the pregnant tissue, whereas that of the small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was only increased 2-fold. The fact that the concentration of proteoglycans in the pregnant cervix is approximately one-half of that in the non-pregnant cervix indicates that the turnover of proteoglycans in pregnant cervical tissue is significantly increased. The major effect of this profound change of metabolism was a 50% decrease in proteoglycan content and a 2-fold increased proportion of a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan with an

  9. The Female Gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  10. The female gametophyte.

    PubMed

    Drews, Gary N; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an