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Sample records for pregnant low-income women

  1. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  2. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  3. A psychometric analysis of the functional social support questionnaire in low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Kathy B; Hall, Lynne A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ) in pregnant women. A secondary analysis of data from 186 low-income pregnant women in their third trimester was conducted to assess the internal consistency reliability, dimensionality, and concurrent validity of the FSSQ. Cronbach's alpha was .83. Factor analysis supported the unidimensionality of the FSSQ. Correlations with the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) supported concurrent and construct validity. This secondary analysis provided evidence of the psychometric soundness of the FSSQ in this sample. PMID:22077749

  4. First trimester predictors of diet and birth outcomes in low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Eileen R; Gabrielson, Marcena

    2005-01-01

    The purpose1 of this study is to test a model describing the relations of various biopsychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive factors on the health outcomes of nutritional adequacy and infant birth weight in low-income pregnant women. Descriptive, cohort design assessed low-income women (N=55) in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. Eighty percent of the women did not meet the recommended number of food servings outlined in the Food Guide Pyramid. Prepregnant body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy-related dietary changes explained 19% of the variance in nutritional adequacy. Maternal age, prepregnant BMI, nutritional knowledge, and infant gestation at birth explained 52% of the variance in infant birth weight. Nutritional adequacy in the 1st trimester and infant birth weight were not significantly related. Most low-income women are not meeting the nutritional requirements of pregnancy. Careful monitoring of dietary quality may help target women in need of additional nutritional education. Providing nutritional education throughout pregnancy may lead to improved dietary patterns that may reduce low birth weight. PMID:15877540

  5. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  6. The Feasibility of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to Collect Dietary Intake Data in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Eileen R.; Gentry, Breine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using personal digital assistant (PDA)-based technology for tracking and analysis of food intake in low-income pregnant women. Design: Descriptive. Participants provided an initial 24-hour dietary recall and recorded their food intake using a PDA-based software program for 2 days. Setting: Recruitment…

  7. Altered stress patterns and increased risk for postpartum depression among low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Kathryn; Urizar, Guido G

    2016-04-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has been associated with a number of negative maternal and infant health outcomes. Despite these adverse health effects, few studies have prospectively examined patterns of pre- and postnatal stress that may increase a woman's risk for PPD. The current study examined whether the timing of altered salivary cortisol patterns and perceived stress levels during pregnancy and at 3 months postpartum was associated with PPD symptoms among 100 low-income mothers. Higher levels of PPD were found among women with a lower cortisol awakening response (first and second trimester), lower average daily cortisol (second trimester), a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern (second and third trimester and at 3 months postpartum), and a less abrupt drop in both cortisol and perceived stress from the third trimester to 3 months postpartum. These results support the need for early screening and regulation of stress levels to promote depression prevention efforts in at-risk populations. PMID:26275372

  8. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings. PMID:25115522

  9. Prevalence and Perceived Financial Costs of Marijuana versus Tobacco use among Urban Low-Income Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Jessica R; Svikis, Dace S; Ondersma, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative prevalence of marijuana and tobacco use among low-income post-partum women, using self-report, urine, and hair testing data; and to further explore perceptions of the substances among postpartum women by evaluating perceived risk and monetary cost of prenatal marijuana versus tobacco use. Methods Data from two studies were available for a total of 100 (Study 1) and 50 (Study 2) low-income, primarily African-American post-partum women. Study 1 participants completed brief self-report measures of substance use as well as urine and hair samples; study 2 participants completed a brief opinion survey regarding the risks and monetary costs of prenatal marijuana use. Results In Study 1, the self-reported prevalence of any tobacco or marijuana use in the past three months was 17% and 11%, respectively. However, objectively-defined marijuana use was more prevalent than self-reported tobacco use: 14% tested positive for marijuana by urinalysis, and 28% by hair analysis. Study 2 participants were more likely to believe that there is a safe level of marijuana use during pregnancy, and nearly half believed that using marijuana during pregnancy was less expensive than smoking cigarettes. Conclusion Marijuana use may be as or more prevalent than tobacco use among low-income, African-American pregnant women. These findings may in part be attributable to perceptions of roughly equivalent cost and the lack of a clear public health message regarding prenatal marijuana use, combined with growing pro-marijuana advocacy. A broader public health response to address prenatal marijuana use, along with other substances of abuse, is needed. PMID:23858392

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for cannabis use in low-income pregnant women in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shu, Janet E; Huang, Hsiang; Menezes, Paulo R; Faisal-Cury, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug during the perinatal period and has potential risks to the fetus. The purpose of this study is to estimate the 1-year prevalence of cannabis use and identify associated factors for a population of low-income pregnant women in Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 831 women surveyed using a structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and substance use history. The 1-year prevalence of antenatal cannabis use was 4.2 %; reported lifetime use was 9.6 %. The presence of a common mental disorder and active tobacco smoking were independently associated with cannabis use, OR = 3.3 (95 % CI 1.65-6.59) and OR = 6.89 (95 % CI 3.45-13.8), respectively. PMID:25971852

  11. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development. PMID:10533172

  12. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site)

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team (“team 3” in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID

  13. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team ("team 3" in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families. PMID:27134747

  14. Barriers to weight-related health behaviours: a qualitative comparison of the socioecological conditions between pregnant and post-partum low-income women.

    PubMed

    Graham, Meredith; Uesugi, Keriann; Olson, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The association between socioecological factors and poor health outcomes for low-income women and their children has been the focus of disparities research for several decades. This research compares the socioecological conditions among low-income women from pregnancy to post-partum and highlights the factors that make weight management increasingly difficult after delivery. As part of the formative research for an online health intervention, group and individual interviews were conducted with low-income pregnant and post-partum women. Five pregnancy group interviews (n = 15 women), five post-partum group interviews (n = 23 women) and seven individual interviews with a total of 45 participants were conducted in Rochester, New York. All interviews were audio-recorded. The constant comparative method was used to code interview notes and identify emergent themes. Subjects faced many challenges that affected their attitudes, beliefs and their ability to maintain or improve healthy weight behaviours. These included unemployment, relationship issues, minimal social support, lack of education, limited health care access, pre-existing medical conditions and neighbourhood disadvantage. Compared with pregnant women, post-partum women faced additional difficulties, such as child illnesses and custody issues. The most striking differences between pregnancy and post-partum related to the family's medical problems and greater environmental constraints. Many factors detracted from women's capacity to engage in healthy weight behaviours post-partum, including challenges present prior to delivery, challenges present prior to delivery that worsen after delivery, and new challenges that begin after delivery. These additional post-partum challenges need to be considered in designing programmes, policies and interventions that promote healthy weight. PMID:25040706

  15. A Multilevel Analysis of Individual, Household, and Neighborhood Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Low-Income Pregnant Women in Jefferson County, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Russell S.; Sigler, Robert T.; Hwang, Sean-Shong; LaGory, Mark E.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined individual, household, and neighborhood correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy. Methods. We used multilevel modeling to investigate IPV among 2887 pregnant women in 112 census tracts who sought prenatal care in 8 public clinics in Jefferson County, Alabama, from 1997 through 2001. Data were collected from the Perinatal Emphasis Research Center project, the 2000 Census, and the local Sheriff and Police Departments Uniform Crime Reports for 1997 through 2001. Results. Participants were predominantly young, African American, on Medicaid, and residents of low-income neighborhoods. The prevalence of past-year male partner–perpetrated physical or sexual violence was 7.4%. Neighborhood residential stability, women performing most of the housework (lack of involvement among partners), being unmarried (being in an uncommitted relationship), and alcohol use were positively associated with elevated IPV risk. Significant protective factors for IPV included older age at first vaginal intercourse and a greater sense of mastery (e.g., the perception of oneself as an effective person). Conclusions. Both neighborhood contextual and individual and household compositional effects are associated with IPV among low-income pregnant women. The results imply that combined interventions to improve neighborhood conditions and strengthen families may effectively reduce IPV. PMID:19696385

  16. A Problem-Solving Therapy Intervention for Low-Income, Pregnant Women at Risk for Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, McClain; Villarreal, Yolanda; Rubin, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Depression (PPD) occurs at higher rates among impoverished mothers than the general population. Depression during pregnancy is one of the strongest predictors of developing PPD. Research indicates that non-pharmacological interventions are effective in reducing depressive symptoms but engaging and retaining low-income mothers remains a…

  17. Fast Food Intake in Relation to Employment Status, Stress, Depression, and Dietary Behaviors in Low-Income Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Objective This study explored fast food intake as a potential mediator of the relationships among employment status; stress; depression; and fruit, vegetable, and fat intakes by race (African American vs. Non-Hispanic White) and body mass index (BMI category: overweight vs. obesity). Methods Low-income overweight and obese pregnant women (N = 332) were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Michigan. Path analysis was performed to explore mediation effects by race and BMI category. Results Fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.02) in Non-Hispanic White women, but no mediation effect was detected in African American women. For overweight women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04) and the relationship between depression and vegetable intake (p = 0.01). Also, fast food intake partially mediated the relationship between depression and fat intake (p = 0.003). For obese women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04). Conclusion Fast food is an important topic for nutrition education for overweight and obese pregnant women. Future interventions may be more successful if they address issues associated with employment status (e.g., lack of time to plan and cook healthy meals) and depressive mood (e.g., inability to plan meals or shop for groceries when coping with negative emotions). PMID:26973147

  18. Information and Communication Technology Use Among Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women by Race and Ethnicity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice Lynn; Lawson, Shari; Ehsanipoor, Robert; Costigan, Kathleen; Polk, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    widely available for the delivery of health interventions to low-income, racially diverse pregnant and postpartum women, but disparities in Internet use and SMS text messaging exist. Interventions or programs requiring Web-based apps may have lower uptake unless alternatives are available, such as those adapted for limited English proficiency populations. PMID:26142162

  19. Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S

    1993-01-01

    Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population. PMID:8497574

  20. Low Income Women and Physician Breastfeeding Advice: A Regional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzer, J; Zeece, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the pilot study presented here were to determine whether low income women were receiving compendious breastfeeding advice from their attending physicians. Design: This study assessed low income women's reports of physician breastfeeding advice using a newly designed Likert scaled survey based on the American Surgeon…

  1. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  2. Household food insecurity is associated with depressive symptoms among low-income pregnant Latinas.

    PubMed

    Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Latinas experience high rates of poverty, household food insecurity and prenatal depression. To date, only one USA study has examined the relationship between household food insecurity and prenatal depression, yet it focused primarily on non-Latina white and non-Latina black populations. Therefore, this study examined the independent association of household food insecurity with depressive symptoms among low-income pregnant Latinas. This cross-sectional study included 135 low income pregnant Latinas living in Hartford, Connecticut. Women were assessed at enrolment for household food security during pregnancy using an adapted and validated version of the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Prenatal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. A cut-off of ≥21 was used to indicate elevated levels of prenatal depressive symptoms (EPDS). Multivariate backwards stepwise logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for EPDS. Almost one third of participants had EPDS. Women who were food insecure were more likely to experience EPDS compared to food secure women (OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.03-6.52). Being primiparous, experiencing heartburn and reporting poor/fair health during pregnancy, as well as having a history of depression were also independent risk factors for experiencing EPDS. Findings from this study suggest the importance of assessing household food insecurity when evaluating depression risk among pregnant Latinas. PMID:20735732

  3. Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence: How do Rural, Low-Income Women Cope?

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F.; Anderson, Kim M.; Danis, Fran S.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted thirty-two in-depth interviews with 20 rural, low-income, women residing in the United States, who were pregnant (n =12) or three months postpartum (n =8) and had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Using purposive sampling and the grounded theory method, the authors generated a conceptual model of coping. The urge to protect the unborn baby was the primary influence for participants’ decisions about separating from or permanently leaving an abusive relationship. Implications include universal screening for IPV in child-bearing women, inquiry into maternal identity development during pregnancy, and improved resource access for rural, low-income women. PMID:21834721

  4. Sterilization. Low-income women have special counseling needs.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    An increasing percentage of low income women are using sterilization as a method of contraception. 26% of low income women in 1982 used sterilization; 37% used it in 1988. This group of women has less access to services and information than women in other income brackets, who use sterilization less. A 16 page booklet, which is based on a study, conducted from 1985-1989 at three hospital clinics, of 1800 low income women, has been prepared by the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) for use by counselors. According to Joseph Feldman of Planned Parenthood of Central and Northern Arizona (PPCNA), low motivation to postpone pregnancy (due to concentration on the roles of wife and mother) and a sense of powerlessness over their lives are problems among poor women. Libby Antarsh of AVSC states the booklet has been designed to give women all the information necessary for an informed decision. Susan Philliber of the State University of New York at New Paltz, one of the investigators in the study, says the booklet removes one of the barriers to sterilization by alleviating the fears of physicians concerned about litigation. Barriers faced by low income women in undergoing sterilization, as revealed by the study, include 1) inadequate health care services and overburdened clinic staff; 2) less access to information about contraception, and less knowledge about using the health care system; and 3) little economic or psychological support for these, often, single parents. Culture effects support for the women and their ability to use the information provided. The number of women who actually follow through on being sterilized is double among those with the approval of their male partners. Counselors should include partners and discuss the influences of others who are pressuring the woman (friends, family, physicians). The woman should separate her feelings, but be aware of the consequences of the disapproval of others. Accurate information concerning

  5. The Web of Risk Factors for Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in Low Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Keriann H.; Graham, Meredith L.; Olson, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To gain an in-depth understanding of issues related to gestational weight gain (GWG) including general health, diet, and physical activity among high- and low-income women and to elucidate socio-ecological and psychosocial risk factors that increase risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Methods We conducted 9 focus groups with high (n=4 groups) and low (n=5 groups) income pregnant women aged 18-35 years to discuss health, GWG, diet and physical activity following a discussion guide. The constant comparative method was used to code focus group notes and to identify emergent themes. Themes were categorized within the integrative model of behavioral prediction. Results Low income women, in contrast to high income women, had higher BMIs, had more children, and were African American. Diet and physical activity behaviors reported by low income women were more likely to promote positive energy balance than were those of high income women. The underlying behavioral, efficacy, and normative beliefs described by both groups of women explained most of these behaviors. Experiencing multiple risk factors may lead to 1) engaging in several behavior changes during pregnancy unrelated to weight and 2) holding more weight gain-promoting beliefs than weight maintaining beliefs. These factors could inhibit diet and physical activity behaviors and/or behavior changes that promote energy balance and in combination, result in excessive GWG. Conclusions Low income women experience multiple risk factors for excessive GWG and successful interventions to prevent excessive GWG and pregnancy related weight gain will need to recognize the complex web of influences. PMID:22415812

  6. Concepts of anemia among low income Nicaraguan women.

    PubMed

    Ailinger, Rita L; Moore, Jean B; Pawloski, Lisa; Cortés, Lidya Ruth Zamora

    2009-01-01

    Anemia is a common health problem among women throughout the world, however, there has been minimal research on women's concepts of anemia. The purpose of this study was to examine concepts of anemia in low income Nicaraguan women. A qualitative design was used. Audio-taped open-ended interviews in Spanish with 14 women were used to obtain data. Tapes were transcribed and content analyzed. The findings indicate that few of the women had biomedically accurate concepts of anemia, such as that it was due to lack of iron from poor eating. Others held folk medical beliefs including home remedies, for example drinking the milk of a mare or beet juice and eating certain foods such as bean soup. Most of the women did not know any symptoms of anemia and a few reported that it can develop into leukemia. These concepts of anemia are instructive for nurses working with patients from Nicaragua and will be useful in developing nursing interventions to alleviate this public health problem. PMID:19551265

  7. Maternal stress exposures, reactions, and priorities for stress reduction among low-income urban women

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Tina; Glass, Nancy; Ann Curry, Mary; Hernandez, Rebecca; Houck, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Maternal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse maternal-child outcomes. Vulnerable women’s experiences with stressors during pregnancy and their desires and priorities for appropriate and useful stress reduction interventions for pregnant women are not well-understood. METHODS Qualitative interviews with low-income, urban women explored their stress exposures and reactions during pregnancy, ways that stressors overlapped and interacted, and their priorities for stress reduction. Quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, My Exposure to Violence Instrument Danger Assessment, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale, Revised, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian) supplemented qualitative descriptions of women’s stress exposures and reactions. Analyses explored relationships between stressors and women’s priorities for stress intervention. Lay advisors from the sample population reviewed qualitative interview guides for appropriateness, completeness, and language prior to interviews, and reviewed study findings for validity. Study findings were returned to the community in newsletter form. RESULTS Twenty-four low-income urban women participated in interviews. Women in the sample reported high stress, lifetime violence exposure, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The most common stressors reported were financial strain, violence exposure, and feelings of intense isolation and loneliness. Few participants reported having discussed psychosocial stressors with prenatal care providers. Participants in this study described connections with other women as desirable to relieve their stress and provided input on ways healthcare providers could facilitate such connections. DISCUSSION Clinical and research implications of findings are discussed, including approaches that health care providers may find useful to facilitate connections among vulnerable pregnant women. PMID:23278984

  8. Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Mogul, Marjie; Newman, Deena; Coyne, James C

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1) screening and referral, (2) facilitators to referral, (3) barriers to referral, (4) culture and language, (5) life events, and (6) support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services. PMID:21603131

  9. Comparing Psychiatric Service Use among Low-Income Women and Women in a General Household Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Daniel; Warner, Lynn A.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the use of outpatient mental health services in a sample of low-income women (Mothers' Well-Being Study [MWS]) and compares the findings with a sample of similar-aged women in the general population (National Comorbidity Survey [NCS]). Overall, the prevalence of any 12-month mental health disorder was significantly greater…

  10. The Mental Health Needs of Low-Income Pregnant Teens: A Nursing-Social Work Partnership in Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Nancy A.; Anastas, Jeane W.

    2015-01-01

    While the rates of teen childbearing have declined in the United States, adolescents who become pregnant and decide to bear and rear their babies are often from low-income, highly stressed families and communities. This article will describe the psychosocial problems of pregnant urban teens and how exposure to interpersonal trauma and current…

  11. Religious Involvement and Attitudes toward Parenting among Low-Income Urban Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Terrence D.; Burdette, Amy M.; Regnerus, Mark; Angel, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors employ data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project, a probability sample of 2,402 low-income women with children living in low-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, to test whether religious attendance is associated with parental satisfaction, perceived parental demands, and parental distress over 2 years.…

  12. Concepts of Healthful Food among Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane; Keim, Kathryn; Koneman, Sylvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe beliefs about what makes foods healthful among low-income African American women. Methods: In one-on-one interviews, 28 low-income African American mothers viewed 30 pairs of familiar foods and explained which food in the pair was more healthful and why. Responses were grouped into codes describing concepts of food…

  13. Exploring the Self/Group Initiated and On-the-Job Learning Activities of Low Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterwick, Shauna

    The self- and group-initiated and on-the-job learning activities of low-income women were explored in a study of a small group of low-income mothers living in the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. During the study, the low-income women attended meetings during which a participating researcher documented the women's experiences.…

  14. Predictors of Depression Symptoms Among Low-Income Women Exposed to Perinatal Intimate Partner Violence (IPV).

    PubMed

    Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Sharps, Phyllis W; Bullock, Linda C

    2016-08-01

    Women experiencing perinatal intimate partner violence (IPV) may be at increased risk for depression. Baseline data was analyzed from 239 low-income pregnant women participating in an intervention study designed to reduce exposure to IPV. Depression risk was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and IPV factors were measured with the Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised (CTS-2). Stepwise regression was conducted to identify predictors of risk for depression. Race (p = 0.028), psychological IPV (p = 0.035) and sexual IPV (p = 0.031) were strongly associated with risk for depression. Regression results indicated that women experiencing severe psychological IPV were more likely to develop depression (OR 3.16, 95 % CI 1.246, 8.013) than those experiencing severe physical or sexual IPV. Experiencing severe psychological IPV during pregnancy is strongly linked to risk for depression. Routine screening for psychological IPV may increase identification and treatment of women at high risk for depression during pregnancy. PMID:26680595

  15. Women, Poverty, and Educational Success: A Critical Exploration of Low-Income Women's Experience in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Kate R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…

  16. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  17. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  18. BARRIERS TO COMPLIANCE WITH INFANT-FEEDING RECOMMENDATIONS AMONG LOW-INCOME WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early infant nutrition plays a vital role in the health of a person throughout life. In recognition of this knowledge, the Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) was established in the United States to ensure that low-income women, infants, and children with nutritiona...

  19. Determinants of child-bearing intentions of low-income women: attitudes versus life circumstances.

    PubMed

    Radecki, S E; Beckman, L J

    1992-04-01

    Surveys of low-income women in Los Angeles County in 1985 and 1986 were used to examine the relative impact of child-bearing motivations versus life circumstances on the intention to have a(nother) child. Future child-bearing intentions are strongly related to current parity level regardless of marital status, race/ethnicity or economic status. Psychological motivating factors predict child-bearing intentions of nulliparous women, but not those of parous women. Multivariate analyses showed that motivation for parenthood and life circumstances combined predicted women's child-bearing intentions 88.6% of the time for nulliparous women, but 73.7% for parous women. These findings suggest that, in a low-income population, the onset of parenthood reduces the relationship between specific motivations for child-bearing and actual child-bearing intentions, and diminishes the ability to predict child-bearing intentions based on both attitudinal and social/structural factors. PMID:1583030

  20. Spirituality and Religiosity: Factors Affecting Wellness among Low-Income, Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Carman S.; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A study including measures of spirituality, religiosity, and wellness was conducted to identify coping strategies for the multiple challenges to wellness faced by low-income, rural women. Total spirituality and religiosity accounted for 39% of the variance in wellness, with purpose and meaning in life, unifying interconnectedness, and private…

  1. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  2. Feminist Relational Advocacy: Processes and Outcomes from the Perspective of Low-Income Women with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Glenn, Catherine; Bohlig, Amanda; Banyard, Victoria; Borges, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of how low-income women who are struggling with symptoms of depression experience feminist relational advocacy, a new model that is informed by feminist, multicultural, and community psychology theories. Using qualitative content analysis of participant interviews, the authors describe the processes and…

  3. Patient and Clinical Site Factors Associated with Rescreening Behavior Among Older Multiethnic, Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Patrick; Arnsberger, Pamela; Owens, Desi; Nussey, Brenda; Zhang, Xiluan; Golding, Jacqueline M.; Tabnak, Farzaneh; Otero-Sabogal, Regina

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to identify factors predictive of mammography rescreening within 18 months of baseline screening in multiethnic, low-income older women. Design and Methods: We interviewed a cross-sectional survey of staff of 102 randomly selected clinics that provided screening and diagnostic services. We also surveyed a random sample of 391…

  4. How Low-Income Women Find Jobs and Its Effects on Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Data from a stratified random sample of 953 low-income urban women were analyzed to determine how they find jobs and the effect it has on subsequent earnings. Results show that although most find jobs through informal contacts, this has no effect on earnings. Those who recently left welfare were more likely to find jobs through formal sources.…

  5. Consequences of Male Partner Violence for Low-Income Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.; Lloyd, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    The current study used a random sample of 563 low-income women to test Johnson's (1995) theory that there are two major forms of male-partner violence, situational couple violence and intimate terrorism, which are distinguished in terms of their embeddedness in a general pattern of control. The study examined the associations between type of…

  6. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  7. Vegetable variety is a key to improved diet quality in low-income women in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include recommendations for quantity and quality of vegetable intake. The objective of this study was to determine if there is an association between variety of vegetable intake and measures of diet quality and diet cost in a sample of low-income women in Califor...

  8. Estimating dietary costs of low-income women in California: A comparison of two approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Compare two approaches for estimating individual daily diet costs in a population of low-income women in California. Design: Cost estimates based on time-intensive Method 1 (three 24-h recalls and associated food prices on receipts) were compared with estimates using a lesser intensive M...

  9. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV. PMID:18432428

  10. Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  11. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. Methods A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing “bean health benefits” and “food behaviors.” Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. Results The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered ‘neutral’ to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Conclusions Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition. PMID:26820889

  12. The Labor Force Characteristics of Women in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Geraldine B.; Bertrand, Alvin L.

    Selected data from the Southern Regional S-44 Project entitled "Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas" were analyzed to determine the work patterns of women in low-income rural areas. Objectives of the study were to describe the labor force experience of women, to report the attitudes of employed women…

  13. Closing the Gap in Mammogram Screening: An Experimental Intervention among Low-Income Hispanic Women in Community Health Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavenport, Alexis; Modeste, Naomi; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Neish, Christine

    2011-01-01

    A low rate of mammogram screening exists among low-income Hispanic women. To address this disparity, an experimental intervention containing audiovisual and written media was conducted using the health belief model as a framework. The purpose of this study was to determine if low-income Hispanic women, more than 40 years of age, who received…

  14. Perceptions of older, low-income women about increasing intake of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Dye, Cheryl J; Cason, Katherine L

    2005-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 28 older, low-income women in order to identify factors that affected their fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. Themes emerging from data analysis include barriers to making dietary changes, specifically to increasing F&V consumption; beliefs about benefits of consuming F&V as compared with other dietary changes; and use of supplements as a substitution for eating F&V. A prominent subtheme concerned the conflict women felt between their desire to consume more F&V and their desire not to waste food. Focus group participants gave concrete suggestions on how to help older, low-income women increase F&V consumption, which included environmental supports. PMID:16891261

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention. PMID:26541476

  16. A Systematic Review of Mammography Educational Interventions for Low-income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Tatiana M.; Delva, Jorge; Gretebeck, Kimberlee; Siefert, Kristine; Ismail, Amid

    2006-01-01

    Objective We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of educational interventions in increasing mammography screening among low-income women. Data Sources Bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the ISI Web of Science, were searched for relevant articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Randomized, community-based trials targeting low-income women and published between January 1980 and March 2003 were included. Data Extraction The search yielded 242 studies; 24 met all inclusion criteria. Data Synthesis Three studies used mammography vans, three used low-cost vouchers or provided free mammograms, three used home visits, one used community education alone, one provided referrals, five incorporated multiple intervention strategies, two used phone calls, one used videos and print material, and five used primarily print material. Results Of nine studies that reduced barriers to care via mammography vans, cost vouchers, or home visits, eight showed statistically significant increases in mammography screening. Seven of the eight studies that used peer educators had significant increases in screening, as did four of the five studies that used multiple (intervention) components. Conclusions Interventions that used peer educators, incorporated multiple intervention strategies, or provided easy access via vans, cost vouchers, or home visits were effective in increasing screenings. Mailed letter or telephone reminders were not effective in trials involving low-income women, which is contrary to findings from middle/upper-income studies. PMID:16295701

  17. Assessing perceived health promotion needs and interests of low-income older women.

    PubMed

    Bertera, E M

    1999-12-01

    This study focuses on an assessment of perceived health promotion needs and interests among predominantly older low-income women (76%) in the state of Pennsylvania. A questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of 140 individuals attending four senior centers and two nutrition sites. In addition, 14 focus groups with an average of 8 members per group were conducted for a total of 105 people from two of the four senior centers. The health topics of greatest interest to women were exercise (57.6%), making friends (50.9%), nutrition (37.5%), losing weight (33.6%), and home safety (34.6%). Compared with women, men were significantly more interested in exercise and its effect on mood (41.3% versus 24.0%) and love and sex after 60 (44.8% versus 18.2%) and significantly less interested in nutrition (17.2% versus 37.5%). The fitness activities of greatest interest to women were walking (63.1%), back exercises (37.5%), toning to music (22.1%), and self-defense (18.2%), none of which was significantly different from the men in the sample. Results suggest that many of the key health needs perceived by low-income older women could be addressed by a combination of fitness activities and health education, especially if they are also designed to facilitate social interactions. The barriers to participation in such programs most often cited were transportation, scheduling, and cost factors. Fortunately, many communities already have the resources to offer low-cost interventions in the areas of need, such as walking groups, self-defense, and home safety. Communities interested in serving low-income older women should more closely examine the barriers and the unmet needs of this group when designing intervention programs. PMID:10643841

  18. Perceptions and Experiences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Testing among Low-Income Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    León-Maldonado, Leith; Wentzell, Emily; Brown, Brandon; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Torres-Ibarra, Leticia; Salmerón, Jorge; Billings, Deborah L.; Thrasher, James F.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background HPV infection causes cervical cancer, a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among low-income Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing is now a primary screening strategy in Mexico’s early cervical cancer detection program (ECDP). Research on Mexican women’s perceptions of HPV and testing is necessary for establishing culturally appropriate protocols and educational materials. Here, we explore perceptions about HPV and HPV-related risk factors among low-income Mexican ECDP participants. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 ECDP participants from two primary care health clinics in Michoacán state, Mexico. Interviews addressed women’s understandings of and experiences with HPV and HPV testing. Analysis was inductive and guided by the Health Belief Model with a focus on gender. Results Women’s confusion about HPV and HPV screening caused emotional distress. They understood HPV to be a serious disease that would always cause severe symptoms, often characterizing it as analogous to HIV or inevitably carcinogenic. Women also attributed it to men’s sexual behaviors, specifically infidelity and poor hygiene. Women described both sexes’ desire for sex as natural but understood men’s negative practices of masculinity, like infidelity, as the causes of women’s HPV infection. Some women believed dirty public bathrooms or heredity could also cause HPV transmission. Conclusions These results are consistent with prior findings that geographically and economically diverse populations lack clear understandings of the nature, causes, or symptoms of HPV, even among those receiving HPV testing. Our findings also reveal that local cultural discourse relating to masculinity, along with failure to provide sufficient education to low-income and indigenous-language speaking patients, exacerbate women’s negative emotions surrounding HPV testing. While negative emotions did not deter women from seeking testing, they could

  19. Adaptation of the U.S. Food Security Survey Module for Low-Income Pregnant Latinas: Qualitative Phase

    PubMed Central

    Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) assessed the face validity of the 18-items US Household Food Security Scale Module (US HFSSM) among low-income pregnant Latinas and 2) adapt the US HFSSM to the target population. This study was conducted in the United States in Hartford, Connecticut where 40% of residents are of Latina descent. Three focus groups (N=14total) were held with pregnant and postpartum Latinas from April – June 2004 to assess the understanding and applicability (face validity) of the US HFSSM as well as adapt the US HFSSM based on their recommendations. This was followed by pre-testing (N=7) to make final adaptations to the US HFSSM. Overall, the items in the US HFSSM were clear and understandable to participants, but some questions sounded repetitive to them. Participants felt the questions were applicable to other pregnant Latinas in their community and shared food security related experiences and strategies. Participants recommendations led to key adaptations to the US HFSSM including reducing the scale to 15-items, wording statements as questions, including two time periods, replacing the term “balanced meals” with “healthy and varied”, replacing the term “low cost foods” with “cheap foods” and including a definition of the term, and including a coping mechanism of avoiding running out of food. The adapted US HFSSM was found to have good face validity among pregnant Latinas and can be used to assess food insecurity among this vulnerable population. PMID:20046909

  20. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control. PMID:8045092

  1. Effects of Social Injustice on Breast Health–Seeking Behaviors of Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Shelly-Ann; Williams, Edith M.; Stoneberg-Cooper, Chayah M.; Glover, Saundra H.; Williams, Michelle S.; Byrd, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study uses qualitative research to gain a better understanding of what occurs after low-income women receive an abnormal breast screening and the factors that influence their decisions and behavior. A heuristic model is presented for understanding this complexity. Design Qualitative research methods used to elicited social and cultural themes related to breast cancer screening follow-up. Setting Individual telephone interviews were conducted with 16 women with confirmed breast anomaly. Participants Low-income women screened through a national breast cancer early detection program. Method Grounded theory using selective coding was employed to elicit factors that influenced the understanding and follow-up of an abnormal breast screening result. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into NVivo 8, a qualitative management and analysis software package. Results For women (16, or 72% of case management referrals) below 250% of the poverty level, the impact of social and economic inequities creates a psychosocial context underlined by structural and cultural barriers to treatment that forecasts the mechanism that generates differences in health outcomes. The absence of insurance due to underemployment and unemployment and inadequate public infrastructure intensified emotional stress impacting participants’ health decisions. Conclusion The findings that emerged offer explanations of how consistent patterns of social injustice impact treatment decisions in a high-risk vulnerable population that have implications for health promotion research and systems-level program improvement and development. PMID:23448411

  2. Knowledge of Abortion Laws and Services Among Low-Income Women in Three United States Cities.

    PubMed

    Lara, Diana; Holt, Kelsey; Peña, Melanie; Grossman, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Low-income women and women of color are disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy. Lack of knowledge of abortion laws and services is one of several factors likely to hinder access to services, though little research has documented knowledge in this population. Survey with convenience sample of 1,262 women attending primary care or full-scope Ob/Gyn clinics serving low-income populations in three large cities and multivariable analyses with four knowledge outcomes. Among all participants, 53% were first-generation immigrants, 25% identified the correct gestational age limit, 41% identified state parental consent laws, 67% knew partner consent is not required, and 55% knew where to obtain abortion services. In multivariable analysis, first-generation immigrants and primarily Spanish speakers were significantly less likely than higher-generation or primarily English speakers to display correct knowledge. Design and evaluation of strategies to improve knowledge about abortion, particularly among migrant women and non-primary English speakers, is needed. PMID:25488893

  3. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We investigate levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and non-Hispanic white women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. We find Hispanics' overall levels of distrust to be higher than levels for either African Americans or whites. Among Hispanics, however, Dominicans are the most distrusting group followed by Puerto Ricans; whereas Mexicans report levels of distrust that are comparable to African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Married women are less distrusting than cohabiting women who, in turn, are less distrusting than non-cohabiting women. Nevertheless, distrust is not a significant predictor of a woman's total number of lifetime marital and cohabiting relationships; and distrust only marginally predicts a woman's desire to be in a steady relationship. We suggest that studies of trust in this population should focus more on attitudes displayed in specific encounters than on overall, generalized attitudes about gender distrust. PMID:21479146

  4. Association between Adult Stature and Energy Expenditure in Low-Income Women from Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Fabiana Cristina Alves; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Florêncio, Telma Maria Menezes Toledo; Hoffman, Daniel; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Background Perinatal undernutrition may lead to important metabolic adaptations in adult life, short stature being the most visible. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between stature and total energy expenditure of low-income women. Method Women aged 19–45 years from low-income communities in Maceió-AL were recruited. A sample of 67 volunteers was selected and divided into either short stature (≤152.4 cm; n = 34) or non-short stature (≥158.7 cm; n = 33) group. Data on socioeconomic status, anthropometric variables, and hormonal profiles was collected. Total energy expenditure and body composition were assessed by the doubly labeled water technique with multiple points over 14 days. In addition, physical activity levels were measured with triaxial accelerometers and dietary intake data were collected using three 24-hour food records. Results The mean subject age was 30.94 years. Women of short stature had lower body weight and lean body mass compared to non-short women, but there were no differences in thyroid hormone concentrations or daily energy intake between the two groups. Short-stature women showed lower total energy expenditure (P = 0.01) and a significantly higher physical activity level (P = 0.01) compared to non-short women. However, the difference in total energy expenditure was no longer significant after statistical adjustment for age, lean body mass, and triiodothyronine concentrations. Conclusion Women with short stature present the same energy intake, but lower total energy expenditure than non-short women, even with a higher physical activity level, which suggests that they are more prone to weight gain. PMID:26147672

  5. Low-Income Latina Mothers' Expectations for Their Pregnant Daughters' Autonomy and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Erum; Romo, Laura F.

    2008-01-01

    Forty-five pregnant Latina adolescents and their mothers (23 English-speaking, 22 Spanish-speaking) were videotaped conversing about feelings and plans related to the adolescent's pregnancy. The prevalence of the mothers' messages about the daughter's reliance on the family unit (interdependence) and the daughter's self-sufficiency (autonomy) were…

  6. The Role of Mental Health on Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Gross, Deborah; Hayat, Matthew J.; Rose, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine and describe the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) in predominantly low-income women. Design Mixed method. Setting Three urban obstetric/gynecologic (OB/GYN) clinics serving predominantly low-income women. Participants A convenience sample of 166 women participated in the quantitative component and a purposeful sub-sample of 12 women participated in the qualitative component; all women were between 24–28 weeks gestation at the time of data collection. Methods Linear regression models were used to examine the influence of depressive symptoms and social support on MFA. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted among a sub-sample of women to explore the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on MFA. Results Fifty-nine percent (n=98) of participants had scores that were clinically significant for depressive symptoms. In the final model of social support and depressive symptoms regressed on MFA, social support (b = 0.23, 95% CI [0.09, .37], p = .002) and depressive symptoms (b = −1.02, 95% CI [−1.32, −.73], p < 0.001) were significant predictors. This multivariate linear regression model with two variables accounted for 65.2% of the total variance in overall MFA. Qualitative participants discussed the importance of social support in contributing to their mood state and MFA. Conclusions Findings from this study highlight the importance of assessing for depressive symptoms during pregnancy given its influence on MFA. By understanding how important it was for these women to have a supportive person to experience their pregnancies with, nurses can improve the pregnancy experience for vulnerable populations. PMID:22788921

  7. Inadequate: A Metaphor for the Lives of Low-Income Women?

    PubMed Central

    Solomonik, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Exclusive breastfeeding of infants for the first 6 months of life with continued breastfeeding for at least 6 more months occurs only 11.9% of the time in the United States. Efforts of the past 30 years to promote optimal breastfeeding practices have had little impact. In order to create significant change in the way we feed infants in this country, we need to change the way we look at this public health issue and examine the cultural logic that makes bottle feeding the preferred choice of most U.S. women. This article analyzes the term “inadequate” not just as self-description of a woman's milk supply, but also as a metaphor for the lives of low-income women in the United States, the group least likely to breastfeed. Low-income women in the United States not only have inadequate incomes as compared to the general population, but inadequate child care, education, preventive health services, inadequate lifespans, and lives saturated with violence, leaving them inadequately safe even in their own homes. Here we outline a research agenda to explore the relationship between socially determined inadequacies and the cultural logic that makes bottle feeding a preferred form of infant feeding. PMID:19827922

  8. Fish consumption and advisory awareness among low-income women in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

    PubMed

    Silver, Elana; Kaslow, Jessica; Lee, Diana; Lee, Sun; Lynn Tan, May; Weis, Erica; Ujihara, Alyce

    2007-07-01

    Fishing is a culturally important activity to the ethnically diverse population living in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Due to runoff from abandoned gold mines, certain Delta fish are contaminated with methylmercury, a neurodevelopmental toxin. A state health advisory recommends limited consumption of certain Delta fish, to be followed in conjunction with a federal advisory for commercial and sport fish. We conducted a survey of low-income women at a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic, to characterize commercial and sport fish consumption patterns and advisory awareness. Ninety-five percent of women consumed commercial fish. Thirty-two percent consumed sport fish; this proportion was much higher in Hmong (86%) and Cambodian (75%) women. Ninety-nine percent of sport fish consumers also consumed commercial fish. The overall fish consumption rate among consumers was 27.9 g/day (geometric mean, past 30 days, cooked portion); commercial and sport fish consumption rates were 26.3 and 10.5 g/day, respectively. We found ethnic differences in overall fish consumption rates, which were highest in African Americans (41.2 g/day) and Asians (35.6 g/day), particularly Vietnamese and Cambodians. Pregnant women ate less fish overall than other women (16.8 vs. 30.0 g/day, p=0.0001), as did women who demonstrated specific advisory awareness (23.3 vs. 30.3 g/day, p=0.02). Twenty-nine percent of all women exceeded federal fish consumption advisory limits. These results highlight the need for culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions that address both commercial and sport fish consumption. PMID:17459365

  9. Welfare reform, employment, and drug and alcohol use among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Meara, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    In 1996 welfare reform legislation transformed income assistance for needy families by imposing work requirements, time-limited benefits, and explicit provisions allowing states to sanction recipients who fail to meet program requirements. Though they represent a minority of the welfare population, women with substance use disorders (SUDs) experience multiple, and more severe, employment barriers than other Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients. This review of welfare reform, substance abuse, and employment documents the evidence to date regarding the employment patterns of women with SUDs before and after welfare reform, and proposes several topics for further research. Based on higher rates of unemployment, less work experience, and lower earnings when working, women with SUDs have worse employment records than other TANF recipients. Despite elevated employment barriers, women with SUDs left TANF after 1996 as fast as, or faster than, other women. Since the 1996 welfare reform, women with SUDs have increased their employment and earnings, but by less than similar women without SUDs. Future research should describe how specific state welfare policies relate to employment of low-income women with SUDs, how the well-being of these women and their children changes with employment, and how welfare and employment interact to affect access to health insurance among this population. PMID:16912008

  10. Barriers to condom use and barrier method preferences among low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, G D; St Lawrence, J S; Little, C E; Shelby, M C; Brasfield, T L

    1995-01-01

    Low-income African-American women (N = 178) entering health clinics completed surveys assessing perceived barriers to condom use for themselves personally and for African-American women generally. Following the survey, each woman received a demonstration of five barrier contraceptive methods and then rated her preference among those methods. The women perceived relatively few personal barriers to use of the male condom but perceived significantly greater barriers for other African-American women (all p < .0001). The male condom was first choice of the largest percentage of women (45%) and last choice of the smallest percentage of women (11%). The male condom was preferred for its convenience, availability, and safety, although the necessity for active cooperation by the male partner was considered a hindrance to using the method. Only 23% of women ranked the female condom as first choice and 35% ranked the female condom as last choice. Reasons for selecting the female condom included preference for a female-controlled method, safety, and protection. However, the female condom was perceived to be uncomfortable, to require the partner's acquiescence, and to interfere with sexual experience. Differences in the women's perceptions of barriers to condom use for themselves and for other African-American women are consistent with Weinstein's theory of optimistic bias. Preferences among barrier methods indicate that further research and product development are needed to develop barrier methods that are female-controlled, do not require the awareness of the male partner, and are safe, comfortable, and convenient. PMID:7483652

  11. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

  12. Perinatal Mortality and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in a Low-Income Rural Population of Women who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Jane A.; Bloom, Tina; Moore, Kelly; Geden, Beth; Everett, Kevin; Bullock, Linda F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY We describe adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality among a Missouri population of low- income, rural mothers who participated in two randomized smoking cessation trials. In the Baby Beep (BB) trial, 695 rural women were recruited from 21 WIC clinics with 650 women’s pregnancy outcomes known (93.5% retention rate). Following the BB trial, 298 women, who had a live infant after November 2004 were re-recruited into and completed the Baby Beep for Kids (BBK) trial. Simple statistics describing the population, perinatal and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated. Of the adverse pregnancy outcomes (n=79), 29% were spontaneous abortions of <20 weeks gestation, 23% were premature births and 49% were identified birth defects. The perinatal mortality rate was 15.9 per 1,000 births (BB study) compared to 8.6 per 1,000 births (state of MO) and 8.5 per 1,000 births (U.S.) The postneonatal infant mortality rate was 13.4 per 1,000 live births (BBK) compared to 2.1 per 1,000 live births (U.S.). The health disparity in this population of impoverished rural pregnant women who smoke, particular with regard to perinatal and infant deaths, warrants attention. PMID:22371350

  13. Stress Buffering Effects of Oxytocin on HIV Status in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Erin M.; Antoni, Michael H.; Lopez, Corina; Mendez, Armando J.; Szeto, Angela; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated perceptions of psychosocial stress and stressful life events are linked to faster disease progression in individuals living with HIV and these associations may be stronger for women from ethnic minority populations. Levels of neurohormones such as oxytocin (OT), cortisol, and norepinephrine (NE) have been shown to influence the effects of psychosocial stress in different populations. Understanding how intrinsic neuroendocrine substances moderate the effects of stressors in minority women living with HIV (WLWH) may pave the way for interventions to improve disease management. Methods We examined circulating levels of plasma OT as a moderator of the effects of stress on disease status (viral load, CD4+ cell count) in 71 low-income ethnic minority WLWH. Results At low levels of OT, there was an inverse association between stress and CD4+ cell counts. Counter-intuitively, at high levels of OT there was a positive association between stress and CD4+ cell counts. This pattern was unrelated to women’s viral load. Other neuroendocrine hormones known to down-regulate the immune system (cortisol, norepinephrine) did not mediate the effects of OT and stress on immune status. Conclusions OT may have stress buffering effects on some immune parameters and possibly health status in low income ethnic minority WLWH reporting elevated stress. PMID:21215526

  14. Adherence to hysterosalpingogram appointments following hysteroscopic sterilization among low income women

    PubMed Central

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The few studies on post-Essure hysterosalpingogram (HSG) adherence rates show inconsistent results. This study examined associations between sociodemographic variables not examined in prior studies and HSG adherence among low income women. Study Design Medical records of 286 women who underwent sterilization between August 31, 2005 and September 30, 2011 were reviewed. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine variable associations with HSG adherence. Results The adherence rate for the first HSG was 85.0% (243/286). Variables associated with adherence were: lower education level (p=.01), not working outside the home (p=.04), being married (p<.0001), lower gravidity (p=.03), fewer lifetime number of sexual partners (p<.0001), no sexually transmitted infection history (p<.01), Hispanic ethnicity (p<.0001), Spanish as a primary language (p<.0001) and living further from the clinic (p<.01). Conclusions This study demonstrates that achieving high rates of adherence with the recommended HSG following Essure placement is feasible among low income populations. Furthermore, not speaking English or having to commute a far distance to the clinic do not appear to be barriers. This is encouraging considering the importance of this test to confirm tubal occlusion. PMID:24012097

  15. Food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome among women from low income communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Yen, Wong Chee; Yaw, Yong Heng; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Lin, Khor Geok

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between household food insecurity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among reproductive-aged women (n=625) in low income communities. The Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity instrument was utilized to assess food insecurity. Anthropometry, diet diversity, blood pressure and fasting venous blood for lipid and glucose profile were also obtained. MetS was defined as having at least 3 risk factors and is in accordance with the Harmonized criteria. The prevalence of food insecurity and MetS was 78.4% (household food insecure, 26.7%; individual food insecure, 25.3%; child hunger, 26.4%) and 25.6%, respectively. While more food secure than food insecure women had elevated glucose (food secure, 54.8% vs food insecure, 37.3-46.1%), total cholesterol (food secure, 54.1% vs food insecure, 32.1-40.7%) and LDL-cholesterol (food secure, 63.7% vs food insecure, 40.6-48.7%), the percentage of women with overweight/ obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low HDL-cholesterol and MetS did not vary significantly by food insecurity status. However, after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic covariates, women in food insecure households were less likely to have MetS (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05), abdominal obesity (individual food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.01), elevated glucose (household food insecure), total cholesterol (child hunger) (p<0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (household food insecure and child hunger) (p<0.05) compared to food secure women. Efforts to improve food insecurity of low income households undergoing nutrition transition should address availability and accessibility to healthy food choices and nutrition education that could reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. PMID:24561982

  16. Using Focus Groups To Develop a Heart Disease Prevention Program for Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettleman, Lynn; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups with diverse low-income women generated ideas about cardiovascular disease interventions. Women preferred programs that: addressed multiple risk factors; emphasized staying healthy for themselves; taught skills for adopting heart-healthy behaviors; and offered choices in effecting behavior change. Women stressed the need for health…

  17. Nutrition interventions in women in low-income groups in the UK.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Annie S

    2007-02-01

    In the UK the mental and physical health and well-being of millions of women are influenced by living in poverty. Low educational attainment, unemployment, low pay and poor areas of residence exacerbate the challenges of obtaining optimal food choices, dietary intake and healthy eating patterns. Poorer women are more likely to eat low amounts of fruits and vegetables, whole grains and fish, and higher amounts of sugar and sweetened drinks compared with more affluent women. Diet contributes to the health inequalities evident in high rates of diet-related morbidity (including obesity) and mortality (including IHD and stroke) and in maternal and child health considerations (including breast-feeding and family diet practices). There is a dearth of research on effective interventions undertaken with low-income women, reflecting some of the challenges of engaging and evaluating programmes with this 'hard to reach' subpopulation. Intervention programmes from the USA, including WISEWOMAN, the Women's Health Initiative, the American Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program provide models for changing behaviour amongst women in the UK, although overall effects of such programmes are fairly modest. Lack of evidence does not mean that that policy work should be not be undertaken, but it is essential that policy work should be evaluated for its ability to engage with target groups as well as for the behavioural change and health outcomes. PMID:17343769

  18. HIV and AIDS Relative to Other Health, Social, and Relationship Concerns Among Low-Income Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Braaten, Laura S.; Jaworski, Beth C.; Durant, Lauren E.; Forsyth, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the priorities of low-income women regarding health, relationship, and social concerns. Method Street-intercept surveys conducted with 161 low-income urban women (M = 27 years; 85% African-American; 80% single mothers) regarding their perceptions of the threat associated with 48 health and social problems. Results Women rated AIDS as their most important health, social, or relationship concern; nearly one-half of all women indicated that they would attend risk reduction programs to learn how to avoid infection with HIV. Conclusions AIDS is perceived as a serious threat to women’s health, and that interventions to reduce risk are welcomed. PMID:10839652

  19. Barriers to prenatal care among low-income women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kalmuss, D; Fennelly, K

    1990-01-01

    Postpartum in-hospital interviews with 496 low-income women in New York City revealed that attitudinal and motivational barriers as well as financial obstacles are significant impediments to timely initiation of prenatal care. The two most common reasons cited by these women in explaining why they had obtained prenatal care late or not at all were motivational items: "feeling depressed and not up to going for care" and "needing time and energy to deal with other problems." In logistic regression analyses, receipt of late or no prenatal care was significantly associated with the latter motivational barrier, along with the cost of care, having no health insurance, being Hispanic, being a substance abuser and holding negative attitudes toward the use of prenatal care. PMID:2272380

  20. A Primary Care-Based Early Childhood Nutrition Intervention: Evaluation of a Pilot Program Serving Low-Income Hispanic Women.

    PubMed

    Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Lopez, Veronica; Flores, Bianca; Lawhon, Brittany

    2015-12-01

    Nutrition in early childhood can significantly impact physical and mental health outcomes for children. However, research on broadly defined pre/postnatal nutrition interventions is sparse. The present study is a process and outcome evaluation of a primary care-based nutrition intervention targeting low-income Hispanic women. Pregnant women enrolled in the program were in their first trimester and received services through their 6-month well child check. The program provided vouchers for fruits and vegetables from the local farmers' market, nutrition classes, cooking classes, and lactation counseling. We conducted a prospective study of program participants (n = 32) and a comparable group of women for whom the program was not available (n = 29). Panel survey data measured maternal diet, exercise, stress, depression, social support, infant feeding practices, and demographics. Outcome measures obtained from medical records included pregnancy weight gain, infant weight at 6 and 12 months, and infant development at 9 months. Findings reveal that the program was not associated with infant weights. However, despite similar profiles at baseline, women in the intervention group were more likely than women in the comparison group to have significant improvements in diet, exercise, and depression (p ≤ .05). In addition, participants were more likely to breastfeed (p = .07) and their infants were more likely to pass the ages and stages developmental screen (p = .06) than women in the comparison group. The study was limited by a lack of random assignment and small samples. However, the breadth and size of the effects suggest pre/postnatal nutrition interventions integrated into primary care warrant additional investigation. PMID:26863560

  1. [Sexuality of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Malarewicz, Andrzej; Szymkiewicz, Jadwiga; Rogala, Jerzy

    2006-09-01

    Over the time when the sexual intercourse has been considered merely one of a number of forms of sexual contact, views on sexuality during pregnancy have undergone considerable transformation. A great many of authors emphasise, that the pregnancy is a stimulus for partners to search for ways to maintain mutual emotional bond, close physical affinity and satisfy sexual needs not necessarily finished with an intercourse. The fact, that one of the two partners is pregnant, imposes some restrictions on sexual life. Not rarely, in particular in the first trimester of pregnancy, a female is little interested in sex. It is due to, inter alia, hormonal changes resulting in nausea, fatigue and increased nervosity. These symptoms contribute to general feebleness and reduction of the level of sexual needs and difficulty to become aroused and sexually ready. In spite of that, a lot of women have the need to keep physical and emotional contact with their partners. For a number of couples, pregnancy becomes a stimulus to search for new ways of pleasing each other in love play, that does not necessarily leads with an intercourse. Most studies concerning sexuality during pregnancy focus on observing sexual activity, physiological changes, mutual relationship of partners, analysis of sexual intercourses and investigation of so-called sexual satisfaction. Examination of sexual satisfaction ruchedes the frequency of sexual contacts, intercourses, foreplay, concurrence of orgasms in the two partners, partners' happiness, sexual satisfaction and mutual heartiness. In some researchers' opinion, sexual satisfaction correlates with the feeling of happiness resulting form being pregnant, pregnant woman's feeling still attractive and experience of orgasm. However, some researchers observe reduced sexual activity during pregnancy, except for the second trimester, when sexual activity is similar to the one outside pregnancy. Pregnant women prefer the following types of sexual activity: non

  2. Medical Conditions and Symptoms Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Low-Income Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Szanton, S.; Taylor, T.J.; Page, G.G; Campbell, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have consistently reported rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women that are twice that of men. In men and women, PTSD has been associated with comorbid medical conditions, medical symptoms and lower self-rating of health. In low-income urban women, rates of PTSD are even more elevated than in suburban women and may be related to observed health disparities. Methods In this study, 250 women seeking healthcare at an urban clinic were interviewed for a PTSD diagnosis, major depressive disorder (MDD), the experience of traumatic events, the experience of current and past common medical conditions and symptoms, and subjective rating of health. A chart review was used to assess healthcare use in the past year. Results More current (5.2 vs. 3.8, p < 0.05) and past medical conditions (4.6 vs. 3.3, p < 0.05) were reported by women with a lifetime history of PTSD than by women without this history, after controlling for demographics and current depression. Women with lifetime PTSD also had more annual clinic appointments (5.9 vs. 3.8 p < 0.03) and were 2.4 times (p < 0.05) more likely to report lower appraisal of their physical health. Conclusions These findings suggest that urban health-seeking women with PTSD experience health impairments that may cause increased morbidity and that healthcare providers should consider the health ramifications of PTSD when providing medical care to women. PMID:19183098

  3. A "contract for change" increases produce consumption in low-income women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heneman, Karrie; Block-Joy, Amy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri; Donohue, Susan; Garcia, Linda; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Smith, Dorothy; West, Estella; Steinberg, Francene M

    2005-11-01

    This study determined whether a "Contract for Change" goal-setting exercise enhanced the effectiveness of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education programs to increase produce consumption in low-income (<130% of poverty) women after 4 weeks. Thirty-eight participants were randomized in this three-group parallel arm study: (a) control group participants received life-skills lessons, (b) the education group received the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education/Food Stamp Nutrition Education "Food Guide Pyramid" lessons, and (c) the contract group also received the "Food Guide Pyramid" series and completed a "Contract for Change." It was hypothesized that the contract group would have the greatest increases in advancement toward dietary change and produce consumption. Compared with controls, the contract group significantly moved toward acceptance of vegetable consumption (P < or = .05). Compared with the education group, the contract group significantly increased fruit consumption. Results suggest that nutrition professionals can effectively use goal-setting to assist low-income populations with dietary change. PMID:16256766

  4. Vaccinations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician–gynecologists are well-suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease–related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and infant benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and provider resources. PMID:25560127

  5. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  6. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power, and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Kathy R; Paprocki, Christine; Thomas Fishman, Marget; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and, therefore, may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women's sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001-2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and, in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention. PMID:26086275

  7. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation did not help low income Hispanic women in Texas meet the dietary guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-income Hispanic women are at a greater risk for dietary deficiencies and obesity. We assessed the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and dietary intake among 661 Hispanic women aged 26–44 years living in Texas. Cross-sectional data was collected us...

  8. Stepped-Care, Community Clinic Interventions to Promote Mammography Use among Low-Income Rural African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Delia Smith; Greene, Paul; Pulley, LeaVonne; Kratt, Polly; Gore, Stacy; Weiss, Heidi; Siegfried, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated community clinic-based interventions to promote mammography screening among rural African American women. This study randomized older low-income rural African American women who had not participated in screening in the previous 2 years to a theory-based, personalized letter or usual care; no group differences in…

  9. Improving pregnancy outcomes: public versus private care for urban, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Handler, A; Rosenberg, D

    1992-09-01

    This study describes the characteristics of women who received maternity care from the Chicago Department of Health or from private practitioners in 1988 and the first half of 1989, and who delivered at the University of Illinois Hospital or Cook County Hospital. The risk of preterm low birthweight for the infants of these women was compared according to source of prenatal care. The likelihood of giving birth to a preterm, low-birthweight infant was significantly greater (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.3-4.0) for women who received care only from private physicians (n = 530) compared with those who received care entirely from the Chicago Department of Health (n = 2465). This relationship remained after adjustment for race, age, parity, history of adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking, and use of drugs during pregnancy. We examined alternative explanations for these findings, and concluded that although the role of urban public health departments in the direct delivery of maternity care services continues to be a source of controversy, these institutions remain an important provider of such care for low-income women. PMID:1388438

  10. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Kathy R.; Paprocki, Christine; Fishman, Marget Thomas; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and therefore may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women’s sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001–2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention. PMID:26086275

  11. Effect of physical intimate partner violence on body mass index in low-income adult women.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcela de Freitas; Moraes, Claudia Leite de; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Verly Junior, Eliseu; Marques, Emanuele Souza; Salles-Costa, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI). This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2). A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2). Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7). The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women. PMID:25715300

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder among low-income women exposed to perinatal intimate partner violence : Posttraumatic stress disorder among women exposed to partner violence.

    PubMed

    Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Bullock, Linda C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-06-01

    Women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) and other forms of lifetime trauma may be at risk for negative mental health outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to examine potential predictors of PTSD among low-income women exposed to perinatal IPV. This study analyzed baseline cross-sectional data from 239 low-income pregnant women in the USA who participated in a nurse home visitation intervention between 2006 and 2012 after reporting recent IPV. PTSD was assessed with the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) in which participants answer questions about the most disturbing traumatic event (MDTE) in their lifetime that affected them the week before the interview. In total, 40 % of the women were identified as having PTSD (DTS ≥40). PTSD prevalence significantly increased with age to nearly 80 % of women ages 30 and older (n = 23). Age was also the strongest predictor of PTSD (p < 0.001). Most participants (65 %) identified non-IPV-related traumas as their MDTEs. Psychological (94 %), physical (82 %), and sexual (44 %) violence were not significantly associated with PTSD status. Despite recent exposure to IPV, most participants identified other traumatic events as more disturbing than IPV-related trauma. Further, the risk for PTSD increased with age, suggesting that the cumulative effect of trauma, which may include IPV, increases the risk for PTSD over a lifetime. Implementing comprehensive screening for trauma during prenatal care may lead to the early identification and treatment of PTSD during pregnancy in a community setting. PMID:26714487

  13. Low-income women's conceptualizations of food craving and food addiction.

    PubMed

    Malika, Nipher M; Hayman, Lenwood W; Miller, Alison L; Lee, Hannah J; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-08-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very "matter of fact" manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs. PMID:25867800

  14. Low-Income Women's Conceptualizations of Food Craving and Food Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Malika, Nipher M.; Hayman, Lenwood W.; Miller, Alison L.; Lee, Hannah J.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Food craving and food addiction have been proposed as targets for obesity focused interventions. However, individuals' conceptualizations of these constructs are not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. Therefore, we sought to understand how women conceptualize food craving and food addiction. Low-income women with preschool-aged children (2-5 years old) participated in either a semi-structured individual interview or focus group in which they were asked about their conceptualization of eating behaviors among adults and children. All responses were audio-recorded and transcribed. Themes were identified using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Identified themes revealed that the women perceived food craving to be common, less severe and to a degree more humorous than food addiction. It was not felt that food cravings were something to be guarded against or resisted. Food addiction was described in a very “matter of fact” manner and was believed to be identifiable through its behavioral features including a compulsive need to have certain foods all the time. A more detailed understanding of how the general population perceives food craving and food addiction may enable more refined measurement of these constructs with questionnaire measures in the future. In addition, interventions may be designed to use the language most consistent with participants' conceptualizations of these constructs. PMID:25867800

  15. Anger as a Moderator of Safer Sex Motivation among Low Income Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that both HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception inform rational decision-making and, thus, predict safer sex motivation and behavior. However, the amount of variance explained by knowledge and risk perception is typically small. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the predictive power of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on safer sex motivation is affected by trait anger. We hypothesized that anger may disrupt rational-decision making, distorting the effects of both HIV knowledge and risk perception on safer sex intentions. Data from 232 low-income, urban women at risk for HIV infection were used to test a path model with past sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, and HIV risk perception as predictors of safer sex intentions. Moderator effects of anger on safer sex intentions were tested by simultaneous group comparisons between high-anger and low-anger women (median-split). The theoretically expected “rational pattern” was found among low-anger women only, including (a) a positive effect of knowledge on safer sex intentions, and (b) buffer (inhibitor) effects of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on the negative path leading from past risk behavior to safer sex intentions. Among high-anger women, an “irrational pattern” emerged, with no effects of HIV knowledge and negative effects of both past risk behavior and HIV risk perception on safer sex intentions. In sum, the results suggest that rational knowledge and risk-based decisions regarding safer sex may be limited to low-anger women. PMID:16247592

  16. Pregnant African American women's attitudes toward perinatal depression prevention.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona; Williams, Kristen G

    2013-01-01

    Depression during the perinatal period is common, debilitating, and consequential for women and their children, particularly among low income African American women. Viable approaches to prevention of depression have emerged. Yet little is known about women's preferences for approaches to preventing depression. A sample of 60 pregnant, low-income African American women seeking routine prenatal care was presented with standardized descriptions of three approaches to depression prevention (pharmacotherapy and two psychosocial approaches) and measures of preferences, perceived credibility, and personal reactions to each approach. Women also completed measures of perceived barriers and facilitators and current depression. Consistent with expectations, both of the psychosocial approaches were rated as more strongly preferred, more credible, and associated with more positive personal reactions relative to the pharmacotherapy approach. Depression did not alter women's preferences among the approaches. Contrary to prediction, women with clinically significant levels of depression did not find the pharmacotherapy approach to be more credible or to have more favorable personal reactions to it than women with low depression symptom levels. Exploration of women's perceptions of barriers revealed the importance of logistics, beliefs, and stigma barriers whereas women reported that concern about depression being impairing and ease of pragmatics would both facilitate engagement with preventive interventions. The findings suggest the need to examine the role of preferences in tests of the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention of perinatal depression in order to enhance service delivery among low income African American women. PMID:23356356

  17. Learning from “Knocks in Life”: Food Insecurity among Low-Income Lone Senior Women

    PubMed Central

    Green-LaPierre, Rebecca J.; Williams, Patricia L.; Glanville, N. Theresa; Norris, Deborah; Hunter, Heather C.; Watt, Cynthia G.

    2012-01-01

    Building on earlier quantitative work where we showed that lone senior households reliant on public pensions in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada lacked the necessary funds for a basic nutritious diet, here we present findings from a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with eight low-income lone senior women living in an urban area of NS. Using a phenomenological inquiry approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore lone senior women's experiences accessing food with limited financial resources. Drawing upon Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, we explored their perceived ability to access a nutritionally adequate and personally acceptable diet, and the barriers and enablers to do so; as well in light of our previous quantitative research, we explored their perceptions related to adequacy of income, essential expenses, and their strategies to manage personal finances. Seven key themes emerged: world view, income adequacy, transportation, health/health problems, community program use, availability of family and friends, and personal food management strategies. World view exerted the largest influence on seniors' personal perception of food security status. The implications of the findings and policy recommendations to reduce the nutritional health inequities among this vulnerable subset of the senior population are considered. PMID:22997580

  18. Low-income women's conceptualizations of emotional- and stress-eating.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; Lee, Hannah J; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-12-01

    Emotional- and stress-eating have been proposed as risk factors for obesity. However, the way that individuals conceptualize these behaviors is not well understood and no studies have employed a qualitative approach. We sought to understand how women conceptualize emotional- and stress-eating. Sixty-one low-income women from South-central Michigan with young children (ages 2-5 years) participated in either a focus group or individual semi-structured interview during which they were asked about their conceptualizations of eating behaviors among adults and children. Responses were transcribed and the constant comparative method was used to identify themes. Identified themes included that emotional- and stress-eating are viewed as uncommon, severe, pitiable behaviors that reflect a lack of self-control and are highly stigmatized; that when these behaviors occurred among children, the behaviors resulted from neglect or even abuse; and that bored-eating is viewed as distinct from emotional- or stress-eating and is a common and humorous behavior with which participants readily self-identified. Future research and interventions should seek to develop more detailed conceptualizations of these behaviors to improve measurement, destigmatize emotional- and stress-eating and potentially capitalize on the strong identification with bored-eating by targeting this behavior for interventions. PMID:25218718

  19. Using focus groups to develop a heart disease prevention program for ethnically diverse, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Gettleman, L; Winkleby, M A

    2000-12-01

    Although low-income women have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than higher-income women, health promotion and disease prevention are often low priorities due to financial, family, and health care constraints. In addition, most low-income women live in environments that tend to support and even promote high risk CVD behaviors. Low-income African-American, Hispanic, and White women constitute one of the largest groups at high risk for CVD but few heart disease prevention programs have effectively reached them. The purpose of this project was to use feedback from focus groups to generate ideas about how to best structure and implement future CVD intervention programs tailored to low-income populations. Seven focus groups were conducted with 51 low-income African-American, Hispanic, and White women from two urban and two agricultural communities in California. The women in the study shared many common experiences and barriers to healthy lifestyles, despite their ethnic diversity. Results of the focus groups showed that women preferred heart disease prevention programs that would address multiple CVD risk factors, emphasize staying healthy for themselves, teach specific skills about how to adopt heart-healthy behaviors, and offer them choices in effecting behavioral change. For health information, they preferred visual formats to written formats. They also expressed a desire to develop knowledge to help them separate health "myths" from health "facts" in order to reduce their misconceptions about CVD. Finally, they stressed that health care policies and programs need to address social and financial barriers that impede the adoption of heart-healthy behaviors. PMID:11071226

  20. A Rural Perspective on Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Correlates, and Implications for Help-Seeking among Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye; Proctor, Enola K.

    2009-01-01

    Context/Purpose: To examine a low-income sample of women in the rural Midwest (N = 1,086) who were screened for perinatal depression through the outreach and education activities within a Healthy Start Initiative project. Specifically, we describe the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms, explore social and demographic correlates of…

  1. Intention to Consume Fruits and Vegetables Is Not a Proxy for Intake in Low-Income Women from Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara; Wall, Denise; Gromis, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Intention as an outcome measure for fruit and vegetable nutrition education interventions in low-income women was assessed through dietary assessment 3 weeks after a fruit and vegetable intervention in a federally funded program. Amount and variety of intake were compared to intentions expressed immediately following intervention. Findings…

  2. Greater nutrition knowledge is associated with lower 1-year postpartum weight retention in low-income women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess nutrition knowledge during early and late postpartum in a sample of low-income and minority women, and to determine if that knowledge had any relationship to weight retention at 1-year postpartum. A questionnaire was developed and validated in a sample of 151 ...

  3. "Let Me Count the Ways:" Fostering Reasons for Living among Low-Income, Suicidal, African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Davis, Telsie A.; Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2011-01-01

    Protective factors for fostering reasons for living were examined among low-income, suicidal, African American women. Bivariate logistic regressions revealed that higher levels of optimism, spiritual well-being, and family social support predicted reasons for living. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that spiritual well-being showed…

  4. One-Year Outcomes of a Randomized Clinical Trial Treating Depression in Low-Income Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Jeanne; Green, Bonnie L.; Krupnick, Janice L.; Chung, Joyce; Siddique, Juned; Belin, Tom; Revicki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    This study examines 1-year depressive symptom and functional outcomes of 267 predominantly low-income, young minority women randomly assigned to antidepressant medication, group or individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or community referral. Seventy-six percent assigned to medications received 9 or more weeks of guideline-concordant doses…

  5. Perceived discrimination and depression among low-income Latina male-to-female transgender women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines exposure to perceived discrimination and its association with depression among low-income, Latina male-to-female transgender women as well as evaluates the impact of sexual partner violence and mistreatment on depression. Methods A total of 220 Latina male-to-female transgender women who resided in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through community based organizations and referrals. Participants completed individual interviews using a structured questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Perceived discrimination was assessed using a fifteen-item measure that was designed to assess the experiences of maltreatment of transgender individuals. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depression after controlling for the presence of other variables. Results Of the sample, 35% reported significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15). Additionally, one-third of the participants indicated that in the two weeks prior to the interviews they had thought either of hurting themselves or that they would be better off dead. The extent of perceived discrimination in this population was extensive. Many of the participants experienced discrimination on a daily basis (14%) or at least once or twice a week (25%) as demonstrated by a positive response to at least 7 of 15 items in the measure of perceived discrimination. Almost six out of ten participants admitted that they had been victims of sexual partner violence. Those who reported more frequent discrimination were more likely to be identified with severe depression. There was also a notable association between self-reported history of sexual partner violence and depression severity. Conclusions A significant association between depression severity and perceived discrimination was identified. How exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of mental health problems

  6. Comparing narrative and informational videos to increase mammography in low-income African American women

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Matthew W.; Holmes, Kathleen; Alcaraz, Kassandra; Kalesan, Bindu; Rath, Suchitra; Richert, Melissa; McQueen, Amy; Caito, Nikki; Robinson, Lou; Clark, Eddie M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compare effects of narrative and informational videos on use of mammography, cancer-related beliefs, recall of core content and a range of reactions to the videos. METHOD African American women (n=489) ages 40 and older were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in St. Louis, MO and randomly assigned to watch a narrative video comprised of stories from African American breast cancer survivors (Living Proof) or a content-equivalent informational video using a more expository and didactic approach (Facts for Life). Effects were measured immediately post-exposure and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS The narrative video was better liked, enhanced recall, reduced counterarguing, increased breast cancer discussions with family members and was perceived as more novel. Women who watched the narrative video also reported fewer barriers to mammography, more confidence that mammograms work, and were more likely to perceive cancer as an important problem affecting African Americans. Use of mammography at 6-month follow-up did not differ for the narrative vs. informational groups overall (49% vs. 40%, p=.20), but did among women with less than a high school education (65% vs. 32%, p<.01), and trended in the same direction for those who had no close friends or family with breast cancer (49% vs. 31%, p=.06) and those who were less trusting of traditional cancer information sources (48% vs. 30%, p=.06). CONCLUSIONS Narrative forms of communication may increase the effectiveness of interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Narratives appear to have particular value in certain population sub-groups; identifying these groups and matching them to specific communication approaches may increase effectiveness. PMID:21071167

  7. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research. PMID:23428940

  8. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  9. Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis; Schminkey, Donna; Comstock, Emily; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects an estimated 1.5 million U.S. women annually. IPV impacts maternal and neonatal health with higher rates of depression and low birth weight (LBW). Less studied is experiencing IPV and delivering a small for gestational age (SGA) baby. SGA neonates are at increased risk of developmental and behavioral problems. The negative sequelae persist into adulthood with increased rates of diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Methods: In a sample of 239 pregnant women experiencing IPV, in urban and rural settings, we examined cross-sectional associations of severity of IPV and neonatal outcomes (i.e., birth weight and gestational age). Severity of IPV was measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 and neonatal outcomes were collected at the time of delivery. Results: Outcomes were collected on 194 neonates; 14.9% (n=29) were classified as LBW, 19.1% (n=37) classified as SGA, and 9.8% (n=19) as LBW and SGA. Women reporting higher severity of IPV during pregnancy had a greater likelihood of delivering an SGA neonate (odds ratio [OR] 4.81; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.86–12.47), and LBW neonate (OR 4.20; 95% CI 1.46–12.10). Conclusions: In a sample of pregnant women experiencing perinatal IPV, women experiencing greater severities of IPV were more likely to deliver a neonate with an adverse outcome. Early recognition and intervention of IPV is essential to reduce disparities in birth outcomes and long-term health outcomes for these neonates. PMID:25290007

  10. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ...

  11. Where the Boys Are: Attitudes Related to Masculinity, Fatherhood, and Violence toward Women among Low-Income Adolescent and Young Adult Males in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Gary; Loewenstein, Irene

    1997-01-01

    Qualitative research with 127 low-income young men and women, aged 14 to 30, in Rio de Janeiro found rigid gender roles with males displaying widespread "machista" attitudes (an exaggerated deep structure of masculinity) and acceptance of violence against women that was greater in low-income urban areas. Implications for working with adolescent…

  12. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  13. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  14. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth after changing a litter box, or while gardening without gloves. Fruits and vegetables may have contact ... pregnant. Keep outdoor sandboxes covered. Wear gloves when gardening and during contact with soil or sand because ...

  15. Postpartum depression: perceptions of a diverse sample of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Jarosinski, Judith M; Pollard, Deborah Lynn

    2014-03-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) continues to significantly impact women and their families during the perinatal period. Consequences of untreated PPD in the mother may lead to impaired mother-infant bonding, recurring psychiatric illness, and fewer positive parenting behaviors. North Carolina participates in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey and has the second highest self-reported rate of postpartum depressive symptoms at 19.0%. The full study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The qualitative approach, an interpretive Heideggerian perspective, elicited the postpartum clients' perceptions of risk factors, how those perceptions affected the pregnancy experience, and how self-efficacy played a role in their perceived ability to make healthy choices. The sample was comprised of 60 pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 40. Four themes were found: (1) Feeling joy and apprehension at once, (2) Depression is something you think about (3) Rearranging your thinking, and (4) Garnering support. The women in this study believed that support was an indispensable tool in dealing with feelings of sadness and depression. Critical aspects of becoming involved in their pregnancy included changing their expectations and knowing how to detect and seek help when depressive symptoms occurred. PMID:24597584

  16. Iron interventions for women and children in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2011-04-01

    The WHO estimates that 41% of women and 27% of children suffer from anemia due to iron deficiency. The consequences of iron deficiency anemia include suboptimal mental and motor development in young children, increased risk of maternal mortality, and decreased economic productivity of adults. Recent research also provides evidence that maternal iron deficiency in pregnancy increases neonatal morbidity and mortality. This short review briefly highlights how iron interventions might be positioned within 4 global health initiatives: making pregnancy safer, saving newborn lives, infant and young child feeding, and fortification. The importance of iron nutrition is recognized in the context of child nutrition, fortification, and biofortification, and it is likely that meaningful advances will be made through these initiatives in the coming decade. However, iron nutrition is not yet well integrated into the programmatic agendas for reducing morbidity and mortality of pregnant women and neonates. Iron supplementation in pregnancy has been advocated for decades as a means of controlling anemia, but this outcome has not been sufficient to motivate strong programs and policies, and the evidence base is still sparse for high-priority clinical outcomes. To act on the current evidence for maternal and neonatal health will require stronger advocacy within circles that have not traditionally included nutritionists. Successful implementation will require greater attention to antenatal care for pregnancy women and prioritization of iron-promoting actions (including iron supplementation and deworming) within that platform. PMID:21367936

  17. The influence of maternal-fetal attachment and health practices on neonatal outcomes in low-income, urban women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Gross, Deborah; Hayat, Matthew J; Woods, Anne B; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2012-04-01

    Maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) has been associated with health practices during pregnancy, but less is known about this relationship in low-income women, and no identified studies have examined this relationship to neonatal outcomes. This longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationships among MFA, health practices during pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes in a sample of low-income, predominantly African-American women and their neonates. MFA was associated with health practices during pregnancy and adverse neonatal outcomes. Health practices during pregnancy mediated the relationships of MFA and adverse neonatal outcomes. The results support the importance of examining MFA in our efforts to better understand the etiology of health disparities in neonatal outcomes. PMID:22262085

  18. The Influence of Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Health Practices on Neonatal Outcomes in Low-Income, Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Gross, Deborah; Hayat, Matthew J.; Woods, Anne B. (Nancy); Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) has been associated with health practices during pregnancy, but less is known about this relationship in low-income women, and no identified studies have examined this relationship to neonatal outcomes. This longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationships among MFA, health practices during pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes in a sample of low-income, predominantly African-American women and their neonates. MFA was associated with health practices during pregnancy and adverse neonatal outcomes. Health practices during pregnancy mediated the relationships of MFA and adverse neonatal outcomes. The results support the importance of examining MFA in our efforts to better understand the etiology of health disparities in neonatal outcomes. PMID:22262085

  19. Caregiving women and the US welfare state: the case of elder kin care by low-income women.

    PubMed

    Ward, D H; Carney, P A

    1994-07-01

    Long-term care in the unique US welfare state is largely a private responsibility, and current long-term care policy rests on the assumption that care--of the elderly, in our example--will be provided by women. Because alternatives to personal care of dependent kin are available based on ability to pay, lower-income women bear a disproportionate burden. A study was undertaken to examine the experience of caregiving in a convenience sample of 10 low-income women providing informal care to a frail elder. Half the study sample were women of color. Responses to the core question, "What is taking care of ... like for you?" were analyzed using phenomenologic analysis techniques. A pattern of four interrelated key themes, which describe a transitional process beginning with inevitability of the caregiving role and ending with acquiescence to it, were identified. These data are placed in the political context that surrounds caregiving; such analyses are important both to generate theory and to identify possible points of intervention. PMID:8027196

  20. Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. Methods: In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27 957 women of reproductive age (aged 15–49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Results: The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100 000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8–20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6–16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Conclusions: Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research. PMID:22850186

  1. Beyond the 50-minute hour: increasing control, choice, and connections in the lives of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa A; Smyth, Katya Fels; Banyard, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Although poverty is associated with a range of mental health difficulties among women in this country, mainstream mental health interventions are not sufficient to meet the complex needs of poor women. This article argues that stress, powerlessness, and social isolation should become primary targets of our interventions, as they are key mediators of the relationship between poverty and emotional distress, particularly for women. Indeed, if ways are not found to address these conditions directly, by increasing women's control, choice, and connections, the capacity to improve the emotional well-being of impoverished women will remain limited at best. This is the first of 5 articles that comprise a special section of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, called "Beyond the 50-Minute Hour: Increasing Control, Choice, and Connections in the Lives of Low-Income Women." Together, these articles explore the nature and impact of a range of innovative mental health interventions that are grounded in a deep understanding of the experience of poverty. This introduction: (a) describes briefly how mainstream approaches fail to address the poverty-related mental health needs of low-income women; (b) illuminates the role of stress, powerlessness, and social isolation in women's lives; (c) highlights the ways in which the articles included in this special section address each of these by either adapting traditional mental health practices to attend to poverty's role in participants' lives or adapting community-based, social-justice-oriented interventions to attend to participants' mental health; and (d) discusses the research and evaluation implications of expanding mental health practices to meet the needs of low-income communities. PMID:20397984

  2. Employment and the Risk of Domestic Abuse among Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Magnuson, Katherine; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data from 2 randomized evaluations of welfare-to-work programs--the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies--to estimate the effect of employment on domestic abuse among low-income single mothers. Unique to our analysis is the application of a 2-stage least squares method, in…

  3. Promises They Can Keep: Low-Income Women's Attitudes toward Motherhood, Marriage, and Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherlin, Andrew; Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Burton, Linda M.; Garrett-Peters, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Using data on low-income mothers in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we test three propositions regarding mothers' attitudes toward childbearing, marriage, and divorce. These are drawn from K. Edin and M. J. Kefalas (2005) but have also arisen in other recent studies. We find strong support for the proposition that childbearing outside of…

  4. Race, homelessness, and other environmental factors associated with the food-purchasing behavior of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery shopping behavior. The survey included demographics, the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and grocery shopping questions related to food purchases and food stores visited in the past month. Participants were a convenience sample of 448 low-income, urban Minnesotan women, and data were collected from February through May 2008. The sample was 44% African American, 35% American Indian, 10% white, and 11% other/mixed race; 37% were homeless. Rates of "less healthy" food group purchases were higher compared to "healthy" food group purchases. Significant racial differences were found with respect to purchasing healthy protein food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01) but not fruits, vegetables, or whole grains. Homelessness reduced the odds of purchasing most food groups, regardless of nutrient density (P<0.05 to P<0.001). Food shelf and food store usage mainly increased the odds of purchasing "less healthy" food groups (P<0.05 to P<0.01). These findings may help registered dietitians strategize with low-income, urban women how to make best use of food resources within their local food system. PMID:20800128

  5. Changes in Labor Force Characteristics of Women in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 185.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Geraldine B.; Charlton, J. L.

    Changes between 1960 and 1966 in the labor force characteristics of women in low-income rural areas of Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee were examined. Within a rural milieu, characterized by low income and high out-migration, the study determined the: (1) scope, social characteristics, and nature of mobility and its effects on…

  6. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income...

  7. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income...

  8. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income...

  9. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income...

  10. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income...

  11. A Postpartum Community-Based Weight Management Intervention Designed for Low-Income Women: Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Testing.

    PubMed

    Berry, Diane; Verbiest, Sarah; Hall, Emily Gail; Dawson, Ida; Norton, Deborah; Willis, Shaderika; McDonald, Kimberly; Stuebe, Alison

    2015-07-01

    Postpartum weight retention increases a woman's risk of entering subsequent pregnancies overweight or obese, and women who are overweight or obese in pregnancy face higher rates of complications for themselves and their infants. This study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of an intervention to prevent postpartum weight retention in predominantly low-income African-American women. A randomized control pilot study was conducted to test the effects of the intervention on weight, adiposity, health behaviors, and eating and exercise self-efficacy from baseline (Time 1) to study completion (Time 2). The women in the experimental group had significantly greater decreases in triceps skinfolds (p = 0.01) and subscapular skinfolds (p = 0.04) and had significantly greater nutrition knowledge (p =0.04) than the control group. The results indicate that women randomized to a postpartum weight management program significantly decreased adiposity, increased nutrition knowledge and action, and, in addition, the women found the intervention acceptable. PMID:26371358

  12. Situational and financial barriers to prenatal care in a sample of low-income, inner-city women.

    PubMed Central

    St Clair, P A; Smeriglio, V L; Alexander, C S; Connell, F A; Niebyl, J R

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the use of prenatal care and factors that may impede access to care was examined in a sample of low-income, inner-city women. Situational and financial barriers to care were not important correlates of utilization. In unadjusted analyses, only insurance status and employment status were associated with utilization. Of the sociodemographic characteristics studied, only parity was strongly associated with the use of prenatal care. When the apparent associations between utilization and insurance status and utilization and employment were analyzed controlling for parity, the estimated strength and statistical significance of these relationships diminished considerably. Multiparous women who were more likely than primiparous women to be underutilizers were also more likely to be on medical assistance and to be unemployed. These findings suggest that situational and financial barriers are not important correlates of utilization for low-income, adult women living in urban areas where there are accessible clinic facilities and public transportation. Efforts to identify and surmount other kinds of barriers may prove to be a more effective approach to prenatal outreach for women in these circumstances. PMID:2113685

  13. Breastfeeding ambivalence among low-income African American and Puerto Rican women in north and central Brooklyn.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Leslie; Deenadayalan, Swarna; Karpati, Adam

    2010-09-01

    This study explores low-income African American and Puerto Rican women's conceptions and practices around breastfeeding. It examines the impact of such diverse factors as social constructions of the body, local mores around infant care, the practicalities of food availability, in the context of interactions with family members and friends, institutions, and others in women's neighborhoods. The study employed ethnographic methods, including interviews and participant observation, with 28 families in two low-income Brooklyn neighborhoods. While women in this study felt that breastfeeding was the best way to feed their infants, their commitment turned to ambivalence in the face of their perceptions about the dangers of breast milk, the virtues of formula, and the practical and sociocultural challenges of breastfeeding. Women's ambivalence resulted in a widespread complementary feeding pattern that included breast milk and formula, and resulted in short breastfeeding durations. Findings suggest the critical role of breastfeeding "ambivalence" in driving thought and action in women's lives. Ambivalence erodes the permanence of breastfeeding intention, and makes feeding practices provisional. Ambivalence challenges breastfeeding promotion strategies, resulting in weakened public health messages and a difficult-to-realize public health goal. PMID:19644744

  14. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers short-term protection to ... News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new study indicates. The researchers also ...

  15. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers ... MONDAY, May 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new ...

  16. Toxoplasmosis in Kosovo pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dentico, Pietro; Volpe, Anna; Putoto, Giovanni; Ramadani, Naser; Bertinato, Luigi; Berisha, Merita; Schinaia, Nicola; Quaglio, Gianluca; Maggi, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    This study presents the initial results of a collaborative project aimed at the evaluation of Toxoplasma seroprevalence in a population of Kosovar pregnant women. The serum samples of 334 pregnant women were tested to detect IgG, IgM, IgG avidity for toxoplasmosis. Data regarding age, occupation, area of origin and education were also obtained for the pregnant women examined; 97/334 (29.4%) resulted positive for IgG antibodies, four of whom (4.1%) were also positive for IgM, (1.2% of the total population examined). All four IgM-positive pregnant women also demonstrated low avidity tests. The rate of IgG seroprevalence found in our study was lower than that observed in various European countries, especially those of western Europe. Conversely, the percentage of recent infections was higher than expected. The higher rate of infections could be the result of a recent toxoplasmosis epidemic in Kosovo, most likely due to the altered hygienic conditions caused by the forced transfer of the ethnic-Albanian population from an area of low (Serbia) to high (Kosovo) toxoplasmosis prevalence. PMID:21617833

  17. [Sexuality in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Hamela-Olkowska, Anita; Marcyniak, Marek; Sieńko, Jacek; Czajkowski, Krzysztof; Brandt, Maciej; Jalinik, Katarzyna; Labusiewicz, Wojciech; Romankiewicz, Kamila

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of pregnancy on women's sexuality. The studies were conducted using questionnaires to interview 120 women from 35 weeks' of gestation or just after the delivery. There were no medical contraindications for sexual intercourse in pregnancy in this group. More than half of respondents reported a decrease in libido during gestation. A reduction in coital frequency, oral intercourse, gratification of coitus, caress of breasts or genitals and erotic dreams occurred during pregnancy. Lateral position was mainly used during coitus in pregnancy. Most of women didn't discuss the problems of sexual activity in pregnancy with their obstetricians. PMID:15537259

  18. Integrating mental health screening and abnormal cancer screening follow-up: an intervention to reach low-income women.

    PubMed

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Nissly, Jan; Padgett, Deborah; Pineda, Diana; Sarabia, Olga; Walther, Virginia; Blumenfield, Susan; Lee, Pey-jiuan

    2002-08-01

    The results of implementing mental health screening within cancer screening and diagnostic programs serving low-income ethnic minority women are reported. Multi-phased screening for anxiety and depression was provided as part of structured health education and intensive case management services to improve abnormal mammogram or Pap test follow-up. Seven hundred fifty-three women were enrolled in the Screening Adherence Follow-up Program. Ten percent (n = 74) met criteria for depressive or anxiety disorder. Women with depressive or anxiety disorders were more likely to have cancer, significant psychosocial stress, fair or poor health status, a comorbid medical problem, and limitation in functional status. Forty-seven women with disorders were receiving no depression care. PMID:12166918

  19. The Effect of Lactation Educators Implementing a Telephone-Based Intervention among Low-Income Hispanics: A Randomised Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav W.; Esparza, Salvador; Mendelson, Sherri G.; Lane, Christianne J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether a telephone-based breastfeeding intervention delivered by lactation educators influenced exclusive breastfeeding rates among low-income Hispanic women in the USA. Design: Randomised two-group design. Setting: Pregnant low-income Hispanic women (298) were recruited from community health clinics in Los Angeles County…

  20. Randomized trial of a behavioral weight loss intervention for low-income women: the Weight Wise Program.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Johnston, Larry F; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Lindsley, Sara C; Bramble, Kathy P; Hardy, Trisha E; Ammerman, Alice S; Poindexter, Patricia A; Will, Julie C; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2009-10-01

    Low-income women in the United States have the highest rates of obesity, yet they are seldom included in weight loss trials. To address this research gap, components of two evidence-based weight loss interventions were adapted to create a 16-week intervention for low-income women (Weight Wise Program), which was evaluated in a randomized trial with the primary outcome of weight loss at 5-month follow-up. Participants were low-income women (40-64 years) with a BMI of 25-45. Of 143 participants, 72 were randomized to the Weight Wise Program (WWP) and 71 to the Control Group (CG). Five-month follow-up data were obtained from 64 (89%) WWP and 62 (87%) CG participants. With baseline values carried forward for missing data, WWP participants had a weight change of -3.7 kg compared to 0.7 kg in the CG (4.4 kg difference, 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.2-5.5, P<0.001). For systolic blood pressure (SBP), change in the WWP was -6.5 mm Hg compared to -0.4 mm Hg among controls (6.2 mm Hg difference, 95% CI, 1.7-10.6, P=0.007); for diastolic BP (DBP), changes were -4.1 mm Hg for WWP compared to -1.3 mm Hg for controls (2.8 mm Hg difference, 95% CI, 0.0-5.5, P=0.05). Of the 72 WWP participants, 64, 47, and 19% lost at least 3, 5, and 7% of their initial body weight, respectively. In conclusion, the WWP was associated with statistically significant and clinically important short-term weight loss. PMID:19407810

  1. Recruiting and retaining low-income, multi-ethnic women into randomized controlled trials: Successful strategies and staffing

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Josephine; Aguilar, Stephanie; Brittner, Mindy; Bonuck, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Developing effective recruitment and retention strategies in populations with traditionally high attrition rates is critical to the success of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs). Data on successful participation of women from low-income, minority populations in RCTs of behavioral interventions are limited. This is problematic given the multiplicity of Healthy People 2020 goals that target health disparities in these populations. This paper reports successful recruitment and retention methods from two separately funded NIH clinical trials of primary care-based prenatal interventions to increase breastfeeding among ethnically diverse, low-income women in urban medical centers in the Bronx, NY. It also presents the required staff effort necessary to conduct such a successful RCT, in terms of full-time equivalents (FTEs). Results include timely recruitment of 941 participants over 29 months, with 98.1% completing 1̄ follow-up interview. A recruitment and retention plan that maximized study staff access and availability to the participant, as well as strong study staff rapport with participants, addressed previously reported barriers in this population, optimizing follow-up rates. A qualitative assessment of the participants' study experience suggesting that high retention was due to strong rapport with participants, short interviews requiring little time commitment, and participants' perception of the study as informative, provides further evidence of our approach's effectiveness. Logistical protocol procedures and staff management strategies relating to successful recruitment/retention are provided to propose a practical, cost-effective and translational recruitment–retention plan for other researchers to adopt. PMID:22732312

  2. Assessment of factors impacting cervical cancer screening among low-income women living with HIV-AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ogunwale, Abayomi N; Coleman, Maame Aba; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Valverde, Ivan; Montealegre, Jane; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria; Anderson, Matthew L

    2016-04-01

    Very little is currently known about factors impacting the prevalence of cervical cancer screening among women living with HIV-AIDS (WLHA). To better understand this issue, we surveyed low-income, medically underserved women receiving subsidized gynecologic care through an integrated HIV clinic. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 209 women who self-identified as HIV positive. A total of 179 subjects (85.7%) reported having had a Pap test in the last three years. The majority of WLHA (95%) knew that the Pap test screens for cervical cancer. However, overall knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors, such as multiple sexual partners or sex with a man with multiple partners, was low (43% and 35%, respectively). Unscreened women were younger and more likely to be single with multiple current sexual partners. In multivariable analyses, the only factors associated with Pap testing were a woman's perception that her partner wants her to receive regular screening (aOR 4.64; 95% CI: 1.15-23.76; p = .04), number of clinic visits during the past year (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05-1.94; p = .04) and knowledge that the need for a Pap test does not depend on whether or not a woman is experiencing vaginal bleeding (aOR 6.52, 95% CI: 1.04-49.71; p = .05). We conclude that support from male partners in addition to effective contact with the health system and knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors influence Pap utilization among low-income WLHA. Future measures to improve the care for this population should increase knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and encourage social support for cervical cancer screening among WLHA. PMID:26493859

  3. Changes in Marital and Partner Relationships in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: An Analysis With Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Scoglio, Arielle A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of natural disasters on marital and partner relationships. In this study, the authors aimed to fill this gap by investigating the changes in such relationships in a sample of 40 low-income, mostly African American women who survived Hurricane Katrina. Through in-depth interviews, participants described how the hurricane affected their intimate relationships. The authors found that, although many participants reported negative changes in their relationships, others reported that their relationships grew stronger, often despite initial strain. As a framework for understanding the processes underlying participants’ negative and positive outcomes, the authors drew on the family stress model. Consistent with the model, participants reported that the hurricane led to external stressors, including unemployment and prolonged separations, and that these stressors, in turn, undermined both individual functioning and relational processes (e.g., communication and support). Conversely, participants reporting positive changes experienced new employment opportunities, a greater sense of perspective, and high levels of effective communication and support in their relationships. Based on the findings, policies that reduce the economic strain of low-income families in the aftermath of disasters and empirically supported, culturally sensitive, clinical interventions for individuals and couples are recommended. PMID:23125478

  4. Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

    PubMed Central

    Haldeman, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI) and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups. PMID:23819044

  5. Changes in Marital and Partner Relationships in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: An Analysis With Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E; Scoglio, Arielle A J

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of natural disasters on marital and partner relationships. In this study, the authors aimed to fill this gap by investigating the changes in such relationships in a sample of 40 low-income, mostly African American women who survived Hurricane Katrina. Through in-depth interviews, participants described how the hurricane affected their intimate relationships. The authors found that, although many participants reported negative changes in their relationships, others reported that their relationships grew stronger, often despite initial strain. As a framework for understanding the processes underlying participants' negative and positive outcomes, the authors drew on the family stress model. Consistent with the model, participants reported that the hurricane led to external stressors, including unemployment and prolonged separations, and that these stressors, in turn, undermined both individual functioning and relational processes (e.g., communication and support). Conversely, participants reporting positive changes experienced new employment opportunities, a greater sense of perspective, and high levels of effective communication and support in their relationships. Based on the findings, policies that reduce the economic strain of low-income families in the aftermath of disasters and empirically supported, culturally sensitive, clinical interventions for individuals and couples are recommended. PMID:23125478

  6. Childhood trauma, PTSD, and problematic alcohol and substance use in low-income, African-American men and women.

    PubMed

    Cross, Dorthie; Crow, Thomas; Powers, Abigail; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that PTSD mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and alcohol and substance use disorders and that PTSD and alcohol/substance use comorbidity is greater in men than in women. We sought to replicate and extend these findings in a predominantly low-income, African-American sample recruited from a public hospital. We administered measures of childhood trauma, PTSD symptoms, problematic alcohol use, and problematic substance use to 803 men and 2084 women. We examined rates of comorbidity in men and women. Next, two bootstrap analyses were used to test whether PTSD is a mediator between childhood trauma and problematic alcohol use and between childhood trauma and problematic substance use. Finally, two bootstrap analyses were used to test whether gender would moderate the indirect effect of PTSD in both the alcohol and substance use models. Results showed that although men and women reported similar overall PTSD symptom frequency, men were more likely than women to report PTSD comorbid with alcohol and/or substance use problems. In addition, PTSD partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and problematic alcohol use and between childhood trauma and problematic substance use. The indirect effects of PTSD on the relationship between childhood trauma and problematic alcohol use and between childhood trauma and problematic substance use were greater in men. This study demonstrates the important interplay of gender, childhood trauma, PTSD, and alcohol and substance use. Mental health providers should consider childhood trauma histories and diagnostic comorbidities when treatment planning. PMID:25680654

  7. Investing in self-care: a midrange theory of self-care grounded in the lived experience of low-income HIV-positive white women.

    PubMed

    Leenerts, M H; Magilvy, J K

    2000-03-01

    Little is known about the types of interventions that invite low-income women into partnerships that motivate self-care practices when living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The increasing incidence of HIV infection in low-income women with histories of inattention to self-care calls for nursing theories that address self-care practices. The purpose of this article is to describe a midrange theory developed from grounded theory research and to discuss implications of theoretical construction for future knowledge development. For the 12 women in this study, self-care practices developed over time and through four categories: focusing self, fitting resources, feeling emotions, and finding meaning. The core category, investing in self-care, linked the categories and carried explanatory power for developing midrange theory. Implications for nursing knowledge development through partnerships with low-income women are discussed. PMID:10711805

  8. Aiming for More Relevant HIV Risk Reduction: A Black Feminist Perspective for Enhancing HIV Intervention for Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Quinn M.; Elifson, Kirk; Sterk, Claire

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how various living conditions impact the context within which low-income African American women engage in a diverse range of high-risk behavior that increases their risk for HIV infection. The study, based on 2 years of ethnographic fieldwork, analyzed the living conditions of 45 African American women at…

  9. Health indicators among low income women who report a history of sex work: the population based Northern California Young Women's Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, D; Kim, A; Ruiz, J; Morrow, S; Reardon, J; Lynch, M; Klausner, J; Molitor, F; Allen, B; Green, A; Ferrero, D; Bell, S; Page-Shafer, K; Delgado, V; McFarland, W; t for

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: We examined differences in demographic characteristics, HIV related risk behaviour, prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and HIV and other health concerns among women with and without a history of sex work. Methods: A secondary analysis of a population based, cross sectional survey of young, low income women in northern California. Results: Of the 2543 women interviewed, 8.9% reported a history of sex work. These women reported more lifetime male sexual partners, were more likely to use drugs before sex, and were more likely to have a history of having sex with partners at high risk for HIV (that is, men who have sex with men, inject drugs, or were known to be HIV positive). They were significantly more likely to have positive serology for syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and hepatitis C regardless of their personal injecting drug use history; however, they were no more likely to have HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis A or hepatitis B infection compared to women without a history of sex work. Women with a history of sex work were significantly more likely to have a history of sexual coercion and tobacco use. Conclusions: These data measure the population prevalence of sex work among low income women and associated STI. Women with a history of sex work have health concerns beyond STI and HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:16199746

  10. The effects of husband's alcohol consumption on married women in three low-income areas of Greater Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Berg, Marlene J; Kremelberg, David; Dwivedi, Purva; Verma, Supriya; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S K

    2010-08-01

    Gender-based violence rooted in norms, socialization practices, structural factors, and policies that underlie men's abusive practices against married women in India is exacerbated by alcohol. The intersection of domestic violence, childhood exposure to alcohol and frustration, which contribute to drinking and its consequences including forced sex is explored through analysis of data obtained from 486 married men living with their wives in a low-income area of Greater Mumbai. SEM shows pathways linking work-related stress, greater exposure to alcohol as a child, being a heavy drinker, and having more sexual partners (a proxy for HIV risk). In-depth ethnographic interviews with 44 married women in the study communities reveal the consequences of alcohol on women's lives showing how married women associate alcohol use and violence with different patterns of drinking. The study suggests ways alcohol use leads from physical and verbal abuse to emotional and sexual violence in marriage. Implications for gendered multi-level interventions addressing violence and HIV risk are explored. PMID:20544380

  11. Control and Constraint for Low-Income Women Choosing Outpatient Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about Hispanics and their contraceptive choices in general, with some past studies detailing non-consensual sterilization. This article is based on interviews with a mostly Hispanic sample of 44 women being sterilized at a public clinic in southeast Texas with the Essure device, which entails a new outpatient sterilization procedure. These women cited relationship factors, wanting to better their and their children’s lives, and past reproductive histories as reasons for deciding on sterilization. They specifically chose Essure as a result of an apprehension of surgery and potential side effects from tubal ligation. Their choices, however, were limited by larger structural factors of work, family, the political economy, and the health care system. We conclude that this new sterilization technique provided more contraceptive choices for these women, yet more contraceptive decision making autonomy, as well as more equitable social structures, are still needed. PMID:23761929

  12. Control and constraint for low-income women choosing outpatient sterilization.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about Hispanics and their contraceptive choices in general, with some past studies detailing nonconsensual sterilization. This article is based on interviews with a mostly Hispanic sample of 44 women being sterilized at a public clinic in southeast Texas with the Essure device, which entails a new outpatient sterilization procedure. The women cited relationship factors, wanting to better their and their children's lives, and past reproductive histories as reasons for deciding on sterilization. They specifically chose Essure as a result of an apprehension of surgery and potential side effects from tubal ligation. Their choices, however, were limited by larger structural factors of work, family, the political economy, and the health care system. We concluded that this new sterilization technique provided more contraceptive choices for these women, yet more contraceptive decision-making autonomy and more equitable social structures are still needed. PMID:23761929

  13. Perceived reasons for depression among low income women of Mexican descent.

    PubMed

    Heilemann, MarySue V; Coffey-Love, Melody; Frutos, Lisa

    2004-10-01

    From a larger cross-sectional study of 315 women of Mexican descent, this secondary analysis focused on short answers to open-ended questions related to reasons given by 107 women at risk for depression (>16 on CES-D) for feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or depression within the last month. Data were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Six categories of reasons were derived from data including: (1) partner issues, (2) family issues, (3) feelings of being alone, (4) inability to provide for material needs, (5) bodily symptoms and experiences, and (6) vague nonspecific reasons. Results are useful for designing future treatment programs. PMID:15529284

  14. Prenatal Depression: Screening and Referral for Women Who Are Low Income during Antenatal Care.

    PubMed

    Mestad, Renee; Lane, Sandra D; Hall, Meghan; Smith, Carrie J; Carter, D Bruce; Rubinstein, Robert A; Keefe, Robert H; Jones-Moore, Chevelle

    2016-10-01

    This study uses prenatal clinical chart reviews of 245 women who were screened for depression while receiving antenatal care services at an urban hospital-based clinic in Syracuse, New York. The results indicate that more than one half of the mothers who screened positive are not being adequately referred and followed-up on to ensure they are receiving proper treatment. Among the mothers who are not being successfully referred are women who are non-English speaking, facing multiple life stressors, and inadequately insured. Recommendations for colocating services that may ease the ongoing burdens of new motherhood are addressed. PMID:27286463

  15. Knowledge and willingness to use emergency contraception among low-income post-partum women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R; Schwarz, E B; Freedman, L; Darney, P

    2000-06-01

    We performed a multivariate analysis to determine factors associated with knowledge and willingness to use emergency contraception in a consecutive sample of 371 post-partum women from an inner-city public hospital. Women were queried about previous contraceptive use, pregnancy history including abortions and unplanned pregnancies, and demographic characteristics. Outcomes included knowledge of emergency contraception and willingness to use it. Questionnaires were conducted in person, in English or Spanish.Of 371 women, 3% had used emergency contraception, 36% had heard of it, and 7% knew the correct timing for use. Two-thirds of the population indicated a willingness to use emergency contraception in the future. Factors positively associated with knowledge included being a teenager or more than 30 years old, prior use of condoms, and history of an elective abortion. Being multiparous, monolingual Spanish-speaking, or Asian were negatively associated with knowledge. Willingness to use emergency contraception was positively associated with being multiparous and negatively associated with a higher income, moral or religious objections to the use of emergency contraception, a belief that it is unsafe or a perception that it is an abortificient. Knowledge about emergency contraception, especially correct timing, remains low. Multiparous women should receive increased education given their lack of knowledge but willingness to use emergency contraception. In order to increase the acceptability of emergency contraception, educational efforts must include accurate information about its mechanism of use and safety. PMID:10958877

  16. Social Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide Attempts in Low Income African American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Sherry, Alissa; Bethea, Kafi; Wyckoff, Sarah; Compton, Michael T.; Grall, Marnette Bender; Scholl, Larry; Price, Ann Webb; Kellermann, Arthur; Thompson, Nancy; Parker, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine a broad array of potential social risk and protective factors for suicide attempt among 200 African American men and women receiving care at a large, public, urban hospital. Specifically, we examined the effect of the following potential risk factors for suicide attempt: life hassles, partner abuse,…

  17. Family Support Center Village: A Unique Approach for Low-Income Single Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Helen V.; Wolfe, Jayne L.

    2004-01-01

    The Family Support Center, recognizing the need for single women with children to maintain stability, has developed a program referred to as the Family Support Center Village, which incorporates a service enriched co-housing model. The "Village" will be the catalyst for these mothers' self-sufficiency and will provide opportunities to develop…

  18. Group Interventions with Low-Income African American Women Recovering from Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.

    2003-01-01

    Presents finding from an investigation of two group therapy modalities involving 93 women with dependent children and limited education and income levels. An overview of intervention activities that participants found beneficial is presented. Programs were found to help participants develop a sense of community, reduce stress, improve…

  19. Investments in women, economic development, and improvements in health in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Schultz, T P

    1989-01-01

    Investments in human resources are more likely to have higher rates of return than investments in capital resources like factories, equipment, inventories, and infrastructure. There are a variety of studies that estimate the ratio of return from primary and secondary schooling to be between 5-40% annually. The primary factor affecting return is the level of development of the country in question. Developing countries are able to achieve higher rates of return than already developed countries. Determining the rates of return on public and private health investments and related research and developments is much harder because the major improvements that have occurred in the past were accompanied by other significant improvements in trade, nutrition, and income. However, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that improvements in health were significantly responsible for the economic growth following World War II. Analysis of education expenditures indicates that the less educated a country's women are, the lower its standard of living. 90% of the intracountry variation in enrollment rates for men and women for 80 countries between 1960-1980 indicate that this is the case. Studies conducted during the 1970s and 1980s by demographers, economists, anthropologists, and sociologists clearly show a trend in education of women and child mortality. Every additional year of female education translates to a 5-10% reduction in child mortality. It is clear that women play a central role in the health determinants of family members. The education of women is a strong, although not clearly understood, force affecting child mortality, nutrition, health, and school achievement. Household resources and maternal education must always be determined before any study of health care delivery effectiveness is conducted. The same is true for any studies of the effectiveness of local family planning expenditures. PMID:2698095

  20. Sexual assertiveness in low-income African American women: unwanted sex, survival, and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Whyte Iv, James

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of social variables related to sexual relationships in African American women. The study used a quantitative descriptive design to gather data from a convenience sample of 524 African American women aged 18 to 49 who dwelled in the southeastern United States. The study utilized the HIV Risk Behavior Questionnaire to determine the participant's level of HIV risk. Results indicated substantial levels of sex in the women due to violence or fear of violence, relationship loss, lost shelter, and high levels of unwanted sex. There was a positive correlation between level of survival sex and high-risk behavior (R = .651, p < .01). Multiple correlations indicated associations between history of forced sex and sex due to fear of violence (R = .604, p < .01). Further correlations indicated a pattern of association between poverty, age, and sex out of fear of relationship loss or shelter loss. The study indicates a need for a broader definition of HIV-related risk in high-risk populations. PMID:17064233

  1. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Frohman, N.; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 – 28 weeks gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89%. In the fully adjusted model antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95% CI 2.10 – 38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95% CI 3.41 – 25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19% experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  2. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  3. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  4. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  5. Rural pregnant women's stressors and priorities for stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Tina L; Bullock, Linda F C; Parsons, Lindsay

    2012-12-01

    Rural residence and maternal stress are risk factors for adverse maternal-child health outcomes across the globe, but rural women have been largely overlooked in maternal stress research. We recruited low-income, rural pregnant women for qualitative interviews to explore their stress exposures during pregnancy, reactions to stress, and priorities for stress reduction. We also used quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale-Revised, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, Lifetime Exposure to Violence Scale) to describe stress exposures and reactions. We interviewed 24 pregnant rural women from a Midwestern US state, who were primarily young, white, partnered, and unemployed. Women's predominant stressor was financial stress, compounded by a lack of employment, transportation, and affordable housing options; extended family interdependence; small-town gossip; isolation/loneliness; and boredom. Quantitative measures revealed high levels of global perceived stress, violence exposure, and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among the sample. Women most commonly reported that employment and interventions to increase their employability would most effectively decrease their stress, but faced numerous barriers to education or job training. Tested maternal stress interventions to date include nurse-case management, teaching women stress management techniques, and mind-body interventions. Pregnant women's own priorities for stress-reduction intervention may differ, depending on the population under study. Our findings suggest that rural clinicians should address maternal stress, violence exposure, and mental health symptoms in prenatal care visits and that clinicians and researchers should include the voices of rural women in the conceptualization, design, implementation, and evaluation of maternal stress-reduction interventions. PMID:23215982

  6. Recycling Attitudes and Behavior among a Clinic-Based Sample of Low-Income Hispanic Women in Southeast Texas

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Heidi C.; Dawson, Lauren N.; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined attitudes and behavior surrounding voluntary recycling in a population of low-income Hispanic women. Participants (N = 1,512) 18–55 years of age completed a self-report survey and responded to questions regarding household recycling behavior, recycling knowledge, recycling beliefs, potential barriers to recycling (transportation mode, time), acculturation, demographic characteristics (age, income, employment, marital status, education, number of children, birth country), and social desirability. Forty-six percent of participants (n = 810) indicated that they or someone else in their household recycled. In a logistic regression model controlling for social desirability, recycling behavior was related to increased age (P<0.05), lower acculturation (P<0.01), knowing what to recycle (P<0.01), knowing that recycling saves landfill space (P<0.05), and disagreeing that recycling takes too much time (P<0.001). A Sobel test revealed that acculturation mediated the relationship between recycling knowledge and recycling behavior (P<0.05). We offer new information on recycling behavior among Hispanic women and highlight the need for educational outreach and intervention strategies to increase recycling behavior within this understudied population. PMID:22493693

  7. Female Condom Use and Adoption Among Men and Women in a General Low-Income Urban U.S. Population.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Zhan, Weihai; Li, Jianghong; Hilario, Helena; Abbott, Maryann; Medina, Zahíra

    2015-09-01

    HIV prevention is increasingly focused on antiretroviral treatment of infected or uninfected persons. However, barrier methods like male condoms (MC) and female condoms (FC) remain necessary to achieve broad reductions in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Evidence grows suggesting that removal of basic obstacles could result in greater FC use and reduced unprotected sex in the general population. We conducted four annual cross-sectional surveys (2009-2012) of urban residents (N = 1614) in low-income neighborhoods of a northeastern U.S. city where prevalence of HIV and other STIs is high. Findings indicate slow FC uptake but also heterosexual men's willingness to use them. Factors associated with men's and women's FC use included positive FC attitudes, network exposure, and peer influences and norms. These results suggest that men can be supporters of FC, and reinforce the need for targeted efforts to increase FC use in both men and women for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:25840799

  8. Stress Mediates the Relationship Between Past Drug Addiction and Current Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Low-income Women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Helen; Tennen, Howard; Hosain, G M Monawar; Coman, Emil; Cullum, Jerry; Berenson, Abbey B

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the role of stress as a mediator of the relationship between prior drug addiction and current high-risk sexual behaviour. Eight hundred twenty women aged 18 to 30 years, who received care at community-based family planning clinics, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule. They also completed the brief version of the Self-Control Scale as a measure of problem-solving strategies and measures of recent stressful events, daily hassles and ongoing chronic stress. Regardless of addiction history, stress exposure during the previous 12 months was associated with risky sexual behaviour during the previous 12 months. Structural equation modelling revealed that 12-month stress levels mediated the relationship between past drug addiction and 12-month high-risk sexual behaviours, as well as the negative relationship between problem-solving strategies and high-risk sexual behaviours. Problem-solving strategies did not moderate the relationship between drug addiction and high-risk sexual behaviours. These findings suggest that stress management training may help reduce risky behaviour among young, low-income women Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24985341

  9. Individual and neighborhood differences in diet among low-income foreign and U.S.-born women

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, SV; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Peterson, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Research on the “Immigrant,” or “Latino health paradox” has demonstrated that Latinos exhibit better health than U.S.-born whites, for multiple health outcomes, despite adjusting for socioeconomic status. However, little empirical research has focused on women and even less has focused on how the neighborhood residential environment is associated with these health differences, particularly in the area of diet. Methods We analyzed baseline data from 641 low-income women, nested within 184 census tracts, enrolled in a nutrition intervention trial for postpartum women. Individual-level variables, including race/ethnicity, nativity and duration of time in the United States, language acculturation, emotional and instrumental support, and socioeconomic position, were merged with tract-level variables from U.S. Census data (2000) based on residential address. We assessed daily fruit and vegetable servings through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using MLWin 2.0 software, we employed a 2-level linear regression model to ascertain associations of neighborhood immigrant, racial, and socioeconomic composition with individual diet, adjusting for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. Results In our fully adjusted model, we observed a statistically significant increase of 1/3 of fruit and vegetable daily servings for each 10 percentage point increase in the tract foreign born population. Each 10 percentage point increase in the tract Black population was associated with a significant 1/5 serving decrease in individual daily fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Among this population of U.S. and foreign-born women, neighborhood composition was associated with individual diet, above and beyond individual level characteristics, illuminating neighborhood context, immigrant health and diet. PMID:18222706

  10. Cooking fuel smoke and respiratory symptoms among women in low-income areas in Maputo.

    PubMed Central

    Ellegård, A

    1996-01-01

    The association between exposure to air pollution from cooking fuels and health aspects was studied in Maputo. Mozambique. Almost 1200 randomly selected women residing in the suburbs of Maputo were interviewed and 218 were monitored for air pollution. The fuels most commonly used were wood, charcoal, electricity, and liquified petroleum gas (LPG). Wood users were exposed to significantly higher levels of particulate pollution during cooking time (1200 micrograms/m3) than charcoal users (540 micrograms/m3) and users of modern fuels (LPG and electricity) (200-380 micrograms/m3). Wood users were found to have significantly more cough symptoms than other groups. This association remained significant when controlling for a large number of environmental variables. There was no difference in cough symptoms between charcoal users and users of modern fuels. Other respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, wheezing, and inhalation and exhalation difficulties were not associated with wood use. Reducing wood use would likely improve acute respiratory health effects in wood users and possibly improve the ambient air pollution conditions in Maputo. To reduce the health impact of wood smoke exposure, it appears that the least costly and quickest method would be to encourage charcoal use to a greater extent, although high carbon monoxide levels would have to be addressed. Turning to modern fuels is beyond the means of most these households in the short term and could not be shown to be more effective. PMID:8899378

  11. Infant-feeding practices of low-income Vietnamese American women.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Yashmi; Freedman, Marjorie; Sweeney, Kathleen; Hollenbeck, Clarie

    2008-11-01

    Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals include 50% exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months. In California, US, Santa Clara County Women, Infants, and Children (SCCWIC) data indicated Asian participants had low (5.6%) 6-month breastfeeding rates. To examine infant-feeding practices, Vietnamese breastfeeding peer counselors surveyed 133 Vietnamese SCCWIC participants (> or= 18 years old, nonpregnant, < 28 months postpartum) using a structured questionnaire regarding intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms toward breastfeeding. Results indicated that 75% initiated breastfeeding in the hospital (33% exclusively, 42% partially), and 25% exclusively formula fed. At survey time, 49% had terminated breastfeeding (average duration 4.4 months). Feeding intentions during pregnancy predicted feeding method used (P < .001). Most prenatal advice was from SCCWIC employees, friends, and doctors who supported breastfeeding. Most postnatal advice was from nurses who supported breastfeeding and bottle-feeding equally. Stronger control beliefs, peer counseling, and education were correlated with breastfeeding (P < .001). Improved postdelivery hospital advice may further increase breastfeeding initiation and duration. PMID:18776168

  12. Assessing the Feasibility of a Web-Based Weight Loss Intervention for Low-Income Women of Reproductive Age: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sisneros, Jessica A; Ronay, Ashley A; Robbins, Cheryl L; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ni, Ai; Morrow, John; Vu, Maihan B; Johnston, Larry F; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-income women of reproductive age are at increased risk for obesity and resulting increases in the risk of maternal/fetal complications and mortality and morbidity. Very few weight-loss interventions, however, have been targeted to this high-risk group. Based on the high prevalence of social media use among young and low-income individuals and previous successes using group formats for weight-loss interventions, the use of social media as a platform for weight-loss intervention delivery may benefit low-income women of reproductive age. Objective Examine the feasibility of delivering group-based weight-loss interventions to low-income women of reproductive age using face-to-face meetings and Web-based modalities including social media. Methods Participants attended a family planning clinic in eastern North Carolina and received a 5-month, group- and Web-based, face-to-face weight-loss intervention. Measures were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks. Results Forty participants enrolled, including 29 (73%) African American women. The mean body mass index of enrollees was 39 kg/m2. Among the 12 women who completed follow-up, mean weight change was -1.3 kg. Participation in the intervention was modest and retention at 5 months was 30%. Returnees suggested sending reminders to improve participation and adding activities to increase familiarity among participants. Conclusions Engagement with the intervention was limited and attrition was high. Additional formative work on the barriers and facilitators to participation may improve the intervention’s feasibility with low-income women of reproductive age. PMID:26920252

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Medication versus Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-Income Young Minority Women with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether they moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method: Data come from a 1-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (M = 29 years), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression…

  14. The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

  15. Ready to Be Physically Active? The Effects of a Course Preparing Low-Income Multiethnic Women to Be More Physically Active

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rakale; Lee, Rebecca E.; Albright, Cheryl L.; King, Abby C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a preintervention physical activity preparatory course on physical activity, and social, cognitive, and transtheoretical constructs. The sample included 82 low-income, multiethnic women (75% Latina) who completed an 8-week course designed to prepare them to become more active prior to…

  16. Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Symptoms in Low-Income, Inner-City African American Women: The Role of Optimism, Depressive Symptoms, and Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; O'Connell, Cara; Gound, Mary; Heller, Laurie; Forehand, Rex

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the association of optimism and depressive symptoms with self-reported physical symptoms in 241 low-income, inner-city African American women with or without a chronic illness (HIV). Although optimism was not a unique predictor of self-reported physical symptoms over and above depressive symptoms, optimism interacted with…

  17. An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n = 64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the…

  18. Influencing Self-Reported Health among Rural Low-Income Women through Health Care and Social Service Utilization: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bice-Wigington, Tiffany; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mesosystemic processes among rural low-income women, and how these processes subsequently influenced self-reported health. Acknowledging the behavioral processes inherent in utilization of health care and formal social support services, this study moved beyond a behavioral focus by…

  19. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  20. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Weigel, M Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William

    2016-01-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact. PMID:27110253

  1. Female Condom Use and Adoption Among Men and Women in a General Low-Income Urban U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Weihai; Li, Jianghong; Hilario, Helena; Abbott, Maryann; Medina, Zahíra

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevention is increasingly focused on antiretroviral treatment of infected or uninfected persons. However, barrier methods like male condoms (MC) and female condoms (FC) remain necessary to achieve broad reductions in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Evidence grows suggesting that removal of basic obstacles could result in greater FC use and reduced unprotected sex in the general population. We conducted four annual cross-sectional surveys (2009–2012) of urban residents (N = 1614) in low-income neighborhoods of a northeastern U.S. city where prevalence of HIV and other STIs is high. Findings indicate slow FC uptake but also heterosexual men’s willingness to use them. Factors associated with men’s and women’s FC use included positive FC attitudes, network exposure, and peer influences and norms. These results suggest that men can be supporters of FC, and reinforce the need for targeted efforts to increase FC use in both men and women for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:25840799

  2. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Undernutrition but Not Overnutrition in Ecuadorian Women from Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, M. Margaret; Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, William

    2016-01-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) is becoming an increasingly important issue in Latin America and other regions undergoing rapid urbanization and nutrition transition. The survey investigated the association of HFI with the nutritional status of 794 adult women living in households with children in low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, household food security status, and nutritional status indicators (dietary intake, anthropometry, and blood hemoglobin). Data were analyzed using multivariate methods. The findings identified revealed a high HFI prevalence (81%) among the urban households that was associated with lower per capita income and maternal education; long-term neighborhood residency appeared protective. HFI was associated with lower dietary quality and diversity and an increased likelihood of anemia and short stature but not increased high-calorie food intake or generalized or abdominal obesity. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, low dietary diversity, anemia, and growth stunting/short stature in the Ecuadorian maternal-child population continue to be major public health challenges. The study findings suggest that improving urban food security may help to improve these nutritional outcomes. They also underscore the need for food security policies and targeted interventions for urban households and systematic surveillance to assess their impact. PMID:27110253

  3. Preventing Perinatal Depression in Low-Income Home Visiting Clients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, S. Darius; Perry, Deborah F.; Mendelson, Tamar; Kemp, Karen; Leis, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of a 6-week cognitive-behavioral intervention in preventing the onset of perinatal depression and reducing depressive symptoms among low-income women in home visitation programs. Method: Sixty-one women who were pregnant or who had a child less than 6 months of age and who were assessed as at risk for perinatal…

  4. Love on lockdown: how social network characteristics predict separational concurrency among low income African-American women.

    PubMed

    King, Kelly M; Latkin, Carl A; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A

    2015-06-01

    .5; p = .002), sex exchange partners (AOR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.8 8.9; p = .001), and sexual partners who engaged in concurrency (AOR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.5, 4.8; p = .001) were significantly more likely to report separational concurrency. Conversely, participants who reported more female kin in their social networks (AOR, .808; 95% CI, .67, .97; p = .025), having known network members a longer time (AOR, .997; 95% CI, .993, .999; p = .043), and higher levels of trust for network members (AOR, .761; 95% CI, .63, .92; p = .005) were significantly less likely to report separational concurrency. Results of this study demonstrate that social network characteristics may be crucial to understanding separational concurrency among African-American urban women who have lost a partner to incarceration. Social network and other resource-based interventions, which provide instrumental, social, and economic resources to women who have experienced the loss of a partner to incarceration, may be important tools in empowering women and helping to reduce the disproportionate burden of STIs/HIV among low income, African-American women. PMID:25820220

  5. Cancer treatment in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Basta, Pawel; Bak, Anna; Roszkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    In general, strategies for the treatment of cancer in pregnancy should not differ significantly from the treatment regimens in non-pregnant women. However, this is difficult due to either the effects of anticancer drugs on the developing foetus or the possibility of long-term complications after the exposure to drugs and radiation. The decision about the introduction and continuation of treatment in the event of pregnancy should be preceded by a detailed analysis of the potential benefits and risks. There are no data to suggest that pregnancy termination alters the biological behaviour of the tumour or patient prognosis in the presence of appropriate antineoplastic therapy. All patients should be given appropriate advice and informed that there are insufficient scientific data to determine any generally accepted consensus. It is very important to always respect the will of the patient, and the moral judgment of the physician should have no impact on the decisions taken by the woman. If the woman decides to undergo active treatment and maintain her pregnancy, it is necessary to carry out consultations with experts in the field appropriate to the type of cancer. This paper presents a basic review of the literature on the targeted therapies currently used in selected cancers diagnosed during pregnancy: breast cancer, cervical cancer, Hodgkin's disease, melanoma, thyroid cancer, ovarian cancer, and colorectal cancer. PMID:26793018

  6. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... shot. Top of Page Can pregnant women with egg allergies get vaccinated? Most people who have an ... reaction following a flu shot. Special Consideration Regarding Egg Allergy The recommendations for vaccination of people with ...

  7. NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND SEXUAL INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AMONG LOW-INCOME, DRUG-INVOLVED NEW YORK CITY RESIDENTS: RESULTS FROM THE IMPACT STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Ompad, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed relations among neighborhood characteristics and sexual intimate partner violence against women (SIPVAW), among low-income, drug-involved, women (N=360) and men (N=670) in New York City between 2005 and 2009. Six percent of women (n=22) and 5% of men (n=33) reported experiencing and perpetrating SIPVAW in the past year with a main partner. In adjusted mixed models among women, neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly, negatively associated with SIPVAW victimization. In adjusted logistic models among men, neighborhood collective efficacy was significantly, positively associated with SIPVAW perpetration. Novel theoretical frameworks are needed to guide research on neighborhoods and partner violence. PMID:25062819

  8. Sleep Quality Among Low-Income Young Women in Southeast Texas Predicts Changes in Perceived Stress Through Hurricane Ike

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhao Helen; Stevens, Richard G.; Tennen, Howard; North, Carol S.; Grady, James J.; Holzer, Charles

    2015-01-01

    suggest the possibility that providing victims of disasters with effective interventions to improve sleep quality could help to reduce their perceived stress over time. Citation: Wu ZH, Stevens RG, Tennen H, North CS, Grady JJ, Holzer C. Sleep quality among low-income young women in southeast texas predicts changes in perceived stress through hurricane Ike. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1121–1128. PMID:25669193

  9. Outcomes of a systems-level intervention offering breast cancer risk assessments to low-income underserved women.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Sharff, McKane E; DeMarco, Tiffani A; Williams, Bernice; Beck, Beth; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Peshkin, Beth N; Eng-Wong, Jennifer; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer risk assessments (CRAs) are underutilized by low-income and racial/ethnic minority women, potentially exacerbating cancer-related disparities observed within these populations. We deployed and evaluated a systems-level intervention designed to identify patients potentially at-risk for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, refer them for CRAs, and facilitate CRA utilization at an urban community-based breast health care center. Cancer family history forms were completed by patients seen at the center during an 18-month period and reviewed by staff for CRA eligibility against published referral criteria. A patient navigator educated eligible patients about the benefits of CRA, navigating interested patients to this service. CRA-specific patient interest and utilization outcomes are reported. In total, 94.7 % of all patients (n = 2,436) completed forms and 65 patients (2.7 %) met CRA eligibility criteria. Most eligible patients (72.3 %) were interested in CRA. Interested patients had a greater risk for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (i.e., more affected relatives, greater objective risk scores) than uninterested patients: 57.4 % scheduled a CRA appointment and 51.9 % of scheduled patients utilized CRAs. Patients scheduling a CRA were contacted in less time and required fewer follow-up contacts by the patient navigator, and were more likely to be African American, than those who declined a CRA or were lost to follow-up (all p's ≤ .05). The systems-level intervention successfully identified patients eligible for CRA and linked interested and at-risk patients with CRA resources. More intensive patient navigation addressing the unique barriers encountered within this population may be required to enhance utilization. PMID:22711611

  10. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  11. Reducing the digital divide for low-income women with breast cancer: a feasibility study of a population-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; McTavish, Fiona M; Stengle, William; Ballard, Denise; Jones, Ellen; Julesberg, Karen; McDowell, Helene; Landucci, Gina; Hawkins, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A fundamental challenge to helping underserved women and their families cope with breast cancer is providing them with easily accessible, reliable health care information and support. This is especially true for low-income families living in rural areas where resources are few and frequently distant as well as low-income families in urban areas where access to information and support can be complex and overwhelming. The Internet is one mechanism that has tremendous potential to help these families cope with breast cancer. This article describes a feasibility test of the potential for the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service (CIS) to provide access to an Internet-based system that has been shown to improve quality of life for underserved breast cancer patients. The test was conducted in rural Wisconsin (low socioeconomic status [SES] Caucasian women) and in Detroit, Michigan (low SES African American women), and compares the effectiveness of several different dissemination strategies. Using these results we propose a model for how CIS telephone and partnership program services could efficiently disseminate such information and support systems. In doing so we believe that important steps can be taken to close the digital divide that separates low-income families from the resources they need to effectively face cancer. This is the first of two articles coming from this study. A companion article reports on an evaluation of the use and impact of this system on the women who were given access to it. PMID:16377607

  12. Evaluation of About Being Active, an online lesson about physical activity shows that perception of being physically active is higher in eating competent low-income women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eating competence (EC) has been associated with positive health outcomes such as reduced cardiovascular risk and higher diet quality. This study compared reported physical activity and EC in 512 low-income women participating in an online program that included a physical activity lesson and assessed response to this lesson. Methods Educational intervention and surveys were completed online. EC was assessed with the Satter Eating Competence Inventory for Low-Income (ecSI/LI). Results Participants were mostly white, <31 years, overweight/obese (60%), and food insecure (58%). EC was higher for those who self-reported being physically active (30.1 ± 8.3 vs. 24.9 ± 8.1; P<0.001) and were active for ≥ 30 minutes/day (29.9 ± 8.3 vs. 26.3 ± 8.6), even with age, weight satisfaction, and BMI controlled. EC of obese physically active persons was higher than normal weight, but physically inactive women. The physical activity module was well received with responses unrelated to time involved or physical activity level. Conclusions Low-income women were interested in learning about physical activity and responded positively to online delivery. Overall EC levels were low, but higher for physically active women, supporting efforts to enhance EC. Additional research is needed to determine if EC is associated with responses to physical activity education. PMID:23496893

  13. Physical activity and sleep among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Monda, Keri; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among pregnant women and safe treatments to improve sleep are needed. Generally, physical activity improves sleep, but studies are lacking on the associations of physical activity with sleep among pregnant women. Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional association of various modes of physical activity and activity clusters with sleep quality and duration among 1259 pregnant women. Participants were recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study from prenatal clinics at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. Women self-reported sleep quality and duration and physical activity in the past week. We used cluster analysis to create seven physical activity profiles and multivariable logistic regression analysis, with adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, self-rated general health, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Women with higher levels of occupational physical activity were more likely to report either short or normal sleep duration than longer duration. Women with higher levels of indoor household physical activity were less likely to report normal sleep duration than shorter duration. Women in the recreational-indoor household activity cluster were less likely than women in the inactivity cluster to report normal sleep duration as compared with longer duration. Our data suggest weak associations of physical activity with sleep duration and quality in late pregnancy. Physical activity is recommended to pregnant women for health benefits, yet more research is needed to understand if physical activity should be recommended for improving sleep. PMID:20078829

  14. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women With PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention to reduce health disparities for low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article presents our rationale for using MBSR as an intervention with this population, the details of its implementation, and a discussion of the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention based on participants’ feedback and our observations. We conclude that the use of MBSR programs for low-income, predominantly African American women with PTSD and a history of IPV is both feasible (of initial interest to and completed by most participants) and acceptable (congruent with and relevant to their needs). Replication with larger samples and examination of mechanisms is warranted by these findings. PMID:24043922

  15. Population Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy. PMID:25070097

  16. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees. PMID:8194968

  17. Smoking Behaviors Among Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Kansas WIC Program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Dong, Frank; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Redmond, Michelle L; Collins, Tracie C

    2015-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with poor birth outcomes. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a public nutritional assistance program for low-income pregnant women and their children up to age five. This study examined differences in smoking behavior among women enrolled in the Kansas WIC program. A secondary analysis was conducted using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System dataset of enrolled women between 2005 and 2011. Geographic residency status was obtained through application of the Census tract-based rural-urban commuting area codes. Chi square tests of association were used to assess differences. Multi-variable binary logistic regression was used to assess maternal characteristics and smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy. Total sample size averaged 21,650 women for years 2005 through 2011. Low-income, rural pregnant women smoked at significantly higher rates before, during, and after pregnancy. High smoking rates have remained unchanged since 2008. The following characteristics were associated with reduced odds of smoking 3 months prior to pregnancy: being 17 years old or younger, Hispanic, a high school graduate, urban location, normal body mass index, no live births prior to current pregnancy, and using multi-vitamins. Results from this study indicate that the WIC population in rural areas may have different needs regarding smoking cessation programming than the urban WIC population. Findings help inform WIC program administrators and assist in enhancing current smoking cessation services to the Kansas WIC population. PMID:25925718

  18. Vaccination against influenza in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Brydak, Lidia Bernadeta; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy places otherwise healthy women at an increased risk of complications arising from an influenza infection. It is suggested that physiological changes such as immunological changes, increased cardiac output and oxygen consumption, as well as lung tidal volume might increase the susceptibility to influenza complications if infection occurs during pregnancy. Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is currently recommended in many countries and has been proven to be safe and effective in reducing rates and severity of the disease in vaccinated mothers and their children. Influenza vaccination is also cost-effective. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage remains low in pregnant women. This might stem from the lack of healthcare workers' education, a feeling among the general public that influenza is not a serious disease and a failure of prenatal care providers to offer the vaccine. In order to protect pregnant women and infants from influenza related morbidity and mortality an educational programme targeting healthcare workers in charge of pregnant women should be implemented. PMID:25195141

  19. Assessing Infant Breastfeeding Beliefs Among Low-Income Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sara L.; Reifsnider, Elizabeth; Mann, Angela R.; Villarreal, Patty; Tinkle, Mindy B.

    2004-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with low-income, pregnant women and new mothers receiving services from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) along with their male partners and their mothers. All participants were Hispanics of Mexican American origin. The topics for the focus-group discussions were breastfeeding beliefs and perceptions. All participants were aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. Participants identified time, embarrassment, and pain as barriers to breastfeeding; discussed decision-making efforts regarding breastfeeding; identified cultural beliefs related to breastfeeding; and discussed the lack of care-provider support for breastfeeding. PMID:17273399

  20. Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses from Malaria in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157683.html Combo Treatment Protects Pregnant Women, Fetuses From Malaria in Study Findings ... widely used to treat malaria in adults also protects pregnant women and their fetuses from the disease, ...

  1. Structural community factors and sub-optimal engagement in HIV care among low-income women in the Deep South of the USA.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Melonie; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Merlin, Jessica S; Turan, Janet M

    2016-06-01

    This study describes the ways in which poverty and other structural factors create a risk environment for sub-optimal engagement in HIV care among low-income women living with HIV in the Southern USA, contributing to existing health disparities. We conducted a qualitative study in 2012, involving in-depth interviews with 14 stakeholders (service providers and representatives of community-based organisations) and 7 focus-group discussions with 46 women living with HIV (89% African American). A thematic approach in the context of the social ecological model guided data analysis. Data were coded and analysed using NVivo qualitative software. The findings suggested that structural community factors, such as poverty, poor employment opportunities, limited access to healthcare resources, stigma, transportation challenges and access to illicit substances, may work independently and in synergy to impact women's health seeking behaviour and decision-making, thereby influencing their ability to engage in HIV care. Interventions designed to improve engagement in HIV care should address structural factors to bolster low-income women's ability to engage in care. PMID:26670722

  2. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution.

    PubMed

    Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Madlensky, Lisa; Winton, Lisa M; Heberer, Meredith A; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mutation profile for affected women. All 125 patients who were offered GCRA accepted to undergo GCRA. Of these, 72 % had a breast cancer diagnosis, 70 % were Hispanic, 52.8 % were non-English speakers, and 66 % did not have health insurance. Eighty four (67 %) were offered genetic testing and 81 (96 %) agreed. Hispanic women, those with no medical insurance, and those with a family history of breast cancer were significantly more likely to undergo testing (p > 0.01). Twelve of 81 (15 %) patients were found to have deleterious mutations, seven BRCA1, and five BRCA2. Our experience shows that it is possible to offer GCRA and genetic testing even in the setting of limited resources for these services. This is important given that a large majority of the low-income women in our study agreed to undergo counseling and testing. Our experience could serve as a model for similar low-resource safety-net health settings. PMID:26690931

  3. Advising pregnant women on miminising travel risks.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Rosemary

    Pregnant women may face additional risks when travelling overseas, which must be considered with assessment and travel health advice before they decide to travel. A careful risk assessment should be completed to identify the key risks and strategies for staying safe while travelling. PMID:24772798

  4. Identifying Risk for Onset of Major Depressive Episodes in Low-Income Latinas during Pregnancy and Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huynh-Nhu; Munoz, Ricardo F.; Soto, Jose A.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to identify subgroups of pregnant women at imminent (1 year) risk for major depressive episodes. Participants were 84 low-income, predominantly Mexican women using public sector obstetrics services who participated in monthly interviews during pregnancy and up to 6 months postpartum. Participants were designated a priori as "more…

  5. Sympathetic baroreflex gain in normotensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure

  6. Can mHealth Improve Risk Assessment in Underserved Populations? Acceptability of a Breast Health Questionnaire App in Ethnically Diverse, Older, Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Carolina; O’Donoghue, Cristina; Kaplan, Celia P.; Luce, Judith; Ozanne, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of mobile health (mHealth) tools has expanded rapidly but little research has been done on its acceptability by low-income, diverse, older patient populations. Objective To assess the attitudes of a diverse group of underserved women on the acceptability and usability of mHealth tools in a clinical setting using a breast health questionnaire application (app) at a public hospital mammography clinic. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a breast-imaging center of an urban safety net institution from July-August 2012. Interviews included pre- and post-questions. Women completed the Athena breast health questionnaire app on an iPad and were asked about their experience and ways to improve the tool. Results Fifteen women age 45–79 years from diverse ethnic and educational backgrounds were interviewed. The majority of women, 11 of 15, preferred the Athena app over a paper version and all the women thought the app was easy to use. Two Spanish-speaking Latinas preferred paper; and two women, with limited mobile phone use, did not have a preference. Many women indicated that it would be necessary to have staff available for instruction and assistance if the app were to be implemented. Conclusions mHealth tools are an acceptable, if not preferred, method of collecting health information for diverse, older, low-income women. Further studies are required to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of data collection using mHealth tools in underserved populations. mHealth tools should be explored as a novel way to engage diverse populations to improve clinical care and bridge gaps in health disparities. PMID:25705576

  7. Mind the gap: Racial differences in breast cancer incidence and biologic phenotype, but not stage, among low-income women participating in a government-funded screening program

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan E.; Walters, Christine A.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Ford, Marvella E.; Barker-Elamin, Tiffany; Bennett, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality rates in South Carolina (SC) are 40% higher among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women. Proposed reasons include race-associated variations in care and/or tumor characteristics, which may be subject to income effects. We evaluated race-associated differences in tumor biologic phenotype and stage among low-income participants in a government-funded screening program. Methods Best Chance Network (BCN) data were linked with the SC Central Cancer Registry. Characteristics of breast cancers diagnosed in BCN participants aged 47–64 years during 1996–2006 were abstracted. Race-specific case proportions and incidence rates based on estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic grade were estimated. Results Among 33,880 low-income women accessing BCN services, repeat breast cancer screening utilization was poor, especially among EAs. Proportionally, stage at diagnosis did not differ by race (607 cancers, 53% among AAs), with about 40% advanced stage. Compared to EAs, invasive tumors in AAs were 67% more likely (proportions) to be of poor-prognosis phenotype (both ER-negative and high-grade); this was more a result of the 46% lesser AA incidence (rates) of better-prognosis (ER+ lower-grade) cancer than the 32% greater incidence of poor-prognosis disease (p-values <0.01). When compared to the general SC population, racial disparities in poor prognostic features within the BCN population were attenuated; this was due to more frequent adverse tumor features in EAs rather than improvements for AAs. Conclusion Among low-income women in SC, closing the breast cancer racial and income mortality gaps will require improved early diagnosis, addressing causes of racial differences in tumor biology, and improved care for cancers of poor-prognosis biology. PMID:23239148

  8. Bacterial microbiome of breast milk and child saliva from low-income Mexican-American women and children

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Veronica; Street, Kelly; Francis, Stephen; Bradman, Asa; Riley, Lee; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Background The childhood salivary microbiome, which plays an important role in healthy development, may be influenced by breast milk consumption. The composition of the milk microbiome and the role it plays in the establishment of the infant microbiome are not well understood. Methods Here, we sequenced the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities in breast milk and 5-year-old child saliva from ten low-income, Mexican-American mother-child pairs with a high prevalence of obesity. Results Members of the genus Streptococcus dominated both milk and salivary microbial communities in most subjects. Staphylococcus was observed predominately in milk samples while Prevotella was more prevalent in child saliva. No statistically significant relationships were observed between maternal and child microbiomes or between child microbiome and BMI. However, pre-pregnancy BMI was correlated with both lower Streptococcus abundance (r = −0.67) and higher microbial diversity (r = 0.77) in breast milk (P < 0.05 for both). Diversity estimates were notably similar to data from other low-income cohorts or children. Conclusion These findings contribute to the currently-limited state of knowledge regarding the breast milk and salivary microbiomes in mother-child pairs and may inform future studies seeking to elucidate the relationship between early-life microbial exposures and pediatric health. PMID:26756784

  9. Environmental, personal, and behavioral factors are related to body mass index in a group of multi-ethnic, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-12-01

    Environmental, personal, and behavioral determinants of body mass index (BMI) are not well understood in the low-income demographic. To investigate these factors, a cross-sectional survey was developed using Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), utilizing formative data from focus groups and measured environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, in addition to food-related self-identity, food security, and heights and weights. Participants were urban women (n=330) who qualified for a food and nutrition assistance program. Data collection occurred at sites within the community, including homeless shelters, food pantries, libraries, and community centers. The outcome of interest was BMI and the relationship to environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, and food-related self-identity. All three SCT construct models were significant, but the personal construct regression model predicted the greatest variance in BMI among the women (31%). Decreased BMI was associated with SCT and self-identity variables indicating preventative behaviors, while increased BMI was associated with SCT and self-identity emotional eating variables. Overall results suggest that personal, behavioral, and self-identity factors can help to explain some weight variation observed among women living in similar obesogenic, low-income environments. Although additional research is needed, results suggest interventions with this population should address eating healthy to prevent disease, exercising for health, and shaping health-promoting self-identities. PMID:24119531

  10. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Mental Health over Time among Low-Income Women at Increased Risk of HIV in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James P; Kuo, Irene; Justman, Jessica; Adimora, Adaora A; Soto-Torres, Lydia; O'Leary, Ann; Hodder, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Women living in poverty suffer more post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than do members of the general population; however we know little about factors associated with changes in their PTSD symptoms over time. Using data from HPTN 064, a cohort of women from low-income, high-HIV-prevalence communities across six eastern states (n=1,860), we assessed the prevalence of and changes in PTSD symptoms over 12 months and the effect of potential predictors on symptom acquisition and remission (via the Primary Care-PTSD symptoms scale). Forty-three percent screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Those reporting food insecurity, ongoing abuse, depressive symptoms, or binge drinking were more likely to acquire PTSD symptoms. Those with ongoing abuse or depressive symptoms were less likely to experience PTSD symptom remission. Findings suggest a need to integrate programs to reduce abuse, depression, and economic hardship with those that address sexual health risks among women living in low-income, high-HIV-prevalence neighborhoods. PMID:27180715

  11. Breast and colorectal cancer risk communication approaches with low-income African-American and Hispanic women: implications for healthcare providers.

    PubMed Central

    Royak-Schaler, Renee; Blocker, Deborah E.; Yali, Ann Marie; Bynoe, Monica; Briant, Katherine Josa; Smith, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on breast and colorectal cancer risk factors is widely available to women and the physicians who provide their healthcare; however, many women are unable to identify the major risk factors, continue to misperceive their personal risk of developing these cancers, and do not engage in routine early detection. METHODS: Qualitative methods were used to investigate breast and colorectal cancer risk knowledge, perceptions, behaviors, and risk communication formats with low-income African-American and Hispanic study participants in Harlem, NY, aged 40-60 years. RESULTS: Focus group results indicated strong participant interest in strategies necessary to understand and reduce the risk of developing breast and colorectal cancers. Preferred risk communication tools presented information about family history and personal risk in graphic and quantitative formats. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals who serve low-income African-American and Hispanic female populations should deliver information to them about the personal risk of developing targeted cancers and ways to reduce this risk in formats that are meaningful and effectively address the special needs of these populations. PMID:15160974

  12. Examining the influence of price and accessibility on willingness to shop at farmers’ markets among low-income eastern North Carolina women

    PubMed Central

    McGuirt, Jared T.; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Ward, Rachel; Crawford, Thomas W.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of farmers’ market pricing and accessibility on willingness to shop at farmers’ markets, among low-income women. Design: Qualitative interviews using scenarios with quantitative assessment of willingness to shop at farmers’ market given certain pricing and accessibility scenarios. Setting: Eastern North Carolina. Participants: Thirty seven low-income women of child-bearing age (18-44 years) receiving family planning services at the health department. Phenomenon of Interest: Willingness to shop at a farmers’ market. Analysis: Fisher’s exact test was used to examine associations between willingness to shop at farmers’ markets by urban/rural residence, race, and employment status. Direct quotations relevant to participants' use of farmers' markets were extracted based upon a positive deviance framework. Results: Participants were increasingly willing to shop at the farmers’ market when price savings increased and when the market was incrementally closer to their residence. Willingness was highest when there was at least a 20% price savings. Participants seemed to be influenced more by a visual representation of a greater quantity of produce received with the price savings rather than the quantitative representation of the money saved by the reduced price. Conclusions and Implications: Future farmers’ market interventions should take into account these consumer level preferences. PMID:24201077

  13. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  14. [Young children, pregnant women and travelling abroad].

    PubMed

    Sandbu, Synne; Nøkleby, Hanne

    2002-06-20

    Pregnant women and parents of young children travelling to non-western countries should consider the risks to which they expose themselves and their children. Travelling during these periods of life needs to be particularly well planned. Travel insurance should cover the whole family, and for pregnant women also the risk of premature birth. Travelling long distances during pregnancy involves a certain amount of risk in itself. This risk could be increased if complications were to occur in areas with a lower standard of health service. As a rule, infants and young children easily adapt to new environments but children abroad should be expected to need a doctor at least as often as at home. Some vaccines and antimalarials must not be used for children below a certain age. Only a few vaccines and antimalarials have been systematically studied in pregnant women in order to exclude teratogenicity. We present some aspects of vaccination and malaria prevention, transport, climate and environment, nutrition, food and drinking water hygiene. PMID:12119785

  15. Symbolic expression of feelings and depressive symptoms in high-risk pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Wobie, K; Eyler, F D; Behnke, M; Conlon, M

    1997-01-01

    Pregnant women using rural health departments for prenatal care often experience chronic stressors (minority status, poor education, low income, young age, and single parenting of young children) that contribute to depression. Yet these same women may be reluctant to express their feelings. Because depression has been related to negative patterns of motherchild interaction and even newborn irritability, it is important to identify symptoms in high-risk mothers. For years, symbolic methods of expression have been used to reveal psychological traits or to identify clinical diagnoses, but few have been used to evaluate pregnant women. Women attending a rural health department were administered a comprehensive health and psychosocial questionnaire, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). They were then asked to complete a drawing expressing their feelings regarding their pregnancy. The relationship between CES-D scores and drawing ratings determined by two different methods of interpretation (expert, non-expert) was then examined. Non-expert art analysis was able to distinguish those women with the highest scores on the depression index, while expert analysis was able to discern racial differences consistent with risk status. Suggestions for the use of this drawing measure in the clinical setting are discussed. Alternative (non-verbal) methods of assessment that may improve communication with pregnant women are important for optimizing maternal and infant health and well-being and child development. PMID:9379164

  16. Developing critical consciousness or justifying the system? A qualitative analysis of attributions for poverty and wealth among low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Erin B.; Wolf, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Economic inequality is a growing concern in the United States and globally. The current study uses qualitative techniques to (1) explore the attributions low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women make for poverty and wealth in the U.S., and (2) clarify important links between attributions, critical consciousness development and system justification theory. Methods In-depth interview transcripts from 19 low-income immigrant Dominican and Mexican and native African-American mothers in a large Northeastern city were analyzed using open coding techniques. Interview topics included perceptions of current economic inequality and mobility and experiences of daily economic hardships. Results Almost all respondents attributed economic inequality to individual factors (character flaws, lack of hard work). Structural explanations for poverty and wealth were expressed by less than half the sample and almost always paired with individual explanations. Moreover, individual attributions included system-justifying beliefs such as the belief in meritocracy and equality of opportunity and structural attributions represented varying levels of critical consciousness. Conclusions Our analysis sheds new light on how and why individuals simultaneously hold individual and structural attributions and highlights key links between system justification and critical consciousness. It shows that critical consciousness and system justification do not represent opposite stances along a single underlying continuum, but are distinct belief systems and motivations. It also suggests that the motive to justify the system is a key psychological process impeding the development of critical consciousness. Implications for scholarship and intervention are discussed. PMID:25915116

  17. Suicidal behavior-related hospitalizations among pregnant women in the USA, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women. PMID:26680447

  18. Evaluation of selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Mohammadzadeh Vatanchi, Atieh; Tara, Fatemeh; Pourali, Leila; Dadgar, Salmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the common complications during pregnancy with considerable maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Hypercoagulability due to thrombophilic factors is discussed as the etiology involved in this disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate selected thrombotic factors among pregnant women with preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 pregnant women at third trimester of pregnancy between 2012 and 2013. 100 pregnant women admitted to Qaem and Imam Reza hospitals of Mashhad, due to preeclampsia, were selected as case group and 100 pregnant women without preeclampsia referred to OB/GYN clinic of these hospitals as control group. Blood samples were taken from two groups for evaluation of the coagulation factors including factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies, and lupus anticoagulant antibodies. Results: Two groups were not significantly different in terms of maternal age and parity (p>0.05). Levels of factor V Leiden, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, anti-cardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant antibodies were compared between two groups. The number of patients with abnormal factor V Leiden and protein C was significantly higher in case group than in the control group (p<0.01 respectively), but other factors were not significant different between two groups. Thrombophilia disorders were significantly more in case group compared to control (p<0.001). Conclusion: The risk of thrombophilia disorders is higher in preeclamptic patients than normal pregnant women. PMID:25709635

  19. Acute pulmonary oedema in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dennis, A T; Solnordal, C B

    2012-06-01

    Acute pulmonary oedema in pregnant women is an uncommon but life-threatening event. The aims of this review are to address why pulmonary oedema occurs in pregnant women and to discuss immediate management. We performed a systematic literature search of electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, using the key words obstetrics, pregnancy, acute pulmonary oedema, pregnancy complications, maternal, cardiac function and haemodynamics. We present a simple clinical classification of acute pulmonary oedema in pregnancy into pulmonary oedema occurring in normotensive or hypotensive women (i.e. without hypertension), and acute pulmonary oedema occurring in hypertensive women, which allows focused management. Pre-eclampsia remains an important cause of hypertensive acute pulmonary oedema in pregnancy and preventive strategies include close clinical monitoring and restricted fluid administration. Immediate management of acute pulmonary oedema includes oxygenation, ventilation and circulation control with venodilators. Pregnancy-specific issues include consideration of the physiological changes of pregnancy, the risk of aspiration and difficult airway, reduced respiratory and metabolic reserve, avoidance of aortocaval compression and delivery of the fetus. PMID:22420683

  20. Pathways and trajectories linking housing instability and poor health among low-income women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV): Toward a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Matheson, Flora I; Pedersen, Cheryl; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Minh, Anita; Zhang, Janice; O'Campo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    We used grounded theory to understand pathways and trajectories to housing instability (HI) and poor health among low-income women with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted in-depth interviews during 2010-11 with forty-one women (ages 18-45 years) living in Ontario, Canada. All women reported depressive symptoms in combination with other health problems. In addition to the direct pathway of IPV to poor health, thematic analysis revealed an indirect multi-tiered pathway with complex trajectories among IPV, HI, and poor health. These trajectories included material HI (homelessness, high mobility, evictions, problems paying rent, hiding, and landlord discrimination), psychological HI (feeling unsafe, low self-esteem, and poor control), and social trajectories (financial problems, loss of employment, income, or social networks, and leaving school). These trajectories elevated stress and decreased self-care (unhealthy behaviors, substance abuse, and reduced medical compliance) and exacerbated poor health already compromised by IPV. Depending on her specific context, each woman experienced these pathways and trajectories differently. Moreover, the women's experiences differed across three time periods: before, immediately after, and long after leaving an abusive relationship. Finally, we found that for these women, achieving stable housing was crucial for stabilizing their health. PMID:26358378

  1. Long Term Mental Health Effects of Partner Violence Patterns and Relationship Termination on Low-Income and Ethnically Diverse Community Women

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jeff R.; Weston, Rebecca; Marshall, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with psychological distress; however, differences in the impact of unidirectional IPV, typically male-dominated, and bidirectional IPV have not been examined. To address this gap in the literature, we compared the effects of various IPV patterns on women’s reports of dissociation, post-traumatic stress disorder, and stress in 6 interviews over eight years. We also examined whether differences by IPV pattern existed in women’s mental health upon leaving a violent relationship. The 489 low-income women completing all interviews were African American (40%), Euro-American (30%), and Mexican American (30%), over half of whom (58%) were no longer with Wave 1 partners by Wave 6. In general, worse mental health was associated with relationship termination and bidirectional violence. PMID:21755020

  2. DISPLACEMENT AND HEALTH STATUS IN LOW INCOME WOMEN: FINDINGS FROM A POPULATION-BASED STUDY IN GREATER BEIRUT

    PubMed Central

    Choueiry, Nathalie; Khawaja, Marwan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examined the relationship between internal displacement, social support and self reported health status of ever married women in three disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods in Lebanon. Methods This study was based on data from a cross sectional survey conducted in 2003 on 1869 ever married women residing in three urban disadvantaged communities in the outskirts of Beirut, Lebanon. The outcome variable was Self rated Health (good/bad) as assessed by the women. The independent variables included ever displaced status, social support, demographic, health behaviour, and socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics and bivariate associations were provided using Pearson's chi-square tests. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were then obtained from binary logistic regression models. Results Displacement was a significant risk factor for poor self reported health (OR=1.67; 95% CI= 1.35-2.07). Adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors decreased the association between displacement and self reported health but the relationship remained statistically significant. Women with poor support from the family, friends and neighbours were more likely to have poor health status. However, not exchanging support with the family members (OR= 1.87; 95% CI = 1.13 – 3.12) was significantly associated with poor self reported health only among displaced women but not among those who were not displaced. Conclusion Displacement and social support were negatively associated with women's health status but family support may play an important role in improving the health status of displaced women and not non-displaced women. PMID:18273396

  3. Type-specific HPV and Pap test results among low-income, underserved women: providing insights into management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Saraiya, Mona; Benard, Vicki B.; Greek, April A.; Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya; Massad, L. Stewart; Sawaya, George F.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The primary cervical cancer screening strategy for women over age 30 is high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing combined with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing (cotesting) every 5 years. This combination strategy is a preventive service that is required by the Affordable Care Act to be covered with no cost-sharing by most health insurance plans. The cotesting recommendation was made based entirely on prospective data from an insured population that may have a lower proportion of women with HPV positive and Pap negative results (ie, discordant results). The discordant group represents a very difficult group to manage. If the frequency of discordant results among underserved women is higher, health care providers may perceive the cotesting strategy to be a less favorable screening strategy than traditional Pap testing every 3 years. STUDY DESIGN The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Cervical Cancer Study was conducted at 15 clinics in 6 federally qualified health centers across Illinois. Providers at these clinics were given the option of cotesting for routine cervical cancer screening. Type-specific HPV detection was performed on residual extracts using linear array. RESULTS Pap test results were abnormal in 6.0% and HPV was positive in 7.2% of the underserved women screened in this study (mean age, 45.1 years). HPV prevalence decreased with age, from 10.3% among 30- to 39-year-olds to 4.5% among 50- to 60-year-olds. About 5% of the women had a combination of a positive HPV test and normal Pap test results; HPV 16/18 was identified in 14% of discordant women. CONCLUSION The rate of discordant results among underserved women was similar to those reported throughout the US in a variety of populations. Typing for HPV 16/18 appears to assist in the management in a small proportion of women with discordant results. PMID:24813971

  4. Motivations to eat are related to diet quality and food intake in overweight and obese, low-income women in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Jodi M; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Shah, Bijal S; Lu, Hongxing

    2010-10-01

    Healthful dietary practices and a return to prepregnancy weight are of significant importance in the prevention of obesity for women. The Eating Stimulus Index (ESI) was used to determine the relationship between motivations to eat and diet quality and food intake in 115 overweight/obese, low-income women in early postpartum. In this cross-sectional design, participants completed the ESI and food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed using the Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index. Diet quality was related to greater fruit and vegetable availability, convenience eating resistance, and vegetable taste preference. Women with high fruit and vegetable availability consumed more vegetables, as compared to those with low availability. High convenience eating resistance was associated with lower discretionary energy intakes. High taste preference for vegetables was related to greater intakes of these foods. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that convenience eating resistance was the strongest predictor of diet quality followed by vegetable taste preference, and fruit and vegetable availability. Convenience eating resistance was also the strongest predictor of discretionary energy intake. In conclusion, women who were less vulnerable to environmental eating cues, had greater fruit and vegetable availability, and preferred the taste of vegetables consumed a more healthful diet. Thus, the ESI may be a useful screening tool for the design of personalized weight loss messages in the treatment of obesity. PMID:20600414

  5. Anal Intercourse and HIV Risk Among Low-Income Heterosexual Women: Findings from Chicago HIV Behavioral Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Livak, Britt S; Prachand, Nikhil G; Benbow, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anal intercourse (AI) is a highly efficient route for HIV transmission and has not been well elucidated among heterosexual (HET) women. Heterosexual women living in impoverished urban areas in the US are at increased risk for HIV acquisition. We aim to describe rates of AI and characteristics associated with AI among heterosexual women at increased risk for HIV acquisition living in Chicago. Methods: The Chicago Department of Public Health conducted a survey of HET during 2007 as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. Venue-based, time-location sampling was used to select participants from venues in high-risk areas (census tracts with concurrently high rates of heterosexual AIDS and household poverty). Eligible participants were interviewed anonymously and offered a HIV test. Results: In total, 407 heterosexual women were interviewed. Seventy-one (17%) women reported having AI in the past 12 months, with 61 of the 71 (86%) reporting unprotected AI. In multivariate analysis, women who engaged in AI were more than three times as likely to have three or more sex partners in the past 12 months (OR=3.27, 95% CI 1.53-6.99). AI was also independently associated with STI diagnosis in the past 12 months (2.13, 95% CI 1.06-4.26), and having sexual intercourse for the first time before the age of 15 years (2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). Conclusion: AI was associated with multiple high risk behaviors including a greater number of sexual partners, STI diagnosis, and earlier age at first sex. The combination of risk factors found to be associated with AI call for new HIV prevention services tailored to the needs of women and young girls living in poverty. PMID:23049662

  6. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women. PMID:26333611

  7. [Pregnant women, children and international travel].

    PubMed

    Høgh, Birthe; Rønn, Anita Mandrup

    2005-10-17

    Pregnant women and children have special needs and vulnerabilities that should be addressed when preparing for travel abroad. The most stable time for travel during pregnancy is the second trimester. Live vaccines should be avoided during pregnancy. Children should be up to date on both routine and travel-related vaccines. Elective travel to malarious areas, especially where chloroquine-resistant malaria is endemic, should be avoided, as some vaccines and antimalarial drugs may not be used during pregnancy and for children below a certain age. Guidelines on preventive measures are given. PMID:16232399

  8. Negotiating Peril: The Lived Experience of Rural, Low-Income Women Exposed to IPV During Pregnancy and Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Camille; Schminkey, Donna; Milburn, Juliane; Kastello, Jennifer; Bullock, Linda; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Sharps, Phyllis

    2016-07-01

    This qualitative study of 10 rural women examines their lived experience of intimate partner violence during pregnancy and the first 2 postpartum years. In-depth interviews occurred during pregnancy and 4 times postpartum. A Heideggerian approach revealed "negotiating peril" as the overarching theme; sub-themes were unstable environment, adaptive calibration, primacy of motherhood, and numb acceptance. Some incremental shifts in severity of abusive situations were observed. Results elucidate the ambivalence with which these women view institutions that are designed to help them. Findings highlight factors that may explain why interventions designed to help often do not appear efficacious in facilitating complete termination of an abusive situation. PMID:26612275

  9. Dietary aspects of pregnant women in rural areas of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Virender P; Taneja, Devender K; Sharma, Nandini; Gupta, Vimal K; Ingle, Gopal K

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this article is to document the current dietary profile of pregnant women in rural areas of Delhi. In order to explore the diet the combination of quantitative (24-h recall method) and qualitative methods (food frequency method) were used. The mean intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, namely, iron, folic acid and Vitamin C which play an important role in the pathophysiology of nutritional anaemia during pregnancy was calculated from the foodstuffs, using Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. The preferences and avoidance of various foods by the pregnant women were also elicited. The data were analysed using Epi Info 3.4. The intake of calories, protein, iron, folic acid and Vitamin C was found to be less than the recommended dietary allowance in 100%, 91.2%, 98.2%, 99.1% and 65.8% of pregnant women respectively. Folic acid intakes were significantly lower in younger, primiparous and poorly educated women from low-income families. Vitamin C intake was lower among non-Hindus only. The overall data suggested the presence of food gap rather than isolated deficiency of any particular nutrient. PMID:18336642

  10. Lifetime Self-Reported Victimization among Low-Income, Urban Women: The Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Adult Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Sharyn E.; Kim, Kevin H.; Day, Nancy L.; Garza, Mary A.; Larkby, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Study aims were to examine the relations between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment (CM) and adult violent victimization (AVV) and to explore other significant covariates of the relations between CM and AVV. Data were collected from women (n = 477) who participated in two longitudinal studies in the Maternal Health Practices and Child…

  11. Prevention of Postpartum Depression in Low-Income Women: Development of the "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Diaz, Manuela A.; Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Soto, Jose; Mendelson, Tamar; Delucchi, Kevin; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2007-01-01

    A prenatal intervention designed to prevent the onset of major depressive episodes (MDEs) during pregnancy and postpartum was pilot tested at a public sector women's clinic. The "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course is an intervention developed in Spanish and English that uses a cognitive-behavioral mood management framework, and incorporates…

  12. Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's α was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

  13. Using Videoconferencing Technology to Provide Breastfeeding Support to Low-Income Women: Connecting Hospital-Based Lactation Consultants with Clients Receiving Care at a Community Health Center.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura J; Petersen, Devan; Babbitt, Tina

    2015-11-01

    The Tele-Lactation Pilot Project (TLPP), 1 of 13 community-based breastfeeding projects implemented in Indiana in 2013 using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grant funds, explored the feasibility of using videoconferencing technology to provide breastfeeding education and support to low-income women by a centrally located International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC). The IBCLC was housed at the Breastfeeding Center at the hospital where the women would deliver; the women receiving the education and support were located at an inner-city community health center (CHC) where they received their primary care. The videoconferencing sessions were juxtaposed with the women's regularly scheduled prenatal and postnatal visits at the CHC. After delivery, the lactation consultant visited the mother and infant in person at the hospital to offer additional support. Overall, 35 mothers were served by the TLPP during the 9-month project period. A total of 134 visits (30-45 minutes each) were conducted (3.8 sessions per woman). At the conclusion of the project, interviews with key participants indicated that the tele-lactation videoconferencing sessions were easy to implement, allowed the IBCLC to reach a wider client base, and allowed the women to receive expert support that they might not have otherwise received. Comments indicated that, in addition to providing education and increasing the women's confidence, the tele-lactation sessions appeared to have decreased the mothers' anxiety about the birthing process and the hospital experience. The TLPP demonstrated that incorporating videoconferencing technology into routine care can help foster collaboration among health care providers and provide mothers with continuous, easily accessible breastfeeding education and support. PMID:26297347

  14. An Investigation into the Social Context of Low-income, Urban Black and Latina Women: Implications for Adherence to Recommended Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related beliefs, we found that the social context of these women was largely defined by multiple challenges and major life stressors that interfered with their ability to attain health. Factors commonly mentioned included competing health issues, economic hardship, demanding caretaking responsibilities and relationships, insurance-related challenges, distrust of healthcare providers, and inflexible work policies. Black women also reported discrimination and medical mistrust, while Latinas experienced difficulties associated with immigration and social isolation. These results suggest that effective health interventions not only address change among individuals, but must also change healthcare systems and social policies in order to reduce health disparities. PMID:21856885

  15. Development and Validation of a Cervical Cancer Screening Self-Efficacy Scale for Low-Income Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Maria E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Rakowski, William; Gonzales, Alicia; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Williams, Janet; Morales-Campos, Daisy Y.

    2011-01-01

    While self-efficacy (SE), a construct from Social Cognitive Theory, has been shown to influence other screening behaviors, few measures currently exist for measuring Pap test SE. This paper describes the development and psychometric testing of such a measure for Mexican-American women. Data from two separate samples of Mexican-American women 50 years or older, obtained as part of a study to develop and evaluate a breast and cervical cancer screening educational program, were used in the current study. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a single factor solution and all item loadings were > .73. Confirmatory analysis confirmed a single factor structure with all standardized loadings greater than .40 as hypothesized. The eight item SE scale demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .95). As hypothesized, SE was correlated with knowledge, prior experience, and screening intention. Logistic regression supported the theoretical relationship that women with higher SE were more likely to have had a recent Pap test. Findings showed a significant increase in SE following the intervention, indicating the measure has good sensitivity to change over time. PMID:19258484

  16. Effect of the maternity ward system on the lactation success of low-income urban Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Perez-Escamilla, R; Segura-Millán, S; Pollitt, E; Dewey, K G

    1992-11-01

    We compared the lactation performance of 165 healthy mothers who planned to breastfeed and gave birth by vaginal delivery, without complications to a healthy infant in either a nursery (NUR) (n = 58) or a rooming-in hospital where formula supplementation was not allowed. In the rooming-in hospital, women were randomly assigned to a group that received breastfeeding guidance during the hospital stay (RIBFG) (n = 53) or to a control group (RI) (n = 54). Women were interviewed in the hospital and at 8, 70 and 135 days post-partum (pp). The groups were similar in socio-economic, demographic, anthropometric, previous breastfeeding experience and prenatal care variables. Non-parametric survival analyses adjusting for potential confounding factors show that breastfeeding guidance had a positive impact (P < or = 0.05) on breastfeeding duration among primiparous women who delivered in the rooming-in hospital. Among primiparae, the RI and RIBFG groups had higher (P < or = 0.05) full breastfeeding rates than the NUR group in the short term. In the longer term, only the difference between the RIBFG and the NUR group remained statistically significant. The maternity ward system did not have a statistically significant effect on the lactation performance of multiparae. PMID:1486816

  17. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. Material/Methods This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. Results The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Conclusions Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM. PMID:26084958

  18. Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160025.html Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas 41 New York City moms-to- ... women from New York City are traveling to Zika-affected areas and then getting tested when they ...

  19. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

  20. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131 Section 96.131 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in...

  1. Cognitive appraisal vs. exposure-based stress measures: links to perceived mental and physical health in low-income black women.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Lenwood W; Lucas, Todd; Porcerelli, John H

    2014-11-01

    Although stress is linked to mental and physical health, self-reports of stress may be operationalized using measures that emphasize cognitive appraisals of stressors or that simply record stressor exposure. Theory and research suggest that appraisal-based measures may be superior in measuring self-reports of stress. However, use of exposure-based measures persists, especially in ethnic disparities research. This study examined the utility of appraisal-based versus exposure-based stress measures in linking stress to mental and physical health in low-income black women. Measures emphasizing cognitive appraisals were superior in predicting mental and physical health because global stress rating best predicted physical health whereas mental health was best predicted by perceived stress. A checklist of exposure to stressful events was not substantially predictive of either mental or physical health, suggesting that cognitive appraisals of stressors are important in linking stress to health perceptions in blacks. The results also suggest that stress impacts mental health first, which then, in turn, influences physical health. Overall, these results illuminate the importance of cognitive appraisals in linking stress to perceptions of mental and physical health in black women. PMID:25275345

  2. Women at risk of physical intimate partner violence: a cross-sectional analysis of a low-income community in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owoaje, Eme T; OlaOlorun, Funmilola M

    2012-03-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is prevalent in Nigeria but a culture of silence exists, making it difficult to identify women at risk. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical IPV in a low income, high density community in south west Nigeria. Among 924 interviews of ever-partnered women aged 15-49 years, prevalence of lifetime experience of physical IPV was 28.2%. The significant predictors for physical IPV were previous experience of psychological abuse (adjusted OR: 4.71; 95% CI: 3.23-6.85); sexual abuse (aOR: 5.18; 3.21-8.36); having attitudes supportive of IPV (aOR: 1.75; 1.2-2.4); partner's daily alcohol consumption (aOR: 2.85; 1.50-5.41); and previous engagement in a physical fight (aOR: 3.49; 1.87-6.50). Community based IPV prevention programmes targeted at breaking the cycle of abuse, transforming gender norms which support IPV and reducing alcohol consumption should be developed. PMID:22783667

  3. A mixed-methods approach to understanding barriers to postpartum retention in care among low-income, HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Buchberg, Meredith K; Fletcher, Faith E; Vidrine, Damon J; Levison, Judy; Peters, Marlyn Yvette; Hardwicke, Robin; Yu, Xiaoying; Bell, Tanvir K

    2015-03-01

    Optimal retention in HIV care postpartum is necessary to benefit the health and wellbeing of mothers and their infants. However, postpartum retention in HIV care among low-income women is suboptimal, particularly in the Southern United States. A mixed-methods study was conducted to identify factors associated with postpartum retention in care among HIV-infected women. Participants (n=35) were recruited during pregnancy at two county clinics and completed self-report demographic and psychosocial surveys. Twenty-two women who returned for a postpartum appointment completed a semi-structured interview about lifestyle factors and retention in care. Of the participants enrolled at baseline, 71.4% completed a follow-up with an obstetrician (OB), while 57.1% completed a follow-up with a primary care physician (PCP). High CD4 count at delivery, low viral load at baseline, low levels of depression, high interpersonal social support, and fewer other children were significantly associated with completion of postpartum follow-up. Barriers and facilitators to retention identified during qualitative interviews included competing responsibilities for time, lack of social support outside of immediate family members, limited transportation access, experiences of institutionalized stigma, knowledge about the benefits of adherence, and strong relationships with healthcare providers. OB and PCP follow-up postpartum was suboptimal in this sample. Findings underscore the importance of addressing depressive symptoms, social support, viral suppression, competing responsibilities for time, institutionalized stigma, and transportation issues in order to reduce the barriers that inhibit women from seeking postpartum HIV care. PMID:25612217

  4. A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Barriers to Postpartum Retention in Care Among Low-Income, HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Faith E.; Vidrine, Damon J.; Levison, Judy; Peters, Marlyn Yvette; Hardwicke, Robin; Yu, Xiaoying; Bell, Tanvir K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Optimal retention in HIV care postpartum is necessary to benefit the health and wellbeing of mothers and their infants. However, postpartum retention in HIV care among low-income women is suboptimal, particularly in the Southern United States. A mixed-methods study was conducted to identify factors associated with postpartum retention in care among HIV-infected women. Participants (n=35) were recruited during pregnancy at two county clinics and completed self-report demographic and psychosocial surveys. Twenty-two women who returned for a postpartum appointment completed a semi-structured interview about lifestyle factors and retention in care. Of the participants enrolled at baseline, 71.4% completed a follow-up with an obstetrician (OB), while 57.1% completed a follow-up with a primary care physician (PCP). High CD4 count at delivery, low viral load at baseline, low levels of depression, high interpersonal social support, and fewer other children were significantly associated with completion of postpartum follow-up. Barriers and facilitators to retention identified during qualitative interviews included competing responsibilities for time, lack of social support outside of immediate family members, limited transportation access, experiences of institutionalized stigma, knowledge about the benefits of adherence, and strong relationships with healthcare providers. OB and PCP follow-up postpartum was suboptimal in this sample. Findings underscore the importance of addressing depressive symptoms, social support, viral suppression, competing responsibilities for time, institutionalized stigma, and transportation issues in order to reduce the barriers that inhibit women from seeking postpartum HIV care. PMID:25612217

  5. Weight gain and reduced energy expenditure in low-income Brazilian women living in slums: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Florêncio, Telma M M T; Bueno, Nassib B; Clemente, Ana P G; Albuquerque, Fabiana C A; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Sawaya, Ana L

    2015-08-14

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible changes in anthropometric and biochemical parameters in low-income women living in the outskirts of Maceió (northeast Brazil), and to explore the possible role of dietary intake and physical activity in these changes. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a cohort of mothers of malnourished children who attended the Center for Nutritional Recovery and Education, an outreach programme of the Federal University of Alagoas. Socio-economic, anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were assessed at baseline and after a follow-up period of 4 years. Energy expenditure (using doubly labelled water) and physical activity (using triaxial accelerometers) were assessed only in a subgroup of women after 4 years. A total of eighty-five women were assessed. Participants showed an altered biochemical profile, increased systolic blood pressure, decreased thyroid hormone levels, and body-weight gain. However, dietary intakes of the participants did not include large quantities of highly processed and high-glycaemic index foods. The energy intake of the participants did not differ from their total energy expenditure (7990.3 (7173.7-8806.8) v. 8798.1 (8169.0-9432.4) kJ, respectively; P= 0.084). Multivariate analyses showed a significant effect of time spent watching television (β = 0.639 (0.003 to 1.275); P= 0.048) and dietary diversity score (β = -1.039 ( -2.010 to -0.067); P = 0.036) on weight gain. The present study indicates that poor women, who are mothers of malnourished children and have a reasonably balanced dietary intake, exhibit weight gain and are at risk of developing chronic diseases. PMID:26123236

  6. Community-based, culturally appropriate oral health promotion program for immigrant pregnant women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Gustavo D; Roldós, Isabel; Puerta, Diva I; Salazar, Christian R

    2005-12-01

    Pre- and postnatal prevention programs may significantly improve the oral health of mother and child. The overall aim of this project was to assess the need for and develop an oral health promotion program for low-income immigrant pregnant women in New York City. Results from the baseline survey showed very low awareness of the importance of maternal oral health and its relationship to an infant's general and oral health among the participants. Based on these results, we developed culturally appropriate educational materials and workshops to promote oral health among pregnant women. As of September 2005, we had conducted more than 500 workshops, distributed educational packages to close to 10,000 women and disseminated about 20,000 brochures in four languages to health care centers and maternal health centers across New York State. PMID:16514876

  7. [Intracranial arteriovenous malformations in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Perquin, D A; Kloet, A; Tans, J T; Witte, G N; Dörr, P J

    1999-03-01

    Three women, aged 27, 32 and 30 years, respectively, suffered from headache, nausea and neurological abnormalities and were found to have an intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM). One of them after diagnosis had two pregnancies, both ended by caesarean section with good results. Another woman was 32 weeks pregnant when the AVM manifested itself with a haemorrhage; she recovered well and was delivered by caesarean section. After the AVM proved radiologically to have been obliterated, she delivered after her subsequent pregnancy by the vaginal route with vacuum extraction. The third woman was 15 weeks pregnant when major abnormalities developed. There was a large intracerebral haematoma with break-through to the ventricular system; this patient died. Intracranial haemorrhage during pregnancy is rate. It can result in maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. It appears that pregnancy does not increase the rate of first cerebral haemorrhage from an AVM. The management of AVM rupture during pregnancy should be based primarily on neurosurgical rather than on obstetric considerations. Close collaboration with a team of neurologists, neurosurgeons, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists is mandatory. PMID:10321255

  8. An Evaluation of Program M in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: An Analysis of Change in Self-Efficacy in Interpersonal Relationships, Gender Equity, and Self-Reported Risky Behaviors among Women in Two Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study examined whether Program M, an intervention targeting young women in a low-income community in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, promoted changes in gender equitable attitudes and self-efficacy in interpersonal relationships among program participants. Further, it investigated whether the program influenced these young…

  9. Suicidality and associated factors in pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; da Costa Ores, Liliane; Jansen, Karen; da Silva Moraes, Inácia Gomes; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; Magalhães, Pedro; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2012-06-01

    Is important to evaluate suicidal potential and related factors during pregnancy among women who have attended public health services. To determine the suicidal potential, question 10 from Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used. In this sample (N = 1,334), 8.1% of pregnant women demonstrated suicidal potential. The potential risk factors for suicide in depressed pregnant women were being single, divorced or widowed, thinking about having an abortion, and having anxiety symptoms; in nondepressed pregnant women were lower age, low education level, low socioeconomic class, thoughts about having an abortion and anxiety symptoms. PMID:22447343

  10. Physical violence against pregnant women by an intimate partner, and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Mazandaran Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Abhari, Farrideh R.; Delavar, Mouloud A.; Charati, Jamshid Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Violence against women during pregnancy is linked to poor outcome of pregnancy, which is reported to have widespread in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical violence against women by an intimate partner during pregnancy, and to assess the impact of this physical violence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on the characteristics of pregnant women in urban areas and related violence. The modified standard World Health Organization Domestic Violence Questionnaire was used to classify pregnant women and domestic violence. A total of 1461 pregnant women were selected using cluster sampling. The association between sociodemographic with intimate partner violence (IPV) and IPV with pregnancy outcomes was determined using logistic regression. Results: Of these, 206 (14.1%) (confidence interval = 12.3-15.9) reported physical IPV during pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio for IPV in illiterate women or those with primary level of education (0.001), secondary level education (0.003), and in low income households (0.0001) were significantly higher than in those women with university level education and in higher income households. After adjusting for suspected confounding factors, the women with a history of violence by partners had 1.9 fold risk of premature rupture of membranes, and a 2.9 fold risk of low birth weight compared to women who did not experience any violence from their partners. Conclusion: The results of this research indicated that the prevalence of IPV was high among pregnant women. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the screening of pregnant women at Primary Health Centers to prevent physical abuse. PMID:25657606