Sample records for pregnant female rats

  1. [Model study of afobazole distribution in pregnant and lactating female rats and infant rat pups].

    PubMed

    Shreder, O V; Kolyvanov, G B; Litvin, A A; Bastrygin, D V; Shreder, E D; Solomina, A S; Viglinskaia, A O; Zabrodina, V V; Zherdev, V P; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

    2010-08-01

    Afobazole and M-11, its major metabolite were detected in placental and embryonic rat tissues after single peroral administration to pregnant female rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The anxiolytic drug and its metabolite are also detected in rat milk and body of the breast-fed infant rat pups after 4 days of daily administration (200 mg/kg, per os) to lactating female rats. PMID:20919552

  2. Effects of oral androstenedione on steroid metabolism in liver of pregnant and non-pregnant female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Flynn; P. P. Sapienza; P. W. Wiesenfeld; I. A. Ross; S. Sahu; C. S. Kim; M. W. O’Donnell; T. F. X. Collins; R. L. Sprando

    2005-01-01

    It is unknown whether androstenedione, a steroidal dietary supplement taken to enhance athletic performance, can affect physiological hormone levels by altering liver enzyme activities that metabolize steroid hormones. Altered hormone levels could be especially devastating during pregnancy. Mature female rats were gavaged with 0, 5, 30 or 60mg\\/kg\\/day androstenedione beginning two weeks prior to mating and continuing through gestation day

  3. The impact of unabated stimulation by human chorionic gonadotropin on the steroid hormone environment of pregnant rats and the spontaneous expression of ovarian cysts in female progeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katryna Bogovich

    2008-01-01

    Unabated stimulation by low doses of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induces ovarian cysts in pregnant rats. In order to\\u000a determine the impact of these in vivo treatments on the hormonal milieu of pregnancy, and the potential impact of an aberrant\\u000a cystic-ovary state during pregnancy on the resulting female offspring, pregnant rats were treated with either 0 (control),\\u000a 1, or 3 IU

  4. Antioxidant therapy and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in pregnant rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kinalski; A. ?ledziewski; B. Telejko; W. Zarzycki; I. Kinalska

    1999-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse the effect of chronic hyperglycaemia on lipid peroxidation and scavenging enzyme activity\\u000a in pregnant animals and their offspring supplemented and not supplemented with vitamin E – a natural antioxidant. Thirty pregnant\\u000a female Wistar rats were used in our experiments. Diabetes was induced on day 7 of pregnancy using a single does of

  5. Morphological changes in lungs, placenta, liver and kidneys of pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Czekaj; A. Pa?asz; T. Lebda-Wyborny; G. Nowaczyk-Dura; W. Karczewska; E. Florek; M. Kami?ski

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Histopathological examination of changes in foetal and newborn rats, and histopathological and morphometric assessments of changes in lungs, placenta, liver and kidneys of adult rats exposed to cigarette smoke were performed. Methods. Non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar female rats were exposed to cigarette smoke at a carbon monoxide concentration of 1,500 mg\\/m3 for 6 h per day, 5 days per

  6. Tenofovir rescue therapy in pregnant females with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Hong; Liu, Min; Yi, Wei; Cao, Yan-Jun; Cai, Hao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of tenofovir monotherapy in pregnant females resistant to lamivudine or telbivudine. The effect of tenofovir on the fetus was also assessed. METHODS: The clinical data of 17 females were reviewed in this study. Adverse events and pregnancy outcomes from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013 were evaluated in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. These pregnant females developed lamivudine (LAM)- or telbivudine (LdT)-resistant chronic hepatitis B and received tenofovir (TDF) therapy (300 mg/d), and its curative effect, maternal and perinatal adverse events, fetal growth and development, and neonatal prognosis were evaluated. RESULTS: The median hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level in the pregnant females with LAM or LdT resistance was 5.9 (range, 4.2-7.2) log10 copies/mL before the initiation of TDF. Ten of these females had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The patients were treated with TDF for a median of 24 wk (range, 12-40 wk). Fourteen females (82.4%) had an HBV DNA level of < 500 copies/mL at the time of delivery. This decrease was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Serum ALT levels were normalized in all subjects with an elevated serum ALT level at baseline (P = 0.0003). There were no significant changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus levels during TDF treatment. In addition, no adverse events related to TDF treatment were observed. Seventeen females delivered 17 live infants, and all infants had good Apgar scores. The mean birth weight was 3226.5 ± 331.7 g, and the mean length at birth was 50.4 ± 1.1 cm. The growth and development of the infants was normal at birth, and no infants had birth defects related to TDF treatment. Eleven infants completed HBV vaccination and had no evidence of vertical transmission. CONCLUSION: The use of TDF in pregnant females with chronic HBV and LAM or LdT resistance was safe and effective. PMID:25741161

  7. Differential effect of neocuproine, a copper(I) chelator, on contractile activity in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus.

    PubMed

    Kumcu, Eda Karabal; Büyüknacar, Hacer Sinem Göktürk; Göçmen, Cemil; Evrüke, Ismail Cüneyt; Onder, Serpil

    2009-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine effects of a selective copper(I) chelator, neocuproine on the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus. Uterus activity was evaluated in tissues obtained from bilaterally ovariectomized non-pregnant rats on the 21st day of the operation (n = 24), pregnant rats on the 19-21st day of gestation (n = 24) and women undergoing caesarean section at 38-42 weeks of pregnancy (n = 15). Neocuproine (100 microM) significantly suppressed the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus while this agent facilitated the frequency of the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in the pregnant rat and human uterus without altering the amplitude of these contractions. At high concentration of 200 microM, neocuproine could enhance the amplitude of the contractions in the pregnant uterus. These effects were blocked by a purinergic receptor antagonist, suramin (100 microM) and did not occur following the administration of neocuproine-copper(I) complex or copper(II) chelator cuprizone. alpha, beta-methylene ATP increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions in the pregnant uterus, but not affected the contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus, and neocuproine potentiated this facilitation effect. However, the suppressive effect of neocuproine on the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus increased in the presence of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine did not affect the responses to neocuproine. These findings suggest that neocuproine can affect the uterus contractile activity by modulation purinergic excitatory responses and that copper(I)-sensitive mechanisms may play a role in this effect. PMID:19248249

  8. Upregulation of aquaporin 2 water channel expression in pregnant rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, M; Martin, P Y; Xu, D L; St John, J; Pattison, T A; Kim, J K; Schrier, R W

    1998-01-01

    Water retention is characteristic of pregnancy but the mechanism(s) of the altered water metabolism has yet to be elucidated. The collecting duct water channel, aquaporin 2 (AQP2), plays a pivotal role in the renal water regulation, and we hypothesized that AQP2 expression could be modified during pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley female rats were studied on days 7 (P7), 14 (P14), and 20 (P20) of pregnancy, and expression of AQP2 in papillae was examined. Nonpregnant (NP) littermates were used as controls. Plasma osmolalities were significantly lower in pregnant rats by day 7 of gestation (P7 283.8+/-1.82, P14 284.3+/-1.64, P < 0.001, P20 282. 4+/-1.32, P < 0.0001, vs. NP 291.8+/-1.06 mosmol/kgH2O). However, plasma vasopressin concentrations in pregnant rats were not significantly different than in nonpregnant rats (NP 1.03+/-0.14, P7 1.11+/-0.21, P14 1.15+/-0.21, P20 1.36+/-0.24 pg/ml, NS). The mRNA of AQP2 was increased early during pregnancy: AQP2/beta actin: P7 196+/-17.9, P14 200+/-6.8, and P20 208+/-15.5%, P < 0.005 vs. NP (100+/-11.1%). AQP2 protein was also increased during pregnancy: AQP2 protein: P7 269+/-10.0, P14 251+/-12.0, P < 0.0001, and P20 250+/-13.6%, P < 0.001 vs. NP (100+/-12.5%). The effect of V2 vasopressin receptor antagonist, OPC-31260, was then investigated. AQP2 mRNA was suppressed significantly by OPC-31260 administration to P14 rats (AQP2/beta actin: P14 with OPC-31260 39.6+/-1.7%, P < 0.001 vs. P14 with vehicle) and was decreased to the same level of expression as NP rats receiving OPC-31260. Similar findings were found with the analysis of AQP2 protein. The decreased plasma osmolality of P14 rats was not modified by OPC-31260. The results of the study indicate that upregulation of AQP2 contributes to the water retention in pregnancy through a V2 receptor-mediated effect. In addition to vasopressin, other factors may be involved in this upregulation. PMID:9486978

  9. Housing of pregnant rats in metabolism cages: maternal and developmental effects.

    PubMed

    Bosque, M A; Domingo, J L; Corbella, J

    1994-10-01

    The influence of the caging conditions on maternal and gestational variables was assessed for pregnant rats housed individually in two cage types. Plug-positive Sprague-Dawley females were caged either in Makrolon or in metabolism (Tecniplast) cages, and were not disturbed throughout all the gestational period. Cesarean sections were performed on gestation day 20. All live fetuses were examined for external, internal, and skeletal malformations and variations. Pregnant rats were affected by the housing system, as evidenced by a significant weight loss and reduced food consumption in the animals housed in metabolism cages. A moderate increase in the number of total skeletal defects was also observed in the fetuses of dams housed in metabolism cages. An important implication of these results would be that in maternal and developmental toxicity studies of xenobiotics, pregnant animals should not be housed in metabolism cages. PMID:7894240

  10. Comparison of biotin binding protein of pregnant rat serum with rat serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Seshagiri; P. R. Adiga

    1989-01-01

    The purified biotin binding protein of pregnant rat serum was shown to be immunologically similar to rat serum albumin as\\u000a assessed by a sensitive radioimmunoassay. In radioimmunoassay for rat biotin binding protein, the binding of [125I] rat biotin binding protein to anti-chicken egg yolk biotin binding protein antibodies was displaced by both rat serum (10–100\\u000a nl) and purified rat serum

  11. Dietary calcium and phosphorus manipulations in thyroparathyroidectomized pregnant rats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dietary calcium and phosphorus manipulations in thyroparathyroidectomized pregnant rats and fetal vitamin D3 meta- bolite injection to the mothers when their plasma calcium is low or slightly elevated. To determine the putative role of calcium in these experiments, we elevated TPTX maternal plasma calcium

  12. Fluorescence localization of anti-pregnant rat kidney antibody and lectin binding analysis in exencephalic rat embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoharu Fujii; Masahiro Kurisaka; Koreaki Mori

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the distribution of anti-pregnant rat kidney serum (ARKS) in fetuses that subsequently developed a form of neural tube defect (NTD). We produced exencephaly in rat embryos by injecting a rabbit anti-pregnant rat kidney serum into the peritoneal cavity of pregnant Wistar rats on day 7 of gestation; 71.1% (27\\/38) of the rat embryos developed this anomaly.

  13. Mortality associated with using medetomidine and ketamine for general anesthesia in pregnant and nonpregnant Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Lauren M; Ross, Simone M; Jones, Megan L; Musk, Gabrielle C

    2014-06-01

    Medetomidine and ketamine are injectable drugs that can be used in combination to induce general anesthesia in rats. After noticing a high incidence of morbidity and mortality in pregnant Wistar rats given medetomidine and ketamine for anesthesia, the authors further investigated the effects of this combination of anesthetic drugs in both pregnant and nonpregnant Wistar rats. The time to recumbency and the duration of general anesthesia were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Pregnancy status did not affect the rats' pulse rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, oxygen saturation or perfusion index during 2 h of anesthesia. Pregnant rats had significantly lower blood glucose concentrations than nonpregnant rats at all time points, though blood glucose concentrations increased in both groups. The mortality rate was ?15% both for nonpregnant rats and for pregnant rats. Researchers using medetomidine and ketamine to anesthetize Wistar rats should carefully monitor the rats in order to minimize mortality. PMID:24845007

  14. The effects of stress on plasma ACTH and corticosterone in young and aging pregnant rats and their fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Erisman, S. (William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI (USA)); Carnes, M. (William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI (USA) Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Takahashi, L.K.; Lent, S.J. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Compared to younger rats, old rats exhibit prolonged elevations of plasma ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) in response to stress. In addition, CORT crosses the placenta. To investigate whether fetuses of older rats may be exposed to higher concentrations of CORT during development than fetuses of young rats, we compared the effects of stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in young and aging pregnant rats and their 19-day-old fetuses. The plasma of the mothers and fetuses was assayed for ACTH and CORT by radioimmunoassay. Both young and aging pregnant rats showed a significant increase in plasma ACTH and CORT immediately after exposure to stress. However, aging rats had more prolonged elevation of ACTH and CORT than young rats. This suggests that, like old male rats, aging pregnant rats have an alteration in feedback inhibition of the HPA axis. Prolonged elevation of CORT was also seen in fetuses of aging mothers. These results have important implications concerning the effects of stress during pregnancy at different maternal ages, and for the potential deleterious consequences of prolonged prenatal elevation in stress hormones on the offspring of aging females.

  15. Fenofibrate reduces adiposity in pregnant and virgin rats but through different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Maréa del Carmen; Vidal, Hubert; Herrera, Emilio; Bocos, Carlos

    2009-10-31

    Fenofibrate has been proven to reduce adiposity. Since gestation produces an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, we comparatively studied this drug-effect in virgin and pregnant rats. Fenofibrate reduced lumbar WAT weight in both pregnant and virgin rats. Fenofibrate treatment did not modify plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration in virgin rats, it greatly increased it in pregnant animals. Remarkable differences between the two groups were obtained for two proteins related to fatty acid oxidation and esterification and storing. Respectively, the mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) were increased by the fenofibrate only in the virgin rats and a similar finding was observed for the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). These findings indicate that fenofibrate reduces adiposity in pregnant and virgin rats through different mechanisms: a) in virgin rats, by promoting fatty acid oxidation; and b) in pregnant rats, by enhancing fatty acid output. PMID:19874714

  16. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Et, Tayfun; Topal, Ahmet; Erol, Atilla; Tavlan, Aybars; K?l?çaslan, Alper; Uzun, Sema Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26) were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7th day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6) received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Results: Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05). No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Conclusion: Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  17. Recovery from developmental nonylphenol exposure is possible for female rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling-Ling; Wun, Wan-Song A; Wang, Paulus S

    2014-09-25

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical that has been detected in human cord blood and milk. Developmental exposure to NP is unavoidable and can lead to hyperadrenalism, a syndrome that resembles Cushing's disease and has a life-long impact on the affected individual. In this study, we investigated the recovery of female rats from developmental exposure to NP and the effects of such exposure on future generations. Female rats were time-mated, and rats in the experimental group (NP group) were administered NP in drinking water (2?g/mL) throughout gestation and lactation. Pregnant females in the control group were given water only (Veh group). The resulting litters were recognized as the first-generation F1 offspring. The F1 females were time-mated with non-sibling F1 males within the same treatment group. NP was not administered after the F0 generation. The treatment procedures for F3 offspring were identical to those for the F2 generation. The experimental results showed that the observed characteristics of the F3 NP generation had reverted to normal and resembled those of the F3 Veh generation. Thus, our study indicated that developmental exposure to NP resulted in a life-long impact on the exposed individual, but that recovery to the "normal" state was possible if further NP exposure was prevented. PMID:25106109

  18. Use of urinary renal biomarkers to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of melamine or cyanuric acid in non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Bandele, O J; Stine, C B; Ferguson, M; Black, T; Olejnik, N; Keltner, Z; Evans, E R; Crosby, T C; Reimschuessel, R; Sprando, R L

    2014-12-01

    Although traditional assessments of renal damage detect loss of kidney function, urinary renal biomarkers are proposed to indicate early changes in renal integrity. The recent adulteration of infant formula and other milk-based foods with melamine revealed a link between melamine ingestion and nephropathy. Thus, the effects of melamine and related analogs (e.g., cyanuric acid) should be assessed in other potentially sensitive groups. We evaluated whether urinary Kim-1, clusterin, and osteopontin could detect the effects of high doses of melamine or cyanuric acid in pregnant and non-pregnant female rats gavaged with 1000?mg/kg bw/day for 10 days. We demonstrate that these biomarkers can differentiate the severity of effects induced by melamine or cyanuric acid. All melamine-treated animals experienced adverse effects; however, pregnant rats were most sensitive as indicated by increased SCr, BUN, and kidney weights, decreased body weight, and presence of renal crystals. These effects coincided with elevated urinary biomarker levels as early as day 2 of exposure. One cyanuric acid-treated rat displayed effects similar to melamine, including increased urinary biomarker levels. This work illustrates that these biomarkers can detect early effects of melamine or cyanuric acid crystal-induced nephropathy and further supports the use of urinary protein immunoassays as a powerful, non-invasive method to assess nephrotoxicity. PMID:25455896

  19. Use of novel inhalation kinetic studies to refine physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models for ethanol in non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sheppard A; Oshiro, Wendy M; Evansky, Paul A; Degn, Laura L; Ledbetter, Allen D; Ford, Jermaine; Todd Krantz, Q; LeFew, William R; Beasley, Tracey E; El-Masri, Hisham; McLanahan, Eva D; Boyes, William K; Bushnell, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces a variety of concentration-dependent neurological and developmental effects in the rat. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to predict the inhalation exposure concentrations necessary to produce blood EtOH concentrations (BEC) in the range associated with these effects. Previous laboratory reports often lacked sufficient detail to adequately simulate reported exposure scenarios associated with BECs in this range, or lacked data on the time-course of EtOH in target tissues (e.g. brain, liver, eye, fetus). To address these data gaps, inhalation studies were performed at 5000, 10?000, and 21?000?ppm (6?h/d) in non-pregnant female Long-Evans (LE) rats and at 21?000?ppm (6.33?h/d) for 12?d of gestation in pregnant LE rats to evaluate our previously published PBPK models at toxicologically-relevant blood and tissue concentrations. Additionally, nose-only and whole-body plethysmography studies were conducted to refine model descriptions of respiration and uptake within the respiratory tract. The resulting time-course and plethysmography data from these in vivo studies were compared to simulations from our previously published models, after which the models were recalibrated to improve descriptions of tissue dosimetry by accounting for dose-dependencies in pharmacokinetic behavior. Simulations using the recalibrated models reproduced these data from non-pregnant, pregnant, and fetal rats to within a factor of 2 or better across datasets, resulting in a suite of model structures suitable for simulation of a broad range of EtOH exposure scenarios. PMID:25144475

  20. ATRAZINE DISPOSITION IN PREGNANT AND LACTATING LONG-EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used herbicide shown to delay early mammary development in female offspring of gestationally exposed rats. The effects of ATR can be induced by in utero exposure and/or suckling from a dam exposed during late pregnancy, but ATR is reported to have a hal...

  1. Gender-linked hypertension in offspring of lard-fed pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran Y; Taylor, Paul D; Dekou, Vasia; Seed, Paul T; Lakasing, Lorin; Graham, Delyth; Dominiczak, Anna F; Hanson, Mark A; Poston, Lucilla

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an association between maternal nutrition and offspring cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated endothelial dysfunction and abnormal aortic fatty acid composition in adult female offspring of rats fed animal lard during pregnancy. We have now further investigated this model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control breeding diet (5.3% fat) or a diet rich in lard (25.7% fat) 10 days before and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were implanted with radiotelemeters for recording of blood pressure, heart rate, and activity at 80, 180, and 360 days of age. Reactivity to acetylcholine and to nitric oxide were assessed in isolated small mesenteric arteries from 80- and 180-day-old littermates. Systolic blood pressure (awake phase) was raised in female offspring (180 days: offspring of control, 130.7+/-1.6 mm Hg, n=5, versus offspring of lard-fed, 138.1+/-2.9, n=5, P=0.029; 360 days: offspring of control, 129.7+/-3.7 mm Hg, n=6, versus offspring of lard-fed, 142.1+/-3.2, n=6, P=0.005). Diastolic blood pressure was also raised at 180 days (offspring of control, 87.6+/-1.0 mm Hg, n=5, versus offspring of lard-fed, 94.7+/-2.6, n=5, P=0.011). Blood pressure was not raised in male offspring. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was blunted in male and female offspring of lard-fed dams (80 and 180 days). Feeding a diet rich in lard to pregnant rats leads to gender-related cardiovascular dysfunction in normally fed offspring. PMID:12511548

  2. Effect of the age of pregnant females on brain development in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Ryzhavskii, B Ya; Sapozhnikov, Yu A; Uchakina, R V; Vladimirova, T I; Eremenko, I R; Vasil'eva, E V

    2004-08-01

    We examined offspring of 9-10 and 3.5-4 month-old female rats. Female offspring (14, 21, 28, 35, and 40 days) of old rats had higher body weight than offspring of young animals. No intergroup differences were revealed in the body weight of male offspring. At the age of 40 days the offspring of old females differed from the offspring of young rats by higher absolute weight of the brain (females), lower size of ganglionic neurons in the parietal lobe (males and females), and lower blood testosterone concentration (males). Thirty-day-old offspring of old rats exhibited higher locomotor activity and lower degree of anxiety compared to the offspring of young animals. PMID:15662469

  3. The effects of spaceflight on mammary metabolism in pregnant rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, K.; Maple, R.; Vyas, C.; Munaim, S.; Darling, A.; Casey, T.; Alberts, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight on mammary metabolism of 10 pregnant rats was measured on Day 20 of pregnancy and after parturition. Rats were flown on the space shuttle from Day 11 through Day 20 of pregnancy. After their return to earth, glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide increased 43% (P < 0.05), and incorporation into fatty acids increased 300% (P < 0.005) compared to controls. It is unclear whether the enhanced glucose use is due to spaceflight or a response to landing. Casein mRNA and gross histology were not altered at Day 20 of pregnancy. Six rats gave birth (on Day 22 to 23 of pregnancy) and mammary metabolic activity was measured immediately postpartum. The earlier effects of spaceflight were no longer apparent. There was also no difference in expression of beta-casein mRNA. It is clear from these studies that spaceflight does not impair the normal development of the mammary gland, its ability to use glucose, nor the ability to express mRNA for a major milk protein.

  4. Pregnant rats treated with a high-fat/prooxidant Western diet with ANG II and TNF-? are resistant to elevations in blood pressure and renal oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark W; West, Crystal A; Wen, Xuerong; Deng, Aihua; Baylis, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Here, we examined the 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP) via telemetry and the nitric oxide (NO) and redox systems in the kidney cortex, medulla, and aorta of virgin and pregnant rats treated with a high-fat/prooxidant Western diet (HFD), ANG II, and TNF-?. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a normal diet (ND) or a HFD for 8 wk before mating. Day 6 of pregnancy and age-matched virgins were implanted with minipumps infusing saline or ANG II (150 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) + TNF-? (75 ng/day) for 14 days. Groups consisted of Virgin + ND + Saline (V+ND) (n = 7), Virgin + HFD +ANG II and TNF-? (V+HFD) (n = 7), Pregnant + ND + Saline (P+ND) (n = 6), and Pregnant + HFD + ANG II and TNF-? (P+HFD) (n = 8). After day 6 of minipump implantation, V+HFD rats displayed an increase in MAP on days 7, 8, and 10-15 vs. V+ND rats. P+HFD rats, after day 6 of minipump implantation, showed an increase in MAP only on day 7 vs. P+ND rats. P+HFD rats had a normal fall in 24-h MAP, hematocrit, plasma protein concentration, and osmolality at late pregnancy. No change in kidney cortex, medulla, or aortic oxidative stress in P+HFD rats. P+HFD rats displayed a decrease in nNOS? abundance, but no change in kidney cortex NOx content vs. P+ND rats. Pregnant rats subjected to a chronic HFD and prooxidant and proinflammatory insults have a blunted increase in 24-h MAP and renal oxidative stress. Our data suggest renal NO bioavailability is not altered in pregnant rats treated with a HFD, ANG II, and TNF-?. PMID:25810384

  5. The elimination, distribution, and metabolism of /sup 14/C-toxaphene in the pregnant rat

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.A.; Hillstrand, R.

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered /sup 14/C-toxaphene in olive oil on day 15 of pregnancy and housed in glass metabolism cages. Urine, feces, and tissues were collected and assayed for radioactivity. The elimination was similar to that in virgin females with the majority of activity excreted in the feces (38.4%; five days) and less in the urine (23.7%; five days). The fetuses contained the lowest levels of radioactivity of all tissues tested (28 ppb; five days) and fat contained the highest levels (7476 ppb; five days). A comparison of the activity in the fetuses with that in the dam's fat showed slight differences, indicating the presence of more polar compounds (perhaps metabolites).

  6. Endogenous opioids and attenuated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to immune challenge in pregnant rats 

    E-print Network

    Russell, J. A.; Ochedalski, T; Meddle, S. L.; Ma, S.; Brunton, P. J.; Douglas, A. J.

    2005-01-01

    In late pregnant rats, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyporesponsive to psychogenic stressors. Here, we investigated attenuated HPA responses to an immune challenge and a role for endogenous opioids. ACTH ...

  7. Teratogenicity of Mimosa tenuiflora seeds to pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, R M T; de Figueiredo, A P M; Benício, T M A; Dantas, F P M; Riet-Correa, F

    2008-02-01

    Bone and other malformations caused by the ingestion of Mimosa tenuiflora are common in ruminants in the Brazilian semiarid. The aim of this research was to study the teratogenic effects of M. tenuiflora in Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus). The experimental group had 15 females and was fed, from the 6th to the 21st day of pregnancy, with a ration containing 10% of M. tenuiflora seeds. The control group, with 10 females, was fed with the same ration without seeds. There were no differences in weight gains, and food and water consumption between treated and control rats. Ninety bone malformations were observed in 40 of the 101 fetuses born in the experimental group, and four malformations were observed in three of the 58 fetuses born in the control group (p<0.05). The weight and number of ossification centers of the fetuses from the experimental group were higher than those from the control group (p<0.05). It is concluded that the seeds of M. tenuiflora are teratogenic to rat fetuses. PMID:18078971

  8. IL1alpha augments prostaglandin synthesis in pregnant rat uteri by a nitric oxide mediated mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Farina; M. L. Ribeiro; D. Ogando; M. Gimeno; A. M. Franchi

    2000-01-01

    This study aims to examine the possible relationship between cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins in the pregnant rat uterus. Results indicate that 1) IL1?enhances the synthesis of prostaglandins and augments NO production in pregnant rat uteri and 2) the effect of IL1?on prostaglandin synthesis is abolished by NMMA, a NOS inhibitor, by aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, and by NS-398,

  9. Reproductive performance of dibromochloropropane-treated female rats.

    PubMed

    Shaked, I; Sod-Moriah, U A; Kaplanski, J; Potashnik, G; Buchman, O

    1988-01-01

    Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) is an effective nematocide which has been shown to suppress spermatogenesis and cause infertility in both men and male rats. There are no similar reports concerning the effects of DBCP on female reproduction. The purpose of the present study was to attempt to interfere with the various phases of oogenesis. Proestral or pregnant rats were injected subcutaneously once with 40 mg/kg DBCP on one of each days of L12-L20 of gestation; a double dose (80 mg/kg) was injected in eight consecutive days (L11-L18). In addition, L13 fetuses were injected--directly into the amniotic sac--with 0.1 mg DBCP. Pooled data from the various days of gestation revealed that postimplantation losses were three times as high in the DBCP-treated animals as in DMSO-treated controls. Perinatal deaths were 58% higher and mean pup weights were 30% lower in the DBCP-treated rats than in controls. The reproductive performance of females exposed to DBCP while in utero was affected only to a limited degree (reduced number of ovulations and implantations) as compared with their DMSO counterparts. Doubling the dose (80 mg/kg) seriously reduced the birth weight of pups (50% of controls), all of which died within several hours post-partum. Direct injection of DBCP into embryos or to proestral rats did not have any adverse effects on their future reproductive performance. In contrast to the effect on spermatogenesis, it appears that oogenesis and ova are unaffected by DBCP. PMID:2898451

  10. The UF Family of hybrid phantoms of the pregnant female for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Long, Nelia S.; Moawad, Nash S.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Geyer, Amy M.; Fong, Grant; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2014-08-01

    Efforts to assess in utero radiation doses and related quantities to the developing fetus should account for the presence of the surrounding maternal tissues. Maternal tissues can provide varying levels of protection to the fetus by shielding externally-emitted radiation or, alternatively, can become sources of internally-emitted radiation following the biokinetic uptake of medically-administered radiopharmaceuticals or radionuclides located in the surrounding environment—as in the case of the European Union’s SOLO project (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations). The University of Florida had previously addressed limitations in available computational phantom representation of the developing fetus by constructing a series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms at eight different ages and three weight percentiles. Using CT image sets of pregnant patients contoured using 3D-DOCTORTM, the eight 50th percentile fetal phantoms from that study were systematically combined in RhinocerosTM with the UF adult non-pregnant female to yield a series of reference pregnant female phantoms at fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38?weeks post-conception. Deformable, non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces were utilized to alter contoured maternal anatomy in order to (1) accurately position and orient each fetus and surrounding maternal tissues and (2) match target masses of maternal soft tissue organs to reference data reported in the literature.

  11. Euglycemic Hyperinsulinemia Increases Blood Pressure in Pregnant Rats Independent of Placental Antiangiogenic and Inflammatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although pregnancies associated with hyperinsulinemia and altered placental angiogenic and inflammatory factors are at increased risk for developing preeclampsia, the effects of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia on placental factors and blood pressure regulation during pregnancy are unclear. We hypothesized that chronic hyperinsulinemia results in increased placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1(sFlt-1) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF- ?) levels and hypertension in pregnant rats. METHODS On gestational day (GD) 14, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned as normal pregnant or pregnant + insulin. Insulin was infused subcutaneously by osmotic minipump for 5 days at a dose of 1.5 mU/kg/min. Those rats receiving insulin were supplemented with 20% glucose in drinking water to maintain euglycemia. On GD 19, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in conscious rats by indwelling carotid catheters, followed by collections of blood, placentas, and fetuses. In addition to pl acental sFlt-1 and TNF-? levels, circulating insulin, glucose, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured. RESULTS MAP was higher in pregnant + insulin vs. normal pregnant rats; however, HR was similar between groups. Although litter size and placental weight were comparable, fetuses from pregnant + insulin rats were heavier. Importantly, circulating insulin concentration was elevated in the pregnant + insulin group, with no change in glucose level. Moreover, circulating leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid concentrations were increased in the pregnant + insulin group. There were no differences in placental sFlt-1 and TNF-? concentrations between groups. CONCLUSIONS In summary, sustained euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, comparable with insulin levels in preeclamptic women, can raise blood pressure in pregnancy independent of recognized placental factors associated with preeclampsia. PMID:23955606

  12. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M; Hoffman, Gary M; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1h. For metabolite identification by (19)F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 ?mol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 ?mol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 ?mol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. PMID:22664346

  13. Effect of Transverse Aortic Constriction on Cardiac Structure, Function and Gene Expression in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Songstad, Nils Thomas; Johansen, David; How, Ole-Jacob; Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increased risk of heart failure and pulmonary edema in pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders. However, in a previous study we found that pregnancy protects against fibrosis and preserves angiogenesis in a rat model of angiotensin II induced cardiac hypertrophy. In this study we test the hypothesis that pregnancy protects against negative effects of increased afterload. Methods Pregnant (gestational day 5.5–8.5) and non-pregnant Wistar rats were randomized to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgery. After 14.2±0.14 days echocardiography was performed. Aortic blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume loops were obtained using a conductance catheter. LV collagen content and cardiomyocyte circumference were measured. Myocardial gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Heart weight was increased by TAC (p<0.001) but not by pregnancy. Cardiac myocyte circumference was larger in pregnant compared to non-pregnant rats independent of TAC (p?=?0.01), however TAC per se did not affect this parameter. Collagen content in LV myocardium was not affected by pregnancy or TAC. TAC increased stroke work more in pregnant rats (34.1±2.4 vs 17.5±2.4 mmHg/mL, p<0.001) than in non-pregnant (28.2±1.7 vs 20.9±1.5 mmHg/mL, p?=?0.06). However, it did not lead to overt heart failure in any group. In pregnant rats, ?-MHC gene expression was reduced by TAC. Increased in the expression of ?-MHC gene was higher in pregnant (5-fold) compared to non-pregnant rats (2-fold) after TAC (p?=?0.001). Nine out of the 19 genes related to cardiac remodeling were affected by pregnancy independent of TAC. Conclusions This study did not support the hypothesis that pregnancy is cardioprotective against the negative effects of increased afterload. Some differences in cardiac structure, function and gene expression between pregnant and non-pregnant rats following TAC indicated that afterload increase is less tolerated in pregnancy. PMID:24586871

  14. PROLACTIN-ADRENAL INTERACTIONS IN THE IMMATURE FEMALE RAT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PROLACTIN-ADRENAL INTERACTIONS IN THE IMMATURE FEMALE RAT Marie GELATO, J. DIBBET* S. MARSHALL J in the timing of the onset of puberty in female rats. GORSKI and I,AWTON (ig!2) reported that adrenalectomy up injections or median eminence implants of prolactin significantly enhanced vaginal opening. In the adult rat

  15. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Tobias [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)] [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Bertermann, Rüdiger [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)] [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rusch, George M. [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962–1057 (United States)] [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962–1057 (United States); Hoffman, Gary M. [Huntingdon Life Sciences., East Millstone, NJ (United States)] [Huntingdon Life Sciences., East Millstone, NJ (United States); Dekant, Wolfgang, E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)] [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by {sup 19}F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 ?mol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 ?mol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 ?mol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ? No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ? No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ? Rapid and similar metabolite excretion in all groups. ? Very low amount of biotransformation in all groups (< 0.1%).

  16. Effects of ammonium metavanadate on fertility and reproductive performance of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ashraf M; El-Tawil, Osama S

    2003-01-01

    Vanadium is a ubiquitous trace metal present in most plant and animal tissues. Environmental exposure to trivalent and pentavalent inorganic vanadium compounds has been related to impaired different phases of reproduction. Therefore, the effects of a pentavalent inorganic vanadium compound on general reproductive performance and fertility were investigated in male and female rats. Sexually mature male and female rats were exposed to 200 ppm ammonium metavanadate in drinking water. Male rats were exposed for 70 days, while the female rats exposed for 14 days premating, during mating, and throughout the whole length of gestation and lactation periods till weaning. The effects on male sex organ weights and fertility were evaluated at the end of exposure period. However, the effects on female fertility as well as developmental and postnatal effects were evaluated throughout the exposure period. The fertility was significantly reduced in both treated groups, with more pronounced suppressive effects in the male treated group. The number of implantation sites and the number of viable fetuses were significantly reduced in pregnant females of both treated groups. However, the number of resorptions, dead fetuses, and pre- and postimplantation losses were significantly increased. The incidence of resorptions was significantly increased in treated female group compared with untreated female group. The behavioral responses as well as fetal survival and viability indices were decreased in both treated groups during the lactation period. The incidence of these effects was more pronounced in the treated female group. The morphological, visceral, and skeletal anomalies were recorded significantly increased in fetuses of both treated groups, with more pronounced effects on fetuses of treated females. In conclusion, the exposure of adult male and female rats to ammonium metavanadate would cause adverse effects on fertility and reproduction. PMID:12526865

  17. ALTERED ZN STATUS BY A-HEDERIN IN THE PREGNANT RAT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ADVERSE DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis that hepatic metallothionein (MT) induction in the pregnant animal results in a Zn deficiency in the embryo was tested by treating pregnant rats with a-hederin, reported to induce MT in rat liver. orphological development was assessed in term fetuses. ingle dose of...

  18. Radiation-induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in Virgin, Pregnant, Lactating, and Postlactating Rats1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seymour Holtzman; John Patrick Stone; Claire J. Shellabarger

    Little attention has been paid to the influence of the repro ductive condition of the rat at the time of irradiation upon X- ray-induced mammary carcinogenesis. At 12 weeks of age, 160 virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats were mated, and an other 140 were maintained as virgins. On Days 14 to 16 of pregnancy, 36 mated females and 40 virgins were

  19. Glucose Homeosiasis in Fetuses oĂ­Protein-Deprived and Hypothyroid Pregnant Rats1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DENISE M. BROWN; RUTH E. SHRADER; ANDFRANCES J. ZEMAN

    Blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were compared in 21-day fetal progeny of rats on five dietary regimens. Three diets were fed ad libitum: the control diet (24% casein), the protein-deficient (PD) diet (4% casein) and the propylthiouracil (PTU) diet (24% casein + 0.2% PTU). In addition, one group of pregnant dams was given the 24% casein diet in amounts which

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROACETONITRILE ADMINISTERED IN CORN OIL TO PREGNANT LONG-EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) is a by-product of the chlorine disinfection of water containing natural organic material. When administered by gavage to pregnant Long-Evans rats in a medium-chain triglyceride vehicle, tricaprylin oil (Tricap), at a volume of 10 ml/kg, TCAN induced ...

  1. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT. S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2 1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 2 Reproductive T...

  2. Treatment of pregnant rats with oleoyl-estrone slows down pup fat deposition after weaning

    PubMed Central

    García-Peláez, Beatriz; Vilŕ, Ruth; Remesar, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Background In rats, oral oleoyl-estrone (OE) decreases food intake and body lipid content. The aim of this study was to determine whether OE treatment affects the energy metabolism of pregnant rats and eventually, of their pups; i.e. changes in normal growth patterns and the onset of obesity after weaning. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intragastric gavages of OE in 0.2 ml sunflower oil from days 11 to 21 of pregnancy (i.e. 10 nmol oleoyl-estrone/g/day). Control animals received only the vehicle. Plasma and hormone metabolites were determined together with variations in cellularity of adipose tissue. Results Treatment decreased food intake and lowered weight gain during late pregnancy, mainly because of reduced adipose tissue accumulation in different sites. OE-treated pregnant rats' metabolic pattern after delivery was similar to that of controls. Neonates from OE-treated rats weighed the same as those from controls. They also maintained the same growth rate up to weaning, but pups from OE-treated rats slowed their growth rate afterwards, despite only limited differences in metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The OE influences on pup growth can be partially buffered by maternal lipid mobilization during the second half of pregnancy. This maternal metabolic "imprinting" may condition the eventual accumulation of adipose tissue after weaning, and its effects can affect the regulation of body weight up to adulthood. PMID:18570654

  3. Small Peptides with a Big Role: Antimicrobial Peptides in the Pregnant Female Reproductive Tract.

    PubMed

    Tribe, Rachel M

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the female reproductive tract during pregnancy. This commentary highlights recent advances in the field including those of Itakoa and colleagues who have demonstrated elafin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) expression in cervical cells from pregnant women during pregnancy. They suggest that these specific AMPs may be raised in women in true preterm labour. This complements other studies exploring the use cervico-vaginal fluid elafin and other antimicrobial peptides as biomarkers to predict risk of spontaneous preterm birth early in pregnancy. With continued focus on the contribution and regulation of these important small peptides in pregnancy, the potential of AMPs as clinical tools for identifying women most at risk of spontaneous preterm birth should soon be realised. PMID:25773319

  4. [Distribution of vanadium in tissues of nonpregnant and pregnant Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Li, S; Zhang, T; Yang, Z; Gou, X

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports tissue distribution of vanadium in nonpregnant and pregnant Wistar rats. The experimental results showed that vanadium concentrations in nonpregnant rats were respectively from high to low: I. no treatment: ovary greater than uterus greater than kidney greater than lung greater than heart muscle greater than spleen greater than brain greater than liver greater than blood; II. 4h after single i.p. injection of V2O5 (5 mg/kg): kidney greater than ovary greater than liver greater than bone greater than uterus greater than lung greater than heart muscle greater than spleen greater than brain greater than blood. The results suggest that female genital organs are important organs in distribution of vanadium. The kidney is a main excretory organ. After 24h of treatment, a larger amount of vanadium in body has been excreted. Vanadium can pass through blood-brain barrier. Distribution of vanadium on gestation days 12 after 4h single i.p. injection of V2O5 (5 mg/kg) is: kidney greater than ovary greater than uterus greater than placenta greater than liver greater than fetus greater than bone greater than heart muscle greater than lung greater than brain greater than spleen greater than blood; on gestation days 16-18 after 4h single i.p. injection of V2O5 (5 mg/kg) is: kidney ovary greater than placenta greater than lung greater than bone greater than uterus greater than heart muscle greater than spleen greater than fetus greater than liver greater than brain greater than blood; after 24h (on gestation days 16-18) is: kidney greater than ovary greater than placenta greater than spleen greater than bone greater than lung greater than liver greater than fetus heart muscle greater than brain blood.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1786960

  5. Impact of high flaxseed diet on mitogen-induced proliferation, IL2 production, cell subsets and fatty acid composition of spleen cells from pregnant and F1 generation Sprague–Dawley rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W Wiesenfeld; T. F. X Collins; R Sprando; T. J Flynn; T Black; N Olejnik; R. B Raybourne

    2003-01-01

    Flaxseed (FS) being rich in ?-linolenic acid may alter the immune parameters. Therefore, we assessed the impact of FS and defatted flaxseed meal (FLM) on fatty acid composition, cell subsets, proliferation and IL-2 production by splenic lymphocytes. Pregnant female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed diets containing 0% FS and FLM, 20 or 40% FS, 13 or 26% FLM during gestation or

  6. Protective effects of Allium sativum against defects of hypercholesterolemia on pregnant rats and their offspring

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Abou-El-Naga, Amoura M; Gadallah, Abdelalim A; Bakr, Iman H

    2010-01-01

    Sixty fertile female and male albino rats of Wistar strain (I male/ 3 females) were used in the present study. The females were divided into four groups of ten rats each. Group 1 received water and standard feeds for thirty-four days. Group 2 was fed with a cholesterol-containing diet (1%) for two weeks prior to onset of gestation and maintained administration till parturition, produce atherosclerosis (34 days). Group 3 received intragastric administration of 100mg homogenate of garlic (Allium sativum)/kg body weight for three weeks prior to onset of gestation as well as throughout the gestation period. Group 4 intragastrically administered garlic for one week of group B and maintained with combined garlic-treatment for the mentioned period. At parturition, the pregnant were sacrificed and serum total cholesterol (TCL), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL and creatine kinase activity (CK) were determined. The total numbers of offspring were recorded and examined morphological for congenital abnormalities. Biopsies of heart and dorsal aorta of both pregnant and their offspring (1 day-age) were processed for investigation at light and transmission electron microscopy. The skeleton of the newborn of different experimental groups were stained with alizarin red s and mor-phometric assessment of mandibular and appendicular bone length. The study revealed that the myocardium of atherosclerotic mother exhibited leuhkocytic inflammatory cell infiltration associated with necrosis, eosinophilia of myocardiai fibers, and edema of blood vessels. Ultrastructural studies revealed swelling of mitochondria, disruption of cristae in the myocardiai muscle fibers. The dorsal aorta possessed accumulation of extra-cellular lipid in intima lining of endothelium. The collagenous fibrils in the tunica adventitia became fragile and loosely separated from each other. Numerous foamy lipid loaden cells were detected within the tunica intima causing deterioration of the elastic fibers, resulting in fibrinoid necrosis. Oral supplementation with Allium sativum (100 mg/ kg) ameliorated these effects in myocardium muscle of mothers and offspring; however the dorsal aorta of mothers showed partial amelioration. Hypercholesterolemic mothers exhibited marked alterations in serum TCL, TG, LDL and CK activity. Supplementation with Allium sativum ameliorated the drastic biochemical alterations. Concerning pregnancy, hypercholesterolemia increased the incidence of abortion and abnormalities of the newborn including decreased body weight, reduced ossification of axial (mandible) and appendicular bones. All these effects were markedly ameliorated by supplementation with Allium sativum. The author finally concluded that hypercholesterolemia exhibits pathological alterations of myocardiai muscles reducing its optimal capacity for pumping blood to different body organs along with atherosclerosis of dorsal aorta which intern affect the progress of gestation and development of both morphological and skeletal abnormalities. Allium sativum-supplementation leads to amelioration of both mother and their offspring investigated parameters as a result of its antioxidant activity. PMID:20607041

  7. Ovariectomy ameliorates dextromethorphan - induced memory impairment in young female rats

    PubMed Central

    Jahng, Jeong Won; Cho, Hee Jeong; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Nam Youl; Lee, Seoul; Lee, Yil Seob

    2006-01-01

    We have previously found that dextromethorphan (DM), over-the-counter cough suppressant, impairs memory retention in water maze task, when it is repeatedly administrated to adolescent female rats at high doses. In this study we examined first if ovariectomy ameliorates the DM-induced memory impairment in female rats, and then whether or not the DM effect is revived by estrogen replacement in ovariectomized female rats. Female rat pups received bilateral ovariectomy or sham operation on postnatal day (PND) 21, and then intraperitoneal DM (40 mg/kg) daily during PND 28–37. Rats were subjected to the Morris water maze task from PND 38, approximately 24 h after the last DM injection. In probe trial, goal quadrant dwell time was significantly reduced by DM in the sham operated group, however, the reduction by DM did not occur in the ovariectomy group. When 17?-estradiol was supplied to ovariectomized females during DM treatment, the goal quadrant dwell time was significantly decreased, compared to the vehicle control group. Furthermore, a major effect of estrogen replacement was found in the escape latency during the last 3 days of initial learning trials. These results suggest that ovariectomy may ameliorate the adverse effect of DM treatment on memory retention in young female rats, and that estrogen replacement may revive it, i.e. estrogen may take a major role in DM-induced memory impairment in female rats. PMID:16563229

  8. Maternal programming of sexual attractivity in female Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Sakhai, Samuel A; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Francis, Darlene D

    2011-09-01

    In mammals, maternal care influences the developing offspring across multiple domains. In Long Evans rats, for example, the quality of maternal care received as a pup influences later cognitive function, neuroendocrine responses to stress and behavioral measures of emotionality. Data from humans, non-human primates, and rodents also suggest that early life events may similarly perturb measures of sexual reproduction, with possible consequences for reproductive fitness. The current study examined whether or not male conspecifics differentially prefer females, as adult mating partners, that were reared under varying maternal conditions (assessed via the quantity of licking and grooming received; LG). Additionally, the impact of maternal care on adult female sexual motivation and behavior were quantified to determine if these behavioral characteristics are associated with any preference observed. In a mate preference task, male rats chose, almost exclusively, to mount, copulate and ejaculate with female rats reared under Low LG conditions. Under non-paced mating conditions, female Low LG rats display significantly more paracopulatory and copulatory behaviors compared to High LG rats. Due to its critical role in female paracopulatory behavior, progesterone receptor immunoreactivity (PR-ir) in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) was also assessed in both groups of female rats. Estradiol induced PR-ir in the VMH was significantly higher in Low LG relative to High LG rats. Together, these data suggests that early life parental care may developmentally program aspects of behavior and physiology that subsequently influence sexual attractivity and behavior in adult females. PMID:21458163

  9. Moderate exercise with a dietary vitamin C and E combination protects against streptozotocin-induced oxidative damage to the blood and improves fetal outcomes in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Naziro?lu, Mustafa; Sim?ek, Mehmet; Kutlu, Mehmet

    2004-05-01

    A considerable amount of clinical and experimental evidence now exists suggesting that many biochemical pathways strictly associated with diabetes increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, daily moderate exercise and vitamins C and E (VCE) supplementation can be beneficial to diabetes due to reducing blood glucose and free radical production. In the present study, we investigated the effect of VCE and moderate exercise on lipid peroxidation (MDA) and scavenging enzyme activity in the blood of STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats. Fifty female Wistar rats were used and were randomly divided into five groups. The first and second were used as the control and pregnant control groups, respectively. The third group was the pregnant diabetic group. The fourth group was the diabetic-pregnant-exercise group. VCE-supplemented feed was given to pregnant-diabetic-exercise rats constituting the fifth group. Animals in the exercised groups were moderately exercised daily on a treadmill (16.1 m/min, 45 min/d) for three weeks (five days a week). Diabetes was induced on day zero of the study. Body weights in the five groups were recorded weekly. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC) samples were taken from all animals on day 20. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in plasma and RBCs, glucose, vitamins A, E and beta-carotene in plasma, the number of fetuses, and body weight were lower in pregnant diabetic rats than in control animals, whereas there was a significant increase in platelet counts and plasma and RBC MDA levels. The decreased antioxidant enzymes did not improve through exercise only. However, the decreased vitamins, and increased MDA, glucose levels and white blood cell (WBC) counts were improved either by exercise or exercise plus VCE supplementation. There were no significant changes in the RBC counts and hemoglobin values in the five groups. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that there is an increase in MDA in the blood of diabetic pregnant animals, whereas there is a decrease in the number of fetuses, antioxidant vitamins and enzymes. However, dietary VCE with moderate exercise may strengthen the antioxidant defense system due to reducing ROS. They may play a role in preventing diabetes-related diseases of pregnant subjects. PMID:15202787

  10. The effect of chronic nitric oxide synthesis inhibition on blood pressure and angiotensin II responsiveness in the pregnant rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne L. Lubarsky; Robert A. Ahokas; Steven A. Friedman; Baha M. Sibai

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to determine whether blockade of inducible or endothelial nitric oxide synthesis prevents maternal vasodilation and blunting of angiotensin II responsiveness in the pregnant rat.STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant and nonpregnant rats were given (1) drinking water alone (untreated), (2) drinking water containing the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine (0.5 gm\\/L), or (3) drinking water containing the nonselective

  11. Effect of afobazole administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis on prenatal development of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Bugayova, L I; Denisova, T D; Morozova, Yu A; Sergeeva, S A; Kharlamov, I V

    2014-11-01

    Experiments on pregnant rats have demonstrated the absence of damaging effect of Afobazole administered during the antenatal period on organogenesis in fetuses. Afobazole in a dose of 5 mg/kg given to pregnant rats on gestation days 6-16 reduced pre- and post-implantation fetal mortality and improved fertility; 20-day-old embryos had no developmental abnormalities and did not differ from controls by craniocaudal size, body weight, and skeleton ossification. Afobazole in a dose of 100 mg/kg reduced pre- and post-implantation fetal mortality, but had no effect on fertility. No congenital malformations were found in the fetuses, but they were characterized by lower craniocaudal size, body weight, and number of ossification foci in the sternum and spine. PMID:25403398

  12. Drotaverine interacts with the L-type Ca 2+ channel in pregnant rat uterine membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsuzsanna Tömösközi; Péter Arányi

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the isoquinoline derivative, drotaverine on the specific binding of [3H]nitrendipine and [3H]diltiazem to pregnant rat uterine membranes was examined. Drotaverine inhibited the specific [3H]nitrendipine and [3H]diltiazem bindings with IC50 values of 5.6 and 2.6 ?M, respectively. Saturation studies showed that diltiazem caused a significant increase in the maximum binding density without changing the KD of [3H]nitrendipine while

  13. Expression of ?-adrenergic receptor kinase subtypes in the pregnant rat myometrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre L. Ruzycky; Julie A. DeLoia

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that the increase in uterine tachyphylaxis to ?-adrenergic stimulation during pregnancy is associated with increased expression of the ?-adrenergic receptor–inactivating protein kinases.STUDY DESIGN: Messenger ribonucleic acid was isolated from snap-frozen myometrium collected from nonpregnant and pregnant rats ranging from 10 to 22 days of gestation. Autoradiographic analysis of ?-adrenergic receptor–inactivating protein kinase messenger ribonucleic

  14. SAF values for internal photon emitters calculated for the RPI-P pregnant-female models using Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, C. Y.; Xu, X. George; Stabin, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States); Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Room 1-11, NES Building, Tibbits Avenue, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2675 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Estimates of radiation absorbed doses from radionuclides internally deposited in a pregnant woman and her fetus are very important due to elevated fetal radiosensitivity. This paper reports a set of specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for use with the dosimetry schema developed by the Society of Nuclear Medicine's Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee. The calculations were based on three newly constructed pregnant female anatomic models, called RPI-P3, RPI-P6, and RPI-P9, that represent adult females at 3-, 6-, and 9-month gestational periods, respectively. Advanced Boundary REPresentation (BREP) surface-geometry modeling methods were used to create anatomically realistic geometries and organ volumes that were carefully adjusted to agree with the latest ICRP reference values. A Monte Carlo user code, EGS4-VLSI, was used to simulate internal photon emitters ranging from 10 keV to 4 MeV. SAF values were calculated and compared with previous data derived from stylized models of simplified geometries and with a model of a 7.5-month pregnant female developed previously from partial-body CT images. The results show considerable differences between these models for low energy photons, but generally good agreement at higher energies. These differences are caused mainly by different organ shapes and positions. Other factors, such as the organ mass, the source-to-target-organ centroid distance, and the Monte Carlo code used in each study, played lesser roles in the observed differences in these. Since the SAF values reported in this study are based on models that are anatomically more realistic than previous models, these data are recommended for future applications as standard reference values in internal dosimetry involving pregnant females.

  15. Disruption of Reproductive Aging in Female and Male Rats by Gestational Exposure to Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Kermath, Bailey A.; Woller, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial contaminants and known endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Previous work has shown that gestational exposure to PCBs cause changes in reproductive neuroendocrine processes. Here we extended work farther down the life spectrum and tested the hypothesis that early life exposure to Aroclor 1221 (A1221), a mixture of primarily estrogenic PCBs, results in sexually dimorphic aging-associated alterations to reproductive parameters in rats, and gene expression changes in hypothalamic nuclei that regulate reproductive function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were injected on gestational days 16 and 18 with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), A1221 (1 mg/kg), or estradiol benzoate (50 ?g/kg). Developmental parameters, estrous cyclicity (females), and timing of reproductive senescence were monitored in the offspring through 9 months of age. Expression of 48 genes was measured in 3 hypothalamic nuclei: the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and median eminence (females only) by real-time RT-PCR. Serum LH, testosterone, and estradiol were assayed in the same animals. In males, A1221 had no effects; however, prenatal estradiol benzoate increased serum estradiol, gene expression in the AVPV (1 gene), and ARC (2 genes) compared with controls. In females, estrous cycles were longer in the A1221-exposed females throughout the life cycle. Gene expression was not affected in the AVPV, but significant changes were caused by A1221 in the ARC and median eminence as a function of cycling status. Bionetwork analysis demonstrated fundamental differences in physiology and gene expression between cycling and acyclic females independent of treatment. Thus, gestational exposure to biologically relevant levels of estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals has sexually dimorphic effects, with an altered transition to reproductive aging in female rats but relatively little effect in males. PMID:23592748

  16. Biochemical changes and oxidative stress induced by zearalenone in the liver of pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Zhang, Y; Yin, S; Jia, Z; Shan, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine the toxic influence of different doses of zearalenone (ZEN) on the liver, especially oxidative stress induced by ZEN on the liver. A total of 48 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 4 treatments groups with 12 animals in each. The rats were fed with a normal diet treated with 0 mg/kg (control), 50 mg/kg (treatment 1), 100 mg/kg (treatment 2), or 150 mg/kg (treatment 3) ZEN in feed on gestation days (GDs) 0-7 and then all the rats were fed with a normal diet on GDs 8-20. The experimental period lasted 21 days. The results showed that exposure to ZEN induced increase in aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and decrease in total protein and albumin content in a dose-dependent manner and also induce decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and increase in malondialdehyde content in a dose-dependent manner in the serum and the liver. The increased transcription of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was detected in the liver after exposure to ZEN. These results suggested that ZEN not only caused damage in the liver of pregnant rats in a dose-dependent manner but also induced the messenger RNA expression of CYP2E1 in the liver. PMID:24717317

  17. Enhanced endothelin receptor type B-mediated vasodilation and underlying [Ca2+]i in mesenteric microvessels of pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuca, Marc Q; Dang, Yiping; Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Normal pregnancy is associated with decreased vascular resistance and increased release of vasodilators. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) causes vasoconstriction via endothelin receptor type A (ETAR), but could activate ETBR in the endothelium and release vasodilator substances. However, the roles of ETBR in the regulation of vascular function during pregnancy and the vascular mediators involved are unclear. Experimental Approach Pressurized mesenteric microvessels from pregnant and virgin Sprague–Dawley rats were loaded with fura-2/AM for simultaneous measurement of diameter and [Ca2+]i. Key Results High KCl (51 mM) and phenylephrine (PHE) caused increases in vasoconstriction and [Ca2+]i that were similar in pregnant and virgin rats. ET-1 caused vasoconstriction that was less in pregnant than virgin rats, with small increases in [Ca2+]i. Pretreatment with the ETBR antagonist BQ-788 caused greater enhancement of ET-1-induced vasoconstriction in pregnant rats. ACh caused endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreased [Ca2+]i, and was more potent in pregnant than in virgin rats. ET-1 + ETAR antagonist BQ-123, and the ETBR agonists sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) and IRL-1620 caused greater vasodilation in pregnant than in virgin rats with no changes in [Ca2+]i, suggesting up-regulated ETBR-mediated relaxation pathways. ACh-, S6c- and IRL-1620-induced relaxation was reduced by the NO synthase inhibitor N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and abolished by tetraethylammonium or endothelium removal. Western blots revealed greater amount of ETBR in intact microvessels of pregnant than virgin rats, but reduced levels in endothelium-denuded microvessels, supporting a role of endothelial ETBR. Conclusions and Implications The enhanced ETBR-mediated microvascular relaxation may contribute to the decreased vasoconstriction and vascular resistance during pregnancy. PMID:23646960

  18. The Effects of Tissue Antisera Injected in the Pregnant Rat on the Development and Function of the Placenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard H. J. Juurlink

    1975-01-01

    Sera raised in rabbits against adult rat kidney has long been known to be teratogenic when administered to pregnant rats at a time when the embryos are in the gastrulation stage. The main hypothesis postulated on the mode of action of teratogenic kidney antiserum is that the antibodies directly interfere with placental development and function; thus resulting in a nutritional

  19. Hypothyroidism prolongs corpus luteum function in the pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Hapon, María Belén; Motta, Alicia B; Ezquer, Marcelo; Bonafede, Melisa; Jahn, Graciela A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that hypothyroidism in the rat produces a prolongation of pregnancy associated with a delay in the fall of circulating progesterone (P4) at term. The aim of the present work is to determine whether the delayed P4 decline in hypothyroid mother rats is due to a retarded induction of P4 degradation to 20alphaOH P4 or to a stimulation of its synthesis, and to investigate the possible mechanisms that may underlie the altered luteal function. We determined by RIA the circulating profile of the hormones (TSH, PRL, LH, P4, PGF2alpha, and PGE2) involved in luteal regulation at the end of pregnancy and, by semiquantitative RT-PCR, the expression of factors involved in P4 synthesis (CytP450scc, StAR, 3betaHSD, PRLR) and metabolism (20alphaHSD, PGF2alphaR, iNOS and COX2). Our results show that the delay in P4 decline and parturition is the resultant of retarded luteal regression, caused by a combination of decreases in luteolytic factors, mainly luteal PGF2alpha, iNOS mRNA expression and also circulating LH, and increased synthesis or action of luteotrophic factors, such as luteal and circulating PGE2 and circulating PRL. All these changes may be direct causes of the decreased 20alphaHSD mRNA and protein (measured by western blot analysis) expression, which in the presence of unchanged expression of the factors involved in P4 synthesis results in elevated luteal and circulating P4 that prolonged pregnancy and also may favor longer survival of the corpus luteum. PMID:17244746

  20. Possible mechanism for accelerated atherogenesis in male versus female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Staprans, I.; Felts, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    Dietary fat and cholesterol enter the circulation as chylomicrons. They are removed from the circulation by attachment to lipoprotein lipase located on the endothelial surfaces. As the result of lipoprotein lipase action, chylomicrons are partially hydrolyzed and then reenter the circulation as remnants, which are rapidly cleared by the liver. We investigated the fate of /sup 3/H-retinol- and /sup 14/C-cholesterol-labeled chylomicrons injected into male and female rats. The disappearance curves of chylomicrons from the circulation were not significantly different in males and females, which suggests that translocation from plasma to endothelium is similar for both sexes. However, in male rats, the dwell time of chylomicrons on the endothelium was significantly prolonged. At 10 and 20 minutes after chylomicron injection, more label was found in the livers of female than male rats. The opposite was true for hearts. Male hearts contained significantly more endothelium-bound chylomicrons when compared with female hearts. This increase in dwell time may allow greater cholesterol deposition in the endothelium of male rats. The more rapid processing of chylomicrons was associated with a 300% greater postheparin lipoprotein lipase in female rats, which suggests a greater enzyme density at chylomicron attachment points on endothelium.

  1. Propofol Exposure in Pregnant Rats Induces Neurotoxicity and Persistent Learning Deficit in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ming; Li, Jing; Alhashem, Hussain M.; Tilak, Vasanti; Patel, Anuradha; Pisklakov, Sergey; Siegel, Allan; Ye, Jiang Hong; Bekker, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Propofol is a general anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures, including those in pregnant women. Preclinical studies suggest that propofol may cause neuronal injury to the offspring of primates if it is administered during pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether those neuronal changes would lead to long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring. In this study, propofol (0.4 mg/kg/min, IV, 2 h), saline, or intralipid solution was administered to pregnant rats on gestational day 18. We detected increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 in fetal brain at 6 h after propofol exposure. The neuronal density of the hippocampus of offspring was reduced significantly on postnatal day 10 (P10) and P28. Synaptophysin levels were also significantly reduced on P28. Furthermore, exploratory and learning behaviors of offspring rats (started at P28) were assessed in open-field trial and eight-arm radial maze. The offspring from propofol-treated dams showed significantly less exploratory activity in the open-field test and less spatial learning in the eight-arm radial maze. Thus, this study suggested that propofol exposure during pregnancy in rat increased cleaved caspsase-3 levels in fetal brain, deletion of neurons, reduced synaptophysin levels in the hippocampal region, and persistent learning deficits in the offspring. PMID:24961766

  2. Enhancement of sexual behavior in the female rat by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, K; Everitt, B J; Hokfelt, T

    1977-08-01

    The effects of nicotine alone or in combination with mecamylamine, and the effects of both in combination with DA agonists and antagonists and d-LSD (5-HT agonist) have been studied on the sexual behaviour of castrate, estrogen-treated female rats. The results show that nicotine (as low as 50 mug/kg) significantly increases sexual receptivity. The pharmacological analysis suggests this effect to be mediated by a central, nicotine-like cholinergic receptor whose relationship to DA and 5-HT pathways known to exert inhibitory influences on receptivity in the female rat is also discussed. PMID:918138

  3. Blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its primary metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winfried Kessler; Wanwiwa Numtip; Konstanze Grote; György A. Csanády; Ibrahim Chahoud; Johannes G. Filser

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the dose-dependent blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets is presented. Sprague–Dawley rats and marmosets were treated orally with 30 or 500 mg DEHP\\/kg per day, nonpregnant animals on 7 (rats) and 29 (marmosets) consecutive days, pregnant animals on gestation days 14–19 (rats) and 96–124 (marmosets). In

  4. Effect of testosterone derivatives administered to pregnant rats on the brain of their offspring (delayed consequences).

    PubMed

    Ryzhavskii, B Ya; Vasil'eva, E V; Eremenko, I R; Sapozhnikov, Yu A; Sokolova, T V; Rudman, Yu Yu

    2004-06-01

    We examined the offspring of rats receiving sustanon with testosterone derivatives on day 19 of pregnancy. At the age of 1 month, these rats differed from control animals in the indexes of higher nervous activity. The relative weight of the brain increased in 54-day-old rats receiving the hormone. Female rats were characterized by increased sudanophilia of the white matter in cerebellar hemispheres and high RNA content in layer V neurons of the parietal lobe, increased volume of nuclei in hippocampal neurons, weight of the ovaries (tendency), size of the largest follicles, and high activity of 3beta-ol-steroid dehydrogenase. The weight of the adrenal glands and 3beta-ol-steroid dehydrogenase activity in adrenocortical cells of the fascicular zone increased in male rats. PMID:15455103

  5. Aspects of the Development of Housing for the Spaceflight of Pregnant and Lactating Rats with Neonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, William E.; Mayer, David J.; Evans, Juli; Spratt, Shahn; Lane, Philip K.; Rodriguez, Shari L.; Navidi, Meena; Armstrong, Rachel; Lemos, Bonnie; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Recent and upcoming spaceflights are investigating the effect of weightlessness on developing neural and organ systems. Pregnant rats and dams with neonates have to be accommodated in cages that support the special requirements of these animals. Extensive ground testing of cage concepts, the effect of launch and landing stresses on the maintenance of pregnancy and maternal behavior at different neonatal ages, and techniques for monitoring adaptability to change are discussed. A spaceflight opportunity for the NlH.R3 payload of rat families at three different postnatal ages demonstrated that the survival of very young animals was not good but that older newborns could be returned to Earth in reasonably good health. The development of cages for the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) to support the flight of neonates on Neurolab was continued and incorporated modifications that were demonstrated by the NIH.R3 flight. Other modifications to the RAHF are discussed. Data from biocompatibility and experiment verification testing are presented.

  6. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne Stilling; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jřrgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-07-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels. In conclusion both estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals given during foetal life and lactation affected mammary glands in the offspring. PMID:25305543

  7. Kindling-Induced Emotional Behavior in Male and Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda J. Wintink; Nicole A. Young; Alicia C. Davis; Andrea Gregus; Lisa E. Kalynchuk

    2003-01-01

    Modeling fear in animals is a critical approach for identifying the neural mechanisms involved in human disorders such as generalized anxiety and panic. Amygdala kindling has proven useful in this regard because it produces dramatic increases in fearful behavior. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the behavioral effects of kindling in male and female rats. Compared with the

  8. POSSIBLE ANTIESTROGENIC ACTIVITY OF LINDANE IN FEMALE RATS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    During chronic treatment of weanling female rats with daily injections (0.069 mmol/kg of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane, gamma-HCH), the treatment induced a significant 20% increase in body weight after 110 days. Further investigation with 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg lindane ...

  9. Estrogen Abolishes Latent Inhibition in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofrey, Barbara S.; Ben-Shahar, Osnat M.; Brake, Wayne G.

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen is frequently prescribed as a method of birth control and as hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women with varied effects on cognition. Here the effects of estrogen on attention were examined using the latent inhibition (LI) behavioral paradigm. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were given either estrogen benzoate (EB, 10 or…

  10. Effect of femto to nano molar concentrations of prostaglandin analogues on pregnant rat uterine contractility.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul H; Ashwani, Ashwani; Javed, Tariq; Nelson, Scott M; Carson, Ray J

    2008-02-26

    Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids and important mediators of uterine relaxation as well as contraction during pregnancy and labour. E series prostaglandins may directly contract or relax myometrium in a dose-dependent manner, with the relaxatory effects mediated through the prostanoid receptors EP(2) and EP(4). The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological effects of prostaglandin analogues on isolated pregnant rat uterine contractility, at 10(-15) to 10(-9) M concentrations. Uterine strips from rats at 19 days of gestation were set up in organ baths at 37 degrees C, bathed in Krebs buffer and gassed with 95% O(2)/5% CO(2). Spontaneous contractions were recorded via a force transducer. Concentration ranges of 10(-15)-10(-9) M of PGE(2), PGF(2alpha) and a range of prostaglandin analogues were applied non-cumulatively to the tissues. Spontaneous contractions were recorded for 12 min post dose. Amplitude, frequency, baseline tone and percent contractility over 10 min periods were analysed. PGE(2), butaprost, 9-keto fluprostenol, 11-keto fluprostenol, 9-keto fluprostenol isopropyl ester, AL8810 and 15(S)-15-methyl PGE(2) all caused a decrease in percent contractility (P<0.05). These agents, plus Delta(12)PGJ(2) and 9-deoxy-9-methylene-16,16-dimethyl PGE(2), also decreased frequency of contraction (P<0.05). Only PGE(2), PGF(2alpha) and 11-keto fluprostenol decreased baseline tone (P<0.05). The lower concentrations of prostaglandins used here mediated inhibition of spontaneous contractility of pregnant rat myometrium. Use of selective agonists suggested that the prostanoid receptors EP(2) and DP(2) are responsible for this relaxatory effect. PMID:18177857

  11. Effects of chronic stress on food acquisition, plasma hormones, and the estrous cycle of female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally M. Anderson; George A. Saviolakis; Richard A. Bauman; Kathy Y. Chu; Soma Ghosh; G. Jean Kant

    1996-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously conducted a number of studies to determine the effects of chronic stress on the physiology and behavior of male rats. The present study was performed to extend these investigations to female rats. Female rats were chronically stressed using a behavioral paradigm of around-the-clock signalled intermittent foot shock in which some rats can pull a chain to

  12. Prolonged inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in pregnant rats: effects on blood pressure, fetal growth and litter size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Fernández Celadilla; Maite Carbajo Rueda; Manuel Muńoz Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Methods: In order to investigate the effect of chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis along preg- nancy, pregnant rats were given drinking water alone (control group) or drinking water containing nonselective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N x -nitro-L-arginine me- thyl ester (L-NAME; 15 mg\\/day\\/rat equivalent to 50 mg\\/ kg\\/day; treated group), from postmating days 1 to 18 of pregnancy. On

  13. The effect of exercise on carbohydrate preference in female rats.

    PubMed

    Keeley, R J; Zelinski, E L; Fehr, L; McDonald, R J

    2014-02-01

    Exercise has a myriad of health benefits, including positive effects against heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. Cognitive performance improves following chronic exercise, both in animal models and humans. Studies have examined the effect of exercise on feeding, demonstrating a preference towards increased food consumption. Further, sex differences exist such that females tend to prefer carbohydrates over other macronutrients following exercise. However, no clear effect of exercise on macronutrient or carbohydrate selection has been described in animal or human studies. This research project sought to determine the effect of voluntary exercise on carbohydrate selection in female rats. Preference for a complex (starch) versus a simple (dextrose) carbohydrate was assessed using a discriminative preference to context paradigm in non-exercising and voluntarily exercising female rats. In addition, fasting blood glucose and performance in the Morris water task was examined in order to verify the effects of exercise on performance in this task. Female rats given access to running wheels preferred a context previously associated with starch, whereas females with no running wheel access preferred a context previously associated with dextrose. No changes in blood glucose were observed. However, cognitive differences in the Morris water task were observed such that voluntary exercise allowed rats to find a new location of a hidden platform following 4 days of training to an old platform location. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may decrease preservative behaviors in a spatial navigation task through the facilitation of plasticity mechanisms. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the influence of exercise on taste preference for complex and simple carbohydrates with this context conditioning paradigm. PMID:24406468

  14. Intrauterine Pressure (IUP) Telemetry in Pregnant and Parturient Rats: Potential Applications for Spacecraft and Centrifugation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Wade, C. E.

    2003-01-01

    Rats exposed to spaceflight or centrifugation from mid-to late pregnancy undergo either more or fewer labor contractions at birth, respectively, as compared to those in normal Earth gravity (1-g). In this paper, we report the development and validation of a new telemetric method for quantifying intrauterine pressure (IUP) in freely-moving, late pregnant and parturient rats. We plan to utilize this technique for studies of labor in altered gravity, specifically, to ascertain forces of uterine during birth, which we believe may be changed in micro- and hypergravity. The technique we describe yields precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition. A small, surgically-implantable telemetric pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon. The total volume of the sensor-balloon assembly matched that of a full term rat fetus. Real-time videorecordings of sensor-implanted rat dams and non- implanted control dams enabled us to characterize effects of the intrauterine implant on behavioral aspects of parturition. Contraction frequency, duration, pup-to-pup birth intervals and pup-oriented activities of the dams measured during the peri-birth period were unaffected by the sensor implant. These findings establish intrauterine telemetry as a reliable, non-invasive technique for quantifying intrauterine pressures associated with parturition on Earth and in altered gravity environments. This new technology, readily amenable to spaceflight and centrifugation platforms, will enable us to answer key questions regarding the role of altered labor frequency labor in the adaptation of newborn mammals to hypo- and hypergravity.

  15. Hyperbilirubinaemia in Neonatal Rats after Oxytocin or Prostaglandin F2? Treatment of Pregnant Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hollingsworth; E. A. Oyewo

    1985-01-01

    Serum bilirubin concentrations were investigated in neonatal rats. High concentrations were found on day 1 falling to adult values by day 4. Oxytocin (500 IU\\/kg) given subcutaneously to the dams on day 22 of pregnancy increased bilirubin concentrations in neonatal rats. This dose of oxytocin shortened gestational length but increased the neonatal death rate. Oxytocin (500 IU\\/kg) also increased uterine

  16. Effect of a single dose of cadmium on pregnant Wistar rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    del C Díaz, M; González, N V; Gómez, S; Quiroga, M A; Najle, R; Barbeito, C G

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known toxicant targeting many organs, among them placenta. This heavy metal also has embryonary and foetal toxicity. This study was undertaken to analyse the effect of a single Cd dose administered at 4, 7, 10 or 15 days of gestation on the offspring of pregnant rats sacrificed at 20 days of gestation. Cadmium chloride was administered subcutaneously at 10 mg/kg body weight to Wistar pregnant dams; control animals received a proportionate volume of sterile normal saline by the same route. Maternal uteri, livers, kidneys and lungs, and foetuses were examined at necropsy. Samples of maternal organs and whole foetuses were collected for histopathologic examination, determination of Cd levels and staining by the Alizarin red S technique. Results revealed a clear embryotoxic and a teratogenic effect of this heavy metal, the former as a significant increase in the number of resorptions, and the latter as significant decrease of the gestational sac weight, and the size and weight of foetuses of Cd-treated dams as well as induced malformations in skull bones, vertebrae and thoracic, and pelvian limbs. The deleterious effects found were similar to those previously reported for other animal models suggesting a high conservation of the pathogenic mechanisms of Cd. Additionally, many of the addressed aspects showed a slight dependence on the time of administration of the toxic that might be due to the accumulation of the metal in different organs, as we were able to demonstrate by the analysis of its concentration. PMID:25322905

  17. Congenital hydrocephalus following X-irradiation of pregnant rats on an early gestational day

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, I.K.; Takeuchi, Y.K.

    1986-03-01

    When pregnant rats were X-irradiated at a dose of 100 R on gestational day 9.5, a considerable number of postnatally-viable hydrocephalic offspring resulted, all of which were accompanied with bilateral micro- or anophthalmia. Histological studies revealed that the cerebral aqueduct of the congenital hydrocephalic brain was severely stenosed, and the subcommissural organ was reduced in size and displaced at some distance from the anterior end of the cerebral aqueduct. From embryological studies, it was considered that the maldevelopment of the subcommissural organ in the X-irradiated fetus might cause a reduction in the amount of its secretions which function as a cushion preventing complete closure of the cerebral aqueduct during fetal life, resulting in stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct.

  18. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  19. Effects of genistein on gonadotropic cells in immature female rats.

    PubMed

    Medigovi?, Ivana; Manojlovi?-Stojanoski, Milica; Trifunovi?, Svetlana; Risti?, Nataša; Miloševi?, Verica; Ziki?, Dragan; Nestorovi?, Nataša

    2012-05-01

    The effects of genistein on pituitary gonadotropic cells of immature female rats were examined and compared to actions of the synthetic estrogen, 17?-ethynylestradiol. Immature female rats received 50mg/kg/bw of genistein in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) subcutaneously (s.c.) daily for 3 days at 18, 19 and 20 days of age. A second group was injected with 1?g/kg of 17?-ethynylestradiol in olive oil in the same schedule. The genistein control group received DMSO only, while 17?-ethynylestradiol controls were given sterile olive oil only. Changes in cell number per mm(2), cell volume and volume density of follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) immunolabeled cells were evaluated by morphometry and stereology. Genistein induced significant increases in the number of FSH cells (by 21%) and LH cells (by 20%) per mm(2) compared to corresponding controls. Volumes of FSH and LH cells were significantly increased by 19.7% and 20% and their volume densities by 20% and 20.2%, respectively. Estradiol markedly affected gonadotropes in the same manner, but to a greater extent. It can be concluded that genistein acted as an estrogenic agonist in the pituitaries of immature female rats, and as such, stimulated gonadotropic cells. PMID:21703666

  20. Disposition of perfluorodecanoic acid in male and female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vanden Heuvel, J.P.; Kuslikis, B.I.; Van Rafelghem, M.J.; Peterson, R.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The elimination, tissue distribution, and metabolism of (1-14C)PFDA were examined in male and female rats for 28 days after a single ip dose (9.4 mumol/kg, 5 mg/kg). A sex difference in the fecal elimination of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was observed with 51 and 24% of the administered 14C being recovered in the feces of male and female rats, respectively, by 28 days post-treatment. The cumulative excretion of PFDA-derived 14C in the urine in 28 days was less than 5% of the administered dose in both sexes. The sex-related difference in the rate of fecal elimination resulted in the observed difference in whole body elimination t1/2 of PFDA in males (t1/2 = 23 days) and females (t1/2 = 45 days). The liver contained the highest concentration of PFDA-derived 14C in both males and females, followed by the plasma and kidneys. The heart, fat pads, testes, and gastrocnemius muscle of males, and the ovaries of females contained much lower concentrations of PFDA. The reason for the high percentage of the ip dose of (1-14C)PFDA in the liver (53% males and 41% females, 2 hr post-treatment) was further examined using an in situ nonrecirculating liver perfusion technique. It was shown that approximately 25% of the (14C)PFDA in the perfusate was extracted by the liver in a single pass. The basis for the sex difference in fecal elimination of PFDA does not appear to be due to a sex difference in biliary excretion. In a 6-hr period, male and female rats with kidneys ligated eliminated essentially the same percentage dose of (14C)PFDA into bile. We had hypothesized that the persistence of PFDA in rats was due to formation of a PFDA-containing lipids. However, no evidence that PFDA is conjugated to form persistent hybrid lipids was obtained, nor were polar metabolites of PFDA detected in urine or bile.

  1. PARATHION TOXICITY IN PERINATAL RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult pregnant female rats were exposed to subchronic doses of parathion throughout gestation and lactation. Their offspring were examined for possible toxicological effects. This study found that several physiological parameters were affected. Female perinates exhibited a signif...

  2. Quantitative alterations in the liver and adrenal gland in pregnant rats induced by Pyralene 3000

    SciTech Connect

    Vreci, M.; Sek, S.; Lorger, J.; Bavdek, S. [Univ. of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva (Slovenia); Pogacnik, A.

    1995-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most widespread environmental pollutants known in the world. The half-life of PCBs is very long and, therefore, once released into the environment, they accumulate in food chains and tissues of various mammals, including man. Their presence can cause numerous toxic effects, e.g., hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, dermatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and disorders of the reproductive system, among others. These effects depend on the distribution route in the organism, the rate of metabolism and excretion. Their characteristics are closely associated with the number and position of the chlorine atoms in the molecule. Previous studies of trichlorobiphenyl distributions in various tissues demonstrated that low chlorinated trichlorobiphenyls do no accumulate in endocrine organs, whereas higher chlorinated biphenyls, such as hexa- and octachlorobiphenyl, are deposited and retained in the adrenal gland. A selective distribution of radioabelled tetrachlorobiphenyl to the zona fasciculata, accompanied by morphometric evidence of the hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata, was also noted. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the tissue structure of the pregnant rat liver and adrenal gland induced experimentally by Pyralene 3000 administration. We chose this commercial low chlorinated PCB because it was in use in Slovenia and, discharged from the electroindustrial plants, caused a serious incidence of environmental pollution in the region of Bela Krajina. Our further aim was to research the transplacental influences of Pyralene 3000 in rats. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation during the same period are not affected. This study suggests that while pregnancy can proceed under altered gravity, exposure to hypergravity affects pregnant dams, pregnancy outcome and the developing fetus as well as nursing dams and neonates and raises an important question whether the mammalian system possess a gravisensing ability.

  4. Disposition of orally administered 2,2-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (Bisphenol A) in pregnant rats and the placental transfer to fetuses.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, O; Oishi, S

    2000-01-01

    We studied the disposition of bisphenol A (BPA) in pregnant female F344/DuCrj(Fischer) rats and its placental transfer to fetuses after a single oral administration of 1 g/kg BPA dissolved in propylene glycol. BPA in maternal blood, liver, and kidney reached maximal concentrations (14.7, 171, and 36 microg/g) 20 min after the administration and gradually decreased. The levels were 2-5% of the maximum 6 hr after the administration. The maximal concentration of BPA in fetuses (9 microg/g) was also attained 20 min after the administration. BPA levels then gradually reduced in a similar manner to maternal blood. These results suggest that the absorption and distribution of BPA in maternal organs and fetuses are extremely rapid and that the placenta does not act as a barrier to BPA. PMID:11049811

  5. Chemical Analysis and Transplacental Transfer of Oseltamivir and Oseltamivir Carboxylic Acid in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Yen, Jiin-Cherng; Wu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    In view of the limited information on the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir (OSE) during pregnancy, this study aims to evaluate the placental transportation of OSE and its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylic acid (OCA) in rats. A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system coupled to an in vivo transplacental model has been developed to determine OSE and OCA in the placenta, amniotic fluids and fetus of 13-day pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Concentrations of OSE and OCA in plasma, amniotic fluids, placenta, and fetus were measured by the validated LC-MS/MS after OSE administration (10 mg/kg, iv). The pharmacokinetic data of both analytes were examined by non-compartmental modeling. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of OCA in maternal plasma was found to be 3.6 times larger than that of OSE. The AUCs of OCA in both amniotic fluid and fetus were significantly decreased, in comparison with that in maternal plasma (reduced by 76.7 and 98.1%, respectively). We found that both OSE and OCA can penetrate the placenta, amniotic fluids and fetus in rats during pregnancy; however, the penetration of OCA was much lower than that of OSE. The mother-to-fetus transfer ratio was defined as AUCfetus/AUCmother. The data demonstrated that the mother-to-fetus transfer ratio of OSE and OCA were 1.64 and 0.019, respectively, suggesting that OSE, but not OCA, penetrated through the placenta. Moreover, OCA might not be easily metabolized in the fetus due to the lack of carboxylase in the fetus. PMID:23056234

  6. Pre- and postnatal bisphenol A treatment results in persistent deficits in the sexual behavior of male rats, but not female rats, in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryan A; Shimell, Jordan J; Watson, Neil V

    2011-02-01

    Perinatal administration of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) reportedly inhibits the sexual behavior of sexually naďve adult male rats. In order to evaluate the effects of BPA administration during early development on later reproductive behavior, we administered one of five doses of bisphenol A daily to pregnant female rats throughout gestation and lactation, and quantified the appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors of the resultant male and female offspring over multiple sexual encounters in adulthood. Males receiving low dose perinatal BPA (50 ?g/kg bw/day) showed persistent deficits in sexual behavior in adulthood. Males receiving the highest dose (5 mg/kg bw/day), however, were indistinguishable from controls with respect to consummatory sexual behaviors but showed decreased latencies to engage in those behaviors when sexually naďve, with significant non-linear, or U-shaped, dose-response relationships observed on the first and last day of testing. Adult female sexual behavior was not affected by early BPA administration at any dose tested. These results are consistent with previous reports that BPA exerts behavioral effects especially at low doses, and further indicates that BPA can cause lasting impairment of sexual behavior in males, but does not alter the normal development of female appetitive or consummatory sexual behaviors. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that adult sexual performance is impaired in sexually experienced animals following perinatal exposure to bisphenol A. PMID:21185296

  7. Peripheral anosmia attenuates female-enhanced aggression in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bergvall, A H; Vega Matuszczyk, J; Dahlöf, L G; Hansen, S

    1991-07-01

    It is well established that male rats with prior access to sexually active females show enhanced offensive aggression toward unfamiliar male intruders. The present study assessed the importance of the sense of smell for this facilitatory effect. It was found in 2 independent experiments that anosmia, induced peripherally by surgically removing the olfactory epithelium and cutting the olfactory nerves, reduced baseline levels of offensive aggression and significantly attenuated the female-enhanced aggression effect. It was also found that sexual performance of anosmic rats was context-dependent, in that it was more impaired in the homecage environment than in standard observation cages. In contrast to sham-operated males, the experimental animals showed no preference for estrous over anestrous females in a mate choice test. Anosmic males did not appear more fearful than controls, as assessed in a hyponeophagia test, but they showed less exploratory behavior (rearing and head-dipping) in the hole-board test, and less rearing activity in automated activity boxes. PMID:1946728

  8. Effect of coconut palm wine (Toddy) on carbohydrate metabolism in pregnant rats and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Lal, J J; Kumar, C V; Suresh, M V; Indira, M; Vijayammal, P L

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an alcoholic beverage (Toddy) and the equivalent quantity of ethanol on carbohydrate metabolism in utero. Female rats were exposed to Toddy from coconut palm (24.5 ml/kg body weight/day) and ethanol (0.52 ml/kg body weight/day) for 15 days before conception and throughout gestation. On the 19th day of gestation, hypoglycemia was seen in both the treated groups, but it was more in the Toddy-treated group. Synthesis of glycogen was elevated on exposure to ethanol/Toddy but its degradation was enhanced only in alcohol-exposed rats. Key enzymes of citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis were inhibited on administration of both alcohol and Toddy. Activity of glycolytic enzymes were increased. Toddy seemed to potentiate the toxicity induced by alcohol, indicating the additive effects of congeners. PMID:9198117

  9. Role of oxytocin in activation of spontaneous electrical activity of uterine body and uterine tubes in non-pregnant rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Kazaryan; N. G. Hunanyan; I. B. Meliksetyan; R. R. Hakopyan; A. A. Saakyan

    2011-01-01

    The work studies effects of various doses of oxytocin (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ?g\\/kg) on duration of discharges of spontaneous\\u000a electrical activity and frequency of spikes in various parts of uterine tubes and of uterine body of non-pregnant rats. Under\\u000a these conditions, changes in these parameters for ovarian parts of the uterine tubes had similar character, unlike those in

  10. Effect of subchronic administration of methyl parathion on in vivo protein synthesis in pregnant rats and their conceptuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Gupta; J. E. Thornburg; D. B. Stedman; F. Welsch

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant rats received daily po doses of the organophosphate methyl parathion (MPTH) from Day 6 through Day 15 or 19 of gestation at doses causing no (1.0 mg\\/kg) or minimal (1.5 mg\\/kg) signs of maternal toxicity. Following the dose of MPTH on Day 15 or 19, in vivo protein synthesis was measured 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 hr after sc injection

  11. Desensitization of beta2-adrenoceptor function in non-pregnant rat myometrium is modulated by sex steroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Engstrom; P Bratholm; N J Christensen

    2001-01-01

    The effects of in vivo treatment with estrogen and proges- terone on isoproterenol-induced uterine relaxation and 2-adrenoceptor (2AR) mRNA production in non- pregnant rat myometrium were investigated. Whether homologous myometrial desensitization of 2AR function was dependent on or modulated by the two steroids was also examined. Estrogen treatment alone or in combination with pro- gesterone reduced maximal relaxation (Emax) of

  12. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anderson J. Martino-Andrade; Rosana N. Morais; Katherinne M. Spercoski; Stefani C. Rossi; Marina F. Vechi; Munisa Golin; Natália F. Lombardi; Cláudio S. Greca; Paulo R. Dalsenter

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the studyInvestigate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on endocrine sensitive organs in intact and castrated male rats as well as in a post-menopausal rat model using ovariectomized females.

  13. 2-HYDROXYESTRADIOL ENHANCES BINGE ONSET IN FEMALE RATS AND REDUCES PREFRONTAL CORTICAL DOPAMINE IN MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    R.K., Babbs; E.L., Unger; R.L.W., Corwin

    2013-01-01

    Women are more likely to suffer from a bingeing-related eating disorder, which is surprising, since estradiol reduces meal size and is associated with reduced binge frequency. This apparent contradiction may involve the estradiol metabolite, 2-hydroxyestradiol. We previously reported that female rats had faster escalations in shortening intake during the development of bingeing than did males, but acute administration of 2-hydroxyestradiol increased the intake of vegetable shortening to a greater extent in male rats once bingeing was established. Here, we report two separate studies that follow up these previous findings. In the first, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to 2-hydroxyestradiol would promote escalation of bingeing during binge development in ovariectomized female rats. In the second, we hypothesized that acute exposure to 2-hydroxyestradiol would enhance dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex after bingeing was established in male rats. In study 1, non-food-deprived female rats were separated into 3 groups: ovariectomized (OVX) with chronic 2-hydroxyestradiol supplementation (E), OVX with vehicle supplementation (O), and intact with vehicle (I). Each group was given access to an optional source of dietary fat (shortening) on Mon, Wed, and Fri for four weeks. 2-hydroxyestradiol supplementation prevented OVX-induced weight gain and enhanced escalation of shortening intake over the four-week period (ps < 0.05). Additionally, in week 4, rats in the E group ate significantly more shortening than I controls, less chow than either the O or I group, and had a higher shortening to chow ratio than O or I (ps < 0.05). Study 2 indicated that acute injection of 2-hydroxyestradiol abolished shortening-evoked dopamine efflux in the prefrontal cortex of bingeing male rats (p < 0.05). Together, these studies indicate that 2-hydroxyestradiol can exacerbate bingeing as it develops and can suppress dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex once bingeing is established. PMID:23116652

  14. Toxicological evaluation and metal bioavailability in pregnant rats following exposure to clay minerals in the diet.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Melinda; Huebner, Henry; Afriyie-Gyawu, Evans; Taylor, Robert; Bratton, Gerald; Phillips, Timothy

    2004-06-11

    Silicate clays are frequently added to animal feeds to bind and reduce the bioavailability of mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the bioavailability of trace metals in these clay feed additives has not been thoroughly investigated. Clays that act nonselectively may interact with nutrients, minerals, and other feedborne chemicals to pose significant hidden risks. In this study, a calcium montmorillonite clay (Novasil Plus, NSP) commonly used as an enterosorbent for aflatoxins and a sodium montmorillonite clay (Swy-2) (Source Clay Minerals Repository, Columbia, MO) were examined. Clays were supplemented in the balanced diet of Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy at a level of 2% (w/w). Evaluations of toxicity were performed on gestation d 16 and included maternal body weights, maternal feed intakes, litter weights, and embryonic resorptions. Liver, kidneys, tibia, brain, uterus, pooled placentas, and pooled embryonic mass were collected and weighed. Tissues were lyophilized and neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed. Elements considered by NAA included Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy further confirmed that Al was below detection limits (<0.5 ppm) in the brain. Animals supplemented with either NSP or Swy-2 were similar to controls with respect to toxicity evaluations and metal analysis, with the exception of decreased brain Rb following clay supplementation. Overall, the results of this study suggest that neither NSP nor Swy-2, at relatively high dietary concentrations, influences mineral uptake or utilization in the pregnant rat. PMID:15205041

  15. Re-Adaptation to 1-G of Pregnant Rats Following Exposure to Spaceflight or Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Alberts, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Late-pregnant rat dams were flown on a 9-day Space Shuttle mission or exposed to 1.5, 1.75 or 2-g centrifugation and compared with 1 .O-g vivarium controls. Exposure to altered gravity began on the 11th day and recovery occurred on the 20th day of the dams' 22-day pregnancy. In the 1 st experiment, comparisons were made between Flight (FLT), Synchronous (SYN; identically-housed) and Vivarium (VIV) controls. In the 2nd experiment, comparisons were made between dams centrifuged at 2-G, 1.75-G, 1.5-G, Rotational controls (1.08-G) or Stationary controls (1 G). Within three hours of recovery from either spaceflight or centrifugation, the dams' locomotor behavior was videotaped for 2 min. FLT dams showed dramatically reduced movement relative to both SYN and VIV control conditions, with significantly greater amounts of locomotor activity observed in SYN as compared to VIV dams. Significantly greater locomotor activity was observed in SYN as compared to VIV controls. In the second experiment, no differences were observed between dams exposed either 1, 1.5, 1.75, or 2-G. In both studies, the dams showed similar patterns of hindlimb rearing. Together, these findings provide quantitative evidence for decreased locomotor activity during re-adaptation to 1-g following spaceflight, but not centrifugation.

  16. Clinostat rotation induces apoptosis in luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Hyunwon; Bhat, Ganapathy K.; Sridaran, Rajagopala

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that microgravity induces changes at the cellular level, including apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether microgravity affects luteal cell function. This study was performed to assess whether microgravity conditions generated by clinostat rotation induce apoptosis and affect steroidogenesis by luteal cells. Luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of Day 8 pregnant rats were placed in equal numbers in slide flasks (chamber slides). One slide flask was placed in the clinostat and the other served as a stationary control. At 48 h in the clinostat, whereas the levels of progesterone and total cellular protein decreased, the number of shrunken cells increased. To determine whether apoptosis occurred in shrunken cells, Comet and TUNEL assays were performed. At 48 h, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the clinostat increased compared with that in the control. To investigate how the microgravity conditions induce apoptosis, the active mitochondria in luteal cells were detected with JC-1 dye. Cells in the control consisted of many active mitochondria, which were evenly distributed throughout the cell. In contrast, cells in the clinostat displayed fewer active mitochondria, which were distributed either to the outer edge of the cell or around the nucleus. These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by clinostat rotation could lead to apoptosis in luteal cells and suppression of progesterone production.

  17. 2-Bromopropane Causes Ovarian Dysfunction by Damaging Primordial Follicles and Their Oocytes in Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaozhong Yu; Michihiro Kamijima; Gaku Ichihara; Wenxin Li; Junzoh Kitoh; Zhenlin Xie; Eiji Shibata; Naomi Hisanaga; Yasuhiro Takeuchi

    1999-01-01

    Ovarian dysfunction induced by 2-bromopropane (2-BP) has been described in female factory workers and experimental animals. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. To establish the reproductive target site and define mechanisms of 2-BP toxicity in adult female rats, we examined the effects of different doses and duration of exposure to 2-BP in female rats. In the dose-dependent experiments, female

  18. Griffonia simplicifolia negatively affects sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, G; Di Viesti, V; Zavatti, M; Benelli, A; Zanoli, P

    2010-10-01

    At present Griffonia simplicifolia is used in food supplement aimed to treat mood disorders as well as to reduce food intake and body weight. The plant has gained increasing interest for its high content in 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) particularly in the seed. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of a seed extract of the plant, dosed at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, on the sexual behavior of ovariectomized hormone-primed rats after acute and subchronic treatment. The single administration of G. simplicifolia significantly reduced lordosis response and increased rejection behavior in female rats treated with the highest dose while it did not influence proceptive behaviors. On the other hand the subchronic administration of the extract significantly reduced proceptivity but not receptivity, and increased rejection behavior. All the tested dosages were able to markedly decrease food intake and body weight after a 9-day treatment. Taken together the present results, possibly ascribed to increased levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain, suggest a cautious administration of the plant extract owing to its negative influence on female sexual behavior. PMID:20359873

  19. Cholesterol-independent endothelial dysfunction in virgin and pregnant rats fed a diet high in saturated fat

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Robert T; Holemans, Kathleen; O'Brien-Coker, Ivan; Mallet, Anthony I; van Bree, Rita; Van Assche, F André; Poston, Lucilla

    1999-01-01

    Western diets high in saturated fat are associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. In this study we have evaluated vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress in virgin rats fed a normal (VC) or high in saturated fat diet (VHF) (20% lard and corn oil w/w) from weaning until adulthood, and throughout subsequent pregnancy (PC and PHF, respectively). The saturated fat diet was associated with enhanced noradrenaline sensitivity in small mesenteric arteries from VHF rats (VHF vs. VC, P < 0.05) and blunted endothelium-dependent relaxation in VHF and PHF rats (VHF vs. VC, P < 0.001; PHF vs. PC, P < 0.05). Endothelial dysfunction was attributable to a reduced nitric oxide component of relaxation in VHF rats, and blunted prostacyclin and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor components in PHF rats. Other than plasma cholesterol, which was reduced in VHF and PHF rats, plasma lipids were normal. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were raised in VHF rats (P < 0.05) and the plasma marker of oxidative stress, 8-iso PGF2?, was increased in PHF animals (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction induced by a saturated fat diet is cholesterol independent and likely to be of different mechanistic origin in virgin and pregnant rats. PMID:10332106

  20. Intraperitoneal Administration of Muramyl Dipeptide ?-Heptylglycoside to Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Female Mice Modulates Production of Th1/Th2/Th17/Tr1 Cytokines by Splenocytes Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhin, O V; Artem'eva, K A; Boltovskaya, M N; Bunyatyan, K A; Inviyayeva, E V; Vinnitskii, L I; Karaulov, A V

    2015-05-01

    Muramyl dipeptide ?-heptylglycoside (C7MDP) was administered to non-pregnant CBA female mice and pregnant mice after non-abortion-prone mating (CBA×BALB/c) and mating associated with a high rate of spontaneous abortion (CBA×DBA/2). In non-pregnant females, C7MDP increased the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17, IFN?, TNF?, and GM-CSF at constant production of IL-1? and IL-10. C7MDP increased the production of IL-10 and IL-17 and suppressed the production of IFN? on day 8 of gestation in non-abortion-prone mouse couples and stimulated the synthesis of IL-4 and IFN?, reduced IL-5 production, and slightly increased IL-1? secretion after abortion-prone mating. On day 14 of gestation, C7MDP elevated the yield of IL-2, IL-4, IFN?, TNF?, and GM-CSF in CBA×BALB/c and CBA×DBA/2 couples and IL-17 in the fi rst variant of mating. PMID:26033590

  1. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ko?ci?ski, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  2. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using ?(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements. PMID:24953790

  3. Effect of Carum carvi and Curcuma longa on hormonal and reproductive parameter of female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shweta Thakur; Bhavana Bawara; Aditi Dubey; Durgesh Nandini; Nagendra Singh Chauhan; D. K. Saraf

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rhizome of Curcuma longa and seeds of Carum Carvi a folk medicinal plant used as have antifertility potentials. Present investigation study the effect of both the plant on hormone and reproductive parameter of female rat. The aqueous and ethanolic extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa and seeds of Carum Carvi used for testing antifertility activity in female rat. Aqueous

  4. Effects of Extended Exposure to the Antibacterial Triclosan in the the Adult Female Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to have endocrine disrupting activity in the rat. We reported previously that TCS advanced puberty in the female rat in the female pubertal assay and potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth i...

  5. Effects of ammonium metavanadate on fertility and reproductive performance of adult male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf M. Morgan; Osama S. El-Tawil

    2003-01-01

    Vanadium is a ubiquitous trace metal present in most plant and animal tissues. Environmental exposure to trivalent and pentavalent inorganic vanadium compounds has been related to impaired different phases of reproduction. Therefore, the effects of a pentavalent inorganic vanadium compound on general reproductive performance and fertility were investigated in male and female rats. Sexually mature male and female rats were

  6. ESTRADIOL PROTECTS AGAINST ETHANOL-INDUCED BONE LOSS IN FEMALE RATS BY PREVENTING OSTEOCLAST ACTIVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that pregnancy reduces the bone loss observed with alcohol consumption in female rats. We tested the idea that this protection might be due to increased circulating sex steroids. In the current study, 225 g female Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 6/group) were infused liquid diets...

  7. DIFFERENT MOLECULAR MECHANISMS UNDERLIE ETHANOL-INDUCED BONE LOSS IN CYCLING AND PREGNANT RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption can result in osteopenia. In the current study we examined the modulation of EtOH-induced bone-loss during pregnancy. Non-pregnant and pregnant dams were intragastrically infused either control or EtOH-containing diets throughout gestation (GD5 through 20 or an equ...

  8. Fast Na+ channels and slow Ca2+ current in smooth muscle from pregnant rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Sperelakis, N; Inoue, Y; Ohya, Y

    1992-09-01

    Smooth muscle cells normally do not possess fast Na+ channels, but inward current is carried through two types of Ca2+ channels: slow (L-type) Ca2+ channels and fast (T-type) Ca2+ channels. Using whole-cell voltage clamp of single smooth muscle cells isolated from the longitudinal layer of 18-day pregnant rat uterus, depolarizing pulses, applied from a holding potential of -90 mV, evoked two types of inward current, fast and slow [8]. The fast inward current decayed within 30 ms, depended on [Na]o, and was inhibited by TTX (K0.5 = 27 nM). The slow inward current decayed slowly, was dependent on [Ca]o, and was inhibited by nifedipine. These results suggest that the fast inward current is a fast Na+ channel current, and that the slow inward current is a Ca2+ slow channel current. A fast-inactivating Ca2+ channel current was not evident. Thus, the ion channels which generate inward currents in pregnant rat uterine cells are TTX-sensitive fast Na+ channels and dihydropyridine-sensitive slow Ca2+ channels. The number of fast Na+ channels increased during gestation. The averaged current density increased from 0 on day 5, to 0.19 on day 9, to 0.56 on day 14, to 0.90 on day 18, and to 0.86 pA/pF on day 21. This almost linear increase occurs because of an increase in the fraction of cells which possess fast Na+ channels, and it is suggested that the fast Na+ current may be involved in spread of excitation. The Ca2+ channel current density also was higher during the latter half of gestation. These results indicate that the fast Na+ channels and Ca2+ slow channels in myometrium become more numerous as term approaches, and may facilitate parturition. Isoproterenol (beta-agonist) did not affect either ICa(s) or INa(f), whereas Mg2+ (K0.5 of 12 mM) and nifedipine (K0.5 of 3.3 nM) depressed ICa(s). Oxytocin had no effect on INa(f) and actually depressed ICa(s) to a small extent. Therefore, the tocolytic action of beta-agonists cannot be explained by an inhibition of ICa(s), whereas that of Mg2+ can be so explained. The stimulating action of oxytocin on uterine contractions is not due to stimulation of ICa(s). Figure 11 summarizes the possible mechanisms by which uterine contractility can be modulated. In contrast to vascular smooth muscle, neither ISO nor adenosine, which produce elevation of cyclic AMP, affected ICa and INa. Therefore, no arrow can be drawn between cA-PK/cG-PK and the Ca2+ slow channel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1281264

  9. Development of pregnant female, hybrid voxel-mathematical models and their application to the dosimetry of applied magnetic and electric fields at 50 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the development of 2 mm resolution hybrid voxel-mathematical models of the pregnant female. Mathematical models of the developing foetus at 8-, 13-, 26- and 38-weeks of gestation were converted into voxels and combined with the adult female model, NAOMI. This set of models was used to calculate induced current densities and electric fields in the foetus from applied 50 Hz magnetic and electric fields. The influence of foetal tissue conductivities was investigated and implications for electromagnetic field guidelines discussed.

  10. Reproductive experience alters anxiety-like behavior in the female rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth M. Byrnes; Robert S. Bridges

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and lactation) results in significant alterations in subsequent hormone levels in female rats. Several studies have demonstrated that circulating hormones can significantly affect anxiety-like behavior. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether reproductive experience induces alterations in anxiety-like behaviors in cycling female rats and in older, reproductively senescent rats. In Experiment 1,

  11. Prenatal Testosterone Exposure Leads to Hypertension That Is Gonadal Hormone-Dependent in Adult Rat Male and Female Offspring1

    PubMed Central

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prenatal testosterone exposure impacts postnatal reproductive and endocrine function, leading to alterations in sex steroid levels. Because gonadal steroids are key regulators of cardiovascular function, it is possible that alteration in sex steroid hormones may contribute to development of hypertension in prenatally testosterone-exposed adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether prenatal testosterone exposure leads to development of hypertension in adult males and females and to assess the influence of gonadal hormones on arterial pressure in these animals. Offspring of pregnant rats treated with testosterone propionate or its vehicle (controls) were examined. Subsets of male and female offspring were gonadectomized at 7 wk of age, and some offspring from age 7 to 24 wk received hormone replacement, while others did not. Testosterone exposure during prenatal life significantly increased arterial pressure in both male and female adult offspring; however, the effect was greater in males. Prenatal androgen-exposed males and females had more circulating testosterone during adult life, with no change in estradiol levels. Gonadectomy prevented hyperandrogenism and also reversed hypertension in these rats. Testosterone replacement in orchiectomized males restored hypertension, while estradiol replacement in ovariectomized females was without effect. Steroidal changes were associated with defective expression of gonadal steroidogenic genes, with Star, Sf1, and Hsd17b1 upregulation in testes. In ovaries, Star and Cyp11a1 genes were upregulated, while Cyp19 was downregulated. This study showed that prenatal testosterone exposure led to development of gonad-dependent hypertension during adult life. Defective steroidogenesis may contribute in part to the observed steroidal changes. PMID:22302690

  12. Effects of corticosterone on contextual fear consolidation in intact and ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Kashefi, Adel; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that post-training administration of glucocorticoids enhances memory consolidation in male rats, but theirs effects on female rats are not known. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on contextual fear memory consolidation in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. In Experiment 1, post-training administration of CORT (0.3, 3, and 10 mg/kg) to OVX female rats impaired memory consolidation at a 0.3 mg dose of CORT. In Experiment 2, post-training injection of CORT (0.3 mg/kg) to female rats in proestrus stage (when the levels of estrogens are highest) enhances and in the estrus stage (when the levels of estrogens are lowest) impaired memory retention. In Experiment 3, OVX female rats injected with CORT (0.3 mg/kg) and one of the three doses of 17?-estradiol (1, 10 or 100 ?g/kg) following training. 48-h memory retention test indicated that CORT enhanced memory retention in OVX female rats that received concurrent injection of 10 or 100 ?g doses of 17?-estradiol. These findings indicate that cognitive effects of CORT in female rats can be modulated with the plasma levels of estrogens: when the levels of estrogens are low, corticosterone has a negative effect, while when the levels of estrogens are high; the corticosterone has a positive enhancing effect. PMID:25014761

  13. Adverse effects of 4-tert-octylphenol on the production of oxytocin and hCG in pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun; Kang, Eun-Jin; Park, Mee-Na; Lee, Jae-Eon; Hong, So-Hye; An, Sung-Min; Kim, Seung-Chul; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter the structure or function of the endocrine system. 4-Tert-octylphenol (OP) is one of the most representative EDCs and has estrogenic effects. In this study, we examined the effects of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and OP on the pituitary gland, placenta, and uterus of pregnant rats. Expression levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), oxytocin (OT), and contraction-associated proteins (CAPs) were determined, and uterine contractile activity was measured by uterine contraction assay. EE and OP both increased mRNA expression of OT and hCG in the pituitary gland but not the placenta. Since OT and hCG control uterine contraction, we next examined CAP expression in the uterus. Expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase (PGDH) was upregulated by OP, whereas expression of other CAPs was unaffected. To clarify the effect of OP on uterine contraction in pregnant rats, uterine contraction assay was performed. The 17?-Estradiol (E2) did not affect contraction of primary uterine cells harvested from pregnant rats in a 3D collagen gel model. However, OP showed different effects from E2 by significantly reducing contraction activity. In summary, we demonstrated that OP interferes with regulation of OT and hCG in the pituitary gland as well as PGDH in the uterus, thereby reducing uterine contraction activity. This result differs from the action of endogenous E2. Collectively, these findings suggest that exposure to EDCs such as OP during pregnancycan reduce uterine contractile ability, which may result in contraction-associated adverse effects such as metratonia, bradytocia, and uterine leiomyomata. PMID:25324873

  14. Immunization of Wistar female rats with 255-Gy-irradiated Toxoplasma gondii: Tissue parasitic load and lactogenic quantification.

    PubMed

    Camossi, Lucilene Granuzzio; Fornazari, Felipe; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelăo; Costa da Silva, Rodrigo; Cardia, Daniel Fontana Ferreira; Langoni, Helio

    2015-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most significant parasite, due its importance in veterinary medicine and in public health, considered a food-borne pathogens, there is no available drug treatments to eliminate it from animal tissue, this reinforce the search for a vaccine against this parasite. This study was aimed to evaluate the dynamic of the distribution of T. gondii in tissues of female Wistar rats and their milk, after the immunization by oral rote with irradiated tachyzoites. One week after pregnancy confirmation, rats was challenged by gavage with T. gondii bradyzoites, oocysts or tachyzoites of T. gondii. Forty-eight pregnant rats were grouped as follows: immunized and challenged with bradyzoites (BZ*); non-immunized and challenged with bradyzoites (BZ); immunized and challenged with oocysts (OC*); non-immunized and challenged with oocysts (OC); immunized and challenged with tachyzoites (TZ*); non-immunized and challenged with tachyzoites (TZ); only immunized (I); control group (C). After parturition, milk samples were collected for 3 weeks and then rats were sacrificed and the tissues and milk samples were researched for T. gondii parasite load determined by the quantitative PCR (qPCR). It was verified that the immunization with irradiated tachyzoites of T. gondii induced the reduction of parasitic load in muscle samples in rats challenged by bradyzoites and oocysts, although not enabled the development of sterile immunity. The detection of parasite DNA in milk was found throughout the lactation period, from immunized and non-immunized rats, however no differences were found in the parasite load caused by immunization. PMID:25936982

  15. Tamoxifen, a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Reduces Ischemic Damage Caused by Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in the Ovariectomized Female Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyamal H. Mehta; Krishnan M. Dhandapani; Liesl M. De Sevilla; R. Clinton Webb; Virendra B. Mahesh; Darrell W. Brann

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that physiological concentrations of 17?-estradiol can protect the female rat brain against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic damage. The present study examined whether therapeutic doses of the clinically relevant selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen, can similarly protect the female rat brain against ischemic stroke damage. Adult female rats were bilaterally ovariectomized and implanted subcutaneously

  16. FSH response in prepubertal male and female rats to inhibin-like activity as present in follicular fluid.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FSH response in prepubertal male and female rats to inhibin-like activity as present in follicular (Welschen et al., 1977 ; Marder, Channing and Schwartz, 1977) rats. Experiments in adult female rats show was reached by Nandini, Lipner and Moudgal (1976) who injected immature male rats with inhibin of testicular

  17. The postnatal development of the sex organs in prenatally and early postnatally irradiated male albino rats 

    E-print Network

    Ricks, Robert Clinton

    1964-01-01

    . Bagg concludes, "the results so far indicate that gamma-ray irradiation is a physical agent adapted to the study of experimentally produced developmental arrests in mammalian embryos. " Hanson (1922) reported that male albino rats which were... pregnant females were randomly placed into respective groups to await irradiation. All supsected pregnant females were palpated to confirm pregnancy before irradiation. Pregnant females received a total body dose of gamma irradiation from a cobalt-60...

  18. Differential sensitivity to central leptin and insulin in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Deborah J; Riedy, Christine A; Smith, Kathleen A Blake; Benoit, Stephen C; Woods, Stephen C

    2003-03-01

    The distribution of fat in the body differs between the male and female sexes and is associated with the relative secretion of the two "adiposity" hormones leptin and insulin. We now report that the brains of male and female rats are differentially sensitive to the catabolic actions of small doses of these two hormones. Leptin (1 or 3.5 microg/2 microl) or saline (2 microl) was administered into the third cerebral ventricle of age- and weight-matched male and female rats. Leptin significantly reduced food intake in female and male rats over 4 h; however, leptin reduced 24-h intake in female but not in male rats. When the same rats were administered insulin (1 or 4 mU/2 microl) or saline (2 microl), male but not female rats had a robust reduction in food intake over 24 h. Previous research demonstrates the melanocortins are a central mediator of the effects of both leptin and insulin. However, we found no sex differences in sensitivity to the melanocortin agonist MTII (0.01, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 nmol/2 microl). These results suggest that the sex differences in sensitivity to leptin and insulin at the doses that we injected occur upstream of the melanocortin receptors. Because insulin and leptin reflect different fat beds and are differentially distributed in the male and female sexes, the implication is that the male and female sexes regulate adiposity-relevant parameters differently. PMID:12606509

  19. The contracture produced by sodium removal in the non-pregnant rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Masahashi, T; Tomita, T

    1983-01-01

    1. Mechanical responses to Na removal were investigated in the circular and longitudinal muscles of the non-pregnant rat myometrium at 35 degrees C. In both muscles, reduction of the external Na concentration to less than 20 mM produced an initial acceleration of phasic contractions and a sustained tonic contracture. No difference was found with different Na substitutes (Tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane, choline, dimethyl diethanol ammonium). However, when Mg was substituted for Na, only the tonic contracture was produced without the phasic contractions. 2. Readmission of 5-10 mM-Na, after exposure to Na-free solution, relaxed the contracture produced by Na removal. The degree of relaxation was dependent on the Na concentration readmitted and on the period of pre-treatment with Na-free solution, being stronger with longer pre-treatment. 3. In the presence of Na, excess Ca failed to increase the muscle tone. In the absence of Na, the tension development was closely related to the external Ca concentration up to 20 mM. In the absence of both Ca and Na, some tension remained. Even after pre-treatment with Ca-free solution containing 0.1-0.5 mM EGTA, removal of Na caused some mechanical response. A similar small tension development was observed when Na removal was repeated during prolonged absence of external Ca for more than 3 h. 4. Verapamil (2 X 10(-4) M) markedly suppressed the response to Na removal, but it did not block it, either in the presence or in the absence of Ca. Ouabain (10(-3) M) in the presence of verapamil potentiated the early phasic component of the response to Na removal, but the tonic component was little affected or even slightly reduced. 5. The results indicate that there are three components in the mechanical response to Na removal: the phasic and tonic components, which are highly Ca-dependent, and the third small tonic component, which is independent of external Ca. Most of the phasic and tonic responses seem to be due to an increase in Ca permeability, but this may be secondary to membrane depolarization. A Na-Ca exchange mechanism is also considered to contribute to the transient phase of the response to Na removal and to Na readmission. PMID:6683314

  20. The calcium channel current of pregnant rat single myometrial cells in short-term primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Amédée, T; Mironneau, C; Mironneau, J

    1987-01-01

    1. The passive and active electrical properties of pregnant rat single myometrial cells in short-term primary culture were analysed using a single-electrode voltage or current clamp. 2. Action potentials and membrane currents were recorded in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride and 4-aminopyridine (10 mM each) and with Cs+ solution (4 M) in the microelectrode. 3. The voltage dependence, the action of Ca2+ antagonists and the effects of Sr2+ or Ba2+ substitution were studied. The peak Ca2+ current density was in the range 15-20 microA/cm2 in 10 mM-Ca2+ solution. 4. According to both measurement of the reversal potential of Ca2+ channel currents and comparison of the inward currents after correction for changing surface charge, the relative selectivity sequence of the Ca2+ channel for divalent cations was Ca2+ greater than Sr2+ = Ba2+. 5. The decay of Ca2+ channel current during a maintained depolarization was slowed when external Ca2+ was replaced by Sr2+ or Ba2+. The decay reflected an inactivation of Ca2+ channel conductance, as assessed by the decreased amplitude of inward tail currents following progressively longer depolarizations and the stable value of the reversal potential when Ca2+ channel current was increased during conditioning pulses. 6. Voltage-dependent inactivation was illustrated by inactivation of outward Ca2+ channel current due to K+ and/or Cs+ efflux with external Ba2+ or in the absence of any permeant divalent cation. 7. The relationship between inactivation and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was assessed by a double-pulse method. Conditioning pulses that produced maximal Ca2+ current induced maximal inactivation; with stronger depolarizations, inactivation decreased but was not completely prevented at the expected Ca2+ reversal potential. Increasing the amount of Ca2+ entering the cell during the pre-pulse reduced both amplitude and kinetics of test Ca2+ currents. These results were not observed with Ba2+ as the charge carrier. 8. Ca2+ channel current inactivation was best fitted by a two-exponential function. The fast time constant of inactivation was larger in Ba2+ solution than in Ca2+ solution but both time constants showed little variation with membrane potential. The slow time constants of inactivation were steeply voltage dependent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2451723

  1. Appetite regulation is independent of the changes in ghrelin levels in pregnant rats fed low-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren T; Yallampalli, Uma; Balakrishnan, Meena P; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gestational protein restriction causes hypertension in the adult offspring. Very little is known about the food intake regulation and ghrelin signaling in pregnant dams fed a low-protein (LP) diet. We hypothesized that diet intake and ghrelin signaling are altered in pregnant rats fed the low-protein diet. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a control (CT) or LP diet from Day 3 of pregnancy. Diet intake and body weight were monitored daily. Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and appetite-related genes in the hypothalamus was analyzed by real-time PCR. Plasma levels of total and active ghrelin, growth hormone and leptin were measured by ELISA. Main results include: (1) Daily diet intake was greater in the LP group than in the CT group in early pregnancy, but substantially lower in late pregnancy; (2) Daily gain in body weight was substantially lower in the LP group in late pregnancy; (3) Expression of ghrelin production-related genes in the stomach and plasma total ghrelin levels were increased in LP group in late pregnancy; (4) Plasma active ghrelin levels were elevated in the LP group at mid-late pregnancy, but growth hormone and leptin levels were uncorrelated with active ghrelin in late pregnancy; and (5) Hypothalamic expression of ghrelin-stimulated genes in LP rats was unassociated with the changes in both plasma ghrelin levels and the diet intake. Taken together, the appetite in LP rats is greater in early pregnancy but reduced at late pregnancy, possibly due to ghrelin insensitivity in appetite regulation. PMID:25907788

  2. Effect of i1 imidazoline receptor agonist, moxonidine, in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Gairard, Alexis; Lopez-Miranda, Visitacion; Pernot, Fanny; Beck, Jean F; Coumaros, Genevičve; Van Overloop, Bruno; La Roche, Benoît; Koehl, Christian; Christen, Marie O

    2004-05-01

    Decreased nitric oxide production has been reported in preeclampsia, which is also frequently associated with glucose intolerance. It was thus considered of interest to investigate the effects of moxonidine, a centrally acting antihypertensive drug that reduces insulin resistance, in a rat model of preeclampsia. Hypertension was induced in Wistar rats by dietary l-NNA (N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine, 0.063%, 31 mg/kg/d, days 13-19 of gestation) and, over the same period, moxonidine or vehicle was administered orally (2 mg/kg/d by gavage). On day 20, blood pressure was measured in the pentobarbital anesthetized animals, glucose tolerance was tested (2 g/kg glucose i.p.), and morphologic studies were conducted on the litter to determine the benefits with respect to fetal outcome. Hypertension was reduced with daily moxonidine treatment (P < 0.05). Basal plasma insulin and insulin/glucose index were decreased with moxonidine treatment evidencing improved insulin sensitivity in the control and l-NNA-treated pregnant rats (P < 0.05). After glucose challenge, plasma insulin increased in all the groups as expected and plasma insulin and insulin/glucose index were significantly higher in the l-NNA group than in the control, moxonidine, or l-NNA + moxonidine groups (P < 0.05 for time 60 minutes). Thus, moxonidine improved glucose tolerance in l-NNA-treated pregnant rats. Moreover, moxonidine treatment very effectively decreased the number of necroses (1 necrosis in 71 fetuses in the l-NNA + moxonidine group versus 15 necroses in 79 fetuses in the l-NNA group, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the 7-day treatment with moxonidine suppressed hypertension and reduced glucose intolerance and fetal necrosis, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of moxonidine in the preeclamptic model. PMID:15071362

  3. Effects of Quercetin on CYP450 and Cytokines in Aroclor 1254 Injured Endometrial Cells of the Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lina; Sun, Liyun; Lu, Liqin; Qin, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent residual environmental pollutants, which affect seriously the growth and reproductive alterations in humans and animals. Aroclor 1254 is a commercial mixture of PCBs. Quercetin is a flavonoid, which acts on estrogen receptors and causes the development of estrogen-related diseases. In this paper, the primary cultured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats were isolated and Aroclor 1254 was used to induce the injured endometrial cells model. The cells were treated with gradient quercetin, the viability of the endometrial cells, the expressions of CYP450, the contents of TNF-?, IL-6, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured. It showed that the viability of the cultured endometrial cells, the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1, and the contents of TNF-?, E2, and IL-6 in the injured endometrial cells increased with the treatment of quercetin. It shows that quercetin has protective effect on the injured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats, this provide a basis on herbal medicine protection for animal reproductive diseases caused by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24711995

  4. Studies on Apoptotic Changes in Combined Toxicity of Citrinin and Endosulfan in Pregnant Wistar Rats and Their Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Singh, N. D.; Sharma, A. K.; Dwivedi, P.; Telang, A. G.; Kumar, M.; Patil, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Citrinin (mycotoxin) and endosulfan (pesticide) both environmental contaminants easily enter the food chain and are caoomon causes of various toxicities. Materials and Methods: In the present investigation, citrinin (CIT) (10 mg/kg feed) and endosulfan (1 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally alone and in combination to pregnant Wistar rats from gestational day 6 to 20 to study their effect to cause apoptosis in the pregnant Wistar rats and their fetuses. Apoptosis was assessed in dams by agarose gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry and electron microscopy, while in the fetuses it was assessed by flow cytometry only. Result: Citrinin and endosulfan in the combination group caused apoptosis in an additive manner as there was increased number of apoptotic cells as compared to the individual toxin and control groups. The fetuses also showed increased number of apoptotic cells in the combination groups, which also indicated that both the toxins crossed the placental barrier. Conclusion: So it was concluded that apoptosis played a significant role in the pathogenesis of endosulfan and citrinin toxicity. PMID:22778511

  5. Induction of tumors in female Donryu rats by a single administration of 1-propyl-1-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Ogiu, T; Nakadate, M; Odashima, S

    1976-02-01

    Three groups of female Donryu rats were given a single gastric intubation of 800, 400, or 200 mg/kg body weight of 1-propyl-1-nitrosourea and one group of female Donryu rats was given a single subcutaneous injection of 1-propyl-1-nitrosourea. The incidence of tumors was highest for mammary tumors and leukemia, and next for tumors of the ovary, thyroid, and adrenal glands, and in the digestive tract in rats given the chemical by oral administration. There were also scattered tumors in various other organs. Mammary and subcutaneous tumors were found in some rats given a subcutaneous injection of 1-propyl-1-nitrosourea. PMID:1269852

  6. Standardised Models for Inducing Experimental Peritoneal Adhesions in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Bernhard; Wallwiener, Christian; Rajab, Taufiek K.; Brochhausen, Christoph; Wallwiener, Markus; Rothmund, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Animal models for adhesion induction are heterogeneous and often poorly described. We compare and discuss different models to induce peritoneal adhesions in a randomized, experimental in vivo animal study with 72 female Wistar rats. Six different standardized techniques for peritoneal trauma were used: brushing of peritoneal sidewall and uterine horns (group 1), brushing of parietal peritoneum only (group 2), sharp excision of parietal peritoneum closed with interrupted sutures (group 3), ischemic buttons by grasping the parietal peritoneum and ligating the base with Vicryl suture (group 4), bipolar electrocoagulation of the peritoneum (group 5), and traumatisation by electrocoagulation followed by closure of the resulting peritoneal defect using Vicryl sutures (group 6). Upon second look, there were significant differences in the adhesion incidence between the groups (P < 0.01). Analysis of the fraction of adhesions showed that groups 2 (0%) and 5 (4%) were significantly less than the other groups (P < 0.01). Furthermore, group 6 (69%) was significantly higher than group 1 (48%) (P < 0.05) and group 4 (47%) (P < 0.05). There was no difference between group 3 (60%) and group 6 (P = 0.2). From a clinical viewpoint, comparison of different electrocoagulation modes and pharmaceutical adhesion barriers is possible with standardised models. PMID:24809049

  7. Effects of neonatal 6-hydroxydopa on behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    McLean, J H; Glasser, R S; Kostrzewa, R M; May, J G

    1980-12-01

    Litters of female rats were treated at birth and 48 hr later with either saline or 6-hydroxydopa (60 microgram/g, IP), were ovariectomized in adulthood and tested on a number of behavioral tasks including age of vaginal opening, sexual receptivity, open-field activity, equilibrium, and habituation to acoustic startle. Results of the open-field test indicated that the treated animals were more active overall, were more likely to enter inner segments, reared more often, and defecated less than the control animals. On a rod-balancing task, the treated animals exhibited impaired equilibrium. Treated animals were more reactive than controls in response to acoustic startle, but there were no differences between the groups in rate of habituation or sensitization to the startle stimulus. Norepinephrine content of treated animals was significantly lower than controls in the cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and spinal cord, but higher in the cerebellum and brainstem. There was no difference between the groups in cardiac norepinephrine nor in striatal dopamine. PMID:6782588

  8. Testosterone and imipramine have antidepressant effects in socially isolated male but not female rats

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Nicole; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Affective disorders are twice as likely to occur in women as they are in men suggesting a critical role for gonadal hormones in their etiology. In particular, testosterone has been shown to have protective effects in men. Objective To investigate antidepressant effects and interactions between testosterone and imipramine in socially isolated male and female rats. Methods A chronic social isolation model was used to induce an anxiety and depressive-like state in adult gonadectomized (Gnx) male and ovariectomized (Ovx) female rats receiving chronic testosterone and imipramine treatments. Their anxiety and depression-like behaviors were examined using the light-dark box, elevated plus maze, open field, sucrose preference and novelty induced hypophagia tests. Results In socially isolated rats, the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of testosterone and imipramine were limited to male rats. Additionally, testosterone enhanced the neurogenic effect of imipramine on hippocampal cell proliferation in male rats. Although female rats exhibited signs of anxiety and depressive-like behaviors following social isolation, testosterone and/or imipramine administration had no anxiolytic or antidepressant effects in Ovx females. Conclusions Testosterone and imipramine had anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in socially isolated male, but not female rats. Testosterone enhanced the effect of imipramine on cell proliferation in the hippocampus of male rats. PMID:22426002

  9. Disposition of diiosononyl phthalate and its effects on sexual development of the male fetus following repeated dosing in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Clewell, Rebecca A; Sochaski, Mark; Edwards, Kendra; Creasy, Dianne M; Willson, Gabrielle; Andersen, Melvin E

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) from GD 12 to 19 via corn oil gavage to study the dose response for effects on fetal male rat sexual development as well as metabolite disposition in the dam and fetus. Monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP), mono(carboxy-isooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP), mono(hydroxyl-isononyl) phthalate (MHiNP), mono(oxo-isononyl) phthalate (MOiNP), and monoisononyl phthalate glucuronide (MiNP-G) were found in all measured tissues. MCiOP was the major metabolite, followed in decreasing order by MiNP, MHiNP, MOiNP, and MiNP-G. Percentage of dose absorbed decreased at 750 mg/kg/day. Testosterone concentration in the fetal testes was reduced at 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. Multinucleated germ cells were increased in the testes of rats at 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. The no observed effect level (NOEL) for this study was 50 mg/kg/day based on increased MNGs and reduced testes testosterone concentration in the fetal rat. PMID:22813627

  10. Effects of intraventricular taurine, homotaurine and GABA on serum prolactin and thyrotropin levels in female and in male rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Miikinen; L. Ahtee; K. Rosenqvist; R. K. Tuominen; P. Miinnistii

    1993-01-01

    Summary Serum prolactin and thyrotropin levels of conscious, unrestrained male and female rats were compared after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of taurine, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and homotaurine. The amino acids studied had no clear effect on serum basal thyrotropin levels in male or female rats. All amino acids elevated serum prolactin levels in female rats at the dose of 5 µmol\\/rat;

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL ATRAZINE EXPOSURE SUPPRESSES IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Atrazine Exposure Suppresses Immune Function in Male, but not Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Andrew A. Rooney,*,1 Raymond A. Matulka,? and Robert Luebke? *College of Veterinary Medicine, Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, NCSU, Raleigh, North...

  12. Functional and Neuroanatomical Effects of Vaginal Distention and Pudendal Nerve Crush in the Female Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGOT S. DAMASER; CARLA BROXTON-KING; CORRI FERGUSON; FERNANDO J. KIM; JAMES M. KERNS

    2003-01-01

    PurposeWe tested the hypothesis that neuroanatomical degeneration near the external urethral sphincter (EUS) would parallel urinary dysfunction after vaginal distention or bilateral pudendal nerve crush in female rats.

  13. Ventilatory Drive Is Enhanced in Male and Female Rats Following Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Edge; J. R. Skelly; A. Bradford; K. D. O’Halloran

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) due to recurrent apnoea. We have developed\\u000a a rat model of CIH, which shows evidence of impaired respiratory muscle function. In this study, we wished to characterize\\u000a the ventilatory effects of CIH in conscious male and female animals. Adult male (n=14) and female (n=8) Wistar rats were used.\\u000a Animals were

  14. In vivo evidence for a greater brain tryptophan hydroxylase capacity in female than in male rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Carlsson; Arvid Carlsson

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that brain levels of tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) are moderately higher in female than in male rats. Since tryptophan hydroxylase is only about half saturated with substrate, the greater availability of precursor in female rats might contribute to their higher 5-hydroxyindole levels. The present investigation was aimed at clarifying whether there is a

  15. Sudden Darkness Induces a High Activity-Low Anxiety State in Male and Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia G Nasello; Cybelle Machado; Jaime F Bastos; Luciano F Felicio

    1998-01-01

    NASELLO, A. G., C. MACHADO, J. F. BASTOS AND L. F. FELICIO.Sudden darkness induces a high activity-low anxiety state in male and female rats.PHYSIOL BEHAV 63(3) 451–454, 1998.—The effects of sudden darkness on spontaneous motor activity in an open field and performance in an elevated plus-maze (EPM) were assessed in adult male and female rats. In the open field test,

  16. Effect of Lifelong Nicotine Inhalation on Bone Mass and Mechanical Properties in Female Rat Femurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Syversen; L. Nordsletten; J. A. Falch; J. E. Madsen; O. G. Nilsen; H. L. Waldum

    1999-01-01

    .   As tobacco smoking has been identified as a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis, possible deleterious effects\\u000a of nicotine inhalation on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of the femur in female rats were studied. Female\\u000a Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to nicotine vapour 20 hours a day 5 days a week for 2 years. The nicotine

  17. Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine in Serum Microsamples of Intact and Gonadectomized Male and Female Wistar Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frans Van Haaren; Mircea Garcea; Karen G Anderson; Ian R Tebbett

    1997-01-01

    VAN HAAREN, F., M. GARCEA, K. G. ANDERSON AND I. R. TEBBETT. Cocaine and benzoylecgonine in serum microsamples of intact and gonadectomized male and female Wistar rats. PHARMACOL BIOCHEM BEHAV 58(2) 421–424, 1997.—Tail-tip plasma samples of intact and gonadectomized male and female Wistar rats were analyzed for cocaine and benzoylecgonine. The samples were obtained from immobilized subjects 10 and 30

  18. Effect of Post-Weaning Individual Housing on Autonomic Responses in Male Rats to Sexually Receptive Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Post-weaning individual housing induces significant alterations in the reward system of adult male rats presented with sexually receptive female rats. In this study, we examined the effects of post-weaning individual housing on autonomic nervous activity in adult male rats during encounters with sexually receptive female rats to assess whether different affective states depending on post-weaning housing conditions are produced. Changes in heart rate and spectral parameters of heart rate variability indicated that in post-weaning individually housed male rats, both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity increased with no change in the sympathovagal balance, while in post-weaning socially housed male rats, both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity decreased with a predominance of parasympathetic activity. These two patterns of shifts in sympathovagal balances closely resembled changes in autonomic nervous activity with regard to classical appetitive conditioning in male rats. The autonomic changes in male rats housed individually after weaning corresponded to changes associated with the reward-expecting state evoked by the conditioned stimulus, and the autonomic changes observed in male rats housed socially after weaning corresponded to changes associated with the reward-receiving state evoked by the unconditioned stimulus. These results suggest that different affective states were induced in adult male rats during sexual encounters depending on male–male social interactions after weaning. The remarkable change caused by post-weaning individual housing may be ascribed to alteration of the reward system during sexual encounters induced by deficiency of intermale social communication after weaning. PMID:23903058

  19. A cognitive rehabilitation paradigm effective in male rats lacks efficacy in female rats.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Kristopher D; Granter-Button, Shirley; Harley, Carolyn W; Moody-Corbett, Frances; Peeling, James; Corbett, Dale

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunction, as a consequence of dementia, is a significant cause of morbidity lacking efficacious treatment. Females comprise at least half of this demographic but have been vastly underrepresented in preclinical studies. The current study addressed this gap by assessing the protective efficacy of physical exercise and cognitive activity on learning and memory outcomes in a rat model of vascular dementia. Forty ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (?6 months old) were exposed to either a diet high in saturated fats and refined sugars or standard laboratory chow and underwent either chronic bilateral carotid occlusion or Sham surgery. Learning and memory abilities were evaluated using standard cognitive outcomes over the ensuing 6 months, followed by histologic analyses of hippocampal CA1 neurons. In Experiment 1, we confirmed hypoperfusion-induced cognitive dysfunction using a 2 × 2 (Surgery × Diet) experimental design, without alterations in hippocampal architecture. In Experiment 2, hypoperfused animals were either exposed to alternating days of physical (wheel running) and cognitive activity (modified Hebb-Williams maze) or sedentary housing. In contrast to males, this combination rehabilitation paradigm did not improve cognition or histopathologic outcomes in hypoperfused animals. These findings, highlighting differences between female and male animals, show the necessity of including both sexes in preclinical experimentation. PMID:25052554

  20. Changes in geometrical and biomechanical properties of immature male and female rat tibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, Ronald F.; Hou, Jack C.-H.; Vailas, Arthur C.; Nishimoto, Mitchell; Patel, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    The differences in the geometry and mechanical properties of immature male and female rat tibiae were detailed in order to provide comparative data for spaceflight, exercise, or disease experiments that use immature rats as an animal model. The experiment focuses on the particularly rapid period of growth that occurs in the Sprague-Dawley rat between 40 and 60 d of age. Tibial length and middiaphysical cross-sectional data were analyzed for eight different groups of rats according to age and sex, and tibial mechanical properties were obtained via three-point bending tests to failure. Results indicate that, during the 15 d period of rapid growth, changes in rat tibial geometry are more important than changes in bone material properties for influencing the mechanical properties of the tibia. Male tibiae changed primarily in structural properties, while in the female rats major changes in mechanical properties of the tibia were only attributable to changes in the structural properties of the bone.

  1. Preparation of a gap junction fraction from uteri of pregnant rats: the 28-kD polypeptides of uterus, liver, and heart gap junctions are homologous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTONIOS S. ZERVOS; JAMES HOPE; W. HOWARD EVANS

    1985-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of a gap junction fraction from the uteri of pregnant rats is described. The uterine gap junctions, when examined by electron microscopy of thin sections and in negatively stained preparations, were similar to gap junctions isolated from heart and liver. Major proteins of similar apparent molecular weight (Mr 28,000) were found in gap junction fractions

  2. 14-C-NAPHTHYL, 14-C-METHYL AND 14-C-CARBONYL CARBARYL DISTRIBUTION IN THE PREGNANT MOUSE AND RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution of carbaryl labeled with 14C in the ring, methyl or carbonyl groups was determined in pregnant mice and rats. Three identical concurrent experiments were performed using each of the three radiolabeled compounds in each of the species so that the different moietie...

  3. Availability Influences Initial and Continued Ingestion of Nicotine by Adolescent Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Biondolillo; A. R. Pearce

    2007-01-01

    Background: The availability of tobacco products is associated with the likelihood that adolescents will begin using tobacco. Yet the relationship between nicotine availability and voluntary consumption has not been tested experimentally in developing rats. Method: The impact of environmental availability on adolescent female rats’ initial reaction to and continued ingestion of a novel solution (nicotine or control) was compared using

  4. Green tea polyphenols attenuate deterioration of bone microarchitecture in female rats with systemic chronic inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Our previous study demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) benefit bone health in female rats with chronic inflammation, because of GTP’s antioxidant capacity. The current study further evaluates whether GTP can restore bone microstructure along with related mechanism in rats wit...

  5. Effect of conazole fungicides on reproductive development in the female rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Rockett; Michael G. Narotsky; Kary E. Thompson; Inthirany Thillainadarajah; Chad R. Blystone; Amber K. Goetz; Hongzu Ren; Deborah S. Best; Rachel N. Murrell; Harriette P. Nichols; Judith E. Schmid; Douglas C. Wolf; David J. Dix

    2006-01-01

    Three triazole fungicides were evaluated for effects on female rat reproductive development. Rats were exposed via feed to propiconazole (P) (100, 500, or 2500ppm), myclobutanil (M) (100, 500, or 2000ppm), or triadimefon (T) (100, 500, or 1800ppm) from gestation day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 98. Body weight (BW) and anogenital distance (AGD) at PND 0, age and BW at

  6. Oral contraceptive administration aggravates nitric oxide synthesis inhibition-induced high blood pressure in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Olatunji; A. O. Soladoye

    2008-01-01

    The use of estrogen–progestogen oral contraceptive (OC) is associated with high blood pressure, although mechanisms responsible are still unclear. This study sought to investigate the effects of administration of OC on high blood pressure resulting from nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition in female Sprague–Dawley rats. Rats were given ethinyl estradiol in combination with norgestrel and were treated with NO synthase

  7. Continuous place avoidance task reveals differences in spatial navigation in male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M Cimadevilla; André A Fenton; Jan Bures

    2000-01-01

    A new place navigation test was used to estimate the spatial orientation abilities of male and female rats. Animals had to avoid a room frame defined area on a rotating arena, entering of which was punished by mild footshock, i.e. rats had to avoid the same place in the room but different parts of the floor, which was rotated through

  8. Effects of weight cycling and aging on body protein content in female wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Catherine Jen; Elizabeth S. LeClair; Anne Buison; Michael A. Pellizzon

    1999-01-01

    The effects of body weight cycling (WC) on body protein content are inconclusive. This study was designed to investigate the interactive effects of WC and aging on body protein content in female Wistar rats. Young (2.5 months old at the beginning of the study) and old rats (11 months at the beginning of the study) were divided, within each age

  9. Excess Androgen During Puberty Disrupts Circadian Organization in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Zachary C.; Menaker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks have been described in each tissue of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. Although a role for the clock in the timing of ovulation is indicated, the impact of diseases that disrupt fertility on clock function or the clocks' role in the etiology of these pathologies has yet to be fully appreciated. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a particularly devastating endocrinopathy, affecting approximately 10% of women at childbearing age. Common features of PCOS are a polycystic ovary, amenorrhea, and excess serum androgen. Approximately 40% of these women have metabolic syndrome, including hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia. It has been suggested that excess androgen is a critical factor in the etiology of PCOS. We have examined the effects of androgen excess during puberty on the phase of circadian clocks in tissues of the metabolic and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axes. Female period1-luciferase (per1-luc) rats were exposed to androgen (5?-dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) or placebo for 4-6 weeks (short term) or 9-15 weeks (long term). As expected, DHT-treated animals gained more weight than controls and had disrupted estrous cycles. At the end of treatment, tissues, including the liver, lung, kidney, white adipose, cornea, pituitary, oviduct, and ovarian follicles, were cultured, and per1-luc expression in each was recorded. Analysis of per1-luc expression revealed that DHT exposure increased phase distribution of multiple oscillators, including ovarian follicles, liver, and adipose, and altered phase synchrony between animals. These data suggest that excess androgen during puberty, a common feature of PCOS, negatively affects internal circadian organization in both the reproductive and metabolic axes. PMID:23417420

  10. Effects of the estrous cycle and ovarian hormones on behavioral indices of anxiety in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Mora; Nelson Dussaubat; Gabriela Díaz-Véliz

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the estrous cycle and the effects of exogenous administration of estradiol and progesterone on level of anxiety were studied in intact and ovariectomized rats. Intact Sprague-Dawley female rats were classified according to the stages of estrous cycle. Another group of rats was ovariectomized bilaterally and, 14 days after surgery, they received estradiol benzoate (10 ?g\\/kg, SC) and\\/or

  11. The role of odors and ultrasonic vocalizations in female rat (Rattus norvegicus) partner choice.

    PubMed

    Snoeren, Eelke M S; Ĺgmo, Anders

    2014-11-01

    Intrasexual competition for access to a female mate is believed to be unusual in wild male rats, which suggests that female choosiness could be more important. It has been shown that females spend more time with one male than with others when tested in a multiple partner paradigm. The male of first entry is visited most. The role of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and male odors in the female rat's initial choice to approach one male instead of another are studied in these experiments. In Experiment 1, female rats were allowed to choose between 3 different intact males, whereas in Experiment 2, females could choose between a devocalized male and 2 intact males. Both experiments started with a 15-min period with inaccessible males followed by a 15-min period with accessible males in which the female could copulate with the males of her choice. The results showed that female rats spent more time with the male of first entry over the males visited subsequently. No differences were found in USV subtype patterns emitted by the different males or the time spent sniffing the different males in the period preceding the choice. In addition, the results of Experiment 2 showed that females visited the silent males as much as the vocalizing males. Thus, the present experiments did not offer any evidence suggesting that USVs or individual differences in male odors play any role in female mate choice. Other factors that were not investigated in this study might be involved in female rat mate selection, but it should also be considered that mate selection could be random. PMID:25133463

  12. Quercetin alleviates predator stress-induced anxiety-like and brain oxidative signs in pregnant rats and immune count disturbance in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Mohamed Lamine; Merzoug, Sameha; Baudin, Bruno; Tahraoui, Abdelkrim

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed in rats to investigate the effect of a psychogenic stress during late gestation on the immediate behavior and brain oxidative status in dams as well as on the immune cell counts in their offspring up to weaning. Besides, the ability of quercetin (a natural flavonoid) to prevent stress effects was evaluated. Quercetin was orally administered for 6 consecutive days before the pregnant rats were acutely exposed to predator stress on gestational day 19. Post-stress corticosterone level, brain oxidative stress parameters and anxiety-like behavior were assessed in dams, whereas immune cell counts were postnatally determined in both male and female pups. Predator stress caused an oxidative stress in the brain and elicited an elevation in plasma corticosterone with concomitant behavioral impairment in dams. Prenatally-stressed pups mainly showed a decrease in total leukocytes and lymphocytes along with monocytosis and granulocytosis, but these changes were sex-dependent throughout the postnatal period studied. Quercetin pretreatment blocked the stress-induced corticosterone release and alleviated the brain oxidative stress with the maternal anxiety measures being slightly attenuated, whereas its effects on the offspring immune cell counts were mostly revealed at birth. Our findings suggest that late gestational exposure to traumatic events may cause anxiety symptoms in dams, in which corticosterone and brain oxidative stress play a certain role, and trigger negative immune changes in the early postnatal life of progeny. Notably, quercetin intake before such adverse events seems to be beneficial against negative outcomes in both dams and offspring. PMID:23541492

  13. Placental ischemia in pregnant rats impairs cerebral blood flow autoregulation and increases blood–brain barrier permeability

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Junie P.; Fan, Fan; Murphy, Sydney R.; Roman, Richard J.; Drummond, Heather A.; Granger, Joey P.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cerebrovascular events contribute to ~40% of preeclampsia/eclampsia?related deaths, and neurological symptoms are common among preeclamptic patients. We previously reported that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero?placental perfusion pressure, leads to impaired myogenic reactivity and cerebral edema in the pregnant rat. Whether the impaired myogenic reactivity is associated with altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation and the edema is due to altered blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability remains unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia leads to impaired CBF autoregulation and a disruption of the BBB. CBF autoregulation, measured in vivo by laser Doppler flowmetry, was significantly impaired in placental ischemic rats. Brain water content was increased in the anterior cerebrum of placental ischemic rats and BBB permeability, assayed using the Evans blue extravasation method, was increased in the anterior cerebrum. The expression of the tight junction proteins: claudin?1 was increased in the posterior cerebrum, while zonula occludens?1, and occludin, were not significantly altered in either the anterior or posterior cerebrum. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that placental ischemia mediates anterior cerebral edema through impaired CBF autoregulation and associated increased transmission of pressure to small vessels that increases BBB permeability leading to cerebral edema. PMID:25168877

  14. The Role of Clomipramine in Potentiating the Teratogenic Effects of Caffeine in Pregnant Rats: A Histopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikoui, Vahid; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Takzare, Nasrin; Nabavi, Seyyed Mohammad-Ali; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine used concurrently with caffeine during the organogenesis period, the aim of this study was to test the teratogenic effects of a coadministration of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetuses. We divided 42 pregnant rats into seven groups, randomly. The first group (control) received 0.5?mL of normal saline. Clomipramine was injected at 40?mg/kg and 80?mg/kg to the second and third groups, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups received caffeine in doses of 60?mg/kg and 120?mg/kg, respectively. The sixth group received a combination of 40?mg/kg clomipramine and 60?mg/kg caffeine, and the seventh group was given clomipramine and caffeine at 80?mg/kg and 120?mg/kg, respectively. The fetuses were removed on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied in terms of microscopic and macroscopic morphological features. Fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or combinations of caffeine and clomipramine showed a significant rate of cleft palate development, open eyelids, mortality, torsion anomalies, shrinkage of skin, and subcutaneous haemorrhage (P ? 0.001). This study concludes that caffeine in high doses or the simultaneous administration of caffeine and clomipramine leads to teratogenicity. PMID:24298213

  15. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats.

    PubMed

    Souza, M F; Couto-Pereira, N S; Freese, L; Costa, P A; Caletti, G; Bisognin, K M; Nin, M S; Gomez, R; Barros, H M T

    2014-06-01

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse. PMID:24878606

  16. Female reproductive cycle influences plasma volume and protein restitution after hemorrhage in the conscious rat.

    PubMed

    Slimmer, L M; Blair, M L

    1996-09-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that gender and female reproductive cycle phase influence the restitution of blood volume following blood loss. The experiments were performed in conscious 9- to 11-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a slow hemorrhage of 19 ml/kg over 40 min. The effect of hemorrhage was compared in male rats and in female rats in either proestrus (Pro) or metestrus (Met). In comparison with either metestrus females or males, females hemorrhaged on the morning of proestrus showed a significantly larger overall decrease in percent hematocrit (Pro, -17 +/- 1; Met, -10 +/- 1; male, -13 +/- 1; mean +/- SE), increase in plasma volume (Pro, to 151 +/- 15% of initial volume; Met, 104 +/- 8%; male, 120 +/- 4%), and increase in total plasma protein content (Pro, to 164 +/- 14% of initial content; Met, 101 +/- 5%; male, 132 +/- 5%) over the 21-h posthemorrhage recovery period. Proestrus females also showed a larger increase in plasma osmolality during the first 2.5-h posthemorrhage than either metestrus females or males (P < 0.05). In addition, basal hematocrit and total blood volume (51Cr-tagged erythrocyte method) were higher in females studied on the morning of proestrus than in metestrus females. These results indicate that the female reproductive cycle is an important variable in basal blood volume regulation and in plasma protein and plasma volume restitution following blood loss. PMID:8853384

  17. Effects of spaceflight on the attachment of tendons to bone in the hindlimb of the pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Roger B; Tsao, Audrey K; St John, Kenneth R; Betcher, Russel A; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on the structure of the tendon-bone junction (TBJ). Pregnant rats either flew in the space shuttle Atlantis (flight group; F) or were exposed to simulated launch and landing protocols (synchronous control group; SC) during days 9-19 of pregnancy. Following birth of their pups, maternal hindlimbs were studied using scanning electron and light microscopic histomophometric techniques. The tibial and calcaneal tuberosities, the fibular head, and the tibia-fibula junction were studied. Myofiber density and cross-sectional area of the quadratus femoris and soleus muscles and diameters of the calcaneal and patellar tendons were also evaluated. Cortical erosion was significantly greater at the tibial tuberosity and the fibular head in F animals compared to SC animals (P < 0.001). Sharpey fiber density was significantly less at the tibial tuberosity and fibular head in F animals compared to SC animals (P < 0.001). The myofiber area of both the soleus and quadratus femoris muscles and the diameters of both calcaneal and patellar tendons were significantly less in F compared to SC rats (P < 0.05). Our data illustrate that the TBJ morphology is affected by spaceflight at the attachment sites of the soleus and quadratus femoris muscles in pregnant animals, which could adversely affect their physical properties. These atrophic TBJ changes could have resulted from atrophy of the adjacent muscles and their tendons. Atrophic changes in the structure of the TBJ could predispose an animal to injury following spaceflight, when normal gravity conditions are reestablished. PMID:15627985

  18. Chronic anti-phencyclidine monoclonal antibody therapy decreases phencyclidine-induced in utero fetal mortality in pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, JJ; Laurenzana, EM; Williams, DK; Gentry, WB; Owens, SM

    2011-01-01

    Illicit drug use during pregnancy is a serious social and public health problem inflicting an array of deleterious effects on both mother and offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that a murine anti-phencyclidine (PCP) monoclonal antibody (mAb6B5; KD=1.3 nM) can safely protect mother and fetus from PCP-induced adverse health effects in pregnant rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=4–5) were intravenously administered bolus injections of PCP (1 mg/kg) on multiple days during pregnancy. They were also chronically treated with anti-PCP mAb6B5 at 45 mg/kg as a PCP antagonist. This dose provided one mAb-PCP binding site for every four PCP molecules. Therapeutic and safety study endpoints included pregnancy outcome (litter size, number of live vs. dead pups), maternal hemodynamic status and locomotor activity. Maternal hemodynamic changes (i.e., blood pressure and heart rate) and locomotor activity were measured in dams from gestation days 6–21 (one day antepartum) using a radiotelemetry-tracking device with a femoral arterial pressure catheter. This mAb6B5 treatment regimen significantly (p=0.008) reduced the number of PCP-induced in utero fetal deaths (odds ratio=3.2; 95%CI 1.3 to 7.9) and significantly (p<0.05) reduced acute PCP-induced maternal locomotor effects in the second trimester. Maternal hemodynamic responses to PCP were not significantly affected by mAb6B5 treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that anti-PCP mAb treatments administered during pregnancy can safely protect a mother and her fetus(es) from PCP-related morbidity and mortality even when the mAb dose is too low to significantly prevent other PCP-induced maternal pharmacological effects. PMID:22001428

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF BILIARY CONJUGATES OF 4,4'-METHYLENEDIANILINE IN MALE VERSUS FEMALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kan; Cole, Richard B.; Cruz, Vicente Santa; Blakeney, Ernest W.; Kanz, Mary F.; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2008-01-01

    4,4’-Methylenedianiline (4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethane; DAPM) is an aromatic diamine used in the production of numerous polyurethane foams and epoxy resins. Previous studies in rats revealed that DAPM initially injures biliary epithelial cells of the liver, that the toxicity is greater in female than in male rats, and that the toxic metabolites of DAPM are excreted into bile. Since male and female rats exhibit differences in the expression of both phase I and phase II enzymes, our hypothesis was that female rats either metabolize DAPM to more toxic metabolites or have a decreased capacity to conjugate metabolites to less toxic intermediates. Our objective was thus to isolate, characterize, and quantify DAPM metabolites excreted into bile in both male and female bile duct-cannulated Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were gavaged with [14C]-DAPM, and the collected bile was subjected to reversed-phase HPLC with radioisotope detection. Peaks eluting from HPLC were collected and analyzed using electrospray MS, NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis indicated numerous metabolites in both sexes, but male rats excreted greater amounts of glutathione and glucuronide conjugates than females. Electrospray MS and NMR spectra of HPLC fractions revealed that the most prominent metabolite found in bile of both sexes was a glutathione conjugate of an imine metabolite of a 4’-nitroso-DAPM. Seven other metabolites were identified, including acetylated, cysteinyl-glycine, glutamyl-cysteine, glycine, and glucuronide conjugates. While our prior studies demonstrated increased covalent binding of DAPM in the liver and bile of female compared to male rats, in these studies, SDS-PAGE with autoradiography revealed 4–5 radiolabeled protein bands in the bile of rats treated with [14C]-DAPM. In addition, these bands were much more prominent in female than in male rats. These studies thus suggest that a plausible mechanism for the increased sensitivity of female rats to DAPM toxicity may be decreased conjugation of reactive DAPM metabolites, leading to greater levels of protein adduct formation. PMID:18692083

  20. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer Female Rats Differ in Acute Effects of Fluoxetine on Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Miryala, C.S.J.; Hiegel, C.; Uphouse, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, leads to sexual dysfunction in a substantial proportion of women. In studies with the Fischer inbred rat, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in this sexual dysfunction. Whether this association with 5-HT1A receptors holds for other rat strains is not known. Aim The effects of acute fluoxetine on sexual behavior in two strains of rats that differ in their response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist were examined. Whether the strain difference is comparable in naturally cycling and hormonally primed, ovariectomized rats was determined. Main Outcome Measures Lordosis to mount ratios, lordosis quality, and proceptive behaviors were quantified. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer females were compared on each of these measures. The IC50 for inhibition of lordosis behavior was determined. Methods Proestrous rats and ovariectomized rats, hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, were treated with varying doses of fluoxetine. Sexual behavior was examined before and after treatment with the SSRI. Results In both the intact and the hormonally-primed, ovariectomized model, Sprague-Dawley females were less sensitive to the effects of fluoxetine on sexual behavior. In both groups, fluoxetine showed dose-dependency in behavioral inhibition, but a higher dose was required for Sprague-Dawley than for Fischer females. Naturally cycling, proestrous rats required a higher dose of fluoxetine than hormonally-primed ovariectomized rats to produce significant inhibition of sexual behavior. Thus, the strain difference in the response to fluoxetine does not parallel strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Conclusions Acute treatment with fluoxetine inhibits lordosis behavior in both Fischer and Sprague-Dawley females and the strain difference cannot be explained by reported strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Fluoxetine’s inhibition of female rat sexual behavior may involve effects of the SSRI in addition to activation of the 5-HT1A receptor. PMID:23110651

  1. Teratogenic and Carcinogenic Effects in the Offspring after Single Injection of Ethylnitrosourea to Pregnant Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Druckrey; S. Ivankovic; R. Preussmann

    1966-01-01

    ALKYLNITROSOUREAS give the corresponding alkylating diazoalkanes on heterolysis, and are potent carcinogens, selectively producing malignant tumours in the brain1 and peripheral nerves2 of rats. As might be expected, mothylnitrosourea is also mutagenic as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae3 and is teratogenic in rats4. In teratogenesis investigations the embryos are generally killed and examined immediately after Caesarean delivery. If, however, only slight teratogenic

  2. Chapter 10 Alterations in behavioral and neuroendocrine stress coping strategies in pregnant, parturient and lactating rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga D. Neumann

    2001-01-01

    In the present chapter the behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations accompanying pregnancy and lactation will be discussed. It will be shown that many are dependent on the innate level of emotionality of the rats. In late pregnancy the level of anxiety, as measured on the elevated plus-maze is increased in rats with both high and low level of innate anxiety-related behavior,

  3. ACUTE CADMIUM EXPOSURE AND OVARIAN STEROIDOGENESIS IN CYCLING AND PREGNANT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect(s) of acute in vivo cadmium exposure on steroidogenesis in rat ovaries during different reproductive states. prague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously on the day of diestrus, or on day 7 or 16 of gestation with a single d...

  4. Dynamics of Recovery of Body Composition After Overfeeding, Food Restriction or Starvation of Mature Female Rats1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUTH B. S. HARRIS; THOMAS R. KASSER

    In this study we examined the body composition of rats recovering from overfeeding, underfeeding or starvation. Female rats (220 g) were fed 160%, 100% or 40% of control intake, by stomach tube, until the 40% rats had lost 50 g. Other rats were starved to lose 50 g. Carcass composition was measured on one group from each treatment. The remaining

  5. Response of food intake and body weight to estradiol in old female rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, M T; Chiang, H L; Lee, L R

    1986-01-01

    Changes in food intake and body weight were studied in old ovariectomized prolonged vaginal cornification female rats (27.6 +/- 3.3 (SD) months of age) implanted subcutaneously with 100%, 50% and 33% estradiol benzoate (E2)-cholestrol mixture-filled silastic capsules and were compared with similarly treated young ovariectomized female rats (4.7 +/- 0.8 months of age). Serum E2 concentration was higher in old rats than young rats in the 100% E2-filled capsule implanted group. In this group, food intake suppression by E2 was larger in old rats than in young rats. However, no age-related difference was observed, when food intake decrease was adjusted for serum E2 level by analysis of covariance. Therefore a high food intake suppression in old rats than in young rats is caused by high serum E2 concentration in old rats. Suppression of body weight increase did not show any age-related difference when adjusted for serum E2 level either. PMID:3757614

  6. Dorsal root ganglia microenvironment of female BB Wistar diabetic rats with mild neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zochodne, D W; Ho, L T; Allison, J A

    1994-12-01

    Abnormalities in the microenvironment of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) might play a role in the pathogenesis of sensory abnormalities in human diabetic neuropathy. We examined aspects of DRG microenvironment by measuring local blood flow and oxygen tension in the L4 dorsal root ganglia of female BB Wistar (BBW) diabetic rats with mild neuropathy. The findings were compared with concurrent measurements of local sciatic endoneurial blood flow and oxygen tension. Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and underwent electrophysiological, blood flow and oxygen tension measurements at either 7-11 or 17-23 weeks after the development of glycosuria. Nondiabetic female BB Wistar rats from the same colony served as controls. At both ages, BBW diabetic rats had significant abnormalities in sensory, but not motor conduction compared to nondiabetic controls. Sciatic endoneurial blood flow in the diabetic rats of both ages was similar to control values, but the older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW diabetic rats had a selective reduction in DRG blood flow. Sciatic endoneurial oxygen tensions were not significantly altered in the diabetic rats. DRG oxygen tension appeared lowered in younger (7-11 week diabetic) but not older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW rats. Our findings indicate that there are important changes in the DRG microenvironment of diabetic rats with selective sensory neuropathy. PMID:7699389

  7. Social transmission of Pavlovian fear: fear-conditioning by-proxy in related female rats.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn E; Riha, Penny D; Gore, Andrea C; Monfils, Marie-H

    2014-05-01

    Pairing a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., a tone) to an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a foot-shock) leads to associative learning such that the tone alone will elicit a conditioned response (e.g., freezing). Individuals can also acquire fear from a social context, such as through observing the fear expression of a conspecific. In the current study, we examined the influence of kinship/familiarity on social transmission of fear in female rats. Rats were housed in triads with either sisters or non-related females. One rat from each cage was fear conditioned to a tone CS+ shock US. On day two, the conditioned rat was returned to the chamber accompanied by one of her cage mates. Both rats were allowed to behave freely, while the tone was played in the absence of the foot-shock. The previously untrained rat is referred to as the fear-conditioned by-proxy (FCbP) animal, as she would freeze based on observations of her cage-mate's response rather than due to direct personal experience with the foot-shock. The third rat served as a cage-mate control. The third day, long-term memory tests to the CS were performed. Consistent with our previous application of this paradigm in male rats (Bruchey et al. in Behav Brain Res 214(1):80-84, 2010), our results revealed that social interactions between the fear conditioned and FCbP rats on day two contribute to freezing displayed by the FCbP rats on day three. In this experiment, prosocial behavior occurring at the termination of the cue on day two was significantly greater between sisters than their non-sister counterparts, and this behavior resulted in increased freezing on day three. Our results suggest that familiarity and/or kinship influences the social transmission of fear in female rats. PMID:24310150

  8. Pivalate lowers litter sizes and weights in female rats independent of its effect on carnitine status.

    PubMed

    Doberenz, Jane; Hirche, Frank; Keller, Uta; Eder, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    The present study investigated whether treatment of female rats with pivalate affects their reproductive function. Therefore, two experiments with female rats were performed. The first experiment included two groups of rats which received drinking water without (control) or with 20 mmol pivalate/L. The second experiment included a control group (which received drinking water without pivalate and a diet without added carnitine) and four groups which received drinking water with 20 mmol/L pivalate and diets without or with 1, 3 or 5 g added carnitine/kg, respectively. In both experiments, rats treated with pivalate had a lower number of pups born alive and, as a consequence of this, lower litter weights than control rats (p<0.05); pup weights were not altered by pivalate treatment. Supplementation of dietary carnitine in Experiment 2 increased plasma and tissue carnitine concentration even in excess of those in control rats but did not restore normal litter sizes. This study shows for the first time that pivalate affects the reproductive function in female rats independent of its effect on the carnitine status. PMID:17482425

  9. Mechanical properties of normotensive and hypertensive female rat carotid arteries

    E-print Network

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    . The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to design and build a system to allow quantification of thromboxane A? produced from cylindrical segments of hypertensive and normotensive rat aortas, (2) to quantify the response of hypertensive and normotensive...

  10. Dietary Soy Supplements Produce Opposite Effects on Anxiety in Intact Male and Female Rats in the Elevated Plus-Maze

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather B. Patisaul; Adele Blum; Jordan R. Luskin; Mark E. Wilson

    2005-01-01

    The effects of 2 popular, commercially available soy phytoestrogen supplements on anxiety in male, diestrus female, and proestrus female rats were examined with an elevated plus-maze. Both of the soy supplements were anxiolytic in proestrus females but anxiogenic in males as determined by time spent in the open arms. No effect of diet was seen in the diestrus females. The

  11. Brain activation by an olfactory stimulus paired with juvenile play in female rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, P; McCarthy, M M; Bowers, J M; Miquel, M; Manzo, J; Coria-Avila, G A

    2014-06-22

    We have previously shown that reward experienced during social play at juvenile age can be paired with artificial odors, and later in adulthood facilitate olfactory conditioned partner preferences (PP) in female rats. Herein, we examined the expression of FOS immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) following exposure to the odor paired with juvenile play (CS+). Starting at day P31 females received daily 30-min periods of social play with lemon-scented (paired group) or unscented females (unpaired group). At day P42, they were tested for play-PP with two juvenile males, one bearing the CS+ (lemon) and one bearing a novel odor (almond). Females were ovariectomized, hormone-primed and at day P55 tested for sexual-PP between two adult stud males scented with lemon or almond. In both tests, females from the paired group displayed conditioned PP (play or sexual) toward males bearing the CS+. In the present experiments females were exposed at day P59 to the CS+ during 60 min and their brains processed for FOS-IR. One group of female rats (Play+Sex) underwent play-PP and sexual-PP, whereas a second group of females (Play-only) underwent exclusively play-PP but not sexual-PP. Results showed that in the Play-only experiment exposure to the CS+ induced more FOS-IR in the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and ventral tegmental area as compared to females from the unpaired group. In the Play+Sex experiment, more FOS-IR was observed in the piriform cortex, dorsal striatum, lateral septum, nucleus accumbens shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala as compared to females from the unpaired group. Taken together, these results indicate mesocorticolimbic brain areas direct the expectation and/or choice of conditioned partners in female rats. In addition, transferring the meaning of play to sex preference requires different brain areas. PMID:24835545

  12. Leptin differentially increases sympathetic nerve activity and its baroreflex regulation in female rats: role of oestrogen.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhigang; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-04-01

    Obesity and hypertension are commonly associated, and activation of the sympathetic nervous system is considered to be a major contributor, at least in part due to the central actions of leptin. However, while leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in males, whether leptin is equally effective in females is unknown. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) leptin increases lumbar (LSNA) and renal (RSNA) SNA and baroreflex control of LSNA and RSNA in ?-chloralose anaesthetized female rats, but only during pro-oestrus. In contrast, i.c.v. leptin increased basal and baroreflex control of splanchnic SNA (SSNA) and heart rate (HR) in rats in both the pro-oestrus and dioestrus states. The effects of leptin on basal LSNA, RSNA, SSNA and HR were similar in males and pro-oestrus females; however, i.c.v. leptin increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) only in males. Leptin did not alter LSNA or HR in ovariectomized rats, but its effects were normalized with 4 days of oestrogen treatment. Bilateral nanoinjection of SHU9119 into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), to block ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) type 3 and 4 receptors, decreased LSNA in leptin-treated pro-oestrus but not dioestrus rats. Unlike leptin, i.c.v. insulin infusion increased basal and baroreflex control of LSNA and HR similarly in pro-oestrus and dioestrus rats; these responses did not differ from those in male rats. We conclude that, in female rats, leptin's stimulatory effects on SNA are differentially enhanced by oestrogen, at least in part via an increase in ?-MSH activity in the PVN. These data further suggest that the actions of leptin and insulin to increase the activity of various sympathetic nerves occur via different neuronal pathways or cellular mechanisms. These results may explain the poor correlation in females of SNA with adiposity, or of MAP with leptin. PMID:25398524

  13. Ventilatory drive is enhanced in male and female rats following chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Edge, D; Skelly, J R; Bradford, A; O'Halloran, K D

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) due to recurrent apnoea. We have developed a rat model of CIH, which shows evidence of impaired respiratory muscle function. In this study, we wished to characterize the ventilatory effects of CIH in conscious male and female animals. Adult male (n=14) and female (n=8) Wistar rats were used. Animals were placed in chambers daily for 8 h with free access to food and water. The gas supply to one half of the chambers alternated between air and nitrogen every 90 s, for 8 h per day, reducing ambient oxygen concentration in the chambers to 5% at the nadir (intermittent hypoxia; n=7 male, n=4 female). Air supplying the other chambers was switched every 90 s to air from a separate source, at the same flow rates, and animals in these chambers served as controls (n=7 male, n=4 female). Ventilatory measurements were made in conscious animals (typically sleeping) after 10 days using whole-body plethysmography. Normoxic ventilation was increased in both male and female CIH-treated rats compared to controls but this did not achieve statistical significance. However, ventilatory drive was increased in CIH-treated rats of both sexes as evidenced by significant increases in mean and peak inspiratory flow. Ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia (F(I)O(2) = 0.10; 6 min) and hyperoxic hypercapnia (F(I)CO(2) = 0.05; 6 min) were unaffected by CIH treatment in male and female rats (P>0.05, ANOVA). We conclude that CIH increases respiratory drive in adult rats. We speculate that this represents a form of neural plasticity that may compensate for respiratory muscle impairment that occurs in this animal model. PMID:19536497

  14. Cognitive differences between male and female rats following exposure to 56Fe particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Bernard; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Luskin, Katharine; Long, Lauren; Joseph, James

    On exploratory class missions astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation (HZE particles) that are not experienced in low earth orbit. While it is likely that the crew will consist of both male and female astronauts, there has been little research on the effects of exposure to HZE particles on cognitive performance in female subjects. While previous research has shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance in male rats it remains to be established whether or not similar effects will occur with female subjects because estrogen may act as a neuroprotectant. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were obtained from Taconic Farms. Thirty mm segments of silastic tubing containing either 180 pg l7-estradiol/mL in sesame oil or vehicle alone were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Three days following surgery the rats were exposed to 56Fe particles (1000 MeV/n, 0-200 cGy) at the NSRL. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. The results indicated that the pattern of decrements in cognitive performance differed between male and female rats. In addition, for female rats, there were differences in performance as a function of the presence or absence of estradiol. In the vehicle implanted subjects exposure to 56Fe particles did not affect operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio schedule; whereas irradiation did disrupt responding in OVX animals given estradiol. These results suggest that estrogen may not be protective following exposure to HZE particles. This research was supported by Grant NNX08AM66G from NASA.

  15. Environmental enrichment attenuates nicotine behavioral sensitization in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Elliott, Brenda M; Berger, Sarah Shafer; Grunberg, Neil E

    2014-08-01

    Environmental enrichment decreases nicotine reactivity in male rats, but these effects have not been examined in females. This research was conducted to examine the effects of enrichment on nicotine behavioral sensitization (i.e., nicotine reactivity) in male and female rats. One hundred forty-four Sprague-Dawley rats (72 male, 72 female) were raised in isolation, social enrichment (groups of three rats [SE]), or combined physical enrichment and social enrichment (groups of three rats with novel toys [PESE]) housing conditions. As adults, they received daily subcutaneous injections of saline or nicotine (0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg) for 12 days; locomotor activity was measured on drug days 1, 5, 9, and 12. Before drug administration, PESE and SE decreased activity in males; only PESE decreased activity in females, F(2, 120) = 6.51, p < .01. In the drug phase, nicotine behavioral sensitization occurred, F(8.46, 341.04) = 20.71, p < .001, and was greater in females than males, F(8.340, 319.715) = 2.072, p < .05. Enrichment decreased nicotine behavioral sensitization in both sexes, F(16.91, 341.04) = 2.48, p < .01. In conclusion, nicotine behavioral sensitization occurred in male and female rats and was attenuated by environmental enrichment. This research has implications for treatment and prevention strategies in humans. Programs that incorporate aspects of social and environmental stimulation may have enhanced effectiveness in preventing and reducing cigarette smoking and may have implications for relapse prevention. PMID:24956172

  16. Inositol1,4,5-trisphosphate accumulation induced by urinary pheromones in female rat vomeronasal epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyo Sasaki; Kiyoko Okamoto; Kouhei Inamura; Yukiko Tokumitsu; Makoto Kashiwayanagi

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in pheromone-induced responses in the vomeronasal neurons, especially in mammals, are still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of rat urine samples containing various types of pheromones regulating gonadal functions on the accumulation of cAMP and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in a vomeronasal membrane preparation from the female Wistar rat. Stimulation of the preparation with

  17. Effects of androgen and leptin on behavioral and cellular responses in female rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Shao, Ruijin; Weijdegĺrd, Birgitta; Wang, Tienpei; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Shan; Wang, Wei; Egecioglu, Emil; Billig, Hĺkan; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2011-09-01

    The causes of anxiety and depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remain elusive. To identify steps linking androgen signaling to the regulation of affective symptoms in vivo, we compared behavioral responses in female rats continuously exposed to DHT from puberty (a model of DHT-induced PCOS) and in rats exposed to DHT for 1week. Continuous and 1week of DHT exposure resulted in a general decrease in locomotor activity and time spent on the open arms in the elevated plus maze, indicating anxiety-like behavior. Rats with DHT-induced PCOS have increases in adiposity and circulating leptin levels accompanied by leptin resistance. One week of DHT exposure decreased androgen receptor (AR) expression in the hypothalamus and leptin synthesis and function in adipocytes; it also inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and attenuated leptin activity by increasing levels of soluble leptin receptor, a leptin-binding protein, in the hypothalamus. This may affect the androgen-induced anxiety-related behavior in female rats. In conclusion, our results highlight the central role of androgens in behavioral function in female rats and suggest that androgens directly regulate the AR by decreasing its hypothalamic expression. Androgens also increase leptin synthesis in adipocytes, which drives central leptin signaling, and may regulate anxiety-related behaviors. Elucidating mechanisms by which androgens modulate female anxiety-like behavior may uncover useful approaches for treating women with PCOS who have symptoms of anxiety. PMID:21819988

  18. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. van Wijk; E. Rijntjes; Heijning van de B. J

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the present study, behavioural effects of perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism were assessed during development in both male and female offspring

  19. Maternal Exposure to Triclosan Impairs Thyroid Homeostasis and Female Pubertal Development in Wistar Rat Offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo E. A. Rodríguez; Mónica S. Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Although the effects of triclosan have been examined in male reproductive functions, it is unknown whether this potent antibacterial agent affects pregnancy and female pubertal development. Effects of maternal exposure to triclosan on thyroid homeostasis (TH) and reproductive-tract development in female Wistar rats were thus studied. Dams were exposed daily to triclosan (0, 1, 10, or 50 mg\\/kg\\/d) from 8

  20. Fetal Growth Retardation Induced by Dietary Imbalance of Threonine and Dispensable Amino Acids, with Adequate Energy and Protein-Equivalent Intakes, in Pregnant Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JACK METCOFF; TIMOTHY J. COLE ANDRICHARD

    Whether fetal growth retardation could be induced by diets ap parently adequate in protein and energy sources, but imbalanced relative to a single amino acid, was investigated. Pregnant rats were fed one of three diets: either a basal (B) 6% casein diet supplemented by L-methionine (L-Met) and a 5% mixture of essential plus 4.5% small neutral non-essential amino acids, which

  1. Effect of phenformin on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in pregnant rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Bershtein; V. A. Aleksandrov

    1976-01-01

    A decrease in the blood levels of cholestrol, phospholipids, and free fatty acids was observed in rats receiving the biguanide phenformin (5–25 mg daily by mouth) from the first to eighth day of pregnancy, but no developmental anomalies of the fetuses or placenta were found. The acceptability of biguanide administration during pregnancy is discussed.

  2. Lindane-induced inhibition of spontaneous contractions of pregnant rat uterus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay A Criswell

    1999-01-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are prevalent insecticides. Lindane (?-HCH) inhibits uterine gap junctions but ?-HCH does not. Because gap junctions promote coordination of oscillatory uterine contractions, we hypothesized that lindane, but not ?-HCH, would inhibit uterine contractions. Uterine strips from midgestation rats were suspended in standard muscle baths and exposed to HCHs in a cumulative manner. Lindane induced concentration-dependent decreases in contraction

  3. Effects of Obesity on Bone Mass and Quality in Ovariectomized Female Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feresin, Rafaela G.; Johnson, Sarah A.; Elam, Marcus L.; Arjmandi, Bahram H.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two chronic conditions that have been increasing in prevalence. Despite prior data supporting the positive relationship between body weight and bone mineral density (BMD), recent findings show excess body weight to be detrimental to bone mass, strength, and quality. To evaluate whether obesity would further exacerbate the effects of ovariectomy on bone, we examined the tibiae and fourth lumbar (L4) vertebrae from leptin receptor-deficient female (Leprfa/fa) Zucker rats and their heterozygous lean controls (Leprfa/+) that were either sham-operated or ovariectomized (Ovx). BMD of L4 vertebra was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and microcomputed tomography was used to assess the microstructural properties of the tibiae. Ovariectomy significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the BMD of L4 vertebrae in lean and obese Zucker rats. Lower trabecular number and greater trabecular separation (P < 0.001) were also observed in the tibiae of lean- and obese-Ovx rats when compared to sham rats. However, only the obese-Ovx rats had lower trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (P < 0.005) than the other groups. These findings demonstrated that ovarian hormone deficiency adversely affected bone mass and quality in lean and obese rats while obesity only affected Tb.Th in Ovx-female Zucker rats. PMID:25309751

  4. Effects of crude root extract of Polygonum hydropiper on estrous cycle and induction of reversible sterility in female albino rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hazarika A; Sarma HN

    Summary Polygonum hydropiper is a wild plant found in Assam, a North-Eastern province of India. Tradition prevails among the folk women of Assam to use the root of this herb for fertility control. In the present investigation crude methanolic extract of root of this plant was tested for anti-fertility property in female albino rat. Adult cycling female rats were administered

  5. Y are you not pregnant: identification of Y chromosome segments in female cattle with decreased reproductive efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive efficiency is of economic importance in commercial beef cattle production, as failure to achieve pregnancy reduces the number of calves marketed. Identification of genetic markers with predictive merit for reproductive success would facilitate early selection of females and avoid ineff...

  6. BLOOD BORON CONCENTRATIONS IN PREGNANT RATS FED BORIC ACID THROUGHOUT GESTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CATHERINE J. PRICE; PHILIP L. STRONG; F. JAY MURRAY; MARGARET M. GOLDBERGS

    Timed-mated Sprague-Dawley rats (28 to 32\\/group) were exposed to boric acid (BA) in the diet from Gestational Day (GD) 0 to 20. Dietary concentrations of added BA (0%, 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.075%, O.lOO%, or 0.200%) yielded average daily intakes equivalent to 0,3, 6, 10, 13, or 25 mg boron\\/kg body weight\\/d. Dams and their fetuses were evaluated for evidence of maternal

  7. Blood boron concentrations in pregnant rats fed boric acid throughout gestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine J. Price; Philip L. Strong; F. Jay Murray; Margaret M. Goldberg

    1997-01-01

    Timed-mated Sprague-Dawley rats (28 to 32\\/group) were exposed to boric acid (BA) in the diet from Gestational Day (GD) 0 to 20. Dietary concentrations of added BA (0%, 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.075%, 0.100%, or 0.200%) yielded average daily intakes equivalent to 0, 3, 6,10, 13, or 25 mg boron\\/kg body weight\\/d. Dams and their fetuses were evaluated for evidence of maternal

  8. Maternal and developmental toxicity evaluation of melatonin administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Jahnke; M. Marr; C. Myers; R. Wilson; G. Travlos; C. Price

    1999-01-01

    Melatonin (MEL) is a widely used, over-the-counter sleep aid, and it has putative contraceptive, antioxidant, antiaging, and anticancer effects. The developmental toxicity potential for re- peated oral doses of MEL had not previously been evaluated. In the present studies, time-mated, Sprague-Dawley-derived (CDt) rats were administered MEL or vehicle by gavage on gestation days (gd) 6 -19. MEL-treated groups received 1-,

  9. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  10. SUPPRESSION OF THE LUTEINIZING HORMONE SURGE BY CHLORDIMEFORM IN OVARIECTOMIZED, STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary provides the physiological trigger in the mammalian female for the process of ovulation. ccordingly, any agent that compromises the LH surge could function as a reproductive toxicant. ince ovariectomized (OVX) rats...

  11. Brown-colored deposits on hair of female rats chronically exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.C.; Rommereim, D.N.; Miller, R.A.; Anderson, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    An increased incidence and severity of a brownish coloration of hair has been observed around the nose and on the ears of female rats that were chronically exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Microscopic examination of the colored areas revealed a red-brown globular deposit on hair shafts in affected areas without signs of physical injury.

  12. Coping strategies in male and female rats exposed to multiple stressors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Campbell; Stacie Lin; Courtney DeVries; Kelly Lambert

    2003-01-01

    Because of the pathogenic effects of chronic stress exposure, it is important to identify factors, such as effective coping strategies, that mitigate stress-induced pathology. Of interest in the present study was the consistency of behavioral responses across a diverse array of stressors. Sixteen male and 16 female Long–Evans rats were assigned to either a stress or control group. The stressed

  13. INTERSPECIES DIFFERENCES OF ISOFLAVONE METABOLIC PHENOTYPES IN FEMALE RATS, PIGS, MONKEYS AND HUMANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavone (ISF) metabolic phenotypes have been related to physiological effects in humans. ISF metabolism was studied in animals typically used as models to study health effects in humans. Female rats (n=9), pigs (n=4), monkeys (n=15), and humans (n=6) were fed diets containing soy protein isolat...

  14. In Utero Phthalate Effects in the Female Rat: A Model for MRKH Syndrome

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly define etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthlate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero. a phenome...

  15. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: a model for MRKH syndrome##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phen...

  16. PREGNANCY ALTERATIONS FOLLOWING XENOBIOTIC-INDUCED DELAYS IN OVULATION IN THE FEMALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female rats were exposed to the formamidine pesticide chlordimeform (50 mg/kg) or sodium pentobarbital (35 mg/kg) at selected times during the estrous cycle and the effect of this treatment on pregnancy outcome was evaluated. When exposed on the afternoon of vaginal proestrus, bo...

  17. THE ENDOCRINE PROFILE OF INTACT FEMALE RATS ON THE DAY OF PROESTRUS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Endocrine Profile of Intact Female Rats on the Day of Proestrus Following Exposure to Atrazine. RL Cooper, A Buckalew, SC Laws and TE Stoker Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, 27711. The chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine, has been sho...

  18. Cerebral microgyria, thalamic cell size and auditory temporal processing in male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy E. Herman; Albert M. Galaburda; R. Holly Fitch; Alex R. Carter; Glenn D. Rosen

    1997-01-01

    Induction of microgyria by freezing injury to the developing somatosensory cortex of neonatal rats causes a defect in fast auditory processing in males, but not in females. It was speculated that early damage to the cortex has sexually dimorphic cascading effects on other brain regions mediating auditory processing, which can lead to the observed behavioral deficits. In the current series

  19. OFFSPRING MORTALITY AND MATERNAL LUNG PATHOLOGY IN FEMALE RATS FED HEXACHLOROBENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed 0, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 ppm hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continuously in the diet and 2 successive litters raised. These doses were selected to range from approximately the no observable effect level to lethality in suckling offspring of trea...

  20. Effects of altered food intake during pubertal development in male and female Wistar rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA is currently validating assays that will be used in a Tier I Screening Battery to detect endocrine disrupting chemicals. A primary concern with the Protocols for the Assessment of Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Juvenile Male and Female Rats is that a non...

  1. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE RATS BY PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE IS PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE RATS BY PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE IS PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY VINCLOZOLIN Cynthia Wolf1,2, Gerald LeBlanc2, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Jonathan Furr1, L Earl Gray, Jr.1 1USEPA, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC 27711, 2Dept. Molecular and En...

  2. NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TRIADIMEFON, A TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDE, IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triadimefon is a widely used systemic fungicide, yet there is little published information on its effects in mammals. This study describes the effects of triadimefon in male and female rats using a functional observational battery (FOB), motor activity (measured in a figure-eight...

  3. Effects of anti-estrogens on bone in castrated and intact female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Craig Jordan; Erik Phelps; J. Urban Lindgren

    1987-01-01

    Summary The effects of the antiestrogens tamoxifen and keoxifene on the bone density of intact and ovariectomized female rats were determined after 4 months of therapy. The antiestrogens did not cause a decrease in bone density in intact animals, although uterine wet weight did decrease. Ovariectomy caused an increase in body weight (25%) and a significant decrease in femur density

  4. Peripubertal Administration of Icariin and Icaritin Advances Pubertal Development in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyun Ku; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kwon, Hyosuk; Sung, Chung Ki; Park, Young In; Dong, Mi-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Epimedii Herba is a traditional medicinal herb used in Korea and China and exerts estrogenic activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of peripubertal administration of Epimedii Herba on pubertal development in female rats using a modified protocol of the rodent 20-day pubertal female assay. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old after weaning, 10 rats per group) were divided into five groups: saline (Con), ethinyl estradiol (E2), Epimedii Herba ext (Ext), icariin (ICI), and icaritin (ICT), which were administered by oral gavage (E2 by subcutaneous injection) from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND40. The time to vaginal opening (VO) was shorter for the Epimedii groups, particularly for the ICT group (p<0.05). Treatment with ICI and ICT significantly increased the duration of the estrus cycle (ICI, 2.78 days; ICT, 4.0 days; control, 1.78 days). Ovary weight was reduced by E2 treatment and increased by the Ext, ICI, and ICT treatments while the weight of the uterus and pituitary glands increased significantly only in the E2 and ICT groups. Although Epimedii Herba displayed relatively weak estrogenic activity, its repeated administration could affect pubertal development in female rats. PMID:24116294

  5. Peripubertal administration of icariin and icaritin advances pubertal development in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Ku; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kwon, Hyosuk; Sung, Chung Ki; Park, Young In; Dong, Mi-Sook

    2012-03-01

    Epimedii Herba is a traditional medicinal herb used in Korea and China and exerts estrogenic activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of peripubertal administration of Epimedii Herba on pubertal development in female rats using a modified protocol of the rodent 20-day pubertal female assay. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old after weaning, 10 rats per group) were divided into five groups: saline (Con), ethinyl estradiol (E2), Epimedii Herba ext (Ext), icariin (ICI), and icaritin (ICT), which were administered by oral gavage (E2 by subcutaneous injection) from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND40. The time to vaginal opening (VO) was shorter for the Epimedii groups, particularly for the ICT group (p<0.05). Treatment with ICI and ICT significantly increased the duration of the estrus cycle (ICI, 2.78 days; ICT, 4.0 days; control, 1.78 days). Ovary weight was reduced by E2 treatment and increased by the Ext, ICI, and ICT treatments while the weight of the uterus and pituitary glands increased significantly only in the E2 and ICT groups. Although Epimedii Herba displayed relatively weak estrogenic activity, its repeated administration could affect pubertal development in female rats. PMID:24116294

  6. The oral administration of Polysorbate 80 to the immature female rat does not increase uterine weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Williams; J. Odum; R. W. Lewis; A. M. Brady

    1997-01-01

    Some xenobiotics display estrogenic activity in in vitro and\\/or in vivo systems. Previous studies by Gajdova et al. have shown that polysorbate 80 (also known as Tween 80) administered by intraperitoneal injection to neonatal female rats on days 4–7 after birth produced estrogenic effects including earlier vaginal opening, prolongation of the estrus cycle and persistent vaginal estrus [1]. Some of

  7. Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1986-12-01

    Although many studies have shown that cigarette smoking during gestation retarded the intrauterine fetal growth, resulting in the decreased birth weight in babies born to smoking mothers, neither causal substance nor mechanism of action to disturb fetal growth has been firmly established yet. Based on the human and animal studies, researchers have implied that fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event. A shortage in energy intake in smoking mothers also has been suspected to cause the retardation in fetal development. In the previous results (Tachi and Aoyama 1983), the weight increment in CO exposed animals was greater than that in the smoke exposed group. The phenomenon seemed to indicate that the reduction in the food intake occurs in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, and induces the disturbance of fetal development in association with CO. In the present study, so as to evaluate the role of energy intake upon the fetal development in utero, the experiment of paired feeding with pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke is designed in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, CO, or room air, following after the observation of the quantity of food taken by mothers exposed to cigarette smoke, CO, or room air.

  8. Experimentally induced citrinin and endosulfan toxicity in pregnant Wistar rats: histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nittin D; Sharma, Anil K; Dwivedi, Prabhaker; Patil, Rajendra D; Kumar, Manoj

    2008-10-01

    In the present investigation, citrinin (CIT) (10 mg kg(-1) feed) and endosulfan (1 mg kg(-1) body weight) were administered orally alone and in combination to pregnant Wistar rats from gestational day 6 to 20 and their fetuses were collected to evaluate the histopathological alterations in hepatic and renal tissues. In CIT-fed group fetal liver, the changes were less marked, showing only sinusoidal dilation and mild vacuolar degeneration, whereas the consistent changes in the fetal kidney included tubular degeneration, medullary tubular necrosis, cystic dilatation of tubules, distortion of glomerulur capillary tuft and interstitial fibroblastic proliferation which separated clusters of tubules. In the endosulfan group, the liver was predominantly affected, showing vacuolar degeneration, karyomegaly and severe sinusoidal dilation, whereas the renal changes were mainly confined to tubular degeneration and varying degree of interstitial fibrosis. In the combination group, the hepatic and renal histopathological alterations in the fetus, though of similar nature to those of the individual groups, were more severe. PMID:18493935

  9. Fluctuations in selenium status during the female rat estrous cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, C.; Smith, A.M.; Kimura, R.E. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States) Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1991-03-11

    A suggested relationship between selenium (Se) status and sex hormones is based on sex-linked differences in Se status of the liver and dramatic changes in Se status during pregnancy. The effect of estrous cycle hormone fluctuation on Se status was studied in the chronically-catheterized rat model. Se status, measured as plasma and RBC Se and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), was assessed at each stage of the 4-day estrous cycle. Stages, determined by cytological exam of vaginal smears, were estrus (E), metestrus (ME), diestrus (DE), and proestrus (PE). Five rats fed a 0.1 ppm Se diet, were catheterized at the abdominal aorta, allowing serial blood draws under nonstressful conditions. At least three blood samples per rat were collected daily for two consecutive cycles. Plasma Se during PE was significantly greater than that at E, ME, or DE. Peak plasma Se occurred at 1,000 hr PE. Peak estrogen and progesterone levels have been reported to occur later in PE. Peak plasma occurred during ME and early PE. A significant decrease in plasma GPx during late PE corresponds with reported peaks in estrogen and progesterone. There were no significant differences in RBC Se or GPx during the estrous cycle. The results of this study suggest that changes in plasma Se and GPx during the estrous cycle may precede similar fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone.

  10. The effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement on induction of maternal behavior in the virgin female rat

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    in the virgin female rat Stephanie L. Rees a , Sonia Panesar a , Meir Steiner b , Alison S. Fleming a behavior of the sensitized virgin rat is affected by approach­avoidance systems as well as by hypothalamic in sensitized virgin rats. In the first experiment, latency to onset of maternal behavior and time spent licking

  11. The emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls in female rats is independent of testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Mori, Yuji

    2015-03-01

    Although emission of ultrasonic calls in rats induced by stress, referred to as "22-kHz calls," is dependent on circulating testosterone levels in males, it is still unknown whether the same testosterone-based regulation is applicable to female rats. In this study, we investigated the sex difference in the emission of air-puff-induced 22-kHz calls in rats on the basis of the hypothesis that female rats would emit fewer 22-kHz calls, and assessed whether male-like circulating testosterone levels can also influence the emission of 22-kHz calls in females. The experimental results showed that female rats emit significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than male rats. However, male-like circulating testosterone levels have little effect on the emission of 22-kHz calls in females. Hence, it is suggested that there is a sex difference in stress-induced 22-kHz calls in rats and, in contrast to male rats, the emission of 22-kHz calls in female rats may be independent of circulating testosterone levels, as tested in response to air-puff stimulation. PMID:25597917

  12. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zelzer, Sieglinde; Mangge, Harald; Pailer, Sabine; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Kieslinger, Petra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Prüller, Florian; Weghuber, Daniel; Datz, Christian; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Trummer, Christian; Gostner, Johanna; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (n = 30) and high-fat diet (n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:26006242

  13. Oxidized LDL Is Strictly Limited to Hyperthyroidism Irrespective of Fat Feeding in Female Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Zelzer, Sieglinde; Mangge, Harald; Pailer, Sabine; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Kieslinger, Petra; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Prüller, Florian; Weghuber, Daniel; Datz, Christian; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Trummer, Christian; Gostner, Johanna; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic dysfunctions might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a controlled diet (normal versus high fat feeding) on hypothyroid and hyperthyroid Sprague Dawley rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (n = 30) and high-fat diet (n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment metabolic parameters, such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the lipid profile, body weight and food intake parameters were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunctions were shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunctions were accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight as well as in the lipid profile. In detail, hypothyroid rats showed significantly decreased oxLDL levels, whereas hyperthyroid rats showed significantly increased oxLDL levels. These effects were seen under high fat diet and were less pronounced with normal feeding. Taken together, we showed for the first time in female SD rats that only hyper-, but not hypothyroidism, is associated with high atherogenic oxidized LDL irrespective of normal or high-fat diet in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:26006242

  14. Effects of dietary phytoestrogen on global myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated female rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Zhai, P; Eurell, T E; Cotthaus, R P; Jeffery, E H; Bahr, J M; Gross, D R

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the effects of phytoestrogen on global myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in five groups of female rats. A high-phytoestrogen group (HPE) was ovariectomized (Ovx) and fed a diet containing soybean protein and a high-isoflavone soy extract. Another Ovx group of rats was fed the same diet as the HPE group but treated with the estrogen receptor blocker ICI-182,780 (HPE + ICI). A third group of Ovx rats was fed a diet containing soybean protein alone (low-phytoestrogen content; LPE). A fourth Ovx group was fed a diet free of phytoestrogen (Ovx). The fifth group of rats was sham ovariectomized (sham). Hearts from all rats were subjected to 30 min of global, hypothermic (4 degrees C), cardioplegic ischemia and 120 min of normothermic (37 degrees C) reperfusion with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Compared with either the sham or the HPE group, the Ovx and HPE + ICI groups had significantly decreased first derivative of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt), coronary flow rate (CFR), nitrite production and mitochondrial respiratory function and significantly increased Ca2+ accumulation and myocardial histological and ultrastructural injury. The CFR of the LPE group was significantly different from that of either Ovx or HPE + ICI group but the dP/dt, nitrite production, Ca2+ accumulation, and mitochondrial function were not. Our results indicate that diets containing phytoestrogen extract play a cardioprotective role in global myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in female rats. PMID:11514291

  15. Role of endothelin-1 antagonist; bosentan, against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Jokar, Zahra; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Moeini, Maryam; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapy drug, with the major side effect of nephrotoxicity. The level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases during nephrotoxicity, which is accompanied with vasoconstrictive properties. Bosentan (BOS) is a nonselective ET-1 receptor antagonist, having vasodilatory and anti-hypertension effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effect of BOS against CP-induced nephrotoxicity in male and female rats. Materials and Methods: Male and female rats were divided into six groups; groups 1–3 and 4–6 were male and female rats, respectively. Animals in groups 1 and 4 were considered as negative control and groups 2 and 5 considered as positive control groups received BOS (30 mg/kg/day) alone and CP (2.5 mg/kg/day) alone, respectively, for 1-week. The animals in groups 3 and 6 were treated with both CP and BOS. Finally, serum parameters were measured, and the kidney tissue was subjected to staining to evaluate tissue damage. Results: The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, kidney tissue damage score and kidney weight elevated, and body weight significantly decreased in both CP alone and in CP plus BOS-treated groups when compared with the control groups (P < 0.05), while BOS did not ameliorate these parameters neither in males nor in females. No significant differences were observed in serum levels of nitrite and malondialdehyde between the groups, but kidney tissue level of nitrite decreased significantly in CP alone and CP plus BOS-treated groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Renoprotective effect of BOS, as ET-1 blocker, was not observed against CP-induced nephrotoxicity neither in male nor in female rats. This is while BOS promoted the severity of injuries in females. PMID:26015909

  16. The response of Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant female rats to a space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Cleek, Tammy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism in the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat, a model of salt-induced hypertension, differs from that in the Dahl salt-resistant (R) rat. We have tested the hypothesis that differences in vitamin D metabolism would render the Dahl S rat more susceptible than the Dahl R rat to the effects of a space flight model. Dahl female rats were tail suspended (hind limb unloaded) for 28 days, while fed a low salt (3 g/kg sodium chloride) diet. Plasma 25-OHD concentrations of S rats were significantly lower than that of R rats. Plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration was 50% lower in unloaded than in loaded S rats, but was unaffected in unloaded R rats. The left soleus muscle weight and breaking strength of the left femur (torsion test) were 50% and 25% lower in unloaded than in loaded S and R rats. The mineral content of the left femur, however, was significantly lower (by 11%) only in unloaded S rats. We conclude that female S rats are more vulnerable than female R rats to decreases in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentration and femur mineral content during hind limb unloading, but equally vulnerable to muscle atrophy and reduced breaking strength of the femur.

  17. Diphenyl diselenide supplemented diet reduces depressive-like behavior in hypothyroid female rats.

    PubMed

    Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; de Almeida, Tielle Moraes; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Pavin, Sandra; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice Vargas

    2014-01-30

    Hypothyroidism has been associated to psychiatric disorder development and tissue oxidative damage. In this study, we evaluated the effect of diphenyl diselenide supplementation on depressive-like behavior triggered by methimazole exposure in female rats. Additionally, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and non-protein thiol (NP-SH) levels were analyzed in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum structures of rats. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was evaluated in total brain. Firstly, female rats received methimazole (MTZ) 20mg/100ml in the drinking water for 30days and were evaluated in open-field and forced swimming tests (FST). In this set of experiments, the rats exposed to MTZ presented a depressive-like behavior, which was evidenced by a significant increase in the immobility time when compared to control group. Thereafter, MTZ-induced hypothyroid rats received either a standard or a diet containing 5ppm of diphenyl diselenide, and then they were evaluated monthly in open-field and FST tests during 3months. No alteration on the locomotor performance was observed among the groups. The depressive-like behavior of hypothyroid rats was blunted by diphenyl diselenide supplementation during all experimental periods. The levels of thyroid hormones remained low in MTZ exposed groups until the end of experimental period. The MTZ group had an increase in TBARS and ROS levels that were restored by diphenyl diselenide supplementation. NP-SH content of cerebral structures was not modified by MTZ exposure and/or diphenyl diselenide supplementation. Diphenyl diselenide supplementation restored the MAO B activity that was decreased in MTZ group. In summary, our results show that hypothyroidism induced by MTZ methimazole triggers a depressive-like behavior in female rats and that dietary diphenyl diselenide was able to reduce this effect. PMID:24239994

  18. Vascular damage in obese female rats with hypoestrogenism.

    PubMed

    Lima-Mendoza, Luis Angel; Colado-Velázquez, Juventino; Mailloux-Salinas, Patrick; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué V; Gómez-Viquez, Norma L; Molina-Muńoz, Tzindilu; Huang, Fengyang; Bravo, Guadalupe

    2014-03-01

    Increase in body weight and adiposity has deleterious consequences on health. The aim of this study was to compare morphological and metabolic changes in the arterial vessels of Wistar rats with conditions of obesity, hypoestrogenism, and hypoestrogenism plus obesity. Ovariectomized rats (hypoestrogenic condition) received 30 % sugar in drinking water plus standard diet during 10 weeks. The hypoestrogenic-obese (HE-OB) group presented increase in weight, blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia compared with other groups. The morphological study in aortic vessels from HE showed damage in endothelial smooth muscle tissue compared with the other groups. Adipose cells volume in HE-OB (59.33?±?2.38 ?(3)?×?10(5)) and obese (OB) (54.95?±?1.36 ?(3)?×?10(5)) groups were significantly larger than control group (36.38?±?0.98 ?(3)?×?10(5)). In the HE group adipocyte hyperplasia was observed, while in OB group adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia was shown. The vascular reactivity in HE-OB and OB groups presented decrease in the relaxation to acetylcholine compared with control conditions (p?

  19. Fos expression induced by cocaine-conditioned cues in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Luyi; Pruitt, Carla; Shin, Christina B; Garcia, Arturo D; Zavala, Arturo R; See, Ronald E

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that female rats exhibit different patterns of drug seeking during multiple phases of cocaine addiction when compared with males. However, the underlying mechanisms for these sex differences remain largely unknown. Here, we used a cocaine self-administration/reinstatement model to examine neuronal activation, as determined by Fos expression, following cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male and female rats. Fos expression revealed both similarities between sexes in some brain regions, as well as selective sexually dimorphic patterns. As compared to no cue control subjects, conditioned cues induced higher Fos expression in the Cg1 region of the anterior cingulate cortex, but lower expression in the nucleus accumbens in both males and females. Females exhibited higher Fos expression than males in multiple brain regions, including the agranular insular cortex, dorsal medial caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens shell, ventral tegmental area, dorsal subiculum, and ventral CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Notably, only Fos expression in the prelimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, basolateral amygdala, and ventral subiculum correlated positively with lever responding in response to conditioned cues across males and females. These findings indicate that while sexually dimorphic Fos activation does occur, the relationship between cue-induced cocaine seeking and neuronal activation may be similar for males and females in key brain regions of the relapse circuit. PMID:23832598

  20. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure On Plasma Oxytocin Concentrations In Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rat dams and offspring were exposed to 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g hypergravity (hg) from Gestational day (G) 11 until Postnatal day (P) 10. To ascertain the role of maternal factors in reduced postnatal body weights of offspring developed in hg, the dams' lactational hormones were measured. Oxytocin (OT), the major hormone responsible for milk ejection, was reduced in hg dams whereas prolactin (Prl), involved in milk production, was unchanged. Video analyses of nursing behavior revealed that hg dams spent more time nursing relative to 1-g controls. We hypothesized impaired milk transfer from dam to pup, however pup body weight gains following a discrete suckling episode were comparable across conditions. Changes in lactational hormones and nursing behavior by dams exposed to hg do not account for reduced body masses of their offspring.

  1. Prereproductive stress in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticosterone levels in second-generation offspring.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Hiba; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2015-08-01

    Human and animal studies indicate that vulnerability to stress may be heritable. We have previously shown that chronic, mild prereproductive stress (PRS) in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1) expression in the brain of first-generation (F1) offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of PRS on anxiogenic behavior and CRF1 expression in male and female second-generation (F2) offspring. Furthermore, we assessed levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), a direct marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, in PRS females and their F1 and F2 progeny. F2 offspring demonstrated decreased CRF1 mRNA expression at birth, and alterations in anxiogenic behavior in adulthood. CORT levels were elevated in PRS females and in their F1 female, but not male, offspring. In F2, CORT levels in PRS offspring also varied in a sex-dependent manner. These findings indicate that PRS in adolescent females leads to behavioral alterations that extend to second-generation offspring, and has transgenerational effects on endocrine function. Together with our previous findings, these data indicate that PRS to adolescent females affects behavior and HPA axis function across three generations, and highlight the importance of examining the transgenerational effects of stress in both male and female offspring. PMID:25973567

  2. Neonatal stress affects the aging trajectory of female rats on the endocrine, temperature, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Baldy, Cécile; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Human and animal studies on sleep-disordered breathing and respiratory regulation show that the effects of sex hormones are heterogeneous. Because neonatal stress results in sex-specific disruption of the respiratory control in adult rats, we postulate that it might affect respiratory control modulation induced by ovarian steroids in female rats. The hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) of adult female rats exposed to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is ?30% smaller than controls (24), but consequences of NMS on respiratory control in aging female rats are unknown. To address this issue, whole body plethysmography was used to evaluate the impact of NMS on the HVR (12% O2, 20 min) of middle-aged (MA; ?57 wk old) female rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator 3 h/day for 10 consecutive days (P3 to P12). Controls were undisturbed. To determine whether the effects were related to sexual hormone decline or aging per se, experiments were repeated on bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) young (?12 wk old) adult female rats. OVX and MA both reduced the HVR significantly in control rats but had little effect on the HVR of NMS females. OVX (but not aging) reduced the anapyrexic response in both control and NMS animals. These results show that hormonal decline decreases the HVR of control animals, while leaving that of NMS female animals unaffected. This suggests that neonatal stress alters the interaction between sex hormone regulation and the development of body temperature, hormonal, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia. PMID:25652536

  3. Prolactin regulates kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus to suppress LH secretion in female rats.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Lopes, Roberta; Crampton, Jessica R; Aquino, Nayara S S; Miranda, Roberta M; Kokay, Ilona C; Reis, Adelina M; Franci, Celso R; Grattan, David R; Szawka, Raphael E

    2014-03-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to suppress LH secretion. Kisspeptin neurons regulate LH secretion and express PRL receptors. We investigated whether PRL acts on kisspeptin neurons to suppress LH secretion in lactating (Lac) and virgin rats. Lac rats displayed high PRL secretion and reduced plasma LH and kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Bromocriptine-induced PRL blockade significantly increased ARC kisspeptin and plasma LH levels in Lac rats but did not restore them to the levels of non-Lac rats. Bromocriptine effects were prevented by the coadministration of ovine PRL (oPRL). Virgin ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with either systemic or intracerebroventricular oPRL displayed reduction of kisspeptin expression in the ARC and plasma LH levels, and these effects were comparable with those of estradiol treatment in OVX rats. Conversely, estradiol-treated OVX rats displayed increased kisspeptin immunoreactivity in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, whereas oPRL had no effect in this brain area. The expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 was used to determine whether kisspeptin neurons in the ARC were responsive to PRL. Accordingly, intracerebroventricular oPRL induced expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 in the great majority of ARC kisspeptin neurons in virgin and Lac rats. We provide here evidence that PRL acts on ARC neurons to inhibit kisspeptin expression in female rats. During lactation, PRL contributes to the inhibition of ARC kisspeptin. In OVX rats, high PRL levels suppress kisspeptin expression and reduce LH release. These findings suggest a pathway through which hyperprolactinemia may inhibit LH secretion and thereby cause infertility. PMID:24456164

  4. High salt diet increases the pressor response to stress in female, but not male ETB-receptor-deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Joshua S; D'Angelo, Gerard; Wach, Paul A; Sullivan, Jennifer C; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress in both rodents and humans causes a transient rise in blood pressure associated with an increase in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1). High salt (HS) intake also increases ET-1 production, and interestingly, blunts the pressor response to acute air jet stress in rats. We previously reported that female rats lacking functional ETB receptors everywhere except sympathetic nerves (ETB def) had a greater degree of hypertension in response to a HS diet compared to their male counterparts when measured by the tail cuff method. However, we now report that salt-induced hypertension is not different between sexes when measured by telemetry. Therefore, additional experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that female ETB def rats are more sensitive to acute stress when on a HS diet. The pressor response, measured by telemetry, to acute air jet stress was similar between male transgenic control (Tg control) and ETB def rats following chronic HS intake. In contrast, female ETB def rats had a significantly greater pressor response (about twofold higher) than female or male Tg control or male ETB def rats maintained on HS, a finding that cannot be explained by increased vascular reactivity to ET-1 in female rats as we observed that male ETB def rats had a greater pressor response to i.v. infusion of ET-1 compared to females. Furthermore, HS feeding exacerbated the pressor response to ET-1 in both male and female ETB def rats. Given our previous studies demonstrating that the ETA receptor functions to reduce the pressor response to acute stress, these findings further support a role for the ET receptor system in the pressor response to acute stress and that female rats have reduced ETA receptor activity when on a HS diet compared to males. PMID:25802361

  5. High salt diet increases the pressor response to stress in female, but not male ETB-receptor-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Speed, Joshua S; D'Angelo, Gerard; Wach, Paul A; Sullivan, Jennifer C; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M

    2015-03-01

    Acute stress in both rodents and humans causes a transient rise in blood pressure associated with an increase in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1). High salt (HS) intake also increases ET-1 production, and interestingly, blunts the pressor response to acute air jet stress in rats. We previously reported that female rats lacking functional ETB receptors everywhere except sympathetic nerves (ETB def) had a greater degree of hypertension in response to a HS diet compared to their male counterparts when measured by the tail cuff method. However, we now report that salt-induced hypertension is not different between sexes when measured by telemetry. Therefore, additional experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that female ETB def rats are more sensitive to acute stress when on a HS diet. The pressor response, measured by telemetry, to acute air jet stress was similar between male transgenic control (Tg control) and ETB def rats following chronic HS intake. In contrast, female ETB def rats had a significantly greater pressor response (about twofold higher) than female or male Tg control or male ETB def rats maintained on HS, a finding that cannot be explained by increased vascular reactivity to ET-1 in female rats as we observed that male ETB def rats had a greater pressor response to i.v. infusion of ET-1 compared to females. Furthermore, HS feeding exacerbated the pressor response to ET-1 in both male and female ETB def rats. Given our previous studies demonstrating that the ETA receptor functions to reduce the pressor response to acute stress, these findings further support a role for the ET receptor system in the pressor response to acute stress and that female rats have reduced ETA receptor activity when on a HS diet compared to males. PMID:25802361

  6. Prenatal Bystander Stress Alters Brain, Behavior, and the Epigenome of Developing Rat Offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richelle Mychasiuk; Nichole Schmold; Slava Ilnytskyy; Olga Kovalchuk; Bryan Kolb; Robbin Gibb

    2011-01-01

    The prenatal environment, including prenatal stress, has been extensively studied in laboratory animals and humans. However, studies of the prenatal environment usually directly stress pregnant females, but stress may come ‘indirectly’, through stress to a cage-mate. The current study used indirect prenatal bystander stress and investigated the effects on the gross morphology, pre-weaning behavior, and epigenome of rat offspring. Pregnant

  7. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy in rats increases systolic blood pressure and plasma nitrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Carlin Schooley; Kay B. Franz

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of moderate dietary magnesium (Mg) deficiency, pregnancy, and concurrent l-arginine ingestion on systolic blood pressure (BP), nitric oxide production, serum Mg, and intrauterine growth restriction. Female rats, fed Mg deficient or sufficient diets from weaning, were divided into three groups: (1) nonpregnant, (2) pregnant, and (3) pregnant + 1% l-arginine in the drinking water. The systolic

  8. Receptivity of the female rat (Rattus norvegicus) after male devocalization: a ventral perspective.

    PubMed

    White, N R; Cagiano, R; Barfield, R J

    1990-06-01

    Male rats (Rattus norvegicus) emit at least two patterns of vocalization during copulation, the mating call and the pre-ejaculatory call. Both calls promote immobility of the female during lordosis, but the pre-ejaculatory calls are more effective. We undertook, through ventral observations of the mating pair, to determine if the female failed to assume or maintain the lordosis posture when mounted by a devocalized male and also to determine if the devocalized male was providing adequate stimulation to induce receptive behavior. Females were more likely to move away from the devocalized males before assuming the full lordosis posture. Furthermore, they were more likely to move away before the males had a chance to engage in intromissive behavior. However, when the females remained immobile long enough for the males to achieve a mount or intromission, there was little difference in the behavior of either animal that resulted from the devocalization of the male. PMID:2364659

  9. Protocol for Studying Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Naturally Cycling Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Lisa Y.; Cover, Kara K.; Landau, Aaron J.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer

    2015-01-01

    Extinction of conditioned fear has been extensively studied in male rodents. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies indicating that neural mechanisms for certain behavioral tasks and response behaviors are different in females and males. Using females in research studies can represent a challenge because of the variation of gonadal hormones during their estrous cycle. This protocol describes well-established procedures that are useful in investigating the role of estrogen in fear extinction memory consolidation in female rats. Phase of the estrous cycle and exogenous estrogen administration prior to extinction training can influence extinction recall 24 hr later. The vaginal swabbing technique for estrous phase identification described here aids the examination and manipulation of naturally cycling gonadal hormones. The use of this basic rodent model may further delineate the mechanisms by which estrogen can modulate fear extinction memory in females. PMID:25741747

  10. Estrogenic activity of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves on female wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Jawaid, Talha; Awasthi, Akanksha; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2015-01-01

    To study the estrogenic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Bambusa arundinaceae leaves (HEBA) in female Wistar rats. The dried powdered leaves were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (60%), and the resultant extract was subjected for phytochemical analyses to identify different phytoconstituents. HEBA were administered to ovariectomized rats for 7 days at three different doses (viz., 200, 300, 400 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) and their estrogenic activity were compared with each of daily treatment with 0.2 mg/kg body weight, i.p. conjugated equine estrogen as a positive control or olive oil as a negative control. Estrogenic activity was evaluated by doing uterotropic assay, vaginal cytology and measurement of vaginal opening in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of HEBA in ovariectomized immature and mature female Wistar rats in a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. resulted in significant increase in the uterine wet weight (in mg) (224.82 ± 7.01) and (912.25 ± 27.22) when compared with ovariectomized control rats (111.52 ± 3.17) and (506.67 ± 21.39). HEBA (400 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) treated rats, showing only cornified epithelial cells which was an indication of the presence of the estrogen and also showed 100% vaginal opening. It was observed that HEBA possess significant estrogenic activity at 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. which was evident by uterotropic assay, measurement of vaginal opening, and histopathological changes. PMID:25709965

  11. Seizure susceptibility in intact and ovariectomized female rats treated with the convulsant pilocarpine

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Goodman, Jeffrey H.; Rigoulot, Marie-Aude; Berger, Russell E.; Walling, Susan G.; Mercurio, Thomas C.; Stormes, Kerry; Maclusky, Neil J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous neuroendocrinological studies of seizures, the influence of estrogen and progesterone on seizures and epilepsy remains unclear. This may be due to the fact that previous studies have not systematically compared distinct endocrine conditions and included all relevant controls. The goal of the present study was to conduct such a study using pilocarpine as chemoconvulsant. Thus, age and weight-matched, intact or ovariectomized rats were tested to determine incidence of status epilepticus and to study events leading to status. Intact female rats were sampled at each cycle stage (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, or diestrus 2). Convulsant was administered at the same time of day, 10:00–10:30 a.m. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significantly lower incidence of status on the morning of estrus, but differences were attenuated in older animals. Ovariectomized rats were distinct in their rapid progression to status. These results show that the incidence of status in female rats following pilocarpine injection, and the progression to pilocarpine-induced status, are influenced by reproductive state as well as age. The hormonal milieu present specifically on the morning of estrus appears to decrease susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced status, particularly at young ages. In contrast, the chronic absence of reproductive steroids that characterizes the ovariectomized rat leads to a more rapid progression to status. This dissociation between incidence vs. progression provides new insight into the influence of estrogen and progesterone on seizures. PMID:16084511

  12. Effects of iron polymaltose complex, ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate treatments in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Oliveri, Leda; Angerosa, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Although oral iron preparations are widely prescribed to prevent and to treat iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, comparative data on their effects to the mother, fetus and placenta are limited. In this study, the effects of oral iron polymaltose complex (IPC), ferrous fumarate (FF) and ferrous sulfate (FS) were compared in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas. Hematological variables and oxidative stress markers in the liver, heart and kidneys of the dams and fetuses as well as the markers for oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia in placentas were assessed. Pregnancy outcome was measured by number of fetuses, and by neonate and placental weight. All therapies were comparably effective in correcting anemia. FS and FF, but not IPC, resulted in liver damage in dams and oxidative stress in dams, fetuses and placentas. FS group presented the highest catalase and GPx levels in dams, fetuses and placentas. IPC, but not FF or FS, restored normal TNF-? and IL6 expression levels in placentas whereas FS-treated animals presented the highest cytokine levels, suggesting a local inflammatory reaction. Anemia-induced high levels of HIF-1? were partially lowered by IPC and FF but further elevated by FS. Most of the negative effects associated with IDA were resolved by IPC treatment. Especially FS treatment was found to elicit hepatic damage in the dams, oxidative stress in the dams, fetuses and placenta as well as inflammation and high levels of HIF-1? in the placenta. Pregnancy outcome of FFand FS-treated animals was worse than that of IPC-treated animals. PMID:23547731

  13. Estradiol-sensitive projection neurons in the female rat preoptic area.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the preoptic area (POA) interrupts the lordosis reflex, a combined contraction of back muscles, in response to male mounts and the major receptive component of sexual behavior in female rat in estrus, without interfering with the proceptive component of this behavior or solicitation. Axon-sparing POA lesions with an excitotoxin, on the other hand, enhance lordosis and diminish proceptivity. The POA effect on the reflex is mediated by its estrogen-sensitive projection to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as shown by the behavioral effect of VTA stimulation as well as by the demonstration of an increased threshold for antidromic activation of POA neurons from the VTA in ovariectomized females treated with estradiol benzoate (EB). EB administration increases the antidromic activation threshold in ovariectomized females and neonatally castrated males, but not in neonatally androgenized females; the EB effect is limited to those that show lordosis in the presence of EB. EB causes behavioral disinhibition of lordosis through an inhibition of POA neurons with axons to the VTA, which eventually innervate medullospinal neurons innervating spinal motoneurons of the back muscle. The EB-induced change in the threshold or the axonal excitability may be a result of EB-dependent induction of BK channels. Recordings from freely moving female rats engaging in sexual interactions revealed separate subpopulations of POA neurons for the receptive and proceptive behaviors. Those POA neurons engaging in the control of proceptivity are EB-sensitive and project to the midbrain locomotor region (MLR). EB thus enhances lordosis by reducing excitatory neural impulses from the POA to the VTA. An augmentation of the POA effect to the MLR may culminate in an increased locomotion that embodies behavioral estrus in the female rat. PMID:25852453

  14. Chemoprevention of spontaneous endometrial cancer in female Donryu rats by dietary indole-3-carbinol.

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Tanaka, T; Mori, H

    1994-03-15

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) present in cruciferous vegetables has been found to inhibit chemically induced neoplasms in forestomach, mammary gland, liver, and tongue in rodents. I3C is also known to induce estradiol 2-hydroxylase and reduce estrogenic activity. The current study was conducted to examine the possible inhibiting effect of I3C on spontaneous occurrence of endometrial adenocarcinoma in female Donryu rats. The high incidence of endometrial cancer in this strain of rats might be related to increased estrogen/progesterone ratio with aging. A total of 141 female Donryu rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was given a basal diet alone throughout the study. Starting at 6 weeks of age, groups 2-4 were respectively given the diets containing 200, 500, and 1000 ppm I3C for the entire experimental period (660 days). At the termination of the experiment, the incidences of preneoplastic lesions and neoplasms in the endometrium were estimated. Also, estradiol 2-hydroxylation activity in the liver was assayed in rats fed I3C at these doses for 3 weeks. The incidences of endometrial adenocarcinoma in rats fed I3C [8 of 32 rats (25%) in group 2, 5 of 32 rats (16%) in group 3, and 5 of 35 rats (14%) in group 4] were respectively smaller than that in group 1 (12 of 32 rats, 38%). The incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma in group 4 was significantly lower than that in group 1 (P < 0.05). Dietary I3C also decreased the frequency of preneoplastic endometrial lesions (31% in groups 2-4 versus 44% in group 1). I3C exposure also inhibited the incidence of mammary fibroadenoma. Biochemical assay for estradiol 2-hydroxylation revealed that feeding of I3C significantly increased estradiol 2-hydroxylation (nmol/mg protein) compared to rats treated without I3C [0.34 +/- 0.04 in group 2, 0.53 +/- 0.13 in group 3, and 0.58 +/- 0.11 in group 4 versus 0.28 +/- 0.02 in group 1; P < 0.02, P < 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively]. These results suggest that dietary I3C inhibits spontaneous occurrence of endometrial adenocarcinoma as well as preneoplastic lesions in Donryu rats. This chemopreventive effect of I3C may be due to its induction of estradiol 2-hydroxylation. PMID:8137246

  15. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141

  16. The effect of pivalate treatment of pregnant rats on body mass and insulin levels in the adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Ricciolini, R; Scalibastri, M; Carminati, P; Arduini, A

    2001-08-31

    Pivalic acid is used as a prodrug to increase gut absorption of a variety of different antibiotics. Pivalic acid is also known to induce a number of metabolic aberrations which may be in part explained by concurrent mild carnitine depletion. Rat pups (5 days old) born to mothers treated throughout their pregnancy and lactation period with sodium pivalate, showed an increase in liver and muscle triglycerides and elevated plasma ketone bodies, compared to controls. A reduction of free carnitine content in liver, muscle and plasma was also observed in the pivalate treated group. In a second study, pups were treated with either pivalate for 24 days (females), or pivalate for 120 days (males). Both groups were fed standard diets. In both groups (male and female), the pivalate treatment showed a statistically significant hyperinsulinaemia and an increase of body mass compared with that of age- and sex-matched control groups. In addition, after a glucose loading, significantly higher levels of insulin in the pivalate-treated group (male) with respect to controls were observed. In conclusion, our data suggest that maternal pivalate treatment may predispose adult offspring to developing insulin-resistance and obesity. PMID:11665835

  17. Effects of perinatal exposure to bisphenol A on sociosexual behavior of female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Farabollini, Francesca; Porrini, Stefania; Della Seta, Daniele; Bianchi, Fiorella; Dessě-Fulgheri, Francesco

    2002-06-01

    Perinatal action of estrogens or aromatizable steroids at the central nervous system level is responsible for brain sexual differentiation. Through early contact with the central nervous system, the estrogenic compound bisphenol A (BPA) could alter the processes affecting sociosexual behavior. To test this hypothesis, we studied agonistic and sexual behavior of adult female and male rats whose mothers were administered BPA (40 microg/kg/day) during pregnancy or lactation. An intruder test revealed in males but not in females an increase in defensive behavior due to BPA. We studied the effect of BPA on sexual behavior by testing sexual orientation and sexual activity. Male sexual orientation toward a stimulus female was not affected by BPA, whereas the sexual activity test revealed a slight impairment of sexual performance due to BPA in terms of latency and frequency of intromissions. In females, BPA produced a small increase in sexual motivation and receptive behavior. In conclusion, BPA administration, both during pregnancy and during lactation, does not masculinize female behavior or potentiate masculinization processes of males. On the contrary, we observed a potentiation of female behavior in females and a depotentiation of male behavior in males. PMID:12060837

  18. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Plasma Oxytocin (OT) Concentrations in Pregnant and Lactating Rat Dams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Plaut, Karen; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    From pregnancy to weaning there is a progressive elevation of plasma oxytocin (OT) levels associated with nursing activity, irrespective of litter size. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of continuous 1.5G, 1.75G and 2.0G hypergravity exposure on OT plasma concentration in prepartum (Gestation Day 20) (G20) and lactating (Postnatal day) (P10) rat dams. For this study, litter size was controlled with a yoking procedure established in our lab where individual control litters were yoked-matched to individual hypergravity litters. We reviewed all data at hypergravity irrespective of gravitational level and compared the values with the controls in both G20 (HG, n=15;SC, n=9) and P10 (HG, n=21;SC, n=16). Results showed that over time, we did observe the expected OT increase in both groups. In G20 dams, measurement of OT concentrations showed no significance. However, at P10, measurements of OT concentrations suggest a reduction of about 20% compared to established controls in our laboratory, 0.9+/-0.09 ng/ml for the controls and 0.7+/-0.06 ng/ml for centrifuged animals (p<0.02). These data suggest that exposure to centrifugation may reduce OT levels during lactation. When these plasma samples were obtained, the dams were removed from the litters, and values were not adjusted for the size of the litters. The reduction in OT with centrifugation may reflect a decrease in nursing activity or a decreased responsiveness of the mammary hypothalamic axis. In addition, we have analyzed data on plasma prolactin concentrations and mammary gland development, which may give additional insight to the results of our OT measurements.

  19. Testosterone promotes an anabolic increase in the rat female prostate (Skene's paraurethral gland) which acquires a male ventral prostate phenotype.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Madi-Ravazzi, Liliam; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Felisbino, Sérgio L; Taboga, Sebastiăo R

    2010-12-01

    The female prostate (Skene's paraurethral gland) in the rat is morphologically similar to the ventral lobe of male adults and has been described in other rodent species and humans. Previous studies on prostate morphogenesis suggest that female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) do not develop this gland due to the absence of testosterone during the embryonic and neonatal periods. On the other hand, studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that some females of this species can present an undeveloped but functional prostate. Recent studies on this gland have caused scientific interest because, besides being active in the processes of synthesis and secretion of prostatic material, it is also targeted by both malignant and benign lesions, mainly during senescence. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the structure of female prostate of adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) under normal conditions and under the effect of testosterone treatment and carry out comparative studies on the ventral prostate of young and adult male rats. Morphological and morphometric stereological analyses and immunocytochemical and ultrastructural studies were conducted. The results have shown that the prostate gland of rats exposed to androgen therapy have experienced intense growth, becoming more active in relation to synthesis and secretion. It may be concluded that the prostate in control adult female rats is morphologically very similar to the prostatic ventral lobe of young male rats. Besides, under androgenic action, the female prostate grows considerably and becomes similar to the prostatic ventral lobe in male adults. PMID:20830685

  20. Mammary carcinogenicity of diol epoxide metabolites of benzo[ j]fluoranthene in female CD rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen S. Hecht; Abraham Rivenson; Shantu Amin; Jacek Krzeminski; Karam El-Bayoumy; Bandaru S. Reddy; Christine Kurtzke; Edmond J. La Voie

    1996-01-01

    The mammary carcinogenicity of two diol epoxide metabolites of the commonly occurring environmental carcinogen benzo[j]fluoranthene (BjF) was investigated by direct application to the tissue beneath the mammary glands of female CD rats. The compounds tested were trans-4,5-dihydroxy-anti-6,6a-epoxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydroBjF (BjF-4,5-DE) and trans-9,10-diihydroxy-anti-11,12-epoxy-9,10,11,12-tetrahydroBjF (BjF-9,10-DE). The positive control was trans-3,4-dihydroxy-anti-1,2-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[c]phenanthrene (BcPDE). Groups of 20 female CD rats were maintained on AIN-76A-based high fat diet

  1. Metyrapone blocks maternal food restriction-induced changes in female rat offspring lung development.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Virender K; Li, Yishi; Corral, Julia; Saraswat, Aditi; Husain, Sumair; Dhar, Ankita; Sakurai, Reiko; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S

    2014-04-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) during pregnancy affects pulmonary surfactant production in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) offspring through unknown mechanisms. Since pulmonary surfactant production is regulated by maternal and fetal corticosteroid levels, both known to be increased in IUGR pregnancies, we hypothesized that metyrapone (MTP), a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, would block the effects of MFR on surfactant production in the offspring. Three groups of pregnant rat dams were used (1) control dams fed ad libitum; (2) MFR (50% reduction in calories) from days 10 to 22 of gestation; and (3) MFR + MTP in drinking water (0.5 mg/mL), days 11 to 22 of gestation. At 5 months, the MFR offspring weighed significantly more, had reduced alveolar number, increased septal thickness, and decreased surfactant protein and phospholipid synthesis. These MFR-induced effects were normalized by the antiglucocorticoid MTP, suggesting that the stress of MFR causes hypercorticoidism, altering lung structure and function in adulthood. PMID:24023031

  2. Unit: Males and Females, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of an Australian Science Education Project unit entitled Males and Females. Materials provided consist of a teacher's edition of the written materials, a student record book, and seven large black and white photographs showing various stages in the dissection of a pregnant rat. This unit has been written to help…

  3. A study of chromium and ethanol toxicity in female Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chopra; G. Pereira; T. Gomes; J. Pereira; P. Prabhu; S. Krishnan; C. V. Rao

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interactive toxicity of ethanol (EtOH) with potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 ? chromium). Young female Wistar rats (100–105 gms) were divided into four groups of 5 to 6 each were dosed through water 10% EtOH (v\\/v) or 25 ppm chromium or 10% EtOH + 25 ppm chromium for a period of 22 weeks

  4. Distribution of the bispyridinium oxime [14C] HI-6 in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Lundy, P M; Hand, B T; Broxup, B R; Yipchuck, G; Hamilton, M G

    1990-01-01

    Female rats poisoned with multiple LD50s of soman or tabun have been shown previously to respond to the protective effects of HI-6 more positively than male rats. This present study was designed first to determine the distribution pattern and concentration of [14C] HI-6 in rats, and secondly, to determine the possibility that HI-6 might be located in high concentrations in critical tissues in the female as opposed to the male. To these ends, [14C] HI-6 was administered to groups of male and female rats and its radiolabelled distribution determined by whole body autoradiography and/or by measurement of its actual concentration, by scintillation spectrometry. The experiments were repeated in the presence of 2 x LD50 soman and supporting therapy with atropine. In both sexes, HI-6 levels were highest in the kidney, followed in order by cartilage greater than plasma greater than liver greater than heart greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to diaphragm greater than brain and spinal cord. The relative distribution in the two sexes was confirmed by both methods and was not significantly altered in the presence of soman and atropine. The lack of a measurable difference in tissue distribution of [14C] HI-6 derived radioactivity between males and females suggested that the hormone-dependent difference in the protective effects previously observed was not due to selective accumulation of [14C] HI-6 in organs believed to be important in its therapeutic activity, such as brain or diaphragm. PMID:2403289

  5. Studies of tamoxifen as a promoter of hepatocarcinogenesis in female Fischer F344 rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne P. Dragan; Susan Fahey; Jennifer Vaughan; V. Craig Jordan; Henry C. Pitot

    1994-01-01

    Tamoxifen, an antiestrogen used in the treatment of breast cancer, was assessed for carcinogenic potential in the two-stage model of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Groups of female Fischer F344 rats were initiated with a non-necrogenic, subcarcinogenic dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 10 mg\\/kg, po) and fed tamoxifen at a concentration of 250 mg per kg of AIN-76A diet for 6 or 15 months.

  6. Studies on the Puberty-Controlling Function of the Mediocortical Amygdala in the Immature Female Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Döcke; M. Lemke; R. Okrasa

    1976-01-01

    The puberty-controlling function of the mediocortical amygdala in immature female rats was investigated by lesioning this region at different ages and by studying the effects on the onset of spontaneous and experimentally-induced precocious puberty. At 21 days of age, bilateral lesions in the anterior mediocortical amygdala (AMCA) caused precocious puberty and enhanced the puberty-accelerating effect of bilateral lesions produced simultaneously

  7. Hypercholesterolemia in rats: Combined effect of high cholesterol diet and female sex steroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Fischer; M. L. Swain

    1982-01-01

    The influence of estradiol and a contraceptive steroid combination on plasma cholesterol was studied in female rats on both\\u000a normal and high-cholesterol diets which did not contain thiouracil. The high-cholesterol diet resulted in moderate hypercholesterolemia\\u000a without weight loss, even with prolonged feeding. Hypercholesterolemia was markedly accentuated in the presence of either\\u000a endogenous or exogenous sex hormones.

  8. Age-related differences in the toxicity of ochratoxin A in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Dortant; G. W. M. Peters-Volleberg; H. Van Loveren; R. R. Marquardt; G. J. A. Speijers

    2001-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in food and feedstuffs of plant and animal origin. OTA exposure is related to nephropathy in humans. Age-related differences, especially in nephro- and immunotoxicity of OTA, were investigated in young adult (aged 12 weeks) and old (aged 27–30 months) female SPF Wag rats, treated by gavage with 0, 0.07, 0.34 or 1.68 mg

  9. Immunotoxic and cancerostatic effects of ethyl-4-isothiocyanatobutanoate in female Lewis rats with implanted fibrosarcoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Sovcikova; Jana Tulinska; Ivan Chalupa; Aurelia Liskova; Miroslava Kuricova; Mira Horvathova; Zuzana Seemannova; Katarina Horakova

    2002-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) have been isolated from plants. Naturally occurring and synthetic ITCs are known as effective chemopreventive agents. Ethyl 4-isothiocyanatobutanoate (E-4IB) is a derivative of ?-aminobutyric acid. Immunotoxic and cancerostatic effects of E-4IB in female inbred Lewis rats implanted with experimental fibrosarcoma BP6-TU2 was evaluated in this study. On day 5 after subcutaneous application of tumor cells, animals started to

  10. Effects of ethanol ingestion and dietary fat levels on mitochondrial lipids in male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Thompson; Ronald C. Reitz

    1978-01-01

    The effects of sex, dietary fat levels, and ethanol ingestion on rat liver mitochondrial lipids have been studied. Two groups\\u000a of male animals were fed either a low-fat diet for about 76 days or a high-fat diet for about 52 days, and two groups of female\\u000a animals were fed the same low-fat diet for about 50 days or the high-fat

  11. Effects of intraventricular taurine, homotaurine and GABA on serum prolactin and thyrotropin levels in female and in male rats.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, M; Ahtee, L; Rosenqvist, K; Tuominen, R K; Männistö, P

    1993-01-01

    Serum prolactin and thyrotropin levels of conscious, unrestrained male and female rats were compared after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of taurine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and homotaurine. The amino acids studied had no clear effect on serum basal thyrotropin levels in male or female rats. All amino acids elevated serum prolactin levels in female rats at the dose of 5 mumol/rat; homotaurine by about 18-fold, taurine and GABA by 3-fold. Only homotaurine elevated serum prolactin of male rats at this dose, but its effect was less pronounced (p < 0.01) in male than in female rats. Although homotaurine was clearly more potent than the two other amino acids, at the dose of 10 mumol/rat taurine and GABA also elevated serum prolactin in male rats. These findings show that there are gender-related differences in the responses of serum prolactin levels to homotaurine, taurine and GABA in rats. The tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic pathway, which exerts tonic inhibitory influence on prolactin secretion, is sexually differentiated. Hence the gender-related differences in the effects of the amino acids on prolactin secretion suggest that they might inhibit dopamine release from the median eminence. In case of homotaurine, the gender effect was most pronounced. The less clear dependence of GABA's effect on the gender is in accordance with the suggestions that GABA influences the secretion of serum prolactin by more than one mechanism. PMID:8123228

  12. Difference in the responsiveness of old female rats to estrogen to secrete sex attractants as a function of different reproductive states.

    PubMed

    Peng, M T; Mu, S C

    1988-01-01

    Two age groups of Long-Evans rats (young: 3.5-7 months of age and old: over 23 months of age) were ovariectomized and implanted subcutaneously with a 1:2 estradiol benzoate (E2)-cholestrol mixture-filled Silastic capsule. Olfactory preference of male partners to these female rats over ovariectomized young rats without E2 replacement was examined. Olfactory preference of adult male rats as indicated by investigation frequency and investigation time for old pseudopregnancy (PSP) rats and long-term ovariectomized rats was decreased but not that of prolonged-vaginal-cornification (PVC) rats when compared with young female rats. These results indicate that the responsiveness of old PVC rats to estrogen to secrete sex attractants is not decreased but that of PSP rats and long-term ovariectomized rats is decreased when compared with young female rats. PMID:3417149

  13. Experimental gastritis leads to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in female but not male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human and animals studies support the idea that there is a gender-related co-morbidity of pain-related and inflammatory gastrointestinal (GI) diseases with psychological disorders. This co-morbidity is the evidence for the existence of GI-brain axis which consists of immune (cytokines), neural (vagus nerve) and neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathways. Psychological stress causes disturbances in GI physiology, such as altered GI barrier function, changes in motility and secretion, development of visceral hypersensitivity, and dysfunction of inflammatory responses. Whether GI inflammation would exert impact on psychological behavior is not well established. We examined the effect of experimental gastritis on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in male and female Sprague–Dawley rats, and evaluated potential mechanisms of action. Gastritis was induced by adding 0.1% (w/v) iodoacetamide (IAA) to the sterile drinking water for 7 days. Sucrose preference test assessed the depression-like behavior, open field test and elevated plus maze evaluated the anxiety-like behavior. IAA treatment induced gastric inflammation in rats of either gender. No behavioral abnormality or dysfunction of GI-brain axis was observed in male rats with IAA-induced gastritis. Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were apparent and the HPA axis was hyperactive in female rats with IAA-induced gastritis. Our results show that gastric inflammation leads to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in female but not male rats via the neuroendocrine (HPA axis) pathway, suggesting that the GI inflammation can impair normal brain function and induce changes in psychological behavior in a gender-related manner through the GI-to-brain signaling. PMID:24345032

  14. INHIBITION OF CHOLINESTERASE ENZYMES FOLLOWING A SINGLE DERMAL DOSE OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND METHYL PARATHION, ALONE AND IN COMBINATION, IN PREGNANT RATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aqel W. Abu-Qare; Ali Abdel-Rahman; Ceciel Brownie; Amal M. Kishk; Mohamed B. Abou-Donia

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (14-18 d of gestation) were treated with either a single dermal subclinical dose of 30 mg\\/kg (15% of dermal LD50) chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl] phosphorothioate) or a single dermal subclinical dose of 10 mg\\/kg (15% of dermal LD50) methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) or the two in combination. Chlorpyrifos inhibited maternal and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity within

  15. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  16. Dietary quercetin exacerbates the development of estrogen-induced breast tumors in female ACI rats

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Bhupendra [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Mense, Sarah M. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Bhat, Nimee K. [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Putty, Sandeep; Guthiel, William A. [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Remotti, Fabrizio [Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Bhat, Hari K., E-mail: bhath@umkc.ed [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that structurally mimic the endogenous estrogen 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}). Despite intense investigation, the net effect of phytoestrogen exposure on the breast remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of quercetin on E{sub 2}-induced breast cancer in vivo. Female ACI rats were given quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) for 8 months. Animals were monitored weekly for palpable tumors, and at the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized, breast tumor and different tissues excised so that they could be examined for histopathologic changes, estrogen metabolic activity and oxidant stress. Quercetin alone did not induce mammary tumors in female ACI rats. However, in rats implanted with E{sub 2} pellets, co-exposure to quercetin did not protect rats from E{sub 2}-induced breast tumor development with 100% of the animals developing breast tumors within 8 months of treatment. No changes in serum quercetin levels were observed in quercetin and quercetin + E{sub 2}-treated groups at the end of the experiment. Tumor latency was significantly decreased among rats from the quercetin + E{sub 2} group relative to those in the E{sub 2} group. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was significantly downregulated in quercetin-exposed mammary tissue. Analysis of 8-isoprostane F{sub 2{alpha}} (8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}}) levels as a marker of oxidant stress showed that quercetin did not decrease E{sub 2}-induced oxidant stress. These results indicate that quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) does not confer protection against breast cancer, does not inhibit E{sub 2}-induced oxidant stress and may exacerbate breast carcinogenesis in E{sub 2}-treated ACI rats. Inhibition of COMT activity by quercetin may expose breast cells chronically to E{sub 2} and catechol estrogens. This would permit longer exposure times to the carcinogenic metabolites of E{sub 2} and chronic exposure to oxidant stress as a result of metabolic redox cycling to estrogen metabolites, and thus quercetin may exacerbate E{sub 2}-induced breast tumors in female ACI rats.

  17. The role of constrictor prostanoids in the development of aortic coarctation-induced hypertension in male and female rats 

    E-print Network

    Baltzer, Wendy Irene

    2005-02-17

    Vascular reactivity to vasopressin and phenylephrine is potentiated by constrictor prostanoids (CP) in normotensive female (F) but not male (M) rat aorta and CP function is estrogen-dependent. This study investigated the ...

  18. DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS IN CIRCULATING ESTRADIOL: EFFECTS IN BOTH CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMIZED/STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RTD-03-031 Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations in Circulating Estradiol: Effects in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized/Steroid-primed Female Rats. Reproductive Toxicology (in press). Abstract Oral exposures to high concentrations of th...

  19. Structural Composition of Myocardial Infarction Scar in Middle-aged Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bogatyryov, Yevgen; Tomanek, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether the structural composition of the scar in middle-aged post–myocardial infraction (MI) rats is affected by the biological sex of the animals. A large MI was induced in 12-month-old male (M-MI) and female (F-MI) Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Four weeks after the MI, rats with transmural infarctions, greater than 50% of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, were evaluated. The extent of LV remodeling and fractional volumes of fibrillar collagen (FC), myofibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (SM) cells, and surviving cardiac myocytes (CM) in the scars were compared between the two sexes. The left ventricle of post-MI male and female rats underwent a similar degree of remodeling as evidenced by the analogous scar thinning ratio (0.46 ± 0.02 vs. 0.42 ± 0.05) and infarct expansion index (1.06 ± 0.07 vs. 1.12 ± 0.08), respectively. Most important, the contents of major structural components of the scar revealed no evident difference between M-MI and F-MI rats (interstitial FC, 80.74 ± 2.08 vs. 82.57 ± 4.53; myofibroblasts, 9.59 ± 1.68 vs.9.56 ± 1.15; vascular SM cells, 2.27 ± 0.51 vs. 3.38 ± 0.47; and surviving CM, 3.26 ± 0.39 vs. 3.05 ± 0.38, respectively). Our data are the first to demonstrate that biological sex does not influence the structural composition of a mature scar in middle-aged post-MI rats. PMID:23867842

  20. The influence of sleep deprivation and obesity on DNA damage in female Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Tenorio, Neuli M.; Ribeiro, Daniel A.; Alvarenga, Tathiana A.; Fracalossi, Ana Carolina C.; Carlin, Viviane; Hirotsu, Camila; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. METHOD: Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N?=?5/group). The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. RESULTS: Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats. PMID:23644860

  1. The effects of wild pistachio oil on serum leptin, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile in female rats with experimental hypothyroidism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saeed Nazifi; M. Saeb; M. Sepehrimanesh; S. Poorgonabadi

    The aim of this study was to determine the administrative effects of wild pistachio oil in the diet on serum leptin, thyroid\\u000a hormones, and lipid profile in female rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism. Thirty healthy adult female Sprague–Dawley\\u000a rats were selected and randomly allocated into five equal groups (n?=?6\\/group). Blood samples were taken from the heart of each animal into

  2. Hepatic Protection by Noni Fruit Juice Against CCl 4 Induced Chronic Liver Damage in Female SD Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mian-Ying Wang; Gary Anderson; Diane Nowicki; Jarakae Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) has been used throughout the Pacific, Southeast Asia, Central America, and the Caribbean for a variety of health\\u000a conditions, including heart and liver ailments. In this study, we examined the hepatoprotective effects of TAHITIAN NONI®\\u000a Juice (TNJ) against CCl4-induced chronic liver damage in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Twelve female SD rats were divided into control,

  3. Effects of maternal exposure to the galactagogue Sulpiride on reproductive parameters in female rats.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Camin, Nathália; Vieira, Milene Leivas; Montagnini, Bruno Garcia; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

    2015-03-01

    The antipsychotic Sulpiride has been documented as an effective galactagogue that acts blocking dopamine receptors, increasing prolactin concentrations. However, this drug passes through the milk exposing neonates during postnatal development, which may result in functional and morphological alterations in adult life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal exposure to Sulpiride during lactation could impair reproductive development of female offspring. The dams were treated daily by gavage with Sulpiride doses of 2.5mg/Kg (SUL 2.5mg group) and 25mg/Kg (SUL 25mg group), or distilled water (Control group) throughout the lactation period. During early life, body weight, anogenital distance, and vaginal opening were analyzed on the female offspring. In adulthood, estrous cycle, sexual behavior, estrogen levels as well as the weight of the reproductive organs were evaluated. There were no differences regarding body weight, anogenital distance, puberty onset, frequency and duration of the estrous cycle and estradiol levels on female offspring. Nonetheless, there were changes in sexual behavior. There was an increase in the number of observations in reflex magnitude 0 (absence of lordosis) and reflex magnitude 2 as well as a reduction of reflex magnitude 3 in the rats of SUL 25mg group in relation to the Control group, suggesting a decrease in sexual receptivity of these animals. These results demonstrate that maternal exposure to Sulpiride can alter reproductive function in female offspring rats. PMID:25554483

  4. Facilitation of male-like coital behavior in female rats by kindling.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Salazar, Emilio; Portillo, Wendy; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier; Paredes, Raúl G

    2003-03-18

    Kindling is a model of epilepsy and brain plasticity. When applied to the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of non-copulating male rats kindling induces masculine sexual behavior. In order to test if kindling could facilitate male-like coital behavior in female rats, sexually naive females were ovariectomized and kindled in the amygdala (AMG) or the MPOA until an intermediate stage (between 1 and 3, MPOA1-3) or until stage 5 (MPOA5 group). Once kindling was established, females were treated with 2.5 mg/Kg of testosterone propionate (TP) for 15 days. Male-like coital behavior was evaluated on days 5, 10 and 15 of treatment. Subjects were then injected with a TP dose of 5 mg/kg for 15 days and tested in the same way as with the lower dose. The number of mounts was significantly increased and the mount latency was significantly reduced in the MPOA1-3 group when tested 5 days after treatment with the low dose of TP. The same facilitation was observed in MPOA1-3 and MPOA5 groups on day 10 of treatment with the low dose of TP. When the animals were under the high dose of TP treatment, the number of intromissions was increased in all experimental groups (including the AMG kindled group) in comparison to sham animals. In a second experiment we evaluated if the facilitation of male-like coital behavior induced by kindling was produced by a modification of the response of the vomeronasal system to sexually relevant cues. Ovariectomized females were stimulated until they reached kindling stage 2, then they were treated with 2.5 mg/kg of TP for 5 days. After animals were exposed for 90 min to clean sawdust or sawdust soiled by estrous females they were perfused. Fos was detected by immunocytochemistry along the vomeronasal pathway. No differences were found in Fos responses between sham and MPOA kindled females. The facilitation of masculine sexual behavior observed in AMG kindled females may be a consequence of the propagation of the AD to other brain regions involved in the expression of masculine sexual behavior. We propose that masculine sexual behavior is facilitated in MPOA kindled female rats by local neural changes produced by this kind of stimulation without modifying the response of the vomeronasal system to sexually relevant cues. PMID:12644278

  5. Blood risk factor metabolites associated with heart disease and myocardial fatty acids in copper-deficient male and female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, M.; Lewis, C.; Beal, T. (Georgetown Univ. Medical School, WA (USA)); Berlin, E.; Kliman, P.G.; Peters, R.C. (Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Intact and castrated males and intact and ovariectomized female rats were fed a copper-deficient diet in order to establish whether the protection provided in females against cardiovascular pathology and mortality is due to endogenous sex hormones, and different levels of blood lipids and/or myocardial fatty acids. Seventy-three male and female rats were assigned to a copper-deficient diet (0.6 {mu}g of copper/g diet) containing 62% fructose for 8 weeks. Twelve of the male rats underwent castration and 12 of the females were ovariectomized. All animals exhibited high levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid, which were neither affected by the sex of the rat nor by the surgical treatment. The composition of fatty acids of the myocardium was similar in males and females. Except for those animals that were sacrificed by us, all other male rats died of heart pathology. In contrast, none of the female rats exhibited heart pathology and none died of the deficiency. It is suggested that heart pathology and mortality in copper deficiency are sex related and not due to high levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid or to differences in myocardial fatty acid composition.

  6. Visual spatial memory is enhanced in female rats (but inhibited in males) by dietary soy phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Trent D; West, Timothy W; Tian, Lilyan Y; Bu, Lihong H; Simmons, Daniel L; Setchell, Kenneth DR; Adlercreutz, Herman; Lephart, Edwin D

    2001-01-01

    Background In learning and memory tasks, requiring visual spatial memory (VSM), males exhibit superior performance to females (a difference attributed to the hormonal influence of estrogen). This study examined the influence of phytoestrogens (estrogen-like plant compounds) on VSM, utilizing radial arm-maze methods to examine varying aspects of memory. Additionally, brain phytoestrogen, calbindin (CALB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were determined. Results Female rats receiving lifelong exposure to a high-phytoestrogen containing diet (Phyto-600) acquired the maze faster than females fed a phytoestrogen-free diet (Phyto-free); in males the opposite diet effect was identified. In a separate experiment, at 80 days-of-age, animals fed the Phyto-600 diet lifelong either remained on the Phyto-600 or were changed to the Phyto-free diet until 120 days-of-age. Following the diet change Phyto-600 females outperformed females switched to the Phyto-free diet, while in males the opposite diet effect was identified. Furthermore, males fed the Phyto-600 diet had significantly higher phytoestrogen concentrations in a number of brain regions (frontal cortex, amygdala & cerebellum); in frontal cortex, expression of CALB (a neuroprotective calcium-binding protein) decreased while COX-2 (an inducible inflammatory factor prevalent in Alzheimer's disease) increased. Conclusions Results suggest that dietary phytoestrogens significantly sex-reversed the normal sexually dimorphic expression of VSM. Specifically, in tasks requiring the use of reference, but not working, memory, VSM was enhanced in females fed the Phyto-600 diet, whereas, in males VSM was inhibited by the same diet. These findings suggest that dietary soy derived phytoestrogens can influence learning and memory and alter the expression of proteins involved in neural protection and inflammation in rats. PMID:11801187

  7. Discrete Lesions Reveal Functional Heterogeneity of Suprachiasmatic Structures in Regulation of Gonadotropin Secretion in the Female Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley J. Wiegand; Ei Terasawa

    1982-01-01

    The present study examines the function of several cytologically distinct suprachiasmatic structures in the regulation of ovulation and positive feedback effects of estrogen and progesterone on gonadotropin release in the rat. Small (0.6–0.8 mm dia.) electrolytic lesions were placed at four loci along the rostrocaudal extent of the suprachiasmatic region in regularly cycling female rats. Anovulatory persistent estrus occurred only

  8. Differential effects of the aging process on the morphology of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus of male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dulce Madeira; Lu??s Ferreira-Silva; Carlos Ruela; Manuel M Paula-Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aging on the neuroanatomical sex dimorphisms of the rat hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN). Stereological methods were used to estimate the volume of the VMN and the total number and size of its neurons, including their dendritic trees, in males and females aged 6 and 24 months. No cell loss was detected in aged rats. However,

  9. The effect of alcohol on the bone growth spurt of rats at a time equivalent to adolescent females 

    E-print Network

    Chaffin, Catherine Lee

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of long-term alcohol consumption on the growth spurt in adolescent rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of three diets (alcohol, pair-fed or chow) for 3 months. ...

  10. Effect of Ovariectomy on External Urethral Sphincter Activity in Anesthetized Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chen-Li; de Groat, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The postmenopausal hypoestrogen condition is associated with various lower urinary tract dysfunctions, including frequency, urgency, stress urinary incontinence and recurrent urinary infection. We determined whether hypoestrogen induced lower urinary tract dysfunction after ovariectomy is also associated with an alteration in external urethral sphincter activity. Materials and Methods Bilateral ovariectomy was performed in female Sprague-Dawley® rats and sham operated rats served as controls. Transvesical cystometry and external urethral sphincter electromyogram activity were monitored 4, 6 and 12 weeks after sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy and at 6 weeks in bilaterally ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen. Results The micturition reflex was elicited in sham operated and bilaterally ovariectomized, urethane anesthetized animals. Post-void residual urine increased and voiding efficiency decreased in rats with 4 to 12 weeks of bilateral ovariectomy. The silent period of external urethral sphincter electromyogram activity was shortened significantly and progressively at increased times after bilateral ovariectomy. These effects were prevented by estradiol treatment. Conclusions As evidenced by shortening of the external urethral sphincter electromyogram silent period in ovariectomized rats, the disruption of coordination between the external urethral sphincter and the detrusor muscle could decrease urine outflow and in turn voiding efficiency. Estrogen replacement reverses these changes, suggesting that the central pathways responsible for detrusor-sphincter coordination are modulated by gonadal hormones. PMID:21600603

  11. Heart Rates of Male and Female Sprague–Dawley and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Housed Singly or in Groups

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Toni; Sharp, Jody; Lawson, David

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to confirm our previous reports that group housing lowered basal heart rate and various evoked heart-rate responses in Sprague–Dawley male and female rats and to extend these observations to spontaneously hypertensive rats. Heart rate data were collected by using radiotelemetry. Initially, group- and single-housed rats were evaluated in the same animal room at the same time. Under these conditions, group-housing did not decrease heart rate in undisturbed male and female rats of either strain compared with single-housed rats. Separate studies then were conducted to examine single-housed rats living in the room with only single-housed rats. When group-housed rats were compared with these single-housed rats, undisturbed heart rates were reduced significantly, confirming our previous reports for Sprague–Dawley rats. However, evoked heart rate responses to acute procedures were not reduced universally in group-housed rats compared with either condition of single housing. Responses to some procedures were reduced, but others were not affected or were significantly enhanced by group housing compared with one or both of the single-housing conditions. This difference may have been due, in part, to different sensory stimuli being evoked by the various procedures. In addition, the variables of sex and strain interacted with housing condition. Additional studies are needed to resolve the mechanisms by which evoked cardiovascular responses are affected by housing, sex, and strain. PMID:21439210

  12. Effects of isoflavone supplementation on the bone mineral density of growing female rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2008-01-01

    This study was focused on whether or not isoflavones affect the increase in bone mineral density of growing females. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (60 ± 5 g) were randomly assigned to two groups and provided control diets (control group) or isoflavone-supplemented diet (IF group, 57.8 mg isoflavones/100 g diet) for 9 weeks in growing female rats. Measurements of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC) on the experimental animals were executed in the 3rd, 6th, 9th weeks. In result, there was no significant difference in spine BMD between the isoflavones supplemented group and the control group. But, the IF group tended to have higher BMD than the control group in between 3 and 9 experimental weeks, and the striking difference could be shown in the 6th week of feeding. In case of femur BMD, the effects of added isoflavones appeared in the 6th week of feeding, and it became intensified in the 9th week of feeding to the extent that the BMD in the IF group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, isoflavone supplementation increased spine BMD per weight in the 6th week of feeding, and affected the increase of femur BMD in the 9th week. The result of the experiment implies that it affects positively the formation of spine and femur BMD of growing female rats. The study also suggests that the effects of isoflavone on the pattern of BMD formation might differ from the parts of bones. PMID:20126368

  13. Male and female rats express similar blood pressure responses to "push-pull" gravitational stress.

    PubMed

    Hakeman, Amy L; Sheriff, Don D

    2002-12-01

    Brief exposure to -G(z) ("push") reduces eye-level blood pressure (elbp) during subsequent exposure to +G(z) ("pull"). This is called the "push-pull effect." To evaluate the influence of gender and the axis of rotation (pitch vs. roll) on the push-pull effect, 10 isoflurane-anesthetized male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats were restrained supine on a heated tilt board. Rats were subjected to two G profiles: a control profile consisting of rotation from 0 G(z) to 90 degrees head-up tilt (+1 G(z)) for 10 s and a push-pull profile consisting of rotation from 0 G(z) to 90 degrees head-down tilt (-1 G(z)) for 2 s immediately preceding 10 s of +1 G(z) stress. A total of 16 tilts consisting of equal numbers of control and push-pull trials and equal numbers of pitch and roll rotations were imposed by using a counterbalanced design. Gender exerted a significant effect on baseline (0 G(z)) ELBP (pressure was approximately 4 mmHg higher in females). In males and females, ELBP rose to a similar extent ( approximately 8 mmHg) during push, fell to a similar extent (approximately 18 mmHg) during control +G(z) stress, and fell to a similar extent (approximately 22 mmHg) during push-pull +G(z) stress. Altering the axis of rotation between the x-axis (roll) and the y-axis (pitch) did not influence the results. Thus males and females exhibit a push-pull effect; however, gender and axis of rotation do not appear to influence the push-pull effect in anesthetized rats subjected to tilting. PMID:12433935

  14. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Sensitivity to Mu, Kappa, and Mixed-Action Opioids in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Cole, Kathryn T.; Gergans, Samantha R.; Iordanou, Jordan C.; Lyle, Megan A.; Schmidt, Karl T.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies report that environmental enrichment enhances sensitivity to opioid receptor agonists in male rats. Very few studies have examined the effects of enrichment in female rats, and thus it is not clear whether females are similarly sensitive to these effects. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment on sensitivity to representative mu, kappa, and mixed-action opioids in female rats. Following a protocol established in males, females were obtained at weaning and randomly assigned to two groups immediately upon arrival: isolated rats were housed individually with no visual or tactile contact with other rats; enriched rats were housed in groups of four in large cages and given various novel objects on a regular basis. After 6 weeks under these conditions, the antinociceptive effects of mu (morphine, levorphanol), kappa (spiradoline, U69,593), and mixed-action (buprenorphine, butorphanol) opioids were examined in a warm-water, tail-withdrawal procedure. All the opioids examined produced dose-dependent increases in antinociception; however, no differences in opioid sensitivity were observed between the two groups. To determine whether these findings were consistent across behavioral endpoints, the antidiuretic effects of representative mu opioids, and the diuretic effects of representative kappa opioids, were examined in female rats reared under isolated or enriched conditions for 10 weeks. Similar to that seen in the antinociceptive experiment, no significant differences in opioid sensitivity were observed between groups. These data indicate that environmental enrichment does not alter sensitivity to the effects of opioid receptor agonists in female rats, and suggest that females may respond differently to environmental enrichment than males. PMID:18456292

  15. Dietary glycotoxins affect scavenger receptor expression and the hormonal profile of female rats.

    PubMed

    Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Kandaraki, Eleni; Piperi, Christina; Livadas, Sarantis; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Koutsilieris, Michael; Papalois, Apostolos; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2013-09-01

    The levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased under conditions of impaired glucose metabolism and/or oxidative stress, promoting insulin resistance and other endocrine abnormalities. AGEs play a major role in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, polycystic ovary syndrome and Alzheimer's disease, contributing to progressive ageing. Receptor-based clearance of AGEs by the receptor for AGE (RAGE) and/or the macrophage scavenger receptor A (SR-A) is considered as a main factor for the regulation of the concentration of AGEs under these conditions. This study aimed to investigate the expression of RAGE (AGER) and SR-A (MSR1) under high/low-dietary AGE conditions in vivo and their potential contribution to the metabolic and sex hormonal profile of female rats. Female Wistar rats were fed a low-AGE or high-AGE diet for 3 months. Serum samples were collected at baseline and at the completion of the 3-month period for the measurements of metabolic and hormonal parameters. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for the determination of the expression of RAGE and SR-A. The high-AGE diet-fed rats exhibited increased glucose, insulin and testosterone levels as well as decreased oestradiol and progesterone levels compared with the low-AGE diet-fed ones, thus indicating a metabolic and hormonal dysregulation attributed to high-AGE dietary exposure. The expression of RAGE was significantly down-regulated in the PBMCs of the high-AGE diet-fed rats (P=0.041), and it was correlated negatively with insulin and testosterone levels and positively with progesterone levels. The expression of SR-A was also decreased in the high-AGE diet-fed rats to marginal significance. Decreased monocytic expression of scavenger receptors such as RAGE and SR-A may result in a higher deposition of AGEs in peripheral endocrine tissues, thus promoting endocrine-related abnormalities and diseases. PMID:23823020

  16. Helix stabilization in the C-terminal peptide of chicken riboflavin carrier protein enhances immunogenicity and prolongs contraceptive potential as an epitope-based vaccine in female rats.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S; Karande, A A; Adiga, P R

    2001-09-14

    Earlier investigations have shown that (a) antibodies against a carrier-coupled 20-residue synthetic peptide (C-20), (200)HACQKKLLKFEALQQEEGEE(219), corresponding to the C-terminal partially helical sequence of chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP; 219 AA) curtail pregnancy in mammals and (b) helix stabilization by introducing appropriately spaced salt bridges in the flanking sequences of its B-cell epitopic structure enhances RCP antigenicity to peptide antibodies. Among such engineered C-20 analogs, HE-20 (HAEQKKLLKFEALEQEKGKE) exhibited maximum helical propensity. Since C-20 per se, i.e., without carrier conjugation, elicits RCP-reactive neutralizing antibodies in rodents, we mapped its T-cell epitope which overlaps its B-cell epitope, both of which remain unmodified in HE-20. Comparative evaluation of immunogenicity of the two epitope-based peptide vaccines showed that HE-20 was far superior to C-20 in generating RCP-reactive antibodies in terms of both affinity and titer. With regard to bioefficacy, passive immunoneutralization of RCP in pregnant rats by administering purified IgG from either of the antipeptide sera terminated pregnancy. Similarly, active immunization of fertile female rats with the individual peptide analogs curtailed pregnancy. However, HE-20 was more efficient in eliciting higher affinity, longer-lasting, RCP-crossreactive antibodies with consequently more prolonged immunocontraceptive efficacy. PMID:11549280

  17. Initiation and maintenance of oral ethanol self-administration in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Neill, J C; Domeney, A M; Costall, B

    1994-01-01

    Group-housed female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer 5% ethanol (v/v) in a large self-administration chamber (100 x 40 x 40 cm) following three different initiation methods. The procedures were 1) an ethanol injection procedure, 2) a sucrose substitution procedure, and 3) a prandial drinking technique. Only the prandial drinking method served to maintain responding for ethanol in the absence of water deprivation or sweetening of the alcohol solution. Rats trained using this technique showed a large preference for 5% ethanol over water and a significant increase in locomotor activity while responding for 5% ethanol but not while responding for water. When the concentration of ethanol was increased from 1% to 32%, the amount of ethanol ingested increased up to a maximum of 1.233 +/- 0.3 g/kg of 32% ethanol, and response rates and number of ethanol deliveries followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Appreciable blood ethanol levels were detected immediately following self-administration of 8% ethanol. These results show that, in female Sprague-Dawley rats under the experimental conditions described, the prandial drinking technique was the most effective in inducing stable oral ethanol self-administration and suggest that under these conditions and in these subjects ethanol was acting as a positive reinforcer. PMID:8060521

  18. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  19. Haloperidol treatments increased macrophage activity in male and female rats: influence of corticosterone and prolactin serum levels.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, G A; Dorce, V A C; Palermo-Neto, J

    2005-05-01

    Haloperidol is a receptor D2 antagonist frequently used in the treatment of schizophrenic patients. Haloperidol increased prolactin release from anterior pituitary gland, and prolactin modulates immune system activity. Groups of six male and female rats received an acute 2 mg/kg haloperidol treatment (E1), or a long-term (E2) haloperidol treatments (2 mg/kg/day for 21 days); control rats were treated similarly, but with control solution (groups C1 and C2, respectively). In this work long-term haloperidol treatment (E2) increased macrophage spreading, phagocytosis and NO release in male and female rats. However, acute haloperidol treatment (E1) did not change macrophage activity. Corticosterone and prolactin serum levels were increased after acute (E1) and long-term (E2) haloperidol treatments in male and female rats, being this increment higher in female. Macrophage of male and female rats presented the same pattern of alterations after acute and long-term haloperidol treatments. Haloperidol-induced macrophage activation was discussed in the light of a possible indirect effect through prolactin increments in rats, or, alternatively, as a consequence of a direct action of macrophage dopamine receptor. PMID:15820415

  20. The impact of social stress during adolescence or adulthood and coping strategy on cognitive function of female rats.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-06-01

    The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task. PMID:25746514

  1. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Prüller, Florian; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Ainödhofer, Herwig; Pailer, Sabine; Kieslinger, Petra; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Cvirn, Gerhard; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30) and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased-and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased-ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition. PMID:26184174

  2. Comparison of the absorption efficiency of alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, Dietmar E; Yahia, Elhadi M; Velázquez, Francisco J Valdés

    2007-02-01

    Xanthophylls, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, have received increasing interest in recent years because of positive correlations between their consumption and the prevention of eye diseases. Numerous human intervention studies have been conducted with lutein to estimate the bioavailability from different formulations. The present study was designed to obtain basic data on the absorbance efficiency of the monohydroxylated counterparts of lutein and zeaxanthin: alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin. A corn-oil-based diet comprising beta-cryptoxanthin from papaya purée and alpha-cryptoxanthin from green carrot leaves was fed to five female Wistar rats for 8 consecutive days at a rate of 17.3 nmol/d and 9.2 nmol/d, respectively. The identity of the xanthophylls in the supplement was ascertained by LC-(APCI)MS analyses, and xanthophylls present in liver and plasma samples were determined by HPLC/diode array detector (DAD). The beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations of rat livers in the treatment group were statistically distinguishable (P < 0.01) from those present in the livers of the control group that were fed a basic diet. Alpha-cryptoxanthin, the second xanthophyll present in the supplement, was not found in rat livers in the treatment group. Plasma samples were free of xanthophylls. This is the first report proving that beta-cryptoxanthin has a higher absorption efficiency than alpha-cryptoxanthin in rats, at least from a minimally processed oil-based xanthophyll supplement. PMID:17298702

  3. 17?-Estradiol Attenuates Poststroke Depression and Increases Neurogenesis in Female Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan; Su, Qiaoer; Shao, Bei; Cheng, Jianhua; Wang, Hong; Wang, Liuqing; Lin, Zhenzhen; Ruan, Linhui; ZhuGe, Qichuan; Jin, Kunlin

    2013-01-01

    Studies have linked neurogenesis to the beneficial actions of specific antidepressants. However, whether 17?-estradiol (E2), an antidepressant, can ameliorate poststroke depression (PSD) and whether E2-mediated improvement of PSD is associated with neurogenesis are largely unexplored. In the present study, we found that depressive-like behaviors were observed at the first week after focal ischemic stroke in female ovariectomized (OVX) rats, as measured by sucrose preference and open field test, suggesting that focal cerebral ischemia could induce PSD. Three weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), rats were treated with E2 for consecutive 14 days. We found that E2-treated rats had significantly improving ischemia-induced depression-like behaviors in the forced-swimming test and sucrose preference test, compared to vehicle-treated group. In addition, we also found that BrdU- and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) were significantly increased in ischemic rats after E2 treatment, compared to vehicle-treated group. Our data suggest that focal cerebral ischemia can induce PSD, and E2 can ameliorate PSD. In addition, newborn neurons in the hippocampus may play an important role in E2-mediated antidepressant like effect after ischemic stroke. PMID:24307996

  4. Micro-computed tomography evaluation and pathological analyses of female rats with collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Hee; Kang, Jin Seok

    2015-06-01

    Imaging techniques have been introduced to assess the efficacy and toxicity of developing pharmaceuticals. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and to compare the results with data from conventional pathological examination. Arthritis was induced by collagen in 24 female Wistar rats. Micro-CT and pathological analyses were performed to assess arthritis progression. Micro-CT analysis showed marked joint destruction occurring in a time-dependent manner following collagen administration. Bone volume was significantly decreased in the tibia at weeks 3 and 4 compared to week 0 (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, percent bone volume was significantly reduced in the tibia at week 4 compared to week 0 (p < 0.05). In contrast, bone surface/bone volume and trabecular separation were significantly increased in the tibia of the animals at week 4 compared to week 0 (p < 0.05). Severe joint destruction with extensive inflammation, erosion of cartilage and bone, and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the knee joints of the collagen-treated rats. Taken together, micro-CT made it possible to quantify CIA lesions and should be performed with pathological examination in rats. PMID:25643800

  5. Micro-computed tomography evaluation and pathological analyses of female rats with collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    Imaging techniques have been introduced to assess the efficacy and toxicity of developing pharmaceuticals. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and to compare the results with data from conventional pathological examination. Arthritis was induced by collagen in 24 female Wistar rats. Micro-CT and pathological analyses were performed to assess arthritis progression. Micro-CT analysis showed marked joint destruction occurring in a time-dependent manner following collagen administration. Bone volume was significantly decreased in the tibia at weeks 3 and 4 compared to week 0 (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, percent bone volume was significantly reduced in the tibia at week 4 compared to week 0 (p < 0.05). In contrast, bone surface/bone volume and trabecular separation were significantly increased in the tibia of the animals at week 4 compared to week 0 (p < 0.05). Severe joint destruction with extensive inflammation, erosion of cartilage and bone, and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the knee joints of the collagen-treated rats. Taken together, micro-CT made it possible to quantify CIA lesions and should be performed with pathological examination in rats. PMID:25643800

  6. Carcinogenic effect of N-ethyl- and N-amyl-N-nitrosourethans on female Donryu rats.

    PubMed

    Hirose, M; Maekawa, A; Kamiya, S; Odashima, S

    1979-10-01

    Carcinogenic effect of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourethan (ENUR) and N-amyl-N-nitrosourethan (ANUR) was examined by continuous oral administration or topical application to female Donruy rats. Oral administration of 100 ppm solution of ENUR induced 100% of tumors in the forestomach, 46%, 80%, 71%, and 51% in the oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus, duodenum, and liver, respectively. On the other hand, the incidence of forestomach tumors was 78%, that of oral cavity and pharynx, and esophagus was 93% and 98%, respectively, in rats given 400 ppm suspension of ANUR. In addition, topical application of ENUR induced tumors of the skin as well as tumors of the forestomach and liver. PMID:520756

  7. Estrous cycle affects the neurochemical and neurobehavioral profile of carvacrol-treated female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Trabace, L., E-mail: trabace@unifg.it [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Foggia, V. le Luigi Pinto 1, 71121 Foggia (Italy); Zotti, M.; Morgese, M.G.; Tucci, P.; Colaianna, M.; Schiavone, S. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Foggia, V. le Luigi Pinto 1, 71121 Foggia (Italy); Avato, P. [Department of Pharmaco-Chemistry, University of Bari, 'A. Moro', Via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari (Italy); Cuomo, V. [Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, Vittorio Erspamer, University of Rome 'La Sapienza', P. le Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome (Italy)

    2011-09-01

    Carvacrol is the major constituent of essential oils from aromatic plants. It showed antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant properties. Although it was approved for food use and included in the chemical flavorings list, no indication on its safety has been estimated. Since the use of plant extracts is relatively high among women, aim of this study was to evaluate carvacrol effects on female physiology and endocrine profiles by using female rats in proestrus and diestrus phases. Serotonin and metabolite tissue content in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, after carvacrol administration (0.15 and 0.45 g/kg p.o.), was measured. Drug effects in behavioral tests for alterations in motor activity, depression, anxiety-related behaviors and endocrine alterations were also investigated. While in proestrus carvacrol reduced serotonin and metabolite levels in both brain areas, no effects were observed in diestrus phase. Only in proestrus phase, carvacrol induced a depressive-like behavior in forced swimming test, without accompanying changes in ambulation. The improvement of performance in FST after subchronic treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) suggested a specific involvement of serotonergic system. No differences were found across the groups with regard to self-grooming behavior. Moreover, in proestrus phase, carvacrol reduced only estradiol levels without binding hypothalamic estradiol receptors. Our study showed an estrous-stage specific effect of carvacrol on depressive behaviors and endocrine parameters, involving serotonergic system. Given the wide carvacrol use not only as feed additive, but also as cosmetic essence and herbal remedy, our results suggest that an accurate investigation on the effects of its chronic exposure is warranted. - Highlights: > Carvacrol induced a depressive-like phenotype in rats, depending on ovarian cyclicity. > Carvacrol selectively reduced serotonin content in female rats in proestrus phase. > Carvacrol reduced serotonin levels in areas belonging to the emotional circuit. > Carvacrol reduced plasma estradiol levels only during the proestrus phase.

  8. A new slow releasing, H?S generating compound, GYY4137 relaxes spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractions of human and rat pregnant myometrium.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hayley; Wray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Better tocolytics are required to help prevent preterm labour. The gaseotransmitter Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) has been shown to reduce myometrial contractility and thus is of potential interest. However previous studies used NaHS, which is toxic and releases H(2)S as a non-physiological bolus and thus alternative H(2)S donors are sought. GYY4137 has been developed to slowly release H(2)S and hence better reflect endogenous physiological release. We have examined its effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility and compared them to NaHS, in human and rat myometrium, throughout gestation. The effects on contractility in response to GYY4137 (1 nM-1 mM) and NaHS (1 mM) were examined on myometrial strips from, biopsies of women undergoing elective caesarean section or hysterectomy, and from non-pregnant, 14, 18, 22 day (term) gestation or labouring rats. In pregnant rat and human myometrium dose-dependent and significant decreases in spontaneous contractions were seen with increasing concentrations of GYY4137, which also reduced underlying Ca transients. GYY4137 and NaHS significantly reduced oxytocin-stimulated and high-K depolarised contractions as well as spontaneous activity. Their inhibitory effects increased as gestation advanced, but were abruptly reversed in labour. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, abolished the inhibitory effect of GYY4137. These data suggest (i) H(2)S contributes to uterine quiescence from mid-gestation until labor, (ii) that H(2)S affects L-type calcium channels and K(ATP) channels reducing Ca entry and thereby myometrial contractions, (iii) add to the evidence that H(2)S plays a physiological role in relaxing myometrium, and thus (iv) H(2)S is an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of human myometrial contractility. PMID:23029460

  9. Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27. 12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-Woodman, P.D.; Hadley, J.A.; Richardson, L.; Bright, D.; Porter, D.

    1989-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

  10. Rapid and selective induction of erythroleukemia in female Donryu rats by continuous oral administration of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Ogui, T; Nakadate, M; Odashima, S

    1976-09-01

    Three groups of female Donryu rats were given continuously 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea, 400, 200, or 100 mg/liter, in their drinking water. Leukemias developed in 94 of 104 (92%) rats surviving more than 6 experimental weeks. Of the leukemias, the erythroleukemias were induced most frequently, rapidly, and selectively. Other types of leukemias were found in a few rats of the high-dose group and, in some cases, in rats of the low-dose group. Tumors were also induced in the digestive tract, mammary glands, ear duct, and other organs, but their incidences were lower than 24%. PMID:1067898

  11. Isoform-specific regulation of cytochrome P450 expression and activity by estradiol in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Su-Young; Fischer, Liam; Yang, Kyunghee; Chung, Hyejin; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2011-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) is the major endogenous estrogen, and its plasma concentration increases up to 100-fold during pregnancy in humans. Accumulating evidence suggests that an elevated level of E2 may influence hepatic drug metabolism, potentially being responsible for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy. We characterized effects of E2 on expression and activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) in an in vivo system using rats. To this end, female rats were treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) or known CYP inducers. Liver tissues were obtained after 5 days of treatment, and mRNA and protein expression levels as well as activities of major hepatic CYPs were determined by qRT-PCR, immunoblot, and microsomal assay. E2 increased CYP1A2 expression and activity to a smaller extent than ?-naphthoflavone did. E2 also enhanced CYP2C expression (CYP2C6, CYP2C7, and CYP2C12) to levels comparable to those observed by phenobarbital. E2 upregulated CYP3A9 expression, while expression of CYP3A1 was downregulated. Expression of hepatic nuclear receptors (PXR and CAR) and the obligate redox partner of CYPs (POR) was downregulated in EB-treated rats, suggesting their potential involvement in regulation of CYP expression and activity by E2. In summary, in female rats E2 regulates expression of hepatic CYPs in a CYP isoform-specific manner although the directional changes are different from those clinically observed during human pregnancy. Further study is warranted to determine whether the changes in drug metabolism during human pregnancy are attributable to involvement of hormones other than E2. PMID:21219883

  12. Prenatal Restraint Stress Generates Two Distinct Behavioral and Neurochemical Profiles in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Casolini, Paola; Cinque, Carlo; Alemŕ, Giovanni Sebastiano; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Chiodi, Valentina; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Gradini, Roberto; Catalani, Assia; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS) in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has been hypothesized for more than 30 years, few studies in this long period have directly addressed the issue. Our group has uncovered a pronounced gender difference in the effects of PRS (stress delivered to the mothers 3 times per day during the last 10 days of pregnancy) on anxiety, spatial learning, and a series of neurobiological parameters classically associated with hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Adult male rats subjected to PRS (“PRS rats”) showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM), a reduction in the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus, a reduction in the activity of mGlu1/5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the ventral hippocampus, and an increase in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF in the hippocampus. In contrast, female PRS rats displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM, improved learning in the Morris water maze, an increase in the activity of mGlu1/5 receptors in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus, and no changes in hippocampal neurogenesis or BDNF levels. The direction of the changes in neurogenesis, BDNF levels and mGlu receptor function in PRS animals was not consistent with the behavioral changes, suggesting that PRS perturbs the interdependency of these particular parameters and their relation to hippocampus-dependent behavior. Our data suggest that the epigenetic changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early environmental challenges are critically sex-dependent and that the behavioral outcome may diverge in males and females. PMID:18478112

  13. The effects of iridium on the renal function of female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Alimonti, Alessandro; Pino, Anna; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Calabrese, Edward J

    2011-10-01

    Despite the widespread use of iridium (Ir) in catalytic converters for improved capacity for reducing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, there is a lack of studies that have assessed possible toxicological hazards of exposure to Ir. The present investigation indicates that female Wistar rats exposed to Ir in the drinking water for 90 days displayed renal toxicity based on the elevated urinary retinol binding protein (RBP) and albumin. The RBP was more sensitive to albumin, showing significant increases at 0.01 mg/L. PMID:21764451

  14. Scopolamine and methylscopolamine differentially affect fixed-consecutive-number performance of male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    van Haaren, F; van Hest, A; van Hattum, T

    1989-06-01

    Male and female Wistar rats were trained on a fixed-consecutive-number schedule in which a response on a food lever was followed by the presentation of reinforcement when at least three, but not more than seven responses had been completed on a work lever. Subjects were treated with different doses of the centrally acting cholinergic antagonist scopolamine hydrobromide or the more peripherally active cholinergic antagonist scopolamine methylbromide (0.08, 0.16 or 0.32 mg/ml/kg) once behavior had stabilized. Scopolamine hydrobromide and scopolamine methylbromide dose-dependently decreased response rates in males and females. Scopolamine methylbromide decreased response rates more than equivalent doses of scopolamine hydrobromide and the rate-suppressant effects of both drugs were more marked in males than in females. Scopolamine hydrobromide dose-dependently decreased response accuracy, but differences between males and females were not observed. Response accuracy also decreased after scopolamine methylbromide, but did not vary as a function of the dose of the drug. The decrease in response accuracy induced by both drugs was attributable to an increase in the percentage of trials with a premature switch from the work lever to the food lever. Both scopolamine hydrobromide and scopolamine methylbromide dose-dependently increased the number of premature switches. Differences between males and females were not observed. Administration of scopolamine hydrobromide and scopolamine methylbromide also decreased the number of obtained reinforcers in a dose-dependent manner. Females obtained significantly fewer reinforcers than males, while scopolamine methylbromide affected the number of obtained reinforcers to a larger extent than scopolamine hydrobromide. PMID:2813474

  15. STRAIN COMPARISON IN PREGNANT RATS OF ENDOCRINE RESPONSE TO BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: A DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a trihalomethane, is a by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. In an epidemiological study, consumption of drinking water with high levels of BDCM was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in pregnant women (Waller et al....

  16. Atrial natriuretic peptide and aldosterone secretions, and atrial natriuretic peptide-binding sites in kidneys and adrenal glands of pregnant and fetal rats in late gestation in response to a high-salt diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Deloof; C De Seze; V Montel; A Chatelain

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at determining, in the term pregnant rat, whether maternal and fetal plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations were modified in response to an oral sodium load, and to investigate whether any changes in plasma concentrations were able to modify the density and affinity of the different ANP-binding site subtypes in maternal and fetal kidneys and adrenal

  17. Central estrogenic pathways protect against the depressant action of acute nicotine on reflex tachycardia in female rats

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M., E-mail: mahelm@hotmail.com; Fouda, Mohamed A.; El-gowilly, Sahar M.; Saad, Evan I.

    2012-02-01

    We have previously shown that acute exposure of male rats to nicotine preferentially attenuates baroreceptor-mediated control of reflex tachycardia in contrast to no effect on reflex bradycardia. Here, we investigated whether female rats are as sensitive as their male counterparts to the baroreflex depressant effect of nicotine and whether this interaction is modulated by estrogen. Baroreflex curves relating reflex chronotropic responses evoked by i.v. doses (1–16 ?g/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP), were constructed in conscious freely moving proestrus, ovariectomized (OVX), and estrogen (50 ?g/kg/day s.c., 5 days)-replaced OVX (OVXE{sub 2}) rats. Slopes of the curves were taken as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS{sub PE} and BRS{sub SNP}). Nicotine (100 ?g/kg i.v.) reduced BRS{sub SNP} in OVX rats but not in proestrus or OVXE{sub 2} rats. The attenuation of reflex tachycardia by nicotine was also evident in diestrus rats, which exhibited plasma estrogen levels similar to those of OVX rats. BRS{sub PE} was not affected by nicotine in all rat preparations. Experiments were then extended to determine whether central estrogenic receptors modulate the nicotine–BRS{sub SNP} interaction. Intracisteral (i.c.) treatment of OVX rats with estrogen sulfate (0.2 ?g/rat) abolished the BRS{sub SNP} attenuating effect of i.v. nicotine. This protective effect of estrogen disappeared when OVX rats were pretreated with i.c. ICI 182,780 (50 ?g/rat, selective estrogen receptor antagonist). Together, these findings suggest that central neural pools of estrogen receptors underlie the protection offered by E{sub 2} against nicotine-induced baroreceptor dysfunction in female rats. -- Highlights: ? Estrogen protects against the depressant effect of nicotine on reflex tachycardia. ? The baroreflex response and estrogen status affect the nicotine–BRS interaction. ? The protection offered by estrogen is mediated via central estrogen receptors.

  18. Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Increases Omega-3 Index in Aged Male and Female Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ba?ová, Barbara; Se?, Peter; ?ertik, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether n-3 PUFA intake affects n-3 and n-6 FA levels in plasma and red blood cells as well as omega-3 index in old male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and healthy rats. Plasma linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased due to n-3 PUFA intake in SHR and healthy rats. Comparing to healthy rats the levels of PUFA in red blood cells of SHR were lower in males and higher in females with exception of arachidonic acid, which was high in males and low in females. Feeding of rats with n-3 PUFA resulted in increase of red blood cells levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid in a sex- and strain-dependent manner. Moreover, n-3 PUFA intake decreased arachidonic acid in healthy female rats but increased it in SHR and did not affect it in males. Omega-3 index was lower in SHR comparing to healthy rats and it increased due to the consumption of n-3 PUFA. Results point out sex- and strain-related differences in red blood cells levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in basal conditions as well as in response to n-3 PUFA intake. PMID:24967252

  19. Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Increases Omega-3 Index in Aged Male and Female Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Ba?ová, Barbara; Se?, Peter; Certik, Milan; Tribulova, Narcis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether n-3 PUFA intake affects n-3 and n-6 FA levels in plasma and red blood cells as well as omega-3 index in old male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and healthy rats. Plasma linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased due to n-3 PUFA intake in SHR and healthy rats. Comparing to healthy rats the levels of PUFA in red blood cells of SHR were lower in males and higher in females with exception of arachidonic acid, which was high in males and low in females. Feeding of rats with n-3 PUFA resulted in increase of red blood cells levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid in a sex- and strain-dependent manner. Moreover, n-3 PUFA intake decreased arachidonic acid in healthy female rats but increased it in SHR and did not affect it in males. Omega-3 index was lower in SHR comparing to healthy rats and it increased due to the consumption of n-3 PUFA. Results point out sex- and strain-related differences in red blood cells levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in basal conditions as well as in response to n-3 PUFA intake. PMID:24967252

  20. Cholesterol and Perhaps Estradiol Protect Against Corticosterone-Induced Hippocampal CA3 Dendritic Retraction in Gonadectomized Female and Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, J. Bryce; McLaughlin, Katie J.; Hamilton, Gillian F.; Baran, Sarah E.; Campbell, Alyssa N.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress or glucocorticoid exposure simplifies hippocampal CA3 apical dendritic arbors in male rats. In contrast to males, chronic stress either reduces CA3 basal branching or exerts no observable morphological effects in gonadally intact female rats. Under conditions that females display stress-induced CA3 dendritic retraction, such as following ovariectomy, chronic exposure to 17?-estradiol or cholesterol can negate these changes. Whether glucocorticoids produce CA3 dendritic retraction in ovariectomized females and whether neuroprotection from 17?-estradiol or cholesterol is sex-specific remains unknown. The current study examined the effects of chronic glucocorticoid exposure, in conjunction with 17?-estradiol or cholesterol administration, on hippocampal CA3 dendritic complexity. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were gonadectomized and implanted with 25% 17?-estradiol in cholesterol, 100% cholesterol, or blank Silastic capsules. Rats were then assigned to either a 21-day corticosterone (CORT) drink (400µg/mL CORT, 2.4% ethanol in tap water) or tap water (Tap, 2.4% ethanol in tap water) treatment. Brains were processed for Golgi staining, and hippocampal CA3 dendritic architecture was quantified. Results showed 21-day CORT administration reduced hippocampal CA3 apical dendritic branch points, CA3 apical dendritic length, body weight gain, and adrenal weights compared to male and female control counterparts. Furthermore, male and female rats implanted with Silastic capsules containing cholesterol or 25% 17?-estradiol in cholesterol were protected from CORT-induced CA3 apical dendritic branch reduction. No effects were observed in the CA3 basal dendritic arbors. The present results demonstrate that CORT produces hippocampal CA3 dendritic retraction in gonadectomized male and female rats and that cholesterol and 25% 17?-estradiol in cholesterol prevent this dendritic simplification. PMID:23618757

  1. Renoprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Rheum ribes root in diabetic female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hamzeh, Shokri; Farokhi, Farah; Heydari, Reza; Manaffar, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Medical plants, as rich sources of natural antioxidants with antidiabetic effects, are used worldwide to diminish a variety of symptoms and many diseases. R. ribes L., which belongs to the family of polygonaceae, can provide symptomatic relief and assist in the prevention of the secondary complications of the diabetes. Material and Methods: 36 female adult rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 6. Normal Control groups treated with normal saline. Positive control groups treated with hydroalcohlic extract of R. ribes root (150 mg/kg) daily by gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Diabetes was inducedby injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. Two diabetic groups were treated with different doses of R. ribes root extract. The sixth diabetic groups were treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg). At the end of 28 days, blood samples were collected and their kidney tissues were processed for light microscopy. Results: The results showed that hydro-alcoholic extract of R. ribes decreased the level of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea and creatinine in diabetic rats (p<0.05) in compared with diabetic rats, while the level of HDL increased at the same group (p<0.05). Histopathological changes of kidney samples were comparable with respective control. In diabetic rats, kidney sections showed atrophy of glomerular capillaries with increased Bowman's space and acute tubular necrosis. The groups that were treated with R. ribes root were improved towards normal condition. Conclusion: It is interesting to note that hydroalcohlic extract of R. ribes root improves renal dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rats through controlling blood glucose and renal protective effects. PMID:25386403

  2. Perioperative Betamethasone Treatment Reduces Signs of Bladder Dysfunction in a Rat Model for Neurapraxia in Female Urogenital Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castiglione, Fabio; Bergamini, Alice; Bettiga, Arianna; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Benigni, Fabio; Strittmatter, Frank; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco; Hedlund, Petter

    2014-01-01

    Background Information on autonomic neurapraxia in female urogenital surgery is scarce, and a model to study it is not available. Objective To develop a model to study the impact of autonomic neurapraxia on bladder function in female rats, as well as to assess the effects of corticosteroid therapy on the recovery of bladder function in this model. Design, setting, and participants Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bilateral pelvic nerve crush (PNC) and perioperatively treated with betamethasone or vehicle. Bladder function and morphology of bladder tissue were evaluated and compared with sham-operated rats. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Western blot, immunohistochemistry, organ bath experiments, and cystometry. Results and limitations Sham-operated rats exhibited regular micturitions without nonvoiding contractions (NVCs). Crush of all nerve branches of the pelvic plexus or PNC resulted in overflow incontinence and/or NVCs. Betamethasone treatment improved recovery of regular micturitions (87.5% compared with 27% for vehicle; p < 0.05), reduced lowest bladder pressure (8 ± 2 cm H2O compared with 21 ± 5 cm H2O for vehicle; p < 0.05), and reduced the amplitude of NVCs but had no effect on NVC frequency in PNC rats. Compared with vehicle, betamethasone-treated PNC rats had less CD68 (a macrophage marker) in the pelvic plexus and bladder tissue. Isolated bladder from betamethasone-treated PNC rats exhibited better nerve-induced contractions, contained more cholinergic and sensory nerves, and expressed lower amounts of collagen III than bladder tissue from vehicle-treated rats. Conclusions PNC causes autonomic neurapraxia and functional and morphologic changes of isolated bladder tissue that can be recorded as bladder dysfunction during awake cystometry in female rats. Perioperative systemic betamethasone treatment reduced macrophage contents of the pelvic plexus and bladder, partially counteracted changes in the bladder tissue, and had protective effects on micturition function. PMID:22542670

  3. Effect of chronic infusion of olanzapine and clozapine on food intake and body weight gain in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, SuJean; DiSilvio, Briana; Unangst, JayLynn; Fernstrom, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Many antipsychotics cause weight gain in humans, but usually not in rats, when injected once or twice daily. Since blood antipsychotic half-lives are short in rats, compared to humans, chronic administration by constant infusion may be necessary to see consistent weight gain in rats. Male and female rats were implanted with minipumps for constant infusion of olanzapine (5 mg/kg/day), clozapine (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 11 days. Food intake and body weight were measured; blood drug levels were measured by HPLC. Olanzapine increased food intake and body weight in female, but not male rats. Serum olanzapine concentrations were 30-35 ng/ml. Clozapine had no effect on food intake or body weight in female or male rats. Serum clozapine concentrations were about 75 ng/ml. Single-dose pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a serum terminal half-life of 1.2-1.5 hr for each drug, with no sex differences. Despite the fact that olanzapine and clozapine promote weight gain in humans, these drugs appear to have minimal effects on body weight and food intake in rats, except for a modest effect of olanzapine in female rats, even though therapeutic levels of olanzapine are achieved in serum during chronic infusion. Hence, the rapid clearance of drug following single administration in previous studies cannot explain the weak or absent effects of antipsychotics on weight gain in this species. The rat thus appears to be an inadequate model of weight gain produced by some antipsychotics in humans. PMID:17822717

  4. Comparison of Female Fischer and Sprague-Dawley Rats in the Response to Ketanserin

    PubMed Central

    Miryala, Chandra Suma Johnson; Hiegel, Cindy; Uphouse, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist, ketanserin, on lordosis behavior were examined in hormonally primed, ovariectomized Fischer and Sprague-Dawley females. Rats were primed with 0.067 ?g/g body weight estradiol benzoate and 3.33 ?g/g body weight progesterone. After a pretest for sexual behavior, rats were injected with 0.416 to 10 mg/kg ketanserin. In both strains, lordosis behavior, lordosis quality, and proceptivity were significantly reduced by ketanserin. There was modest evidence of a strain difference with Sprague-Dawley females slightly more sensitive to ketanserin. In a second experiment, the effects of 10 mg/kg fluoxetine, 1 mg/kg ketanserin, and their combination were examined to determine if the two drugs would have additive effects on sexual behavior. There was no evidence that the drugs were additive in their effect and the strains did not differ in their response to the combined treatment. These findings are discussed in relation to prior evidence for strain differences in the sexual behavioral response to fluoxetine and to a receptor agonist acting preferentially at 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:24201045

  5. Effect of conazole fungicides on reproductive development in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Rockett, John C; Narotsky, Michael G; Thompson, Kary E; Thillainadarajah, Inthirany; Blystone, Chad R; Goetz, Amber K; Ren, Hongzu; Best, Deborah S; Murrell, Rachel N; Nichols, Harriette P; Schmid, Judith E; Wolf, Douglas C; Dix, David J

    2006-11-01

    Three triazole fungicides were evaluated for effects on female rat reproductive development. Rats were exposed via feed to propiconazole (P) (100, 500, or 2500 ppm), myclobutanil (M) (100, 500, or 2000 ppm), or triadimefon (T) (100, 500, or 1800 ppm) from gestation day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 98. Body weight (BW) and anogenital distance (AGD) at PND 0, age and BW at vaginal opening (VO), estrous cyclicity, and body and organ weight at necropsy were measured. BW at PND 0 was unaffected by treatment. AGD was increased by M2000. VO was delayed by M2000 and T1800. Estrous cyclicity was initially disrupted by P500, P2500 and T1800, but later normalized. At PND 99 there was a decrease in BW by T1800, an increase in liver weight by P2500 and T1800, and an increase in ovarian weight by M2000 and T1800. It is concluded that exposure to P, M and T adversely impacted female rodent reproductive development. PMID:16914289

  6. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Rat and Mouse Female Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Darlene; Alison, Roger; Bach, Ute; Colman, Karyn; Foley, George L.; Harleman, Johannes H.; Haworth, Richard; Herbert, Ronald; Heuser, Anke; Long, Gerald; Mirsky, Michael; Regan, Karen; Van Esch, Eric; Westwood, F. Russell; Vidal, Justin; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the female reproductive tract of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of some lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and aging lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. There is also a section on normal cyclical changes observed in the ovary, uterus, cervix and vagina to compare normal physiological changes with pathological lesions. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for female reproductive tract lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:25516636

  7. Maternal Programming of Reproductive Function and Behavior in the Female Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment can be used as a forecast for the environmental conditions in which offspring will develop to adulthood. In the rat, maternal behavior is transmitted to the next generation through epigenetic modifications such as methylation and histone acetylation, resulting in variations in estrogen receptor alpha expression. Natural variations in maternal care also influence the sexual strategy adult females will adopt later in life. Lower levels of maternal care are associated with early onset of puberty as well as increased motivation to mate and greater receptivity toward males during mating. Lower levels of maternal care are also correlated with greater activity of the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis, responsible for the expression of these behaviors. Contrary to the transition of maternal care, sexual behavior cannot simply be explained by maternal attention, since adoption studies changed the sexual phenotypes of offspring born to low caring mothers but not those from high caring dams. Indeed, mothers showing higher levels of licking/grooming have embryos that are exposed to high testosterone levels during development, and adoption studies suggest that this androgen exposure may protect their offspring from lower levels of maternal care. We propose that in the rat, maternal care and the in utero environment interact to influence the reproductive strategy female offspring display in adulthood and that this favors the species by allowing it to thrive under different environmental conditions. PMID:22203802

  8. Antifertility effect of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula in female rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R; Jain, G C

    1999-01-01

    Oral administration of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula to mated female rats from day 1-5 of pregnancy at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in 57.14% and 71.43% prevention of pregnancy, respectively, whereas 100% pregnancy inhibition was noted at 500 mg/kg bw. In the uterine bioassay test carried out in immature bilaterally ovariectomized female rats, aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula (100 mg/kg bw) increased the uterine wet weight (p<0.05) and luminal epithelial cell height (p<0.001) but did not induce premature opening of the vagina. This suggests a mild estrogenic activity of the extract. However, when the extract was administered conjointly with estradiol valerate (EDV, 0.1 mg/kg bw), it significantly (p<0.001) prevented the estrogen-induced uterotrophic effect, thus showing an antiestrogenic nature of the extract in the presence of a strong estrogen. PMID:11145371

  9. Effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum prolactin levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silitidil (25-200 mg/kg, per os), a standardized extract of Silybum marianum fruits (milk thistle), increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels in female rats. Galega (200 mg/kg, per os) given alone neither modified the basal levels of prolactin nor increased further serum prolactin levels when associated with Silitidil. Bromocriptine (1 mg/kg, per os) significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silitidil (200 mg/kg, per os). The results show that the extract of S. marianum fruits significantly increases prolactin levels in female rats; this effect is not potentiated by galega and seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:25230499

  10. Hypothalamic molecular changes underlying natural reproductive senescence in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Kermath, Bailey A; Riha, Penny D; Woller, Michael J; Wolfe, Andrew; Gore, Andrea C

    2014-09-01

    The role of the hypothalamus in female reproductive senescence is unclear. Here we identified novel molecular neuroendocrine changes during the natural progression from regular reproductive cycles to acyclicity in middle-aged female rats, comparable with the perimenopausal progression in women. Expression of 48 neuroendocrine genes was quantified within three hypothalamic regions: the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, the site of steroid positive feedback onto GnRH neurons; the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the site of negative feedback and pulsatile GnRH release; and the median eminence (ME), the site of GnRH secretion. Surprisingly, the majority of changes occurred in the ARC and ME, with few effects in anteroventral periventricular nucleus. The overall pattern was increased mRNA levels with chronological age and decreases with reproductive cycle status in middle-aged rats. Affected genes included transcription factors (Stat5b, Arnt, Ahr), sex steroid hormone receptors (Esr1, Esr2, Pgr, Ar), steroidogenic enzymes (Sts, Hsd17b8), growth factors (Igf1, Tgfa), and neuropeptides (Kiss1, Tac2, Gnrh1). Bionetwork analysis revealed region-specific correlations between genes and hormones. Immunohistochemical analyses of kisspeptin and estrogen receptor-? in the ARC demonstrated age-related decreases in kisspeptin cell numbers as well as kisspeptin-estrogen receptor-? dual-labeled cells. Taken together, these results identify unexpectedly strong roles for the ME and ARC during reproductive decline and highlight fundamental differences between middle-aged rats with regular cycles and all other groups. Our data provide evidence of decreased excitatory stimulation and altered hormone feedback with aging and suggest novel neuroendocrine pathways that warrant future study. Furthermore, these changes may impact other neuroendocrine systems that undergo functional declines with age. PMID:24914937

  11. Acute and chronic psychostimulant treatment modulates the diurnal rhythm activity pattern of WKY female adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cathleen G; Yang, Pamela B; Wilcox, Victor T; Burau, Keith D; Dafny, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    The psychostimulants considered the gold standard in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, one of the most common childhood disorders, are also finding their way into the hands of healthy young adults as brain augmentation to improve cognitive performance. The possible long-term effects of psychostimulant exposure in adolescence are considered controversial, and thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the chronic exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine affects the behavioral diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. The hypothesis of this study is that change in diurnal rhythm activity pattern is an indicator for the long-term effect of the treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups, control (N = 12) and experimental (N = 12), and kept in a 12:12-h light/dark cycle in an open-field cage. After 5-7 days of acclimation, 11 days of consecutive non-stop behavioral recordings began. On experimental day 1 (ED1), all groups were given an injection of saline. On ED2 to ED7, the experimental group was injected with 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine followed by 3 days of washout from ED8 to ED10, and amphetamine re-challenge on ED11 similar to ED2. The locomotor movements were counted by the computerized animal activity monitoring system, and the cosinor statistical test analysis was used to fit a 24-h curve of the control recording to the activity pattern after treatment. The horizontal activity, total distance, number of stereotypy, vertical activity, and stereotypical movements were analyzed to find out whether the diurnal rhythm activity patterns were altered. Data obtained using these locomotor indices of diurnal rhythm activity pattern suggest that amphetamine treatment significantly modulates the locomotor diurnal rhythm activity pattern of female WKY adolescent rats. PMID:24482155

  12. Rhabdomyosarcoma in the Abdominal Cavity of a 12-Month-Old Female Donryu Rat

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kaoru; Yoshida, Midori; Takahashi, Miwa; Cho, Young-Man; Takami, Shigeaki; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Neoplasms of skeletal muscle origin are very rare in the rat. Recently, we experienced a case of rhabdomyosarcoma as a white mass involving the junction of the esophagus and stomach in the abdominal cavity of a 12-month-old female Donryu rat. Histopathologically, the neoplastic cells composing the mass invasively spreaded from the lamina propia to the tunica serosa in the stomach as well as the esophagus. Although the neoplastic cells varied in appearance, pleomorphic atypical cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm were prominent. Some tumor cells were stained blue with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin. The nuclei of spindle-shaped neoplastic cells were arranged longitudinally like beads. Multinucleate giant cells and mitotic figures were also frequently observed. Immunohistochemically, these neoplastic cells were positive for desmin and myoglobin, whereas they were negative for alpha-smooth muscle actin. Taken together these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as a pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, probably derived from the muscle layer of the lower part of the esophagus. This is the first report of rhabdomyosarcoma in a Donryu rat. PMID:22271994

  13. Rhabdomyosarcoma in the abdominal cavity of a 12-month-old female donryu rat.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Yoshida, Midori; Takahashi, Miwa; Cho, Young-Man; Takami, Shigeaki; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2009-09-01

    Neoplasms of skeletal muscle origin are very rare in the rat. Recently, we experienced a case of rhabdomyosarcoma as a white mass involving the junction of the esophagus and stomach in the abdominal cavity of a 12-month-old female Donryu rat. Histopathologically, the neoplastic cells composing the mass invasively spreaded from the lamina propia to the tunica serosa in the stomach as well as the esophagus. Although the neoplastic cells varied in appearance, pleomorphic atypical cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm were prominent. Some tumor cells were stained blue with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin. The nuclei of spindle-shaped neoplastic cells were arranged longitudinally like beads. Multinucleate giant cells and mitotic figures were also frequently observed. Immunohistochemically, these neoplastic cells were positive for desmin and myoglobin, whereas they were negative for alpha-smooth muscle actin. Taken together these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as a pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, probably derived from the muscle layer of the lower part of the esophagus. This is the first report of rhabdomyosarcoma in a Donryu rat. PMID:22271994

  14. A role for tachykinins in female mouse and rat reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Pintado, C Oscar; Pinto, Francisco M; Pennefather, Jocelyn N; Hidalgo, Agustin; Baamonde, Ana; Sanchez, Teresa; Candenas, M Luz

    2003-09-01

    Tachykinins may be involved in reproduction. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was used to analyze the expression of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in different types of reproductive cells from mice. The preprotachykinin (PPT) genes, PPT-A, PPT-B and PPT-C, that encode substance P/neurokinin A, neurokinin B, and hemokinin-1, respectively, and the genes that encode the tachykinin NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptors were all expressed, at different levels, in the uterus of superovulated, unfertilized mice. The mRNA of neprilysin (NEP), the main enzyme involved in tachykinin metabolism, was also expressed in the uterus. Isolated cumulus granulosa cells expressed PPT-A, PPT-B, PPT-C, and NEP and low levels of the tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors. Mouse oocytes expressed PPT-A and -B mRNA transcripts. A low expression of the three tachykinin receptors was observed but PPT-C and NEP were undetectable. Two- and 8- to 16-cell mouse embryos expressed only a low-abundance transcript corresponding to the NK1 receptor. However, the mRNAs of PPT-B, PPT-C and NEP appeared in blastocyst-stage embryos. A low-abundance transcript corresponding to the NK2 receptor was the only target gene detected in mice sperm. Female mice or rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a reduced fertility. A reduction in litter size was observed in female rats treated in vivo with the tachykinin NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801. These data show that tachykinins of both neuronal and nonneuronal origin are differentially expressed in various types of reproductive cells and may play a role in female reproductive function. PMID:12773411

  15. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Rapid Arrhythmogenic Action of Bisphenol A in Female Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoqian; Liang, Qian; Chen, Yamei

    2013-01-01

    Previously we showed that bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptor, rapidly altered Ca2+ handling and promoted arrhythmias in female rat hearts. The underlying molecular mechanism was not known. Here we examined the cardiac-specific signaling mechanism mediating the rapid impact of low-dose BPA in female rat ventricular myocytes. We showed that protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) signaling pathways are the two major pathways activated by BPA. Exposure to 1 nM BPA rapidly increased production of cAMP and rapidly but transiently increased the phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptors by PKA but not by CAMKII. BPA also rapidly increased the phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN), a key regulator protein of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ reuptake, by CAMKII but not PKA. The increase in CAMKII phosphorylation of PLN was mediated by phospholipase C and inositol trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca2+ release, likely from the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ storage. These two pathways are likely localized, impacting only their respective target proteins. The rapid impacts of BPA on ryanodine receptors and PLN phosphorylation were mediated by estrogen receptor-? but not estrogen receptor-?. BPA's rapid signaling in cardiac myocytes did not involve activation of ERK1/2. Functional analysis showed that PKA but not CAMKII activation contributed to BPA-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak, and both PKA and CAMKII were necessary contributors to the stimulatory effect of BPA on arrhythmogenesis. These results provide mechanistic insight into BPA's rapid proarrhythmic actions in female cardiac myocytes and contribute to the assessment of the consequence and potential cardiac toxicity of BPA exposure. PMID:24140712

  16. Site-dependent modulating effects of conjugated fatty acids from safflower oil in a rat two-stage carcinogenesis model in female Sprague–Dawley rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoya Kimoto; Masao Hirose; Mitsuru Futakuchi; Toshio Iwata; Masaaki Kasai; Tomoyuki Shirai

    2001-01-01

    Modifying effects of dietary administration of conjugated fatty acids from safflower oil (CFA-S), rich in conjugated linoleic acid, on major organs were examined in the post-initiation stage of a two-stage carcinogenesis model in female rats. Groups of 21 or 22 F344 female rats were treated sequentially with 2,2?-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitosamine (intragastrically, i.g.), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (i.g.), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (subcutaneously) and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (in drinking water) during

  17. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H Waalkens-Berendsen; M. E. M Kuilman-Wahls; A Bär

    2004-01-01

    The embryotoxicity\\/teratogenicity of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. NHDC was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5 to groups of 28 mated female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. At Cesarean section 25, 22, 23, and 23 rats were found to be pregnant in the control, low-, mid-, and high-dose

  18. Pharmacological effects of oxytocin on gastric emptying and intestinal transit of a non-nutritive liquid meal in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiu-Lung Wu; Chen-Road Hung; Full-Young Chang; K.-Y. Francis Pau; Paulus S. Wang

    2003-01-01

    The effects of oxytocin (OT) on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma levels of cholecystokinin (CCK) were studied in female rats. Gastrointestinal motility was assessed in rats 15 min after intragastric instillation of a test meal containing charcoal and Na251CrO4. Gastric emptying was determined by measuring the amount of radiolabeled chromium contained in the small intestine as a percentage of

  19. Effect of Serotoninergic System on FSH Secretion in Male and Female Rats: Evidence for Stimulatory and Inhibitory Actions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio N. Justo; Graciela L. Rossano; Berta Szwarcfarb; Modesto C. Rubio; Jaime A. Moguilevsky

    1989-01-01

    The present experiments were designed to assess the effect of the serotoninergic system on FSH secretion in prepubertal (16-, 18-, 20-, 26- and 30-day-old) and adult (60-day-old) male and female rats. The intraperitoneal administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a serotonin (5-HT) precursor, induced a significant increase of FSH levels in male rats at 16, 26, 30 and 60 days of age

  20. Induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in female Fischer 344 rats following repeated inhalation exposure to decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. McKim; Supratim Choudhuri; Paul C. Wilga; Ajay Madan; Leigh Ann Burns-Naas; Robert H. Gallavan; Richard W. Mast; Dennis J. Naas; Andrew Parkinson; Robert G. Meeks

    1999-01-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is a cyclic siloxane with a wide range of commercial applications. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of D5 on the expression and activity of selected rat hepatic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. Female Fischer-344 rats were exposed to 160 ppm D5 vapors (6 h\\/day, 7 days\\/week, for 28 days) by whole-body inhala-

  1. Distribution of the neuronal inputs to the ventral premammillary nucleus of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Bittencourt, Jackson Cioni; Elias, Carol Fuzeti

    2014-09-25

    The ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) expresses dense collections of sex steroid receptors and receptors for metabolic cues, including leptin, insulin and ghrelin. The PMV responds to opposite sex odor stimulation and projects to areas involved in reproductive control, including direct innervation of gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons. Thus, the PMV is well positioned to integrate metabolic and reproductive cues, and control downstream targets that mediate reproductive function. In fact, lesions of PMV neurons blunt female reproductive function and maternal aggression. However, although the projections of PMV neurons have been well documented, little is known about the neuronal inputs received by PMV neurons. To fill this gap, we performed a systematic evaluation of the brain sites innervating the PMV neurons of male and female rats using the retrograde tracer subunit B of the cholera toxin (CTb). In general, we observed that males and females show a similar pattern of afferents. We also noticed that the PMV is preferentially innervated by neurons located in the forebrain, with very few projections coming from brainstem nuclei. The majority of inputs originated from the medial nucleus of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the medial preoptic nucleus. A moderate to high density of afferents was also observed in the ventral subiculum, the arcuate nucleus and the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings strengthen the concept that the PMV is part of the vomeronasal system and integrates the brain circuitry controlling reproductive functions. PMID:25084037

  2. Distribution of the neuronal inputs to the ventral premammillary nucleus of male and female rats?

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Bittencourt, Jackson Cioni; Elias, Carol Fuzeti

    2014-01-01

    The ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) expresses dense collections of sex steroid receptors and receptors for metabolic cues, including leptin, insulin and ghrelin. The PMV responds to opposite sex odor stimulation and projects to areas involved in reproductive control, including direct innervation of gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons. Thus, the PMV is well positioned to integrate metabolic and reproductive cues, and control downstream targets that mediate reproductive function. In fact, lesions of PMV neurons blunt female reproductive function and maternal aggression. However, although the projections of PMV neurons have been well documented, little is known about the neuronal inputs received by PMV neurons. To fill this gap, we performed a systematic evaluation of the brain sites innervating the PMV neurons of male and female rats using the retrograde tracer subunit B of the cholera toxin (CTb). In general, we observed that males and females show a similar pattern of afferents. We also noticed that the PMV is preferentially innervated by neurons located in the forebrain, with very few projections coming from brainstem nuclei. The majority of inputs originated from the medial nucleus of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the medial preoptic nucleus. A moderate to high density of afferents was also observed in the ventral subiculum, the arcuate nucleus and the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Our findings strengthen the concept that the PMV is part of the vomeronasal system and integrates the brain circuitry controlling reproductive functions. PMID:25084037

  3. Female rats are susceptible to cardiac hypertrophy induced by copper deficiency: The lack of influence of estrogen and testosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Farquharson, C.; Robins, S.P. (Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen (Scotland))

    1988-07-01

    In contrast to a previous report female rats were shown to be susceptible to copper (Cu) deficiency giving rise to restriction of growth, cardiac hypertrophy, and anemia. The severity of these effects was, however, found to be less marked than in the male rats which had similar liver Cu levels. Castration or ovariectomy of Cu-deficient rats had little effect on CH or the other parameters associated with Cu deficiency, and supplementation of the neutered animals with estrogen or testosterone was similarly without effect. The ultrastructural appearance of the hypertrophied Cu-deficient female heart was similar to that previously found in males and was characterized by a large increase in mitochondrial area with disrupted cristae. The results also indicated that in contrast to Cu-deficient males iron (Fe) was not accumulated in the liver of the Cu-deficient female rats. It may be concluded that the limited protection of female rats to the effects of Cu deficiency observed in this study unconnected with the sex steroids.

  4. Reduced sleep, stress responsivity, and female sex contribute to persistent inflammation-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Page, Gayle G; Opp, Mark R; Kozachik, Sharon L

    2014-08-01

    Studies in humans suggest that female sex, reduced sleep opportunities and biological stress responsivity increase risk for developing persistent pain conditions. To investigate the relative contribution of these three factors to persistent pain, we employed the Sciatic Inflammatory Neuritis (SIN) model of repeated left sciatic perineurial exposures to zymosan, an inflammatory stimulus, to determine their impact upon the development of persistent mechanical hypersensitivity. Following an initial moderate insult, a very low zymosan dose was infused daily for eight days to model a sub-threshold inflammatory perturbation to which only susceptible animals would manifest or maintain mechanical hypersensitivity. Using Sprague Dawley rats, maintaining wakefulness throughout the first one-half of the 12-h light phase resulted in a bilateral reduction in paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs); zymosan infusion reduced ipsilateral PWTs in all animals and contralateral PWTs only in females. This sex difference was validated in Fischer 344, Lewis and Sprague Dawley rats, suggesting that females are the more susceptible phenotype for both local and centrally driven responses to repeated low-level inflammatory perturbations. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyporesponsive Lewis rats exhibited the most robust development of mechanical hypersensitivity and HPA axis hyperresponsive Fischer 344 rats matched the Lewis rats' mechanical hypersensitivity throughout the latter four days of the protocol. If HPA axis phenotype does indeed influence these findings, the more balanced responsivity of Sprague Dawley rats would seem to promote resilience in this paradigm. Taken together, these findings are consistent with what is known regarding persistent pain development in humans. PMID:24594386

  5. [The circadian oscillations in the radioresistance of the CNS in female and male rats after craniocaudal gamma radiation].

    PubMed

    Davydova, O E

    1992-01-01

    In experiments with albino mongrel male and female rats subjected to craniocaudal gamma irradiation (60Co, 62.5 Gy), daily oscillations of the CNS radioresistance were revealed by the criterion of occurrence of early transient neurological disorders (ETND). Experiments were conducted during two seasons (January and April). The time factor was significant, as estimated by the frequency and severity of opisthotonos and convulsions in males. ETND were more frequent and severe in females than in males. PMID:1410297

  6. Induction of tumors of peripheral nervous system in female Donryu rats by continuous oral administration of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Ogiu, T; Nakadate, M; Furuta, K; Maekawa, A; Odashima, S

    1977-08-01

    Groups 1, 2, and 3 of female Donryu rats were given continuously 400, 200, or 100 ppm solution of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) as their drinking water. The incidence of neurogenic tumors was 12/27 (44%), 39/33 (91%), and 33/36 (92%) in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Among the neurogenic tumors, neurinomas developing from the spinal nerve roots were the most frequent. In addition, tumors of the digestive tract were found in 12, 1, and 2 rats in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and tumors in hematopoietic tissues developed in 6 rats. Tumors in other organs were infrequent. PMID:616419

  7. Maternal Omega-3 Supplementation Increases Fat Mass in Male and Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara; Miljkovic, Dijana; Fong, Laura; Xian, Cory J.; Duthoit, Emmanuelle; Gibson, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n?=?10) or chow designed to provide ?15?mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n?=?11) and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3 and 6?weeks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6?weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09?±?0.32% vs. 4.56?±?0.2%, P?female (5.15?±?0.37% vs. 3.89?±?0.36%, P?female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n?3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy/lactation may not be an effective strategy for reducing fat deposition in the offspring. PMID:22303344

  8. Hypothalamic ghrelin signalling mediates olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsheng; He, Meng; Deng, Chao; Wang, Hongqin; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Excessive weight gain is a major metabolic side effect of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the treatment of schizophrenia. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone secreted mainly from the stomach, which can induce weight gain and hyperphagia through regulating neuropeptides at the hypothalamus. Accumulating evidence implicates a relationship between ghrelin signalling and SGA-induced hyperphagia and weight gain. We report that olanzapine (a SGA with high weight gain liability) potently and time-dependently up-regulate ghrelin and ghrelin signalling, leading to hyperphagia and weight gain in female Sprague-Dawley rats, an action reversed by i.c.v. injection of a ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) antagonist. These findings indicate a crucial role of ghrelin signalling in hyperphagia induced by olanzapine, supporting the notion that GHS-R1a antagonist may be useful for pharmacological treatment of SGA-induced weight gain resulted from hyperphagia. PMID:24468236

  9. Preparation of a gap junction fraction from uteri of pregnant rats: the 28-kD polypeptides of uterus, liver, and heart gap junctions are homologous

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of a gap junction fraction from the uteri of pregnant rats is described. The uterine gap junctions, when examined by electron microscopy of thin sections and in negatively stained preparations, were similar to gap junctions isolated from heart and liver. Major proteins of similar apparent molecular weight (Mr 28,000) were found in gap junction fractions isolated from the uterus, heart, and liver, and were shown to have highly homologous structures by two-dimensional mapping of their tryptic peptides. An Mr 10,000 polypeptide, previously deduced to be a proteolytic product of the Mr 28,000 polypeptide of rat liver (Nicholson, B. J., L. J. Takemoto, M. W. Hunkapiller, L. E. Hood, and J.-P. Revel, 1983, Cell, 32:967-978), was also studied and shown by chymotryptic mapping to be homologous in the uterine, heart, and liver gap junction fractions. An antibody raised in rabbits to a synthetic peptide corresponding to an amino- terminal sequence of the liver gap junction protein recognized Mr 28,000 proteins in the three tissues studied, showing that the proteins shared common antigenic determinants. These results indicate that gap junctions are biochemically conserved plasma membrane specializations. The view that gap junctions are tissue-specific plasma membrane organelles based on previous comparisons of Mr 26,000-30,000 polypeptides is not sustained by the present results. PMID:4044640

  10. Voluntary wheel running attenuates ethanol withdrawal-induced increases in seizure susceptibility in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Devaud, Leslie L.; Walls, Shawn A.; McCulley, Walter D.; Rosenwasser, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    We recently found that voluntary wheel running attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced increased susceptibility to chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male rats. Since female rats recover from ethanol withdrawal (EW) more quickly than male rats across several behavioral measures, this study was designed to determine whether the effects of exercise on EW seizures also exhibited sex differences. Animals were maintained under No-Wheel, Locked-Wheel or Free-Wheel conditions and ethanol was administered by liquid diet for 14 days with control animals pair-fed an isocaloric diet, after which seizure thresholds were determined at 1 day or 3 days of EW. Consistent with previous reports, females ran significantly more than males, regardless of diet condition. Introduction of the ethanol-containing liquid diet dramatically increased running for females during the day (rest) phase, with little impact on night phase activity. Consistent with previous reports, EW increased seizure susceptibility at 1 day in non-exercising males and females and at 3 days in males. These effects were attenuated by access to running wheels in both sexes. We also assessed the effects of sex, ethanol diet and exercise on ethanol clearance following an acute ethanol administration at 1 day EW in a separate set of animals. Blood ethanol concentrations at 30 min post-injection were lower in males, ethanol-exposed animals, and runners, but no interactions among these factors were detected. Interestingly, females displayed more rapid ethanol clearance than males and there were no effects of either diet or wheel access on clearance rates. Taken together, these data suggest that voluntary wheel running during ethanol administration provides protective effects against EW seizures in both males and females. This effect may be mediated, in part, in male, but not female rat, by effects of exercise on early pharmacokinetic contributions. This supports the idea that encouraging alcoholics to exercise may benefit their recovery. PMID:22871538

  11. Comparison of growth and pubertal progression in wild type female rats with different bedding types

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung Ho; Kim, Shin-Hee; Jung, Kyung A; Kim, So Youn; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Park, Young Shil; Yoon, Kyung Lim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Endocrine-disrupting chemicals interfere with the endocrine system and therefore affect growth and pubertal progression. The study aim was to compare the growth and pubertal progression in wild-type female rats with different bedding types. Methods Twenty 5-week-old female wild-type Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups with different bedding types: one group received wood shaving bedding, while a second group received corncob bedding. We determined crown-rump length and body weight as anthropometric measurements and assessed the serum growth hormone (GH) and estradiol levels. The gh1 mRNA expression levels were compared using quantitative real time transcription polymerase chain reaction. The estrous cycle was evaluated by vaginal smear. Results The anthropometric measurements were not significantly different between the two groups. The mean relative expression of the gh1 gene was lower in the corncob bedding group than that in the wood shaving group (P=0.768). Meanwhile serum GH and estradiol were increased in the wood shaving bedding group; however this difference was not statistically significant. The time to first estrus and the length of the estrous cycle were increased in the corncob bedding group; the proportion of normal estrous cycles was also decreased. These findings indicate irregularities in the estrous cycle. Conclusion Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in corncob bedding might be associated with time to first estrus and length of the estrous cycle. Therefore, the type of bedding should be considered as a factor affecting pubertal progression in rodents. PMID:25883928

  12. Adenosine A2A receptor modulation of juvenile female rat skeletal muscle microvessel permeability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjie; Huxley, Virginia H.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the regulation of skeletal muscle microvascular exchange under resting or stimulating conditions. Adenosine (ADO) levels in skeletal muscle increase during physiological (exercise) and pathological (hypoxia, inflammation, and ischemia) conditions. Later stages of these pathologies are characterized by the loss of vascular barrier integrity. This study focused on determining which ADO receptor mediates the robust reduction in microvessel permeability to rat serum albumin (PsRSA) observed in juvenile female rats. In microvessels isolated from abdominal skeletal muscle, ADO suffusion induced a concentration-dependent reduction in arteriolar [log(IC50) = ?9.8 ± 0.2 M] and venular [log(IC50) = ?8.4 ± 0.2 M] PsRSA. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis demonstrated mRNA and protein expression of ADO A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors in both vessel types, and immunofluorescence assay revealed expression of the four subtype receptors in the microvascular walls (endothelium and smooth muscle). PsRSA responses of arterioles and venules to ADO were blocked by 8-(p-sulphophenyl)theophylline, a nonselective A1 and A2 antagonist. An A2A agonist, CGS21680, was more potent than the A1 agonist, cyclopentyladenosine, or the most-selective A2B agonist, 5?-(N-ethylcarboxamido)adenosine. The ability of CGS21680 or ADO to reduce PsRSA was abolished by the A2A antagonist, ZM241385. An adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, SQ22536, blocked the permeability response to ADO. In aggregate, these results demonstrate that, in juvenile females (before the production of the reproductive hormones), ADO enhances skeletal muscle arteriole and venule barrier function predominantly via A2A receptors using activation of adenylyl cyclase-signaling mechanisms. PMID:16815983

  13. Hypothalamic paraventricular axons projecting to the female rat lumbosacral spinal cord contain oxytocin immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Puder, B A; Papka, R E

    2001-04-01

    Oxytocin-containing axons project from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the neurohypophysis and thoracic spinal cord to ultimately influence uterine contractions and autonomic activity, respectively. Whether or not oxytocin-immunoreactive axons project to the female rat lumbosacral spinal cord to influence autonomic outflow to pelvic organs has not been investigated. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the presence, distribution, and origin of oxytocin-immunoreactive axons in the female rat lumbosacral spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry, spinal cord transections, and axonal tracing with Fluorogold, True Blue, and pseudorabies virus were used. Oxytocin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were present in the L6/S1 segments of the spinal cord. Prominent varicose axons were evident throughout the dorsal horn, along the lateral and medial collateral pathways, in the dorsal intermediate gray area, around the central canal in lamina X, and throughout the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. Injection of retrograde tracer into the L6/S1 spinal cord labeled neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Transection of the thoracic spinal cord eliminated oxytocin-immunoreactive nerve axons in the L6/S1 spinal cord. In addition, transection of the thoracic spinal cord eliminated transport of retrograde axonal tracer from the L6/S1 spinal cord to the paraventricular nucleus. Pseudorabies virus, a transneuronal retrograde tracer, injected into the uterus and cervix marked uterine-related preganglionic neuronal cell bodies in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus and uterine-related neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Double immuno-labeling of viral-infected spinal cord sections showed oxytocin-immunoreactive axons closely associated with viral labeled uterine-related preganglionic cell bodies of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. The results of this study revealed that oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus project axons to the lumbosacral spinal cord to areas involved in sensory processing and parasympathetic outflow to the uterus. PMID:11276051

  14. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intenstions and colon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the efficacy of freeze-dried blueberry (BB) in inhibition of formation of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats were fed a control diet with or without 10% BB; progeny were weaned to the same...

  15. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE SUPPRESSES JUVENILE IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE SUPPRESSES JUVENILE IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS. AA Rooney1 and RW Luebke2. 1NCSU/USEPA CVM, Department of Anatomy, Physiological Sciences, and Radiology, Raleigh, NC;2USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC. The ability of the ...

  16. DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS OF ESTRADIOL IN THE CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMOZED/ESTRADIOL-IMPLANTED FEMALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations of Estradiol in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized / Estradiol-implanted Female Rats ABSTRACT Haloacetic acids are one of the principal classes of disinfection by-products generated by the chlorination of mun...

  17. Purkinje cell number decreases in the adult female rat cerebellum following exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman Fikret Sonmez; Ersan Odaci; Orhan Bas; Süleyman Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    The biological effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from mobile phones have growing concern among scientists since there are some reports showing increased risk for human health, especially in the use of mobile phones for a long duration. In the presented study, the effects on the number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of 16-week (16weeks) old female rats were

  18. EFFECTS OF 2,2',4,4'-TETRABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ON CAR AND PXR REGULATED GENE EXPRESSION IN WEANLING FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF 2,2',4,4,'-TETRABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ON CAR AND PXR REGULATED GENE EXPRESSION IN WEANLING FEMALE RATS. V M RICHARDSON1, K M CROFTON2, AND M J DEVITO1. USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD1/NTD2,RTP, NC, USA. The polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) mixture DE-71 (PBDEs) cause endo...

  19. Sorghum Bran in the Diet Dose Dependently Increased Excretion of Catechins and Microbial Derived Phenolic Acids in Female Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum bran is concentrated with procyanidins (predominately polymers), which may be beneficial for health in humans; however, the bioavailability of procyanidins is not well understood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an AIN93G diet containing 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40% Hi-tannin sorghum bran (n=5-7...

  20. 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects qualitative and quantitative features of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the adult female rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orhan Bas; Ersan Odaci; Suleyman Kaplan; Niyazi Acer; Kagan Ucok; Serdar Colakoglu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by mobile phones on humans hold special interest due to their use in close proximity to the brain. The current study investigated the number of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) of the 16-week-old female rat hippocampus following postnatal exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF. In this study were three groups of

  1. PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO PROPAZINE AND ATRAZINE METABOLITES, DIAMINO-S-CHLOROTRIAZINE AND HYDROXYATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO PROPAZINE AND ATRAZINE METABOLITES, DIAMINO-S-CHLOROTRIAZINE AND HYDROXYATRAZINE. S C Laws, J M Ferrell, T E Stoker, and R L Cooper. Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA. Sponser: R J K...

  2. Thyroid Hormone Coadministration Inhibits the Estrogen-Stimulated Elevation of Preproenkephalin mRNA in Female Rat Hypothalamic Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammy L. Dellovade; Hossein Kami Kia; Y. S. Zhu; Donald W. Pfaff

    1999-01-01

    Expression of the enkephalin gene in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) of the female rat has been correlated with the performance of lordosis behavior. By antisense DNA evidence, it has been drawn into a causal role as well. Here, we explored whether, parallel to earlier molecular and behavioral results, thyroid hormone coadministration could disrupt the estrogenic induction of preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA. As

  3. Food Availability Affects Orexin A\\/ Hypocretin-1Induced Inhibition of Pulsatile Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miyako Furuta; Dai Mitsushima; Kazuyuki Shinohara; Fukuko Kimura; Toshiya Funabashi

    2010-01-01

    Orexin A\\/hypocretin-1 inhibits pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in female rats. In this study, we investigated whether this inhibition was tied to the fasting state, as suggested by our previous study. We first examined whether orexin A inhibited pulsatile LH secretion when food was available ad libitumduring blood sampling. Next, we investigated the effect of intravenous administration of glucose (400

  4. IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE INDUCES DELAYED PUBERTY OF LONG EVANS RATS: DAM-MEDIATED EFFECTS IN FEMALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO ATRAZINE INDUCES DELAYED PUBERTY OF LONG EVANS RATS: DAM-MEDIATED EFFECTS IN FEMALES. J L Rayner1 and S E Fenton2. 1 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Divisio...

  5. Different effects of subchronic doses of 17-? estradiol in two ethologically based models of anxiety utilizing female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy A Koss; Donald R Gehlert; Anantha Shekhar

    2004-01-01

    Estrogen may have differing effects on ‘anxiety’ responses under different conditions. The current study tested the effects of estrogen on anxiety-like behavior when administered for 6–7 days in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Two animal paradigms were utilized; the elevated plus maze (EPM), measuring changes in innate fear of exploration of open spaces; and the social interaction test (SIT), measuring the

  6. Indoleamines in the hypothalamus and area of the midbrain raphe nuclei of male and female rats throughout postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Watts, A G; Stanley, H F

    1984-06-01

    We have investigated the changes in the concentrations of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) and midbrain raphe (MR) region of male and female rats throughout development. No sex differences were found in the concentrations of the indoleamines in either of the areas investigated at any stage of development. The 5-HIAA/5-HT molar ratio was maximal at 4 days of age in both the HPOA and MR. A small but significant sex difference in the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio occurred in the HPOA (higher in males) but not in the MR at 40 days of age, and the ratio was significantly greater in 80-day-old female rats in the HPOA but not MR. Studies using NSD 1015 to block the conversion of 5-hydroxytryptophan to 5-HT showed that a higher rate of 5-HT synthesis occurred in the HPOA of 80-day-old rats compared with the neonatal HPOA and that in 80-day-old rats the rate of 5-HT synthesis was significantly higher in females. These results show that endogenous steroids do not affect the activity of serotoninergic neurons in the HPOA or MR either during or immediately after the critical period of sexual differentiation. In addition, the results from the NSD 1015 experiments show that the high 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio found in neonates does not involve a higher rate of 5-HT synthesis than that in adult rats. PMID:6204245

  7. DIETS CONTAINING WHEY PROTEINS OR SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE PROTECT AGAINST 7,12-DIMETHYLBENZ(A) ANTHRACENE-INDUCED MAMMARY TUMORS IN FEMALE RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the protective effects of two common dietary proteins, soy protein isolate (soy) and bovine whey, against chemically induced mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were fed AIN-93G diets having casein, soy, or whey as the sole protein source. Rats wit...

  8. Age-related changes in the haematology of female F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Turton, J A; Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Gwynne, J; Hicks, R M

    1989-10-01

    As little comprehensive baseline data are available on age-related haematological changes in genetically-defined rat strains, the haematology of female F344 rats is described in animals sampled at 2, 4, 8, 20, 66 and 121 weeks of age. Values for Hb, RBC and PCV increased from 2 weeks of age to reach adult levels at 8 weeks, whereas MCV, MCH and reticulocyte counts were high initially but decreased to reach the adult range at 8 weeks. Between 66 and 121 weeks, reticulocyte counts were significantly increased and values for MCHC significantly decreased. Lymphocytes were the predominant white cell type in each age group. The absolute numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes showed slight variations between 2 and 66 weeks and both cell types increased significantly between 66 and 121 weeks. Platelet counts showed no overall age-related trends. Fibrinogen values increased from 2 weeks of age to reach the adult level at 8 weeks. One animal of the 14 sampled at 121 weeks showed changes in the blood, liver and spleen consistent with a diagnosis of lymphoid leukaemia. PMID:2811267

  9. The effects of chronic photoperiod shifting on the physiology of female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Deibel, Scott H; Hong, Nancy S; Himmler, Stephanie M; McDonald, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    As the prevalence of shift work is increasing, it is important to elucidate the impact that shift work has on health. Because of the alternating work schedules present in rotating shift work and working at night, shift workers are in a chronic state of circadian disruption. Animal models of circadian disruption are useful because they offer more experimental control than the largely correlational human shift work studies. The effects of chronic circadian disruption on food preference, glucose tolerance, corticosterone secretion, and performance in a stress-inducing task were investigated in female Long-Evans rats. A 64-day photoperiod shifting paradigm was used to induce circadian disruption. Surprisingly, neither the photoperiod shifted animals, nor the control animals demonstrated a preference for either an unhealthy or healthy diet. Nor was there a difference between the groups in weight gained during photoperiod shifting. However, the photoperiod shifted rats gained significantly more weight than control animals, without eating more food during discriminative fear conditioning to context (DFCTC). Surprisingly, chronic photoperiod shifting appeared to facilitate retention in the DFCTC task. The photoperiod shifted animals also had increased serum glucose values during fasting and after a glucose challenge test. The photoperiod shifted animals only had elevated corticosterone during the final two phases of photoperiod shifting. This study demonstrates that chronic photoperiod shifting elicits weight gain when exposed to a stressful event and impairs glucose tolerance in the same individual. PMID:24631903

  10. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger on the liver of epileptic female rats treated with lamotrigine

    PubMed Central

    Poorrostami, Ameneh; Farokhi, Farah; Heidari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug, widely used in the treatment of epilepsy; long-term use of this drug can cause hepatotoxicity. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) possesses antioxidant properties. In present research, the effect ofhydroalcoholic extract of ginger (HEG) on the liver of lamotrigine-treated epileptic rats was investigated Material and Methods: Forty-eight female Wistar rats were selected and allocated to 8 groups of 6 each. Group 1: Negative controls were treated with normal saline. Group 2: Positive controls were treated with lamotrigine (LTG) (10 mg/kg) daily by gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Epilepsy was induced in treatment groups by i.p. injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) (40 mg/kg). Group 3: Epileptic group received normal saline (10 ml/kg). Group 4: Epileptic group was treated with LTG (10 mg/kg). Groups 5 and 6: Epileptic groups received HEG (50 and 100 mg/kg). Groups 7 and 8: Epileptic groups received LTG and HEG (50 and 100 mg/kg). At the end of 28 days, blood samples were drawn and their livers were processed for light microscopy. Results: The mean values of TG, CHOL, AST, and ALT activity significantly rose (p<0.01) in groups 2, 3, and 4, while in rats treated with HEG (groups 5, 6, 7, and 8), the levels of liver enzymes significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared with epileptic group treated with lamotrigine (group 4). Histopathological changes of liver samples were comparable with respective control. Conclusion: These results suggest that hydroalcoholic extract of ginger improves liver function in lamotrigine-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25068142

  11. Female spontaneously hypertensive rats have a compensatory increase in renal regulatory T cells in response to elevations in blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Ashlee J; Baban, Babak; Sullivan, Jennifer C

    2014-09-01

    Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have more regulatory T cells (Tregs) in their kidneys than males. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of blood pressure (BP) on the renal immune profile. We hypothesize that increases in BP promote a proinflammatory renal T cell and cytokine profile in SHR, although females will have greater hormone-dependent increases in Tregs and males will have greater increases in Th17 cells. Renal T cell and cytokine profiles were assessed in male and female Wistar-Kyoto rats and male and female SHR treated with vehicle or hydrochlorothiazide and reserpine (HCTZ) from 6 to 12 (6-HCTZ) or 11 to 13 weeks of age (2-HCTZ). Regardless of sex, SHR had a more proinflammatory renal immune profile than Wistar-Kyoto rats. 6-HCTZ attenuated age-related increases in BP and 2-HCTZ reversed hypertension compared with vehicle-treated SHR. Neither 6-HCTZ nor 2-HCTZ altered CD3(+), CD4(+), or CD8(+) T cells in either sex. Both treatments decreased Tregs only in female SHR abolishing sex differences in Tregs. 6-HCTZ has no impact on Th17 cells in either sex and 2-HCTZ had a minimal impact on renal Th17 cells. To further assess mechanisms mediating sex differences in the renal immune profile, male and female SHR were gonadectomized to determine the impact of sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased proinflammatory markers in both sexes, suggesting that both male and female sex hormones are anti-inflammatory. In conclusion, BP contributes to sex differences in the renal T-cell profile of SHR; female SHR increase renal Tregs in response to increases in BP. PMID:24914200

  12. The effect of the prenatal and post-natal long-term exposure to 50 Hz electric field on growth, pubertal development and IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Bumin; Cesur, Gokhan; Comlekci, Selcuk; Songur, Ahmet; Gokcimen, Alparslan; Sahin, Onder; Ulukut, Ozlem; Yilmaz, H Ramazan; Sutcu, Recep; Caliskan, Sadettin

    2009-08-01

    To investigate prenatal and post-natal effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field (EF) on growth and pubertal development, pregnant Wistar rats were randomly distributed among three groups. The pregnant rats of the prenatal group were exposed to 24-hour EF at 50 Hz EF 10 kV/min during pregnancy and their subsequent randomly selected female pups continued to be exposed until puberty. The post-natal group was unexposed to EF during pregnancy, but randomly selected female pups from this group were exposed to EF between delivery and puberty at the same doses and duration as the prenatal group. The third group was a sham-exposed group. The mean birth weight and weight gain of the pups during study period were found significantly reduced in prenatal group than post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p < 0.001). No difference could be found among the three groups for body weight at puberty (p > 0.05). The mean age at vaginal opening and estrous were significantly higher at prenatal group than post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p < 0.001). Serum insulin-like growth hormone-1 (IGF-1) levels were found significantly reduced in prenatal exposure group compared with the other two groups (p < 0.001). There was no difference for birth weight, weight gain, the mean age at vaginal opening and estrous and IGF-1 levels between post-natal and sham-exposed groups (p > 0.05). There was also no difference for FSH, LH and E2 levels at puberty among the three groups (p > 0.05). Histological examination revealed that both the prenatal and post-natal groups had the evidence of tissue damage on hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovaries. In conclusion, early beginning of prenatal exposure of rats to 24 hours 50 Hz EF at 10 kV/m until puberty without magnetic field (MF) resulted in growth restriction, delayed puberty and reduced IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats. These effects probably associated with direct toxic effects of EF on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful on target organs. Post-natal exposure to EF at similar doses and duration seems to be less harmful. PMID:19783573

  13. Identification of neural cells activated by mating stimulus in the periaqueductal gray in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shunji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Induction of lordosis as typical female sexual behavior in rodents is dependent on a mount stimulus from males and blood levels of estrogen. Periaqueductal gray (PAG) efferent neurons have been suggested to be important for lordosis behavior; however, the neurochemical basis remains to be understood. In this study, we neuroanatomically examined (1) whether PAG neurons activated by mating stimulus project to the medullary reticular formation (MRF), which is also a required area for lordosis; and (2) whether these neurons are glutamatergic. Mating stimulus significantly increased the number of cFos-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the PAG, particularly in its lateral region. Half of cFos-ir neurons in the lateral PAG were positive for a retrograde tracer (FluoroGold; FG) injected into the MRF. cFos-ir neurons also colocalized with mRNA of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGLUT2), a molecular marker for glutamatergic neurons. Using retrograde tracing and in situ hybridization in conjunction with fluorescent microscopy, we also found FG and vGLUT2 mRNA double-positive neurons in the lateral PAG. These results suggest that glutamatergic neurons in the lateral PAG project to the MRF and are involved in lordosis behavior in female rats. PMID:25565950

  14. Estradiol affects liver mitochondrial function in ovariectomized and tamoxifen-treated ovariectomized female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Paula I. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Custodio, Jose B.A. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Nunes, Elsa [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Moreno, Antonio [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Marine Research, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Seica, Raquel [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Oliveira, Catarina R. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, Maria S. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal) and Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: mssantos@ci.uc.pt

    2007-05-15

    Given the tremendous importance of mitochondria to basic cellular functions as well as the critical role of mitochondrial impairment in a vast number of disorders, a compelling question is whether 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) modulates mitochondrial function. To answer this question we exposed isolated liver mitochondria to E2. Three groups of rat females were used: control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized treated with tamoxifen. Tamoxifen has antiestrogenic effects in the breast tissue and is the standard endocrine treatment for women with breast cancer. However, under certain circumstances and in certain tissues, tamoxifen can also exert estrogenic agonist properties. We observed that at basal conditions, ovariectomy and tamoxifen treatment do not induce any statistical alteration in oxidative phosphorylation system and respiratory chain parameters. Furthermore, tamoxifen treatment increases the capacity of mitochondria to accumulate Ca{sup 2+} delaying the opening of the permeability transition pore. The presence of 25 {mu}M E2 impairs respiration and oxidative phosphorylation system these effects being similar in all groups of animals studied. Curiously, E2 protects against lipid peroxidation and increases the production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in energized mitochondria of control females. Our results indicate that E2 has in general deleterious effects that lead to mitochondrial impairment. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a triggering event of cell degeneration and death, the use of exogenous E2 must be carefully considered.

  15. Molecular Profiling of Postnatal Development of the Hypothalamus in Female and Male Rats1

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Kirson, Dean; Perez, Lorenzo F.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reproductive function is highly dynamic during postnatal developmental. Here, we performed molecular profiling of gene expression patterns in the hypothalamus of developing male and female rats to identify which genes are sexually dimorphic, to gain insight into a more complex network of hypothalamic genes, and to ascertain dynamic changes in their relationships with one another and with sex steroid hormones during development. Using a low-density PCR platform, we quantified mRNA levels in the preoptic area (POA) and medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), and assayed circulating estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone at six ages from birth through adulthood. Numerous genes underwent developmental change, particularly postnatal increases, decreases, or peaks/plateaus at puberty. Surprisingly, there were few sex differences; only Esr1, Kiss1, and Tac2 were dimorphic (higher in females). Cluster analysis of gene expression revealed sexually dimorphic correlations in the POA but not the MBH from P30 (Postnatal Day 30) to P60. Hormone measurements showed few sex differences in developmental profiles of estradiol; higher levels of progesterone in females only after P30; and a developmental pattern of testosterone with a nadir at P30 followed by a dramatic increase through P60 (males). Furthermore, bionetwork analysis revealed that hypothalamic gene expression profiles and their relationships to hormones undergo dynamic developmental changes that differ considerably from adults. These data underscore the importance of developmental stage in considering the effects of hormones on the regulation of neuroendocrine genes in the hypothalamus. Moreover, the finding that few neuroendocrine genes are sexually dimorphic highlights the need to consider postnatal development from a network approach that allows assessment of interactions and patterns of expression. PMID:23034157

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    PubMed

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. PMID:25761405

  17. The timing of neuronal loss across adolescence in the medial prefrontal cortex of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Willing, J; Juraska, J M

    2015-08-20

    Adolescence is a critical period of brain maturation characterized by the reorganization of interacting neural networks. In particular the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region involved in executive function, undergoes synaptic and neuronal pruning during this time in both humans and rats. Our laboratory has previously shown that rats lose neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and there is an increase in white matter under the frontal cortex between adolescence and adulthood. Female rats lose more neurons during this period, and ovarian hormones may play a role as ovariectomy before adolescence prevents neuronal loss. However, little is known regarding the timing of neuroanatomical changes that occur between early adolescence and adulthood. In the present study, we quantified the number of neurons and glia in the male and female mPFC at multiple time points from preadolescence through adulthood (postnatal days 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). Females, but not males, lost a significant number of neurons in the mPFC between days 35 and 45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. Counts of GABA immunoreactive cell bodies indicated that the neurons lost were not primarily GABAergic. These results suggest that in females, pubertal hormones may exert temporally specific changes in PFC anatomy. As expected, both males and females gained white matter under the PFC throughout adolescence, though these gains in females were diminished after day 35, but not in males. The differences in cell loss in males and females may lead to differential vulnerability to external influences and dysfunctions of the PFC that manifest in adolescence. PMID:26047728

  18. Inhibitory and Multisynaptic Spines, and Hemispherical Synaptic Specialization in the Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala of Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brusco, Janaina; Merlo, Suélen; Ikeda, Érika T.; Petralia, Ronald S.; Kachar, Bechara; Rasia-Filho, Alberto A.; Moreira, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    The density of dendritic spines is sexually dimorphic and variable throughout the female estrous cycle in the rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD), a relevant area for the modulation of reproductive behavior in rats. The local synaptic activity differs between hemispheres in prepubertal animals. Here, we used serial section transmission electron microscopy to produce three-dimensional reconstructions of dendritic shafts and spines to characterize synaptic contacts on MePD neurons of both hemispheres in adult males and in females along the estrous cycle. Pleomorphic spines and non-synaptic filopodia occur in the MePD. On average, 8.6% of dendritic spines received inputs from symmetric GABA-immunoreactive terminals, whereas 3.6% received two synaptic contacts on the spine head, neck or base. Presynaptic terminals in females right MePD had a higher density of synaptic vesicles and docked vesicles than the left MePD, suggesting a higher rate of synaptic vesicle release in the right MePD of female rats. In contrast, males did not show laterality in any of those parameters. The proportion of putative inhibitory synapses on dendritic shafts in the right MePD of females in proestrus was higher than in the left MePD, and higher than in the right MePD in males, or in females in diestrus or estrus. This work shows synaptic laterality depending on sex and the estrous cycle phases in mature MePD neurons. Most likely, sexual hormones effects are lateralized in this brain region, leading to higher synaptic activity in the right than in the left hemisphere of females, mediating timely neuroendocrine and social/reproductive behavior. PMID:24318545

  19. Difference in the Responsiveness of Old Female Rats to Estrogen to Secrete Sex Attractants as a Function of Different Reproductive States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Peng; S. C. Mu

    1988-01-01

    Two age groups of Long-Evans rats (young: 3.5–7 months of age and old: over 23 months of age) were ovariectomized and implanted subcutaneously with a 1:2 estradiol benzoate (E2)-cholestrol mixture-filled Silastic capsule. Olfactory preference of male partners to these female rats over ovariectomized young rats without E2 replacement was examined. Olfactory preference of adult male rats as indicated by investigation

  20. Age and ovariectomy abolish beneficial effects of female sex on rat ventricular myocytes exposed to simulated ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jenna L; Howlett, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in responses to myocardial ischemia have been described, but whether cardiomyocyte function is influenced by sex in the setting of ischemia and reperfusion has not been elucidated. This study compared contractions and intracellular Ca(2+) in isolated ventricular myocytes exposed to ischemia and reperfusion. Cells were isolated from anesthetized 3-month-old male and female Fischer 344 rats, paced at 4 Hz (37°C), exposed to simulated ischemia (20 mins) and reperfused. Cell shortening (edge detector) and intracellular Ca(2+) (fura-2) were measured simultaneously. Cell viability was assessed with Trypan blue. Ischemia reduced peak contractions and increased Ca(2+) levels equally in myocytes from both sexes. However, contraction amplitudes were reduced in reperfusion in male myocytes, while contractions recovered to exceed control levels in females (62.6±5.1 vs. 140.1±15.8%; p<0.05). Only 60% of male myocytes excluded trypan blue dye after ischemia and reperfusion, while all female cardiomyocytes excluded the dye (p<0.05). Parallel experiments were conducted in myocytes from ?24-month-old female rats or 5-6-month-old rats that had an ovariectomy at 3-4 weeks of age. Beneficial effects of female sex on myocyte viability and contractile dysfunction in reperfusion were abolished in cells from 24-month-old females. Aged female myocytes also exhibited elevated intracellular Ca(2+) and alternans in ischemia. Cells from ovariectomized rats displayed increased Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous activity in ischemia compared to sham-operated controls. None of the myocytes from ovariectomized rats were viable after 15 minutes of ischemia, while 75% of sham cells remained viable at end of reperfusion (p<0.05). These findings demonstrate that cardiomyocytes from young adult females are more resistant to ischemia and reperfusion injury than cells from males. Age and OVX abolish these beneficial effects and induce Ca(2+) dysregulation at the level of the cardiomyocyte. Thus, beneficial effects of estrogen in ischemia and reperfusion are mediated, in part, by effects on cardiomyocytes. PMID:22701638

  1. Oligomycin, an F1Fo-ATPase inhibitor, protects against ischemic acute kidney injury in male but not in female rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryosuke; Takayama, Junji; Takaoka, Masanori; Sugino, Yohko; Ohkita, Mamoru; Matsumura, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of oligomycin, an F1Fo-ATPase inhibitor, on ischemic acute kidney injury in male and female rats. Ischemic acute kidney injury was induced by clamping the left renal artery and vein for 45 or 60 min followed by reperfusion, 2 weeks after contralateral nephrectomy. Renal dysfunction and histological renal damage were observed 1 day after reperfusion in both male and female rats, although these renal injuries were more marked in male rats than in female rats. Intravenous bolus injection of oligomycin (0.5 mg/kg) 5 min before ischemia markedly attenuated the ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in male rats. However, oligomycin did not show the protective effect in female rats subjected to ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury. Pre-ischemic treatment with oligomycin suppressed partly but significantly ischemia-induced renal ATP depletion only in male rats. These results indicate that oligomycin prevents the onset of ischemic acute kidney injury in male but not in female rats, and the effect is accompanied by suppression of the ATP depletion only in the male rat kidney during ischemia, thereby suggesting that the ATP hydrolysis pathway by mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPase induces a sex difference in ischemic acute kidney injury. PMID:24162022

  2. Anti-oxidative effects produced by environmental enrichment in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Mármol, Frederic; Rodríguez, Clara A; Sánchez, Juan; Chamizo, Victoria D

    2015-07-10

    Both physical and intellectual activity may reduce the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders. There is evidence that environmental enrichment (EE) can induce profound behavioral, neurochemical and neuroanatomical changes, thus producing lasting improvements in memory and learning tasks. In this study we evaluated the anti-oxidative effects produced by EE in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex of male and female rats. The animals had been reared in either EE or control conditions. The parameters studied were: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein oxidation, total radical antioxidant parameter, catalase, superoxide dismutase and superoxide anion activity. The results showed that our EE protocol reduced markers of oxidative stress in the hippocampus and in the cerebral cortex. Overall, the measures taken in the two cerebral regions revealed that EE rats showed higher values for antioxidant measures and lower values for oxidative stress parameters than control animals. More importantly, a consistent sex difference was found, indicating that in female rats the hippocampus and cerebral cortex are plastic brain regions receptive to external stimulation such as EE. Although EE males have higher levels for antioxidant capacity, catalase and SOD, it is likely that females do not need to activate all the antioxidant defenses since they have a greater capacity to assimilate external stimuli. This is suggested by the similarity of protein oxidation and TBARS levels in hippocampus in both sexes, and the even lower levels of protein oxidation and superoxide anion activity in the cerebral cortex in EE females. PMID:25881892

  3. Estrogen-Induced Memory Enhancements Are Blocked by Acute Bisphenol A in Adult Female Rats: Role of Dendritic Spines

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, T.; Frankfurt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Acute effects of bisphenol (BPA), an environmental chemical, on estradiol (17? or ?-E2)-dependent recognition memory and dendritic spines in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were investigated in adult female rats. Ovariectomized rats received BPA 30 min before or immediately after a sample trial (viewing objects), and retention trials were performed 4 h later. Retention trials tested discrimination between old and new objects (visual memory) or locations (place memory). When given immediately after the sample trial, BPA, 1–400 ?g/kg, did not alter recognition memory, but 1 and 40 ?g/kg BPA, respectively, blocked 17?-E2-dependent increases in place and visual memory. When ovariectomized rats were tested with 17?-E2, 1 ?g/kg BPA blocked place memory, but up to 40 ?g did not block visual memory. BPA, given to cycling rats at 40 ?g/kg, blocked visual, but not place, memory during proestrus when 2 h intertrial delays were given. Spine density was assessed at times of memory consolidation (30 min) and retention (4 h) after 17?-E2 or BPA + 17?-E2. In prefrontal cortex, BPA did not alter E2-dependent increases. In the hippocampus, BPA blocked E2 increases in basal spines at 4 h and was additive with E2 at 30 min. Thus, these novel data show that doses of BPA, below the current Environmental Protection Agency safe limit of 50 ?g/kg, rapidly alter neural functions dependent on E2 in adult female rats. PMID:22569790

  4. The disposition of benzoylecgonine in maternal and fetal rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisayo O Morishima; Toshiyuki Okutomi; Atsuro Ishizaki; Yi Zhang; Thomas B Cooper

    2001-01-01

    We tested our hypothesis that pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic profile of benzoylecgonine, and that this metabolite accumulates in the fetus longer than in the mother. Chronically catheterized near-term pregnant and nonpregnant female Sprague–Dawley rats received an intravenous infusion of benzoylecgonine over a period of 30 min. Adult or fetal blood and tissue samples were obtained either at the end of

  5. Ex vivo biomechanical properties of the female urethra in a rat model of birth trauma.

    PubMed

    Prantil, Rachelle L; Jankowski, Ron J; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; de Groat, William C; Chancellor, Michael B; Yoshimura, Naoki; Vorp, David A

    2007-04-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the involuntary release of urine during sudden increases in abdominal pressures. SUI is common in women after vaginal delivery or pelvic trauma and may alter the biomechanical properties of the urethra. Thus we hypothesize that injury due to vaginal distension (VD) decreases urethral basal tone and passive stiffness. This study aimed to assess the biomechanical properties of the urethra after VD in the baseline state, where basal muscle tone and extracellular matrix (ECM) are present, and in the passive state, where inactive muscle and ECM are present. Female rat urethras were isolated in a rat model of acute SUI induced by simulated birth trauma. Our established ex vivo system was utilized, wherein we applied intraluminal static pressures ranging from 0 to 20 mmHg. Outer diameter was measured via a laser micrometer. Measurements were recorded via computer. Urethral thickness was assessed histologically. Stress-strain responses of the urethra were altered by VD. Quantification of biomechanical parameters indicated that VD decreased baseline stiffness. The passive peak incremental elastic modulus of the distal segment in VD urethras was less than for controls (1.84 +/- 0.67 vs. 1.19 +/- 0.70 x 10(6) dyne/cm(2), respectively; P = 0.016). An increase was noted in passive low-pressure compliance values in proximal VD urethras compared with controls (9.44 +/- 2.43 vs. 4.62 +/- 0.60 mmHg(-1), respectively; P = 0.04). Biomechanical analyses suggest that VD alters urethral basal tone, proximal urethral compliance, and distal stiffness. Lack of basal smooth muscle tone, in combination with these changes in the proximal and distal urethra, may contribute to SUI induced by VD. PMID:17190909

  6. Hippocampal Gene Expression Is Highly Responsive to Estradiol Replacement in Middle-Aged Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Sárvári, Miklós; Kalló, Imre; Hrabovszky, Erik; Solymosi, Norbert; Rodolosse, Annie; Vastagh, Csaba; Auer, Herbert; Liposits, Zsolt

    2015-07-01

    In the hippocampus, estrogens are powerful modulators of neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. In women, menopause is associated with increased risk of memory disturbances, which can be attenuated by timely estrogen therapy. In animal models of menopause, 17?-estradiol (E2) replacement improves hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Here, we explored the effect of E2 replacement on hippocampal gene expression in a rat menopause model. Middle-aged ovariectomized female rats were treated continuously for 29 days with E2, and then, the hippocampal transcriptome was investigated with Affymetrix expression arrays. Microarray data were analyzed by Bioconductor packages and web-based softwares, and verified with quantitative PCR. At standard fold change selection criterion, 156 genes responded to E2. All alterations but 4 were transcriptional activation. Robust activation (fold change > 10) occurred in the case of transthyretin, klotho, claudin 2, prolactin receptor, ectodin, coagulation factor V, Igf2, Igfbp2, and sodium/sulfate symporter. Classification of the 156 genes revealed major groups, including signaling (35 genes), metabolism (31 genes), extracellular matrix (17 genes), and transcription (16 genes). We selected 33 genes for further studies, and all changes were confirmed by real-time PCR. The results suggest that E2 promotes retinoid, growth factor, homeoprotein, neurohormone, and neurotransmitter signaling, changes metabolism, extracellular matrix composition, and transcription, and induces protective mechanisms via genomic effects. We propose that these mechanisms contribute to effects of E2 on neurogenesis, neural plasticity, and memory functions. Our findings provide further support for the rationale to develop safe estrogen receptor ligands for the maintenance of cognitive performance in postmenopausal women. PMID:25924104

  7. Toxicity of the chlordane metabolite oxychlordane in female rats: clinical and histopathological changes.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Genevieve; Armstrong, Cheryl; Coady, Laurie; Doucet, Josée; Robertson, Patrick; Feeley, Mark; Barker, Michael

    2003-02-01

    Due to widespread usage of the pesticide chlordane until the 1980's, this toxic and persistent mixture has accumulated in the food chain. The Arctic acts as a global sink for these and other persistent organic pollutants, which bioaccumulate in the marine and freshwater food chains. As a result, humans consuming diets high in Arctic fish and marine mammal fat can ingest higher levels of chlordane contaminants than humans consuming "southern" diets. The most abundant constituents of the chlordane mixture are trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and heptachlor; oxychlordane is the major metabolite of the chlordanes and nonachlors. In humans the predominant chlordane-related contaminants detected in breast milk and adipose tissues are trans-nonachlor and oxychlordane. The present studies were undertaken to provide toxicological data on oxychlordane for the purpose of clarifying target organ toxicity and risks to human health associated with ingesting contaminated foods. Female rats were gavaged with oxychlordane at doses ranging from 0.01 to 10 mg/kg body weight/day for up to 28 days. In terms of general toxicity oxychlordane had a steep dose-response curve: 10 mg/kg oxychlordane was acutely toxic and 1 mg/kg oxychlordane caused no measurable effects. Weight loss, reduced feed consumption and thymic atrophy were the hallmarks of acute oxychlordane toxicity. At lower doses rats showed signs of hepatic changes indicative of microsomal enzyme induction. Oxychlordane was more bioaccumulative and was toxic at levels approximately 8 times lower than trans-nonachlor and cis-nonachlor. Thus, ingestion of trans-nonachlor and related chlordane contaminants in foods results in the formation of a metabolite that is more toxic and bioaccumulative than the parent contaminants. PMID:12480304

  8. Subchronic toxicity and toxicogenomic evaluation of tamoxifen citrate + bexarotene in female rats.

    PubMed

    Horn, Thomas L; Torres, Karen E O; Naylor, Jennifer M; Cwik, Michael J; Detrisac, Carol J; Kapetanovic, Izet M; Lubet, Ronald A; Crowell, James A; McCormick, David L

    2007-10-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is a nonsteroidal antiestrogen that prevents estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in rodents and humans. Bexarotene (BEX), a selective agonist for retinoid X receptors, inhibits mammary carcinogenesis in rodents. The present study was conducted to support the preclinical development of TAM (tamoxifen citrate) + BEX for use in breast cancer chemoprevention, and to investigate the influence of these agents on hepatic gene expression. Female CD rats (20 per group) received daily oral (gavage) exposure to TAM (0 or 60 microg/kg/day) and/or BEX (0, 5, 15, or 45 mg/kg/day) for a minimum of 90 days. BEX induced mild, dose-related anemia and dose-related increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and calcium levels, and increased platelet counts. TAM had no biologically significant effect on any clinical pathology parameter and did not alter the effects of BEX on these endpoints. Microscopic alterations induced by BEX included epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis (stomach), and cytoplasmic clearing (liver). Microscopic changes in TAM-treated rats were limited to mucous cell hypertrophy in the cervix and vagina. The toxicity of administration of the combination of TAM + BEX can generally be predicted on the basis of the toxicity of each drug as a single agent. BEX induced dose-related alterations in the expression of several genes involved in steroid, drug, and/or fatty acid metabolism; TAM did not alter these effects of BEX. Differential expression of genes involved in drug and lipid metabolism may underlie the observed effects of BEX on cholesterol and triglyceride levels and its effects on liver histology. PMID:17630414

  9. Short term effects of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures and individual PCB congeners in female Sprague-Dawley rats 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yu-Chyu

    1992-01-01

    in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats. (December 1992) Yu-Chyu Chen, B. S. , D. V. M. National Chung-Hsing University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Stephen H. Safe This study investigated the hepatic effects of the following commercial polychlorinated...) monoortho coplanar PCBs, (b) diortho coplanar PCB s. 20 induced rat hepatic microsomal AHH activities (Alvares et al. , 1977; Stonard et al. , 1976; Parkinson et al. , 1983). However, Parkinson et al. (1983) reported that 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'- and 2, 2...

  10. Effects of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) on Oocyte and Fertility of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Ghasemi, Aazam; Alaee, Sanaz; Aliabadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background Our previous studies revealed Anethum graveolens L. caused some changes in female reproductive system that induced infertility. Therefore, in this study, oocyte changes as one of probable reasons of infertility were investigated. Methods In this study, 59 adult female rats were divided into 3 groups of control, low dose (0.5 g/kg) and high dose (5 g/kg) of dill seed aqueous extract (LDE and HDE) treated groups that were gavaged with 1 ml of each dose for 10 days (2 estrous cycles). Vaginal smears were prepared daily. Oocytes of superovulated animals were extracted and their morphometrical changes were measured (n = 5). Oocyte cell membrane glycoconjugates were stained with UEA, PNA, and DBA-FITC lectins (n = 5). Ultrastructural studies of oocytes were performed using TEM (n = 5). The number, weight, and crown-rump length of newborns were examined in three groups after mating with untreated males (n = 5). Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Results demonstrated that the duration of the estrous cycle, the diestrus phase and progesterone concentration in the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Granulosa cells of corpus luteum in HDE-treated group were larger and clearer. The intensity reactions of galactose/Nacetylgalactoseamine terminal sugar of oocyte decreased insignificantly in experimental groups compared to the control group p > 0.05. Duration of mating to pregnancy increased and the weight and crown-rump length of newborns decreased in experimental groups significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusion Dill seed aqueous extract can induce infertility without any effect on oocyte structure. PMID:25717430

  11. Female-Specific Induction of Rat Pituitary Dentin Matrix Protein-1 by GnRH

    PubMed Central

    Kucka, Marek; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Clokie, Samuel J. H.; Klein, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic GnRH is the primary regulator of reproduction in vertebrates, acting via the G protein-coupled GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in pituitary gonadotrophs to control synthesis and release of gonadotropins. To identify elements of the GnRHR-coupled gene network, GnRH was applied in a pulsatile manner for 6 hours to a mixed population of perifused pituitary cells from cycling females, mRNA was extracted, and RNA sequencing analysis was performed. This revealed 83 candidate-regulated genes, including a large number coding for secreted proteins. Most notably, GnRH induces a greater than 600-fold increase in expression of dentin matrix protein-1 (Dmp1), one of five members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein gene family. The Dmp1 response is mediated by the GnRHR, not elicited by other hypothalamic releasing factors, and is approximately 20-fold smaller in adult male pituitary cells. The sex-dependent Dmp1 response is established during the peripubertal period and independent of the developmental pattern of Gnrhr expression. In vitro, GnRH-induced expression of this gene is coupled with release of DMP1 in extracellular medium through the regulated secretory pathway. In vivo, pituitary Dmp1 expression in identified gonadotrophs is elevated after ovulation. Cell signaling studies revealed that the GnRH induction of Dmp1 is mediated by the protein kinase C signaling pathway and reflects opposing roles of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK; in addition, the response is facilitated by progesterone. These results establish that DMP1 is a novel secretory protein of female rat gonadotrophs, the synthesis and release of which are controlled by the hypothalamus through the GnRHR signaling pathway. This advance raises intriguing questions about the intrapituitary and downstream effects of this new player in GnRH signaling. PMID:24085820

  12. Caffeine acting on pregnant rat myometrium: analysis of its relaxant action and its failure to release Ca2+ from intracellular stores.

    PubMed Central

    Savineau, J. P.; Mironneau, J.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of caffeine on mechanical activity was studied in pregnant rat myometrium. 2. In muscle cells with intact plasmalemmae, caffeine (0.1-50 mM) produced no contraction whatever the experimental conditions. 3. Caffeine (0.1-10 mM) inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, contractions induced by electrical stimulation, potassium-rich (60 mM K+) solution, sodium-free solution or oxytocin (22.5 nM). 4. In Ca2(+)-free solution, various substances (oxytocin, sodium orthovanadate and prostaglandin E2) evoked sustained contractions that were suppressed by caffeine (5-10 mM). When caffeine (greater than 5 mM) was applied during Ca2(+)-loading of the tissue (2.1 mM Ca2+, 5 min) in the presence of a K(+)-rich solution, the subsequent transient contraction induced by a short application (10s) of oxytocin (22.5 nM) in Ca-free solution was reduced (63 +/- 3.5% reduction for 20 mM caffeine, n = 4). 5. In saponin-skinned strips, application of caffeine (5-10 mM) during loading of the Ca2(+)-store increased the subsequent contraction induced by myo-inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3, 10 microM). Caffeine (10-30 mM) decreased calcium-activated contractions in skinned fibres lacking a functional internal Ca-store. This effect was reduced by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Thr-Thr-Tyr-Ala-Asp-Phe-Ile-Ala-Ser-Gly-Arg-Thr-Gly-Arg-Arg-Asn-Ala-Ile- His-Asp (8 microM). 6. In conclusion, it is suggested that the inability of caffeine to cause spasm of rat myometrium is due to the absence of a caffeine-sensitive calcium-release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2328393

  13. Regional enhancement of cannabinoid CB1 receptor desensitization in female adolescent rats following repeated ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Burston, James J; Wiley, Jenny L; Craig, Abimbola A; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Disruption of the substantial re-organization of the brain during adolescence may be induced by persistent abuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine whether adolescent and adult rats exhibit differential adaptation of brain cannabinoid (CB1) receptors after repeated exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats of both ages and sexes were dosed with 10 mg kg?1 THC or vehicle twice daily for 9.5 days. Subsequently, CB1 receptor function and density were assessed. KEY RESULTS In all brain regions, THC treatment produced desensitization and down-regulation of CB1 receptors. While the magnitude of down-regulation did not differ across groups, greater desensitization was evident in the brains of THC-treated female adolescent rats for most regions. Adolescent females showed greater desensitization than adult females in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray (PAG) and ventral midbrain. In contrast, adolescent males exhibited less desensitization in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and PAG, an effect opposite to that seen in females. With the exception of the PAG, sex differences were seen only in adolescents, with greater desensitization in the prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, PAG, and ventral midbrain of females. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that the brains of adolescent females may be particularly vulnerable to disruption of CB1 receptor signalling by marijuana abuse. Alternatively, increased desensitization may reflect protective adaptation. Given the extensive re-organization of the brain during adolescence, this disruption has potential long-term consequences for maturation of the endocannabinoid system. PMID:20718743

  14. Dietary lipids during early pregnancy differently influence adipose tissue metabolism and fatty acid composition in pregnant rats with repercussions on pup's development.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Flavia S; Sardinha, Fatima L C; Badia-Villanueva, Miriam; Carulla, Pere; Herrera, Emilio; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G

    2012-04-01

    Pregnant rats received soybean (SO), olive (OO), fish (FO) and linseed (LO) oil diets from conception to d12 of gestation (early diets) and standard diet thereafter. At d12 and d20 the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was evaluated in maternal adipose tissues (ATs). Fatty Acid (FA) profile was determined in maternal lumbar AT (LAT), in milk and in pup's plasma and brain. LPL activity was higher in ATs at d12 than d20, all groups presenting hypertriglyceridemia at d20. At d12, the LO diet resulted higher LPL activity and incorporation of 18:3 n-3 into LAT. FA profile in maternal LAT at d20 and colostrum was similar to early diets, reflected also in FA composition of pup's plasma. In FO, brain phospholipids had higher 22:6 n-3 without affecting arachidonic acid. These results suggest that specifics dietary FA in early pregnancy modulates lipid metabolism and the provision of LC-PUFA in milk and pups brain. PMID:22444486

  15. Factors affecting mammary tumor incidence in chlorotriazine-treated female rats: hormonal properties, dosage, and animal strain.

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, J C; Tennant, M K; Wetzel, L T; Breckenridge, C B; Stevens, J T

    1994-01-01

    Chlorotriazines are widely used in agriculture as broadleaf herbicides. The compounds specifically inhibit photosynthesis, and, as such, display little interaction with animal systems. However, a 24-month feeding study with atrazine (ATR) revealed a significant dose-related increase of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Because numerous studies indicated that ATR had a low mutagenic and oncogenic potential, it was decided to test a hypothesis that the herbicide possessed endocrine activity. Among tests for estrogenic action, oral dosing of ATR up to 300 mg/kg did not stimulate uterine weight of ovariectomized rats. However, ATR administration did reduce estrogen-stimulated uterine weight gain. Further evidence of inhibition came from measures of [3H]-thymidine incorporation into uterine DNA of ATR-treated immature rats. Again, no intrinsic estrogenic activity was observed up to a 300-mg/kg dose. In vitro, ATR competed poorly against estradiol binding to cytosolic receptors, with an approximate IC50 of 10(-5) M. Atrazine administration to SD and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats for 12 months, up to 400 ppm in food, was correlated with significant alterations of estrous cycling activity; but there was a divergent strain response. SD rats showed an increased number of days in vaginal estrus, increased plasma estradiol, and decreased plasma progesterone by 9 to 12 months of treatment. F-344 rats did not demonstrate treatment-related affects. A study of ultrastructure in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of female SD rats that were fed diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), an ATR metabolite, suggested that age-associated glial pathology was enhanced by treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 8. PMID:7737039

  16. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

  17. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

  18. Improvement of urethral sphincter deficiency in female rats following autologous skeletal muscle myoblasts grafting.

    PubMed

    Praud, Christophe; Sebe, Philippe; Biérinx, Anne-Sophie; Sebille, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Sphincteric deficiency is the most common cause of urinary incontinence in humans. Various treatments have lead to disappointing results due to a temporary benefit. Recent studies raised the possibility that sphincteric deficiency could be treated by implanting skeletal myoblasts. In the present study, we developed in the female rat a model of chronic sphincteric defect to assess the benefit of myoblast injection. Sphincter deficiency was induced by freezing, longitudinal sphincterotomy, and notexin injection, respectively, to obtain a reproducible and irreversible incontinence. Autologous tibialis anteriors were cultured to be injected in the best model. Functional results were evaluated by measuring the urethral pressure with an open catheter. Histology was performed in the excised urethras. Of the three techniques, only longitudinal sphincterotomy caused definitive incontinence by irreversibly destroying the striated sphincter muscle fibers: a 45% decrease of the closure pressure was observed 21 days after the sphincterotomy. At this time, we injected myoblasts at the sphincterotomy site. In the sham-injected group (n = 18), the closure pressure decrease was not significantly modified 21 days after injection. By comparison, a return to near normal value was observed after cell grafting (n = 21). These results and those obtained by others strongly suggest that the use of myoblasts could be a potential innovative therapy for urethral deficiencies leading to incontinence. PMID:18019363

  19. The perimenopausal aging transition in the female rat brain: decline in bioenergetic systems and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Yao, Jia; Sancheti, Harsh; Feng, Tao; Melcangi, Roberto C; Morgan, Todd E; Finch, Caleb E; Pike, Christian J; Mack, Wendy J; Cadenas, Enrique; Brinton, Roberta D

    2015-07-01

    The perimenopause is an aging transition unique to the female that leads to reproductive senescence which can be characterized by multiple neurological symptoms. To better understand potential underlying mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause, the present study determined genomic, biochemical, brain metabolic, and electrophysiological transformations that occur during this transition using a rat model recapitulating fundamental characteristics of the human perimenopause. Gene expression analyses indicated two distinct aging programs: chronological and endocrine. A critical period emerged during the endocrine transition from regular to irregular cycling characterized by decline in bioenergetic gene expression, confirmed by deficits in fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) brain metabolism, mitochondrial function, and long-term potentiation. Bioinformatic analysis predicted insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (AMPK/PGC1?) signaling pathways as upstream regulators. Onset of acyclicity was accompanied by a rise in genes required for fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Subsequent chronological aging resulted in decline of genes required for mitochondrial function and ?-amyloid degradation. Emergence of glucose hypometabolism and impaired synaptic function in brain provide plausible mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause and may be predictive of later-life vulnerability to hypometabolic conditions such as Alzheimer's. PMID:25921624

  20. The effects of rhodium on the renal function of female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Fontana, Luca; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Calabrese, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the increased use of rhodium (Rh) as an active catalyst material in modern three-way automobile catalytic converters has led to a parallel rise in environmental levels of this metal. In spite of this, the literature contains few studies of the effects of Rh on human health. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of Rh on the renal function of female Wistar rats. Our findings show that sub-acute exposure to six increasing concentrations, ranging from 0.001 to 1 mg L(-1), of Rh (III) chloride hydrate in drinking water does not induce alterations in urinary albumin levels, while, at concentrations from 0.1 to 1 mg L(-1), a significant rise in urinary levels of Retinol Binding Protein is evident and an increasing trend in urinary ?2-microglobulin, which becomes significant at 1 mg L(-1), is observed. These results therefore demonstrate a nephrotoxic action of Rh at tubular level in a wide range of doses. Interestingly, because of the recent increase in environmental Rh levels, these findings may have relevant implications both for occupationally exposed subjects and for the general population, especially children. PMID:24321336

  1. Persistent exercise attenuates nicotine- but not clonidine-induced antinociception in female rats.

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Kanarek, Robin B.

    2007-01-01

    Exercise decreases the antinociceptive effects of opiate drugs. It has been hypothesized that the exercise-induced attenuation of opiate drug action is the result of the development of cross-tolerance between endogenous opioids released during exercise and exogenous opiates. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of exercise on non-opiate antinociception. Female Long-Evans rats were allowed ad lib access to running wheels. After three weeks, antinociceptive responses of animals were measured using the tail flick test following the administration of clonidine or nicotine. Nicotine and clonidine both produced dose-dependent increases in antinociceptive responses. Active animals were significantly less sensitive to nicotine-induced antinociception than inactive animals. There was no difference between the two groups in clonidine-induced antinociception. The results of these experiments suggest that exercise does not attenuate non-opioid, clonidine-induced antinociception. However, exercise does attenuate nicotine-induced antinociception. Therefore, the effect of persistent exercise on analgesic drugs is not specific to opiates. PMID:17197014

  2. Effects of tobacco smoke constituents, anabasine and anatabine, on memory and attention in female rats.

    PubMed

    Levin, Edward D; Hao, Ian; Burke, Dennis A; Cauley, Marty; Hall, Brandon J; Rezvani, Amir H

    2014-10-01

    Nicotine has been well characterized to improve memory and attention. Nicotine is the primary, but not only neuroactive compound in tobacco. Other tobacco constituents such as anabasine and anatabine also have agonist actions on nicotinic receptors. The current study investigated the effects of anabasine and anatabine on memory and attention. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a win-shift spatial working and reference memory task in the 16-arm radial maze or a visual signal detection operant task to test attention. Acute dose-effect functions of anabasine and anatabine over two orders of magnitude were evaluated for both tasks. In the radial-arm maze memory test, anabasine but not anatabine significantly reduced the memory impairment caused by the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801). In the signal detection attentional task, anatabine but not anabasine significantly attenuated the attentional impairment caused by dizocilpine. These studies show that non-nicotine nicotinic agonists in tobacco, similar to nicotine, can significantly improve memory and attentional function. Both anabasine and anatabine produced cognitive improvement, but their effectiveness differed with regard to memory and attention. Follow-up studies with anabasine and anatabine are called for to determine their efficacy as therapeutics for memory and attentional dysfunction. PMID:25122040

  3. The effects of olfactory bulbectomy and chronic psychosocial stress on serum glucocorticoids and sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, G W; McGinnis, M Y; Lumia, A R

    1992-10-01

    The effects of olfactory bulb removal (OBX) and chronic psychosocial stress on serum glucocorticoids and sexual behavior were assessed in female rats primed with a subthreshold level of estradiol (E2). Ovariectomized females underwent either OBX or sham surgery. Half of the OBX and half of the sham animals were exposed to chronic psychosocial stress (crowding, strobe light, and intermittent noise) for one-half h per day for 27 days. On day 22, three blood samples were collected from each animal for serum corticosterone analysis; 1) before, 2) during, and 3) after acute stress (one-half h restraint). On day 28, females were exposed to either 4 or 24 h of E2. On day 29, all females received 500 micrograms progesterone (P) 4 h prior to sexual behavior testing. Sexual receptivity was measured using the lordosis quotient (LQ = [number of lordotic responses/10 mounts] x 100). Sexual proceptivity (dart and ear wiggling sequences) and rejection (number of nonlordotic responses to mount attempts) were measured throughout a 10-min test period. Results showed that chronic psychosocial stress dramatically increased sexual receptivity and proceptivity while decreasing sexual rejection in female rats primed with a subthreshold level of E2. Chronic psychosocial stress also elevated serum glucocorticoids and significantly exacerbated the glucocorticoid response to acute stress. OBX, while increasing sexual receptivity and decreasing sexual rejection, had no effect on serum glucocorticoids. These findings support the hypothesis that OBX potentiates female sexual behavior directly through an increase in neural sensitivity to E2. In contrast, the enhancing effect of chronic psychosocial stress on female sexual behavior may result from alterations of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system. PMID:1409949

  4. Proestrous Surge of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion Inhibits Apoptosis of Anterior Pituitary Cells in Cycling Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Yin; Jun Arita

    2002-01-01

    Estrogen affects apoptotic cell death in estrogen-responsive tissues. The purpose of the present study was to examine dynamic changes in apoptotic cell death in the anterior pituitary gland during the estrous cycle and to investigate neuroendocrine regulation of these changes in cycling female rats. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) for in situ detection of DNA strand breaks revealed

  5. Effect of chronic treatments with GH, melatonin, estrogens, and phytoestrogens on oxidative stress parameters in liver from aged female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Kireev; A. F. Tresguerres; E. Vara; C. Ariznavarreta; J. A. F. Tresguerres

    2007-01-01

    The aging theory postulates that this process may be due to the accumulation of oxidative damage in cells and molecules. The\\u000a present study has investigated the effect of castration in old female rats on various parameters related to the antioxidant\\u000a properties of several cellular fractions obtained from the liver, and the influence of several chronic treatments on it, both\\u000a in

  6. A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ANTIFERTILITY ACTIVITY OF A TRITERPENOID GLYCOSIDE (DSS) FROM DALBERGIA SAXATILIS IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. UCHENDU; T. N. KAMALU; I. U. ASUZU

    2000-01-01

    Antifertility activity of a triterpenoid glycoside, DSS, isolated from the root of Dalbergia saxatilis was investigated in female Wistar rats of breeding age. When administered by gastric intubation at a dose rate of 200 mg kg?1body weight at the premating period, conception was inhibited in 71.4% of the treated animals. Fertility Index (FI) for this group was 107.82 compared with

  7. Different Serotonin Receptor Types Participate in 5-Hydroxytryptophan-Induced Gonadotropins and Prolactin Release in the Female Infantile Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Lacau-Mengido; Carlos Libertun; Damasia Becú-Villalobos

    1996-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors can be classified into at least three, possibly up to seven, classes of receptors. They comprise the 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 classes, the ‘uncloned’ 5-HT4 receptor and the recombinant receptors 5-ht5, 5-ht6 and 5-ht7. We investigated the role of different serotonin receptor types in a neuroendocrine response to the activation of the serotonergic system. Female immature rats

  8. Impact of diet on ozone-induced pulmonary and systemic effects in female Brown Norway (BN) rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impact of diet on ozone-induced pulmonary and systemic effects in female Brown Norway (BN) ratsV.L. Bass1, M.C. Schladweiler2, S. Snow5, C.J. Gordon4, K.A. Jarema4, P. Phillips4, A.D. Ledbetter2, D.B. Miller3, J.E. Richards2, U.P. Kodavanti2. 1. SPH, UNC, Chapel Hill2. EPHD, NHE...

  9. Early Postnatal Effects of Noopept and Piracetam on Declarative and Procedural Memory of Adult Male and Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Trofimov; T. A. Voronina; L. S. Guzevatykh

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8–20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural,

  10. Exposure to a high-fat diet decreases sensitivity to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced motor effects in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Jenny L.; Jones, Amanda R.; Wright, M. Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, a fatty acid component of neuronal cell membranes, forms the backbone of endogenous ligands of the endocannabinoid system. The lipid nature of this system may make it particularly susceptible to changes in fat content of the diet, which may, in turn, affect endocannabinoid tone and subsequent changes in receptor expression or activity. The latter would also be expected to affect responses to exogenous cannabinoids. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a high-fat diet on sensitivity to the pharmacological effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC). Male and female Long-Evans rats were fed either a diet of standard rodent chow or chow enhanced with corn oil. Subsequently, they were repeatedly assessed for ?9-THC-induced hypomobility, catalepsy and hypothermia. Female rats that received the high fat diet beginning in adolescence or in adulthood became significantly less sensitive to the effects of ?9-THC on motor behavior, but not its hypothermic effects, with faster development of decreased sensitivity in female rats that began the high-fat diet as adults. In contrast, diet-induced differences either did not occur, or were less pronounced, in male rats of both ages. After acute injection, brain and blood levels of ?9-THC and its two primary metabolites were similar regardless of diet. Combined with the fact that diet differentially affected only some of the measures, these results suggest that pharmacokinetic differences cannot fully account for the effects of the high-fat diet on response to ?9-THC. Further, these results suggest that dietary fat content may represent an important consideration in predicting the effects of marijuana in females. PMID:20850461

  11. A preliminary evaluation of antifertility activity of a triterpenoid glycoside (DSS) from Dalbergia saxatilis in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Uchendu, C N; Kamalu, T N; Asuzu, I U

    2000-05-01

    Antifertility activity of a triterpenoid glycoside, DSS, isolated from the root of Dalbergia saxatilis was investigated in female Wistar rats of breeding age. When administered by gastric intubation at a dose rate of 200 mg kg(-1)body weight at the premating period, conception was inhibited in 71.4% of the treated animals. Fertility Index (FI) for this group was 107.82 compared with 373.5 value for control rats that received 30% aqueous Tween 20 vehicle. DSS, did not significantly alter the fertility of rats at the first and second trimesters of pregnancy but did cause a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the mean Day 20 foetal crown-rump length when administered at the premating period and at the third trimester of pregnancy; with a concurrent decline in the mean maternal body weights. The potential use of DSS as a chemosterilant in fertility control are discussed. PMID:10753550

  12. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID ACTIVITY IN THE FEMALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid activity in the female rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations. Goldman JM, Laws SC, Balchak SK, Cooper RL, Kavlock RJ. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National H...

  13. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls differentially affects cerebellar development and motor functions in male and female rat neonates.

    PubMed

    Nguon, K; Baxter, M G; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E M

    2005-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) interacts with genetics and impacts the course of the central nervous system (CNS) development in both humans and animals. To test the hypothesis that the neurobehavioral impairments, and specifically motor dysfunctions following perinatal PCB exposure in rats are associated with changes in a specific brain region, the cerebellum, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior, cerebellar structure, and protein expression in rat neonates exposed to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254, 10.0 mg/kg/day) from gestational day 11 until postnatal day (P) 21 with that of controls. Body mass of PCB-exposed pups was not affected at birth, but was significantly lower than that of controls between birth and weaning; by P21 the difference was greater in females than in males. A1254 exposure delayed ear unfolding and impaired performance on the following behavioral tests: (1) righting response on P3-P6; (2) negative geotaxis on P5-P7; (3) startle response on P10-P12; and (4) a rotorod on P12, with PCB-male pups more severely affected than female. Changes in the behavior of PCB pups were associated with changes in cerebellar structure and protein expression. Cerebellar mass was more reduced in PCB-male than PCB-female pups. Analysis of selected cerebellar proteins revealed an increase in GFAP expression, greater in male than in female, and a decrease in L1 expression in both sexes. These results suggest that PCB exposure affects behavior and cerebellar development differently in male and female rat neonates, with greater effects in males. Further studies of neonatal PCB exposure will establish whether the environmental pollutants can contribute to the sex-related preponderance of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:16035193

  14. Central endogenous angiotensin-(1–7) protects against aldosterone/NaCl-induced hypertension in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongming; Johnson, Ralph F.; Guo, Fang; Hay, Meredith; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to male rodents, females are protected against angiotensin (ANG) II- and aldosterone (Aldo)-induced hypertension. However, the mechanisms underlying this protective effect are not well understood. ANG-(1–7) is formed from ANG II by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and has an antihypertensive effect in the central nervous system (CNS). The present study tested the hypothesis that central ANG-(1–7) plays an important protective role in attenuating the development of Aldo/NaCl-hypertension in female rats. Systemic infusion of Aldo into intact female rats with 1% NaCl as their sole drinking fluid resulted in a slight increase in blood pressure (BP). Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of A-779, an ANG-(1–7) receptor (Mas-R) antagonist, significantly augmented the pressor effects of Aldo/NaCl. In contrast, systemic Aldo/NaCl induced a significant increase in BP in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats, and central infusion of ANG-(1–7) significantly attenuated this Aldo/NaCl pressor effect. The inhibitory effect of ANG-(1–7) on the Aldo/NaCl pressor effect was abolished by concurrent infusion of A-779. RT-PCR analyses showed that there was a corresponding change in mRNA expression of several renin-angiotensin system components, estrogen receptors and an NADPH oxidase subunit in the lamina terminalis. Taken together these results suggest that female sex hormones regulate an antihypertensive axis of the brain renin-angiotensin system involving ACE2/ANG-(1–7)/Mas-R that plays an important counterregulatory role in protecting against the development of Aldo/NaCl-induced hypertension. PMID:23812385

  15. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tavafzadeh, Somayeh Sadat; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Chen, Chee Keong; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Hung, Leong Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise). Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1?g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation. PMID:26176016

  16. Differential effects of complement activation products c3a and c5a on cardiovascular function in hypertensive pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Lillegard, Kathryn E; Loeks-Johnson, Alex C; Opacich, Jonathan W; Peterson, Jenna M; Bauer, Ashley J; Elmquist, Barbara J; Regal, Ronald R; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Regal, Jean F

    2014-11-01

    Early-onset pre-eclampsia is characterized by decreased placental perfusion, new-onset hypertension, angiogenic imbalance, and endothelial dysfunction associated with excessive activation of the innate immune complement system. Although our previous studies demonstrated that inhibition of complement activation attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension using the rat reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model, the important product(s) of complement activation has yet to be identified. We hypothesized that antagonism of receptors for complement activation products C3a and C5a would improve vascular function and attenuate RUPP hypertension. On gestational day (GD) 14, rats underwent sham surgery or vascular clip placement on ovarian arteries and abdominal aorta (RUPP). Rats were treated once daily with the C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRA), PMX51 (acetyl-F-[Orn-P-(D-Cha)-WR]), the C3a receptor antagonist (C3aRA), SB290157 (N(2)-[(2,2-diphenylethoxy)acetyl]-l-arginine), or vehicle from GD 14-18. Both the C3aRA and C5aRA attenuated placental ischemia-induced hypertension without affecting the decreased fetal weight or decreased concentration of free circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) also present in this model. The C5aRA, but not the C3aRA, attenuated placental ischemia-induced increase in heart rate and impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation. The C3aRA abrogated the acute pressor response to C3a peptide injection, but it also unexpectedly attenuated the placental ischemia-induced increase in C3a, suggesting nonreceptor-mediated effects. Overall, these results indicate that both C3a and C5a are important products of complement activation that mediate the hypertension regardless of the reduction in free plasma VEGF. The mechanism by which C3a contributes to placental ischemia-induced hypertension appears to be distinct from that of C5a, and management of pregnancy-induced hypertension is likely to require a broad anti-inflammatory approach. PMID:25150279

  17. Feeding soy protein isolate (SPI) does not result in an estrogenic gene expression profile in the mammary of ovariectomized (OVX) female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns of increased breast cancer risk in women consuming soy exist because of the perceived estrogenicity of soy isoflavones. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (N equals 20/group) were fed AIN-93G diets with casein or SPI as the protein from PND30. On PND50 rats were OVX and 10/group infused s.c. with 5...

  18. A high fructose diet does not affect amphetamine self-administration or spatial water maze learning and memory in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily C. Bruggeman; Chen Li; Amy P. Ross; James M. Doherty; Bonnie F. Williams; Kyle J. Frantz; Marise B. Parent

    2011-01-01

    High energy diets can have a detrimental effect on brain plasticity. For example, a high fructose diet impairs spatial memory in male rats. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a high fructose diet impairs another form of learning and memory: drug reinforcement learning. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high fructose diet (60%) from weaning at

  19. Effect of dietary flaxseed on fatty acid composition, superoxide, nitric oxide generation and antilisterial activity of peritoneal macrophages from female Sprague-Dawley rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma S. Babu; V. Kelly Bunning; Paddy Wiesenfeld; Richard B. Raybourne; Michael O'Donnell

    1997-01-01

    The impact of ground flaxseed (FS) or flaxseed meal (FSM) diets on the fatty acid composition and functions of rat peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) was determined Female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats (10\\/group) were fed isocaloric AIN-76 diets supplemented with 0.0, 10.0% (ww) FS or 6.2% (ww) FSM. At the end of 56-days, rat serum and thioglycollate-elicited PEC were analyzed for total

  20. Effects of amphetamine exposure in adolescence or young adulthood on inhibitory control in adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Waldman, Alex J; Gulley, Joshua M

    2014-04-15

    Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27-45) or adulthood (P85-103). Starting on P125-135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a "premature response" phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963

  1. Rodent ultrasonic communication: Male prosocial 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations elicit social approach behavior in female rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Willadsen, Maria; Seffer, Dominik; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Wöhr, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), which serve as situation-dependent affective signals with important communicative functions. Low-frequency 22-kHz USV typically occur in aversive situations, such as social defeat, whereas high-frequency 50-kHz USV can be observed in appetitive situations, like rough-and-tumble-play in juveniles or mating in adults. The 2 main USV types serve distinct communicative functions and induce call-specific behavioral responses in the receiver. While 22-kHz USV probably serve as alarm calls, 50-kHz USV appear to serve a prosocial communicative function in the sexual and the nonsexual context. In the sexual context, however, this view has recently been challenged by playback studies where only very limited behavioral changes were observed in response to prosocial 50-kHz USV. The aim of the present study was therefore to test whether female rats display social approach behavior in response to male prosocial 50-kHz USV by means of our established playback paradigm. To this aim, we exposed female rats to playback of the following 2 acoustic stimuli: (a) natural male 50-kHz USV and (b) time- and amplitude-matched white noise, with the latter serving as acoustic control for novelty-induced changes in behavior not linked to the communicative function of male prosocial 50-kHz USV. Our present findings show that female rats display high levels of social approach behavior in response to male prosocial 50-kHz USV, but not time- and amplitude-matched white noise, supporting the conclusion that male prosocial 50-kHz USV are likely to play an important role in establishing social proximity and possibly regulate mating behavior. PMID:24188619

  2. Behavioral, Biochemical, and Molecular Indices of Stress are Enhanced in Female Versus Male Rats Experiencing Nicotine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Oscar V.; Gentil, Luciana G.; Natividad, Luis A.; Carcoba, Luis M.; O’Dell, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a major factor that promotes tobacco use and relapse during withdrawal. Although women are more vulnerable to tobacco use than men, the manner in which stress contributes to tobacco use in women versus men is unclear. Thus, the goal of this study was to compare behavioral and biological indices of stress in male and female rats during nicotine withdrawal. Since the effects of nicotine withdrawal are age-dependent, this study also included adolescent rats. An initial study was conducted to provide comparable nicotine doses across age and sex during nicotine exposure and withdrawal. Rats received sham surgery or an osmotic pump that delivered nicotine. After 14?days of nicotine, the pumps were removed and controls received a sham surgery. Twenty-four hours later, anxiety-like behavior and plasma corticosterone were assessed. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), amygdala, and hypothalamus were examined for changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) gene expression. In order to differentiate the effects of nicotine withdrawal from exposure to nicotine, a cohort of rats did not have their pumps removed. The major finding is that during nicotine withdrawal, adult females display higher levels of anxiety-like behavior, plasma corticosterone, and CRF mRNA expression in the NAcc relative to adult males. However, during nicotine exposure, adult males exhibited higher levels of corticosterone and CRF mRNA in the amygdala relative to females. Adolescents displayed less nicotine withdrawal than adults. Moreover, adolescent males displayed an increase in anxiety-like behavior and an up-regulation of CRF mRNA in the amygdala during nicotine exposure and withdrawal. These findings are likely related to stress produced by the high doses of nicotine that were administered to adolescents to produce equivalent levels of cotinine as adults. In conclusion, these findings suggest that intense stress produced by nicotine withdrawal may contribute to tobacco use in women. PMID:23730292

  3. Effects of amphetamine exposure in adolescence or young adulthood on inhibitory control in adult male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Waldman, Alex J.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27–45) or adulthood (P85–103). Starting on P125–135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a “premature response” phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963

  4. Effect of specific acute stressors on luteinizing hormone release in ovariectomized and ovariectomized estrogen-treated female rats.

    PubMed

    Briski, K P; Sylvester, P W

    1988-03-01

    In order to ascertain the influence of gonadal steroid hormones on the secretory response of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal luteinizing hormone (LH) axis to acute stress, the effects of four specific stressors on LH release were compared in ovariectomized versus ovariectomized steroid-treated rats. Groups of adult female Copenhagen-Fischer 344 rats were ovariectomized for either 1 or 2 weeks and exposed for specific intervals to one of the following stressors: novel environment, strobe light, restraint, or swim. Additional groups of animals were ovariectomized for 2 weeks and injected with 10 micrograms estradiol benzoate 24 and 48 h prior to exposure to the same stress stimuli. Multiple blood samples were obtained from these and nonstressed experimental controls at specific time points before, during, and after stress exposure. Transfer of 1-week ovariectomized rats to a novel environment, followed by a return to their original quarters 30 min later, resulted in a well-defined pattern of increased LH release. Novel environment stress also stimulated LH release in 2-week ovariectomized rats, as indicated by the comparison of mean LH values from the pre-stress versus post-stress sampling periods by paired test. Strobe light stress, on the other hand, had no effect on circulating LH in 1-week ovariectomized rats, but significantly increased mean post-stress plasma LH levels compared to mean pre-stress values in 2-week ovariectomized rats. While exposure to either 15 min of restraint or 10 min of swim stress had no effect on LH in rats ovariectomized for 1 week, both of these stressors resulted in a marked decline in LH release in 2-week ovariectomized animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3362302

  5. Estrogen replacement therapy in diabetic ovariectomized female rats potentiates postischemic leukocyte adhesion in cerebral venules via a RAGE-related process

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao-Liang; Vetri, Francesco; Lee, Hae-Kyung; Ye, Shuhua; Paisansathan, Chanannait; Mao, Lizhen; Tan, Fulong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the documented transformation of 17?-estradiol (E2) from a counterinflammatory hormone in nondiabetic (ND) rats to a proinflammatory agent in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM) is due to an enhanced contribution from the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Rhodamine 6G-labeled leukocytes were observed through a closed cranial window in rats. In vivo pial venular leukocyte adherence and infiltration were measured over 10 h reperfusion after transient forebrain ischemia in DM (streptozotocin) versus ND intact, ovariectomized (OVX), and E2-replaced (for 7–10 days) OVX (OVE) females. The role of RAGE was examined in two ways: 1) RAGE knockdown via topical application of RAGE antisense versus missense oligodeoxynucleotide or 2) intracerebroventricular injection of the RAGE decoy inhibitor, soluble RAGE. Among diabetic rats, the lowest levels of cortical RAGE mRNA and immunoreactivity of the RAGE ligand, AGE, were seen in OVX females, with significantly higher levels exhibited in intact and OVE females. However, results from the analysis of cortical RAGE protein only partially tracked those findings. When comparing ND to DM rats, cortical AGE immunoreactivity was significantly lower in OVE and intact females but similar in OVX rats. In DM rats, the level of postischemic leukocyte adhesion and infiltration (highest to lowest) was OVE > intact >> untreated OVX. In NDs, adhesion was highest in the untreated OVX group. Leukocyte extravasation was observed at >6 h postischemia but only in diabetic OVE and intact females and in ND OVX (untreated) rats. Pretreatment with RAGE antisense-oligodeoxynucleotide or soluble RAGE attenuated postischemic leukocyte adhesion and prevented infiltration but only in the diabetic OVE and intact groups. These results indicate that the exacerbation of postischemic leukocyte adhesion by chronic E2 replacement therapy in diabetic OVX females involves a RAGE-related mechanism. Targeting RAGE may restore the neuroprotective effect of E2 replacement therapy in diabetic females. PMID:19820198

  6. n-3 PUFAs have beneficial effects on anxiety and cognition in female rats: Effects of early life stress.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; Kelly, Philip; Ariffin, Nurbazilah; Cryan, John F; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G

    2015-08-01

    Stressful life events, especially those in early life, can exert long-lasting changes in the brain, increasing vulnerability to mental illness especially in females. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) play a critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, we investigated the influence of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture on stress-related behavioural and neurobiological responses. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation (MS) procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS) and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1g/kg/day, respectively. In adulthood, EPA/DHA treated animals had a dose dependent reduction in anxiety in NS rats. Furthermore, cognitive performance in the novel object recognition task (NOR) was improved by EPA/DHA treatment in NS animals only. EPA/DHA 1g/kg/day decreased behavioural despair in the forced swim test. Notably, EPA/DHA high dose increased the translocation of GRs into the nucleus of NS rat hippocampus. However, the levels of mBDNF remained unchanged in all the experimental groups. The corticosterone response to an acute stress was blunted in MS rats and this was further attenuated by pre-treatment with EPA/DHA. Immune response and monoamine neurotransmission were significantly altered by early-life stress. In conclusion, our study supports the view that n-3 PUFAs are beneficial in neurodevelopmentally normal animals but have little positive benefit in animals exposed to early life stress. PMID:25965872

  7. Inhibition of temporomandibular joint input to medullary dorsal horn neurons by 5HT3 receptor antagonist in female rats.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, K; Katagiri, A; Rahman, M; Thompson, R; Bereiter, D A

    2015-07-23

    Repeated forced swim (FS) conditioning enhances nociceptive responses to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) stimulation in female rats. The basis for FS-induced TMJ hyperalgesia remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that serotonin 3 receptor (5HT3R) mechanisms contribute to enhanced TMJ nociception after FS, ovariectomized female rats were treated with estradiol and subjected to FS for three days. On day 4, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and TMJ-responsive neurons were recorded from superficial and deep laminae at the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical (Vc/C1-2) region and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from the masseter muscle. Only Vc/C1-2 neurons activated by intra-TMJ injections of ATP were included for further analysis. Although neurons in both superficial and deep laminae were activated by ATP, only neurons in deep laminae displayed enhanced responses after FS. Local application of the 5HT3R antagonist, ondansetron (OND), at the Vc/C1-2 region reduced the ATP-evoked responses of neurons in superficial and deep laminae and reduced the EMG response in both sham and FS rats. OND also decreased the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in deep laminae and reduced the high-threshold convergent cutaneous receptive field area of neurons in superficial and deep laminae in both sham and FS rats. These results revealed that central application of a 5HT3R antagonist, had widespread effects on the properties of TMJ-responsive neurons at the Vc/C1-2 region and on jaw muscle reflexes under sham and FS conditions. It is concluded that 5HT3R does not play a unique role in mediating stress-induced hyperalgesia related to TMJ nociception. PMID:25913635

  8. EFFECTS OF ESTROGEN AND AGING ON THE SYNAPTIC DISTRIBUTION OF PHOSPHORYLATED AKT-IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE CA1 REGION OF THE FEMALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Murat; Janssen, William G.M.; Lou, W.Y. Wendy; Akama, Keith T.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Milner, Teresa A.; Morrison, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The estrogen 17?-estradiol (E) increases the axospinous synaptic density and plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region of young female rats but fails to do so in aged female rats. This E stimulus on synaptic plasticity is associated with the phosphorylation-dependent activation of Akt kinase. Our previous findings demonstrated that increased estrogen levels subsequently increase phosphorylated Akt (pAkt)-immunoreactivity (-IR) within the dendritic shafts and spines of pyramidal neurons in young female rats. Therefore, because Akt can promote cell survival and growth, we tested the hypothesis that the less plastic synapses of aged female rats would contain less E-stimulated pAkt-IR. Here, young (3-4 months) and aged (22-23 months) female rats were ovariectomized seven days prior to a 48-hour administration of either vehicle or E. The pAkt-IR synaptic distribution was then analyzed using post-embedding electron microscopy. In both young and aged rats, pAkt-IR was found in dendritic spines and terminals, and pAkt-IR was particularly abundant at the post-synaptic density. Quantitative analyses revealed that the percentage of pAkt-labeled synapses was significantly greater in young rats compared to aged rats. Nonetheless, E treatment significantly increased pAkt-IR in pre- and post-synaptic profiles of both young and aged rats, although the stimulus in young rats was notably more widespread. These data support the evidence that hormone-activated signaling associated with cell growth and survival is diminished in the aged brain. However, the observation that E can still increase pAkt-IR in aged synapses presents this signaling component as a candidate target for hormone replacement therapies. PMID:20709039

  9. Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Sample, Camille H; Davidson, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared with diets high in energy, fat, and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared with those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a "Westernized" diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain, and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively bred Crl:OP[CD] rats and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (diet-induced obese [DIO] rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a "Westernized" diet and already prone to excess weight gain. PMID:23398432

  10. A high cholesterol diet elevates hippocampal cytokine expression in an age and estrogen-dependent manner in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Danielle K; Bake, Shameena; Thomas, Kristen; Jezierski, Melinda K; Sohrabji, Farida

    2010-01-01

    Background: While the effects of a proatherogenic diet have been widely studied in the context of systemic inflammation, much less is known about its effects on central or brain inflammation and its modulation with age. In this study, we examined the effect of a high cholesterol/choline diet in adult and older acyclic females to assess its impact on systemic and central inflammatory markers. Moreover, since the loss of ovarian hormones at menopause may predispose women to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, we also tested the impact of estrogen replacement to adult and older females in diet-induced inflammation. Methods: Ovariectomized adult female rats and older (reproductive senescent) female rats were replaced with estrogen or a control pellet and maintained thereafter on a diet containing either 4% cholesterol/1% choline or control chow for 10 weeks. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?) expression in the liver was used as a marker of systemic inflammation, while a panel of cytokine/chemokines were used to examine the effects of diet on the hippocampus. Results: IL-1? expression was elevated in the liver of adult and reproductive senescent females fed with the high cholesterol diet, although this was restricted to groups that were ovariectomized and not replaced with estrogen. Estrogen-treated animals of both ages did not have elevated IL-1? levels when fed the high cholesterol diet. Diet-induced changes in cytokine/chemokine expression in the hippocampus however were critically age dependent and restricted to the reproductive senescent females. In this group, the high cholesterol diet led to an increase in interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-13, RANTES (Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). Moreover, estrogen treatment to reproductive senescent females suppressed diet-induced expression of specific cytokines (RANTES, VEGF, IL-6) and attenuated the expression of others (IL-4, IL-12p70, IL-13). Conclusions: These data indicate that a proatherogenic diet presents a significant risk for central inflammation in older females that are deprived of estrogen treatment. PMID:20435353

  11. Effect of castration on renal glycosaminoglycans and their urinary excretion in male and female rats with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, C.C.S.; Tovar, A.M.F.; Guimarăes, M.A.M.; Bregman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) participate in a variety of processes in the kidney, and evidence suggests that gender-related hormones participate in renal function. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of GAGs, gender, and proteinuria in male and female rats with chronic renal failure (CRF). GAGs were analyzed in total kidney tissue and 24-h urine of castrated (c), male (M), and female (F) Wistar control (C) rats (CM, CMc, CF, CFc) and after 30 days of CRF induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (CRFM, CRFMc, CRFF, CRFFc). Total GAG quantification and composition were determined using agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. Renal GAGs were higher in CF compared to CM. CRFM presented an increase in renal GAGs, heparan sulfate (HS), and proteinuria, while castration reduced these parameters. However, CRFF and CRFFc groups showed a decrease in renal GAGs concomitant with an increase in proteinuria. Our results suggest that, in CRFM, sex hormones quantitatively alter GAGs, mainly HS, and possibly the glomerular filtration barrier, leading to proteinuria. The lack of this response in CRFMc, where HS did not increase, corroborates this theory. This pattern was not observed in females. Further studies of CRF are needed to clarify gender-dependent differences in HS synthesis. PMID:23970064

  12. Modulation of Steroidogenic Pathway in Rat Granulosa Cells with Subclinical Cd Exposure and Insulin Resistance: An Impact on Female Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Belani, Muskaan; Purohit, Nupur; Pillai, Prakash; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Sarita

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle lead to insulin resistance (IR) in females ultimately predisposing them towards infertility. In addition, cadmium (Cd), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is reported for detrimental effects on granulosa cells, thus leading to ovarian dysfunction. A combination of these factors, lifestyle and environment, seems to play a role in etiology of idiopathic infertility that accounts for 50% amongst the total infertility cases. To address this issue, we made an attempt to investigate the extent of Cd impact on insulin-resistant (IR) granulosa cells. We exposed adult female Charles Foster rats to dexamethasone and confirmed IR condition by fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI). On treatment of IR rats with Cd, the preliminary studies demonstrated prolonged estrous cyclicity, decrease in serum estradiol concentrations, abnormal histology of ovary, and increased granulosa cell death. Further gene and protein expression studies of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSD), and cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) were performed. Protein expression studies demonstrated significant decrease in treated groups when compared with control. Study revealed that, in spite of the molecular parameters being affected at varied level, overall ovarian physiology is maximally affected in IR and Cd coexposed group, thus mimicking the condition similar to those prevailing in infertile females. PMID:25210711

  13. Oral p-tert-octylphenol exposures induce minimal toxic or estrogenic effects in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sahambi, Sukhdeep K; Pelland, Amelie; Cooke, Gerard M; Schrader, Timothy; Tardif, Robert; Charbonneau, Michel; Krishnan, Kannan; Haddad, Sami; Cyr, Daniel G; Devine, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) has raised concerns about potential health hazards for humans and wildlife. Human and wildlife exposure to one such ubiquitous chemical, p-tert-octylphenol (OP), are likely, due to its persistence in the environment and its presence in food, water, and items of daily use. OP is reported to bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and alter expression of estrogen-responsive genes. Detrimental effects of OP exposures on the reproductive system have been observed in most, but not all, in vivo experiments. This study examined estrogenic effects of oral exposures of adult female rats to OP. In vitro, OP bound weakly to human ER and a co-activator protein, and accelerated proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given OP by gavage daily for 35 d (25, 50, or 125 mg/kg/d). Body and organ weights and ovarian follicle populations were not significantly altered in OP-exposed adult rats, despite detectable levels of OP in reproductive organs. The estrous cycle of rats was slightly altered, but there were no significant estrogen-like changes in histomorphology or gene expression of the uterus. Prepubertal rats given 125 or 250 mg/kg OP by gavage for 3 d had reduced body weight compared to vehicle-exposed rats but failed to show any uterotrophic response, although 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE, 10 microg/kg/d, ip) induced a threefold increase in uterine weight. Overall, results suggest that toxicity will occur before estrogenic effects with oral exposures to OP. Relevant environmental exposures likely pose little risk for estrogenic effects. PMID:20391140

  14. Increased prepubertal body weight enhances leptin sensitivity in proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide y neurons before puberty onset in female rats.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, David; Fuente-Martín, Esther; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Pubertal onset may be advanced by obesity, with leptin potentially acting as a permissive factor. We hypothesized that having increased body weight (BW) prepubertally affects the ability of leptin to activate intracellular signaling pathways and modulate the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in reproduction and metabolism. Because being raised in small litters (SLs) tends to increase BW at weaning, female rats were raised in litters of 4 or large litters (LLs) of 12 pups. Leptin (3 ?g/g BW) or vehicle (saline) was injected sc at postnatal day (PND) 21 and 30. Rats raised in SLs weighed more at both ages, but relative visceral and subcutaneous fat was increased only on PND21. Serum leptin levels were not different at PND21 or PND30. At PND21, key elements of intracellular leptin signaling (phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and phosphorylated Akt [p-Akt]) were lower in SL than in LL rats. Leptin injection stimulated phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in both groups, with a greater increase in LL, whereas p-Akt rose only in SL rats. At PND30, basal leptin signaling did not differ between LL and SL rats. Leptin activation of Akt was similar at 45 minutes, but at 2 hours p-AKT levels were higher in SL than in LL rats, as was the decrease in neuropeptide Y mRNA and increase in pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA levels. No change in the reproductive axis was found. Thus, being raised in SLs increases BW and visceral body fat content, fails to increase plasma leptin concentrations, and increases the leptin responsiveness of both neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin cells in the prepubertal hypothalamus. PMID:25574789

  15. Disposition of Phenolic and Sulfated Metabolites after Inhalation Exposure to 4-Chlorobiphenyl (PCB3) in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PCBs, such as PCB3, are air contaminants in buildings and outdoors. Metabolites of PCB3 are potential endocrine disrupting chemicals and genotoxic agents. We studied the disposition of phenolic and sulfated metabolites after acute nose-only inhalation exposure to airborne PCB3 for 2 h in female rats. Inhalation exposure was carried out in three groups. In the first group, rats exposed to an estimated dose of 26 ?g/rat were euthanized at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after exposure. Highest concentrations of phenols and sulfates were observed at 0 h, and the values were 7 ± 1 and 560 ± 60 ng/mL in serum, 213 ± 120 and 842 ± 80 ng/g in liver, 31 ± 27 and 22 ± 7 ng/g in lung, and 27 ± 6 and 3 ± 0 ng/g in brain, respectively. First-order serum clearance half-lives of 0.5 h for phenols and 1 h for sulfates were estimated. In the second group, rats exposed to an estimated dose of 35 ?g/rat were transferred to metabolism cages immediately after exposure for the collection of urine and feces over 24 h. Approximately 45 ± 5% of the dose was recovered from urine and consisted mostly of sulfates; the 18 ± 5% of the dose recovered from feces was exclusively phenols. Unchanged PCB3 was detected in both urine and feces but accounted for only 5 ± 3% of the dose. Peak excretion of metabolites in both urine and feces occurred within 18 h postexposure. In the third group, three bile-cannulated rats exposed to an estimated dose of 277 ?g/rat were used for bile collection. Bile was collected for 4 h immediately after 2 h exposure. Biliary metabolites consisted mostly of sulfates, some glucuronides, and lower amounts of the free phenols. Control rats in each group were exposed to clean air. Clinical serum chemistry values, serum T4 level, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine were similar in treated and control rats. These data show that PCB3 is rapidly metabolized to phenols and conjugated to sulfates after inhalation and that both of these metabolites are distributed to liver, lungs, and brain. The sulfates elaborated into bile are either reabsorbed or hydrolyzed in the intestine and excreted in the feces as phenols. PMID:24988477

  16. Physiological changes induced by salt intake in female Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Lepr(fa) (SDT fatty) rat, a novel obese type 2 diabetic model.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Maki, Mimi; Sano, Ryuhei; Ishii, Yukihito; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Kakimoto, Kochi; Ohta, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    Salt plays an important role in the control of blood pressure in obesity and diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated physiological changes such as blood pressure and renal function in salt-loaded female Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Lepr(fa) (SDT fatty) rats. SDT fatty rats were given 1% NaCl in drinking water for 14 weeks, from 4 to 18 weeks of age. Significant salt-sensitive hypertension was observed in the salt-loaded SDT fatty rats. Moreover, the salt-loaded rats showed a decrease of creatinine clearance and deterioration on pathological renal findings, including glomerulosclerosis and tubular and interstitial lesions. Female SDT fatty rat is a useful model for investigating the mechanisms of high salt sensitivity in obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:24571912

  17. Genotoxicity assessment of cerium oxide nanoparticles in female Wistar rats after acute oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Monika; Kumari, Srinivas Indu; Kamal, Sarika Srinivas Kalyan; Grover, Paramjit

    2014-12-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs; nanoceria) have demonstrated excellent potential for commercial use in various arenas, such as in biomedical industry in cosmetics and as a fuel additive. However, limited knowledge exists regarding their potential toxicity. In this study, acute oral toxicity of CeO2 NPs and their microparticles (MPs; bulk) was carried out in female albino Wistar rats. The CeO2 NPs and CeO2 MPs were characterized utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for the size, distribution and surface charge respectively. The genotoxicity studies were conducted using micronucleus test (MNT), comet and chromosomal aberration (CA) assays. Results revealed that at high dose (1000mg/kg bw) CeO2 NPs induced significant DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and liver cells, micronucleus formation in bone marrow and blood cells and total cytogenetic changes in bone marrow. However, significant genotoxicity was not observed at 500 and 100mg/kg bw of CeO2 NPs. The findings from biochemical assays depicted significant alterations in ALP and LDH activity in serum and GSH content in liver, kidneys and brain only at the high dose of CeO2 NPs. Tissue biodistribution of both particles was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Bioaccumulation of nanoceria in all tissues was significant and dose-, time- and organ-dependent. Moreover, CeO2 NPs exhibited higher tissue distribution along with greater clearance in large fractions through urine and feces than CeO2 bulk, whereas, maximum amount of micro-sized CeO2 got excreted in feces. The histopathological examination documented alterations in the liver due to exposure with CeO2 NPs only. Hence, the results suggest that bioaccumulation of CeO2 NPs may induce genotoxic effects. However, further research on long term fate and adverse effects of CeO2 NPs is warranted. PMID:25435351

  18. Olanzapine reduced brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and locomotor activity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsheng; Lian, Jiamei; He, Meng; Deng, Chao; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-06-01

    Excessive weight gain has been identified as a serious metabolic side-effect of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), including olanzapine. While hyperphagia has been suggested to be the main contributor for this side-effect in the short term, reduced energy expenditure, in particular thermogenesis and locomotor activity, has been considered to contribute to the maintenance of heavy weight under long-term SGA treatments. Recent studies have identified metabolically active brown adipose tissues (BAT) in adult humans, suggesting potential clinical significance for the involvement of BAT thermogenesis in SGA-induced weight gain. However, to date there has been little research elucidating the central neuronal pathways affecting BAT thermogenesis or the morphological changes of the BAT. The present study aimed to investigate the role of BAT thermogenesis and locomotor activity in olanzapine-induced weight gain during the prolonged time courses of olanzapine treatment in an established female rat model. Although short- to mid-term olanzapine treatment had no effect on BAT temperature, we observed that long-term olanzapine treatment (from day 18 to 34) induced a significant reduction in BAT temperature, with an acute effect being observed between 45 and 150 min post-treatment in the long-term cohort. Additionally, in the long-term olanzapine group, the reduced BAT temperature was accompanied by decreased UCP1 and PGC-1? expressions in the BAT. Moreover, TH mRNA expressions in both hypothalamus and brainstem were also downregulated after mid- to long-term olanzapine treatment. Further, olanzapine led to reduced percentage of brown adipocytes in BAT during mid- to long-term treatments. Finally, locomotor activity was reduced throughout the three treatment cohorts. In summary, our results suggest that the reduction of BAT thermogenesis plays an important role during the long-term of olanzapine-induced weight gain, which was accompanied by an earlier onset of BAT adipocyte morphological changes and biochemical changes in the hypothalamus and the brainstem, while locomotor activity contributes to the entire olanzapine treatment courses. PMID:24548587

  19. COMPARING IMMUNOTOXICITY IN RATS AFTER IN UTERO VERSUS AN ADULT EXPOSURE: IS DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE MORE SENSITIVE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a known immunosuppresant, dexamethasone (DEX), pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were given subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of DEX (0.0, 0.0375, 0.075, 0.15, 0.3 mg/kg) during gestation days 6 to 21. Both male and female offspring were tested for immune dysfunction. In a ...

  20. Short-term timecourse of bilateral pudendal nerve injury on leak-point pressure in female rats.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Helen; Lin, Dan Li; Esparza, Nereida; Damaser, Margot S

    2005-01-01

    The pudendal nerve innervates the external urethral sphincter and, when injured, can contribute to incontinence development. This experiment was designed to study the time course of functional changes in the urethra after pudendal nerve crush in rats. Leak-point pressure (LPP) was measured 2, 4, 7, or 14 days after bilateral pudendal nerve crush and was compared to that of a control group. LPP at all four time points after nerve injury was significantly decreased compared to control values. A minimum was reached 4 days after injury, and LPP appeared to trend upward with increasing time after injury, suggesting that nerve function may begin to recover or compensatory changes in the urethra may occur. Pudendal nerve crush induces decreased LPP in female rats, mimicking the clinical symptoms of stress incontinence. When fully characterized, this model could be useful for preclinical testing of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. PMID:15742255

  1. Potent carcinogenicity of 2,7-dinitrofluorene, an environmental pollutant, for the mammary gland of female Sprague-Dawley rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danuta Malejka-Giganti; Gloria A. Niehans; Mark A. Reichert; Kristen K. Bennett; Robin L. Bliss

    Nitrofluorene compounds are environmental pollutants chiefly from incomplete combustion. This study examined carcinogenicities after one intramammary injection of 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 2,7-dinitrofluorene (2,7-diNF) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (solvent control) to 30-day- old and of 2-NF, 9-OH-2-NF, 9-oxo-2-NF, 2,7-diNF, 9-oxo-2,7-diNF, 2,5-dinitrofluorene, 9-oxo-2,4,7-trinitro- fluorene, N-OH-2-acetylaminofluorene ( N-OH-2-AAF) (carcinogen control) or DMSO to 50-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. In 30- and 50-day-old rats 6 and

  2. Liver tumor formation in female rat induced by fluopyram is mediated by CAR/PXR nuclear receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Tinwell, H; Rouquié, D; Schorsch, F; Geter, D; Wason, S; Bars, R

    2014-12-01

    Fluopyram is a broad spectrum fungicide targeting plant pathogenic fungi (eg. white dot, black mold, botrytis). During the general toxicity evaluation of fluopyram in rodents, the liver was identified as a target organ (hepatomegaly and liver hypertrophy were observed in all studies). At the end of the guideline carcinogenicity study, an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas was observed in female Wistar rats following exposure to the highest fluopyram dose evaluated (1500ppm). Short-term mechanistic studies (3, 7 or 28days of exposure) were conducted in the female rat to identify the initial key events responsible for the tumor formation and to establish thresholds for each of the early hepatic changes. Increased expression of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) inducible genes was recorded after each exposure period. Further confirmation of CAR/PXR activation was provided by increased activity of specific Phase I enzymes (PROD/BROD respectively). Increased hepatocellular proliferation (measured by Ki67) was observed after each exposure period with the greatest proliferative response occurring after 3days of treatment. In these studies, dose responses and clear thresholds were established for gene expression, enzyme activity and cell proliferation. Furthermore, these early hepatic changes were shown to be reversible following compound withdrawal. Other modes of action for liver tumor formation such as DNA damage, cytotoxicity and peroxisome proliferation were excluded during the investigations. In conclusion, fluopyram is a threshold carcinogen and the resultant hepatocellular carcinomas in the female rat are due to hepatocellular proliferation mediated by CAR/PXR activation. PMID:25305127

  3. Effect of immune stress on body weight regulation is altered by ovariectomy in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Iwasa; Toshiya Matsuzaki; Riyo Kinouchi; Ganbat Gereltsetseg; Masahiro Murakami; Hiroshi Nakazawa; Shinobu Fujisawa; Satoshi Yamamoto; Akira Kuwahara; Toshiyuki Yasui; Minoru Irahara

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that obesity and loss of ovarian function alter the inflammatory response to immune stress. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats, which are used as a model of human menopause, exhibit both hyperphagia-induced obesity and gonadal steroid deficiency. To evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on inflammatory responses, we compared the anorectic response to LPS in OVX rats and gonad intact

  4. A Preliminary 13Week Oral Toxicity Study of Ginger Oil in Male and Female Wistar Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kottarapat Jeena; Vijayastelter B. Liju; Ramadasan Kuttan

    2011-01-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, is a major spice extensively used in traditional medicine. The toxicity profile of ginger oil was studied by subchronic oral administration for 13 weeks at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg\\/kg per day to 6 groups of Wistar rats (5\\/sex per dose). Separate groups of rats (5\\/sex per group) received either paraffin oil (vehicle) or

  5. Biological Parameters for Evaluating the Toxic Potency of Petroleum Ether Extract of Wattakaka volubilis in Wistar Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Velmani; Agrawal, Nitin; Mandal, Subhash C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The present study investigated the toxic properties of petroleum ether extract of Wattakaka (W.) volubilis in Wistar female rats. Methods: An in vitro brine shrimp lethality bioassay was studied in A. Salina nauplii, and the lethality concentrations were assessed for petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis. A water soluble portion of the test extract was used in different concentrations from 100-1000 ?g/mL of 1 mg/mL stock solution. A 24-hours incubation with a 1-mL aliquot in 50 mL of aerated sea water was considered to calculate the percentage rate of dead nauplii with test extract administration against a potassium-dichromate positive control. The acute and the sub-acute toxicities of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were evaluated orally by using gavage in female Wistar rats. Food and water intake, body weight, general behavioral changes and mortality of animals were noted. Toxicity or death was evaluated following the administration of petroleum ether extract for 28 consecutive days in the female rats. Serum biochemical parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, glucose, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and ?-amylase levels, were measured in the toxicity evaluations. Pathological changes in isolated organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, were also examined using hematoxylin and eosin dye fixation after the end of the test extract’s administration. Results: The results of the brine-shrimp assay indicate that the evaluated concentrations of petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis were found to be non-toxic. In the acute and the sub-acute toxicity evaluations, no significant differences were observed between the control animals and the animals treated with extract of W. volubilis. No abnormal histological changes were observed in any of the animal groups treated with petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis. Conclusion: These results suggest that petroleum ether extract of W. volubilis has a non-toxic effect in Wistar female rats. PMID:25780704

  6. Early methyl donor deficiency alters cAMP signaling pathway and neurosteroidogenesis in the cerebellum of female rat pups.

    PubMed

    El Hajj Chehadeh, Sarah; Dreumont, Natacha; Willekens, Jérčmy; Canabady-Rochelle, Laetitia; Jeannesson, Elise; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Leininger-Muller, Brigitte

    2014-12-01

    Early deficiency of the methyl donors folate and vitamin B12 produces hyperhomocysteinemia and cognitive and motor disorders in 21-day-old rat pups from dams fed a diet deficient in methyl donors during gestation and lactation. These disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and altered synaptic plasticity in cerebellum. We aimed to investigate whether these disorders could be related to impaired expression of neurosteroidogenesis-associated proteins, key regulator receptors, and some steroid content in the cerebellum. The methyl donor deficiency produced a decreased concentration of folate and vitamin B12, along with accumulation of homocysteine in Purkinje cells in both sexes, whereas the S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio was reduced only in females. The transcription level and protein expression of StAR, aromatase, ER?, ER?, and LH receptors were decreased only in females, with a marked effect in Purkinje cells, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Consistently, reduced levels of estradiol and pregnenolone were measured in cerebellar extracts of females only. The decreased expression levels of the transcriptional factors CREB, phospho-CREB, and SF-1, the lesser increase of cAMP concentration, and the lower level of phospho-PKC in the cerebellum of deficient females suggest that the activation of neurosteroidogenesis via cAMP-mediated signaling pathways associated with LHR activation would be altered. In conclusion, a gestational methyl donor deficiency impairs neurosteroidogenesis in cerebellum in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:25294213

  7. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    PubMed Central

    Bogden, John D; Kemp, Francis W; Huang, Abigail E; Shapses, Sue A; Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina; Jagpal, Sugeet; Brown, Ian L; Birkett, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2), which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks) were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls) or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight) throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p < 0.05) and marginally lower BMD (p = 0.09) than rats not undergoing weight cycling. In comparison to controls, rats fed RS2 had higher femur BMD (p < 0.01) and BMC (p < 0.05), as well as higher values for BMD and BMC measured at the distal end (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01) and femoral neck (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Consistent with these findings, RS2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p < 0.05) and magnesium (p < 0.0001) concentrations. They also had higher lumbar vertebrae calcium (p < 0.05) and magnesium (p < 0.05) concentrations. Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A diet high in RS2 can minimize loss of bone mass during weight cycling and may increase bone mass in the absence of weight cycling. PMID:19036159

  8. Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Tetracarpidium Conophorum Nuts in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Female Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuli, Donatus Onukwufor; Brown, Holy; Ozoani, Harrison Anaezichukwuolu

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) was investigated in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into five groups (A–E) of four rats each. Diabetes were induced in the rats except four which served as the positive control group A. Groups B (negative control), C, D, and E contain diabetic rats each with blood sugar level ?17.00?mmol/L. Groups A and B were fed on 85.2?g of top feed grower over the test period. Test groups C, D, and E were fed on 21.3?g, 42.6?g, and 85.2?g of walnuts, respectively, and their fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were checked on daily basis. Fasting blood glucose levels of the test groups were significantly lower than negative control P < 0.05, for 3rd, 7th, and 10th days of the test. There were also significant increase in the body weight and hemoglobin concentration and a decreased urine output of the test group compared with the controls. These results indicate that Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) has an antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats. PMID:24944826

  9. Inhibition and recovery of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity following a single cutaneous dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone and in combination, in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (14-18 days of gestation) were treated with a single cutaneous subclinical dose(s) of 10 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) and 65 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of diazinon (O,O)-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidinyl phosphorothioate, and their combination. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Inhibition of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity has been determined. Methyl parathion significantly inhibited maternal and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity within 24 h after dosing. Diazinon and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon caused lesser inhibition compared with methyl parathion alone. Recovery of maternal and fetal brain AChE activity was in the order of diazinon > combination of diazinon and methyl parathion > methyl parathion 96 h after dosing. Although fetal plasma BuChE activity recovered to 100% of control within 96 h of application, maternal BuChE activity remained inhibited to 55% and 32% of control 96 h after application of methyl parathion and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon, respectively. Following a single dermal dose of methyl parathion, the activity of maternal liver BuChE was 63% of control 2 h after dosing, whereas inhibition of placental AChE or BuChE activity occurred 12 and 1 h following a single dose of methyl parathion, corresponding to activities of 63% and 54% of control, respectively. Diazinon, alone or in combination with methyl parathion, did not inhibit significantly the maternal liver BuChE or placental AChE and BuChE activity. The results suggest that dermal application of a single dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone or in combination, has an easy access into maternal and fetal tissues, resulting in inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. The lower inhibitory effect of the combination of methyl parathion and diazinon might be due to competition of diazinon with methyl parathion for cytochrome P-450 enzymes, resulting in formation of the potent cholinesterase inhibitor methyl paraoxon. The faster recovery of fetal cholinesterase enzymes is attributed to the rapid de novo synthesis of cholinesterase fetal tissues compared with the mother. PMID:11481665

  10. Inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes following a single dermal dose of chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion, alone and in combination, in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abdel-Rahman, A; Brownie, C; Kishk, A M; Abou-Donia, M B

    2001-06-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (14-18 d of gestation) were treated with either a single dermal subclinical dose of 30 mg/kg (15% of dermal LD50) chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl-O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl] phosphorothioate) or a single dermal subclinical dose of 10 mg/kg (15% of dermal LD50) methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) or the two in combination. Chlorpyrifos inhibited maternal and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity within 24 h of dosing, (48% and 67% of control activity, respectively). Following application of methyl parathion, peak inhibition of maternal and fetal brain AChE activity occurred at 48 h and 24 h after dosing (17% and 48% of control activity, respectively). A combination of chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion produced peak inhibition of maternal and fetal brain AChE activity at 24 h postdosing (35% and 73% of control activity, respectively). Maternal and fetal brain AChE activity recovered to various degrees of percentage of control 96 h after dosing. Application of methyl parathion or chlorpyrifos alone or in combination significantly inhibited maternal plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity. No significant inhibition of fetal plasma BuChE activity was detected. Peak inhibition of maternal liver BuChE occurred 24 h after application of methyl parathion or chlorpyrifos alone or in combination (64%, 80%, and 61% of control activity, respectively). Significant inhibition of placental AChE occurred within 24 h after application of methyl parathion or chlorpyrifos alone or in combination. The results suggest that methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos, alone or in combination, were rapidly distributed in maternal and fetal tissues, resulting in rapid inhibition of cholinesterase enzyme activities. The lower inhibitory effect of the combination could be due to competition between chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion for cytochrome P-450 enzymes, resulting in inhibition of the formation of the potent cholinesterase inhibitor oxon forms. The faster recovery of fetal plasma BuChE is attributed to the de novo synthesis of cholinesterase by fetal tissues compared to maternal tissues. PMID:11405414

  11. Testosterone and estradiol differentially affect cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of young adult gonadectomized male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Farinetti, A; Tomasi, S; Foglio, B; Ferraris, A; Ponti, G; Gotti, S; Peretto, P; Panzica, G C

    2015-02-12

    Steroid hormones are important players to regulate adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but their involvement in the regulation of the same phenomenon in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles is not completely understood. Here, in male rats, we tested the existence of activational effects of testosterone (T) on cell proliferation in the adult SVZ. To this aim, three groups of male rats: castrated, castrated and treated with T, and controls were treated with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and killed after 24h. The density of BrdU-labeled cells was significantly lower in castrated animals in comparison to the other two groups, thus supporting a direct correlation between SVZ proliferation and levels of circulating T. To clarify whether this effect is purely androgen-dependent, or mediated by the T metabolites, estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), we evaluated SVZ proliferation in castrated males treated with E2, DHT and E2+DHT, in comparison to T- and vehicle-treated animals, and sham-operated controls. The stereological analysis demonstrated that E2 and T, but not DHT, increase proliferation in the SVZ of adult male rats. Quantitative evaluation of cells expressing the endogenous marker of cell proliferation phosphorylated form of Histone H3 (PHH3), or the marker of highly dividing SVZ progenitors Mash1, indicated the effect of T/E2 is mostly restricted to SVZ proliferating progenitors. The same experimental protocol was repeated on ovariectomized female rats treated with E2 or T. In this case, no statistically significant difference was found among groups. Overall, our results clearly show that the gonadal hormones T and E2 represent important mediators of cell proliferation in the adult SVZ. Moreover, we show that such an effect is restricted to males, supporting adult neurogenesis in rats is a process differentially modulated in the two sexes. PMID:25481234

  12. Effects of acute and subchronic AT1 receptor blockade on cardiovascular, hydromineral and neuroendocrine responses in female rats.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Iracema Gomes; Elias, Lucila Leico Kagohara; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Reis, Luís Carlos; Mecawi, Andre Souza

    2013-10-01

    Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and separated into two groups that received either estradiol cypionate (EC, 40 ?g/kg, sc; OVX-EC) or vehicle (corn oil, sc; OVX-oil) for 14 consecutive days. On the 7th day of treatment, a subset of animals from both the OVX-oil and OVX-EC groups was subjected to subchronic losartan (AT1 receptor antagonist) treatment (0.1g/L in drinking water; ~15 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Other group of OVX-oil and OVX-EC rats was submitted to an acute losartan injection (100mg/kg, ip) on the 14th day of hormone replacement. In both protocols, the following parameters were measured: I) mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR); II) water and 0.3M saline intake; III) angiotensin II (ANG II), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) plasma concentrations; and IV) urinary and plasma sodium concentrations. Acute AT1 blockade induced a significant reduction in the MAP in the OVX rats, resulting in increased HR and water intake, which were attenuated by estradiol therapy. Acute AT1 blockade also increased ANG II and OT and reduced ANP plasma concentrations, with no changes in AVP secretion. In addition, acute hypotension was accompanied by a decrease in natriuresis, which was unaltered by estradiol. Subchronic AT1 blockade induced a significant decrease in MAP without changing HR in both groups. Additionally, subchronic losartan treatment induced sodium appetite in OVX rats. Prolonged AT1 blockade increased ANG II and AVP and reduced ANP plasma concentrations. Moreover, it increased natriuresis but did not alter plasma OT concentrations. Finally, estradiol treatment attenuated the increase in salt intake and plasma ANG II concentrations induced by subchronic AT1 blockade. In conclusion, our results suggest differential adaptive responses to the acute or subchronic losartan treatment in OVX and OVX-EC rats. PMID:23978402

  13. Neurokinin 3 Receptor-Expressing Neurons in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Modulate Heat-Dissipation Effectors in the Female Rat.

    PubMed

    Mittelman-Smith, Melinda A; Krajewski-Hall, Sally J; McMullen, Nathaniel T; Rance, Naomi E

    2015-07-01

    KNDy neurons facilitate tail skin vasodilation and modulate the effects of estradiol on thermoregulation. We hypothesize that KNDy neurons influence cutaneous vasodilation via projections to neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) that express the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R). In support of this hypothesis, focal microinjections of senktide, an NK3R agonist, into the MnPO lowers core temperature (TCORE) in the female rat. To further study the role of MnPO NK3R neurons in thermoregulation, these neurons were specifically ablated using a conjugate of a selective NK3R agonist and saporin (NK3-SAP). NK3-SAP or blank-SAP (control) was injected into the MnPO/medial septum. Tail skin temperature (TSKIN) and TCORE were measured in ovariectomized rats exposed to 3 ambient temperatures (TAMBIENT) before and after estradiol-17? (E2) treatment. Before killing, we injected senktide (sc), monitored TCORE for 70 minutes, and harvested brains for Fos immunohistochemistry. Ablation of MnPO NK3R neurons lowered TSKIN at neutral and subneutral TAMBIENT regardless of E2 treatment. However, ablation did not prevent the effects of E2 on TCORE and TSKIN. In control rats, senktide injections induced hypothermia with numerous Fos-immunoreactive cells in the MnPO. In contrast, in NK3-SAP rats, senktide did not alter TCORE and minimal Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in the MnPO. These data show that NK3R neurons in the MnPO are required for the hypothermic effects of senktide but not for the E2 modulation of thermoregulation. The lower TSKIN in NK3-SAP-injected rats suggests that MnPO NK3R neurons, like KNDy neurons, facilitate cutaneous vasodilation, an important heat-dissipation effector. PMID:25825817

  14. The impact of binge drinking on the young growing female rat skeleton

    E-print Network

    Gallagher, Sharon Lee

    1997-01-01

    Previous research indicated that chronic alcohol consumption has a detrimental impact on the skeleton in both humans and alcohol-fed rats. The decreased bone mass seen in alcoholics increases their risk for fractures over time and likely contributes...

  15. The impact of binge drinking on the young growing female rat skeleton 

    E-print Network

    Gallagher, Sharon Lee

    1997-01-01

    Previous research indicated that chronic alcohol consumption has a detrimental impact on the skeleton in both humans and alcohol-fed rats. The decreased bone mass seen in alcoholics increases their risk for fractures over ...

  16. Relative Importance of the Arcuate and Anteroventral Periventricular Kisspeptin Neurons in Control of Puberty and Reproductive Function in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, M H; Li, X F; McCausland, B; Li, S Y; Gresham, R; Kinsey-Jones, J S; Gardiner, J V; Sam, A H; Bloom, S R; Poston, L; Lightman, S L; Murphy, K G; O'Byrne, K T

    2015-07-01

    Kisspeptin plays a critical role in pubertal timing and reproductive function. In rodents, kisspeptin perikarya within the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei are thought to be involved in LH pulse and surge generation, respectively. Using bilateral microinjections of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding kisspeptin antisense into the ARC or AVPV of female rats at postnatal day 10, we investigated the relative importance of these two kisspeptin populations in the control of pubertal timing, estrous cyclicity, and LH surge and pulse generation. A 37% knockdown of kisspeptin in the AVPV resulted in a significant delay in vaginal opening and first vaginal estrous, abnormal estrous cyclicity, and reduction in the occurrence of spontaneous LH surges, although these retained normal amplitude. This AVPV knockdown had no effect on LH pulse frequency, measured after ovariectomy. A 32% reduction of kisspeptin in the ARC had no effect on the onset of puberty but resulted in abnormal estrous cyclicity and decreased LH pulse frequency. Additionally, the knockdown of kisspeptin in the ARC decreased the amplitude but not the incidence of LH surges. These results might suggest that the role of AVPV kisspeptin in the control of pubertal timing is particularly sensitive to perturbation. In accordance with our previous studies, ARC kisspeptin signaling was critical for normal pulsatile LH secretion in female rats. Despite the widely reported role of AVPV kisspeptin neurons in LH surge generation, this study suggests that both AVPV and ARC populations are essential for normal LH surges and estrous cyclicity. PMID:25875299

  17. Relative Importance of the Arcuate and Anteroventral Periventricular Kisspeptin Neurons in Control of Puberty and Reproductive Function in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, M. H.; Li, X. F.; McCausland, B.; Li, S. Y.; Gresham, R.; Kinsey-Jones, J. S.; Gardiner, J. V.; Sam, A. H.; Bloom, S. R.; Poston, L.; Lightman, S. L.; Murphy, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin plays a critical role in pubertal timing and reproductive function. In rodents, kisspeptin perikarya within the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei are thought to be involved in LH pulse and surge generation, respectively. Using bilateral microinjections of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding kisspeptin antisense into the ARC or AVPV of female rats at postnatal day 10, we investigated the relative importance of these two kisspeptin populations in the control of pubertal timing, estrous cyclicity, and LH surge and pulse generation. A 37% knockdown of kisspeptin in the AVPV resulted in a significant delay in vaginal opening and first vaginal estrous, abnormal estrous cyclicity, and reduction in the occurrence of spontaneous LH surges, although these retained normal amplitude. This AVPV knockdown had no effect on LH pulse frequency, measured after ovariectomy. A 32% reduction of kisspeptin in the ARC had no effect on the onset of puberty but resulted in abnormal estrous cyclicity and decreased LH pulse frequency. Additionally, the knockdown of kisspeptin in the ARC decreased the amplitude but not the incidence of LH surges. These results might suggest that the role of AVPV kisspeptin in the control of pubertal timing is particularly sensitive to perturbation. In accordance with our previous studies, ARC kisspeptin signaling was critical for normal pulsatile LH secretion in female rats. Despite the widely reported role of AVPV kisspeptin neurons in LH surge generation, this study suggests that both AVPV and ARC populations are essential for normal LH surges and estrous cyclicity. PMID:25875299

  18. The effects of scopolamine and methylscopolamine on visual and auditory discriminations in male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    van Haaren, F; van Hest, A

    1989-03-01

    The present experiment was designed to investigate whether or not the administration of scopolamine hydrobromide would differentially disrupt auditory or visual discrimination performance in male and female Wistar rats. Two groups of male and female Wistar rats were trained to discriminate between a continuous and intermittent visual stimulus, while two other groups were trained to discriminate between a continuous or intermittent auditory stimulus in a discrete-trial discrimination procedure. Once discrimination performance had stabilized, subjects were treated with different doses (0.125, 0.25, 0.50 or 1.0) of scopolamine hydrobromide or scopolamine methylbromide. Treatment effects were assessed with respect to discrimination performance, as well as with respect to the number of trials which were not completed. Scopolamine hydrobromide, but not scopolamine methylbromide, disrupted visual and auditory discrimination performance. The auditory discrimination was more seriously disrupted. However, both the administration of scopolamine hydrobromide and of scopolamine methylbromide increased the number of trials which were not completed suggesting that the accuracy of visual and auditory discriminations after drug treatment may have been influenced by other variables than drug effects on memory processes. Sex differences were not observed, neither with respect to discrimination performance, nor with respect to the number of trials which were not completed. PMID:2740423

  19. Effects of Oxytocin and Prolactin on Stress-Induced Bladder Hypersensitivity in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Timothy J.; Robbins, Meredith T.

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that chronic bladder pain improves while breastfeeding. The present study sought to identify potential mechanisms for such a phenomenon by investigating the effects of the lactogenic hormones prolactin (PL) and oxytocin (OXY) in a rat model of bladder nociception. Lactating rats were less sensitive to urinary bladder distension (UBD) than controls. In investigating potential antinociceptive and anxiolytic roles for these hormones, we found exposure to a footshock paradigm (STRESS groups) produced bladder hypersensitivity in saline-treated rats, manifested as significantly higher electromyographical (EMG) responses to UBD, compared to rats exposed to a non-footshock paradigm (SHAM groups). This hypersensitivity was attenuated by the intraperitoneal administration of OXY prior to footshock in the STRESS-OXY group. The administration of PL augmented EMG responses in the SHAM-PL group but had no effect on the responses of the STRESS-PL group. In the absence of behavioral pretreatment, OXY attenuated UBD-evoked responses while PL had no effect. Moreover, OXY-treated rats spent more time in the open arm of an elevated plus maze compared to saline-treated rats suggesting anxiolysis. These studies suggest the potential for systemic OXY, but not PL, as an analgesic and anxiolytic treatment for painful bladder disorders such as interstitial cystitis. PMID:19595642

  20. Potent carcinogenicity of 2,7-dinitrofluorene, an environmental pollutant, for the mammary gland of female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Malejka-Giganti, D; Niehans, G A; Reichert, M A; Bennett, K K; Bliss, R L

    1999-10-01

    Nitrofluorene compounds are environmental pollutants chiefly from incomplete combustion. This study examined carcinogenicities after one intramammary injection of 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 2, 7-dinitrofluorene (2,7-diNF) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (solvent control) to 30-day-old and of 2-NF, 9-OH-2-NF, 9-oxo-2-NF, 2,7-diNF, 9-oxo-2,7-diNF, 2,5-dinitrofluorene, 9-oxo-2,4,7-trinitrofluorene, N-OH-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-2-AAF) (carcinogen control) or DMSO to 50-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. In 30- and 50-day-old rats 6 and 8 glands/rat, respectively, were injected with 2.04 micromol of compound in 50 microliter/gland of DMSO. Whereas all compounds including DMSO yielded combined malignant and benign mammary tumor incidences of 33-87% by week 82 after injection, 2,7-diNF produced 100 and 93% incidences significantly (P < 0.001) sooner than did DMSO, i.e. by weeks 23-49 and 18-48 after treatment of 30- and 50-day-old rats, respectively. Rats treated with 2,7-diNF and 9-oxo-2,7-diNF had significantly (P < 0.0001) and marginally (P = 0. 0536) more mammary tumors, respectively, than DMSO-treated rats. In 2,7-diNF-treated rats, the ratio of malignant to benign mammary tumors was 5.4, whereas in all other groups it was <0.5. N-OH-2-AAF, a potent tumorigen when applied to the mammary gland as a solid or in suspension, did not yield the expected tumorigenicity here. The contrasting tumorigenic potencies of 2,7-diNF and N-OH-2-AAF may have been prompted by differences in their solubilities in DMSO. Thus, the poorly soluble 2,7-diNF was slowly absorbed from the injection sites since residues (up to 0.9% of the dose injected) were recovered even after 45 weeks. The data indicate prolonged exposure of the mammary gland to 2,7-diNF and suggest that contamination of the environment with 2,7-diNF, even at low levels, poses substantial carcinogenic risk. PMID:10506119

  1. Effects of chronic social stress in adolescence on anxiety and neuroendocrine response to mild stress in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    McCormick, C M; Smith, C; Mathews, I Z

    2008-03-01

    Using a rat model of adolescent social stress (SS, daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partner, 30-45 days of age), we have reported sex-specific effects on neuroendocrine function over the course of SS, and enduring effects of SS in females, and not males, on drug-related behaviour. Here, we investigated both the immediate and enduring impact of SS in adolescence on anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and determined the temporal pattern of corticosterone release after confinement to the open arm of the EPM. When tested as adolescents, SS decreased anxiety-like behaviour in females and had no effect in males. When tested as adults several weeks after the chronic stress, overall, SS tended to increase anxiety-like behaviour in both sexes. However, estrous cycle moderated the effect in females, in that reduced anxiety-like behaviour was observed for SS females in the estrous group. Confinement to the open arm of the EPM increased plasma corticosterone concentrations, which declined markedly upon return to home cage for all except adolescent control males for which corticosterone concentrations at 45 and 90 min were elevated compared other groups. Among controls, anxiety-like behaviour decreased in females and increased in males with age, and confinement to the open arm of the EPM led to a greater increase in corticosterone concentrations in adult males compared to adolescent males. In sum, modest effects of adolescent social stress were observable several weeks after the stress exposure, indicating that sex-specific developmental trajectories and vulnerability to anxiety may be shaped by experiences in adolescence. PMID:17945360

  2. Effects of perinatal methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on postweaning behaviors of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Delbert Law, C; Sahin, Leyla; Montenegro, Susan V

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a common treatment for adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, little information exists regarding its safety during pregnancy and thus, women with ADHD face difficult decisions regarding continued use during pregnancy. Thus, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated 3×/day with 0 (control), 6 (low), 18 (mid), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg/day (i.e., 0, 2, 6, or 14mg/kg at each treatment time) on gestational days 6-21. All offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose their dam had received on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21. After weaning, offspring were assessed for adolescent play behavior, locomotor activity, motor coordination, Barnes maze performance, acoustic startle response, novel object recognition, residential running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, home cage behavior, water maze performance, elevated plus maze behavior, locomotor response to an MPH challenge, and passive avoidance. At euthanasia, whole brain and striatal weights as well as serum hormone levels were measured. Body weights of the high MPH group were reduced in both sexes. Males of the high MPH group were less active than control males in open field assessments on PNDs 40-42. Latency to maximum acoustic startle was significantly altered in females of the medium and high MPH groups and residential running wheel activity of females of the low and medium MPH groups was lower than control females. Open arm entries in the elevated plus maze were increased in subjects of the medium MPH group. Females of the low MPH group were less sensitive to the locomotor-increasing effects of an acute 5mg/kg MPH challenge. Serum hormone levels and whole brain and striatal weights were not altered by prior MPH treatment. These results indicate that MPH treatment during development has sporadic effects on postweaning behaviors and those effects were generally exhibited by females. PMID:25514582

  3. The effect of Hoe-427 (an ACTH sub 4-9 analog) on free-choice ethanol consumption in male and female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, S.; Maickel, R.P. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol consummatory patterns of individual male and female rats and the effects of Hoe-427 (Ebiratide), and ACTH{sub 4-9} analog, thereon, were studied in a test system using 24 hour, two-bottle free choice consumption between 0.2% saccharin and 10% ethanol in 0.2% saccharin. Single, daily i.p. doses of either ACTH{sub 4-10} or its analog resulted in a significant reduction of daily ethanol consumption with no effects on saccharin consumption. After 4 days of treatment, male rats consistently exhibited a rebound increase in ethanol consumption; this effect was not seen in females. The daily ethanol consummatory patterns of the female animals seemed to exhibit a 4-6 day cyclic rhythymicity, suggesting an interaction with estrous cycles. These results support a role for ACTH{sub 4-10} in the initiation of ethanol consummatory behavior in rats and suggests the existence of sex differences in this phenomenon.

  4. Effects of 18-methoxycoronaridine on ghrelin-induced increases in sucrose intake and accumbal dopamine overflow in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Taraschenko, Olga D.; Hathaway, Ethan R.; Vincent, Melanie Y.; Glick, Stanley D.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a selective antagonist of ?3?4 nicotinic receptors, has been previously shown, in rats, to reduce the self-administration of several drugs of abuse, reduce operant responding for sucrose, and prevent the development of sucrose-induced obesity. It has become increasingly apparent that there is a significant overlap between the systems regulating drug reward and food intake, therefore, we investigated whether 18-MC might modulate the effects of ghrelin, one of several orexigenic peptides recently implicated in both feeding and drug reward. Objectives In female Sprague–Dawley rats, we determined whether acute 18-MC treatment would reduce both ghrelin-induced increases in sucrose intake and ghrelin-elicited increases in accumbal dopamine levels. Results Pretreatment with 18-MC (20 mg/kg, i.p.), given prior to the administration of ghrelin (1 µg, lateral ventricle), blocked ghrelin-induced increases in sucrose (5%) intake in a two-bottle open access paradigm. Using in vivo microdialysis, 18-MC (both 20 and 40 mg/kg) prevented ghrelin (2 µg, intraventral tegmental area)-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. 18-MC had no effect on deposition of fat or on serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol in ghrelin-treated rats. Conclusions The present results suggest that one potential mechanism by which 18-MC exerts its effects on palatable food consumption is via modulation of ghrelin’s effects. PMID:21210086

  5. Effects of chronic exercise and treatment with the antipsychotic drug olanzapine on hippocampal volume in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Barr, A M; Wu, C H; Wong, C; Hercher, C; Töpfer, E; Boyda, H N; Procyshyn, R M; Honer, W G; Beasley, C L

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that the hippocampus in schizophrenia patients is reduced in volume compared to the normal population. Antipsychotic medications have had mixed benefits in maintaining hippocampal volume or reversing volume loss. Recent evidence indicates that routine aerobic exercise represents a promising intervention for reversing hippocampal loss and cognitive deficits. In the present study, we measured the effects of chronic treatment with olanzapine and daily exercise on the hippocampal volumes of rats. Adult female rats were treated during the week with either olanzapine (10mg/kg) or vehicle for 9 consecutive weeks. Subgroups of animals were provided access to exercise running wheels for 1 or 3h per day during the same period, or were sedentary. Metabolic indices, including glucose tolerance, were measured on a weekly basis. At the conclusion of the study, brains were perfused and hippocampal sections were Nissl stained. Total hippocampal volume was measured using the Cavalieri estimator. Treatment with olanzapine caused a significant decrease in hippocampal volume in sedentary rats. However, exercise was able to reverse most of this volume loss. The hippocampal sub-regions of the dentate gyrus and CA1 were most strongly affected by olanzapine and exercise. Of interest, there was a strong and highly significant negative correlation between glucose intolerance and hippocampal volume, whereby greater glucose intolerance was associated with a smaller hippocampal volume. These findings indicate that exercise may have beneficial effects on the hippocampus when antipsychotic medication can contribute to changes in volume. PMID:24141179

  6. Biotransformation of the organophosphorus insecticides parathion and methyl parathion in male and female rat livers perfused in situ.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H X; Sultatos, L G

    1991-01-01

    Although numerous previous reports have characterized the mammalian biotransformation of the organophosphorus insecticides parathion and methyl parathion, questions still remain regarding the toxicological significance of certain metabolic pathways in vivo. The present study utilized rat liver perfusions in order to better characterize the hepatic biotransformation of parathion and methyl parathion in intact liver. Single-pass liver perfusions with parathion and methyl parathion over a range of perfusate concentrations of 10-80 microM resulted in the appearance of paraoxon and methyl paraoxon, respectively, in effluent. Furthermore, rat blood did not have the capacity to prevent transport of paraoxon and methyl paraoxon to extrahepatic tissues, suggesting that oxon produced hepatically can distribute to extrahepatic tissues. In addition, striking sex differences were noted in the metabolite profile of parathion and methyl parathion in perfused livers. However, these differences could not account for the observation that females are more susceptible to parathion, but less susceptible to methyl parathion, compared to males. And finally, S-methyl glutathione or S-p-nitrophenyl glutathione could not be detected in effluent or bile of livers from either sex perfused with methyl parathion, suggesting that glutathione-dependent detoxification of this insecticide does not occur to any significant degree in intact rat liver. PMID:1676657

  7. Early life inflammatory pain induces long-lasting deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Yoko O; Victoria, Nicole C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Murphy, Anne Z; Parent, Marise B

    2015-02-01

    The present experiment tested the hypothesis that neonatal injury disrupts adult hippocampal functioning and that normal aging or chronic stress during adulthood, which are known to have a negative impact on hippocampal function, exacerbate these effects. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraplantar injection of the inflammatory agent carrageenan (1%) on the day of birth and their memory was tested in the hippocampal-dependent spatial water maze in adulthood and again in middle age. We found that neonatal injury impaired hippocampal-dependent memory in adulthood, that the effects of injury on memory were more pronounced in middle-aged male rats, and that chronic stress accelerated the onset of these memory deficits. Neonatal injury also decreased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the dorsal CA1 area of middle-aged rats, a brain region critical for spatial memory. Morphine administration at the time of injury completely reversed injury-induced memory deficits, but neonatal morphine treatments in the absence of injury produced significant memory impairments in adulthood. Collectively, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that neonatal injury produces long-lasting disruption in adult hippocampal functioning. PMID:25451312

  8. Investigation of the teratogenic potential of a Zingiber officinale extract in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morten Sloth Weidner; Katrin Sigwart

    2000-01-01

    The teratogenicity of EV.EXT 33, a patented Zingiber officinale extract, was examined in Wistar SPF rats according to GLP Guidelines. EV.EXT 33 was administered by oral gavage in concentrations of 100, 333, and 1000 mg\\/kg, to three groups of 22 pregnant female rats from days 6 to 15 of gestation. For comparison, a fourth group received the vehicle, sesame oil.

  9. The Effects of Alcohol and Age on Astrocytes In Female Rats Following an Inflammatory Stimulus 

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Ashley

    2009-09-30

    adults and reproductive senescent females ethanol had no effect on the LPS-induced increase in nitric oxide (NO). Inflammation is a necessary process for the brain to fight infection or viruses and to remove cellular debris following injury. Prolonged...

  10. Estradiol and GPER Activation Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation but Not GPER Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Lieblich, Stephanie E.; Chow, Carmen; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol increases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the female rodent but it is not known whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a membrane receptor, is involved in this process, nor whether there are regional differences in estradiol’s effects on cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated whether estradiol exerts its effects on cell proliferation in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus through GPER, using the GPER agonist, G1, and antagonist, G15. Ovariectomized adult female rats received a single injection of either: 17?-estradiol (10 ?g), G1 (0.1, 5, 10 ?g), G15 (40 ?g), G15 and estradiol, or vehicle (oil, DMSO, or oil+DMSO). After 30 min, animals received an injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and were perfused 24 h later. Acute treatment with estradiol increased, while the GPER agonist G1 (5 ?g) decreased, the number of BrdU+ cells in the dentate gyrus relative to controls. The GPER antagonist, G15 increased the number of BrdU+ cells relative to control in the dorsal region and decreased the number of BrdU+ cells in the ventral region. However, G15 treatment in conjunction with estradiol partially eliminated the estradiol-induced increase in cell proliferation in the dorsal dentate gyrus. Furthermore, G1 decreased the expression of GPER in the dentate gyrus but not the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In summary, we found that activation of GPER decreased cell proliferation and GPER expression in the dentate gyrus of young female rats, presenting a potential and novel estrogen-independent role for this receptor in the adult hippocampus. PMID:26075609

  11. Effects of 17 beta-estradiol on serum hormone concentrations and estrous cycle in female Crl:CD BR rats: effects on parental and first generation rats.

    PubMed

    Biegel, L B; Cook, J C; Hurtt, M E; O'Connor, J C

    1998-08-01

    The recently passed Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires the U.S. EPA to implement screening strategies for endocrine active compounds (EACs) within the next 2 years. Interpreting results from screening tests is complicated by the absence of traditional dietary rodent bioassay data with model estrogenic compounds such as 17 beta-estradiol. Thus, a 90-day/one-generation reproduction study with 17 beta-estradiol was designed to: (1) provide such baseline data; (2) set dose levels for multigeneration reproduction and combined chronic toxicity/oncogenicity studies; and (3) evaluate various mechanistic/biochemical endpoints for inclusion in these follow-up studies. The current article describes the effects of dietary administration of 0, 0.05, 2.5, 10, and 50 ppm 17 beta-estradiol on the serum hormone concentrations and estrous cyclicity of female Crl:CD BR rats and evaluates a sampling strategy for measuring serum hormone levels in cycling female rats. Serum hormones were measured at three time points during a 90-day dietary exposure (1 week, 28 days, and 90 days) and in the F1 generation rats on postnatal day 98. Over the course of the 90-day feeding study for the P1 generation and from postnatal days 21 to 98 for the F1 generation, the estrous cycle was monitored daily in 10 rats/group. In P1 generation rats, dietary administration of 2.5, 10, and 50 ppm 17 beta-estradiol produced a dose-dependent increase in serum estradiol (E2) concentrations at all time points. In contrast, administration of 0.05, 2.5, 10, and 50 ppm 17 beta-estradiol produced a dose-dependent decrease in serum progesterone (P4) concentrations on test day 90, which correlated with an absence of corpora lutea and ovarian atrophy. At 10 and 50 ppm 17 beta-estradiol, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations were consistently decreased at all time points and were decreased at 2.5 ppm on test day 90. Serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations were increased at 50 ppm 17 beta-estradiol on test day 90. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were either similar to the control levels or minimally changed at all time points. No F1 generation rats were produced at 10 or 50 ppm 17 beta-estradiol. In F1 generation rats, serum E2 concentrations were increased and P4 concentrations were decreased at a dietary concentration of 2.5 ppm 17 beta-estradiol, while serum concentrations of LH, FSH, and PRL were similar to the control. Dietary administration of 17 beta-estradiol at concentrations of 2.5 (both generations) and 10 and 50 ppm (P1 generation only) produced marked effects on the estrous cycle: decreased number of cycles, increased mean cycle length, and decreased number of normally cycling rats. The estrous cyclicity of rats fed 2.5 ppm 17 beta-estradiol appeared more severely affected in rats of the F1 generation than in rats of the P1 generation. Whether this increase in severity is related to an in utero exposure and/or greater mean daily intake of 17 beta-estradiol in the F1 generation rats in the postnatal period is unclear. Another goal of this study was to evaluate whether a single time point sampling strategy using cycling female rats could be used to detect compound-related changes in serum hormone concentrations. In evaluating a sampling strategy for measuring serum hormone levels, it appears that detection of compound-related alterations in serum hormone concentrations can be best detected by sampling during diestrus. Since the stage of the cycle dramatically influences hormone concentrations, large sample sizes (n = 50) are needed if serum hormone measurements are not matched with the stage of the cycle. The data indicate that this strategy of measuring serum hormone concentrations has utility in detecting compound-related effects within the confines of a traditional guideline study (subchronic, chronic, or multigenerational reproduction study). PMID:9742653

  12. Pregnancy induces resistance to the anorectic effect of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA and the thermogenic effect of hypothalamic AMPK inhibition in female rats.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; Lage, Ricardo; González-García, Ismael; Ruíz-Pino, Francisco; Martins, Luís; Fernández-Mallo, Diana; Gallego, Rosalía; Fernř, Johan; Seńarís, Rosa; Saha, Asish K; Tovar, Sulay; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; López, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    During gestation, hyperphagia is necessary to cope with the metabolic demands of embryonic development. There were three main aims of this study: Firstly, to investigate the effect of pregnancy on hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism, a key pathway for the regulation of energy balance; secondly, to study whether pregnancy induces resistance to the anorectic effect of fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibition and accumulation of malonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) in the hypothalamus; and, thirdly, to study whether changes in hypothalamic AMPK signaling are associated with brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis during pregnancy. Our data suggest that in pregnant rats, the hypothalamic fatty acid pathway shows an overall state that should lead to anorexia and elevated BAT thermogenesis: decreased activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), FAS, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, coupled with increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase function with subsequent elevation of malonyl-CoA levels. This profile seems dependent of estradiol levels but not prolactin or progesterone. Despite the apparent anorexic and thermogenic signaling in the hypothalamus, pregnant rats remain hyperphagic and display reduced temperature and BAT function. Actually, pregnant rats develop resistance to the anorectic effects of central FAS inhibition, which is associated with a reduction of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression and its transcription factors phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and phospho-forkhead box O1. This evidence demonstrates that pregnancy induces a state of resistance to the anorectic and thermogenic actions of hypothalamic cellular signals of energy surplus, which, in parallel to the already known refractoriness to leptin effects, likely contributes to gestational hyperphagia and adiposity. PMID:25535827

  13. Serum levels of selected liver proteins following partial hepatectomy in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Hau, J; Cervinková, Z; O'Brien, D; Stodulski, G; Simek, J

    1995-04-01

    Liver regeneration in the rat following partial hepatectomy (PH) is a frequently used model to study regulatory mechanisms in relation to cell growth and differentiation. In the present study, we analysed quantitative changes in the peripheral circulation of a number of important serum proteins following PH and laparotomy. Alpha-fetoprotein synthesis was induced in the PH rats and remained at very low levels in non-operated controls. Pregnancy-associated murine protein-1 levels and fibronectin levels were lower in the circulation of all operated animals compared with the intact controls. The serum levels of alpha-2 macroglobulin were elevated in all operated animals compared with the non-operated controls. Circulating complement factors C3c and C4 were present at significantly lower levels in PH animals than in rats following laparotomy. Small growth stimulating molecules (< 10 kDa) synthesized by different organs during the regenerative process have been described in the literature, but dialysates of the spleen and liver from non-operated rats and PH rats showed no significant impact on serum levels of the proteins in the present study. PMID:7541490

  14. Acute and transient effects of stress on immunoreactive somatostatin cell bodies and fibers in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus and median eminence of female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maheep Bhatnagar

    1999-01-01

    Stress in rats causes acute release of hypothalamic somatostatin (SS) in median eminence (ME) that induces a marked and prolonged\\u000a suppression of growth hormone (GH) secretion. This was evidenced by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in\\u000a the present study. Adult female rats were decapitated under nonstress or for 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after 15 min leg restraint\\u000a stress.

  15. Twenty-week exposures to the drinking water disinfection by-product dibromoacetic acid: reproductive cyclicity and steroid concentrations in the female Sprague–Dawley rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley S. Murr; Jerome M. Goldman

    2005-01-01

    Elevated gavage exposures to the drinking water disinfection by-product dibromoacetic acid (DBA) have been found to disrupt estrous cyclicity in the rat and induce increases in estradiol concentrations in both cycling (day of estrus) and ovariectomized\\/estradiol-implanted females. The present study was designed to investigate both effects in Sprague–Dawley rats following an extended 20-week treatment with lower dosages of DBA administered

  16. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and other sex steroid hormones on mammary carcinogenesis by direct injection of 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) in hyperprolactinemic female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takafumi Kohama; Susumu Terada; Nobutaka Suzuki; Masaki Inoue

    1997-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate theeffects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) compared with those ofsex steroid hormones on the mammary tumor inducedby local injection of 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) inhyperprolactinemic female rats. Under sustained hyperprolactinemia induced bypimozide (PMZ) from day 21, DMBA was injectedlocally into the mammary glandular tissues on day73. Rats were divided into 5 groups asfollows; steroid free (DP

  17. Enhanced habituation and decreased anxiety by environmental enrichment and possible attenuation of these effects by chronic ?-tocopherol (vitamin E) in aging male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert N. Hughes; Michelle A. Collins

    2010-01-01

    Middle-aged 330-day-old male and female hooded rats were group-housed for nearly 5months in either standard cages, or in cages containing objects. Each cage also provided either pure water, or a solution of vitamin E (DL-?-tocopherol acetate) for drinking. Records were kept of averages for each cage of the rats' body weights and the volume of fluid\\/100g average body weight drunk.

  18. Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Enhances Closing Pressure and Leak Point Pressure in a Female Urinary Incontinence Rat Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Ouck Kim; Hee Sam Na; Dongdeuk Kwon; Soo Yeon Joo; Hyung Suck Kim; Youngkeun Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether periurethral injection of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could increase the leak point pressure (LPP) in a rat model of stress urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230–240 g, n = 30) were divided into 3 groups: sham operation (group C), saline-treated (group S) and MSC-treated (group M).

  19. The effect of developmental vitamin D deficiency in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats on decision-making using a rodent gambling task.

    PubMed

    Peak, J N; Turner, K M; Burne, T H J

    2015-01-01

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a plausible risk factor for schizophrenia that has been associated with behavioural alterations including disruptions in latent inhibition and response inhibition. The rodent gambling task (rGT) assesses risk-based decision-making, which is a key cognitive deficit observed in schizophrenia patients. The primary aim of this study was to examine risk-based decision-making in DVD-deficient and control rats on the rGT. We also evaluated the performance of female Sprague-Dawley rats on the rGT for the first time. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats from control and vitamin D deficient dams were trained to perform the rGT in standard operant chambers and their performance and choice-preferences were assessed. Female rats were significantly faster to reach rGT training criteria compared with male rats and DVD-deficient rats were faster to reach training criteria than control animals. After reaching stable performance on the rGT DVD-deficient and control rats showed a significant preference for the optimal choice-option in the rGT, but there were no significant effects of sex or diet on these responses. DVD deficiency did not alter the decision-making processes on the rGT because no significant changes in choice-preferences were evident. This is the first study to demonstrate that once established, the performance of females is comparable to male Sprague-Dawley rats on the rGT. PMID:25447469

  20. Leukemias and vaginal tumors induced in female Donryu rats by continuous administration of 1-butyl-3,3-dimethyl-1-nitrosourea in the drinking water.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, M; Maekawa, A; Tada, K; Odashima, S

    1976-06-01

    Three groups of Donryu rats, each consisting of 36 females, were continuously given solutions of 1-butyl-3,3-dimethyl-1-nitrosourea as drinking water (400 ppm for group A, 200 ppm for group B 100 ppm for group C). Of the 100 rats that survived at least 122 experimental days, 64 developed leukemia and 38 had vaginal tumors. Leukemias were preponderant in animals of groups A and B; vaginal tumors appeared in group C. PMID:994220

  1. Characterization of endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on hormonal balance disruption in male and female adult rats.

    PubMed

    Quignot, Nadia; Arnaud, Marine; Robidel, Franck; Lecomte, Anthony; Tournier, Mikaël; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Barouki, Robert; Lemazurier, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive functions are controlled by a finely tuned balance between estrogens and androgens. To further characterize the gonadal pathways leading to hormonal balance disruption by atrazine, vinclozolin, methoxychlor, and bisphenol A in rat, we investigated their effects in male and female young adult animals. Specifically, we assessed reproductive tract alterations, sex hormone balance in serum and gonads, tissue dosimetry, and mRNA expression. Remarkably, we observed different aromatase regulation profiles between animals with similar estrogen-to-androgen ratios but with different chemical treatments. For example, increased estrogen-to-androgen ratios in atrazine-treated females could be partly linked to aromatase upregulation, while in methoxychlor- and bisphenol A-treated females, peripheral mechanisms such as conjugation/deconjugation processes might be more likely to elevate estrogen levels. In vinclozolin-treated animals, the decreased estrogen-to-androgen ratios reported might be due to an increase of peripheral (adrenal) steroidogenesis. Thus, measurement of many endpoints is necessary for good risk assessment. PMID:22285353

  2. Scopolamine differentially disrupts the behavior of male and female Wistar rats in a delayed nonmatching to position procedure.

    PubMed

    van Hest, A; Stroet, J; van Haaren, F; Feenstra, M

    1990-04-01

    Evidence is available that pharmacological interference with the cholinergic system may disrupt behavior in experimental procedures designed to investigate learning and memory processes. Recently it has been suggested that the cholinergic system may be sexually dimorphic. The present experiment was designed to investigate whether or not manipulation of the cholinergic system differentially affected memory processes in both sexes. Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to a delayed nonmatching to position procedure and were challenged with increasing doses of scopolamine hydrobromide (a central and peripheral muscarinic receptor blocker) and scopolamine methyl bromide (which does not pass the blood-brain barrier). Response accuracy decreased in both sexes as the delay interval duration increased. Behavioral differences between saline-treated males and females were not observed. Response accuracy decreased dose-dependently after subjects were injected with scopolamine hydrobromide. Response accuracy also decreased after treatment with scopolamine methyl bromide, but to a smaller extent. Males showed less accurate responding after treatment with either drug than females. These results provide behavioral evidence for the hypothesis that cholinergic functioning may differ between the sexes. PMID:2345764

  3. Dietary agent indole-3-carbinol protects female rats against the hepatotoxicity of the antitumor drug ET-743 (trabectidin) without compromising efficacy in a rat mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Donald, Sarah; Verschoyle, Richard D; Greaves, Peter; Colombo, Tina; Zucchetti, Massimo; Falcioni, Cristiano; Zaffaroni, Marco; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Manson, Margaret M; Jimeno, Jose; Steward, William P; Gescher, Andreas J

    2004-10-10

    ET-743, an experimental antitumor drug with promising activity in sarcoma, breast and ovarian carcinoma, is currently under phase 2 clinical evaluation. It is hepatotoxic in animals and patients. We tested the hypothesis that indole-3-carbinol (I3C), the hydrolysis product of glucosinolates occurring in cruciferous vegetables, may protect against ET-743-induced hepatotoxicity in the female Wistar rat, the animal species with the highest sensitivity toward the adverse hepatic effect of this drug. Hepatotoxicity was adjudged by measurement of plasma levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and by liver histopathology. The effect of I3C on the kinetics of ET-743 in rat plasma and liver was investigated by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The effect of I3C on the antitumor efficacy of ET-743 was explored in rats bearing the 13762 mammary carcinoma. ET-743 (40 microg/kg i.v.) alone caused an elevation of plasma bilirubin, ALP and AST levels and degeneration and patchy focal necrosis of bile duct epithelial cells. Addition of I3C to the diet (0.5%) for 6 days prior to ET-743 administration almost completely abolished manifestations of hepatotoxicity. In contrast, a dietary concentration of 0.1% I3C did not protect, nor did dietary diindolylmethane (0.2%), an acid-catalyzed condensation product of I3C. Ingestion by rats of I3C for 6 days prior to ET-743 (40 microg/kg i.v.) decreased plasma but not hepatic concentrations of ET-743 compared to animals that received ET-743 alone. I3C did not interfere with the antitumor efficacy of ET-743. The results suggest that ingestion of I3C may counteract the unwanted effect of ET-743 in the liver. I3C should be investigated as a hepatoprotectant in patients who receive ET-743 therapy. PMID:15300810

  4. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Ca; Pereira, Maria Cs; Santana, Luana N da Silva; Fernandes, Rafael M; Teixeira, Francisco B; Oliveira, Gedeăo B; Fernandes, Luanna Mp; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas A; Prediger, Rui D; Crespo-López, Maria E; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael R; Maia, Cristiane do Socorro Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that heavy ethanol exposure in early life may produce long-lasting neurobehavioral consequences, since brain structural maturation continues until adolescence. It is well established that females are more susceptible to alcohol-induced neurotoxicity and that ethanol consumption is increasing among women, especially during adolescence. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats may induce hippocampal histological damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Female rats were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) by gavage from the 35(th)-90(th) day of life. Ethanol-exposed animals displayed reduced exploration of the central area and increased number of fecal boluses in the open field test indicative of anxiogenic responses. Moreover, chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence induced marked impairments on short-term memory of female rats addressed on social recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. These neurobehavioral deficits induced by ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood were accompanied by the reduction of hippocampal formation volume as well as the loss of neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that chronic high ethanol exposure during adolescence through early adulthood in female rats induces long-lasting emotional and memory deficits associated with morphological and molecular alterations in the hippocampus. PMID:25922423

  5. Eating high fat chow and the behavioral effects of direct-acting and indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists in female rats.

    PubMed

    Serafine, Katherine M; Bentley, Todd A; Grenier, Amandine E; France, Charles P

    2014-08-01

    Eating high fat chow increases the sensitivity of male rats to some behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole; it is not known whether sensitivity to quinpirole is similarly enhanced in female rats eating high fat chow. Female Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to standard chow (5.7% fat) or either free or restricted access (i.e. body weight matched to rats eating standard chow) to high fat (34.3% fat) chow. Quinpirole (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg) produced hypothermia and a low frequency of yawning. Eating high fat chow produced insulin resistance without affecting quinpirole-induced yawning or hypothermia. Pretreatment with the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 failed to increase quinpirole-induced yawning, indicating that the low frequency of yawning was not due to enhanced D2 receptor sensitivity. Compared with younger (postnatal day 75), drug-naive female rats in a previous study, rats in the present study (postnatal day 275) were more sensitive to cocaine-elicited (1-17.8 mg/kg) locomotion and the development of sensitization across 5 weeks; however, eating high fat chow did not further enhance these effects. These results suggest that drug history and age might modulate the effects of diet on sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine systems. PMID:24949571

  6. Hypothalamic Kiss1 and RFRP gene expressions are changed by a high dose of lipopolysaccharide in female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Kawami, Takako; Niki, Hirobumi; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Uemura, Hirokazu; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2014-07-01

    Reproductive function is suppressed by several types of stress. Hypothalamic kisspeptin, which is a product of the Kiss1 gene, and GnIH/RFRP have pivotal roles in the regulation of GnRH and gonadotropins through their receptors Kiss1r and GPR147 in many species. However, alterations of these factors under stress conditions have not been fully evaluated. This study investigated the mechanisms of immune stress-induced reproductive dysfunction, especially focusing on the changes of Kiss1 and RFRP gene expression. Serum LH levels and hypothalamic Kiss1 and GnRH mRNA levels were decreased, while hypothalamic RFRP and GPR147 mRNA levels were increased by administration of a high dose of LPS (5mg/kg) in both ovariectomized and gonadal intact female rats. In this condition, Kiss1 and/or RFRP mRNA levels were positively and negatively correlated with GnRH expression, respectively. In contrast, hypothalamic Kiss1, RFRP, and GPR147 mRNA levels were not changed by administration of a moderate dose of LPS (500?g/kg) in ovariectomized rats. Rats with high-dose LPS injection showed more prolonged fever responses and severe anorexia compared with rats with moderate-dose LPS injection, indicating that more energy was used for the immune response in the former. These results suggest that the underlying mechanisms of dysfunction of gonadotropin secretion are changed according to the severity of immune stress, and that changes of some reserved factors, such as kisspeptin and RFRP, begin to participate in the suppression of GnRH and gonadotropin in severe conditions. As reproduction needs a large amount of energy, dysfunction of gonadotropin secretion under immune stress may be a biophylatic mechanism by which more energy is saved for the immune response. PMID:24952104

  7. The Effect of Feeding Purified versus Chow Diet on Bone Changes Produced by Hindlimb Suspension of Female Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet; Arnaud, Sara B.; Grindeland, Richard; Wade, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Spaceflight simulation studies use chow diets while spaceflight studies use a semi-purified &et. To determine whether the differences in these diets would affect the changes in unweighted bone, we compared the effects of purified vs chow diet on bone parameters, urinary calcium, plasma estradiol, and urinary corticosterone (CORT) in sexually mature female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats fed purified AIN-93G or chow diet were kept ambulatory (AMB) or subjected to a spaceflight simulation model of unweighted hindlimbs (HLS) for 38 days. Body mass of treatment groups was similar although food intake and caloric density of the diets differed. Both HLS diet groups showed similar decreases in bone mineral content and mechanical strength in unweighted femurs compared to AMB (p<0.05). However, femur length was lower (p<0.05) in the chow-fed than AIN-93G fed groups. Urinary calcium excretion was greater in chow than AIN-93G fed rats, consistent with the higher level of calcium in the diet. Plasma estradiol was lower in HLS than in AMB fed AIN-93G, but similar in HLS and AMB chow fed groups. Femur mineral content was related to plasma estradiol (r(sup 2) =0.91, p<0.00l). Urinary CORT excretion was increased during initial HLS and elevated in HLS/chow-fed rats. Diets did not appear to affect the osteopenia induced by unweighting, but effects on bone growth, calcium excretion, plasma estradiol and urinary CORT do not support the view that these diets can by used interchangeably in bone studies.

  8. The effect of testosterone treatment on urodynamic findings and histopathomorphology of pelvic floor muscles in female rats with experimentally induced stress urinary incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashad Mammadov; Adnan Simsir; Ibrahim Tuglu; Vedat Evren; Ergun Gurer; Ceyhun Özyurt

    Objective  In recent studies, it has been observed that androgen receptors are densely located in pelvic floor muscles. We aimed to investigate\\u000a the effect of testosterone on urodynamic findings and histopathomorphology of pelvic floor muscles in rats with experimentally\\u000a induced stress urinary incontinence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Twenty-eight adult female rats were randomized into four groups. Group I: rats in which SUI was

  9. Mammary tumorigenic effect of a new nitrosourea, 1,3-dibutyl-l-nitrosourea (B-BNU), in female Donryu rats.

    PubMed

    Ogiu, T; Kajiwara, T; Furuta, K; Takeuchi, M; Odashima, S; Tada, K

    1980-01-01

    Four groups (groups 1-4) of female Donryu rats were given continuously 400, 200, 100, or 0 ppm solution of 1,3-dibutyl-l-nitrosourea (B-BNU) as their drinking water, and were studied for the development of tumors. The incidence of mammary tumors was 15/19 (79%), 20/24 (83%), 21/26 (81%), and 8/25 (32%) in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In addition, hematopoietic neoplasms, uterine tumors, and vaginal tumors developed in 13, 11, and six rats, respectively in 69 treated rats. Other tumors were infrequent. PMID:7358771

  10. Regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion by estradiol and dimeric inhibins in the infantile female rat.

    PubMed

    Herath, C B; Yamashita, M; Watanabe, G; Jin, W; Tangtrongsup, S; Kojima, A; Groome, N P; Suzuki, A K; Taya, K

    2001-12-01

    Plasma and ovarian levels of the dimeric forms of inhibin and plasma estradiol-17beta were investigated and compared with changes in plasma gonadotropins from Postnatal Day (PND) 5 to PND 30 in the female rat. The inhibin subunit proteins were localized in follicular granulosa cells of the ovary. Plasma immunoreactive inhibin levels were low until PND 15 and increased thereafter. Plasma levels of inhibin B (alpha and beta(B) subunits) remained very low until PND 15 and then increased by approximately 24-fold. In contrast, plasma levels of inhibin A (alpha and beta(A) subunits) were relatively low and steady until PND 20, then increased by approximately 3-fold at PND 25. Changes in ovarian inhibin A and B levels closely resembled those in plasma levels. Plasma FSH levels were low at PND 10 but started to peak from PND 15 and remained high until PND 20, followed by a remarkable reduction at PNDs 25 and 30. This dramatic fall in FSH coincided with the rise of inhibin A. A significant inverse correlation was observed between plasma FSH and plasma inhibin A (r = -0.67, P < 0.0002), ovarian inhibin A (r = -0.48, P < 0.01), plasma inhibin B (r = -0.48, P < 0.05), and ovarian inhibin B (r = -0.54, P < 0.01). Plasma estradiol-17beta levels were elevated from PND 5 through PND 15, then fell sharply through PND 30. Plasma estradiol-17beta was significantly and positively (r = 0.75, P < 0.0002) correlated with plasma FSH. Plasma LH rose to higher levels at PND 15 and tended to be lower thereafter. The inhibin alpha, beta(A), and beta(B) subunits were localized to primary, secondary, and antral and large antral follicles, but the types of these immunopositive follicles varied with age. It appeared that, at PND 25 and afterward, all three subunits were mainly confined to large antral follicles in the ovary. We conclude that estradiol-17beta likely is the major candidate in stimulation of FSH secretion in the infantile female rat. We also conclude that inhibin regulation of pituitary FSH secretion through its negative feedback in the infantile female rat begins to operate after PND 20. We suggest that this negative feedback is achieved by increases in plasma levels of the two dimeric forms, and that inhibin A appears to be the major physiological regulator of FSH secretion at the initiation of this mechanism. We also conclude that large antral follicles in the ovary are the primary source of these bioactive inhibins that are secreted in large amounts into the circulation after PND 20. PMID:11717121

  11. Landmark Learning in a Navigation Task Is Not Affected by the Female Rats' Estrus Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara A.; Aguilar, Raul; Chamizo, V. D.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments rats were required to escape from a circular pool by swimming to an invisible platform that was located in the same place relative to one configuration of two landmarks (X and Y). The two landmarks were placed relatively far and equidistant from the hidden platform. Training could be either on consecutive days (Experiment 1) or…

  12. Estrogen Enhances Performance of Female Rats during Acquisition of a Radial Arm Maze

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill M. Daniel; Aric J. Fader; Abby L. Spencer; Gary P. Dohanich

    1997-01-01

    Estrogen can influence the expression of behaviors not associated directly with reproduction, including learning and memory. However, the effects of estrogen on learning and memory in mammals are complex, dependent on a variety of factors. The radial arm maze is a traditional experimental task that takes advantage of the natural foraging strategy of rats and provides an appropriate measure for

  13. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXERCISE CONDITIONING ON THERMAL RESPONSES TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND TURPENTINE ABSCESS IN FEMALE RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exercise conditioning has been shown to alter basal thermoregulatory processes as well as the response to inflammatory agents. Two such agents, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and turpentine (TPT) are inducers of fever in rats. LPS, given intraperitoneally (i.p.), involves a sys...

  14. Short-Term Consumption of a Low Protein Diet May Decrease Anxiety in Adult Female Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Melendez-Cortez

    1999-01-01

    Exploratory behavior is crucial to the survival of most animals, allowing for the evaluation of environmental conditions and foraging behaviors. Dietary manipulations change the emotional reactivity of rats; specifically, diets low in protein or high in fat increase exploratory behavior and activity, suggestive of lower anxiety (Almeida et al., 1996; Prasad & Prasad, 1996). The elevated plus maze (EPM) has

  15. AUTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF METHOXYCHLOR IN FEMALE RATS: DOSE AND TIME DEPENDENT BLOCKADE OF PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term exposure to methoxychlor (MXC) an estrogenic pesticide, produces infertility in rats, and short-term exposure blocks the decidual cell response (DCR). To address the short-term effects of MXC on fertility, the differential effects of MXC dosage and timing of administrat...

  16. Prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress increase sensitivity to stress and gonadal hormone influences on cognition in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Wendy L; Lee, Kristen; Anderson, Katie; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal activity of stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA]), and gonadal hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG]) systems is reported following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). PAE increases vulnerability of brain regions involved in regulation of these systems to stressors or challenges during sensitive periods of development, such as adolescence. In addition, HPA and HPG functions are linked to higher order functions such as executive function (EF), with dysregulation of either system adversely affecting EF processes, including attention and response inhibition, that influence cognition. However, how HPA and HPG systems interact to influence cognitive performance in individuals with an FASD is not fully understood. To investigate, we used a rat model of moderate PAE. Adolescent female PAE and control offspring were exposed to 10days of chronic mild stress (CMS) and cognitive function was assessed on the radial arm maze (RAM) in adulthood. On the final test day, animals were sacrificed, with blood collected for hormone analyses, and vaginal smears taken to assess estrus stage at the time of termination. Analyses showed that adolescent CMS significantly increased levels of CORT and RAM errors during proestrus in adult PAE but not control females. Moreover, CORT levels were correlated with estradiol levels and with RAM errors, but only in PAE females, with outcome dependent on adolescent CMS condition. These results suggest that PAE increases sensitivity to the influences of stress and gonadal hormones on cognition, and thus, in turn, that HPA and HPG dysregulation may underlie some of the deficits in executive function described previously in PAE females. PMID:25707383

  17. Reduced vascular responses to soluble guanylyl cyclase but increased sensitivity to sildenafil in female rats with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goulopoulou, Styliani; Hannan, Johanna L; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ogbi, Safia; Ergul, Adviye; Webb, R Clinton

    2015-07-15

    Impaired nitric oxide (NO), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling (NO-sGC-cGMP) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular dysfunction. Efforts to directly target this signaling have led to the development of sGC agonists that activate the heme group of sGC (stimulators) or preferentially activate sGC when the heme is oxidized (activators). In this study, we hypothesized that resistance arteries from female rats with spontaneous type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki rats, GK) would have reduced vasodilatory responses to heme-dependent sGC activation and increased responses to heme-independent sGC activation compared with control rats (Wistar). Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation was assessed in isolated segments from mesenteric resistance arteries (MA) mounted in a wire myograph. GK MA had reduced responses to acetylcholine (pEC50: 7.96 ± 0.06 vs. 7.66 ± 0.05, P < 0.05) and sodium nitroprusside (pEC50: 8.34 ± 0.05 vs. 7.77 ± 0.04, P < 0.05). There were no group differences in 8-bromoguanosine cGMP-induced relaxation and protein kinase G1 expression (P > 0.05). GK MA had attenuated responses to BAY 41-2272 (heme-dependent sGC stimulator; pEC50: 7.56 ± 0.05 vs. 6.93 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) and BAY 58-2667 (heme-independent sGC activator; pEC50: 10.82 ± 0.07 vs. 10.27 ± 0.08, P < 0.05) and increased sensitivity to sildenafil [phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor; pEC50: 7.89 ± 0.14 vs. 8.25 ± 0.13, P < 0.05]. Isolated resistance arteries from female rats of reproductive age that spontaneously develop type 2 diabetes have increased sensitivity to PDE5 inhibition and reduced responsiveness to sGC activators and stimulators. PMID:25957216

  18. Elevated cardiac oxidative stress in newborn rats from mothers treated with atosiban

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yavuz Simsek; Onder Celik; Abdullah Karaer; Ercan Y?lmaz; Mehmet Gul; Elif Ozerol; Sedat Bilgic; Nilufer Celik

    Purpose  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiac and cerebral oxidative stress in the offspings of pregnant rats treated\\u000a with oxytocin antagonist atosiban.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Experimentally naive, adult female Wistar-albino rats (200–250 g) were mated with adult male rats for copulation. After confirming\\u000a pregnancy, eight gravid rats were then randomly assigned into two equal groups. The animals were treated from days

  19. Impaired prenatal development and glycemic status in the offspring of rats with experimental streptozotocin-induced diabetes and their correction with afobazole.

    PubMed

    Zabrodina, V V; Shreder, E D; Shreder, O V; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus was simulated in rats on gestation day 1 by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in doses of 40 and 50 mg/kg. Pregnant females showed increased glucose concentrations n the blood and urine, embryonic developmental disorders, such as tongue protrusion, edema, and skin hyperemia with concomitant vascular damage (hemorrhage, hematoma) as well as pre- and post-implantation embryo loss. Afobazole administered orally in doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg to pregnant rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes significantly decreased prenatal developmental disorders and pre- and post-implantation embryo loss rate. Afobazole in a dose of 50 mg/kg produced maximum protective effect: in rats receiving 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, post-implantation embryo loss decreased by 14.7 times. Afobazole in doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced blood glucose concentration in pregnant rats and normalized glycemia in 90-day-old male offspring. PMID:25403388

  20. Consumption of sucrose, but not high fructose corn syrup, leads to increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia in the pregnant and lactating rat.

    PubMed

    Toop, C R; Muhlhausler, B S; O'Dea, K; Gentili, S

    2015-02-01

    Excess consumption of added sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55), have been implicated in the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate and compare the impact of maternal consumption of sucrose or HFCS-55 during pregnancy and lactation on the metabolic health of the dam and her offspring at birth. Female Albino Wistar rats were given access to chow and water, in addition to a sucrose or HFCS-55 beverage (10% w/v) before, and during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal glucose tolerance was determined throughout the study, and a postmortem was conducted on dams following lactation, and on offspring within 24 h of birth. Sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased total energy intake compared with controls, however the increase from sucrose consumption was accompanied by a compensatory decrease in chow consumption. There was no effect of sucrose or HFCS-55 consumption on body weight, however sucrose consumption resulted in increased adiposity and elevated total plasma cholesterol in the dam, while HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased plasma insulin and decreased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Maternal HFCS-55 consumption was associated with decreased relative liver weight and plasma NEFA in the offspring at birth. There was no effect of either treatment on pup weight at birth. These findings suggest that both sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption during pregnancy and lactation have the potential to impact negatively on maternal metabolic health, which may have adverse consequences for the long-term health of the offspring. PMID:25523154

  1. Changes with ageing in several leukocyte functions of male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica De La Fuente; Isabel Baeza; Noelia Guayerbas; Marta Puerto; Carmen Castillo; Veronica Salazar; Carmen Ariznavarreta; Jesus A. F-tresguerres

    2004-01-01

    The impairment of the immune system with aging, or ‘immunosenescence’, appears to contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of aged subjects. T cell functions and Natural Killer activity seem to be the immune responses most affected by ageing. Since the immune system works more efficiently in females than in males, we have studied the changes of several immune functions

  2. Metabolic Effects of Access to Sucrose Drink in Female Rats and Transmission of Some Effects to Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kendig, Michael D.; Ekayanti, Winda; Stewart, Hayden; Boakes, Robert A.; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to examine the metabolic consequences for female rats of having unrestricted access to 10% sucrose solution and, second, to test for effects of this dietary intervention on their offspring. In Stage 1 females were mated following a 4-week period in which one group was given the sucrose in addition to their normal chow and a control group was given chow and water only. Sucrose was removed at parturition and the pups monitored until weaning. Despite the development of glucose intolerance in sucrose-fed mothers, no effects were detected on litter size or pup weights. In Stage 2 voluntary activity of offspring was assessed over postnatal days (PND) 51-60 and their glucose tolerance measured at PND89-94. Again no effect of maternal diet was detected. Only male offspring were used in Stage 3, which began when they were 13 weeks old. Four groups were given 10% sucrose solution for 48 days in a 2 x 2 design, in which one factor was maternal diet and the other was whether they were given 2-h access to an activity wheel on alternate days. Higher fasting glucose levels were found in offspring of sugar-fed mothers. Exercise increased insulin sensitivity in these rats but not in offspring of control mothers. Behavioural measures of memory in Stage 3 did not reveal any effects of maternal diet or exercise. Overall, this study suggested that, while providing 10% sucrose solution ad-libitum was sufficient to impair maternal metabolism, the impact of this dietary manipulation on offspring may be revealed only when the offspring’s diet is similarly manipulated. PMID:26134991

  3. Effect of the aqueous extract of Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) on ovarian folliculogenesis and fertility of female rats.

    PubMed

    Telefo, Phelix Bruno; Tagne, Simon Richard; Koona, Olga Elodie Sandrine; Yemele, Didiane M; Tchouanguep, Félicité M

    2012-01-01

    Justicia insularis T. Anders (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant whose leaves and those of three other plants are mixed for the preparation of a concoction used to improve fertility and to reduce labour pains in women of the Western Region of Cameroon. Previous studies have demonstrated the inducing potential on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis of the aqueous extract of the leaf mixture (ADHJ) of four medicinal plants (Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis) among which the later represented the highest proportion. This study was aimed at evaluating the ovarian inducing potential of J. insularis in immature female rats. Various doses of the aqueous extract of J. insularis were daily and orally given, for 20 days, to immature female rats distributed into four experimental groups of twenty animals each. At the end of the experimental period some biochemical and physiological parameters of ovarian function were assayed. The administration of the aqueous extract of Justicia insularis significantly induced an early vaginal opening in all treated groups (P < 0.001) as well as an increase (at doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg) in the number of hemorrhagic points, Corpus luteum, implantation sites, ovarian weight, uterine and ovarian proteins. Ovarian cholesterol level (P < 0.05) significantly decreased in animals treated with the lowest dose (12.5 mg/kg). The evaluation of the toxicological effects of the extract on pregnancy showed that it significantly increased pre- and post-implantation losses, resorption index and decreased the rate of nidation as well as litter's weight. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of Justicia insularis induces ovarian folliculogenesis thus justifying its high proportion in the leaf mixture of ADHJ. PMID:23983335

  4. Different effect of l-NAME treatment on susceptibility to decompression sickness in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Buzzacott, Peter; Lambrechts, Kate; Wang, Qiong; Belhomme, Marc; Theron, Michael; Popov, Georgi; Distefano, Giovanni; Guerrero, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Vascular bubble formation results from supersaturation during inadequate decompression contributes to endothelial injuries, which form the basis for the development of decompression sickness (DCS). Risk factors for DCS include increased age, weight-fat mass, decreased maximal oxygen uptake, chronic diseases, dehydration, and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Production of NO is often affected by diving and its expression-activity varies between the genders. Little is known about the influence of sex on the risk of DCS. To study this relationship we used an animal model of N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to induce decreased NO production. Male and female rats with diverse ages and weights were divided into 2 groups: treated with l-NAME (in tap water; 0.05 mg·mL(-1) for 7 days) and a control group. To control the distribution of nitrogen among tissues, 2 different compression-decompression protocols were used. Results showed that l-NAME was significantly associated with increased DCS in female rats (p = 0.039) only. Weight was significant for both sexes (p = 0.01). The protocol with the highest estimated tissue pressures in the slower compartments was 2.6 times more likely to produce DCS than the protocol with the highest estimated tissue pressures in faster compartments. The outcome of this study had significantly different susceptibility to DCS after l-NAME treatment between the sexes, while l-NAME per se had no effect on the likelihood of DCS. The analysis also showed that for the appearance of DCS, the most significant factors were type of protocol and weight. PMID:25181356

  5. Transplacental administration of diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes lesions in female reproductive organs of Donryu rats, including endometrial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Nishimura, S; Sasahara, K; Yoshida, M; Ando, J; Takahashi, M; Shirai, T; Maekawa, A

    1999-07-01

    The effects of transplacental administration of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on female reproductive organs were investigated using Donryu rats. The animals were given subcutaneous injections of DES dissolved in olive oil at doses of 0.01 or 0.1 mg/kg on days 17 and 19 of gestation. In female offspring, clinical signs, body weights and estrous cycles were continuously assessed until all survivors were killed at month 18. A low mean litter size and shortening of period of pregnancy were recognized in the 0.1 mg/kg group. Disorder and/or suspension of the estrous cycle (so called persistent estrus) also appeared very early in the 0.1 mg/kg group. Macroscopically, the incidences of hypoplasia of the oviduct, cystic dilatation of the uterus and small size of the uterine cervix were higher in the 0.1 mg/kg group than those in the control group. Histologically, in the ovary, the incidence and degree of atrophy were increased in both 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg groups. In the uterus, total incidences of endometrial hyperplasias were about the same in all groups. However, endometrial adenocarcinomas were dose-dependently increased in the treated groups, the incidence in the 0.1 mg/kg group being significant, compared to that in the control. In the vagina, mucification was more prominent in the treated animals, especially at the higher dose, but no tumors were observed. The present results indicate that prenatal exposure to DES can produce uterine adenocarcinomas in rats, as reported earlier for mice, although its carcinogenic activity is not so strong. Increase of endometrial adenocarcinoma incidence might depend on hormonal imbalance resulting from the ovarian atrophy due to transplacental treatment of DES. PMID:10454265

  6. High conjugated linoleic acid enriched ghee (clarified butter) increases the antioxidant and antiatherogenic potency in female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress are the main stimulating factors responsible for coronary artery disease and progression of atherosclerosis. Dairy food products are rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which is considered as an important component due to its potential health benefits such as anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and antiadipogenic properties. In the present study, the effect of CLA enriched ghee on the antioxidant enzyme system and antiatherogenic properties in Wistar rats has been studied. Methods Female Wistar rats of 21 days were taken for the study and fed with soybean diet (Control diet), low CLA diet and high CLA ghee diet (treatments) for thirty five days for studying antioxidative enzymes and sixteen weeks in case of antiatherogenic studies. Results Feeding of high CLA enhanced ghee during pubescent period in rats lead to an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities in blood and increased CAT, SOD and glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes activities in liver by 27, 130 and 168 percent, respectively. Plasma nitrate concentration and Haemoglobin levels remained the same in all the treatments. Feeding of high CLA ghee resulted in lower (P?rats than in those of the other groups. Histopathological studies of liver showed normal hepatic cords with portal triad in the high CLA ghee fed rats whereas fatty degeneration of hepatocytes containing fat vacuoles was observed in the liver of the other groups. Conclusion This paper is the first report of the antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of the high CLA enriched ghee suggesting that high CLA ghee can be used as a potential food for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, particularly in India, where, ghee is widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. PMID:23923985

  7. Effects of prolactin deficiency during the early postnatal period on the development of maternal behavior in female rats: Mother's milk makes the difference

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Bromocriptine Rat Emotionality Development Early life During early life, prolactin (PRL) ingested by the pups­5 with bromocriptine (125 g/day), bromocriptine+ovine PRL (125 g+300 g/day), or vehicle. As juveniles (at PND 24, but not juvenile, female offspring of bromocriptine-treated mothers showed an increased latency to become maternal

  8. 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) DISRUPTS EARLY MORPHOGENETIC EVENTS THAT FORM THE LOWER REPRODUCTIVE TRACT IN FEMALE RAT FETUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In female rats, in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during critical periods of organogenesis causes a permanent thread of tissue across the vaginal opening, which consists of a core of mesenchyme surrounded by keratinized epithelia. The objective of t...

  9. Dietary Restriction of Energy and Calcium Alters Bone Turnover and Density in Younger and Older Female Rats1,2,3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn M. Talbott; Michael M. Rothkopf; Sue A. Shapses

    To determine the influence of weight loss with or without adequate calcium intake on bone turnover and density, we examined the influence of dietary restriction of calcium or energy on body weight (BW), bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in both younger (3 mo) and older (10 mo) female rats (n Ĺ 66). Diets were designed to allow feeding

  10. Adequate dietary calcium restores vertebral trabecular bone microarchitecture and strength and improves femur calcium concentration following calcium depletion in young female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether dietary calcium deficiency during adolescence permanently reduces lifetime potential to attain peak bone mass and strength, female Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into groups (n=10) and fed an AIN-93G-based diet containing 20% (1000 mg Ca/kg) of the calcium requirement from w...

  11. PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO PROPAZINE AND ATRAZINE BIOTRANSFORMATION BY-PRODUCTS, DIAMINO-S-CHLOROTRIAZINE AND HYDROXYATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have shown previously that the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine (ATR), delays the onset of pubertal development in female rats. ATR and its by-products of microbial degradation are present in soil and groundwater. Since current maximum contaminant levels are set only for ATR...

  12. [Evaluation of the phagocytic activity and the killing of peripheral blood monocytes in the offspring of female rats with an experimental drug induced liver pathology].

    PubMed

    Bryukhin, G V; Shopova, A V

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the functional activity of monocytes of peripheral blood in the offspring of female rats with paracetamol liver disease was investigated. Phagocytic property of these cells and their bactericidal activity was investigated. It is established, that the drug induced liver disease leads to reducing of functional activity of peripheral blood monocytes. PMID:25318164

  13. Oxidative stress related DNA adducts in the liver of female rats fed with sunflower-, rapeseed, olive- or coconut oil supplemented diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Eder; M. Wacker; U. Lutz; J. Nair; X. Fang; H. Bartsch; F. A. Beland; J. Schlatter; W. K. Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Both animal and epidemiological studies support an effect of fatty acid composition in the diet on cancer development, in particular on colon cancer. We investigated the modulating effect of supplementation of the diet of female F344 rats with sunflower-, rapeseed-, olive-, or coconut oil on the formation of the promutagenic, exocyclic DNA adducts in the liver, an organ where major

  14. Hostile and Benevolent Reactions Toward Pregnant Women: Complementary Interpersonal Punishments and Rewards That Maintain Traditional Roles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle R. Hebl; Eden B. King; Peter Glick; Sarah L. Singletary; Stephanie Kazama

    2007-01-01

    A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs.

  15. The Effects of Perinatal\\/Juvenile Heptachlor Exposure on Adult Immune and Reproductive System Function in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Smialowicz; W. C. Williams; C. B. Copeland; M. W. Harris; D. Overstreet; B. J. Davis; R. E. Chapin

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to determine if developmental expo- sure of rats to heptachlor (H) during the last half of gestation through puberty adversely affects adult functioning of the immune and reproductive systems. Time-bred pregnant female Sprague- Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with H (0, 30, 300, or 3000 mg\\/kg\\/day) from gestation day (GD) 12 to postnatal day (PND)

  16. Oestradiol attenuates the cognitive deficit induced by acute phencyclidine treatment in mature female hooded-Lister rats.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, J S; Rhaman, F; Marshall, K M; Neill, J C

    2008-11-01

    Gender differences in psychiatric research are becoming more widely recognized, and changes in levels of the steroid hormone, oestrogen, over the menstrual or oestrous cycle are becoming increasingly implicated in alterations in cognitive strategies and capacities. The aim of this study is to investigate the interaction between oestrogen, NMDA receptor function and cognitive processing in rats. Forty-five mature female hooded-Lister rats received vehicle, 0.5, 5 or 10 microg/kg of oestradiol benzoate (EB, s.c. in olive oil) 24 h prior to an acute dose of 2 mg/kg phencyclidine (PCP, i.p. in 0.9% w/v saline), or vehicle (0.9% saline). After 30 min following PCP treatment, animals completed the novel object recognition task with a 1 min inter-trial interval to assess object recognition memory. Results show that 5 and 10 microg/kg of EB 24 h prior to 2 mg/kg PCP significantly (P < 0.01 and < 0.001, respectively) protected against the cognitive impairing effect of PCP in contrast to vehicle and 0.5 microg/kg EB plus PCP (not significant). EB may exert a neuromodulatory effect in this animal model leading to attenuation of the PCP-induced impairment in object recognition memory, suggesting an interaction between the gonadal steroids and NMDA receptor-mediated cognitive dysfunction, which is of potential relevance to schizophrenia. PMID:18208936

  17. Absorption, Distribution, Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics of 14C-Pyronaridine Tetraphosphate in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyun; Pradeep, Kannampalli

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to determine the absorption, distribution, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of the antimalarial drug pyronaridine tetraphosphate (PNDP) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Following oral administration of a single dose (10?mg/Kg) of 14C-PNDP, it was observed that the drug was readily absorbed from the small intestine within 1 hour following oral administration and was widely distributed in most of the tissues investigated as determined from the observed radioactivity in the tissues. The peak value of the drug in the blood was reached at around 8 hours postadministration, and radioactivity was detected in most of the tissues from 4 hours onwards. 14C-PNDP showed a poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and the absorption, distribution, and excretion of 14C-PNDP were found to be gender-independent as both male and female rats showed a similar pattern of radioactivity. Excretion of the drug was predominantly through the urine with a peak excretion post 24 hours of administration. A small amount of the drug was also excreted in the feces and also in the breath. It was found that the Cmax, AUC (0-inf), and Tmax values were similar to those observed in the Phase II clinical trials of pyronaridine/artesunate (Pyramax) conducted in Uganda. PMID:20379367

  18. Effect of endrin on the hepatic distribution of iron and calcium in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Hassoun, E; Stohs, S J

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of iron and calcium in hepatic subcellular fractions of female rats treated with endrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4 alpha,5,6,7,8,8 alpha- octahydroendo,endo-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene) was determined. Endrin in corn oil was administered orally to rats in single doses of 3, 4.5, or 6 mg/kg, and the animals were killed at 0, 12, 24, 48, or 72 hr post-treatment. Iron and calcium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The administration of endrin increased the iron content of mitochondria and decreased the iron content of microsomes and nuclei. Significant increases occurred in the calcium content of mitochondria, microsomes, and nuclei. Thus, the results indicate that with respect to the subcellular distribution of iron and calcium, endrin produces differential effects. Vitamin E succinate administration partially prevented the endrin-induced hepatic alterations in iron and calcium homeostasis. Endrin also produced dose- and time-dependent increases in the liver and spleen weight/body weight ratios, while decreasing the thymus weight/body weight ratios. The altered distribution of calcium and iron may contribute to the broad range of effects of endrin. PMID:1588572

  19. Influences of prostanoids and nitric oxide on post-suspension hypotension in female Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eatman, D.; Listhrop, R. A.; Beasley, A. S.; Socci, R. R.; Abukhalaf, I.; Bayorh, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Impairment in cardiovascular functions sometimes manifested in astronauts during standing postflight, may be related to the diminished autonomic function and/or excessive production of endothelium-dependent relaxing factors. In the present study, using the 30 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) model, we compared the cardiovascular and biochemical effects of 7 days of suspension and a subsequent 6-h post-suspension period between suspended and non-suspended conscious female Sprague-Dawley rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured prior to suspension (basal), daily thereafter, and every 2h post-suspension. Following 7 days of suspension, MAP was not different from their basal values, however, upon release from suspension, MAP was significantly reduced compared to the non-suspended rats. Nitric oxide levels were elevated while thromboxane A(2) levels declined significantly in both plasma and tissue samples following post-suspension. The levels of prostacyclin following post-suspension remained unaltered in plasma and aortic rings but was significantly elevated in carotid arterial rings. Therefore, the post-suspension reduction in mean arterial pressure is due mostly to overproduction of nitric oxide and to a lesser extent prostacyclin.

  20. Carcinogenicities of 1-ethyl- and 1-amyl-1-nitrosourethans in female donryu rats: dose-effect relations.

    PubMed

    Onodera, H; Furuta, K; Matsuoka, C; Kamiya, S; Maekawa, A

    1982-02-01

    Groups of female Donryu rats were given solutions of 100, 50, and 25 ppm of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourethan (ENUR), and of 400, 200, and 100 ppm of 1-amyl-1-nitrosourethan (ANUR) continuously in the drinking water. The incidence of tumors was nearly 100% in all groups treated with ENUR or ANUR, but with both chemicals the rats showed dose-dependent mean survival times. In the groups treated with ENUR, tumors were most frequent in the upper digestive tract and duodenum, whereas in groups given ANUR tumors were induced only in the upper digestive tract, with none in the duodenum. Tumors of the forestomach were more frequent than those of the esophagus and oral cavity and/or pharynx in groups treated with ENUR. In contrast, the target organs of ANUR were the oral cavity and/or pharynx, and the esophagus, rather than the forestomach. The carcinogenicities of these two chemicals are discussed in comparison with those of other 1-alkyl-1-nitrosourethans. PMID:7117748