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Sample records for preliminary rat study

  1. Hyaluronic acid biodegradable material for reconstruction of vascular wall: a preliminary study in rats.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Laura; Zavan, Barbara; Bassetto, Franco; Ferroni, Letizia; Iacobellis, Laura; Abatangelo, Giovanni; Lepidi, Sandro; Cortivo, Roberta; Vindigni, Vincenzo

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to develop a reabsorbable vascular patch that did not require in vitro cell or biochemical preconditioning for vascular wall repair. Patches were composed only of hyaluronic acid (HA). Twenty male Wistar rats weighing 250-350 g were used. The abdominal aorta was exposed and isolated. A rectangular breach (1 mm × 5 mm) was made on vessel wall and arterial defect was repaired with HA made patch. Performance was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks after surgery by histology and immunohistochemistry. Extracellular matrix components were evaluated by molecular biological methods. After 16 weeks, the biomaterial was almost completely degraded and replaced by a neoartery wall composed of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, collagen, and elastin fibers organized in layers. In conclusion, HA patches provide a provisional three-dimensional support to interact with cells for the control of their function, guiding the spatially and temporally multicellular processes of artery regeneration. PMID:21268111

  2. Preliminary studies on the hypoglycaemic effect ofAbroma augusta in alloxan diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Eshrat, H; Hussain, M A; Jamil, K; Rao, M

    2001-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract ofAbroma augusta (Family: Steculiceae) was studied in normal as well as alloxan diabetic rats. Treatement of diabetic rats with 4 ml (4gm dry weight) of agueous extract ofA. augusta for 16 weeks resulted in gradual but significant fall in fasting blood glucose and improvement in glucose tolerance. Serum total and LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol which increased in diabetic rats showed improvement. These results show that the water extract ofA. augusta has both hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects. PMID:23105296

  3. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora. PMID:24329503

  4. [Preliminary study on efficacy and mechanism of Atractylodes Macrocephelae Rhizoma extracts in metabolic hyperlipidemia rats].

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-jing; Chen, Su-hong; Pan, Dan-dan; Li, Bo; Lv, Gui-yan

    2015-05-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major factor causing coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major indicator for measuring lipid levels. However, there is no an effective medicine that can obviously increase HDL-C at present. According to previous laboratory studies, atractylodes macrocephalae extracts could significantly increase HDL-C level. In this study, the metabolic hyperlipidemia rat model was established by feeding high-sugar and fat diets and alcohol-drinking to explore the effect and mechanism of atractylodes macrocephalae extracts on hyperlipidemia rats. According to the findingins, different doses of atractylodes macrocephalae extracts could reduce the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ACAT and increase the contents of LCAT, HDL-C. Particularly, the atractylodes macrocephalae extracts (100 mg · kg(-1) group showed increase in HDL-C by about 50% and significant declines in HMG-CoA reductase, TC, TG. In conclusion, Atractylodes Macrocephelae Rhizoma extracts could effectively regulate the dyslipidemia of hyperlipidemia rats, especially on HDL-C. Its mechanism may be related to reduction in cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase in livers and increase in lipid metabolism and transport by regulating LCAT and ACAT levels. PMID:26323152

  5. The percutaneous permeability and absorption of dexamethasone esters in diabetic rats: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha-Sha; Song, Zhi-Hua; Xiong, Lu-Qi; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Guo-Feng

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of diabetes on the permeation of dexamethasone acetate (DA) and dexamethansone sodium phosphate (DSP), the two major dexamethansone esters in clinical practice, when applied percutaneously, histochemical staining was used to determine the skin morphology; improved Franz diffusion cells and microdialysis were used to assess the percutaneous permeation of DA and DSP in normal and diabetic rats. Histopathological examination showed that the epidermal tissue of diabetic rat was much thinner, the epidermal cell layer was less clear and the stratified arrangement of epidemic cell had almost disappeared and progressive atrophy were developed on the subcutaneous fat. In vitro studies showed that the cumulative and the penetrated DSP amount in Group DM were higher. The mean flux value and the mean depositional amount of Group DM were increased significantly compared to those of Group CTL, whereas the amount of DA penetrating was of no difference. Microdialysis indicated that there was no significant difference between Group CTL and Group DM for all the pharmacokinetic parameters of DA. In contrast, the subcutaneous AUCall values and the C(max) of DSP were significantly increased compared to the control. In conclusion, diabetic rat skin significantly increased the percutaneous permeation of DSP but had no effect on that of DA. It suggests that patients with diabetes should consider the dose of administration when using DA, DSP or other glucocorticoids topically, as different liposolubilities may play some role in the permeability of these compounds via diabetic skin. PMID:24102159

  6. The antinociceptive effects of tualang honey in male sprague-dawley rats: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Che Badariah Abd; Ismail, Che Aishah Nazariah; Hussin, Che Maraina Che; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2014-10-01

    Tualang honey ( Fēng Mì) is known to have anti-inflammatory property, but its antinociceptive property has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we examined the preemptive effects on administering different doses of Tualang honey and prednisolone on the nociceptive response in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7) and each group received either distilled water, Tualang honey (0.2, 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg) or prednisolone (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. The response to noxious thermal stimulus was assessed using tail flick test on Day 10. The well-being of the rats was also assessed by monitoring their food intake and body weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Scheffe's test and P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In tail flick test, the tail flick latency time was significantly higher in the groups that received 1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg of Tualang honey and 10 mg/kg of prednisolone, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). There was significant reduction in the total food pellet intake in the groups receiving prednisolone and Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) compared to controls; however, the body weight gain was only significantly reduced in the prednisolone group. All the parameters were not significantly affected in the group receiving 0.2 g/kg of Tualang honey. In conclusion, preemptive administration of Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) and prednisolone (10 mg/kg) had reduced the pain responses. The reduced weight gain in the prednisolone group is an unwanted effect due to its metabolic and central actions. Further studies are required to confirm the antinociceptive effects and elucidate the mechanism of antinociceptive action of Tualang honey in the rats. PMID:25379476

  7. Investigation of the effects of Aloe barbadensis on rat ovaries: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kosif, Rengin; Aktas, R Gülhan

    2009-12-01

    Effects of Aloe barbadensis, a type of Aloe vera, on ovaries were investigated during pregnancy. A. vera gel, a commercial and nontherapeutic form of A. barbadensis, was used for this purpose. Three groups (one control and two test groups) of female Wistar albino rats with no prior births were studied. Group I was administered 25 mg (140 mg/kg) of A. barbadensis/day both orally and through gavage. A. barbadensis was contained in capsules with 500 mg of soybean oil; therefore Group II was administered 500 mg of soybean oil. Group III was the control group. All three groups were given normal food and water ad libitum. The substance had been administered for 20 days until birth. Ovaries were examined histologically. Vascular increase and the hyperemic form of ovary in the group administered A. barbadensis were notable. Decrease in primary follicle numbers, increase in secondary follicle numbers, and diminishment of secondary follicle diameters occurred in ovaries. The histological changes imply an angiogenesis effect of A. barbadensis and an effect like that of follicle-stimulating hormone in ovaries. PMID:20041799

  8. A preliminary study of age-related difference in resistance to sepsis in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Wei, C I; Gilliam, M C; Cohen, M D; Cornell, J A; Moazam, F

    1987-11-01

    Although the pathophysiology of intraabdominal sepsis is well established in the adult animal, there is a paucity of similar information in the newborn animal. Using the Wichterman (K.A. Wichterman, A.E. Baue, and I.H. Chaudry, Journal of Surgical Research 29: 189, 1980) model of intraabdominal sepsis, 42 Sprague-Dawley suckling rat pups and 42 adults underwent cecal ligation followed by a single needle puncture of the cecum. Whereas a mortality of 47.6% was noted in the adult animals, only 7.1% of the suckling animals succumbed by the end of 1 week. After the ip LD50 of Escherichia coli was determined independently in each age group, appropriate doses of the bacteria were injected into the peritoneums of 36 suckling and 30 adult rats. The peritoneal fluid was aspirated at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hr and the bacterial concentration in the suspension was determined. The rate of bacterial clearance from the peritoneum of the suckling rats was found to be significantly greater at 2, 4, and 8 hr as compared with the adult animal. In vitro assay of the phagocytic activity of the peritoneal macrophages demonstrated a significantly higher activity in the cells obtained from the suckling rats than in those from the adult (P less than 0.05). A more efficient bacterial clearance and a higher phagocytic activity in the peritoneal macrophages of the suckling rats may contribute to the difference in the mortality between the two age groups. PMID:3316844

  9. Preliminary studies on antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Arun, M; Asha, V V

    2007-04-20

    Physalis peruviana is a medicinal herb used by Muthuvan tribes and Tamilian native who reside in the shola forest regions of Kerala, India against jaundice. It was evaluated for its antihepatotoxic, phytochemical analysis and the acute toxicity of the most promising extract in rats. Water, ethanol and hexane extracts of Physalis peruviana (500mg/kg body weight) showed antihepatotoxic activities against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity. The ethanol and hexane extracts showed moderate activity compared to water extract, which showed activity at a low dose of 125mg/kg. The results were judged from the serum marker enzymes. Histopathological changes induced by CCl(4) were also significantly reduced by the extract. Further, the extract administration to rats resulted in an increase in hepatic GSH and decrease in MDA. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various components in the crude aqueous extract. The extract was found to be devoid of any conspicuous acute toxicity in rats. PMID:17161567

  10. Oral ethanol ingestion altered nifedipine pharmacokinetics in the rat: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Boje, K M; Dolce, J A; Fung, H L

    1984-11-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered nifedipine in the presence or absence of concomitant alcohol ingestion in the rat. In the presence of alcohol, the area under the nifedipine plasma concentration vs. time curve and half-life of drug elimination were increased, and the rate constant of elimination was significantly decreased (p less than 0.05), while the apparent volume of distribution was apparently unaffected. Clearance, normalized to control, was significantly decreased (p less than 0.01). Since nifedipine and ethanol both undergo dehydrogenation in their metabolism, it is possible that this observed drug-drug interaction may be due to a metabolic interference. It is not known at this time whether such an interaction exists in man. PMID:6515116

  11. Bladder response to acute sacral neuromodulation while treating rats in different phases of complete spinal cord injury: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Fang, Youfang; Yu, Hongliu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Compared to conventional therapies, sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may offer an alternative, non-destructive treatment for SCI patients with bladder dysfunction. Understanding bladder response to SNM treatment for SCI in different phases may yield new insights for innovative use of this promising technique. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to examine the effects of acute SNM on bladder reflex in complete SCI rats. All rats were anesthetized and set up for continuous saline infusion. Acute SNM treatment was implemented for about 6 hours for each rat. Cystometric parameters, including time between contractions, contraction duration, bladder peak pressure, and number of uninhibited contractions, were analyzed and compared within rats before and after SNM treatment. Results: For the spinally transected rats during early phase (less than two weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration both increased after SNM treatments, yet the increased amplitude was about or less than 20%. For the spinally transected rats with a longer days survival (about two to four weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration substantially increased after SNM treatment and the changes for their average values were more than 90%. For the spinally transected rats with a much longer days survival (more than five weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration increased after SNM treatments, yet the magnitude of changes were less than 30%. Conclusion: The present study suggested that the significant effectiveness of SNM for complete SCI played its role after the spinal shock phase and prior to the development of detrusor overactivity. It indicated that the time point of SNM treatment is necessary to be paid attention. PMID:26742980

  12. [A preliminary study on the mechanism of impaired beta cell function in monosodium glutamate obese rat with insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Quan; Shen, Zhu-Fang

    2008-11-01

    This study is to evaluate beta cell function and investigate the mechanism of impaired pancreatic islet beta cell function in monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rat with insulin resistance, an animal model of metabolic syndrome. Insulin tolerance test was used to screen MSG obese rats with insulin resistance. Blood concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol and insulin were determined. Beta cell function was assessed with hyperglycemic clamp technique. The morphological alterations in pancreas and changes of islet beta cell mass were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Gomori aldehyde fuchsin staining. Lipid, oxidative stress relevant factors, nitric oxide (NO) level and activity of ATPase in pancreas and pancreatic mitochondrial were tested. The MSG obese rats with insulin resistance could be validated as a typical metabolic syndrome animal model possessing increased fasting plasma triglycerides and insulin (P < 0. 001), markedly decreased weight indices of pancreas and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Gomori aldehyde fuchsin staining showed increased adipocytes and fibroplasia deposition in pancreas and reduced beta cell mass. The increased contents of triglyceride and NO level, the decreased SOD levels and activities of total ATPase (P < 0.001), Na+-K+-ATPase (P < 0.001) and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase (P < 0.01) were observed in pancreas and its mitochondria versus normal rat. The study demonstrates that accumulation of lipids in pancreas could lead to increased systemic indicators of inflammation, such as NO, which may influence the activities of several kinds of ATPase in cell membranes and interfere the ion transport, substance metabolism and energy production in pancreas. Finally the MSG obese rats characterized with metabolic syndrome displayed an impairment of beta cell function. PMID:19239028

  13. Morphological changes positive correlates with oxidative stress in COPD. Preliminary data of an experimental rat model--study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Murărescu, Elena Doina; Iancu, Roxana; Mihailovici, Maria Sultana

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that nicotine that is a major toxic component of cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress which is responsible for the lung damages in COPD and cancer. There have been reported some cases of COPD in never smoking patients exposed to air pollutants. The aim of our study is to evaluate the morphological pulmonary changes in rats exposed to cigarette smoke respectively to solid combustible smoke and to establish the relationship between the exposure and the level of oxidative stress measured through serum (s) and pulmonary tissue (l) MDA in rats (TBARS method). Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10): (1) the control group (C), (2) the cigarette smoke group (CS), and (3) the solid combustible smoke group (SC). Apart from the control group, these were treated with solid combustibles smoke or cigarette smoke for six months. We collected blood for serum determination of MDA and the lungs were removed for histopathological analysis and to determine the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The levels of serum and lung MDA were significantly higher in CS and SC groups compared with C group, but not significantly differences between CS and SC group were detected. These findings are positively correlated with histopathological changes (squamous metaplasia and clear cell hyperplasia in the bronchium epithelium, emphysema) found in pulmonary tissue. Preliminary data of our study confirms that not only the cigarette smoke but also the environmental pollutants are involved in the major pathways of COPD. PMID:17502953

  14. Exercise may offset nicotine-induced injury in lung tissue: a preliminary histological study based on a rat model.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, S; Mathew, T C; Dean, E

    2012-05-01

    Nicotine appears to be the primary pharmacologic agent that causes smoking-related pulmonary diseases. An understanding of the effect of nicotine on lungs is essential to develop interventions that can be used to counter smoking-related diseases. Further, it is shown that physical exercise may partially reverse smoking-induced pathological changes in experimental animals. Hence, this study focuses on the pathological changes in rat lung following nicotine administration and the role of exercise in reversing the nicotine-induced lung injury. This is a randomized controlled trial with 3 groups of rats. Control (CG), nicotine-exposed (NG), and nicotine-exposed and exercise group (NEG). Control group received no intervention. Both NG and NEG were given 1.5 mg/kg nicotine base, daily, subcutaneously, but NEG were also subjected to an intensive daily swimming protocol. The rats were sacrificed and the lung tissue was processed for light and transmission electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies. Compared with the control group, the nicotine group showed enlargement and destruction of the alveolar septum, cellular hyperplasia and interstitial fibrosis, and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration with increased intraluminal macrophages. There was only modest morphological change between the nicotine administered and nicotine and exercise groups. Expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase showed a mild increase in the NEG, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed mild and moderate increase in the expression in the NG and NEG, respectively. This study shows that nicotine induces substantial pathological changes in the lung and prolonged exercise may have some beneficial effects in partially reversing the nicotine-induced lung injury by inducing the expression of antioxidants. PMID:22452750

  15. Spinal fusion with demineralized calf fetal growth plate as novel biomaterial in rat model: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Iraj; Oryan, Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Elena; Shafiei-Sarvestani, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal fusions are being performed for various pathologies of the spine such as degenerative diseases, deformities, tumors and fractures. Recently, other bone substitutes such as demineralized bone matrix (DBM) have been developed for spinal fusion. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the intertransverse posterolateral fusion with the Bovine fetal growth plate (DCFGP) and compare it with commercial DBM in rat model. Methods A total of 16 mature male rats (aged 4 months and weighing 200-300 g) were randomly divided in two groups. After a skin incision on posterolateral site, two separate fascial incisions were made 3 mm from the midline. A muscle-splitting approach was used to expose the transverse processes of L4 and L5. Group I (n = 8) underwent with implanted Bovine fetal growth plate among decorticated transverse processes. In group II (n = 8) commercial DBM was placed in the same manner. Fusion was evaluated by manual palpation, radiographical, gross and histopathological analysis. Results The manual palpation, radiological, gross and histopathological findings indicate high potential of the DCFGP in spinal fusion. At the 42nd postoperative day, new bone formation as evidenced by a bridge between L4 and L5 was visualized in all rats implanted with DCFGP and commercial DBM. The newly formed bone tissue was observed in all implanted areas on the 42nd day after operation in the two groups. Conclusions The spinal fusion of the animals of both groups demonstrated more advanced osteogenic potential and resulted in proper fusion of the transverse process of lumbar vertebra. PMID:25694913

  16. Pleurodesis by erythromycin, tetracycline, Aerosil™ 200, and erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 in a rat model: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background None of the current pleurodesing agents fulfil all the criteria for best pleural sclerosant. Therefore, the search for the ideal agent for chemical pleurodesis still continues. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of erythromycin, tetracycline, Aerosil™ 200 (hydrophilic fumed amorphous silica), and erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 in producing pleurodesis in rats. In the present study, talc was not used as a pleurodesing agent due to an unavailability of its sterile and pure form in Iran. Methods Overall, 75 adult male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomized to 5 treatment groups. Each group received an intrapleural injection via 5 Fr Silastic tubes of one of the following sterile agents: 35mg/kg erythromycin in 2 ml of saline, 35mg/kg tetracycline in 2 ml of saline, 35mg/kg Aerosil™ 200 in 2ml of saline, erythromycin (35mg/kg in 2 ml of saline) plus Aerosil™ 200 (35mg/kg in 2 ml of saline), or 2 ml of saline as a control. The animals were euthanized and necropsied 30 days after injection. The pleurae were assessed for macroscopic and microscopic evidence of surrounding inflammation and fibrosis. Results The median macroscopic score in the Aerosil™ 200 group was significantly higher than that in the erythromycin group (P < 0.005). The median microscopic score in the erythromycin group was significantly lower than that in the Aerosil™ 200 and erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 groups (P < 0.005). Furthermore, maximum and minimum pleural fibrosis was observed in the erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 and erythromycin groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion This study suggests that Aerosil™ 200 with or without erythromycin may be more potent pleurodesis agent than erythromycin and tetracycline. PMID:23351183

  17. In vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" phenomenon in rat arterial bloodstream: a preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2014-07-01

    The "black hole," a hypo-echoic hole at the center of the bloodstream surrounded by a hyper-echoic zone in cross-sectional views, has been observed in ultrasound backscattering measurements of blood with red blood cell aggregation in in vitro studies. We investigated whether the phenomenon occurs in the in vivo arterial bloodstream of rats using a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system. Longitudinal and cross-sectional ultrasound images of the rat common carotid artery (CCA) and abdominal aorta were obtained using a 40-MHz ultrasound system. A high-frame-rate retrospective imaging mode was employed to precisely examine the dynamic changes in blood echogenicity in the arteries. When the imaging was performed with non-invasive scanning, blood echogenicity was very low in the CCA as compared with the surrounding tissues, exhibiting no hypo-echoic zone at the center of the vessel. Invasive imaging of the CCA by incising the skin and subcutaneous tissues at the imaging area provided clearer and brighter blood echo images, showing the "black hole" phenomenon near the center of the vessel in longitudinal view. The "black hole" was also observed in the abdominal aorta under direct imaging after laparotomy. The aortic "black hole" was clearly observed in both longitudinal and cross-sectional views. Although the "black hole" was always observed near the center of the arteries during the diastolic phase, it dissipated or was off-center along with the asymmetric arterial wall dilation at systole. In conclusion, we report the first in vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" caused by the radial variation of red blood cell aggregation in arterial bloodstream. PMID:24785440

  18. Preliminary assessment of the oral toxicity of 1,5-diazido-3-nitrazapentane, 2- and 6-week feeding study, male and female rats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, E.A.; Harvey, J.G.; Bell, P.A.

    1993-02-01

    A 2 and 6 week gavage feeding of DANPE caused testicular hypospermatogenesis in male rats and pneumonitis in female rats. A NOAEL was not achieved in male rats but was achieved in female rats at the 56.00 mg/kg/day dose level.... 1,5-Diazido-3-Nitrazapentane (DANPE), Gavage, Testicular hypospermatogenesis, Insterstitual Inflammation No-observed-Adverse-Effect-Level(NOAEL), Feeding study.

  19. Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberland, David L.; Agarwal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

    2008-03-01

    Monitoring of anti-rheumatic drug delivery in experimental models and in human diseases would undoubtedly be very helpful for both basic research and clinical management of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we have investigated the potential of an emerging hybrid imaging technology—photoacoustic tomography—in noninvasive monitoring of anti-TNF drug delivery. After the contrast agent composed of gold nanorods conjugated with Etanercept molecules was produced, ELISA experiments were performed to prove the conjugation and to show that the conjugated anti-TNF-α drug was biologically active. PAT of ex vivo rat tail joints with the joint connective tissue enhanced by intra-articularly injected contrast agent was conducted to examine the performance of PAT in visualizing the distribution of the gold-nanorod-conjugated drug in articular tissues. By using the described system, gold nanorods with a concentration down to 1 pM in phantoms or 10 pM in biological tissues can be imaged with good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. This study demonstrates the feasibility of conjugating TNF antagonist pharmaceutical preparations with gold nanorods, preservation of the mechanism of action of TNF antagonist along with preliminary evaluation of novel PAT technology in imaging optical contrast agents conjugated with anti-rheumatic drugs. Further in vivo studies on animals are warranted to test the specific binding between such conjugates and targeted antigen in joint tissues affected by inflammation.

  20. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:26435406

  1. Behavioral sensitization to apomorphine in adult rats exposed to cocaine during the preweaning period: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Busidan, Y; Dow-Edwards, D L

    1999-07-01

    Sixty-day-old rats treated with cocaine (50 mg/kg SC) during postnatal days (PND) 11-20 received daily injections of apomorphine (2.0 mg/kg SC) for 10 consecutive days to examine the development of sensitization to a direct dopamine agonist. Behavior was monitored on days 1, 5, and 10, using a photobeam system, and on day 10 using the videotape assessments as well. Locomotor sensitization to apomorphine developed in the preweaning vehicle-treated males only. Neither the cocaine-treated males nor any females exhibited locomotor sensitization to repeated apomorphine injections at 2 mg/kg. There were no other treatment-related effects except for grooming, which showed an interaction between treatment and gender. Overall, every behavior analyzed showed significant apomorphine effects, except rearing. Margin time (wall hugging), grooming, and quiet were significantly decreased by apomorphine, while locomotion and the duration of sniffing were increased. In summary, these data indicate that with respect to locomotor activity, the development of sensitization to apomorphine at 2.0 mg/kg is prevented by preweaning cocaine administration in males. These data further suggest that developmental cocaine exposure produces long-term alterations in DA D1 receptor-mediated responses in male rats. PMID:10418783

  2. The long-term ingestion of a diet high in extra virgin olive oil produces obesity and insulin resistance but protects endothelial function in rats: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that fatty acids derived from a diet high in saturated fat may negatively affect endothelial function more significantly than a diet high in unsaturated fat; nevertheless, the effects of the long-term ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function have been poorly studied. Methods To examine the chronic effects of monounsaturated (e.g., extra virgin olive oil (EVOO)) or saturated (e.g., margarine (M)) fatty acid-rich diets on the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in rats, three groups of rats were fed control, high-EVOO or high-M diets for 20 weeks. Body weight, energy consumption, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation and in vitro vascular reactivity with and without metformin were assessed during the study period. Results Both high-fat diets produced obesity and insulin resistance. EVOO-fed rats showed smaller increases in total cholesterol and arterial lipid peroxidation when compared with M-fed rats. Vascular reactivity to phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside was not modified, but the vasodilating effect of carbachol was especially reduced in the M-fed rats compared with the EVOO-fed or control groups. Metformin addition to the incubation media decreased the vascular response to phenylephrine; decrease that was lower in rats fed with both high fat diets, and increased the carbachol and nitroprusside effects, but the metformin-enhanced response to carbachol was lower in the M group. Conclusions Our results suggest that feeding rats with high quantities of EVOO, despite producing obesity and insulin resistance, produces low levels of circulating cholesterol and arterial lipoperoxidation compared to M fed rats and shows a preserved endothelial response to carbachol, effect that is significantly enhanced by metformin only in rats fed with control and EVOO diets. PMID:24330822

  3. Sodium ferulate lowers portal pressure in rats with secondary biliary cirrhosis through the RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathway: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    WEI, LAI; YANG, JUAN; WANG, MIN; XU, SHENG-NAN; LIANG, HUA-MIN; ZHOU, QI

    2014-01-01

    Cirrhotic rats show higher expression levels of hepatic RhoA and Rho-kinase than normal healthy rats, and the activation of this signaling pathway leads to portal hypertension. Sodium ferulate (SF) has been shown to decrease the production of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), a substance essential for RhoA activation. In the present study, to investigate the effects of SF on fibrosis, portal hypertension and the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway, hepatic cirrhosis was induced in rats by bile duct ligation. Liver function and fibrogenesis-related biochemical parameters, the hepatic hydroxyproline content, the pathological characteristics of the liver sections and the levels of hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; by immunohistochemistry) were analyzed to assess effects of SF on hepatic fibrosis. In addition, hepatic RhoA, Rho-kinase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis in the SF-treated and SF + GGPP-treated rat primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and a human stellate cell line (LX-2) was examined by flow cytometry. Intrahepatic resistance and responsiveness to the α1-adrenoceptor agonist, methoxamine, were investigated by in situ liver perfusion. Treatment with SF did not affect fibrosis-related biochemical parameters or the hydroxyproline content; however, SF reduced the histological evidence of fibrosis and hepatocyte damage. The SF-treated rats had a significantly lower expression of α-SMA and Rho-kinase, as well as an increased hepatic eNOS content; however, SF did not affect RhoA expression. The SF-treated HSCs had a significantly increased apoptotic rate compared to the untreated rats. Following the addition of GGPP, the rate apoptotic rate decreased. SF reduced basal intrahepatic resistance and the responsiveness of hepatic vascular smooth muscle to methoxamine. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SF reduces fibrogenesis, decreases portal pressure in cirrhotic rats and inhibits the

  4. Evaluation of Mallotus oppositifolius Methanol Leaf Extract on the Glycaemia and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nwaehujor, C. O.; Ezeigbo, I. I.; Nwinyi, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is folklorically used to “treat” diabetic conditions in some parts of Nigeria therefore the study, to investigate the extract of the leaves for activities on hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation, and increased cholesterol levels in vivo in alloxan diabetic rats as well as its potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods. Albino rats (240–280 g) were given an injection of 120 mg/kg body weight, i.p. of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 days, diabetic animals with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (>9 mmol/L) were considered and selected for the study. Results. Oral treatment with the extract administered every 12 h by gavage at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract to the test rats, for 14 days, resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels from 12.82 ± 1.02 mmol/dL to 4.92 ± 2.01 mmol/dL at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg compared to the control drug and glibenclamide as well as attendant significant decline in diabetic rats employed in the study. Conclusion. The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. oppositifolius leaves. PMID:24224091

  5. Hemorrhage Near Fetal Rat Bone: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.

    2006-05-01

    High-intensity ultrasound has shown potential in treating many ailments requiring noninvasive tissue necrosis. However, little work has been done on using ultrasound to ablate pathologies on or near the developing fetus. For example, Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (cyst on lungs), Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (benign tumor on tail bone), and Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (one twin pumps blood to other twin) are selected problems that will potentially benefit from noninvasive ultrasound treatments. Before these applications can be explored, potential ultrasound-induced bioeffects should be understood. Specifically, ultrasound-induced hemorrhage near the fetal rat skull was investigated. An f/1 spherically focused transducer (5.1-cm focal length) was used to expose the skull of 18- to 19-day-gestation exteriorized rat fetuses. The ultrasound pulse had a center frequency of 0.92 MHz and pulse duration of 9.6 μs. The fetuses were exposed to 1 of 4 exposure conditions (denoted A, B, C, and D) in addition to a sham exposure. Three of the exposures consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 10 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 6.7 MPa, and pulse repetition frequencies of 100 Hz (A), 250 Hz (B), and 500 Hz (C), corresponding to time-average intensities of 1.9 W/cm2, 4.7 W/cm2, and 9.4 W/cm2, respectively. Exposure D consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 6.7 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 5.0 MPa, and a PRF of 500 Hz corresponding to a time-average intensity of 4.6 W/cm2. Hemorrhage occurrence increased slightly with increasing time-average intensity (i.e., 11% for A, 28% for B, 31% for C, and 19% for D with a 9% occurrence when the fetuses were not exposed). The low overall occurrence of hemorrhaging may be attributed to fetal motion (observed in over half of the fetuses from the backscattered echo during the exposure). The mean hemorrhage sizes were 3.1 mm2 for A, 2.5 mm2 for B, 2.7 mm2 for C, and 5.1 mm2 for D. The larger lesions at D may

  6. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  7. Reflectance confocal microscopy as a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring of skin containing vascularized composite allograft rejection: A preliminary study on rats.

    PubMed

    Zor, Fatih; Karagoz, Huseyin; Erdemir, Asli Turgut; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Acikel, Cengiz Han; Kapaj, Rezarta; Guzey, Serbulent; Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Isik, Selcuk; Siemionow, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Vascularized composite allografts can undergo immune-mediated rejection, and skin biopsies are needed for monitoring of the transplant. However it is an invasive method, and requires processing time and pathological assessment. The purpose of this study is to use a new noninvasive monitoring method of the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) to determine severity of the allograft rejection on rats. Five groin flap allotransplantation were performed between 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine A was given to the recipients during 10 days after surgery and was ended at the 10th postoperative days to allow acute transplant rejection. Following cessation of CsA, concomitant RCM evaluation and skin biopsy was performed every other day from each animal until total rejection of the allograft. Complete rejection of the allograft took nearly about 10 days and 4 or 5 RCM evaluation and skin biopsy was performed from each rat during this period. A total of 17 specimens were evaluated. A scoring system was developed based on the RCM findings. Skin biopsies were evaluated according to the Banff 2007 working classification criteria. RCM evaluation revealed epidermal irregularity and collagen destruction, however mild perivascular inflammation and degeneration of the basal epidermal layer were observed in early and late rejection period respectively with histopathologic evaluation. High correlation was found between the RCM scores and histopathologic grading. The RCM may be the useful tool to reduce the need for skin biopsy for monitoring of the skin containing vascularized composite allograft. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:144-151, 2016. PMID:25959719

  8. Optical coherence tomography based microangiography for quantitative monitoring of structural and vascular changes in a rat model of acute uveitis in vivo: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis models in rodents are important in the investigation of pathogenesis in human uveitis and the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies for treatment. Quantitative monitoring of ocular inflammation in small animal models provides an objective metric to assess uveitis progression and/or therapeutic effects. We present a new application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) to a rat model of acute anterior uveitis induced by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. OCT/OMAG is used to provide noninvasive three-dimensional imaging of the anterior segment of the eyes prior to injection (baseline) and two days post-injection (peak inflammation) in rats with and without steroid treatments. OCT imaging identifies characteristic structural and vascular changes in the anterior segment of the inflamed animals when compared to baseline images. Characteristics of inflammation identified include anterior chamber cells, corneal edema, pupillary membranes, and iris vasodilation. In contrast, no significant difference from the control is observed for the steroid-treated eye. These findings are compared with the histology assessment of the same eyes. In addition, quantitative measurements of central corneal thickness and iris vessel diameter are determined. This pilot study demonstrates that OCT-based microangiography promises to be a useful tool for the assessment and management of uveitis in vivo.

  9. Creation and Preliminary Characterization of a Leptin Knockout Rat

    PubMed Central

    Vaira, Sergio; Yang, Chang; McCoy, Aaron; Keys, Kelly; Xue, Shurong; Weinstein, Edward J.; Novack, Deborah V.

    2012-01-01

    Leptin, a cytokine-like hormone secreted mainly by adipocytes, regulates various pathways centered on food intake and energy expenditure, including insulin sensitivity, fertility, immune system, and bone metabolism. Here, using zinc finger nuclease technology, we created the first leptin knockout rat. Homozygous leptin null rats are obese with significantly higher serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels than wild-type controls. Neither gender produced offspring despite of repeated attempts. The leptin knockout rats also have depressed immune system. In addition, examination by microcomputed tomography of the femurs of the leptin null rats shows a significant increase in both trabecular bone mineral density and bone volume of the femur compared with wild-type littermates. Our model should be useful for many different fields of studies, such as obesity, diabetes, and bone metabolism-related illnesses. PMID:22948215

  10. Creation and preliminary characterization of a Tp53 knockout rat

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Aaron; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L.; Franklin, Craig L.; Weinstein, Edward J.; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The tumor suppressor TP53 plays a crucial role in cancer biology, and the TP53 gene is the most mutated gene in human cancer. Trp53 knockout mouse models have been widely used in cancer etiology studies and in search for a cure of cancer with some limitations that other model organisms might help overcome. Via pronuclear microinjection of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), we created a Tp53 knockout rat that contains an 11-bp deletion in exon 3, resulting in a frameshift and premature terminations in the open reading frame. In cohorts of 25 homozygous (Tp53Δ11/Δ11), 37 heterozygous (Tp53Δ11/+) and 30 wild-type rats, the Tp53Δ11/Δ11 rats lived an average of 126 days before death or removal from study because of clinical signs of abnormality or formation of tumors. Half of Tp53Δ11/+ were removed from study by 1 year of age because of tumor formation. Both Tp53Δ11/+ and Tp53Δ11/Δ11 rats developed a wide spectrum of tumors, most commonly sarcomas. Interestingly, there was a strikingly high incidence of brain lesions, especially in Tp53Δ11/Δ11 animals. We believe that this mutant rat line will be useful in studying cancer types rarely observed in mice and in carcinogenicity assays for drug development. PMID:22917926

  11. Infrared LED light therapy influences the expression of fibronectin and tenascin in skin wounds of malnourished rats--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Ana Paula Cavalcanti; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Ramos, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves; Trindade, Renan Ferreira; de Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Carneiro, Tuânia Soares; Cangussú, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of infrared (λ 846±20nm) LED irradiation on the expression profile of the extracellular matrix protein components, tenascin and fibronectin on skin wounds induced in well nourished and malnourished rats. Eighteen albino rats (21 days old) were randomly divided into a well-nourished group (standard diet) and a malnourished group (regional basic diet). After receiving the diet for 70 days, skin wounds were created and the animals were subdivided into three groups: well-nourished control (n=6), malnourished control (n=6), and malnourished+LED irradiated (λ 846±20nm, 100mW, 4J/cm(2)) (n=6). The animals were sacrificed 3 and 7 days after injury and histological sections were immunostained for both proteins. They were examined for the presence, intensity, distribution and pattern of immunolabeling. At 3 days, the distribution of tenascin was shown to be greater in the wound bed of malnourished animals compared to the well-nourished group. The intensity and distribution of tenascin was shown to be lower in the malnourished LED irradiated group compared to the malnourished control. There was a significant difference regarding the presence of fibronectin in the malnourished and well-nourished groups after 7 days (p=0.03). The intensity of fibronectin was slight (100%) in the irradiated group and moderate to intense in the malnourished control group. The results of the present study indicate that infrared LED irradiation modulates positively the expression of tenascin and particularly fibronectin. PMID:25028133

  12. Development and validation of a UHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method to quantify in plasma the analgesic candidate PT-31 following a preliminary pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Bessegato, T C; Niehues, M; Buqui, G A; Lopes, N P; Pitta, I R; Galdino, S L; Dalla Costa, T

    2016-06-01

    A selective and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method to determine PT-31, an analgesic drug candidate, in rat plasma was developed and validated. Analyses were performed using a UHPLC-MS/MS system equipped with an electrospray ionization interface operating in the positive ionization mode using a C18 reversed-phase column with a mobile phase of water:acetonitrile (68:31, v/v) containing 0.1% acetic acid eluting in a gradient mode with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Plasma samples were deproteinized with cold acetonitrile containing 0.01% TFA (1:2, v/v) and 50 μL of the supernatant were injected into the system. PT-31 and phenytoin (internal standard) retention times were roughly 1.0 and 1.5 min, respectively. Linear standard curves were plotted for the 0.01-10 µg/mL concentration range, with a coefficient of determination > 0.99. The method's precision was over 88%. Maximum intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were 14.6% and 11.6%, respectively. Interfering substances were not detected in the chromatogram, indicating that the method was specific. PT-31 stability was assessed under different temperature and storage settings. The method was used to characterize PT-31 plasma pharmacokinetics following administration of 5 mg/kg i.v. to Wistar rats. Therefore, the method described is sensitive, linear, precise and specific enough to determine PT-31 in preclinical pharmacokinetic investigations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26379109

  13. Pathological assessment of the nervous and male reproductive systems of rat offspring exposed maternally to acrylamide during the gestation and lactation periods - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Miwa; Shibutani, Makoto; Inoue, Kaoru; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Hirose, Masao; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the developmental effects of exposure to acrylamide (ACR) on the nervous and male reproductive systems, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given ACR at 0, 50, 100 or 200 ppm in the drinking water from gestational day 10 to postnatal day 21 and histopathological assessment of offspring was performed at weaning and postnatal week 11. Neurotoxicity was quantitatively assessed with reference to nerve fiber density, percentages of degenerated and small caliber axons in the sciatic nerves, and numbers of aberrant dot-like structures immunoreactive for synaptophysin in the cerebellar molecular layer. Although maternal neurotoxicity was evident from 100 ppm, no changes suggestive of neurotoxicity or testicular toxicity were observed in offspring. However, lowering of body weights was dose-dependently observed from birth at the dose levels of > or =50 ppm in males and > or =100 ppm in females. Maternal malnutrition was apparent at >/=100 ppm during the lactation period. Therefore, poor lactational ACR-exposure due to maternal toxicity might account for the lack of ACR-induced offspring toxicity other than retarded body growth. PMID:18303180

  14. Preliminary study for the OFFELO

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    X-ray Optics-Free FEL Oscillator (OFFELO) has potential of becoming a choice for next generation light sources. Using electron beam for the feedback allows OFFELO to be completely tunable and to combine the peak power of high-gain SASE FELs with extremely narrow bandwidth of the oscillator. While the high-gain X-ray FELs has been studied in depth and has been successfully demonstrated, two other concepts (the transport and the feed-back) involved in OFFELO still need detail studies. In this short paper we focus on the simulation of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. In our initial studies of OFFELO studied the saturation of the system and also its evolution using Genesis 2.0 code with a homemade wrapping code. While and lattice design from the modulator to the radiator, in order to minimize the feedback information loss in transporting the beam.

  15. Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos; Bliss, Linda A.; Vigil, Peter

    This study explored patterns of differences and commonalities in the constructions of identity by Cuban Americans, focusing on the pain of their experiencing "Paradise Lost," a theme identified in earlier research in which Cuban American college students reported: strong Cuban connections; value for the Spanish language, food, and culture; and a…

  16. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  17. Galaxy collisions - A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, B. F.

    1980-01-01

    Collisions of spherical galaxies were studied in a series of numerical experiments to see what happens when galaxies collide. Each experiment starts with two model galaxies, each consisting of 50,000 stars, moving toward each other along a specified orbit. The series of experiments provides a systematic sampling of the parameter space spanned by the initial orbital energy and the initial angular momentum. Deeply penetrating collisions are emphasized. The collisions reported here scale to relative velocities as great as 500 km/s, well into the range for collisions within clusters of galaxies. It is found that: (1) the galaxies contract momentarily to about half their original sizes shortly after close passage; and (2) the initial galaxies blend into a single dynamical system while they are near each other.

  18. Allogeneic anorectal transplantation in rats: technical considerations and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Flavio H F; Waisberg, Daniel R; Seid, Victor E; Costa, Anderson C L; Chaib, Eleazar; Baptista, Rachel Rossini; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Lanchotte, Cinthia; Cruz, Ruy J; Araki, Jun; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a challenging condition with numerous available treatment modalities. Success rates vary across these modalities, and permanent colostomy is often indicated when they fail. For these cases, a novel potential therapeutic strategy is anorectal transplantation (ATx). We performed four isogeneic (Lewis-to-Lewis) and seven allogeneic (Wistar-to-Lewis) ATx procedures. The anorectum was retrieved with a vascular pedicle containing the aorta in continuity with the inferior mesenteric artery and portal vein in continuity with the inferior mesenteric vein. In the recipient, the native anorectal segment was removed and the graft was transplanted by end-to-side aorta-aorta and porto-cava anastomoses and end-to-end colorectal anastomosis. Recipients were sacrificed at the experimental endpoint on postoperative day 30. Surviving animals resumed normal body weight gain and clinical performance within 5 days of surgery. Isografts and 42.9% of allografts achieved normal clinical evolution up to the experimental endpoint. In 57.1% of allografts, signs of immunological rejection (abdominal distention, diarrhea, and anal mucosa inflammation) were observed three weeks after transplantation. Histology revealed moderate to severe rejection in allografts and no signs of rejection in isografts. We describe a feasible model of ATx in rats, which may allow further physiological and immunologic studies. PMID:27488366

  19. Allogeneic anorectal transplantation in rats: technical considerations and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, Flavio H. F.; Waisberg, Daniel R.; Seid, Victor E.; Costa, Anderson C. L.; Chaib, Eleazar; Baptista, Rachel Rossini; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Lanchotte, Cinthia; Cruz, Ruy J.; Araki, Jun; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a challenging condition with numerous available treatment modalities. Success rates vary across these modalities, and permanent colostomy is often indicated when they fail. For these cases, a novel potential therapeutic strategy is anorectal transplantation (ATx). We performed four isogeneic (Lewis-to-Lewis) and seven allogeneic (Wistar-to-Lewis) ATx procedures. The anorectum was retrieved with a vascular pedicle containing the aorta in continuity with the inferior mesenteric artery and portal vein in continuity with the inferior mesenteric vein. In the recipient, the native anorectal segment was removed and the graft was transplanted by end-to-side aorta-aorta and porto-cava anastomoses and end-to-end colorectal anastomosis. Recipients were sacrificed at the experimental endpoint on postoperative day 30. Surviving animals resumed normal body weight gain and clinical performance within 5 days of surgery. Isografts and 42.9% of allografts achieved normal clinical evolution up to the experimental endpoint. In 57.1% of allografts, signs of immunological rejection (abdominal distention, diarrhea, and anal mucosa inflammation) were observed three weeks after transplantation. Histology revealed moderate to severe rejection in allografts and no signs of rejection in isografts. We describe a feasible model of ATx in rats, which may allow further physiological and immunologic studies. PMID:27488366

  20. Preliminary summary of the ETF conceptual studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Bercaw, R. W.; Pearson, C. V.; Owens, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Power plant studies have shown the attractiveness of MHD topped steam power plants for baseload utility applications. To realize these advantages, a three-phase development program was initiated. In the first phase, the engineering data and experience were developed for the design and construction of a pilot plant, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Results of the ETF studies are reviewed. These three parallel independent studies were conducted by industrial teams led by the AVCO Everett Research Laboratory, the General Electric Corporation, and the Westinghouse Corporation. A preliminary analysis and the status of the critical evaluation of these results are presented.

  1. Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea: preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Brian J.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Park, Boris H.; Chen, Zhongping; Nelson, J. Stuart

    1999-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to image the internal structure of a rat cochlea. Immediately following sacrifice, the temporal bone of a SPrague-Dawley rat was harvested. Axial OCT cross sectional images (over regions of interest, 1 x 1 mm to 2 x 8 mm) were obtained with a spatial resolution of 10-15 μm. The osseous borders of the lateral membranous labyrinth overlying the cochlea and the scala vestibuli, media, and tympani which were well demarcated by the modiolus, Reissner's and the basilar membranes were clearly identified. OCT can be used to image internal structures in the cochlea without violating the osseous labyrinth, and may potentially be used to diagnose inner ear pathology in vivo in both animal and human subjects.

  2. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  3. Preliminary neutron crystallographic study of human transthyretin

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Melina; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Mason, Sax A.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Cooper, Jonathan B.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies of perdeuterated crystals of human transthyretin (TTR) have been carried out using the LADI-III and D19 diffractometers at the Institut Laue–Langevin in Grenoble. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full crystallographic analysis to a resolution of 2.0 Å using Laue diffraction and also illustrate the potential of using monochromatic instruments such as D19 for higher resolution studies where larger crystals having smaller unit cells are available. This study will yield important information on hydrogen bonding, amino-acid protonation states and hydration in the protein. Such information will be of general interest for an understanding of the factors that stabilize/destabilize TTR and for the design of ligands that may be used to counter TTR amyloid fibrillogenesis. PMID:22102249

  4. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Leal, Ricardo M. F.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  5. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  6. Influence of preliminary exercise training on muscle damage indices in rats after one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Hwangbo, Kak; Kim, Young Mi

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on muscle damage indices in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained in either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined following a single bout of prolonged (3-h) intensive exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The study included forty 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for 6 days per week (excluding Sunday) over a 4-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a non-exercise group performed one bout of prolonged (3-h) treadmill exercise for 3 hours at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels differed significantly among the groups. [Conclusion] The preliminary exercise groups showed lower muscle damage and inflammatory response levels than the non-exercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:27390433

  7. Influence of preliminary exercise training on muscle damage indices in rats after one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Hwangbo, Kak; Kim, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on muscle damage indices in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained in either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined following a single bout of prolonged (3-h) intensive exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The study included forty 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for 6 days per week (excluding Sunday) over a 4-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a non-exercise group performed one bout of prolonged (3-h) treadmill exercise for 3 hours at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels differed significantly among the groups. [Conclusion] The preliminary exercise groups showed lower muscle damage and inflammatory response levels than the non-exercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:27390433

  8. Major nonhistone proteins of rat liver chromatin: preliminary identification of myosin, actin, tubulin, and tropomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Douvas, A S; Harrington, C A; Bonner, J

    1975-01-01

    Two major nonhistone polypeptides from rat liver chromatin have been identified as myosin and actin. Preliminary observations indicate that three other chromatin polypeptides of molecular weights 50,000, 34,000, and 32,000 are tubulin and heavy and light tropomyosin, respectively. A sixth component of molecular weight 65,000 which has been purified and electrophoreses as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels may be composed in part of protease-digested myosin. These six polypeptides together account for as much as 38% of the nonhistone protein mass of chromatin in this tissue. Images PMID:1060072

  9. Preliminary simulation study of a coincidence Avalanche Pixel Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Cellier, R.; Pittet, P.; Quiquerez, L.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a preliminary study of coincidence Avalanche Pixel Sensors (APiX) for High Energy Physics (HEP) applications is presented. In this preliminary work, some PEB prevention techniques found in literature have been studied by TCAD simulations adopting 2D Cylindrical geometrical models and 130nm CMOS process technological data.

  10. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  11. [Reversible sterilization with a physiological solution in the rat: preliminary note].

    PubMed

    Gianaroli, L; Livani, M F; Baffoni, A

    1982-02-01

    In this paper the Authors present a technique of reversible sterilization of female rats. They used saline hot solution through cervix and uterine horns in 45 S.D. female rats. They divided the rats in three groups. The first group received a 43 degree hydrotubation, the second a 50 degree hydrotubation and the third a 60 degree hydrotubation. All the animals were mated several times and the litter sizes were studied. Biopsies were taken by uterine horns and histological results are discussed. PMID:7066108

  12. MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

  13. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in man induce aberrant crypt foci in rats: Preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Fard, Sara; Furrer, Rudolf; Archer, Michael C.; Bruce, W. Robert; Lip, HoYin; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J.; Giacca, Adria; Ward, Wendy E.; Femia, A. Pietro; Caderni, Giovanna; Medline, Alan; Banks, Kate

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have demonstrated clear associations between specific dietary and environmental risk factors and incidence of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations are not known. An animal model could facilitate such an understanding. Both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of F344 rats. F344 rats were provided with diets that contained putative risk factors for CRC: low calcium and low vitamin D, high iron, high fructose, and decreased light (UV) exposure or a control diet for 14 wk. The rats were then assessed with biochemical measures and by topological examination for evidence of colon abnormalities. Circulating ionized calcium was decreased from 2.85 to 1.69 mmol/L, and ACF were increased from 0.7 to 13.6 lesions/colon (both P < 0.001). Rats exposed to the multiple environmental conditions associated with colon cancer, developed ACF similar to the heterogeneous or ill-defined ACF in the human colon. Heterogeneous ACF are the most frequently seen in humans and are also seen in rats shortly after exposure to the non-genotoxic colon carcinogen, dextransulfate sodium. The rodent model could be used to assess the pathways from diet and environment to colon cancer and to provide guidance for clinical studies. PMID:26709971

  14. Changes in Aquaporin 1 Expression in Rat Urinary Bladder after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Song, Seung Hee; Ahn, Kuyoun; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Ryu, Soo Bang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that facilitate water movement across biological membranes. AQPs are also called water channels, and they have recently been reported to be expressed in rat and human urothelium. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the rat urothelium and AQP1 expression in rat urothelium. Materials and Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g each, n=20) were divided into 2 groups: the sham group (the Con group, n=10) and the partial BOO group (the BOO group, n=10). The BOO group underwent a partial BOO. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1 were determined by performing Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on the rat urinary bladder. Results AQP1 immunoreactivity in both the control and the BOO groups was localized in the capillaries, arterioles, and venules of the lamina propria of the urinary bladder. The protein expression of AQP1 was significantly increased in the BOO group. Conclusions This study showed that BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP1. This may imply that AQP1 has a functional role in the detrusor instability that occurs in association with BOO. PMID:20428433

  15. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  16. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  17. Eplerenone prevents salt-induced vascular stiffness in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aldosterone levels are elevated in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the Zucker Diabetic fatty rat (ZDF). Moreover blood pressure in ZDF rats is salt-sensitive. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone on structural and mechanical properties of resistance arteries of ZDF-rats on normal and high-salt diet. Methods After the development of diabetes, ZDF animals were fed either a normal salt diet (0.28%) or a high-salt diet (5.5%) starting at an age of 15 weeks. ZDF rats on high-salt diet were randomly assigned to eplerenone (100 mg/kg per day, in food) (ZDF+S+E), hydralazine (25 mg/kg per day) (ZDF+S+H), or no treatment (ZDF+S). Rats on normal salt-diet were assigned to eplerenone (ZDF+E) or no treatment (ZDF). Normoglycemic Zucker lean rats were also divided into two groups receiving normal (ZL) or high-salt diet (ZL+S) serving as controls. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method. The experiment was terminated at an age of 25 weeks. Mesenteric resistance arteries were studied on a pressurized myograph. Specifically, vascular hypertrophy (media-to-lumen ratio) and vascular stiffness (strain and stress) were analyzed. After pressurized fixation histological analysis of collagen and elastin content was performed. Results Blood pressure was significantly higher in salt-loaded ZDF compared to ZDF. Eplerenone and hydralazine prevented this rise similarily, however, significance niveau was missed. Media-to-lumen ratio of mesenteric resistance arteries was significantly increased in ZDF+S when compared to ZDF and ZL. Both, eplerenone and hydralazine prevented salt-induced vascular hypertrophy. The strain curve of arteries of salt-loaded ZDF rats was significantly lower when compared to ZL and when compared to ZDF+S+E, but was not different compared to ZDF+S+H. Eplerenone, but not hydralazine shifted the strain-stress curve to the right indicating a vascular wall composition with less

  18. Applying for Your Own Job: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid

    2008-01-01

    This study undertook a small preliminary investigation of the contemporary employment practice of "applying for your own job". There has not yet been a specific study into the effect upon individuals and organisations of the practice of existing employees being required to apply for the same or a similar position in a competitive application…

  19. A Preliminary Study of Career Education in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, S. R.; Leung, Y. F.; Stewart, K.; Smith, A. C.; Roberts, G. L.; Dees, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a preliminary study on the Geosciences in Middle School, which was a career education program in the Southeastern U.S focusing on science based on Super's (1990) theory. The students (n = 80) were found to improve their interests in studying science, increase science knowledge, skills and awareness and highly satisfied with…

  20. Spirituality and the Events of September 11: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Apple, Kevin J.; Aydlett, Ann E.

    2004-01-01

    Personal crises have been associated with spiritual growth. Sparked by the global response to the crisis of September 11, 2001, this study examined the relationship of spirituality and the September 11 tragedy using a sample of convenience from a college student population. This preliminary study used an experimental design to examine various…

  1. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  2. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  3. Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Turner, Paul L.; Freeland, Margaret; Corbin, Sara; Driscoll, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This brief paper reports the results of two observational studies examining the impact of fines for youth tobacco possession on public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings are presented that suggest that when police issued warnings and tickets to reduce underage youth possession of tobacco, in both towns the number of youth smoking in public…

  4. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  5. Student Matriculation: A Proposal to Study a Preliminary Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farland, Ronnald W.; Berg, Ernest

    Developed for the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges (CCC) as part of a larger study of academic quality, this report presents a preliminary analysis of student matriculation, a guidance process which brings the student into an agreement with the college for the purpose of achieving the student's educational objectives through…

  6. Vapor inhalation exposure to soman in conscious untreated rats: preliminary assessment of neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael W; Wong, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Ashley; Devorak, Jennifer L; Dao, Thuy T; Leuschner, Jessica A; Kan, Robert K; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2016-01-01

    Neurological toxicity and brain injury following vapor inhalation exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) soman (GD) were examined in untreated non-anesthetized rats. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were exposed to 600 mg × min/m(3) of soman or vehicle in a customized head-out inhalation system for 7 min. Convulsant animals were observed for clinical signs and various regions of the brain (dorsolateral thalamus, basolateral amygdala, piriform cortex, and lateral cortex) were collected for pathological observations 24 h post-exposure. Signs of CWNA-induced cholinergic crises including salivation, lacrimation, increased urination and defecation, and tremors were observed in all soman-exposed animals. Soman-exposed animals at 24 h post-exposure lost 11% of their body weight in comparison to 2% in vehicle-exposed animals. Whole blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly inhibited in all soman-exposed groups in comparison to controls. Brain injury was confirmed by the neurological assessment of hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and microscopy in the piriform cortex, dorsolateral thalamus, basolateral amygdala, and lateral cortex. Severe damage including prominent lesions, edematous, congested, and/or hemorrhagic tissues was observed in the piriform cortex, dorsolateral thalamus, and lateral cortex in soman-exposed animals 24 h post-exposure, while only minimal damage was observed in the basolateral amygdala. These results indicate that inhalation exposure to soman vapor causes neurological toxicity and brain injury in untreated unanesthetized rats. This study demonstrates the ability of the described soman vapor inhalation exposure model to cause neurological damage 24 h post-exposure in rats. PMID:26711353

  7. Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

  8. Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

    2010-10-01

    The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

  9. Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

    2011-03-01

    The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

  10. [Preliminary study of early sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, M C; Saucier, J F

    1991-08-01

    The long term effects of sexual abuse are often measured by measuring behaviours such as social adjustment, job stability and marriage. This study was conducted to add to these internal measures. Using a semi-prospective instrument adapted from G. Kelly's repertory grid, the adolescents' perceptions of themselves and significant others are measured. Three hundred and twelve female adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 (average age = 16) participated in the study; 79 presented with non sexual behaviour disorders (delinquency, stealing, etc.), 56 presented with serious sexual behaviour disorders (prostitution, persistent sexual promiscuity) and 177 presented with no problems requiring psychosocial intervention. Various analyses (descriptive, multiple variance, regression analysis) showed that sexual abuse significantly affects many of the adolescents' perceptions. Sexually abused adolescents perceived their two real parents as less competent and their ideal mother and father as less protective than adolescents who had not been abused. In contrast, their perception of self and the ideal self was not affected by the sexual abuse, a finding which will spark discussion. PMID:1933745

  11. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  12. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  13. A Preliminary Immunologic Study of Urinary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Raymond; Pollak, Victor E.

    1966-01-01

    The clearances of seven different proteins were measured by a quantitative immunodiffusion technique in 15 patients with proteinuria. All urines were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis. The renal histology was evaluated in each case, and no correlation was found between histologic changes and the urinary protein excretion. This observation was confirmed by both immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoretic techniques. No specific urinary protein excretion pattern was found in six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. High-molecular-weight proteins were rarely found in urine, even when the glomerular basement membrane was definitely thickened. Low-molecular-weight proteins were often observed, but their clearances were variable. The results do not support the suggestion that protein clearances are valuable diagnostic and prognostic tools in renal diseases. They also do not support the view that glomerular filtration is the sole factor responsible for the final patterns of urinary proteins; tubular reabsorption is probably another important factor. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:20328484

  14. Preliminary Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1932-01-01

    Photomicrographs were taken of fuel sprays injected into air at various densities for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the stages in the atomization of the fuel. The photomicrographs were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. The results indicate that the theory advanced by Dr. R. A. Castleman, Jr., on the atomization of fuel in carburetors may also be applied to the atomization of fuel sprays of the solid-injection type. The fuel leaves the nozzle as a solid column, is ruffled and then torn into small, irregular ligaments by the action of the air. These ligaments are then quickly broken up into drops by the surface tension of the fuel. The photomicrographs also show that the dispersion of a fuel spray at a given distance from the nozzle increases with an increase in the jet velocity or an increase in the air density. The first portions of fuel sprays injected from an automatic injection valve into air at atmospheric density have a much greater dispersion than the later portions, but this difference decreases rapidly as the air density is increased.

  15. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students. PMID:15648478

  16. Spectral detection of thalassemia: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thalassemias (Thal) are forms of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorders arising out of mutations in the chromosomes 11 or 16. These disorders lead to poor oxygen delivery to blood vessels and consequent splenomegaly, bone deformities, and shorter life spans. The most common detection methods for Thal are complete blood count (CBC) followed by electrophoresis and molecular diagnosis methods, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping. These methods involve sophisticated instrumentations and are cumbersome and expensive. Results In this study an innovative spectral detection method, based on the fluorescence spectra of a set of biomolecules (tyrosine, tryptophan, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide and porphyrins) found in blood components is presented. An algorithm based on the spectral features of such biomolecules of blood components of 20 Thal patients (10 female and 10 male) and 18 age adjusted normal controls (4 female and 14 male) demonstrate reasonable level of classification with sensitivity and specificity values exceeding 90%. Conclusion This new technique could be of significant value for Thal detection, diagnosis, and subsequent genetic counselling and could be adapted for use in small primary health centres. PMID:24679334

  17. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  18. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Moore, T. J.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of gaseous contaminants through the working fluid to or from sensitive refractory alloys is theoretically possible during long time operation of Brayton and Stirling space power generation systems which use a gas as the working fluid. A test was designed which could give an answer to whether transport of contaminants through the working fluid was a potential major problem. The findings of that preliminary study are summarized.

  19. Preliminary dose comparisons for the MRS Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Lavender, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides preliminary information on the radiological doses to the public and the workers for alternative system configurations proposed in the MRS Systems Study. Information published in the MRS Environmental Assessment (DOE 1986) was used as a basis for this analysis. The risk differences between alternative configurations were found to be small and should not be viewed as a major factor in selecting alternative configurations. 1 ref.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η

    SciTech Connect

    Matozo, Huita C.; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Santos, Maria A. M.; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Fusco, Alfredo; Polikarpov, Igor

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the catalytic domain of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η was produced in Escherichia coli in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η (rPTPη) is a cysteine-dependent phosphatase which hydrolyzes phosphoester bonds in proteins and other molecules. rPTPη and its human homologue DEP-1 are involved in neoplastic transformations. Thus, expression of the protein is reduced in all oncogene-transformed thyroid cell lines and is absent in highly malignant thyroid cells. Moreover, consistent with the suggested tumour suppression role of PTPη, inhibition of the tumorigenic process occurs after its exogenous reconstitution, suggesting that PTPη might be important for gene therapy of cancers. In this study, the catalytic domain of rPTPη was produced in Escherichia coli in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected to 1.87 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.46, b = 63.07, c = 111.64 Å, and contains one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  1. Survival of cultured plant cells grafted into the subcutaneous tissue of rats (preliminary report).

    PubMed

    Lozoya, X; Madrazo, I; Guizar, G; Villarreal, M L; Grijalva, I; Salgado, H; Boijseauneau, E; Ibarra, A; Arias-Castro, C; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the survival of plant tissue in an animal environment, cultured calli from a Mexican medicinal plant (Mimosa tenuiflora Poir.) were transplanted under sterile conditions into the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Microscopic studies of grafted areas were carried out at the 30th, 60th and 120th days after transplantation. Histological evidence of plant graft survival was found in specimens of all groups. during the first month of subcutaneous grafting a moderate inflammatory reaction around the callus was observed characterized by the presence of polymorphonuclear cells and some macrophages and the formation of a fibrous capsule. Nevertheless, the plant grafts remained viable and a decrease of the inflammatory reaction around the callus was observed in the specimens during the following months. In the fourth month specimens the formation of blood vessels inside the grafted plant tissue was observed. Once removed from rats, plant tissues showed high viability according to the fluorescein test. These calli were then transferred to the original in vitro medium showing growth capacity during the following weeks. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that cultivated cells of higher plants survive in an animal environment, suggesting the possibility to utilize pharmacologically active plant transplants in animals, a technique proposed here as inter-regni transplants. Further studies are required to explore this new field of research that opens numerous questions about plant-animal cellular interaction. PMID:7711454

  2. Tree STEM Reconstruction Using Vertical Fisheye Images: a Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berveglieri, A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  3. Preliminary Study of a Hybrid Helicon-ECR Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Hala, A.; Oksuz, L.; Ximing, Zhu

    2016-08-01

    A new type of hybrid discharge is experimentally investigated in this work. A helicon source and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source were combined to produce plasma. As a preliminary study of this type of plasma, the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) method was used to obtain values of electron temperature and density under a series of typical conditions. Generally, it was observed that the electron temperature decreases and the electron density increases as the pressure increased. When increasing the applied power at a certain pressure, the average electron density at certain positions in the discharge does not increase significantly possibly due to the high degree of neutral depletion. Electron temperature increased with power in the hybrid mode. Possible mechanisms of these preliminary observations are discussed.

  4. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming. PMID:20557254

  5. Neighborhood Rats as Depressing as Crime, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157831.html Neighborhood Rats as Depressing as Crime, Study Finds Research suggests ... 17, 2016 THURSDAY, March 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Rat infestations may harm the mental health of people ...

  6. Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

  7. Activity of "nonspecific pancreatic carboxylesterase" in rat serum in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis (preliminary results).

    PubMed

    Kálmán, A; Kálmán, Z; Velösy, G; Vargha, G; Vargha, G; Papp, M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain more information on the serum level of "nonspecific pancreatic carboxylesterase" (PCE) in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in rats. The effects of caerulein stimulation, hepatic duct ligation, bile-pancreatic duct ligation or the effect of retrograde injection of saline, 5% taurocholate and sunflower oil were investigated. The activity of PCE and amylase was measured in the serum, pancreatic tissue, pancreatic juice and ascitic fluid. The changes in PCE activity were greater (both in directions to increase or decrease) than that of amylase, produced by different experimental procedures. The results confirm the thesis that the serum activity of PCE is a more sensitive diagnostic method than that of amylase to detect the inflammatory process in the pancreas or the effect of obstruction of the pancreatic duct. PMID:2480696

  8. Biocontamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard A.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Korona, F. Adam; Poritz, Darwin; Smith, Jelanie; Wong, Wing

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study that was conducted to review, test, and improve on current space suit biocontamination control. Biocontamination from crew members can cause space suit damage and objectionable odors and lead to crew member health hazards. An understanding of the level of biocontamination is necessary to mitigate its effects. A series of tests were conducted with the intent of evaluating current suit materials, ground and on-orbit disinfectants, and potential commercial off-the-shelf antimicrobial materials. Included in this paper is a discussion of the test methodology, results, and analysis method.

  9. Energy efficient engine: Preliminary design and integration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Hirschkron, R.; Koch, C. C.; Neitzel, R. E.; Vinson, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Parametric design and mission evaluations of advanced turbofan configurations were conducted for future transport aircraft application. Economics, environmental suitability and fuel efficiency were investigated and compared with goals set by NASA. Of the candidate engines which included mixed- and separate-flow, direct-drive and geared configurations, an advanced mixed-flow direct-drive configuration was selected for further design and evaluation. All goals were judged to have been met except the acoustic goal. Also conducted was a performance risk analysis and a preliminary aerodynamic design of the 10 stage 23:1 pressure ratio compressor used in the study engines.

  10. Experimental Studies of Ion Beam Neutralization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Polansky, J.; Downey, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    A testing platform is designed to study ion beam neutralization in the mesothermal, collisionless region. In the experimental setup, argon neutrals were ionized in a microwave cavity and accelerated by a plasma lens system which was biased to 2500 V above the system ground. Electrons were boiled off from two hot tungsten filaments to neutralize the ion beam. The plasma is diagnosed using Langmuir probe and Faraday probe. A 3-D traversing system and a complete data acquisition loop were developed to efficiently measure 3-D beam profile. Preliminary measurements of beam profiles are presented for different operating conditions.

  11. Preliminary Study of a Pull Plug Friction Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, George R.

    1999-01-01

    A pull plug friction weld, simply defined, comprises inserting a rotating cone-shaped cylinder into a somewhat cone-shaped hole in a plate. The rotating plug makes contact with the edge of the plate and the resulting friction generates heat. The temperature of the plate material eventually reaches a magnitude that will cause the plate material at the edge of the hole to flow. This can be termed a temperature dependent plastic flow. The rotation of the plug is terminated, additional pressure is applied and the metal at the interface of the two materials cools and welding occurs. This preliminary study addresses only three aspects of a complete analysis that is multi-faceted. The transient temperature distribution for different pull plug configurations has been studied in some detail even though the initial conditions and boundary conditions may still be deemed tentative. The stress distribution within the pull plug caused by the heating pressure was studied along with a preliminary analysis of the thermoelastic stress distribution caused by friction heating. There are no definitive results for the stress analysis. Additional study will be required.

  12. Preliminary pharmacological activity of the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia barks in rats

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Hajera; Majumder, Rajib; Al Mamun; Alam, Efte Kharul; Jami, Safkath Ibne; Alam, Badrul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Premna integrifolia Linn (Family: Verbenaceae) synonym of Premna serratifolia has tremendous medicinal value. Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia (MEPI) bark to investigate neuropharmacological, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Materials and methods: Neuropharmacology study was done by open field and hole cross test whereas acetic acid writhing test and formalin induced pain was done for analgesic activity of MEPI. Carrageenan induced inflammatory model was considered for anti-inflammatory activity evaluation. Results: A statistically significant (p0.05) decrease in locomotor activity was observed at all doses in the open-field and hole-cross tests. The extract significantly (p0.05) and dose dependently reduced the writhing reflex in the acetic acid-induced writhing test as well as licking response in the formalin induced inflammatory pain. At 200 mg/kg body weight dose, MEPI showed 71.16% inhibition in carrageenan induced anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: The finding of this study suggests that MEPI will provide scientific support for the use of this species in traditional medicine. PMID:25050319

  13. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  14. Transcranial vibro-acoustography can detect traumatic brain injury, in-vivo: Preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Martin W; Dever, David D; Gu, Xiaohan; Ray Illian, P; McClintic, Abbi M; Mehic, Edin; Mourad, Pierre D

    2015-08-01

    Vibro-acoustography (VA) uses two or more beams of confocal ultrasound to generate local vibrations within their target tissue through induction of a time-dependent radiation force whose frequency equals that of the difference of the applied frequencies. While VA has proven effective for assaying the mechanical properties of clinically relevant tissue such as breast lesions and tissue calcifications, its application to brain remains unexplored. Here we investigate the ability of VA to detect acute and focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) in-vivo through the use of transcranially delivered high-frequency (2 MHz) diagnostic focused ultrasound to rat brain capable of generating measurable low-frequency (200-270 kHz) acoustic emissions from outside of the brain. We applied VA to acute sham-control and TBI model rats (sham N=6; TBI N=6) and observed that acoustic emissions, captured away from the site of TBI, had lower amplitudes for TBI as compared to sham-TBI animals. The sensitivity of VA to acute brain damage at frequencies currently transmittable across human skulls, as demonstrated in this preliminary study, supports the possibility that the VA methodology may one day serve as a technique for detecting TBI. PMID:25964238

  15. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  16. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  17. Preliminary paleomagnetic study of the Thetford Mines Ordovician Ophiolite (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Chiara, Anita; Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Extension associated with oceanic ridges at divergent plate boundaries is characterized by normal faulting and episodic magma supply. Studies in modern oceanic settings suggest locally along ridges both lower crust and upper mantle peridotites may be exhumed to the seafloor in features known as oceanic core complexes (OCC). OCC are characterized by long-lived low-angle detachment faults that extend for 10s of km, and that are crosscut by high-angle normal faults oriented parallel to the rift axis. Here we present preliminary results from 12 paleomagnetic sites sampled on an example of fossilized Ordovician OCC preserved in the in the Canadian Appalachians, the Southern Quebec ophiolites. These were obducted and subjected to polyphase deformation during Palaeozoic orogeny along the Laurentian margin of Iapetus. Although locally obscured by tectonic fabrics and structures, the original relationships between the ophiolitic mantle, the overlying plutonic section, and onlapping Ordovician siliciclastic rocks can be reconstructed within the Thetford-Mines ophiolite. Preliminary results from AMS and Thermal demagnetization experiments record a remarkably consistent overprint from the youngest (Acadian) phase of Paleozoic orogeny. Although complicating further study of intra-oceanic deformation along the detachment fault in the original OCC, the results provide further insights into the progressive overprint of deformation events as recorded by AMS.

  18. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  19. Preliminary study: isotopic safeguards techniques (IST) LMFBR fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P. J.; Kroc, T. K.

    1980-06-01

    This memorandum presents the preliminary results of the effort to investigate the applicability of isotope correlation techniques (ICT), formulated for the LWR system, to the LMFBR fuel cycle. The detailed isotopic compositional changes with burnup developed for the CRBR was utilized as the reference case. This differs from the usual LMFBR design studies in that the core uranium is natural uranium rather than depleted. Nevertheless, the general isotopic behavior should not differ significantly and does allow an initial insight into the expected behavior of isotopic correlations for the LMFBR power systems such as: the U.K. PFR and reprocessing plant; the French Phenix and Superphenix; and the US reference conceptual design studies (CDS) of homogeneous and heterogeneous LMFBR systems as they are developed.

  20. Characterization of burns using hyperspectral imaging technique - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Savastru, Roxana; Manea, Dragos

    2015-02-01

    Surgical burn treatment depends on accurate estimation of burn depth. Many methods have been used to asses burns, but none has gained wide acceptance. Hyperspectral imaging technique has recently entered the medical research field with encouraging results. In this paper we present a preliminary study (case presentation) that aims to point out the value of this optical method in burn wound characterization and to set up future lines of investigation. A hyperspectral image of a leg and foot with partial thickness burns was obtained in the fifth postburn day. The image was analyzed using linear spectral unmixing model as a tool for mapping the investigated areas. The article gives details on the mathematical bases of the interpretation model and correlations with clinical examination pointing out the advantages of hyperspectral imaging technique. While the results were encouraging, further more extended and better founded studies are being prepared before recognizing hyperspectral imaging technique as an applicable method of burn wound assessment. PMID:24997530

  1. Reactivity to sensations in borderline personality disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Ahn, Roianne; Geiger, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are widely considered to have problems with emotional reactivity. However, the specific kinds of stimuli that are associated with heightened emotional reactivity in BPD have not been well characterized. Thus, it is unclear whether the emotional dysfunction in BPD occurs in response to any emotionally evocative stimuli, or to specific classes of stimuli. In this study, we used subjective measures (self-report and interview-based) to compare reactivity to sensations (auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, visual) between participants with BPD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 50). Controlling for trait negative emotional reactivity, individuals with BPD reported being significantly more reactive across sensory stimuli. However, the difference between controls and BPD was significantly greater for reactivity to auditory stimuli compared to other sensory stimuli. Findings from this study provide preliminary data suggesting individuals with BPD may be characterized by heightened self-reported reactivity to aversive sounds. PMID:22023306

  2. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  3. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way. PMID:21667381

  4. Preliminary studies of electromagnetic sounding of cometary nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, A.; Warne, L.; Bednarczyk, S.; Elachi, C.

    1978-01-01

    The internal structure of a comet could be determined with a spacecraft borne electromagnetic sounder. A dielectric profile of the comet could be produced in direct analogy with terrestrial glacier and ice sheet sounding experiments. This profile would allow the detection of a rocky core or ice layers if they exist, just as layers in the ice and the bedrock interface have been clearly observed through the Greenland ice sheet. It would also provide a gross estimate of the amount of dust in the icy region. Models for the response of the nucleus and cometary plasma to electromagnetic sounding are developed and used to derive experimental parameters. A point system design was completed. Preliminary engineering study results indicate that the sounder is well within the bounds of current space technology.

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) disodium salt (BioPQQ™) in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Koura, Seiko; Chung, Catherine; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Roberts, Ashley

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (BioPQQ™), as a supplemental food ingredient, was evaluated in a range of oral toxicity studies in rats including an acute study, a 14-day preliminary and a 28-day repeated-dose study, and a 13-week subchronic study. The median lethal dose of BioPQQ™ was shown to be 1000-2000mg/kg body weight (bw) in male and 500-1000mg/kgbw in female rats. In the 14-day study, high doses of BioPQQ™ resulted in increases in relative kidney weights with associated histopathology in female rats only, while a follow-up 28-day study in female animals resulted in increases in urinary protein and crystals. These findings were reversible, and resolved during the recovery period. In the 13-week study, a number of clinical chemistry findings and histopathological changes were noted, which were deemed to be of no toxicological significance, as the levels were within the historical control range, were not dose-dependent, occurred at a similar frequency in control groups, or only occurred in the control group. Based on these findings, a no-observed-adverse-effect level of 100mg/kgbw/day was determined for BioPQQ™ in rats, the highest dose tested in the 13-week study. PMID:24995591

  6. Mathematical modeling of normal pharyngeal bolus transport: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, M W; Rosendall, B; Finlayson, B A

    1998-07-01

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a common clinical symptom associated with many diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular diseases, and cancer. Its complications include choking, aspiration, malnutrition, cachexia, and dehydration. The goal in dysphagia management is to provide adequate nutrition and hydration while minimizing the risk of choking and aspiration. It is important to advance the individual toward oral feeding in a timely manner to enhance the recovery of swallowing function and preserve the quality of life. Current clinical assessments of dysphagia are limited in providing adequate guidelines for oral feeding. Mathematical modeling of the fluid dynamics of pharyngeal bolus transport provides a unique opportunity for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of swallowing. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a special case of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In CFD, the flow of a fluid in a space is modeled by covering the space with a grid and predicting how the fluid moves from grid point to grid point. FEA is capable of solving problems with complex geometries and free surfaces. A preliminary pharyngeal model has been constructed using FEA. This model incorporates literature-reported, normal, anatomical data with time-dependent pharyngeal/upper esophageal sphincter (UES) wall motion obtained from videofluorography (VFG). This time-dependent wall motion can be implemented as a moving boundary condition in the model. Clinical kinematic data can be digitized from VFG studies to construct and test the mathematical model. The preliminary model demonstrates the feasibility of modeling pharyngeal bolus transport, which, to our knowledge, has not been attempted before. This model also addresses the need and the potential for CFD in understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Improvements of the model are underway. Combining the model with individualized clinical data should potentially

  7. Preliminary study of an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on K-edge filters

    SciTech Connect

    Golosio, Bruno; Brunetti, Antonio; Oliva, Piernicola; Carpinelli, Massimo; Luca Masala, Giovanni; Meloni, Francesco; Battista Meloni, Giovanni

    2013-08-14

    Digital Subtraction Angiography is commonly affected by artifacts due to the patient movements during the acquisition of the images without and with the contrast medium. This paper presents a preliminary study on an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of two images, obtained using two different filters at the exit of an X-ray tube. One of the two filters (K-edge filter) contains the same chemical element used as a contrast agent (gadolinium in this study). This filter absorbs more radiation with energy just above the so called K-edge energy of gadolinium than the radiation with energy just below it. The other filter (an aluminium filter in this study) is simply used to suppress the low-energy contribution to the spectrum. Using proper calibration curves, the two images are combined to obtain an image of the contrast agent distribution. In the angio-tomographic application of the proposed technique two images, corresponding to the two filter types, are acquired for each viewing angle of the tomographic scan. From the two tomographic reconstructions, it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional map of the contrast agent distribution. The technique was tested on a sample consisting of a rat skull placed inside a container filled with water. Six small cylinders with 4.7 mm internal diameter containing the contrast medium at different concentrations were placed inside the skull. In the plain angiographic application of the technique, five out of six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.96%. In the angio-tomographic application, all six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.49%. This preliminary study shows that the proposed technique can provide images of the contrast medium at low concentration without most of the artifacts that are present in images produced by conventional techniques. The results encourage further investigation on the feasibility of a clinical

  8. Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; Johnstone, John; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative incantations used to filter the exemplars as principal resonances of quadrupole

  9. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Archaeoastronomical Information in the Study of Cremation Necropolis: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, J.; Cerde, M. L.; Rodríguez, C.

    2009-08-01

    This work remarks the significance that archaeoastronomical studies have for archaeological research. These studies provide us data about the perception that ancient societies had about astronomical events and how these facts were added to their religious and ideological world. Thus, archaeoastronomy become a valuable source of information when aimed to solve any question involving the ancient societies. We take as reference in this work some of the Late Bronze Age{'}s cremation necropolis, representatives of usually called Urnfields, to check if their design can be related to some celestial phenomena: Can Bech de Baix (Gerona), Can Pitieu-Can Roqueta(Barcelona), Molá (Tarragona), Can Missert (Tarragona), Les Obagues (Tarragona), La Colomina (Lleida) and La Torraza (Navarra). Likewise a new standard in archaeological excavations maps is proposed. This will allow getting the information more available and improving further studies.

  11. Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

  12. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  13. Preliminary Trade Study of Phase Change Heat Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Leimkeuhler, Thomas; Quinn, Gregory; Golliher, Eric

    2006-01-01

    For short durations, phase change based heat rejection systems are a very effective way of removing heat from spacecraft. Future NASA vehicles, such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), will require non-radiative heat rejection systems during at least a portion of the planned mission, just as their predecessors have. While existing technologies are available to modify, such as Apollo era sublimators, or the Space Shuttle Flash Evaporator System (FES), several new technologies are under development or investigation to progress beyond these existing heat rejection systems. Examples include the Multi-Fluid Evaporator developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, improvements upon the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator originally developed for the X-38 program, and a Compact Flash Evaporator System (CFES). Other possibilities evaluate new ways of operating existing designs. The new developments are targeted at increasing operating life, expanding the environments in which the system can operate, improving the mass and volume characteristics, or some combination of these or other improvements. This paper captures the process and results of a preliminary trade study performed at Johnson Space Center to compare the various existing and proposed phase change based heat rejection systems for the CEV. Because the new systems are still in development, and the information on existing systems is extrapolation, this trade study is not meant to suggest a final decision for future vehicles. The results of this early trade study are targeted to aid the development efforts for the new technologies by identifying issues that could reduce the chances of selection for the CEV.

  14. Experience from the Argentine Pegvisomant Observational Study: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    García Basavilbaso, N; Guitelman, M; Nagelberg, A; Stalldecker, G; Carabelli, A; Bruno, O; Danilowitz, K; Manavela, M; Mallea Gil, S; Ballarino, C; Guelman, R; Katz, D; Fidalgo, S; Leal, R; Fideleff, H; Servidio, M; Bruera, D; Librandi, F; Chervin, A; Vitale, M; Basso, A

    2010-01-01

    The GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant is an efficient agent to achieve biochemical control of acromegaly in those cases refractory to surgery and medical therapy with somatostatin analogs. We conducted an observational multicenter study consisting of data collection in accordance with the standard management of patients with acromegaly in everyday practice. We reviewed the medical records of 28 patients, 23 females, who were treated with pegvisomant due to the lack of biochemical response or intolerance to the somatostatin analogs. The objective was to monitor long-term safety and efficacy of the antagonist. 82% of the patients had previous pituitary surgery, 53.6% radiotherapy and 96.4% received medical therapy for acromegaly. Only 19.2% of the patients had pituitary residual tumor size larger than 1 cm, the remainder harbored a microadenoma or no visible tumor in the pituitary images. In terms of biochemical efficacy, IGF-I levels decreased to normal ranges in 45% and 58.8% of patients after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, the daily mean dose of pegvisomant being 9.6+/-1.1 mg. Adverse events, potentially related to pegvisomant were reported in 6 patients (21.4%), local injection site reaction and elevated liver enzymes being the most frequent. Tumor size did not show enlargement in the evaluated population (15 patients) during the period of the study. This paper presents preliminary data from a small observational study in Argentina which represents the first database in our country. PMID:20616494

  15. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.; Bergman, W.; Beason, D.

    1994-07-18

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blowout. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  16. Titan Lake Probe: The Ongoing NASA Decadal Study Preliminary Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter; Brockwell, Tim; Elliot, John; Reh, Kim; Spencer, John; Outer Planets Satellites Decadal Subpanel, The

    2010-05-01

    This talk provides an update on the scientific requirements and preliminary design of a Titan Lake Probe for a future NASA Flagship mission. The starting point for this study is the joint NASA ESA TSSM mission. Using this as a starting point we have revisited the scientific requirements and expanded them to include the possibility of a lake floater and a submersible. The preliminary results of this ongoing study will be presented. The scientific objectives of a Titan Lake Probe mission are: 1) to understand the formation and evolution of Titan and its atmosphere through measurement of the composition of the target lake (e.g., Kraken Mare), with particular emphasis on the isotopic composition of dissolved minor species and on dissolved noble gases, 2) to study the lake-atmosphere interaction in order to determine the role of Titan's lakes in the methane cycle, 3) to investigate the target lake as a laboratory for both pre-biotic organic chemistry in both water (or ammonia-enriched water) solutions and non-water solvents, and 4) to determine if Titan has an interior ocean by measuring tidal changes in the level of the lake over the course of Titan's sixteen-day orbit. The driving requirements for the mission are: 1) the need to land on and explore the lake at depth while adequately communicating the data back to Earth via either direct to Earth or relay communications, 2) thermal design that allows sustained (>32 days) sampling of the 94K lake environment, and 3) a mass spectrometer inlet system that allows sampling of gas, liquid, and solids from the 94K environment. The primary payload is an analytical chemistry laboratory that includes an inlet system for sampling gas, liquid, and solids in and above the lake feeding two capable mass spectrometers that determine the organic and isotopic composition of the sampled materials. The instrumentation also includes a meteorological package that can measure the rate of gas exchange between the lake and the atmosphere, and

  17. Preliminary characterization of the structural proteins of the coronaviruses, sialodacryoadenitis virus and Parker's rat coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, M G; Percy, D H; Hovland, D J; MacInnes, J I

    1994-01-01

    A procedure was developed for the partial purification of the rat coronaviruses, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker's rat coronavirus (PRC). The SDAV and PRC were replicated in L-2 cell monolayer cultures, precipitated with ammonium sulphate, and further concentrated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The major SDAV and PRC proteins were identified by immunoblotting and compared with those of the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-JHM). Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against the M protein of JHM recognized proteins interpreted to be slightly smaller in immunoblots of SDAV and PRC (22.8 vs 23K for JHM). Similarly, a monoclonal antibody against the JHM N protein reacted with proteins of 53K in SDAV and PRC (vs 56 K for JHM). Polyclonal antisera to all three viruses also cross-reacted with the M and N proteins. Some cross-reactivity amongst the S proteins was observed. Based on these data, the structural proteins of the rat coronaviruses, SDAV and PRC are closely related to those of MHV-JHM. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 2. PMID:8004548

  18. Antagonism of anticholinesterase (DFP) toxicity by donepezil plus scopolamine: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, David S; Davis, John M; Overstreet, David H

    2004-02-01

    Studies in animals exploring the antagonism of the cholinesterase inhibitors soman and sarin have shown that pretreatment with low doses of the centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine, alone or in conjunction with the centrally acting anticholinergic agent, scopolamine, is effective against their lethality and toxicity. The current study evaluated the effects of pretreatment with the oral anticholinesterase agent, donepezil (Aricept, 2.0 mg/kg), used to treat Alzheimer's disease, with and without scopolamine in decreasing the hypothermic, hypokinetic, and diarrhea-inducing effects of the irreversible long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP, 1.0 mg/kg) in adult Flinders sensitive line (FSL) male rats. Donepezil alone and donepezil plus scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg) to a greater extent antagonized the decrease in temperature, hypoactivity, and induction of diarrhea due to DFP observed at 4 h after its administration. However, donepezil alone induced hypothermia at 1 and 2 h after treatment. Therefore, these preliminary findings are encouraging, but many additional studies are needed to establish the effectiveness of donepezil as a prophylactic agent against irreversible cholinesterase inhibition by DFP. PMID:14751462

  19. A Preliminary Study of a Solar-Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Duane W.

    1961-01-01

    A preliminary study is made of some problems associated with the sending of an instrumented probe close to the Sun for the purpose of gathering and telemetering back to Earth information concerning solar phenomena and circumsolar space. The problems considered are primarily those relating to heating and to launch requirements. A nonanalytic discussion of the communications problem of a solar-probe mission is presented to obtain order-of-magnitude estimates of the output and weight of an auxiliary power supply which might be required. From the study it is believed that approaches to the Sun as close as about 4 or 5 million miles do not present insuperable difficulties insofar as heating and communications are concerned. Guidance requirements, in general, do not appear to be stringent. However, in terms of current experience, velocity requirements may be large. It is found, for example, that to achieve perihelion distances between the orbit of Mercury and the visible disc of the Sun, total burnout velocities ranging between 50,000 and 100,000 feet per second are required.

  20. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.J.; Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Moore, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.; Ottewitte, E.H.; Motloch, C.G.; Lacy, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented.

  1. Physico-Chemical profile of Puga Khanda: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Baragi, Pramod C.; Baragi, Umapati C.; Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are the oldest known form of medicine in the world. However, the quality control and the assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components. Herbal drugs, singlely or in combinations, contain numerous compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards and the standardization of finished herbal products. Many formulations have been mentioned in Ayurvedic text for Vrushyatwa (aphrodisiac). Puga Khanda is one among such formulations. Aim: To develop preliminary physico-chemical profile of Puga Khanda. Materials and Methods: Puga Khanda was prepared in three batches as per the classical reference mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali. The formulation was subjected for physico-chemical analysis, phytochemical analysis and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results and Conclusion: The study revealed that organoleptic characters, pH and extractive values of all 3 samples were almost equal. All the samples had 60% of sugar needed for preservation and 2/3rd of it was non reducing sugar. The total alkaloids ranged from 0.002 to 0.004% w/w. In TLC study the entire samples showed similar pattern except the 2nd sample of Puga Khanda. PMID:25364209

  2. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally actuated advanced clearance control system, lightweight shroudless fan blades, a low maintenance cost one-stage high pressure turbine, a short efficient mixer and structurally integrated engine and nacelle. A conceptual design analysis was followed by integration and performance analyses of geared and direct-drive fan engines with separate or mixed exhaust nacelles to refine previously designed engine cycles. Preliminary design and more detailed engine-aircraft integration analysis were then conducted on the more promising configurations. Engine and aircraft sizing, fuel burned, and airframe noise studies on projected 1990's domestic and international aircraft produced sufficient definition of configurational and advanced technology requirements to allow immediate initiation of component technology development.

  3. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-08-15

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  4. Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.

    PubMed

    Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin. PMID:17714900

  5. A preliminary study of Mars rover/sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council recommends that a Mars Sample Return mission be undertaken before the year 2000. Comprehensive studies of a Mars Sample Return mission have been ongoing since 1984. The initial focus of these studies was an integrated mission concept with the surface rover and sample return vehicle elements delivered to Mars on a single launch and landed together. This approach, to be carried out as a unilateral U.S. initiative, is still a high priority goal in an Augmented Program of exploration, as the SSEC recommendation clearly states. With this background of a well-understood mission concept, NASA decided to focus its 1986 study effort on a potential opportunity not previously examined; namely, a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission which would involve a significant aspect of international cooperation. As envisioned, responsibility for the various mission operations and hardware elements would be divided in a logical manner with clearly defined and acceptable interfaces. The U.S. and its international partner would carry out separately launched but coordinated missions with the overall goal of accomplishing in situ science and returning several kilograms of surface samples from Mars. Important considerations for implementation of such a plan are minimum technology transfer, maximum sharing of scientific results, and independent credibility of each mission role. Under the guidance and oversight of a Mars Exploration Strategy Advisory Group organized by NASA, a study team was formed in the fall of 1986 to develop a preliminary definition of a flight-separable, cooperative mission. The selected concept assumes that the U.S. would undertake the rover mission with its sample collection operations and our international partner would return the samples to Earth. Although the inverse of these roles is also possible, this study report focuses on the rover functions of MRSR because rover operations have not

  6. Planning Genomic Study in an Animal Model of Depression: a Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Farnam, Alireza; Fakhari, Ali; Roshangar, Leila; Kahni, Sajjad; Farhang, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Interaction of several genes is responsible for psychiatric diseases such as depression. Despite the numerous microarray studies in this field, findings are controversial and hard to conclude. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly selected to receive Chronic Mild Stress model for 4 weeks. Different aspects of depression were measured by forced swimming test, open field trial and sucrose preference tests in the experience group and controls. Results Sucrose was preferred by 40% of CMS group and 80% of controls (p=0.025). Twenty percent of CMS group and 80% of controls were “active” (p=0.001). Last escape was at minute 238 for CMS group and minute 245 for controls and controls had more escape efforts. Conclusion This paper is a preliminary report of a genomic study on animal model of depression which tries to achieve reliable results by a joint of clinical view with recent techniques. Predicted challenges in this procedure and the solutions as well as the limitations may be helpful for future researches. PMID:23678424

  7. Relationship between electrohysterogram and internal uterine pressure: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rabotti, C; Mischi, M; van Laar, J O E H; Aelen, P; Oei, S G; Bergmans, J W M

    2006-01-01

    Electrohysterography (EHG) is a promising technique for monitoring the uterine activity, based on electrical recordings on the abdominal surface. However, a quantitative estimation of the internal uterine pressure (IUP) by means of EHG is not available for clinical practice. In this paper we present a preliminary study on the estimation of the mechanical uterine activity from abdominal EHG measurements. For the EHG analysis we use two different Time Frequency Distributions (TFD): the spectrogram and the Wigner-Ville Distribution. We assume the EHG to be the sum of frequency modulated signals. Based on this assumption, the IUP is estimated from the unnormalized first moment of the TFD. Eventually, a third order polynomial model is applied to the estimated IUP in order to improve the estimate accuracy. A recent method for detection of uterine contraction by EHG is employed for comparison of the performance. The algorithms were tested on two patient recordings. The results were compared with a reference IUP which is simultaneously measured by an intrauterine catheter. The IUP estimated by our method showed a correlation coefficient with the reference IUP (R=0.93) higher than that achieved by the comparison method (R=0.85). Therefore the proposed method may be considered as a promising clinical technique for accurate non invasive IUP measurements. PMID:17946058

  8. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists. PMID:19823679

  9. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  10. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying. PMID:20521174

  11. A Preliminary Study of Sex Differences in Emotional Experience.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Aguilar, Azalea; Barrios, Fernando A

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary approaches have proposed that women possess an advantage over men in emotional functioning to promote attachment for child-rearing. Likewise, sex differences have been reported in traits such as personality and empathy, traits that likely modulate emotional processing. In this preliminary study, sex differences in emotional processing were analyzed, including empathy as a social emotion and personality traits, as well as whether there exist relationships between those measures. Young volunteers (N = 105) indicated the emotional valence, activation, and dominance that they experience in situations categorized as emotionally positive, negative, or neutral. The results of comparison between sexes supported the approach that women showed more sensitivity to high activation and dominance for positive emotions and empathy, and men were more sensitive to negative situations. Correlation analysis showed only one positive relationship between scores of Self-transcendence, a subscale of Temperament and Character Inventory, with activation scores of neutral situations, but not with emotionally charged situations, perhaps because emotions are context-dependent processes while personality traits are considered context-independent descriptions of habits. These findings should be replicated to enrich knowledge about problems in emotional processing. PMID:27154367

  12. The treatment of nonstreptococcal pharyngitis with erythromycin: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Marlow, R A; Torrez, A J; Haxby, D

    1989-01-01

    This preliminary study evaluated the effectiveness of enteric-coated erythromycin in the treatment of adults with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. Twenty-six patients, aged 12 or older, with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either enteric-coated erythromycin or placebo for 10 days. Each day the patients rated the soreness of their throats and how sick they felt. The use of erythromycin appeared to decrease the median number of days for the feeling of sickness to improve (two days versus four days, P less than .01) as well as to decrease the median number of days for the feeling of sickness to resolve (three-and-a-half days versus five days, P less than .05). This apparent improvement in sickness occurred even though there was no significant decrease in the soreness of the throat in patients treated with erythromycin compared to those patients treated with placebo. Treatment with enteric-coated erythromycin appeared to shorten the time until improvement in this group of adults with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. PMID:2612797

  13. Preliminary study of a scale measuring depression and somatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-I; Weng, Li-Jen; Su, Yi-Jen; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2006-10-01

    This description concerns the development of a scale measuring depression and somatic symptoms and the selection of its items for a Taiwanese sample. 102 Taiwanese outpatients (28 men, 74 women) with major depressive disorder completed a 44-item preliminary scale. All had experienced a major depressive episode but had not been treated by antidepressants within the prior two weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was administered to evaluate the validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS). Items, 12 for the Depression Subscale and 10 for the Somatic Subscale, were selected for the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale according to their frequency and their association with rated severity of depression and clinical practices. The mean Hamilton Depression score was 23.9 (SD = 5.2) versus 38.4 (SD = 11.3) for the total DSSS; means for the Depression subscale were 23.5 +/- 6.0 and the Somatic subscale 14.9 +/- 6.8. Cronbach alpha was .88 for the total DSSS, .78 for the Depression subscale, and .86 for the Somatic subscale. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the two scales was .59 (p <.01). The new scale had adequate internal consistency reliability and convergent validity. Much study is required to assess its structure, item characteristics, and in judging its applicability and limitations, and sensitivity to cultural differences in clinical settings. PMID:17153806

  14. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  15. Predicting use of hearing protection: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Kelemen, M J

    1993-09-01

    The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health targeted noise-induced hearing loss as one of the top 10 occupational hazards. Research has been directed toward reducing noise exposure rather than identifying the factors associated with workers' decision consistently to use hearing protection. The long-term goal of this program of research is to develop a causal model explaining workers' use of hearing protection to guide development of nursing interventions. This study was a preliminary one to prepare for testing Pender's health-promotion model (HPM) as a causal model. Ninety-eight skilled tradesmen completed written questionnaires at their work site. Although 98% indicated they were supposed to wear protection, their reported use averaged 50.3% of the time. Reported use significantly and positively correlated with workers' perceptions of the benefits and self-efficacy of use, value of outcomes regarding keeping out noise and increased well-being, and health-promoting behaviors in the areas of self-actualization and stress management. Perceptions of barriers of use were significantly and negatively related to use. In regression analyses of use of hearing protection on components of the HPM and dimensions of health behavior and lifestyle, one component of the HPM (benefits) and two dimensions of health behavior and lifestyle (self-actualization and interpersonal support) significantly predicted use, accounting for 24% of the variance in use of protection. Knowledge of the predictors of hearing protection use will ultimately aid nurses in implementing interventions, increasing use, and decreasing hearing losses. PMID:8234157

  16. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  17. Alcoholic Steatosis in Different Strains of Rat: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Fernando, Harshica; Boor, Paul J.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Shakeel Ansari, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Different strains of rats have been used to study alcoholic liver disease (ALD) while the reason for selecting a particular rat strain was not apparent. Purpose The aim of our study was to compare outbred (Wistar) and inbred (Fischer) strains to evaluate pathological, biochemical changes, and gene expression differences associated with ethanol-induced early hepatic steatosis. Study Design Male Wistar and Fischer-344 rats were pair-fed for 6 weeks with or without 5% ethanol in Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet. Livers were analyzed for histological and lipid-related differences. Results Hepatic midzonal steatosis was mainly found in Wistar rats while Fischer rats showed mostly pericentral steatosis. Increased hepatic steatosis in ethanol-fed Wistar rats is supported by increases in lipids with related genes and transcription factors involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. Conclusion Our data showed that Fischer rats are relatively less prone to ethanol-mediated steatosis with pericentral lipid deposition pattern in the liver which is similar to humans and show no trace level of lipid accumulation in pair-fed controls as observed in Wistar (outbred) strain. Therefore, Fischer rats are better suited for lipid studies in an early development of ALD. PMID:27213081

  18. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10‑8 m3 kg‑1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  19. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  20. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, C.; Vaska, P.; Schlyer, D.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, S.; Park, S.-J.; Stoll, S.; Purschke, M.; Southekal, S.; Kriplani, A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Maramraju, S.; Lee, D.; Schiffer, W.; Dewey, S.; Neill, J.; Kandasamy, A.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Fontaine, R.; Lecomte, R.

    2007-02-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4×8 array of 2.2×2.2×5 mm 3 LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of ˜14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using 18F-FDG and 11C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP.

  1. Chronological and morphological study of heart development in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marcela, Salazar García; Cristina, Revilla Monsalve María; Angel, Palomino Garibay Miguel; Manuel, Arteaga Martínez; Sofía, Díaz-Cintra; Patricia, De La Rosa-Santander; Bladimir, Roque-Ramírez; Concepción, Sánchez Gómez

    2012-08-01

    Adult and embryonic laboratory rats have been used as a mammalian model organism in biomedical research, descriptive and experimental cardiac embryology, and experimental teratology. There have been, however, considerable variations and discrepancies concerning the developmental staging of the rat embryo in the reported literature, which have resulted in several controversies and inconsistencies. Therefore, we carried out a careful anatomical and histological study of rat cardiac morphogenesis from the premorphogenetic period to the mature heart in a newborn pup. A correlation between the chronology and morphological features of the heart and embryo or newborn was made. We provide a simple and comprehensive guide relating the developmental timing and fate of the embryonic components of the heart and their morphological changes in the rat based on in vivo labeling studies in the chick. We also compare the timing of heart development in rats, humans, and mice. PMID:22715162

  2. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  3. A Preliminary Feasibility Study On Seismic Monitoring Of Polymer Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, P. K.; Park, C.; Lim, B.; Nam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polymer flooding using water with soluble polymers is an enhanced oil recovery technique, which intends to maximize oil-recovery sweep efficiency by minimizing fingering effects and as a result creating a smooth flood front; polymer flooding decreases the flow rates within high permeability zone while enhances those of lower permeabilities. Understanding of fluid fronts and saturations is critical to not only optimizing polymer flooding but also monitoring the efficiency. Polymer flooding monitoring can be made in single well scale with high-resolution wireline logging, in inter-well scale with tomography, and in reservoir scale with surface survey. For reservoir scale monitoring, this study makes a preliminary feasibility study based on constructing rock physics models (RPMs), which can bridge variations in reservoir parameters to the changes in seismic responses. For constructing RPMs, we change reservoir parameters with consideration of polymer flooding to a reservoir. Time-lapse seismic data for corresponding RPMs are simulated using a time-domain staggered-finite-difference modeling with implementation of a boundary condition of conventional perfect match layer. Analysis on time-lapse seismic data with respect to the changes in fluid front and saturation can give an insight on feasibility of surface seismic survey to polymer flooding. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2012T100201588). Myung Jin Nam was partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST) (No. 2011-0014684).

  4. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  5. Bone tissue reaction to Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%) in a rodent model: a preliminary SEM study.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Muñoz, Diego F; Sundaram, Paul Antony; Ramírez, Norman

    2007-07-01

    A variety of metals have been used to replace the skeletal framework of human beings. Gamma titanium aluminide (gammaTiAl) has been recently developed as a prospective material for turbine applications. In this preliminary study, the potential of gammaTiAl as a biomaterial was evaluated using an in vivo rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with gammaTiAl cylinders in the femur and observed for an experimental period lasting up to 180 days. The rats were sacrificed after periods of 45, 90 and 180 days. The femurs with the gammaTiAl implants were extracted and examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Normal bone growth processes were observed as early as 45 days after gammaTiAl cylinder implantation. No signs of rejection of the implant metal were observed. In fact, a layered bone growth was observed on the implant metal surface. The bone-metal interface showed signs of tissue growth from original bone to the metal surface. gammaTiAl appears to elicit a normal bone tissue reaction and hence, has potential as a metallic implant material. PMID:17387593

  6. Contraceptive effect and potential side-effects of deslorelin acetate implants in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Grosset, Claire; Peters, Stijn; Peron, Franck; Figuéra, Joëlle; Navarro, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    During the last ten years, numerous species have been treated with deslorelin implants to induce contraception. The aims of the study were 1) to assess contraceptive efficacy of 4.7 mg subcutaneous deslorelin implants in rats, 2) to determine the latency of contraceptive effect, and 3) to determine potential side effects. Three experimental females were implanted and their estrous cycle was studied by vaginal smear. Two weeks after implantation, a male whose fertility was previously assessed with a control female, was introduced into their cage. No female conceived during the 4 mo following implantation. Additionally, 38 pet rats were recruited from clients in practice to test for potential side effects, including 6 males and 32 females with a mean age of 14 mo. Local reaction and transient weight gain during the first 2 wk, as well as behavioral changes were recorded. According to this pilot study, deslorelin implant could be used as a contraceptive method in female rats. The latency period is about 2 wk. Nevertheless, it might be possible to refine the treatment further using hormonal measurements. The duration of contraceptive effect is to be determined in an upcoming study. PMID:23277700

  7. Preliminary study of volcano monitoring using geochemical composition of lichen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUAN, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taipei City, the capital of Taiwan, is bounded with Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which is not active since 200 ka. However, some evidences indicate that the latest explosion of volcanic ash was dated to 5-6 ka as well as TVG is so close to metropolis. The monitoring on TVG is crucial for crisis management. For monitoring TVG, changes of geochemical signal in some volcanic gases and hot springs are currently assessed by monthly sampling. The geochemistry of volcanic gas and hot spring represents a short-term condition on sampling time and is highly controlled by temperature and precipitation on the surface. A long-term average geochemistry will be very helpful to be compared with the results of volcanic gas and hot spring. A bioindicator not only has the ability to store geochemical compositions in their tissues but also has a wide geographical distribution. It is very suitable in this kind of study and lichen is one of the best bioindicators mainly because lichens grow slowly and have a large-scale dependence upon the environment for their nutrition, In TVG, the high SO2 content in the atmosphere results in the absence of fruticose lichen. On the contrary, crustos lichen is the most common species in the study area. For the preliminary analysis, one fruticose, four foliose and four crustos lichens were collected around the major emission centers of volcanic gas. According to the results of ICP-MS analysis, the abundances of heavy metals are generally in the order of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, V, Co and U. Factor analysis (FA) demonstrates that most of the metals show very high loadings in the first factor. This means that the fractionation of metals among different lichen species is minor and the geochemical compositions of lichen are possibly controlled by the same source (atmosphere). The second factor of FA includes Mn, Sr and Ba, which share the same oxidation state of +2 in acidic environment. This factor can describe the variation of Mn, Sr and Ba in the

  8. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    above parameters were varied one at a time to study their effects on roxarsone adsorption. Desorption studies were carried out using 125 mg/L phosphorous at predetermined interval of time. In addition to analyzing for total As by an ICP-MS, aqueous speciation of As was performed using a coupled HPLC-ICP-MS system. Preliminary studies show significant roxarsone adsorption capacity of the WTRs.

  9. Infrared laser sealing of porcine tissues: preliminary in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Perkins, William C.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    We are exploring infrared (IR) lasers as an alternative energy modality to radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices intended to provide rapid surgical hemostasis with minimal collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. Previously, a 1470-nm IR laser sealed and cut ex vivo porcine renal arteries of 1-8 mm in 2 s, yielding burst pressures < 1200 mmHg (compared to normal systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg) and thermal coagulation zones < 3 mm (including the seal). This preliminary study describes in vivo testing of a laser probe in a porcine model. A prototype, fiber optic based handheld probe with vessel/tissue clasping mechanism was tested on blood vessels < 6 mm diameter using incident 1470-nm laser power of 35 W for 1-5 s. The probe was evaluated for hemostasis after sealing isolated and bundled vasculature of abdomen and hind leg, as well as liver and lung parenchyma. Sealed vessel samples were collected for histological analysis of lateral thermal damage. Hemostasis was achieved in 57 of 73 seals (78%). The probe consistently sealed vasculature in small bowel mesentery, mesometrium, and gastro splenic and epiploic regions. Seal performance was less consistent on hind leg vasculature including saphenous arteries and bundles and femoral and iliac arteries. Collagen denaturation averaged 1.6 mm in 8 samples excised for histologic examination. A handheld laser probe sealed porcine vessels in vivo. With further improvements in probe design and laser parameter optimization, IR lasers may provide an alternative to RF and US vessel sealing devices.

  10. Preliminary results of spectral reflectance studies of tycho crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Coombs, C. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Bell, J. F.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and interpretation of near infrared spectra obtained for both the interior and exterior deposits associated with the Tycho crater is presented. Specific objectives were: (1) to determine the composition and stratigraphy of the highland crust in the Tycho target site; (2) to determine the likely composition of the primary ejecta which may be present in ray deposits; (3) to investigate the nature of spectral units defined in previous studies; (4) to further investigate the nature and origin of both the bright and dark haloes around the rim crest; and (5) to compare the compositions determined for the Tycho units with those of the Aristarchus crater as well as typical highland deposits. The spectra obtained for the interior areas exhibit similar spectral features. These include relatively strong 1 micron absorption bands whose minima are centered between 0.97 and 0.99 microns and shallow to intermediate continuum slopes. The spectra generally exhibit indications of a 1.3 micron feature consistent with the presence of Fe(2+) bearing plagioclase feldspar. The strong 1 micron absorption features indicate a dominant high Ca clinopyroxene component. Results obtained from the ejecta deposits show that the spectrum of the inner, bright halo is almost identical with those obtained for interior units. The spectrum of the dark halo exhibits a wide, relatively shallow absorption feature centered at 1.01 microns, a 1.3 micron absorption, and a steep continuum slope. This spectrum is interpreted as indicating the presence of pyroxene, Fe-bearing feldspar, and a significant component of Fe-bearing impact melt glass. Finally, the spectra of spots inside Tycho show similarity with certain spectra for Aristarchus. However, the suite of spectra obtained for Tycho exhibits a different trend in terms of band center versus width.

  11. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  12. A Preliminary Outcome Study of Response Ability Pathways Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forthun, Larry F.; McCombie, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 68 classroom teachers participated in a preliminary evaluation of Response Ability Pathways (RAP), a reclaiming training course for adults who work with children and youth. RAP offers basic training in the Circle of Courage Model and provides participants with general strategies for assisting youth who are experiencing challenges.…

  13. Preliminary design study of astronomical detector cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design of an astronomical detector cooling system for possible use in the NASA C-141 Airborne Infrared Observatory is presented. The system consists of the following elements: supercritical helium tank, Joule-Thomson supply gas conditioner, Joule-Thomson expander (JTX), optical cavity dewar, optical cavity temperature controller, adjustable J-T discharge gas pressure controller, and vacuum pump.

  14. Chronic toxicity study of neosaxitoxin in rats.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Ramiro J; Candiracci, Manila; Lobos, Nicolas; Lux, Sebastian; Miranda, Hugo F

    2014-09-01

    Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) is a specific reversible blocker of voltage gated sodium channels on excitable cells. In the last decade, it has been tested in a number of interesting clinical trials, however there is still little information available on mammalian toxicity. Rats were treated for 12 weeks with doses of 1, 3 or 6 μg/kg of subcutaneous NeoSTX. At weeks 12 and 17, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination and histopathological assessments. The lowest acute toxicity via the intraperitoneal (ip) route was (30.35 μg/kg) and there was no significant difference between intramuscular and subcutaneous routes (11.4 and 12.41 μg/kg). The NeoSTX adiministration did not produce lethality at week 12 and after five weeks of suspension. NeoSTX 6 μg/kg ip produced reductions (p < 0.05) in body weight and food intake, and increased blood level of total and direct bilirubin, GGT and SGOT at week 12; all of these were reversed in the recovery period. NeoSTX 1 and 3 μg/kg ip did not show significant changes with the control group. Histopathological presentations were normal in all groups. This study revealed that NeoSTX is safe in vivo, giving a reliable security margin for its use like a local anesthetic. PMID:25257789

  15. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; De Martino, C; Scorza Barcellona, P; Natali, P G

    1983-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of smooth muscle actin, myosin, fibronectin and basement membrane has been investigated immunohistochemically, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, in the rat epididymis. The findings were correlated with the ultrastructural organization of the organ. Actin was found to be distributed in the stereociliary region of the epithelial principal cells and in the terminal web region. Actin was also visible along the base of the epithelium. Myosin was detected in the terminal web and in the terminal bar regions of the epithelium. The contractile cells showed a strong stain for both proteins. Basement membrane immunoreactivity was distributed along the epithelial basement membrane and around the contractile cells of the wall. In the cauda, between the epithelium and the contractile cell layers, the lamina propria, containing blood vessels and a thin layer of cells, was negative for all antigens investigated. Fibronectin showed a granular distribution around the contractile cells, mainly in the cauda. The ultrastructural study showed only thin (5-6 nm in diameter) filaments in the stereocilia and terminal web region. Thin filaments were also visible in the cytoplasm of the basal cells, thus suggesting a contractile function of this cell type. The heterogeneous appearance of the contractile cells of the wall seemed to support the different contractile pattern of the epididymal regions: caput, corpus and cauda. The cells present in the lamina propria showed cytoplasmic vesicles with dark granules resembling the "A" cell granules of the endocrine pancreas and gut mucosa cells. PMID:6354463

  16. Chronic Toxicity Study of Neosaxitoxin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda, Ramiro J.; Candiracci, Manila; Lobos, Nicolas; Lux, Sebastian; Miranda, Hugo F.

    2014-01-01

    Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) is a specific reversible blocker of voltage gated sodium channels on excitable cells. In the last decade, it has been tested in a number of interesting clinical trials, however there is still little information available on mammalian toxicity. Rats were treated for 12 weeks with doses of 1, 3 or 6 μg/kg of subcutaneous NeoSTX. At weeks 12 and 17, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination and histopathological assessments. The lowest acute toxicity via the intraperitoneal (ip) route was (30.35 μg/kg) and there was no significant difference between intramuscular and subcutaneous routes (11.4 and 12.41 μg/kg). The NeoSTX adiministration did not produce lethality at week 12 and after five weeks of suspension. NeoSTX 6 μg/kg ip produced reductions (p < 0.05) in body weight and food intake, and increased blood level of total and direct bilirubin, GGT and SGOT at week 12; all of these were reversed in the recovery period. NeoSTX 1 and 3 μg/kg ip did not show significant changes with the control group. Histopathological presentations were normal in all groups. This study revealed that NeoSTX is safe in vivo, giving a reliable security margin for its use like a local anesthetic. PMID:25257789

  17. Stereospecific analytical method development and preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetic characterization of pinostrobin in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Casey L; Zhang, Yangmiao; Martinez, Stephanie E; Takemoto, Jody K; Davies, Neal M

    2013-05-01

    The complete pharmacokinetic disposition of the chiral flavonoid (±) pinostrobin remains unknown without the development of an analytical method of detection and quantitation of its individual enantiomers. Resolution of the enantiomers of pinostrobin was achieved using as simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method. A Chiralpak(®) AD-RH column was employed to perform baseline separation with UV detection at 287 nm. The standard curves were linear ranging from 0.5 to 100 µg/mL for each enantiomer. The limit of quantification was 0.5 µg/mL. Precision and accuracy of the assay was < 15% (RSD) and was with a bias <15% for all points on the calibration curve. The assay was applied successfully to stereoselective serum disposition of pinostrobin enantiomers in rats. Both enantiomers had a serum half-life of ~7 h. They also shared similar values of volume of distribution (V(d) S-pinostrobin, 8.2 L/kg; V(d) R-pinostrobin, 8.9 L/kg), total clearance (S-pinostrobin CL(total), 0.959 L//h/kg; R-pinostrobin CL(total), 1.055 L//h/kg), and area under the curve (S-pinostrobin AUC(inf), 23.16 µg h/mL; R-pinostrobin AUC(inf), 21.296 µg h/mL). The large volume of distribution suggests extensive distribution of pinostrobin into tissues. PMID:23070926

  18. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement.

  19. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  20. Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: A Preliminary Study for microCT Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Montano Garcia, C.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.

    2006-09-08

    Preliminary measurements for microCT dosimetry are reported in this work, using TLD-100 crystals (1x1x1 mm3) within a solid water phantom specially designed with approximate dimensions of a mouse. A dose dependence as a function of radial distance and position along the axis of the phantom was found. Because of the smaller doses used in this work we can say that it is feasible to perform dosimetry measurements with high accuracy using TLD-100 microcubes.

  1. Preliminary Fatigue Studies on Aluminum Alloy Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Preliminary information on the complex subject of the fatigue strength of fabricated structural members for aircraft is presented in the test results obtained on several different types of airship girders subjected to axial tension and compression in a resonance fatigue machine. A description of this machine as well as numerous photographs of the fatigue failures are given. There is also presented an extended bibliography on the subject of fatigue strength.

  2. (D, L) polylactide microspheres as embolic agent. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Flandroy, P; Grandfils, C; Collignon, J; Thibaut, A; Nihant, N; Barbette, S; Jerome, R; Teyssie, P

    1990-01-01

    Owing to their shape, accurately calibrated microspheres appear to be very suitable material for distal embolization. Moreover, the biocompatible (D, L) polyactide (PLA) microspheres possess two other valuable advantages: easy adjustment of their biodegradation rate, and incorporation of chemotherapeutic agents during their production. The authors describe the preparation of these (D, L) PLA microspheres and their clinical applications as a preliminary step to arterial chemoembolization. PMID:2234391

  3. Computing and information sciences preliminary engineering design study

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J O; Pearson, E W; Thomas, J J; Brothers, J W; Campbell, W K; DeVaney, D M; Jones, D R; Littlefield, R J; Peterson, M J

    1991-04-01

    This document presents the preliminary design concept for the integrated computing and information system to be included in the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EMSL is scheduled for completion and occupancy in 1994 or 1995 and will support the DOE environmental mission, in particular hazardous waste remediation. The focus of the report is on the Computing and Information Sciences engineering task of providing a fully integrated state-of-the-art computing environment for simulation, experimentation and analysis in support of molecular research. The EMSL will house two major research organizations, the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) and part of the Environmental Sciences Research Center (ESRC). Included in the report is a preliminary description of the computing and information system to be included. The proposed system architecture is based on a preliminary understanding of the EMSL users' needs for computational resources. As users understand more about the scientific challenges they face, the definition of the functional requirements will change. At the same time, the engineering team will be gaining experience with new computing technologies. Accordingly, the design architecture must evolve to reflect this new understanding of functional requirements and enabling technologies. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong; Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  5. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of thermostable RNase HIII from Bacillus stearothermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Chon, Hyongi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2005-03-01

    A thermostable ribonuclease HIII from B. stearothermophilus (Bst RNase HIII) was crystallized and preliminary crystallographic studies were performed. Plate-like overlapping polycrystals were grown by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 283 K.

  7. Newly made antibacterial braided nylon sutures. I. In vitro qualitative and in vivo preliminary biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    Chu, C C; Tsai, W C; Yao, J Y; Chiu, S S

    1987-11-01

    A new type of braided nylon thread with a silver compound coating was made for the purpose of designing a biocidal suture material. The study used standard bacterial culture techniques to evaluate the antibacterial property of the new Ag-coated nylon thread. Seven types of bacterial species were tested; S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. dysenteriae, S. maruslens, and P. mirabilis. The commercial size 2/0 Nurolon suture from Ethicon served as the control. A weak direct current ranging from 0.4-400 microA was applied to the specimens to examine whether the biocidal property of silver could be enhanced by current. The antibacterial property was evaluated by the width and sterility of the clear zone in the bacterial culture plates. It was found that the new nylon thread exhibited very good to moderate bactericidal property toward these seven bacterial species. P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive species, while P. mirabilis was the least sensitive one. Application of direct current through the Ag-coated specimens positively enhanced their antibacterial property and the degree of enhancement depended on the direct current level. The material also exhibited an antibacterial property toward well-established bacterial colonies, but the effect was less strong than the case when direct current was applied simultaneously with incubation. Silver ions released from the coated nylon thread were responsible for the observed antibacterial property; and the application of a weak direct current to the material enhanced this effect. A preliminary biocompatibility study of this new material in rat gluteal muscle indicated that the new material caused less inflammatory reaction than the control Nurolon suture up to 60 days after implantation. PMID:3316233

  8. Decontamination of Johnston Island Coral: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Kochen, R.L.

    1986-02-17

    A preliminary investigation was completed on the characterization and decontamination of coral samples from Johnston Island. These samples were found to contain individual particles (2 to 0.25 mm) of contaminated coral as well as a piece of contaminated magnetic metal. They ranged in activity from about 70 to 811 nCi Am-241. The decontamination methods investigated were froth flotation, ferrite treatment, attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment and dry sieving. Dry sieving, the more effective technique, separated about 42 wt % of the coral into a decontaminated fraction. This fraction (>4 mm) contained about 0.5% of the total activity. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  10. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Coulson M.; Moore, Thomas J.; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary tests were conducted to determine if interstitial element transport through a circulating helium working fluid was a potential problem in Brayton and Stirling space power systems. Test specimens exposed to a thermal gradient for up to 3000-hr included Nb-1%Zr, a Sm-Co alloy (referred to as SmCo in this paper), Hiperco 50 steel, and alumina to simulate various engine components of the Brayton and Stirling systems. Results indicate that helium transport of interstitial contaminants can be minimized over a 7-yr life with a monometallic Nb-1%Zr design. Exposure with other materials indicated a potential for interstitial contaminant transport. Determination of contamination kinetics and the effects on structural integrity will require additional testing.

  11. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  12. A preliminary study of the modified Ericsson for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, J.; Louis, J. F.; Juhasz, A.

    1985-01-01

    Simple modifications of the Ericsson cycle are analyzed for their application as high power, compact and reliable space power systems. They use the same components as the technologically advanced and reliable Brayton system. These modifications approximate the Ericsson cycle's isothermal expansion by several stages of expansion with reheat and the isothermal compression by several compression stages with intercooling. Preliminary cycle analysis including non-ideal components indicates potential advantages in both power per unit area and efficiency over the Brayton system. Evaluation of the system mass indicates a significant mass and radiator area advantage of a Modified Ericsson cycle using one reheat and one expansion stage when a high temperature titanium radiator is used. Whereas the configuration using one reheat and one intercooling with two stages of compression and expansion provided the lowest mass per unit power using a lower temperature aluminum radiator.

  13. Studies on the antihyperlipidemic properties of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit in rats.

    PubMed

    Ambili, Savithri; Subramoniam, Appian; Nagarajan, Natesan Shanmugam

    2009-01-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. fruit and its extracts were screened for antihypercholesterolemic activity using Triton-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats as a model. The fruit and its water extract, but not alcohol and hexane extracts, showed remarkable antihypercholesterolemic activity. An active fraction, which showed activity at a low dose of 0.8 mg/kg, was purified from the water extract. An active component was isolated from the active fraction, which showed optimum activity at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg. The efficacy of the fruit was tested in chronic high-fat diet fed hyperlipidemic rats. The fruit (125 mg/kg) as well as its water extract (50 mg/kg) were found to be effective in lowering lipids in the high-fat diet fed rats. The fruit was subjected to preliminary general toxicity evaluation in mice. Oral administration of the fruit homogenate daily for 15 days did not result in any toxic symptoms up to a dose of 1 g/kg studied. Thus, this fruit can be used as a dietary ingredient to prevent as well as treat hyperlipidemia. PMID:19031370

  14. Preliminary Observations on Sensitivity and Specificity of Magnetization Transfer Asymmetry for Imaging Myelin of Rat Brain at High Field

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Woong; Choi, Jiye; Cho, Janggeun; Lee, Chulhyun; Jeon, Daejong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) has been often used for imaging myelination. Despite its high sensitivity, the specificity of MTR to myelination is not high because tissues with no myelin such as muscle can also show high MTR. In this study, we propose a new magnetization transfer (MT) indicator, MT asymmetry (MTA), as a new method of myelin imaging. The experiments were performed on rat brain at 9.4 T. MTA revealed high signals in white matter and significantly low signals in gray matter and muscle, indicating that MTA has higher specificity than MTR. Demyelination and remyelination studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of MTA to myelination was as high as that of MTR. These experimental results indicate that MTA can be a good biomarker for imaging myelination. In addition, MTA images can be efficiently acquired with an interslice MTA method, which may accelerate clinical application of myelin imaging. PMID:26413534

  15. Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity Study of n-pentane in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hae-Won; Han, Jeong-Hee; Lee, Sung-Bae; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Rim, Kyung-Taek; Yang, Jeong-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to obtain information concerning the health hazards that may result from a 13 week inhalation exposure of n-pentane in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods This study was conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the testing of chemicals No. 413 'Subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study (as revised in 2009)'. The rats were divided into 4 groups (10 male and 10 female rats in each group), and were exposed to 0, 340, 1,530, and 6,885 ppm n-pentane in each exposure chamber for 6 hour/day, 5 days/week, for 13 weeks. All of the rats were sacrificed at the end of the treatment period. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, locomotion activity, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, organ weights, and histopathology were assessed. Results During the period of testing, there were no treatment related effects on the clinical findings, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, relative organ weight, and histopathological findings. Conclusion The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of n-pentane is evaluated as being more than 6,885 ppm (20.3 mg/L) in both male and female rats. n-pentane was not a classified specific target organ toxicity in the globally harmonized classification system (GHS). PMID:23019535

  16. Analytic study of the Tadoma method: background and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Norton, S J; Schultz, M C; Reed, C M; Braida, L D; Durlach, N I; Rabinowitz, W M; Chomsky, C

    1977-09-01

    Certain deaf-blind persons have been taught, through the Tadoma method of speechreading, to use vibrotactile cues from the face and neck to understand speech. This paper reports the results of preliminary tests of the speechreading ability of one adult Tadoma user. The tests were of four major types: (1) discrimination of speech stimuli; (2) recognition of words in isolation and in sentences; (3) interpretation of prosodic and syntactic features in sentences; and (4) comprehension of written (Braille) and oral speech. Words in highly contextual environments were much better perceived than were words in low-context environments. Many of the word errors involved phonemic substitutions which shared articulatory features with the target phonemes, with a higher error rate for vowels than consonants. Relative to performance on word-recognition tests, performance on some of the discrimination tests was worse than expected. Perception of sentences appeared to be mildly sensitive to rate of talking and to speaker differences. Results of the tests on perception of prosodic and syntactic features, while inconclusive, indicate that many of the features tested were not used in interpreting sentences. On an English comprehension test, a higher score was obtained for items administered in Braille than through oral presentation. PMID:904318

  17. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clive, P. J. M.; Chindurza, I.; Ravey, I.; Bass, J.; Boyle, R. J.; Jones, P.; Lang, S. J.; Bradley, S.; Hay, L.; Oldroyd, A.; Stickland, M.

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  18. Preliminary study of a centrifugal-flow singlet oxygen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, W; Deng, L; Yang, H; Sha, G; Zhang, C

    2008-02-28

    By using the concept of a high-pressure, gravity-independent singlet oxygen generator (SOG) proposed by Emanuel and based on the principle that a rotating fluid is capable of producing an enormous centrifugal force, a novel-type centrifugal-flow singlet oxygen generator (CFSOG) was designed and constructed. In this device, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) was generated in the reaction of gaseous Cl{sub 2} with a rotating basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) liquid flow and then was removed from the BHP liquid phase by the centrifugal force. Meanwhile, the microdroplets formed during the Cl{sub 2}+BHP reaction were removed from the O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) gas flow by the centrifugal force produced by the high-speed flow along an arc-shaped channel. Preliminary investigations showed that, because the specific reactive surface area of this SOG was noticeably larger than that of the jet-SOG normally used in current chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COILs), the O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) yield of {approx}60%, the O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) partial pressure as high as 31 Torr, and chlorine utilisation higher than 96% were realised. Moreover, steady operation was obtained. (laser components)

  19. Preliminary study of a dispersed fringe type sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Gen-Rong; Wang, Yue-Fei; Li, Ye-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Liang

    2009-08-01

    Telescopes with large aspherical primary mirrors collect more light and are therefore sought after by astronomers. Instead of using a single large one-piece mirror, smaller segments can be assembled into a useable telescopic primary. Because the segments must fit together to create the effect of a single mirror, segmented optics present unique challenges to the fabrication and testing that are absent in monolithic optics. A dispersed fringe sensor (DFS) using a broadband point source is an efficient method for cophasing and is also highly automated and robust. Unlike the widely adopted Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor and curvature wavefront sensor with edge sensors for calibration of relative pistons, DFS can estimate the piston between segments by only using the spectrum formed by the transmissive grating's dispersion, and therefore can replace the edge sensors, which are difficult to calibrate. We introduce the theory of the DFS and Dispersed Hartmann Sensor (DHS) for further utilization of the coarse phasing method of DFS. According to the theory, we bring out the preliminary system design of the cophasing experimental system based on DFS and DHS which is now established in our institute. Finally, a summary is reached.

  20. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of pentachlorophenol in rats.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R S; Maronpot, R M; Bucher, J R; Haseman, J K; Toft, J D; Hejtmancik, M R

    1999-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used as an herbicide, algaecide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. A 28-day toxicity study of PCP in F344/N rats of both sexes was conducted to select dose levels for a carcinogenicity study. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were given 0, 200, 400, 800, 1600, or 3200 ppm PCP in feed for 28 days. The incidences of minimal to mild hepatocyte degeneration in males and females exposed to 400 ppm or greater and the incidences of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy in the 3200-ppm groups were increased. For carcinogenicity studies, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 PCP for 2 years. A stop-exposure group of 60 male and 60 female rats received 1000 ppm of PCP in feed for 52 weeks and control feed thereafter for the remainder of the 2-year studies; 10 male and 10 female rats were evaluated at 7 months. Survival of 600-ppm males was significantly greater than that of the controls; survival of all other exposed groups was similar to that of the control groups. Mean body weights of the 400- and 600-ppm groups were generally less than those of the controls throughout the studies. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCP in male or female rats fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 ppm for 2 years. Stop-exposure study males and females regained a transitory body weight reduction by the end of the 2 year study, and males had better survival than the controls. At a 7-month interim evaluation, the incidences of centrilobular hypertrophy in stop-exposure males and females exceeded those in the controls. At 2 years, malignant mesothelioma originating from the tunica vaginalis was present in 9 1000-ppm males and 1 control male (p = 0.014). Nasal squamous cell carcinomas were present in five 1000-ppm males and 1 control male. This incidence was not significantly increased but exceeded the historical control range (0-4%). Based on the increased

  1. NASA Desert RATS 2010: Preliminary Results for Science Operations Conducted in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lofgren, G. E.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Bell, E. R.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with international partners to develop the space architectures and mission plans necessary for human spaceflight beyond earth orbit. These mission plans include the exploration of planetary surfaces with significant gravity fields. The Apollo missions to the Moon demonstrated conclusively that surface mobility is a key asset that improves the efficiency of human explorers on a planetary surface. NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona. Conducted since 1998, these activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in relatively harsh climatic conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable

  2. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. [Preliminary study on substitution of Antelope Horn in Danqi Piantan capsule with artificial bezoar].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yan-jun; Cui, Wei-li; Li, Jin

    2015-09-01

    To study the protective effect of Danqi Piantan capsule ( DPC) and its antelope horn substitution (DPCAS) on the cerebral ischemia, in order to preliminary study the possibility of replacing antelope horn with artificial bezoar. In this study, the left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was adopted. Totally 150 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the sham operation group, the model group, the Danqi Piantan capsule (DPC) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn (DPCRA) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn and with double artificial bezoar (DPCDB) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The MCAO model was prepared 1 h later after the administration on the 5th day. At 24 h after the operation, the inner canthus blood was collected to determine the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the endothelin (ET) content. At 72 h after the operation, the cerebral infarct size and the cerebral index were determined by TTC-staining. The fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to detect brain Bcl-2, Caspase-3, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions. The mmunohistochemical method was used to detect ICAM-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 expressions in ischemic penumbra. According to the results, compared with the model group, DPCDB and DPC groups showed almost consistent results, indicating both of the two group can significantly improved cerebral infarction index and cerebral index (P < 0.05), increase the serum SOD activity (P < 0.05), decrease the serum ET level and Caspase-3 expression, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions in brain tissues (P < 0.05) and expressions of ICAM-1, IL-1,6, TNF-α, IL-6 positive cells in ischemic penumbra (P < 0.05) and increase the Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.05). The DPCRA group showed much lower impacts on indexes than DPCDB and DPC groups. This suggests that DPCDB and DPC reveal similar efficacies and antelope horn in

  4. Studies on glutathione S-alkyltransferase of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. K.

    1966-01-01

    1. A rat-liver enzyme catalysing the S-alkylation of glutathione by iodomethane and various other alkyl compounds has been identified and partially purified; its stability, specificity and response to inhibitors and activators and to changes in reaction pH have been studied. 2. The enzyme is distinct from glutathione S-aryltransferase, but both enzymes respond similarly to various inhibitors. 3. A similar enzyme has been found in the kidney and adrenal of rat and in the liver and kidney of numerous species. 4. The identity and the physiological role of the enzyme are discussed. PMID:5938663

  5. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-11-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of /sup 3/H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease.

  6. MULTIGENERATION STUDY OF 1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rats were continuously exposed to 0, 25, 100, or 400 ppm 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) in the drinking water, beginning with birth of the Fo generation and continuing through weaning of the F2 generation. These studies demonstrate that chronic or acute doses of TCB can produce adr...

  7. Identification of Emerging Self-Injurious Behavior in Young Children: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Huete, John M.; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a chronic disorder that often begins in early childhood; however, few studies have examined the onset of SIB in young children. This preliminary study reports on the identification, assessment, and observation of SIB in 32 children who had begun to engage in SIB within the previous 6 months. Participants were under…

  8. Preliminary Study: Special Education Doctoral Students' Perceptions of Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyeong-Hwa; Morningstar, Mary E.; Jung, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated 118 special education doctoral students' knowledge of and attitudes toward self-determination. In addition, this study examined the relationship between self-determination coursework and special education doctoral students' perceptions of how well they were prepared for implementing self-determination…

  9. A Preliminary Study of Guided Math in Title I Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Katherine Roberts

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to provide a preliminary examination of the relationship between the implementation of Guided Math and student achievement in Title I schools as measured by the percentage of students who met or exceeded the standard for the Georgia Mathematics CRCT. The study examined data from thirty Title I elementary schools in one suburban…

  10. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  11. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  12. The Status of Women in Alaska, 1977. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy M.; And Others

    To determine the precise nature and extent of the problem confronting Alaskan women, the Legislature in 1976 directed the Human Rights Commission to conduct a study on the status of women in education, employment, health, and the justice system. This publication contains the results of that study. Data for the study were secured through interviews…

  13. Preliminary planning study for safety relief valve experiments in a Mark III BWR pressure suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.

    1980-04-21

    In response to a request from the Water Reactor Safety Research Division of the US NRC, a preliminary study is provided which identifies key features and consideration involved in planning a comprehensive in-plant Safety Relief Valve experimental program for a Mark III containment design. The report provides identification of program objectives, measurement system requirements, and some details quantifying expected system response. In addition, a preliminary test matrix is outlined which involves a supporting philosophy intended to enhance the usefulness of the experimental results for all members of the program team: experimentalists, analysts, and plant operator.

  14. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2. Preliminary program development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary development plan for the Pioneer Venus program is presented. This preliminary plan treats only developmental aspects that would have a significant effect on program cost. These significant development areas were: master program schedule planning; test planning - both unit and system testing for probes/orbiter/ probe bus; ground support equipment; performance assurance; and science integration Various test planning options and test method techniques were evaluated in terms of achieving a low-cost program without degrading mission performance or system reliability. The approaches studied and the methodology of the selected approach are defined.

  15. Preliminary study of Kelso Dunes using AVIRIS, TM, and AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Pung; Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing of sand dunes helps in the understanding of aeolian process and provides important information about the regional geologic history, environmental change, and desertification. Remotely sensed data combined with field studies are valuable in studying dune morphology, regional aeolian dynamics, and aeolian depositional history. In particular, active and inactive sands of the Kelso Dunes have been studied using landsat TM and AIRSAR. In this report, we describe the use of AVIRIS data to study the Kelso dunes and to compare the AVIRIS information with that from TM and AIRSAR.

  16. Young Children's Perceptions of Scientists: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since the 1950s, there has been a growing body of research dealing with perceptions children have of scientists. Typically, research studies in this area have utilized children's drawings in an effort to discern what those perceptions are. Studies assessing perceptions children have of scientists have shown that children have…

  17. Supporting Off-Shore Students: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussin, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of a recent research study into current initiatives to support the learning of non-English speaking background (NESB) transnational students in Asia who are studying off-shore at Australian universities. Learning support and development staff in 12 universities were surveyed using a questionnaire. The survey…

  18. Citations to Wikipedia in Chemistry Journals: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazzeal, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia has been the subject of an increasing number of studies. Many of these have focused on the quality of Wikipedia articles and the use of Wikipedia by students. Little research has focused on the use of Wikipedia by scholars. This study helps to fill that gap by examining citations to Wikipedia in chemistry journals from three major…

  19. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  20. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  1. Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2: Results of Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Diken, Ozlem; Gilliam, James E.; Ardic, Avsar; Sweeney, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the validity and reliability of Turkish Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (TV-GARS-2). Participants included 436 children diagnosed with autism (331 male and 105 female, mean of ages was 8.01 with SD = 3.77). Data were also collected from individuals diagnosed with intellectual…

  2. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  3. Factors affecting weight gain and dietary intake in Latino males residing in Mississippi: A preliminary study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research indicates that as Latinos become more acculturated to the United States, their diet changes and they experience weight gain. There is also a high incidence of depression in this population. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the correlations between sociodemographic factor...

  4. The Development of a Computer Model for Projecting Statewide College Enrollments: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rensselaer Research Corp., Troy, NY.

    The purpose of this study was to develop the schema and methodology for the construction of a computerized mathematical model designed to project college and university enrollments in New York State and to meet the future increased demands of higher education planners. This preliminary report describes the main structure of the proposed computer…

  5. A Preliminary Study of Teachers' Perceptions of Sex Education in Hong Kong Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yuk Ching

    2006-01-01

    In Hong Kong, once a British colony, sex has traditionally been viewed as taboo and, as such, seldom talked about or openly discussed in public. As a result, there is reluctance on the part of most pre-to-secondary schools to implement sex education. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of preschool sex…

  6. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  7. Factorial Structure of the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheing, Gladys L. Y.; Lai, Amy K. M.; Vong, Sinfia K. S.; Chan, Fong H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the preliminary validation results for the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale (PRES). The PRES is a clinical tool developed to measure the expectations about rehabilitation treatment and outcome for people with back pain. Fifty people with chronic back pain were recruited from 11 physiotherapy outpatient…

  8. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking …

  9. School Library Support of Health Education in China: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.; Zhang, Wuhong

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…

  10. Comparison of Brain Activity during Drawing and Clay Sculpting: A Preliminary qEEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Kerry A.; Aravich, Paul F.; Deaver, Sarah P.; deBeus, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study examined brain wave frequency patterns of female participants (N = 14) engaged in two different art making conditions: clay sculpting and drawing. After controlling for nonspecific effects of movement, quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) recordings were made of the bilateral medial frontal cortex and…

  11. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 2 and appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data to support results obtained in technology assessment studies are presented. Objectives, starting points, and future study tasks are outlined. Key design issues discussed in appendices include: data allocation, transposition network design, fault tolerance and trustworthiness, logic design, processing element of existing components, number of processors, the host system, alternate data base memory designs, number representation, fast div 521 instruction, architectures, and lockstep array versus synchronizable array machine comparison.

  12. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing (/sup 3/H)-biotin and (/sup 14/C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 ..mu..M biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host.

  13. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF NORMOGLYCEMIC, ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC AND DYSLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ON DIABETIC RAT.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Mir Mohammad Reza Seyed; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Mahmudi, Roziahanim

    2016-01-01

    Tinospora crispa is an indigenous medicinal plant belonging to Menispermaceae family, known localy as "akar patawali" or as "akar seruntum". Different parts of this plant are used for various therapeutic purposes for treatment of hypertension, stimulation of appetite, protection from mosquito bites and to treat ailments like jaundice, wounds, intestinal worms and skin infections, tooth and stomach aches, coughs, asthma and pleurisy. The stems were washed, dried, pulverized using Wiley Laboratory Mill apparatus and stored in dry air-tight plastic containers until use. Then, they were extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and finally with water by maceration. The solvent was evaporated from each extract (using rotary evaporator), dried extract were stored at -4°C until used. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and each group having 6 animals for two sets of experiments. In the first test, healthy rats were treated orally with the plant extracts (1 g/kg) suspended in Tween 80. In the second test, the diabetic rats were fasted overnight. The test groups of 6 diabetic rats were treated orally with extracts of Tinospora crispa (1 g/kg), glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) and 10% Tween 80, (10 mL/kg), respectively. In these results, there was no significant effect on blood glucose levels in normal rats treated with different extracts of Tinospora crispa. The water extract of Tinospora crispa decreased the glucose levels in diabetic rats and has the ability to reduce lipid profile in diabetic rats as compared to control diabetic rats. PMID:27008807

  14. Preliminary studies of combustor sensitivity to alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Combustion problems associated with using alternative fuels ground power and aeropropulsion applications were studied. Rectangular sections designed to simulate large annular combustor test conditions were examined. The effects of using alternative fuels with reduced hydrogen content, increased aromatic content, and a broad variation in fuel property characteristics were also studied. Data of special interest were collected which include: flame radiation characteristics in the various combustor zones; the correponding increase in liner temperature from increased radiant heat flux; the effect of fuel bound nitrogen on oxides of nitrogen (NO sub x) emissions; and the overall total effect of fuel variations on exhaust emissions.

  15. US Army Chemical Corps Vietnam veterans health study: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Dalager, N A; Needham, L L; Patterson, D G; Matanoski, G M; Kanchanaraksa, S; Lees, P S

    2001-01-01

    The long-term health consequences of exposure to phenoxyherbicides used in Vietnam has been a great concern to the veterans. In addition to the Air Force Ranch Hand personnel, Army Chemical Corps personnel who served in Vietnam are thought to have had some of the highest herbicide exposures. The Department of Veterans Affairs commenced a study of veterans who served in Vietnam as members of the Army Chemical Corps and a comparison cohort of Army Chemical Corps personnel who served elsewhere. A total of 2872 Vietnam veterans and 2737 non-Vietnam veterans who served in the Army Chemical Corps were identified for inclusion in a telephone health interview survey with a random 20% sample of veterans receiving serum dioxin and other congeners assessments. In a feasibility study which included 284 Vietnam veterans and 281 non-Vietnam veterans, 100 serum assessments were conducted of which 95 were included in the analysis. Vietnam veterans with a history of spraying herbicides were found to have a statistically significant elevation in their current serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations compared to non-Vietnam veterans without a spray history (P = 0.05). Other 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins levels were comparable to the levels found in the non-Vietnam veterans. This feasibility study demonstrated that serum dioxin concentrations from a sample of the study participants can be used to identify exposure variables in the health survey that can serve as a surrogate measure of phenoxyherbicide exposure. PMID:11372888

  16. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  17. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  18. Problems of Eskimo Relocation for Industrial Employment. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, D. S.

    A study was conducted to determine the reasons for variable success in relocating Eskimo families from rural areas of the northern territories of Canada to southern centers of industrial employment (railways, mining centers). The data were collected by interviewing 105 Eskimos, both male and female, married and single, who had migrated south. The…

  19. Preliminary lithostratigraphic correlation study in OAPEC member countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lababidi, M.M.; Hamdan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines a study correlating rock units in the Middle Eastern and North African member countries, based on direct information from the members. It comprises Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic correlation charts for each region and a lexicon giving the definition, age, lithology, and equivalents of each formation.

  20. From Numbers to Action: A Preliminary Study of Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Shelia Parker; Greenlee, Harry

    This study examined retention at Christopher Newport University (CNU) in Newport News, Virginia, focusing on the demographic characteristics of those students who left the university as well as the reasons why they left. A total of 159 students who had attended CNU during the 1994-95 academic year but who did not re-enroll in the fall of 1995 were…

  1. Preliminary study of NAVSTAR/GPS for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, R. D.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The activities conducted as a planning effort to focus attention on the applicability of the global positioning system for general aviation are described. The description of GPS, its impact on economic and functional aspects of general aviation avionics, as well as a declaration of potential extensions of the basic concept have been studied in detail.

  2. Competence Supporting Aspects of Day Care Environments: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Andrew; And Others

    This study examined the applicability of Watts' Human Interaction Scale to day care settings, and was also concerned at a more general level with the question of whether it is possible for day care settings to approximate good homes. Six 2-year-olds in each of two day care centers were each videotaped for a total of 45 minutes in a variety of…

  3. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  4. Methods Courses, So What? Preliminary Findings of a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard J.; Flores-Duenas, Leila; Rossi, Pamela

    This study examined influences that preservice literacy teacher education courses and sustained relationships with literacy researchers had on the literacy practices of three preservice teachers during student teaching and their subsequent self-efficacy and performance as literacy teachers during their first teaching years. Data collected during…

  5. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who work in…

  6. Computer-Generated Geometry Instruction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Helen W.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased intensity of graphic information, presented in computer-generated instruction, could be differentially beneficial for students with hyperactivity and inattention by improving their ability to sustain attention and hold information in-mind. To this purpose, 18 2nd-4th grade students, recruited from general…

  7. Functional Communication Training in Rett Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population (Sigafoos et al., 2009). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and…

  8. Gravity of the New Madrid seismic zone; a preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Mo. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  9. Image deconvolution in digital autoradiography: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mutian; Chen, Qing; Li, Xiao-Feng; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Ruan, Shutian; Zanzonico, Pat; Ling, C Clifton; Humm, John L

    2008-02-01

    Digital autoradiography (DAR) is a powerful method to determine quantitatively the "small-scale" (i.e., submillimeter) distribution of a radiotracer within a tissue section. However, the limited spatial resolution of the DAR image, due to blurring by the point spread function (PSF), can result in a poor correlation with tissue histology and immunohistochemistry. The authors attempt to overcome this limitation by recovering the radiotracer distribution by image deconvolution using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm and a measured PSF obtained from a small radioactive source on hydrophobic microscope slide. Simulation studies have shown that the deconvolution algorithm reliably recovers the pixel values corresponding to the radioactivity distributions. As an example, the proposed image restoration approach has been tested with DAR images of different radiolabeled markers on tumor sections obtained from clinical and preclinical animal model studies. Digital autoradiograms following deconvolution show improved sharpness and contrast relative to the unprocessed autoradiograms. PMID:18383673

  10. Sleep habits and patterns of college students: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B

    2001-11-01

    The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance. PMID:11765249

  11. Depressed patients’ preferences for type of psychotherapy: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yrondi, Antoine; Rieu, Julie; Massip, Claire; Bongard, Vanina; Schmitt, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background The treatment recommendations for depressed patients by the American Psychiatric Association encourage a focus on the patient’s preferences. The focus of this study was the preference of depressed inpatients for the type of psychotherapy. Methods Twenty-nine subjects of both sexes who were hospitalized with a major depressive episode were interviewed at 5-day intervals with the same questions after the depressive episode resolved, as indicated by a score less than 7 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The selection of items was performed by expert consensus. Results The supportive psychotherapy scores were the highest, followed by psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The two sessions conducted at 5-day intervals showed no significant difference, which reflected the stability of choices and preferences of patients. Conclusion In this study, the patients preferred supportive psychotherapy as first-line therapy compared to psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:26491265

  12. A preliminary study of flat-panel displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    Six display technologies that might be of future value in a spacelab workstation are discussed. Some have been developed to the point where they could be used as a computer display while others have not. The display technologies studied are electroluminescents, light-emitting didodes, gas plasma, liquid crystal, electrochromic, and electrophoretic. An explanation of each mechanism is provided along with the state-of-the-art development.

  13. Preliminary results from two international pluvial flood event studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roezer, Viktor; Spekkers, Matthieu; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial floods have caused severe damages to urban dwellings in Europe and elsewhere in recent years. With a predicted increase in extreme weather events as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. These type of flood events, caused by stormwater being unable to enter urban drainage systems or flowing out of urban drainage systems when capacity is exceeded, often happen with little warning and in areas which are often not obviously prone to flooding. Up to now little research was done on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods, as empirical damage data of pluvial flooding is scarce. In this study, results of two telephone surveys are discussed. The surveys comprise interviews with more than 500 flood-affected households in Germany (Münster and Greven) and the Netherlands (Amsterdam), related to the severe rain event of July 28th 2014. Respondents were asked a series of questions about the damage to their building structure and contents, as well as on topics such as early warning, emergency and precautionary measures, building properties and hazard characteristics. The questionnaire was developed with the aim to create a harmonized transnational pluvial flood damage survey that can potentially be extended to other European countries. New indicator variables have been developed to account for different national and regional standards in building structure, early warning, socio-economic data and recovery. The survey data from the German and Dutch case studies are compared with the goal to identify similarities and differences in damage reducing factors and recovery. Water level data and other hazard characteristics are used to form comparable groups out of the German and Dutch sample. Within these groups, regional distinctions in building topology and use are expected to have the strongest impact on differences between reported damage amounts of the two case studies. The newly collected data will be used in

  14. Preliminary space station solar array structural design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, J. T.; Bush, H. G.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Structurally efficient ways to support the large solar arrays (3,716 square meters which are currently considered for space station use) are examined. An erectable truss concept is presented for the on orbit construction of winged solar arrays. The means for future growth, maintenance, and repair are integrally designed into this concept. Results from parametric studies, which highlight the physical and structural differences between various configuration options are presented. Consideration is given to both solar blanket and hard panel arrays.

  15. A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.

  16. Preliminary results from the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandis, S. N.; Davidson, C. I.; Robinson, A. L.; Khlystov, A. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) is a collaborative effort among 20 research groups, and is part of the EPA Supersite Program. In collaboration with several other Supersites around the country, PAQS is also one component of an intensive experiment conducted in July 2001. The PAQS study includes monitoring for aerosol number, surface, and volume distributions, PM mass in several size ranges, single particle chemical composition, continuous aerosol sulfate, nitrate, and carbon mass, bioaerosols, hygroscopic aerosol growth, and filter-based aerosol chemical composition including trace metals, anions/cations, elemental and organic carbon, and various organic compounds. Meteorological data and concentrations of several trace gases are obtained simultaneously. The results will be used to test a variety of hypothesis on atmospheric aerosols. Examples include our ability to account for aerosol mass by summing contributions of individual chemical species, the extent to which single particle chemical composition data can be used to determine bulk chemical concentrations, our ability to predict natural and anthropogenic sources of aerosols, and the extent to which aerosols contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in Pittsburgh. This paper summarizes a few of the interesting results obtained during the study, such as closure of the aerosol mass balance, frequent new particle formation, aerosol water content and artifacts when sampling carbonaceous aerosol.

  17. Preliminary studies on cryopreservation of snakehead (Channa striata) embryos.

    PubMed

    Mohd Sharifuddin, M; Siti Azizah, M N

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of the ongoing studies on cryopreservation of the snakehead, Channa striata embryos. The specific objective of this study was to collect data on the sensitivity of C. striata embryo hatching rate to low temperatures at two different developmental stages in the presence of four different cryoprotectants. Embryos at morula and heartbeat stages were selected and incubated in 1M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), 1M ethylene glycol (EG), 1M methanol (MeOH) and 0.1M sucrose solutions at different temperatures for a period of time. Embryos were kept at 24 °C (control), 15 °C, 4 °C and -2 °C for 5 min, 1h and 3h. Following these treatments, the embryos were then transferred into a 24 °C water bath until hatch to evaluate the hatching rate. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of hatching rate in both developmental stages following exposure to 4 °C and -2 °C at 1h and 3h exposure in each treatment. Heartbeat stage was more tolerant against chilling at -2 °C for 3h exposure in Me2SO followed by MeOH, sucrose and EG. Further studies will be conducted to find the best method to preserve embryos for long term storage. PMID:24726775

  18. [Omeprazole: a new treatment for paranasal sinus polyps in Widal syndrome. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Serra, J; Piñas, J; Arnaiz, J A; Quesada, P; Naches, S; Lorente, J; Carne, X

    1998-05-01

    A preliminary report is made of the potential therapeutic effect of omeprazol in reducing nasosinusal polyps. This study is based on the empirical observation of nasal airflow improvement in patients suffering from nasosinusal polyposis after administering omeprazol. Different phases of the study suggested that patients with Widal's syndrome benefited the most. Based on the results of this study, we have undertaken a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PMID:9707740

  19. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Wells, Beric E.; Bao, Jie; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Chun, Jaehun; Karri, Naveen K.; Li, Huidong; Tran, Diana N.

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  20. Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Sarah; Zimmerman, Marieke; Crocetti, Sara; Suls, Marc; Mariën, Tom; Ferguson, Stephen J; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Wuertz, Karin; Spaas, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months (T4) post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC) II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II) and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced) MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment. PMID:24465787

  1. [Animal health policies and practices in the Americas: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Rojas, H; Stuardo, L; Benavides, D

    2005-08-01

    The Americas have a large population of farm animals, mostly for export. There are diverse production systems distributed over an extensive and varied geography, which hampers efforts to respond to the demands of the different markets. This study provides an overview of the elements influencing animal welfare implementation, such as the requirements of importing countries, the requirements of private agents, the demands of producers and manufacturers, quality promotion policies, the demands of the community, the recommendations of reference bodies and the results of applied research. To explore the level of animal welfare development in the countries of the region, a detailed case study was made of Chile, in addition to a survey of the Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the Americas. An analysis was made of progress with the issues considered by the OIE as priorities, namely humane slaughter for human consumption, transport and killing for disease control purposes. Furthermore, the study considers various aspects of production which the OIE has not included up to now. It also explores the status of research and producer and consumer perceptions of the issue. The results reveal that the level of development and implementation of animal welfare differs from one country to another. While the adoption of animal welfare regulations certainly relates to all the above-mentioned aspects, the one which appears to have the most impact is the export of livestock products to certain markets. Although there is great interest in improving animal welfare conditions, this calls for the general characteristics of animal husbandry in the various countries to be taken into account. While some livestock production in the Americas follows world patterns, many countries still find it difficult to integrate good animal welfare practices, owing to specific geographical, social and cultural situations that are reflected in local livestock development

  2. A preliminary study of dengue infection in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Devi, Shamala

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of dengue infection in Brunei and to determine the predominant serotype circulating in the country. The study generated useful epidemiological data on dengue infection in Brunei. A total of 271 samples from patients suspected of having dengue infections were selected and analyzed. All patients were seen in clinics and hospitals in Brunei. The samples were collected from April 2005 to April 2006 and transported to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus Reference and Research, University of Malaya, Malaysia. The following tests were used to achieve the objectives: in-house IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus isolation in mosquito albopictus cell line (C6/36), and viral RNA detection and serotyping by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that 45 people were positive for dengue-specific IgM (27 males and 18 females), while RT-PCR detected dengue viral RNA in 12 patients, 3 identified as DEN-1 and 9 as DEN-2. Dengue virus was isolated from 6 patients using the C6/36 cell line; 3 were DEN-2 isolates and 3 were DEN-1 isolates. These data show that dengue virus is circulating in Brunei and the predominant infecting serotype for that period was DEN-2 followed by DEN-1. This study is the first to report the detection and isolation of dengue virus from Brunei using RT-PCR and culture in the C6/36 albopictus mosquito cell line. PMID:17642533

  3. Mesiodistal odontometrics as a distinguishing trait: A comparative preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Taneeru; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Narasimha, Vanajakshi China

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sex determination is a vital step in reconstructing an individual profile from unidentified skeletal remnants. Variations in tooth size are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Tooth size variations have been reported among different populations. Aim: To identify the sex by determining the mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of maxillary canines. Objectives: (1) To compare the MD diameter of all maxillary canines — (a) in the entire urban and tribal population, (b) in urban male and urban female populations, (c) in tribal male and tribal female populations, and (d) in the entire male and female populations and (2) To estimate the percentage of sexual dimorphism individually in urban and tribal populations. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from urban and tribal populations in equal gender ratio were selected in Khammam district, Telangana, for the purpose of this study. After obtaining informed consent, maxillary study models of the selected subjects were made. MD diameters of left and right maxillary canines were measured on casts using vernier calipers. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: (1) The total tribal population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the total urban population, (2) Urban males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than urban females, (3) Tribal males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than tribal females, (4) The entire male population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the entire female population, and (5) The percentage of dimorphism between males and females in individual groups was found to be significant. Conclusion: The study showed maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used as a distinguishing trait for sex determination along with other procedures. PMID:27555727

  4. The ABC Schizophrenia Study: a preliminary overview of the results.

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; Maurer, K; Löffler, W; an der Heiden, W; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Hambrecht, M; Riecher-Rössler, A

    1998-08-01

    The ABC Schizophrenia Study, a large-scale epidemiological and neurobiological research project commenced in 1987, initially pursued two aims: (1) to elucidate the possible causes of the sex difference in age at first admission for schizophrenia and (2) to analyse the early course of the disorder from onset until first contact and its implications for further course and outcome. First, transnational case-register data (for Denmark and Germany) were compared, second, a population-based sample of first-episode cases of schizophrenia (n = 232) were selected and third, the results obtained were compared with data from the WHO Determinants of Outcome Study by using a systematic methodology. A consistent result was a 3-4 years higher age of onset for women by any definition of onset, which was not explainable by social variables, such as differences in the male-female societal roles. A sensitivity-reducing effect of oestrogen on central D2 receptors was identified as the underlying neurobiological mechanism in animal experiments. Applicability to humans with schizophrenia was established in a controlled clinical study. A comparison of familial and sporadic cases showed that in cases with a high genetic load, the sex difference in age of onset disappeared due to a clearly reduced age of onset in women, whereas in sporadic cases it increased. To analyse early course retrospectively, a semistructured interview, IRAOS, was developed. The early stages of the disorder were reconstructed in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls from the same population of origin. The initial signs consisted mainly of negative and affective symptoms, which accumulated exponentially until the first episode, as did the later emerging positive symptoms. Social disability appeared 2-4 years before first admission on average. In early-onset cases, social course and outcome, studied prospectively over 5 years, was determined by the level of social development at onset through social stagnation

  5. Static Balance in Patients with Vestibular Impairments: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Hossein; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Abtahi, Seyed Hamid Reza; Fereshtenejad, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Vestibular system is indicated as one of the most important sensors responsible for static and dynamic postural control. In this study, we evaluated static balance in patients with unilateral vestibular impairments. Materials and Methods. We compared static balance control using Kistler force plate platform between 10 patients with unilateral vestibular impairments and 20 normal counterparts in the same sex ratio and age limits (50 ± 7). We evaluated excursion and velocity of center of pressure (COP) and path length in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) planes with eyes open and with eyes closed. Results. There was no significant difference between COP excursions in ML and AP planes between both groups with eyes open and eyes closed (p value > 0.05). In contrast, the difference between velocity and path length of COP in the mentioned planes was significant between both groups with eyes open and eyes closed (p value < 0.05). Conclusions. The present study showed the static instability and balance of patients with vestibular impairments indicated by the abnormal characteristics of body balance. PMID:27379198

  6. Sleep Stage Coordination of Respiration and Swallowing: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Kentaro; Nohara, Kanji; Takai, Etsuko; Sakai, Takayoshi; Fleetham, John A; Ayas, Najib T; Lowe, Alan A; Almeida, Fernanda R

    2016-08-01

    Swallowing is an important physiological response that protects the airway. Although aspiration during sleep may cause aspiration pneumonia, the mechanisms responsible have not yet been elucidated. We evaluated the coordination between respiration and swallowing by infusing water into the pharynx of healthy young adults during each sleep stage. Seven normal subjects participated in the study. During polysomnography recordings, to elicit a swallow we injected distilled water into the pharynx during the awake state and each sleep stage through a nasal catheter. We assessed swallow latency, swallow apnea time, the respiratory phase during a swallow, the number of swallows, and coughing. A total number of 79 swallows were recorded. The median swallow latency was significantly higher in stage 2 (10.05 s) and stage 3 (44.17 s) when compared to awake state (4.99 s). The swallow latency in stage 3 showed a very wide interquartile range. In two subjects, the result was predominantly prolonged compared to the other subjects. There was no significant difference in the swallow apnea time between sleep stages. The presence of inspiration after swallowing, repetitive swallowing, and coughing after swallowing was more frequent during sleep than when awake. This study suggests that the coordination between respiration and swallowing as a defense mechanism against aspiration was impaired during sleep. Our results supported physiologically the fact that healthy adult individuals aspirate pharyngeal secretions during sleep. PMID:27338262

  7. A preliminary anatomical study on carotid body of Makouei sheep.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Gholamreza; Soltanalinejad, Farhad; Hasanzadeh, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    The carotid is a small mass of chemoreceptor's and sustentacular cells that detects changes in the composition of the arterial blood. The aim of the present study was to identify the size, color, location, blood and nerve supply of the carotid body in Makouei sheep. Fourteen heads of sheep from both sexes were collected from Urmia public slaughter-house. The exact situation and nerve supply of the carotid body was determined. Before dissection, blue latex was injected into right and left common carotid arteries. All the branches of the common carotid artery and the branch supplying carotid body were investigated. This study showed that, carotid body in sheep has been situated around the muscular branch of the occipital artery. The mean weight, width and length, thickness of carotid body were 0.01 g, 0.83 mm, 1.07 mm, and 1.06 mm respectively. Blood to the carotid body was supplied by glomic artery which was a branch of occipital artery. It was innervated by herring nerve which was a branch of glossopharyngeal nerve. PMID:25653785

  8. Ultrasonic nebulization atmospheric pressure glow discharge - Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greda, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (μAPGD) generated between a small-sized He nozzle jet anode and a flowing liquid cathode was coupled with ultrasonic nebulization (USN) for analytical optical emission spectrometry (OES). The spatial distributions of the emitted spectra from the novel coupled USN-μAPGD system and the conventional μAPGD system were compared. In the μAPGD, the maxima of the intensity distribution profiles of the atomic emission lines Ca, Cd, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na and Sr were observed in the near cathode region, whereas, in the case of the USN-μAPGD, they were shifted towards the anode. In the novel system, the intensities of the analytical lines of the studied metals were boosted from several to 35 times. As compared to the conventional μAPGD-OES with the introduction of analytes through the sputtering and/or the electrospray-like nebulization of the flowing liquid cathode solution, the proposed method with the USN introduction of analytes in the form of a dry aerosol provides improved detectability of the studied metals. The detection limits of metals achieved with the USN-μAPGD-OES method were in the range from 0.08 μg L- 1 for Li to 52 μg L- 1 for Mn.

  9. Preliminary studies on immobilization of lipase using chicken eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, S.; Serri, N. A.; Hena, S.; Tajarudin, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    A few advantages of enzyme immobilization are reusability of expensive enzyme, improvement of stability and activity compared to crude enzyme. Various organic components can be used as carrier for enzyme immobilization such as chicken eggshell. It can be used as a carrier for immobilization as its mineral component mostly contains of calcium carbonate. In the present study, Tributyrin method was used to test enzyme activity of Rhizomucour Miehei, Candida Antarctica and Candida Rugosa. Rhizomucour Miehei shows the highest enzyme activity (360.8 mol/min/mL lipase) and was used in further experiment. Experiment was continued to study incubation time for lipase immobilization on eggshell (1-4 hours) and reaction time of esterification of sugar ester (0-72 hours). Two hours incubation time for lipase immobilization was observed and gives the highest yield of sugar ester (78.13%). Fructose and stearic acid as substrate was used for the production of sugar ester. The highest percentage of sugar ester production was shown at 36 hours of reaction time.

  10. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  11. Psychophysiological patterns during cell phone text messaging: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Mei; Peper, Erik

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the psychophysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of the non-texting hand; and respiration from the thorax and abdomen. The counter-balanced procedure consisted of a 2 min pre-baseline, 1 min receiving text messages, 2 min middle baseline, 1 min sending text messages and 2 min post-baseline. The results indicated that all subjects showed significant increases in respiration rate, heart rate, SC, and shoulder and thumb SEMG as compared to baseline measures. Eighty-three percentage of the participants reported hand and neck pain during texting, and held their breath and experienced arousal when receiving text messages. Subjectively, most subjects were unaware of their physiological changes. The study suggests that frequent triggering of these physiological patterns (freezing for stability and shallow breathing) may increase muscle discomfort symptoms. Thus, participants should be trained to inhibit these responses to prevent illness and discomfort. PMID:19199025

  12. Preliminary 1H NMR study on archaeological waterlogged wood.

    PubMed

    Maccotta, Antonella; Fantazzini, Paola; Garavaglia, Carla; Donato, Ines D; Perzia, Patrizia; Brai, Maria; Morreale, Filippa

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Relaxation (MRR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are powerful tools to obtain detailed information on the pore space structure that one is unlikely to obtain in other ways. These techniques are particularly suitable for Cultural Heritage materials, because they use water 1H nuclei as a probe. Interaction with water is one of the main causes of deterioration of materials. Porous structure in wood, for example, favours the penetration of water, which can carry polluting substances and promote mould growth. A particular case is waterlogged wood from underwater discoveries and moist sites; in fact, these finds are very fragile because of chemical, physical and biological decay from the long contact with the water. When wood artefacts are brought to the surface and directly dried in air, there is the collapse of the cellular structures, and wood loses its original form and dimensions and cannot be used for study and museum exhibits. In this work we have undertaken the study of some wood finds coming from Ercolano's harbour by MRR and MRI under different conditions, and we have obtained a characterization of pore space in wood and images of the spatial distribution of the confined water in the wood. PMID:16485652

  13. A preliminary anatomical study on carotid body of Makouei sheep

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Gholamreza; Soltanalinejad, Farhad; Hasanzadeh, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    The carotid is a small mass of chemoreceptor's and sustentacular cells that detects changes in the composition of the arterial blood. The aim of the present study was to identify the size, color, location, blood and nerve supply of the carotid body in Makouei sheep. Fourteen heads of sheep from both sexes were collected from Urmia public slaughter-house. The exact situation and nerve supply of the carotid body was determined. Before dissection, blue latex was injected into right and left common carotid arteries. All the branches of the common carotid artery and the branch supplying carotid body were investigated. This study showed that, carotid body in sheep has been situated around the muscular branch of the occipital artery. The mean weight, width and length, thickness of carotid body were 0.01 g, 0.83 mm, 1.07 mm, and 1.06 mm respectively. Blood to the carotid body was supplied by glomic artery which was a branch of occipital artery. It was innervated by herring nerve which was a branch of glossopharyngeal nerve. PMID:25653785

  14. Spherical Cryogenic Hydrogen Tank Preliminary Design Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    A structural analysis, sizing optimization, and weight prediction study was performed by Collier Research Corporation and NASA Glenn on a spherical cryogenic hydrogen tank. The tank consisted of an inner and outer wall separated by a vacuum for thermal insulation purposes. HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation), a commercial automated structural analysis and sizing software package was used to design the lightest feasible tank for a given overall size and thermomechanical loading environment. Weight trade studies were completed for different panel concepts and metallic and composite material systems. Extensive failure analyses were performed for each combination of dimensional variables, materials, and layups to establish the structural integrity of tank designs. Detailed stress and strain fields were computed from operational temperature changes and pressure loads. The inner tank wall is sized by the resulting biaxial tensile stresses which cause it to be strength driven, and leads to an optimum panel concept that need not be stiffened. Conversely, the outer tank wall is sized by a biaxial compressive stress field, induced by the pressure differential between atmospheric pressure and the vacuum between the tanks, thereby causing the design to be stability driven and thus stiffened to prevent buckling. Induced thermal stresses become a major sizing driver when a composite or hybrid composite/metallic material systems are used for the inner tank wall for purposes such as liners to contain the fuel and reduce hydrogen permeation.

  15. Static Balance in Patients with Vestibular Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Hossein; Abtahi, Seyed Hamid Reza; Fereshtenejad, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Vestibular system is indicated as one of the most important sensors responsible for static and dynamic postural control. In this study, we evaluated static balance in patients with unilateral vestibular impairments. Materials and Methods. We compared static balance control using Kistler force plate platform between 10 patients with unilateral vestibular impairments and 20 normal counterparts in the same sex ratio and age limits (50 ± 7). We evaluated excursion and velocity of center of pressure (COP) and path length in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) planes with eyes open and with eyes closed. Results. There was no significant difference between COP excursions in ML and AP planes between both groups with eyes open and eyes closed (p value > 0.05). In contrast, the difference between velocity and path length of COP in the mentioned planes was significant between both groups with eyes open and eyes closed (p value < 0.05). Conclusions. The present study showed the static instability and balance of patients with vestibular impairments indicated by the abnormal characteristics of body balance. PMID:27379198

  16. Manufacture of nanoparticles from bone: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated a mechanical processing method using vibratory milling to reduce the particle size of bone ash to produce hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles from bovine bone. Bovine femurs were cleaned of soft tissue, cut into small pieces, heated to 600 deg for 24 h, and ground into a coarse powder. A 50 wt% suspension was prepared, vibratory milled for 18 h, and then the milled suspension was filter pressed, dried, and ground into powder. The powder was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, which confirmed the particle size and the chemical composition of the powder-matched HA. The results of this study qualitatively showed that it is possible to produce HA nanoparticles from bone. This research explores a "green" manufacturing process that reuses a scrap material from the food industry and reduces the use of chemical precursors for synthetic nanoparticle synthesis. Such HA powder can potentially be used as a bone substitute and for coating orthopedic and dental implants. PMID:21083538

  17. Preliminary Attitude Control Studies for the ASTER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victorino Sarli, Bruno; Luís da Silva, André; Paglione, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    This work discusses an attitude control study for the ASTER mission, the first Brazilian mission to the deep space. The study is part of a larger scenario that is the development of optimal trajectories to navigate in the 2001 SN263 asteroid system, together with the generation of orbit and attitude controllers for autonomous operation. The spacecraft attitude is defined from the orientation of the body reference system to the Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH) of a circular orbit around the Alpha asteroid. The rotational equations of motion involve the dynamic equations, where the three angular speeds are generated from a set of three reaction wheels and the gravitational torque. The rotational kinematics is represented in the Euler angles format. The controller is developed via the linear quadratic regulator approach with output feedback. It involves the generation of a stability augmentation (SAS) loop and a tracking outer loop, with a compensator of desired structure. It was chosen the feedback of the p, q and r angular speeds in the SAS, one for each reaction wheel. In the outer loop, it was chosen a proportional integral compensator. The parameters are tuned using a numerical minimization that represents a linear quadratic cost, with weightings in the tracking error and controls. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear model. For small angle manoeuvres, the linear results with reaction wheels or thrusters are reasonable, but, for larger manoeuvres, nonlinear control techniques shall be applied, for example, the sliding mode control.

  18. Overcoming Underrepresentation of Women Physics Teachers in Cameroon: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyomo, M.; Kom, G. H.; Siebatcheu, B.; Asse, M. L.; Woulache, R.; Mvoudjo, E.

    2009-04-01

    At a time when much energy is being spent all over the world to bring women into the fast-developing world of science, it is regrettable that these efforts are still at their genesis in Cameroon. It is however, worth noting that efforts geared toward the education of the girl child are yielding fruit, even if much remains to be done in rural areas. The only unfortunate revelation is that increase in the number of young girls in scientific classes observed in high school is not reflected at the tertiary level in physics. Thus, young women are almost completely absent when it comes to recruiting lecturers and researchers in the subject. It is time a serious study is carried out on the status of the woman physicist in Cameroon. It is time to evaluate the importance of the woman physicist to our society and to the field of study as well. It is also necessary to develop a new policy geared toward encouraging young girls to take up a career in physics.

  19. Adult leukemia risk and personal appliance use: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lovely, R H; Buschbom, R L; Slavich, A L; Anderson, L E; Hansen, N H; Wilson, B W

    1994-09-15

    The hypothesis that use of personal electric appliances may be associated with increased risk of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in adults was tested using interview data from a previously completed case-control study of 114 cases and 133 controls conducted between 1981 and 1984. Cases were obtained from a population-based cancer registry in western Washington state, and controls were obtained from the same area by random digit dialing. Of 32 electrical home appliances for which data on use were available for adult acute nonlymphocytic leukemia cases and controls, three motor-driven personal appliances (electric razors, hair dryers, and massage units) were selected a priori because their use represents exposure to higher peak magnetic fields than that from most other home appliances. When compared on an "ever used" versus "never used" basis, use of one or more of these appliances was not associated with increased risk of leukemia in the population studied (odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-1.24). When the appliances were considered individually, massage units were more likely to have been used by cases than by controls (OR = 3.00, 95% CI 1.43-6.32), while hair dryers were more likely to have been used by controls than cases (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.22-0.66). There was a nonsignificant tendency for electric razor use to differentiate the cases from controls (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 0.80-2.23). When reported daily time of use was stratified, there was no overall increased risk with increased time of use except for electric razors (p < 0.05). In addition to the analysis of appliance use data from the case-control study, the authors obtained several models of these motor-driven personal appliances and characterized the magnetic fields they produce. Magnetic field flux density, or the B-field, and spectral measurements showed that partial body exposure from such appliances may exceed 0.5 mTesla (root mean squared) at rates-of-change exceeding 10 Tesla

  20. Shuttle infrared telescope facility (SIRTF) preliminary design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An overall picture of the SIRTF system is first presented, including the telescope, focal plane instruments, cryogen supply, shuttle and spacelab support subsystems, mechanical and data interfaces with the vehicles, ground support equipment, and system requirements. The optical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the telescope are then evaluated, followed by a description of the SIRTF internal stabilization subsystem and its interface with the IPS. Expected performance in the shuttle environment is considered. Tradeoff studies are described, including the Gregorian versus the Cassegrain telescope, aperture diameter tradeoff, a CCD versus an image dissector for the star tracker, the large ambient telescope versus the SIRTF, and a dedicated gimbal versus the IPS. Operations from integration through launch and recovery are also discussed and cost estimates for the program are presented.

  1. Preliminary studies of airflow around vehicle front windscreen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Fudhail Abdul; Nuri@Md Din, Nur Rashid Mat; Azmi, Mohd Irwan Mohd; Salim, Mohd Azli; Hasnan, Mohd Yazid

    2012-06-01

    In this project, simulation of air flow around vehicles frontal windscreen area was carried out. The vehicle models that had been chosen for this project were models from the national car manufacturer. ANSYS CFX software was used to run the simulation. Comparison of flow patterns and the velocity distribution were made for the corresponding vehicle models. The speed of the flow was set to be 90 km/h in the simulation. The main objective of this study is to obtain the flow pattern around a vehicle windscreen. The second objective is to determine the velocity distribution on the vehicle windscreen and factors affecting the velocity distribution. It was found that there are differences in term of flow patterns and velocity distribution with respect to the windscreen inclination angle.

  2. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF METHODS TO CHEMICALLY BIND ZINC

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2011-06-10

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first two experimental tasks were completed. The results of the third experimental task are reported here. This task was conducted to determine if the zinc vapors could be chemically bound on two non hydrogen active substrates. Based on a thermodynamic study copper and cobalt were the most favorable for capturing zinc without forming hydrides. Within the experimental parameters tested, which include temperatures of 350, 400, and 450 C at pressures of nominally 20-40 millitorr, the zinc deposited on the both copper screen and cobalt rods but did not react to form a compound. The conditions that were tested are not prototypic and additional testing under higher vacuum conditions, i.e., .01 millitorr, may enhance the reactivity of the surfaces and is recommended.

  3. Preliminary study of a possible automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, W. L.; Winfrey, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Navigation and control laws for a possible automatic landing system have been investigated. The system makes use of data from an inertial table and either an airborne or ground radar to generate signals that guide the airplane to a landing. All landing maneuvers take place within a zone that extends 6000 m out from the touchdown point, 4000 m on each side of the runway center line, and 540 m high. The results show that the system can adequately control the airplane on steep, curved decelerating approaches to a landing that takes place with small errors from the desired landing point and desired airplane attitude. The system studied would interface well with the scanning beam microwave landing system (MLS). The use of this system with the MLS makes it possible to incorporate an independent landing monitor.

  4. Preliminary Exploratory Study of Different Phase II Collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Lari, L.; Assmann, R.W.; Bertarelli, A.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dallocchio, A.; Ferrari, A.; Mauri, M.; Roesler, S.; Sarchiapone, L.; Vlachoudis, Vasilis; Doyle, J.E.; Keller, L.; Lundgren, S.A.; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Smith, J.C.; Lari, L.; /LPHE, Lausanne

    2011-11-02

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system is installed and commissioned in different phases, following the natural evolution of the LHC performance. To improve cleaning efficiency towards the end of the low beta squeeze at 7TeV, and in stable physics conditions, it is foreseen to complement the 30 highly robust Phase I secondary collimators with low impedance Phase II collimators. At this stage, their design is not yet finalized. Possible options include metallic collimators, graphite jaws with a movable metallic foil, or collimators with metallic rotating jaws. As part of the evaluation of the different designs, the FLUKA Monte Carlo code is extensively used for calculating energy deposition and studying material damage and activation. This report outlines the simulation approach and defines the critical quantities involved.

  5. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  6. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 7, Subsystem concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  7. Primary adaptive mirrors for ELTs: a report on preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, Armando; Del Vecchio, Ciro; Salinari, Piero; Brusa, Guido; Lardiere, Olivier; Gallieni, Daniele; Biasi, Roberto; Mantegazza, Paolo

    2004-07-01

    At the moment the best bet to obtain an extremely high actuator density for extremely large pupils seems to be that of extending the current adaptive secondary mirror technology to segmented "adaptive primaries." The main components of a segment of an adaptive primary mirror are beng studied in order to determine all the parameters able to statically keep the mechanical response within the optical specifications and to dynamically provide the stiffness and damping features needed by the adaptive optics control system. Both static and dynamical requirements depend critically on actuator geometry and structure, mirror shape and thickness, and implementation of the control system. The mechanical response has been numerically evaluated in terms of deformation under gravity, mirror influence functions and actuator layout, including their interface to the shell.

  8. Functional communication training in rett syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Byiers, Breanne J; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J

    2014-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population ( Sigafoos et al., 2009 ). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and functional communication training (FCT) methods for teaching 3 individuals (ages 15-47 years) with classic RTT novel communicative behaviors. Using single-case experimental designs, functional reinforcers were identified (FA) and each participant quickly learned to activate a voice-output switch to obtain a reinforcer (FCT). These results suggest that individuals with classic RTT can learn novel communicative responses, which has important implications for future intervention research. PMID:25007298

  9. Psychological Preparation for Paralympic Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Boris; Orbach, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes' personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes' disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented. PMID:26113552

  10. Inhalant Use Among Schoolchildren in Northeast India: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Akoijam, Brogen Singh; Jamir, M. Nukshisangla; Phesao, Ebenezer; Senjam, Gojendra Singh

    2013-01-01

    Inhalant use by children leads to poor performance in school and has been observed to precede substance use later in life. There is paucity of data on inhalant use among school children in India, particularly in the Northeast region of the country. We determined the prevalence and documented inhalant use characteristics among schoolchildren in the Northeast region of India. This cross sectional study was conducted in six states in the Northeast region of India. Schoolchildren between eighth and eleventh standards from the capital areas of the states were included in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Of the 4074 enrolled students, data from 3943 students who responded to the inhalant use question were analyzed. Mean age was 14.8 ± 1.2 years and 51.2% of participants were male. The proportion of students who had ever used inhalants (ever user) was 18.8% and adhesive/glue was the inhalant misused by most of the students. A higher proportion of males than females were ever users (P ≤ 0.001) and the most common place of use was at home (33.1%). Being in the presence of an older person using an inhalant or tobacco was found to be associated with use of inhalants among students. Nearly one-fifth of the students had used inhalants and nearly half used inhalants in the past month. Sensitization of the parents and school authorities to the problem, as well as preventive and curative services, should be considered. PMID:24250225

  11. A preliminary study in medical anthropology in Brunei, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Wolf, T D

    1978-01-01

    Nine rural village communities in the jungle of Brunei, Borneo were studied to ascertain possible effects of rapid social change on the health of the inhabitants. The social mores and religious beliefs of the rural tribes--Iban, Dusun, and Punan--have undergone but little change over many hundreds of years. During the past three decades, however, enormous social pressures for change have envolved from extraordinary economic prosperity of the region, due to the exploitation of large discoveries of oil and gas. Much of the money has been invested in health care, with the result that malaria, typhus and other tropical scourges have been virtually wiped out. Child and maternal mortality have been reduced to the standards of some of the healthiest countries in the world. The young of the formerly illiterate population are being rapidly educated in new schools scattered throughout the nation. New roads are penetrating the jungle and a thriving lumber industry has been established. Motor boats for the rivers, T.V. and even a national airline have been added. Despite these incursions a vigorous proseletizing by the Moslem and to a lesser extent by the Christian church, the villagers have held tenaciously to their ancient animistic beliefs. Living in long houses, they have also been able to maintain a tightly cohesive patriarchal family structure. Against this background there is as yet little or no evidence of the major diseases of Western society--coronary artery disease and hypertension, although most forms of cancer are commonly encountered. Brunei offers a splendid opportunity to test the putative relationship of chronic vascular disease to social structure and a way of life. Future studies may be made prospectively as the almost inevitable breakdown of old customs and patterns of living occurs in the face of rapid modernization. PMID:565915

  12. A Preliminary Study of Surface Temperature Cold Bias in COAMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H-N S; Leach, M J; Sugiyama, G A; Aluzzi, F J

    2001-04-27

    It is well recognized that the model predictability is more or less hampered by the imperfect representations of atmospheric state and model physics. Therefore, it is a common problem for any numerical models to exhibit some sorts of biases in the prediction. In this study, the emphasis is focused on the cold bias of surface temperature forecast in Naval Research Laboratory's three-dimensional mesoscale model, COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System). Based on the comparison with the ground station data, there were two types of ground temperature cold biases identified in LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) operational forecasts of COAMPS over the California and Nevada regions during the 1999 winter and the 2000 spring. The first type of cold bias appears at high elevation regions covered by snow, and its magnitude can be as large as 30 F - 40 F lower than observed. The second type of cold bias mainly exists in the snow-free clear-sky regions, where the surface temperature is above the freezing point, and its magnitude can be up to 5 F - 10 F lower than observed. These cold biases can affect the low-level stratification, and even the diurnal variation of winds in the mountain regions, and therefore impact the atmospheric dispersion forecast. The main objective of this study is to explore the causes of such cold bias, and to further the improvement of the forecast performance in COAMPS. A series of experiments are performed to gauge the sensitivity of the model forecast due to the physics changes and large-scale data with various horizontal and vertical resolutions.

  13. Preliminary studies on the treatment of wastewater from biomass gasification.

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Roksana; Chrubasik, Maciej; Stelmach, Sławomir; Sajdak, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents completed research on the purification of undiluted raw water and organic condensates obtained in biomass thermal conversion processes such as gasification, which are rarely addressed in published studies. However, similar studies involving the characterization and purification of aqueous solutions obtained from process gas treatment after the gasification of biomass are available. Condensation of water-organic condensate from process gas helps to reduce the amount of water required by the purification process and the cost of the process technology and water consumption. Oil scrubbers can be used in this case instead of water scrubbers. In this case, the obtained condensate must be subjected to purification processes. This paper presents the results of our research, possible methods of treatment (chemical and biological methods), and the approximate cost of the reagents required for the purification of condensate for specific assumed degrees of purification. The best results from the chemical purification using the Fenton method were obtained with the ratio V(H2O2)/V(cond.) = 6.0 and the ratio V(H2O2)/Fe = 0.0375. To prevent precipitation of ferric hydroxide, this value can be reduced 20-fold, which reduces the total degree of purification to 90%. The cost of almost complete cleaning of tested condensates was calculated to be approximately 2000 USD per/m(3). This cost can be reduced by a factor of approximately four assuming 100% cleaning for 2-furaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and phenol; acetaldehyde, propane-2-one (acetone), methanol and acetic acid are oxidized by 50%. PMID:26184898

  14. Studies on gonadotropin receptor of rat ovary and testis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.

    1989-01-01

    The subunit structure of the testicular LH/hCG receptor was studied by a chemical cross-linking technique. Leydig cells isolated from rat testis were incubated with {sup 125}I-hCG, following which the bound {sup 125}I-hCG was covalently cross-linked to the receptor on the cell surface with a cleavable or a non-cleavable cross-linking reagent. The hormone-receptor complex was extracted and then either subjected to gel permeation chromatography under nondenaturing conditions, or resolved by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by autoradiographic analysis. The ovarian LH/hCG receptor was studied with luteal cells from pseudopregnant rats. Purification of the receptor was achieved by ligand affinity chromatography following detergent solubilization of the plasma membrane. The purified hCG receptor displayed properties identical to the membrane bound receptor with regard to binding specificity and affinity, and exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 130,000 dalton.

  15. Posterior shoulder pain and anterior instability: a preliminary clinical study.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Alessandro; Conti, Marco; Borroni, Mario; Massazza, Giuseppe; Vinci, Enzo; Franceschi, Giorgio; Garofalo, Raffaele

    2008-02-01

    Different clinical tests have been suggested in the literature as significant indicators of anterior shoulder instability. Sometimes patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability may show some muscular guarding thus making the evaluation of specific clinical tests very difficult. These patients may also report a medical history with posterior shoulder pain that can be also elicited during some clinical manoeuvres. From September 2005 to September 2006 we prospectively studied patients who underwent an arthroscopic anterior capsuloplasty. Shoulder clinical examination was performed including anterior shoulder instability tests (drawer, apprehension and relocation tests). Furthermore the exam was focused on the presence of scapular dyskinesia and posterior shoulder pain. The patients were also evaluated with ASES, Rowe, SST (Simple Shoulder Test), Constant and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) scoring system preoperatively and at the latest follow-up time. In the period of this study we observed 16 patients treated for anterior gleno-humeral arthroscopic stabilisation, who preoperatively complained also of a posterior scapular pain. The pain was referred at the level of lower trapezium and upper rhomboids tendon insertion on the medial border of the scapula. It was also reproducible upon local palpation by the examiner. Four of these patients also referred pain in the region of the insertion of the infraspinatus and teres minor. After arthroscopic stabilisation the shoulder was immobilised in a sling with the arm in the neutral rotation for a period of 4 weeks. A single physician supervised shoulder rehabilitation. After a mean time of 6.8 months of follow-up, all the shoulder scores were significantly improved and, moreover, at the same time the patients referred the disappearance of the posterior pain. Posterior scapular shoulder pain seems to be another complaint and sign that can be found in patients affected by anterior shoulder instability

  16. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow reservoir

  17. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05-0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique. PMID:27125874

  18. A preliminary study on how hypohydration affects pain perception.

    PubMed

    Bear, Tracey; Philipp, Michael; Hill, Stephen; Mündel, Toby

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent health issue with one in five people suffering from some form of chronic pain, with loss of productivity and medical costs of chronic pain considerable. However, the treatment of pain can be difficult, as pain perception is complex and can be affected by factors other than tissue damage. This study investigated the effect of hypohydration (mild, voluntary dehydration from ∼24 h of limiting fluid intake, mimicking someone drinking less than usual) on a person's pain perception. Seventeen healthy males (age 27 ± 5 years) visited the laboratory on three occasions, once as a familiarization and then twice again while either euhydrated (urine specific gravity: 1.008 ± 0.005) or hypohydrated (urine specific gravity: 1.024 ± 0.003, and -1.4 ± 0.9% body mass). Each visit, they performed a cold pressor test, where their feet were placed in cold water (0-3°C) for a maximum of 4 min. Measures of hydration status, pain sensitivity, pain threshold, and catastrophization were taken. We found that hypohydration predicted increased pain sensitivity (β = 0.43), trait pain catastrophizing, and baseline pain sensitivity (β = 0.37 and 0.47, respectively). These results are consistent with previous research, and suggest that a person's hydration status may be an important factor in their perception of acute pain. PMID:26785699

  19. Preliminary study of pseudorandom binary sequence pulsing of ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, N. M.; Olsen, D. K.

    1980-03-01

    It has been suggested that pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) pulsing might enhance the performance of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) for neutron-induced, time-of-flight (TOF) cross-section measurements. In this technical memorandum, equations are developed for expected count rates, statistical variances, and backgrounds for a pulsing scheme in which a PRBS is superimposed on the periodic equalintensity ORELA bursts. Introduction of the PRBS modification permits neutrons of different energies originating from different bursts to reach the detector simultaneously, and the signal corresponding to a unique flight time to be extracted mathematically. Relative advantages and disadvantages of measurements from conventional and PRBS pulsing modes are discussed in terms of counting statistics and backgrounds. Computer models of TOF spectra are generated for both pulsing modes, using as examples a 20-meter /sup 233/U fission-chamber measurement and a 155-meter /sup 238/U sample-in transmission measurement. Detailed comparisons of PRBS vs conventional results are presented. This study indicates that although PRBS pulsing could enhance ORELA performance for selected measurements, for general ORELA operation the disadvantages from PRBS pulsing probably outweigh the advantages.

  20. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique. PMID:27125874

  1. Innovation and adaptation in a Turkish sample: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Oner, B

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the representations of adaptation and innovation among adults in Turkey. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a sample of 20 Turkish adults (10 men, 10 women) from various occupations. The participants' ages ranged from 21 to 58 years. Results of content analysis showed that the representation of innovation varied with the type of context. Innovation was not preferred within the family and interpersonal relationship contexts, whereas it was relatively more readily welcomed within the contexts of work, science, and technology. This finding may indicate that the concept of innovation that is assimilated in traditional Turkish culture has limits. Contents of the interviews were also analyzed with respect to M. J. Kirton's (1976) subscales of originality, efficiency, and rule-group conformity. The participants favored efficient innovators, whereas they thought that the risk of failure was high in cases of inefficient innovation. The reasons for and indications of the representations of innovativeness among Turkish people are discussed in relation to their social structure and cultural expectations. PMID:11092420

  2. Preliminary hydrochemical study of Ronda ultramafic massif (South Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, Iñaki; Urresti, Begoña; Jiménez, Pablo; Martos, Sergio; José Durán, Juan; Benavente, José; Carrasco, Francisco; Pedrera, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During 2015 more than 70 springs related to the peridotite outcrops of the Ronda mountainous massif, South Spain, have been identified. The field work included "in situ" measurements of physical-chemical parameters (T, EC, pH), and water sampling for major components and stable isotopes of water and DIC. The hydrogeochemical study allowed us to characterize different flow systems: (1) springs with very low to medium electrical conductivities (200-700 μS/cm) and pH below 9.0, and (2) springs with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH above 9.0. The first group of springs are supposed to be linked with surface and subsurface flows. The hydrogeochemical reactions that determine their composition are characterized by the low solubility of minerals, atmospheric CO2 (open system) and active serpentinization reactions that supplies hundreds of ppm of Mg2+. All of them are waters of HCO3-Mg or HCO3-Mg-Na type. The second group of springs drains water with EC above 700 μS/cm and pH over 9. In general, these springs are associated to deep flows connected to regional faults or major tectonic features. Deeper flow enhances water-rock interaction and time of contact, so this system evolves towards a closed system to O2 and CO2. All these waters are old or older than the first group and show reducing features and are of Na-Cl or OH-Ca type.

  3. Preliminary Study on Water Filled Tank Perforation by Rod Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xin-Ke; Guo, Zi-Tao; Mu, Zhong-Cheng; Zhang, Wei

    2009-06-01

    The effects of fluid structure interactions resulting from the impact of a fluid filled tank is of the interests for engineers from both the military and civilian field, where hydrodynamic-ram (HRAM) phenomena is well known. And it is believed HRAM is responsible for the vulnerability and the possible catastrophic failure of the whole tank. Thus HRAM is related to the majority concerns on this topic, where the targets were usually assumed to be thin. In order to investigate the influence of water on the crashworthiness of a tank with relatively thick walls, 3 ballistic shots on the water filled tank with two 3 mm 2A12 aluminum plates as front and back target and 4 shots on the tank without any water by 12.7 mm rods were conducted. The failure patterns were indentified from the tests and the difference in the failure mechanism was further studied by a series of detailed numerical simulations on the corresponding tests in hydro-code AUTODYN-2D by using both the coupled Lagrange-Euler technology and the SPH method. And also, the challenge of numerical simulation in this field is addressed.

  4. A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

  5. A preliminary seismic study of Taal Volcano, Luzon Island Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, S.-H.; Gung, Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Chang, T.-M.; Chang, E. T. Y.; Solidum, R.

    2013-03-01

    The very active Taal Volcano lies in the southern part of Luzon Island only 60 km from Manila, the capital of the Philippines. In March 2008 we deployed a temporary seismic network around Taal that consisted of 8 three-component short period seismometers. This network recorded during the period from March to November 2008 about 1050 local events. In the early data processing stages, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified for a number of stations. The drifting rates of each problematic station were determined and the errors were corrected before further processing. Initial location of each event was derived by manually picked P-/S-phases arrival times using HYPO71 and a general velocity model based on AK135. Since the velocity structure beneath Taal is essentially unknown, we used travel times of 338 well-located events in order to derive a minimum 1D velocity model using VELEST. The resulting locations show that most events occurred at the shallow depth beneath the Taal Volcano, and two major earthquake groups were noticed, with one lying underneath the western shore of Taal lake and the other one spread around the eastern flank of the Taal Volcano. Since there is no reported volcano activities during the operation period of our seismic array, we are still not confident to interpret these findings in terms of other natures of volcano at the current stage. However, our work represents an important pioneer step towards other more advanced seismic studies in Taal Volcano.

  6. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  7. Preliminary study of visual effect of multiplex hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huaiping; Xiong, Bingheng; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xueguo

    2004-06-01

    The process of any movement of real object can be recorded and displayed by a multiplex holographic stereogram. An embossing multiplex holographic stereogram and a multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram have been made by us, the multiplex rainbow holographic stereogram reconstructs the dynamic 2D line drawing of speech organs, the embossing multiplex holographic stereogram reconstructs the process of an old man drinking water. In this paper, we studied the visual result of an embossing multiplex holographic stereogram made with 80 films of 2-D pictures. Forty-eight persons of aged from 13 to 67 were asked to see the hologram and then to answer some questions about the feeling of viewing. The results indicate that this kind of holograms could be accepted by human visual sense organ without any problem. This paper also discusses visual effect of the multiplex holography stereograms base on visual perceptual psychology. It is open out that the planar multiplex holograms can be recorded and present the movement of real animal and object. Not only have the human visual perceptual constancy for shape, just as that size, color, etc... but also have visual perceptual constancy for binocular parallax.

  8. A preliminary study on drought events in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Nahrawi, Siti Aishah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Zahari, Marina

    2014-06-01

    In this research, the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to represent the dry condition in Peninsular Malaysia. To do this, data of monthly rainfall from 75 stations in Peninsular Malaysia is used to obtain the SPI values at scale one. From the SPI values, two drought characteristics that are commonly used to represent the dry condition in an area that is the duration and severity of a drought period are identified and their respective values calculated for every station. Spatial mappings are then used to identify areas which are more likely to be affected by longer and more severe drought condition from the results. As the two drought characteristics may be correlated with each other, the joint distribution of severity and duration of dry condition is considered. Bivariate copula model is used and five copula models were tested, namely, the Gumbel-Hougard, Clayton, Frank, Joe and Galambos copulas. The copula model, which best represents the relationship between severity and duration, is determined using Akaike information criterion. The results showed that the Joe and Clayton copulas are well-fitted by close to 60% of the stations under study. Based on the results on the most appropriate copula-based joint distribution for each station, some bivariate probabilistic properties of droughts can then be calculated, which will be continued in future research.

  9. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  10. NEOWISE STUDIES OF ASTEROIDS WITH SLOAN PHOTOMETRY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Hand, E.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; Tholen, D. J.; McMillan, R. S.; Maleszewski, C.; Wright, E.; Watkins, J.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Walker, R.

    2012-01-20

    We have combined the NEOWISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to study the albedos of 24,353 asteroids with candidate taxonomic classifications derived using Sloan photometry. We find a wide range of moderate to high albedos for candidate S-type asteroids that are analogous to the S complex defined by previous spectrophotometrically based taxonomic systems. The candidate C-type asteroids, while generally very dark, have a tail of higher albedos that overlaps the S types. The albedo distribution for asteroids with a photometrically derived Q classification is extremely similar to those of the S types. Asteroids with similar colors to (4) Vesta have higher albedos than the S types, and most have orbital elements similar to known Vesta family members. Finally, we show that the relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m is higher for D-type asteroids and suggest that their red visible and near-infrared spectral slope extends out to these wavelengths. Understanding the relationship between size, albedo, and taxonomic classification is complicated by the fact that the objects with classifications were selected from the visible/near-infrared Sloan Moving Object Catalog, which is biased against fainter asteroids, including those with lower albedos.

  11. Preliminary study of synergism of acid rain and diflubenzuron

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.J.S.; Clark, J.M.; Edman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Diflubenzuron{sup 1} (Dimilin{reg_sign}) was used on over 7 million acres in the U.S. in 1990 to control forest pests, particularly the gypsy moth. This chitin synthesis inhibitor affects insects and other anthropods. It is a restricted use pesticide due to its nontarget effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates. The effects of a single aerial application on nontarget aquatic macroinvertebrate communities were reviewed by Eisler (1992). Crustacea and immature insects (especially the true flies, mosquitoes, midges and black flies) are the most sensitive nontarget aquatic organisms to diflubenzuron. Diflubenzuron, N-[[4-(chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-difluorobenzamide, is not the only mortality factor aquatic organisms face from human pollution. Acid deposition is a frequent stress factor in freshwater habitats in the Northeast USA. Acidic pulses can drop vernal pools (e.g., temporary, springtime, snowmelt pools) to pH levels below 3.0. Aquatic invertebrates vary in their tolerance to acidification. Reduced pH completely eliminates some species. A combination of stress factors could lead to synergistic effects, over and above the impact seen with a single stressor. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are synergist effects of diflubenzuron and lowered pH on the mortality of a nontarget aquatic organism. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Preliminary Study of Advanced Turboprops for Low Energy Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.; Strack, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The fuel savings potential of advanced turboprops (operational about 1985) was calculated and compared with that of an advanced turbofan for use in an advanced subsonic transport. At the design point, altitude 10.67 km and Mach 0.80, turbine-inlet temperature was fixed at 1590 K while overall pressure ratio was varied from 25 to 50. The regenerative turboprop had a pressure ratio of only 10 and an 85 percent effective rotary heat exchanger. Variable camber propellers were used with an efficiency of 85 percent. The study indicated a fuel savings of 33 percent, a takeoff gross weight reduction of 15 percent, and a direct operating cost reduction of 18 percent was possible when turboprops were used instead of the reference turbofan at a range of 10 200 km. These reductions were 28, 11, and 14 percent, respectively, at a range of 5500 km. Increasing overall pressure ratio from 25 to 50 saved little fuel and slightly increased takeoff gross weight.

  13. Robotic consolle for ocular surgery: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Russo, Sheila; Menciassi, Arianna; Fortuna, Damiano

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has recently been improved by the use of robot-assisted procedures in several medical fields. Among the ocular surgeries there are a few examples of sophisticated vitreoretinal procedures, while robotic-assisted surgery of the anterior eye segment is still under study. In this paper we propose a new approach to the robotic assisted ocular surgery: a CO2 laser system is equipped with a micromanipulator and scanner, and it is proposed to induce photothermal effects for the removal of neoformations. A sensorized tool is connected to the patient eye and to the robotic arm. This tool is equipped with force and position sensors: by the use of the spatial information from the robotic console and from the patient it is possible to control the position of the target itself and to block it in the correct position for performing surgery. The system is provided by a feedback alarm that remove the block of the patient head in any moment. The optimized robotic consolle can be used in performing scleral cuts and in the treatment of pterigium or neoformations.

  14. Left nucleus accumbens atrophy in deficit schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Pietro; Dacquino, Claudia; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-08-30

    A question that remains to be answered is whether schizophrenia can be characterized by a single etiopathophysiology or whether separate sub-syndromes should be differentiated to define specific mechanisms for each sub-type. Individuals affected by the deficit subtype of schizophrenia (DSZ) display avolitional/amotivational features that respond poorly to conventional treatments. Characterizing DSZ from a neuroanatomical point of view may help clarify this issue and develop new treatment strategies. To determine if DSZ is associated with structural alterations in specific deep grey matter structures linked to its key clinical features, 22 DSZ patients, 22 non-deficit schizophrenia (NDSZ) patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for a case-control cross-sectional study. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all subjects and volumes of deep grey matter structures were measured using FreeSurfer. DSZ patients displayed smaller left accumbens volumes compared to both NDSZ patients and HC. Moreover, age and duration of illness were significantly associated with lower volume of the left accumbens in DSZ but not in NDSZ. Findings indicate that DSZ is associated with lower volume of the nucleus accumbens in the dominant hemisphere. This is consistent with the psychopathological features and functional impairments present in DSZ and thus indicates a potential mechanism. PMID:27322868

  15. Magnetic field studies at jupiter by voyager 2: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Lepping, R P; Burlaga, L F; Behannon, K W; Neubauer, F M

    1979-11-23

    Data from the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 2 have yielded on inbound trajectory observations of multiple crossings of the bow shock and magnetosphere near the Jupiter-sun line at radial distances of 99 to 66 Jupiter radii (RJ) and 72 to 62 RJ, respectively. While outbound at a local hour angle of 0300, these distances increase appreciably so that at the time of writing only the magnetopause has been observed between 160 and 185 RJ. These results and the magnetic field geometry confirm the earlier conclusion from Voyager I studies that Jupiter has an enormous magnetic tail, approximately 300 to 400 RJ in diameter, trailing behind the planet with respect to the supersonic flow of the solar wind. Addi- tional observations of the distortion of the inner magnetosphere by a concentrated plasma show a spatial merging of the equatorial magnetodisk current with the cur- rent sheet in the magnetic tail. The spacecraft passed within 62,000 kilometers of Ganymede (radius = 2,635 kilometers) and observed characteristic fluctuations in- terpreted tentatively as being due to disturbances arising from the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Ganymede. PMID:17733916

  16. A Preliminary Neuroimaging Study of Preschool Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    E.M., Mahone; D., Crocetti; M.E., Ranta; A., Gaddis; M., Cataldo; K.J., Slifer; M.B., Denckla; S.H., Mostofsky

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder which, by current definition, has onset prior to age 7 years. MRI studies have provided some insight into brain differences associated with ADHD, but thus far have almost exclusively focused on children ages 7 years and older. To better understand the neurobiological development of ADHD, cortical and subcortical brain development should be systematically examined in younger children presenting with symptoms of the disorder. High resolution anatomical (MPRAGE) images, acquired on a 3.0T scanner, were analyzed in a total of 26 preschoolers, ages 4–5 years (13 with ADHD, 13 controls, matched on age and sex). The ADHD sample was diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria, and screened for language disorders. Cortical regions were delineated and measured using automated methods in Freesurfer; basal ganglia structures were manually delineated. Children with ADHD showed significantly reduced caudate volumes bilaterally; in contrast, there were no significant group differences in cortical volume or thickness in this age range. After controlling for age and total cerebral volume, left caudate volume was a significant predictor of hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive symptom severity. Anomalous basal ganglia, particularly caudate, development appears to play an important role among children presenting with early onset symptoms of ADHD. PMID:21660881

  17. Experimental study of the subtalar joint axis: preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zographos, S; Chaminade, B; Hobatho, M C; Utheza, G

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study of the subtalar joint has been conducted with the aim of establishing its axis of movement as well as analysing the associated movement. For description of the axis, CT data for five positions of a single foot were reconstructed using a 3D programme, the 3D data was processed by Patran software. Measures of angular displacements were made from three amputated feet placed in a specially constructed foot frame. Four instantaneous axes of movement could be defined. Calculation of displacements showed an important rolling of the calcaneus (45 degrees). Tacking was evident in inversion, with an opposite displacement between the front and rear part of the calcaneus, whereas during eversion tacking affected only the rear part of the bone: these results were confirmed by 3D reconstructions. Henke's axis was described as that for the talonavicular joint, but acceptable for the subtalar joint. Several authors investigating the coordinates of this axis have reported large differences and described screw-like movements, the latter being incompatible with a fixed axis: instantaneous axes, however are compatible with a screw-like movement. The subtalar joint appears to work as a pivot joint during inversion and as a plane joint during eversion. Although Henke's axis has pedagogical value the subtalar joint has a series of instantaneous axes. PMID:11236321

  18. A preliminary study of CO2 sequestration of cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Lee, H.; Hwang, J.; Oh, J.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, CO2 capture and storage technologies to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere have been extensively studied because global warming is a worldwide issue. Waste cement is a potential raw material for mineral carbonation. In general, carbonation refers a calcite forming reaction in hydrated cement. The carbonation of portlandite in hydrated cement is very straightforward. However, the carbonation of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate: CaO-SiO2-H2O) composing the largest portion of hydrated cement involved in complex reactions and is a key to increase the carbonation efficiency of waste cement. The present study was conducted to have basic information for utilizing waste cement as a raw material for CO2 sequestration. Cement paste was made with W:C= 6:4 and stored for 28 days in water bath. The prepared cement paste was pulverized, and fine grains sizing less than 0.15mm was used for experiment. For the direct aqueous carbonation experiment, 15g of sample is reacted with 200 ml of 1M NaHCO3 in 500ml HDPE bottle. 1M NaCl and 0.25 M MgCl2 was used for additives after leaching test with 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5M NaCl and MgCl2 solutions, and the carbonation efficiency of these additives was evaluated. After reaction, the reacted cement paste and supernatant solution were separated from centrifuging at 5000rpm. The reacted cement paste was analyzed with XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM/EDS. The supernatant solution was filtered with 0.45um membrane filter, and nitric acid was added to lower 2 for preventing calcite precipitation. Then, chemical composition of solution was analyzed with ICP-OES. The leaching of Ca ion is increased with increasing NaCl concentration and is maximized at 1M solution. Extremely small leaching of Si ion indicates that NaCl feebly affect on the carbonation of CSH. The leaching of Ca ion in MgCl2 solution is 10 times greater than in NaCl solution and is maximized at 0.5M solution. The increased Ca leaching is probably caused by the decalcification of

  19. Preliminary fsLIBS study on bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Gill, Ruby K; Smith, Zachary J; Panchal, Ripul R; Bishop, John W; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) to discriminate between normal and cancerous bone, with implications to femtosecond laser surgery procedures. The main advantage of using femtosecond lasers for surgery is that the same laser that is being used to ablate can also be used for a feedback system to prevent ablation of certain tissues. For bone tumor removal, this technique has the potential to reduce the number of repeat surgeries that currently must be performed due to incomplete removal of the tumor mass. In this paper, we performed fsLIBS on primary bone tumor, secondary tumor in bone, and normal bone. These tissues were excised from consenting patients and processed through the UC Davis Cancer Center Biorepository. For comparison, each tumor sample had a matched normal bone sample. fsLIBS was performed to characterize the spectral signatures of each tissue type. A minimum of 20 spectra were acquired for each sample. We did not detect significant differences between the fsLIBS spectra of secondary bone tumors and their matched normal bone samples, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of secondary bone tumors, with normal and cancerous tissue intermingling. However, we did observe an increase in the fsLIBS magnesium peak intensity relative to the calcium peak intensity for the primary bone tumor samples compared to the normal bone samples. These results show the potential of using femtosecond lasers for both ablation and a real-time feedback control system for treatment of primary bone tumors. PMID:26713199

  20. Directional reflectance analysis for identifying counterfeit drugs: Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Koprowski, Robert; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2016-05-30

    The WHO estimates that up to 10% of drugs on the market may be counterfeit. In order to prevent intensification of the phenomenon of drug counterfeiting, the methods for distinguishing genuine medicines from fake ones need to be developed. The aim of this study was to try to develop simple, reproducible and inexpensive method for distinguishing between original and counterfeit medicines based on the measurement of directional reflectance. The directional reflectance of 6 original Viagra(®) tablets (Pfizer) and 24 (4 different batches) counterfeit tablets (imitating Viagra(®)) was examined in six spectral bands: from 0.9 to 1.1 μm, from 1.9 to 2.6 μm, from 3.0 to 4.0 μm, from 3.0 to 5.0 μm, from 4.0 to 5.0 μm, from 8.0 to 12.0 μm, and for two angles of incidence, 20° and 60°. Directional hemispherical reflectometer was applied to measure directional reflectance. Significant statistical differences between the directional reflectance of the original Viagra(®) and counterfeit tablets were registered. Any difference in the value of directional reflectance for any spectral band or angle of incidence identifies the drug as a fake one. The proposed method of directional reflectance analysis enables to differentiate between the real Viagra(®) and fake tablets. Directional reflectance analysis is a fast (measurement time under 5s), cheap and reproducible method which does not require expensive equipment or specialized laboratory staff. It also seems to be an effective method, however, the effectiveness will be assessed after the extension of research. PMID:26977587

  1. NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; McMillan, R. S.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E.; Watkins, J.; Mo, W.; Maleszewski, C.

    2011-11-01

    The NEOWISE data set offers the opportunity to study the variations in albedo for asteroid classification schemes based on visible and near-infrared observations for a large sample of minor planets. We have determined the albedos for nearly 1900 asteroids classified by the Tholen, Bus, and Bus-DeMeo taxonomic classification schemes. We find that the S-complex spans a broad range of bright albedos, partially overlapping the low albedo C-complex at small sizes. As expected, the X-complex covers a wide range of albedos. The multiwavelength infrared coverage provided by NEOWISE allows determination of the reflectivity at 3.4 and 4.6 μm relative to the visible albedo. The direct computation of the reflectivity at 3.4 and 4.6 μm enables a new means of comparing the various taxonomic classes. Although C, B, D, and T asteroids all have similarly low visible albedos, the D and T types can be distinguished from the C and B types by examining their relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 μm. All of the albedo distributions are strongly affected by selection biases against small, low albedo objects, as all objects selected for taxonomic classification were chosen according to their visible light brightness. Due to these strong selection biases, we are unable to determine whether or not there are correlations between size, albedo, and space weathering. We argue that the current set of classified asteroids makes any such correlations difficult to verify. A sample of taxonomically classified asteroids drawn without significant albedo bias is needed in order to perform such an analysis.

  2. Optical Quality and Related Factors in Ocular Hypertension: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-jing; Yang, Yan-ning; Huang, Lin-ying; Wang, Bo; Han, Yu-can; Yan, Jiang-bo

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the optical quality and related factors in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods. This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 12 eyes with OHT and 20 control eyes underwent testing with Optical Quality Analysis System II (OQAS II) to evaluate the modulation transfer function cut off frequency (MTF cutoff), the Strehl 2D ratio (SR), objective scatter index (OSI), tear-film mean OSI (TFOSI), and the OQAS values (OV100%,OV20%, and OV9%). Results. The optical quality of patients with OHT declined, with lower MTF cutoff (OHT 36.86 ± 7.11 cpd , controls 48.50 ± 4.04 cpd, t = −4.60, P < 0.05), lower SR (OHT 0.22 ± 0.04, controls 0.27 ± 0.05, t = −2.72, P < 0.05), lower OV100% (OHT 1.26 ± 0.25, controls 1.61 ± 0.14, t = −4.03, P < 0.05), lower OV20% (OHT 1.27 ± 0.27, controls 1.72 ± 0.20, t = −4.00, P < 0.05), and lower OV9% (OHT 1.30 ± 0.25, controls 1.69 ± 0.32, t = −2.28, P < 0.05). There were not any statistically significant differences in OSI and TFOSI. The MTF cutoff in patients with OHT was correlated significantly with age (r = −0.59, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Optical quality of patients with OHT is reduced, with lower MTF cutoff, SR, OV100%, OV20%, and OV9%. MTF cutoff is negatively related to age. PMID:27293874

  3. Characterizing human retinotopic mapping with conformal geometry: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Duyan; Shi, Jie; Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Yalin

    2014-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to measure the retinotopic organization of early visual cortex in the human brain. Previous studies have identified multiple visual field maps (VFMs) based on statistical analysis of fMRI signals, but the resulting geometry has not been fully characterized with mathematical models. Here we test whether VFMs V1 and V2 obey the least restrictive of all geometric mappings; that is, whether they are anglepreserving and therefore maintain conformal mapping. We measured retinotopic organization in individual subjects using standard traveling-wave fMRI methods. Visual stimuli consisted of black and white, drifting checkerboards comprising rotating wedges and expanding rings to measure the cortical representations of polar angle and eccentricity, respectively. These representations were then projected onto a 3D cortical mesh of each hemisphere. By generating a mapped unit disk that is conformal of the VFMs using spherical stereographic projection and computing the parameterized coordinates of the eccentricity and polar angle gradients, we computed Beltrami coefficients to check whether the mapping from the visual field to the V1 and V2 cortical representations is conformal. We find that V1 and V2 exhibit local conformality. Our analysis of the Beltrami coefficient shows that selected regions of V1 and V2 that contain reasonably smooth eccentricity and polar angle gradients do show significant local conformality, warranting further investigation of this approach for analysis of early and higher visual cortex. These results suggest that such a mathematical model can be used to characterize the early VFMs in human visual cortex.

  4. Preliminary fsLIBS study on bone tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ruby K.; Smith, Zachary J.; Panchal, Ripul R.; Bishop, John W.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) to discriminate between normal and cancerous bone, with implications to femtosecond laser surgery procedures. The main advantage of using femtosecond lasers for surgery is that the same laser that is being used to ablate can also be used for a feedback system to prevent ablation of certain tissues. For bone tumor removal, this technique has the potential to reduce the number of repeat surgeries that currently must be performed due to incomplete removal of the tumor mass. In this paper, we performed fsLIBS on primary bone tumor, secondary tumor in bone, and normal bone. These tissues were excised from consenting patients and processed through the UC Davis Cancer Center Biorepository. For comparison, each tumor sample had a matched normal bone sample. fsLIBS was performed to characterize the spectral signatures of each tissue type. A minimum of 20 spectra were acquired for each sample. We did not detect significant differences between the fsLIBS spectra of secondary bone tumors and their matched normal bone samples, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of secondary bone tumors, with normal and cancerous tissue intermingling. However, we did observe an increase in the fsLIBS magnesium peak intensity relative to the calcium peak intensity for the primary bone tumor samples compared to the normal bone samples. These results show the potential of using femtosecond lasers for both ablation and a real-time feedback control system for treatment of primary bone tumors. PMID:26713199

  5. NEOWISE STUDIES OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRICALLY CLASSIFIED ASTEROIDS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; Tholen, D.; McMillan, R. S.; Maleszewski, C.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E.; Watkins, J.

    2011-11-10

    The NEOWISE data set offers the opportunity to study the variations in albedo for asteroid classification schemes based on visible and near-infrared observations for a large sample of minor planets. We have determined the albedos for nearly 1900 asteroids classified by the Tholen, Bus, and Bus-DeMeo taxonomic classification schemes. We find that the S-complex spans a broad range of bright albedos, partially overlapping the low albedo C-complex at small sizes. As expected, the X-complex covers a wide range of albedos. The multiwavelength infrared coverage provided by NEOWISE allows determination of the reflectivity at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m relative to the visible albedo. The direct computation of the reflectivity at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m enables a new means of comparing the various taxonomic classes. Although C, B, D, and T asteroids all have similarly low visible albedos, the D and T types can be distinguished from the C and B types by examining their relative reflectance at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m. All of the albedo distributions are strongly affected by selection biases against small, low albedo objects, as all objects selected for taxonomic classification were chosen according to their visible light brightness. Due to these strong selection biases, we are unable to determine whether or not there are correlations between size, albedo, and space weathering. We argue that the current set of classified asteroids makes any such correlations difficult to verify. A sample of taxonomically classified asteroids drawn without significant albedo bias is needed in order to perform such an analysis.

  6. Preliminary noise tradeoff study of a Mach 2.7 cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.; Maglieri, D. J. (Editor); Raney, J. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    NASA computer codes in the areas of preliminary sizing and enroute performance, takeoff and landing performance, aircraft noise prediction, and economics were used in a preliminary noise tradeoff study for a Mach 2.7 design supersonic cruise concept. Aerodynamic configuration data were based on wind-tunnel model tests and related analyses. Aircraft structural characteristics and weight were based on advanced structural design methodologies, assuming conventional titanium technology. The most advanced noise prediction techniques available were used, and aircraft operating costs were estimated using accepted industry methods. The 4-engines cycles included in the study were based on assumed 1985 technology levels. Propulsion data was provided by aircraft manufacturers. Additional empirical data is needed to define both noise reduction features and other operating characteristics of all engine cycles under study. Data on VCE design parameters, coannular nozzle inverted flow noise reduction and advanced mechanical suppressors are urgently needed to reduce the present uncertainties in studies of this type.

  7. Experimental CO2 laser myringotomy: a preliminary animal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, Hannu J.; Poe, Dennis S.; Perrault, Donald F., Jr.; Lombardo, Igino; Pankratov, Michail M.; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1995-05-01

    Myringotomy--a procedure in which a perforation is made in the tympanic membrane (TM) is performed to gain access to the middle ear for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. Some medical conditions, especially middle ear infections require an opening that remains patent for weeks or even months. A conventional myringotomy usually closes in a few days which is insufficient time for an underlying disease to resolve. There have been studies reporting modest closure delays of myringotomies done by CO2 laser from the beginning of 1980's and the procedure has not gained popularity in clinical practice. Many of the mechanisms affecting TM healing delays remain unknown. In an animal model we investigated the closure rates of TM perforations after different types of myringotomies. The animals formed three experimental groups: (1) both ears had a semicircular myringotomy produced either with a knife or with a CO2 laser; (2) both ears had a round laser myringotomy (1.2 mm in diameter) produced either in a single shot or by a series of small overlapping shots; (3) both ears had laser myringotomy either kidney shaped (1.2 X 2 mm) or round (1.2 mm in diameter) produced by a series of small shots. All myringotomies closed within 42 days without complications. The mean patency of knife myringotomies was significantly shorter (9.8 days) than that of similar laser myringotomies (19.5 days). The mode of laser delivery did not have an effect on the closure rate. Kidney shaped CO2 laser myringotomies stayed patent significantly longer (mean 25.8 days) than circular (mean 11.4 days). The patency of smaller semicircular laser myringotomies was significantly longer than that of larger circular. The results indicate that certain geometries as well as use of the CO2 laser delays the closure of myringotomy. When myringotomy is performed for therapeutic reasons not only the size but also the shape should be considered as a factor for extending its length of patency. In the future CO2 laser may

  8. A Preliminary Cost Study of the Dual Mode Inverter Controller

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.

    2005-01-28

    }, L{sub slot}, and L{sub endturns}. PM motors inherently have a lower inductance because of the increase in effective air gap caused by the magnet, which is in the denominator of the equation for L{sub gap}. L{sub gap} accounts for about half of the phase inductance. Because of the low inductance, there is a propensity for currents to exceed the motor's rated value. DMIC solves this problem for low-inductance PM motors and, in addition, provides a number of safety features that protect against uncontrolled generator mode operation [8,9]; however, the DMIC topology adds a pair of anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three phases, thereby introducing additional silicon costs as well as additional voltage drops during operation. It poses the tradeoff question; under what conditions can the beneficial features of DMIC offset its additional silicon cost and voltage drop losses? The purpose of this report is to address the tradeoff question. Sections of the report will: (1) review the role of self-inductance in performance and control of PM motors, (2) discuss the bounding inductances for motors with trapezoidal back-emfs under CPA control, (3) discuss the bounding inductances for trapezoidal back-emfs under DMIC, (4) discuss the bounding inductances for the PM synchronous motor (PMSM), (5) present the analysis showing how DMIC minimizes current in PMSMs, (6) present the results of a cost study conducted for two motors driven using a CPA inverter and for two motors driven using DMIC, (7) discuss estimating life cycle cost benefits, and (8) present conclusions.

  9. Preliminary study of a wing-tip vortex using laser velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, R. K.; Mcalister, K. W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements have been made in the wake of a semi-span NACA 0015 airfoil with emphasis on the region of the wing tip vortex. The spanwise and streamwise velocity components were measured using a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The purpose of the study was to initiate the operation of a laser velocimeter system and to perform preliminary wake measurements in preparation for a more extensive study of the structure and near field development of a tip vortex.

  10. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  11. Wing design for a civil tiltrotor transport aircraft: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the design of the wing-box structure for a civil tiltrotor transport aircraft. The wing structural weight is to be minimized subject to structural and aeroelastic constraints. The composite wing-box structure is composed of skin, stringers, ribs, and spars. The design variables include skin ply thicknesses and orientations and spar cap and stringer cross-sectional areas. With the total task defined, an initial study was conducted to learn more about the intricate dynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of the tiltrotor aircraft and their roles in the wing design. Also, some work was done on the wing finite-element modeling (via PATRAN) which would be used in structural analysis and optimization. Initial studies indicate that in order to limit the wing/rotor aeroelastic and dynamic interactions in the preliminary design, the cruise speed, rotor system, and wing geometric attributes must all be held fixed.

  12. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  13. Manual Lymph Drainage Attenuates Frontal EEG Asymmetry in Subjects with Psychological Stress: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jung-Myo; Kim, Sung-Joong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of manual lymph drainage (MLD) of the neck on frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry in subjects with psychological stress. [Subjects] Thirteen subjects with psychological stress participated in the study. [Methods] Subjects received MLD of the neck for 15 min. [Results] Analysis of the frontal asymmetry index showed that the energy shift in the alpha frequency band from the left hemisphere to the right hemisphere after MLD resulted in greater left-side activation (positive asymmetry values), which could be related to the positive emotional state observed particularly in the F7–F8 area. [Conclusion] These preliminary findings suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated after MLD. PMID:24764627

  14. Rayleigh to Compton ratio scatter tomography applied to breast cancer diagnosis: A preliminary computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A. L. C.; Poletti, M. E.

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, a tomographic technique based on Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) was studied using computational simulation in order to assess its application to breast cancer diagnosis. In this preliminary study, some parameters that affect the image quality were evaluated, such as: (i) energy beam, (ii) size and glandularity of the breast, and (iii) statistical count noise. The results showed that the R/C contrast increases with increasing photon energy and decreases with increasing glandularity of the sample. The statistical noise showed to be a significant parameter, although the quality of the obtained images was acceptable for a considerable range of noise level. The preliminary results suggest that the R/C tomographic technique has a potential of being applied as a complementary tool in the breast cancer diagnostic.

  15. Studies of different female rat models of hypothalamic obesity.

    PubMed

    Elfers, Clinton; Ralston, Melissa; Roth, Christian L

    2011-01-01

    Hypothalamic obesity (HO) is a major and unsolved problem in patients with medial hypothalamic lesions and is associated with hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia. The purpose of this study was to create a rodent model that mimics metabolic changes in HO for use in therapeutic testing. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to test the individual and combined effects of two types of medial hypothalamic lesions: arcuate nucleus (ARC) lesions by injection of monosodium glutamate at neonatal age, and ventromedial nucleus (VMN) lesions by passing an anodal current through an electrode placed in the VMN at age 80 days. Adiposity in ARC-lesioned animals was associated with decreased food intake and stunted growth, while VMN lesions were associated with hyperphagia but not reduced growth. The greatest weight gain (weight at age 200 days 712 +/- 65 vs. 451 +/- 19 g in controls), hyperphagia (food intake 10 days following surgery 33 +/- 0.8 vs. 18.5 +/- 0.7 g/day in sham-treated rats), hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia occurred in rats that received both ARC and VMN lesions. Thus, the combined medial hypothalamic lesions result in an obesity phenotype similar to that of patients that suffer from HO and are consequently more suitable for testing potential therapeutics for this disorder than lesions of single hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:21648279

  16. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Elshama, Said Said; El-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose. PMID:26941796

  17. Histopathological Study of Cyclosporine Pulmonary Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elshama, Said Said; EL-Kenawy, Ayman El-Meghawry; Osman, Hosam-Eldin Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Cyclosporine is considered one of the common worldwide immunosuppressive drugs that are used for allograft rejection prevention. However, articles that address adverse effects of cyclosporine use on the vital organs such as lung are still few. This study aims to investigate pulmonary toxic effect of cyclosporine in rats by assessment of pulmonary histopathological changes using light and electron microscope examination. Sixty male adult albino rats were divided into three groups; each group consists of twenty rats. The first received physiological saline while the second and third groups received 25 and 40 mg/kg/day of cyclosporine, respectively, by gastric gavage for forty-five days. Cyclosporine reduced the lung and body weight with shrinkage or pyknotic nucleus of pneumocyte type II, degeneration of alveoli and interalveolar septum beside microvilli on the alveolar surface, emphysema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, pulmonary blood vessels congestion, and increase of fibrous tissues in the interstitial tissues and around alveoli with negative Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Prolonged use of cyclosporine induced pulmonary ultrastructural and histopathological changes with the lung and body weight reduction depending on its dose. PMID:26941796

  18. 13-week oral toxicity study of vinyl laurate in rats.

    PubMed

    Lina, Ben A R; Messinger, Horst; Bär, Albert

    2015-02-01

    Vinyl laurate (VL) is used as a monomer in the production of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer, a component of chewing gum base. The safety of VL was examined in a 13-week oral toxicity study in Wistar rats. VL was administered in corn coil by daily gavage (5 ml/kg bw/d) to four main groups (10 rats/sex) at doses of 0 (vehicle only), 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. The control and high-dose group comprised an additional 5 rats/sex which were kept untreated for a further 4 weeks until sacrifice (recovery groups). In addition to standard parameters, male and female fertility parameters were determined as well. There were no mortalities and treatment-related clinical signs. Neurobehavioral observations and motor activity assessment, ophthalmoscopic examinations, body weights, feed and water intakes, blood cell counts, coagulation time, standard clinical chemical parameters and urinalyses, absolute and relative organ weights at the end of the treatment as well as macroscopic examination at necropsy and microscopic examination of standard organs and tissues did not show any treatment-related changes. Female and male fertility parameters (estrus cyclicity, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, sperm motility and morphology) were not affected by the treatment. Accordingly, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for VL was determined to be 1000 mg/kg bw/d, i.e. the highest dose level tested. PMID:25445296

  19. Early walking in the neonatal rat: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Jamon, M; Clarac, F

    1998-10-01

    The development of the early stage of locomotion (between Postnatal Days 3 and 10) was studied in newborn rats. At this age, rats are known to perform limited locomotor activities, consisting of an inefficient nonpostural gait termed crawling. By providing appropriate olfactory stimulation, it was possible to override the pups' reluctance to walk and to discover their actual locomotor abilities. The step period decreased from 1,200 ms to 900 ms from Postnatal Days 4 to 9, showing both a regular decrease in the swing and a discontinuous decrease in the stance phase. The fore- and hindlimb periods stabilized early on an alternate pattern of coupling. The ipsilateral coupling shifted progressively from 220 degrees to 260 degrees in relation with the change in the gait pattern. In parallel with the change in timing, the newborn rats showed gradual changes in the foot position and in the interlimb spatial coordination. These results show that quadruped locomotion develops before postural control is acquired, in a continuous process as the nervous system develops. PMID:9829799

  20. Expression studies of neuronatin in prenatal and postnatal rat pituitary.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Naoko; Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Yako, Hideji; Chen, Mo; Ueharu, Hiroki; Nishimura, Naoto; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    The pituitary gland, an indispensable endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes pituitary hormones, develops with the support of many factors. Among them, neuronatin (NNAT), which was discovered in the neonatal mouse brain as a factor involved in neural development, has subsequently been revealed to be coded by an abundantly expressing gene in the pituitary gland but its role remains elusive. We analyze the expression profile of Nnat and the localization of its product during rat pituitary development. The level of Nnat expression was high during the embryonic period but remarkably decreased after birth. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that NNAT appeared in the SOX2-positive stem/progenitor cells in the developing pituitary primordium on rat embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) and later in the majority of SOX2/PROP1 double-positive cells on E13.5. Thereafter, during pituitary embryonic development, Nnat expression was observed in some stem/progenitor cells, proliferating cells and terminally differentiating cells. In postnatal pituitaries, NNAT-positive cells decreased in number, with most coexpressing Sox2 or Pit1, suggesting a similar role for NNAT to that during the embryonic period. NNAT was widely localized in mitochondria, peroxisomes and lysosomes, in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum but not in the Golgi. The present study thus demonstrated the variability in expression of NNAT-positive cells in rat embryonic and postnatal pituitaries and the intracellular localization of NNAT. Further investigations to obtain functional evidence for NNAT are a prerequisite. PMID:26613603

  1. Preliminary toxicology study of 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The calculated acute oral LD 30/50 (lethal dose for 50% of the animals occurring within 30 days after compound administration) value for 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DATZ) was 863 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, DATZ would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for rats. The calculated acute oral LD {sub 30/50} value was 2,288 mg/kg in mice and would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for mice. Skin application studies using rabbits demonstrated DATZ to be a nonirritant. The eye study using rabbits disclosed DATZ to be a very mild irritant. The sensitization study using guinea pigs did not show DATZ to have potential sensitizing properties.

  2. Preliminary toxicology study of 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The calculated acute oral LD 30/50 (lethal dose for 50% of the animals occurring within 30 days after compound administration) value for 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DATZ) was 863 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, DATZ would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for rats. The calculated acute oral LD [sub 30/50] value was 2,288 mg/kg in mice and would be considered slightly to moderately toxic for mice. Skin application studies using rabbits demonstrated DATZ to be a nonirritant. The eye study using rabbits disclosed DATZ to be a very mild irritant. The sensitization study using guinea pigs did not show DATZ to have potential sensitizing properties.

  3. Some studies on spontaneous Hymenolepis diminuta infection in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Azza K; Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Kamal, Amany M

    2015-04-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a tapeworm that occurs worldwide. It is known to be found commonly in areas where large amounts of food grains or other dry feed products, which are the favorite foods for rats. Transmission of disease to human is uncommon; however, it may be a serious threat for population who are living in rural areas which are suffering from excessive rodents. Here, this study had done on spontaneous H. diminuta infection in laboratory rats as a model. Out of thirty five adult laboratory rats investigated for parasitic diseases only nine (25.71%) were diagnosed positive for spontaneous H. diminuta infection. Four of them (44.44%) were found losing of weight and lacking of motility, while the others were normal. On microscopic examination, H. diminuta eggs had been found in their stool. On autopsy, small intestines were found to contain from 5-6 multi-segmented tapeworms in each rat. Histopathologically, intestinal lumen showed varying sections of H. diminuta segments with serrated borders. H. diminuta infection caused multiple mucosal ulcers with absence of intestinal villi from the surface epithelium and excessive mucin. Moreover, inflammatory cells infiltration in the connective tissue core of the villi. Furthermore, the Toluidine blue stain showed that there are Mastiocytosis. Additionally, there were goblet cells hyperplasia on using PAS. Moreover, there were high expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible Nitric-Oxide Synthase (iNOs). This implicate, strong correlation between COX-2, TNF-α and iNOs expression and inflammation induced by H. diminuta. PMID:26012226

  4. Stereological study of the diabetic heart of male rats

    PubMed Central

    Noorafshan, Ali; Khazraei, Hajar; Mirkhani, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantitatively compare the normal and diabetic hearts of rats using stereological methods. Diabetic and control rats received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and no treatments, respectively. On the 56th day, the hearts were removed and their total volume was estimated using isotropic Cavalieri method. The total volume of the connective tissues and vessels, total length and diameter of the vessels, total number of cardiomyocytes nuclei, and the mean volume of the cardiomyocytes were estimated, as well. In comparison to the control animals, 60 and 43% increase was observed in the total volume of the connective tissue and microvessels of the diabetic rats, respectively (P<0.05). The percent of the vessel profiles with the diameter of 2-4 µm was decreased, while the percent of the vessel profiles with the diameter of 4.1-8 µm was increased in the diabetic hearts (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the vessels with more than 8 µm diameters. The total number of the cardiomyocytes' nuclei and the number-weighted mean volume were respectively decreased by 37 and 64% in the diabetic group (P<0.01). A significant difference was observed between the two groups concerning the left ventricle volume to body weight ratio as an index for ventricular hypertrophy (P<0.05), while no difference was found regarding the right ventricle to body weight ratio. It can be concluded that diabetes can induce structural changes, including loss and/or atrophy of the cardiomyocytes, accompanied with increase in the connective tissue in the rats' hearts. PMID:23573103

  5. Stereological study of the diabetic heart of male rats.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, Ali; Khazraei, Hajar; Mirkhani, Hossein; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to quantitatively compare the normal and diabetic hearts of rats using stereological methods. Diabetic and control rats received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and no treatments, respectively. On the 56(th) day, the hearts were removed and their total volume was estimated using isotropic Cavalieri method. The total volume of the connective tissues and vessels, total length and diameter of the vessels, total number of cardiomyocytes nuclei, and the mean volume of the cardiomyocytes were estimated, as well. In comparison to the control animals, 60 and 43% increase was observed in the total volume of the connective tissue and microvessels of the diabetic rats, respectively (P<0.05). The percent of the vessel profiles with the diameter of 2-4 µm was decreased, while the percent of the vessel profiles with the diameter of 4.1-8 µm was increased in the diabetic hearts (P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the vessels with more than 8 µm diameters. The total number of the cardiomyocytes' nuclei and the number-weighted mean volume were respectively decreased by 37 and 64% in the diabetic group (P<0.01). A significant difference was observed between the two groups concerning the left ventricle volume to body weight ratio as an index for ventricular hypertrophy (P<0.05), while no difference was found regarding the right ventricle to body weight ratio. It can be concluded that diabetes can induce structural changes, including loss and/or atrophy of the cardiomyocytes, accompanied with increase in the connective tissue in the rats' hearts. PMID:23573103

  6. A novel method to study cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karimy, Jason K.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Kurland, David B.; Yu, Edward; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics play critical roles in both the immature and adult brain, with implications for neurodevelopment and disease processes such as hydrocephalus and neurodegeneration. Remarkably, the only reported method to date for measuring CSF formation in laboratory rats is the indirect tracer dilution method (a.k.a., ventriculocisternal perfusion), which has limitations. New Method Anesthetized rats were mounted in a stereotaxic apparatus, both lateral ventricles were cannulated, and the Sylvian aqueduct was occluded. Fluid exited one ventricle at a rate equal to the rate of CSF formation plus the rate of infusion (if any) into the contralateral ventricle. Pharmacological agents infused at a constant known rate into the contralateral ventricle were tested for their effect on CSF formation in real-time. Results The measured rate of CSF formation was increased by blockade of the Sylvian aqueduct but was not changed by increasing the outflow pressure (0–3 cm of H2O). In male Wistar rats, CSF formation was age-dependent: 0.39±0.06, 0.74±0.05, 1.02±0.04 and 1.40±0.06 µL/min at 8, 9, 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. CSF formation was reduced 57% by intraventricular infusion of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide. Comparison with existing methods Tracer dilution methods do not permit ongoing real-time determination of the rate of CSF formation, are not readily amenable to pharmacological manipulations, and require critical assumptions. Direct measurement of CSF formation overcomes these limitations. Conclusions Direct measurement of CSF formation in rats is feasible. Our method should prove useful for studying CSF dynamics in normal physiology and disease models. PMID:25554415

  7. Carcinogenesis Studies of Cresols in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, J.M.; Bucher, J.R.; Peckham, J.C.; Kissling, G.E.; Hejtmancik, M.R.; Chhabra, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Cresols, monomethyl derivatives of phenol, are high production chemicals with potential for human exposure. The three isomeric forms of cresol are used individually or in mixtures as disinfectants, preservatives, and solvents or as intermediates in the production of antioxidants, fragrances, herbicides, insecticides, dyes, and explosives. Carcinogenesis studies were conducted in groups of 50 male F344/N rats and 50 female B6C3F1 mice exposed to a 60:40 mixture of m and p cresols (m-/p-cresol) in feed. Rats and mice were fed diets containing 0, 1500, 5000, or 15,000 ppm and 0, 1000, 3000, or 10,000 ppm, respectively. Survival of each exposed group was similar to that of their respective control group. Mean body weight gains were depressed in rats exposed to 15,000 ppm and in mice exposed to 3000 ppm and higher. A decrease of 25% over that of controls for the final mean body weight in mice exposed to 10,000 ppm appeared to be associated with lack of palatability of the feed. A marginally increased incidence of renal tubule adenoma was observed in the 15,000 ppm-exposed rats. The increased incidence was not statistically significant, but did exceed the range of historical controls. No increased incidence of hyperplasia of the renal tubules was observed; however, a significantly increased incidence of hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium associated with an increased incidence of nephropathy was observed at the high exposure concentration. The only significantly increased incidence of a neoplastic lesion related to cresol exposure observed in these studies was that of squamous cell papilloma in the forestomach of 10,000 ppm-exposed mice. A definitive association with irritation at the site-of-contact could not be made because of limited evidence of injury to the gastric mucosa at the time of necropsy. However, given the minimal chemical-related neoplastic response in these studies, it was concluded that there was no clear evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats

  8. Kinetic Studies on Photodeposition of Polydiacetylene Thin Film from Solution: Preliminary Determination of the Rate Law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Armstrong, S.; Witherow, W. K.; Frazier, D. O.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary kinetic studies were undertaken on the photodeposition of thin films of a polydiacetylene derivative of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline from monomer solutions onto quartz substrates. Solutions of the monomer, DAMNA, in 1,2-dichloroethane at various concentrations were irradiated at 364 nm using an argon-ion laser at several intensities. It was found that the rate of polydiacetylene (PDAMNA) film photodeposition varies linearly with UV light intensity and as the square root of monomer concentration.

  9. Learning Science Using AR Book: A Preliminary Study on Visual Needs of Deaf Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megat Mohd. Zainuddin, Norziha; Badioze Zaman, Halimah; Ahmad, Azlina

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that is projected to have more significant role in teaching and learning, particularly in visualising abstract concepts in the learning process. AR is a technology is based on visually oriented technique. Thus, it is suitable for deaf learners since they are generally classified as visual learners. Realising the importance of visual learning style for deaf learners in learning Science, this paper reports on a preliminary study of on an ongoing research on problems faced by deaf learners in learning the topic on Microorganisms. Being visual learners, they have problems with current text books that are more text-based that graphic based. In this preliminary study, a qualitative approach using the ethnographic observational technique was used so that interaction with three deaf learners who are participants throughout this study (they are also involved actively in the design and development of the AR Book). An interview with their teacher and doctor were also conducted to identify their learning and medical problems respectively. Preliminary findings have confirmed the need to design and develop a special Augmented Reality Book called AR-Science for Deaf Learners (AR-SiD).

  10. [Study on in vivo pharmacokinetics of cucurbitacin injection in rats].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ting; Deng, Zhi-Peng; Fan, Hui-Xia; Zhong, Hao; Yao, Qing-Qiang

    2014-06-01

    To establish a method for the determination of cucurbitacin in plasma samples, in order to study the in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics of cucurbitacin in rats. Rats were intravenously injected with cucurbitacin. With diphenhydramine as the internal standard (IS), the plasma concentrations of cucurbitacin in rat plasma at different time points were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With electrospray ionization source, the positive ion detection in the multiple reaction monitoring mode was conducted to determine the ion-pairs for target compound and IS were m/z 503.2/113.1 and m/z 256.0/167.2, respectively. Agilent ZOBAX SB-C18 column (2.1 mm x 50 mm, 1.8 microm) was adopted and eluted with methanol and 0.1% formic acid (55:45), and the flow rate was 0.2 mL x min(-1). DAS 2.0 software was applied to fit the blood concentration and calculate corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters. The rats were intravenously injected with cucurbitacin at the concentration of 3.0 mg x kg(-1). The target blood quality concentration show good linear relations within the range of 10.5-3 150 microg x L(-1) (R2 = 0.996), the lower limit of the standard curve was 10.5 microg x L(-1), and the signal to noise ratio S/N = 12. Intra- and inter-day precisions RSD was less than 6.9% and 14%, respectively; The accuracy RE ranged between 0.20% and 3.7%; The extraction recoveries ranged between 92.7% and 97.1%. Regarding the pharmacokinetic parameters of tail intravenous injection of cucurbitacin, AUC (0-t) was (811.615 +/- 111.578) microg x h x L(-1), (t1/2) was (1.285 +/- 1.390) h, CL was (3.627 +/- 0.487) L x h x kg(-1), and V(d) was (6.721 +/- 7.429) L x kg(-1). In this study, researchers established a simple, accurate, sensitive and highly specific method for determining the blood concentration of cucurbitacin, and reported the in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics of cucurbitacin in rats for the first time. PMID:25272856

  11. The Suitability of Propofol Compared with Urethane for Anesthesia during Urodynamic Studies in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moheban, Adam A; Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A

    2016-01-01

    Urethane anesthesia preserves many reflex functions and is often the preferred anesthetic for urodynamic studies in rats. Because of the toxicity profile of urethane, its use as an anesthetic typically is limited to acute and terminal investigations. Alternative anesthetic options are needed for longitudinal studies of micturition reflexes in rats. In this study, we evaluated propofol anesthesia administered at constant rate infusion at different planes of anesthesia in rats for combined cystometrography and external urethral sphincter (EUS) EMG in rats. No reflex micturition was noted after rats received 100%, 80%, or 60% of a previously reported anesthetic dose of propofol. At 40% of the standard propofol dose, a subset of rats showed reflex voiding, with bladder contractions and associated EUS EMG activity. In contrast, urethane anesthesia at a surgical plane allowed for reflex voiding with bladder contractions and EUS activation. Latency to leaking or voiding was longer in rats under propofol anesthesia than in those under urethane anesthesia. In a subset of rats with reflex voiding under propofol anesthesia, voiding efficiency was decreased compared with that of rats anesthetized with urethane. We conclude that propofol anesthesia suppresses micturition reflexes in rats more efficiently than did urethane. Propofol is a suitable anesthetic for longitudinal studies in rats, but its use for urodynamic evaluations is limited in these animals due to its marked suppression of both bladder contractions and EUS EMG activation. PMID:26817985

  12. Accumulation and effects of sulfadimethoxine in Salix fragilis L. plants: a preliminary study to phytoremediation purposes.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Lucia; Meggio, Franco; La Rocca, Nicoletta; Ferro, Stefania; Ghisi, Rossella

    2012-04-01

    The application of manure to fertilize arable lands is one of the major means through which veterinary sulfonamides (SAs) enter the environment. Little is known about the capacity of woody plants to phytoremediate this class of antibiotics. To this purpose we performed preliminary studies to evaluate Salix fragilis L. response to sulfadimethoxine (SDM) by investigating both its ability to absorb and tolerate doses of SDM found in fresh faeces of treated calves. Forty cuttings were exposed to either 0, 0.5, 1, or 2 mM of SDM for one month. Decreases in photosynthetic electron transport rate and net CO2 assimilation after 25 days for the higher SDM concentrations were noticed. Moreover, alterations in root morphology of treated plants were observed and further investigated through electron microscopy. However, collected data revealed high root accumulation potential. These preliminary results are promising as they demonstrate that Salix fragilis L. can both absorb and tolerate high concentrations of SAs. PMID:22567719

  13. Volume 1. Preliminary design study: AXAF x ray calibration spectrometers. Volume 2. Revised preliminary design study: AXAF x ray calibration spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work was to provide a preliminary design concept for a Flux Monitor Spectrometer (FMS) for use at the X Ray Astrophysics Facility (XRAF) during High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) testing that met the requirements of SAO-AXAF-88-025 dated July 31, 1991. The calibration test team determined that the spectral resolution of the FMS had to be greater than or equal to twice that of all the AXAF spectrometers throughout the 0.1 to 10 KeV range of x-ray energies. Since this effectively doubled the resolution required by SAO-AXAF-88-025, a change order was approved by the Marshall Space Flight Center and given to Radiation Sciences to revise their study.

  14. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  15. Auxiliary payload power system study for space processing applications payloads. Preliminary requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary designs, specifications, and programmatic data for the auxiliary payload power system (APPS) are presented. The APPS concept is an independent system to be carried in the Orbiter's cargo bay having the capability of housing and supporting space processing applications (SPA) experiment payloads and augmenting Spacelab power and heat rejection capabilities as required in the performance of these experiments.

  16. Preliminary experimental results on studying possibility of variable mass liner (VML) formation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of the present experiment was to study the formation process and initial stage of acceleration of a variable-mass plasma liner (VML). The method is based on magnetic acceleration of a liner with the mass reduced during such acceleration. The experiment was carried out on February 16 at VNIIEF. This report describes the results of measurements obtained in the experiment and preliminary analysis of the results characterizing operation of the test facility main units: helical EMG; 5-module disk EMG 400 mm in diameter (DEMG); ponderomotive unit (PU) with a cylindric condensed liner and a special tooth-cutoff. The first part of the report presents measurement results obtained on the VNIIEF`s diagnostic equipment that are compared with those obtained by American specialists on their diagnostic equipment. Information submitted by American specialists is included in part 2 of this report. The second part of the report presents preliminary computational-theoretic analysis of the main measured results describing operation of DEMG TL system in the experiment; experimental data are compared with theoretical ones obtained before and after the experiment. But more emphasis is placed on the data preliminary analysis indicating that in the experiment a variable mass liner is formed (VML or plasma bubble).

  17. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  18. THE FEASIBILITY AND EFFICACY OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE WITH OLDER CANCER SURVIVORS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    LaStayo, Paul C.; Larsen, Stephanie; Smith, Sheldon; Dibble, Lee; Marcus, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Older individuals who have survived cancer, and the commensurate treatment, often experience a reduced quality of life in part due to their impaired muscular abilities and deficits in mobility. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of resistance exercise via negative, eccentrically-induced work (RENEW) with older cancer survivors. Methods Older cancer survivors with a perception of moderate muscle weakness and fatigue participated in 12 weeks of RENEW. Measures of feasibility included: 1) the participant’s ability to progress the total amount of work of RENEW; 2) whether peak knee extension torque production became impaired; and 3) whether RENEW induced leg muscle pain as measured on a visual analog scale. The preliminary measure of efficacy included: the performance of a timed up and go mobility test. Results The participants significantly increased the total average work per week over the 12 weeks of RENEW. Participants increased (p<0.001) their work ~3-fold from week 3 (7.6± 5.1 kJ) to week 12 (22.1±14.8kJ) without muscle pain over the 12 week RENEW training period. Knee extension peak torque production improved (11%) significantly (p=0.02) (pretest: 248 ±92 N; posttest: 275±99 N) after 12 weeks of RENEW. The time to perform the TUG test improved (14%) significantly (p<0.001) (pretest: 8.4±2.7; posttest: 7.2±2.3 s) after 12 weeks of RENEW, suggesting preliminary efficacy. Conclusion Collectively, RENEW appears feasible and potentially efficacious for older, weak and fatigued cancer survivors. Implications for Cancer Survivors The use of eccentric muscle exercise may be ideally suited for older cancer survivors due to its high force and low energetic cost capabilities. PMID:21155509

  19. Microemulsion-based drug delivery system for transnasal delivery of Carbamazepine: preliminary brain-targeting study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rashmin Bharatbhai; Patel, Mrunali Rashmin; Bhatt, Kashyap K; Patel, Bharat G; Gaikwad, Rajiv V

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the development and evaluation of Carbamazepine (CMP)-loaded microemulsions (CMPME) for intranasal delivery in the treatment of epilepsy. The CMPME was prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method and characterized for physicochemical parameters. All formulations were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc (technetium) and biodistribution of CMP in the brain was investigated using Swiss albino rats. Brain scintigraphy imaging in rats was also performed to determine the uptake of the CMP into the brain. CMPME were found crystal clear and stable with average globule size of 34.11 ± 1.41 nm. (99m)Tc-labeled CMP solution (CMPS)/CMPME/CMP mucoadhesive microemulsion (CMPMME) were found to be stable and suitable for in vivo studies. Brain/blood ratio at all sampling points up to 8 h following intranasal administration of CMPMME compared to intravenous CMPME was found to be 2- to 3-fold higher signifying larger extent of distribution of the CMP in brain. Drug targeting efficiency and direct drug transport were found to be highest for CMPMME post-intranasal administration compared to intravenous CMP. Rat brain scintigraphy also demonstrated higher intranasal uptake of the CMP into the brain. This investigation demonstrates a prompt and larger extent of transport of CMP into the brain through intranasal CMPMME, which may prove beneficial for treatment of epilepsy. PMID:24825492

  20. Changes in dam and pup behavior following repeated postnatal exposure to a predator odor (TMT): A preliminary investigation in Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Luke W; Asok, Arun; Blaze, Jennifer; Roth, Tania L; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated whether repeated early postnatal exposure to the predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) alters behavioral responses to the stimulus later in life, at postnatal day (PN30). Long-Evans rat pups with their mothers were exposed for 20 min daily to TMT, water, or a noxious odor, butyric acid (BTA), during the first three weeks of life. Mothers exposed to TMT displayed more crouching and nursing behavior than those exposed to BTA, and TMT exposed pups emitted more ultrasonic vocalizations than BTA exposed pups. At PN30, rats were tested for freezing to TMT, water, or BTA. Rats exposed to TMT during the postnatal period displayed less freezing to TMT than rats exposed postnatally to water or BTA. Our data indicate that early-life experience with a predator cue has a significant impact on later fear responses to that same cue, highlighting the programming capacity of the postnatal environment on the development of behavior. PMID:26394891

  1. X-ray microscopy studies on the pharmaco-dynamics of therapeutic gallium in rat bones

    SciTech Connect

    Bockman, R.; Repo, M.; Warrell, R.; Pounds, J.G.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Schidlovksy, G.; Jones, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    We describe here our preliminary results on gallium and calcium quantitation and localization using x-ray microscopy techniques at the X-26 beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at 50 to 100 ..mu..m resolution and 10/sup )minus/6) gg detection levels. Since the original observation of exogenous gallium accumulation in bones, several studies have demonstrated that gallium nitrate is extremely effective in preserving boen mienral content both in vivo and in vitro. Gallium nitrate therapy normalized serum calcium levels in a study of patients with caner-related hypercalcemia, resistant to standard hydration and diuretic therapy. Recently, gallium nitrate treatment has been shown to halt the accelerated bone resorption that is frequently associated with cancers metastatic to bone. Several lines of evidence from vitro studies recently led to the demonstration of increased bone calcium and improvement in hydroxyapatite crystallinity in adult gallium-treated rats. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that gallium nitrate is an effective, new therapeutic agent for inhibition of accelerated bone resorption associated with cancer-related hypercalcemia. It has also been suggested that gallium could have wide clinical applications in disorders characterized by accelerated calcium loss from bone. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. In vivo preliminary investigations of the effects of the benzimidazole anthelmintic drug flubendazole on rat embryos and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Longo, Monica; Zanoncelli, Sara; Messina, Monica; Scandale, Ivan; Mackenzie, Charles; Geary, Timothy; Marsh, Kennan; Lindley, David; Mazué, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Flubendazole, in a new formulation with high systemic bioavailability, has been proposed as a macrofilaricide against filarial diseases. To investigate embryotoxic activity, the new flubendazole formulation was administered orally to Sprague Dawley rats at 2, 3.46, 6.32mg/kg/day on gestation day (GD) 9.5 and 10.5. Embryos/fetuses were evaluated on GD 11.5, 12.5 or 20. At 6.32mg/kg/day (Cmax=0.801μg/mL after single administration), flubendazole initially induced an arrest of embryonic development followed by a generalized cell death that led to 100% embryolethality by GD 12.5. At 3.46mg/kg/day (Cmax=0.539μg/mL after single administration), flubendazole markedly reduced embryonic development by GD 12.5 without causing cell death. On GD 20, 80% of fetuses showed malformations. At 2mg/kg/day (Cmax=0.389μg/mL after single administration), it did not interfere with rat embryofetal development. PMID:24994687

  3. Separation and/or divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio: preliminary results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    DeKeseredy, Walter S; Joseph, Carolyn

    2006-03-01

    A rapidly growing social scientific literature shows that many women are at great risk of being killed, beaten, or psychologically abused when they exit or try to leave their marital and/or cohabiting partners. However, less than a handful of studies have examined male-to-female sexual assaults during and after separation or divorce. Furthermore, the bulk of the limited empirical work on this problem was done in urban areas. Thus, the main objective of this article is to help fill two major research gaps by presenting the preliminary results of an ongoing exploratory study of separation and/or divorce sexual assault in rural Ohio. PMID:16456154

  4. Shuttle ground operations efficiencies/technologies study. Volume 4: Preliminary Issues Database (PIDB) catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, A. L.; Hart, M. T.; Lowry, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    The Preliminary Issues Database (PIDB) was assembled very early in the study as one of the fundamental tools to be used throughout the study. Data was acquired from a variety of sources and compiled in such a way that the data could be easily sorted in accordance with a number of different analytical objectives. The system was computerized to significantly expedite sorting and make it more usable. The information contained in the PIDB is summarized and the reader is provided with the capability to manually find items of interest.

  5. A model of the human lumbar vertebral column: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Vanneuville, G; Cluzel, P; Massaux, M; Bressolette, P; Kyndt, T; Garcier, J M; Guillot, M; Gabrillargues, J; Chandezon, R; Poumarat, G

    1995-01-01

    Finite element modelling of the human lumbar vertebral column employs data-processing procedures for study of the linear and nonlinear elasticity of materials such as are currently used in mechanics or in civil engineering. Thanks to developments in computer science, requiring a close collaboration between doctors and engineers, we put forward in this preliminary study a linear computerised model of the lumbar column comprising 4824 meshes and 6813 nodes. By reducing the simplificatory hypotheses and integrating new parameters, this model as developed is capable of important clinical applications in surgery and ergonomics. PMID:7597566

  6. The preliminary study of the quench protection of an MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juster, F. P.; Berriaud, C.; Bonelli, A.; Pasquet, R.; Przybilski, H.; Schild, T.; Scola, L.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of general studies currently carried out at CEA/Saclay in collaboration with Sigmaphi Company on dry MgB2 magnet operating at 10 K and medium range field, 1 T up to 4 T., we plan to build a prototype-coil with a commercial MgB2 wire. This coil, the nominal axial magnetic field of which is 1 tesla, will be placed in a 3 teslas background field generated by a classical NbTi coil. This paper deals with the preliminary quench protection studies including stability and quench propagation modeling.

  7. Housing and Health in Europe: Preliminary Results of a Pan-European Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, Xavier R.; Braubach, Matthias; Moissonnier, Brigitte; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Röbbel, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Europe has undertaken a large study to evaluate housing and health in 7 European cities. Methods. Survey tools were used to obtain information about housing and living conditions, health perception, and health status from a representative sample of the population in each city. Results. In Forli, Italy, the first city studied, preliminary findings indicate some important potential links between housing and health. Conclusions. These findings, when combined with those from the remaining European cities, will likely generate concrete recommendations for the allocation of resources to programs that can improve housing and health. PMID:12948980

  8. Preliminary study of the pyrolysis of steam classified municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sebghati, J M; Eley, M H

    1997-01-01

    Steam classified municipal solid waste (MSW) has been studied for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. A preliminary study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system (in cooperation with Plasma Energy Applied Technology Inc., Huntsville, AL) to convert the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. Using a feed rate of 50 lbs/h, 300 lbs of the material was pyrolysized. The major components of this pyrolysis gas were H(2), CO, and CO(2). A detailed presentation of the emission data along with details on the system used will be presented. PMID:18576067

  9. Preliminary evidence for methamphetamine-induced behavioral and ocular effects in rat offspring following exposure during early organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Acuff-Smith, K D; George, M; Lorens, S A; Vorhees, C V

    1992-01-01

    Gravid Sprague-Dawley CD (VAF) rats received 50 mg/kg (d,l)-methamphetamine (MA) HCl (expressed as free base, N = 15) or distilled water (N = 6) by SC injection x 2/day in a 3 ml/kg volume on embryonic (E) days 7-12. Control rats were pair-fed to MA-exposed dams on days E7-18. No control dams failed to deliver; however, of 15 MA-exposed dams 4 did not deliver (2 died and 2 had completely resorbed litters). One additional MA litter had all the offspring die shortly after birth. There was no difference between groups on offspring postnatal (P) body weight. The offspring exposed prenatally to MA had significantly lower olfactory orientation scores (P9, 11, 13) to their home cage scent. In a test of early activity (P10, 12, 14) the MA-exposed progeny were marginally less active than controls. MA-exposed offspring exhibited hyperreactivity and marginally shortened response latency on a test of acoustic startle (P27). Motor activity showed no differential response in MA treated or control offspring to MA (P63) or fluoxetine challenge (P70). However, the MA offspring were more active than controls with respect to central and side activity during the second week of testing. No group differences were found for performance in a straight swimming channel or on the number of errors committed or latency to escape in a complex (Cincinnati) water maze (P84). Prenatal exposure to MA also induced eye defects (i.e., anophthalmia, microphthalmia and folded retina) in 16.7% of the progeny. However, MA did not effect hippocampal or neostriatal monoamine levels when measured on P28.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1365624

  10. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous) and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required. PMID:22640030

  11. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STUDY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BIOMARKER RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantify cancer and non-cancer health risks in the agricultural communit...

  12. Chicken lutropin acts like follitropin in rat ovarian follitropin receptor: an isoelectric focusing study.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, A; Hattori, M; Fukuhara, Y; Kawashima, M; Wakabayashi, K; Kamiyoshi, M

    1998-07-01

    This study investigates whether chicken lutropin (LH) specifically binds to rat ovarian follitropin (FSH) receptor and exerts FSH-like bioactivity. Glycoprotein fraction, prepared from the chicken anterior pituitary gland, was fractionated using isoelectric focusing within a pH range of 3.5-11. Analysis of the focused fractions, by a radioreceptor assay (RRA) specific for FSH in rats using rat ovarian homogenate as receptor source, and 125I-labeled rat FSH as radioligand, detected a large component having an isoelectric point of 10.25. This focusing profile obtained by RRA was quite similar to that obtained by a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for chicken LH, but clearly different from that obtained by a specific RIA for chicken FSH, indicating this RRA specifically recognizes chicken LH. Chicken LH fraction prepared from the electrofocused material was used for further studies. The chicken LH preparation was three times more potent than rat FSH in the RRA in displacing the radioligand bound to rat ovarian receptor, while chicken LH facilitated an 8-fold less production of estradiol in dispersed rat granulosa cells than rat FSH. These results suggest that chicken LH acts like rat FSH in rat ovarian FSH receptor, but receptor-binding activity is much higher than biological activity. PMID:9827020

  13. Incorporation of tramadol drug into Li-fluorohectorite clay: A preliminary study of a medical nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, L.; Hernández, D.; de Ménorval, L. Ch.; Pérez, I.; Altshuler, E.; Fossum, J. O.; Rivera, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the last years, clays have been increasingly explored as hosts for drugs. In the present paper, we have been able to host the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Tramadol, into the clay Li-fluorohectorite (Li-Fh). We preliminary evaluate its incorporation by means of UV spectroscopy and X ray diffraction. Our results indicate that the clay hosts the drug molecule in its interlayer space. We suggest a set of parameters to guarantee an efficient incorporation process. Future studies will concentrate on the release of the drug from the clay nanofluid.

  14. A preliminary study of crack initiation and growth at stress concentration sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Gallagher, J. P.; Hartman, G. A.; Rajendran, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Crack initiation and propagation models for notches are examined. The Dowling crack initiation model and the E1 Haddad et al. crack propagation model were chosen for additional study. Existing data was used to make a preliminary evaluation of the crack propagation model. The results indicate that for the crack sizes in the test, the elastic parameter K gave good correlation for the crack growth rate data. Additional testing, directed specifically toward the problem of small cracks initiating and propagating from notches is necessary to make a full evaluation of these initiation and propagation models.

  15. A Preliminary Study on the Possibility of Using Ultrasound in Driver Assistance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Honda, Hirohiko

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the possibility of using ultrasound in driver assistance systems. Subjects' lap time in a driving video game was measured as an index of their performance of driving operations under acoustic conditions with and without an ultrasound signal at 23kHz, 70dB. The results show that the performance characteristics of the subjects changed when the ultrasound signal was presented. Ultrasound signal tends to concentrate on handling the vehicle and decreasing an attention to check the over speed driving, as a second task. We prove the possibility to apply ultrasound signal to control operator's attention and behavior.

  16. Sensorized pacifier to quantify the rhythmicity of non-nutritive sucking: A preliminary study on newborns.

    PubMed

    Grassi, A; Cecchi, F; Guzzetta, A; Laschi, C

    2015-08-01

    Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is one of the most significant spontaneous actions of infants. The suction/expression rhythmicity of NNS remains unknown. We developed a sensorized pacifier for an objective measurement of NNS. Two miniaturized digital pressure sensors are embedded into a commercial pacifier and they acquired suction and expression pressures simultaneously. Experimental tests with nine newborns confirmed that our device is suitable for the measurement of the natural NNS behavior and for the extrapolation of parameters related to the suction/expression rhythmicity. Preliminary results encourage future studies to evaluate the possibility to use these parameters as indicators of oral feeding readiness of premature infants. PMID:26738001

  17. A preliminary design study of supersonic through-flow fan inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, Paul J.

    1988-01-01

    From Mach 3.20 cruise propulsion systems, preliminary design studies for two supersonic through-flow fan primary inlets and a single core inlet were undertaken. Method of characteristics and one dimensional performance techniques were applied to assess the potential improvements supersonic through-flow fan technology has over more conventional systems. A fixed geometry supersonic through-flow fan primary inlet was found to have better performance than a conventional inlet design on the basis of total pressure recovery, air flow, aerodynamic drag and size and weight.

  18. A preliminary design study of supersonic through-flow fan inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, Paul J.

    1988-01-01

    From Mach 3.20 cruise propulsion systems, preliminary design studies for two supersonic through-flow fan primary inlets and a single core inlet were undertaken. Method of characteristics and one-dimensional performance techniques were applied to assess the potential improvements supersonic through-flow fan technology has over more conventional systems. A fixed geometry supersonic through-flow fan primary inlet was found to have better performance than a conventional inlet design on the basis of total pressure recovery, air flow, aerodynamic drag and size and weight.

  19. High risk cohort study for psychiatric disorders in childhood: rationale, design, methods and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Alvarenga, Pedro; Valle Krieger, Fernanda; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Jackowski, Andrea; Sato, João Ricardo; Brietzke, Elisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Brentani, Helena; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Mercadante, Marcos Tomanik; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to present the rationale, methods, design and preliminary results from the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders. We describe the sample selection and the components of each phases of the study, its instruments, tasks and procedures. Preliminary results are limited to the baseline phase and encompass: (i) the efficacy of the oversampling procedure used to increase the frequency of both child and family psychopathology; (ii) interrater reliability and (iii) the role of differential participation rate. A total of 9937 children from 57 schools participated in the screening procedures. From those 2512 (random = 958; high risk = 1554) were further evaluated with diagnostic instruments. The prevalence of any child mental disorder in the random strata and high-risk strata was 19.9% and 29.7%. The oversampling procedure was successful in selecting a sample with higher family rates of any mental disorders according to diagnostic instruments. Interrater reliability (kappa) for the main diagnostic instrument range from 0.72 (hyperkinetic disorders) to 0.84 (emotional disorders). The screening instrument was successful in selecting a sub-sample with "high risk" for developing mental disorders. This study may help advance the field of child psychiatry and ultimately provide useful clinical information. PMID:25469819

  20. Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project: comprehensive chronic rat study.

    PubMed

    Condie, L W; Lauer, W C; Wolfe, G W; Czeh, E T; Burns, J M

    1994-11-01

    The health effects testing program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project was designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater in comparison with Denver's present high-quality drinking water. The 1 x 10(6) gal/day treatment plant provided 500-fold concentrates of water that had been treated by multiple processes to remove microbial and chemical contaminants. Fischer 344 rats were exposed to the complex mixture solutions for up to 2 yr to evaluate chronic toxicity and oncogenicity effects. The following parameters were evaluated: clinical observations, survival rate, growth, food and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross autopsy and histopathological examination of all lesions, major tissues and organs. Clinical pathology, gross pathology, and microscopic pathology conducted at wk 26 and 65 and at the end of the study did not reveal any findings that could be considered to be treatment related. Administration of drinking water concentrates at up to 500 times the original concentration in the original water samples to F344 rats for up to 104 wk did not result in any overt toxicological or carcinogenic effects. PMID:7959456

  1. Study of the effects of ozone in emphysematous rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dormans, J.A.; van Bree, L.; Boere, A.J.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of short-term exposure to ozone on control and elastase-induced emphysematous rats were examined to investigate whether emphysema would change the pulmonary susceptibility to oxidant air pollution. Emphysema was induced in rats after a single intratracheal instillation of 0.2 IU elastase/g body weight. Histologically, panacinar emphysema was apparent at 2, 4, 8, and 16 wk, that is, the total duration of the experiment. The diagnosis was confirmed by morphometry: the mean linear intercepts (MLI) of elastase-treated rats were significantly increased at all observation times, whereas the internal surface areas (ISA) of the elastase-treated rats were significantly decreased. In addition, pulmonary function tests provided supportive evidence for the diagnosis of emphysema. Respiratory system compliance and functional residual capacity showed a significant increase in elastase-treated rats. No differences in inspiratory capacity or in forced vital capacity between control rats and elastase-treated rats were observed. The above data are indicative for a rat model for elastase-induced emphysema. Short-term exposure to ozone of elastase-treated rats revealed panacinar emphysema, including an inflammatory response in the centroacinar region. No differences in MLI as well as in ISA between ozone-exposed rats (with or without emphysema) and their respective controls were observed. Short-term exposure to ozone induced an identical, significant increase in protein content, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in lungs of normal and emphysematous rats. Moreover, these results strongly suggest that emphysematous rats are not more susceptible to ozone than nonemphysematous rats.

  2. Raman spectroscopy and SERS analysis of ovarian tumour derived exosomes (TEXs): a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Laura T.; Gubbins, Luke; Weiner Gorzel, Karolina; Sharma, Shiva; Kell, Malcolm; McCann, Amanda; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    Here we report a preliminary study based on the application of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to investigate the compositional differences between exosomes derived from ovarian carcinoma cells (cell line A2780) grown in normoxia (normal O2 conditions) and hypoxia (1% O2 conditions). Exosomes are integral to cell signalling, and are of interest in the study of how cells communicate within their environment. We are particularly interested in identifying whether hypoxia induced senescent cells can communi- cate via exosomes with neighbouring tumour cells, thereby causing them to become senescent and therefore radio and chemo resistant. With this goal in mind, we performed a preliminary study on the application of Raman spectroscopy and SERS to analyse the biomolecular fingerprint of both groups of exosomes and to investigate whether there exists a different biomolecular composition associated with exosomes derived from hypoxic cells in comparison to those from normoxic cells. We also applied multivariate statistical techniques for the classification of both groups of exosomes.

  3. Efficacy of fentanyl transdermal patch in pain control after lower third molar surgery: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Vasovic, Miroslav; Andric, Miroslav; Todorovic, Ljubomir; Kokovic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical removal of impacted lower third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, generally followed by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Transdermal drug delivery as a concept offers interesting possibilities for postoperative pain control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transdermal system with fentanyl in relieving pain following impacted lower third molar surgery. Material and Methods Seventeen patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars were included in this preliminary study. For postoperative pain control, patients randomly received a fentanyl patch plus placebo tablet after the first operation and regular (placebo) patch and an analgesic, after the second operation. Analgesia was evaluated during first 24 hours postoperatively according to patients’ reports about time of first pain appearance and additional analgesic consumption. Pain severity was rated using a 10 cm long visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Intensity of postoperative pain and postoperative analgesic consumption were significantly lower after the Fentanyl Transdermal System (FTS) was applied (p<0.05). Duration of postoperative analgesia was significantly higher with FTS when compared to control treatment (p<0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this preliminary study, transdermal system with fentanyl significantly reduced postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Key words:Analgesia, fentanyl, transdermal administration, third molar surgery, acute pain, postoperative care. PMID:27475691

  4. Physical and Dosimetric Optimization of Laser Equipment in Dermatology: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Soriani, A.; D'Alessio, D.; Cattelan, V.; Cameli, N.; Mariano, M.; Ungania, S.; Guerrisi, M.; Strigari, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the correlation between clinical set-up at present used in the treatment of specific skin conditions and laser beam absorbed power in the tissue. This study focused on the CO2 and Nd-Yag laser equipment used in the daily clinical practice in the Department of Dermatology of San Gallicano Institute in Rome. Different types of tissue-equivalent material with various water and haemoglobin concentrations were tested to evaluate laser beam attenuation power. In particular, thinly sliced pork loin, of uniform consistency and without fat, was selected for its high content of haemoglobin to mimic human tissues. An optical power meter was used to measure the power or energy of a laser beam. During measurements, the tissue equivalent phantoms were positioned on the detector head and the laser beam was orthogonally oriented. The results of two experimental set-ups are reported here. The dependence of residual power (W) as a function of ex vivo tissue thickness (mm) for different laser output powers was studied. Data were fitted by a parametric logistic equation. These preliminary data allow for more accurately determining the energy fraction released from lasers to the tissues in order to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25295246

  5. Preliminary Study of Relationships between Stability and Control Characteristics and Affordability for High-Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a study that is being done as part of the Methods for Affordable Design (MAD) program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for which the goal is to develop design methods and information that contribute to reductions in the aircraft development cycle time while increasing design confidence throughout the design cycle. The product of the study will be a database of information that relates key stability and control parameters to affordability considerations such as air combat exchange ratio, safety of flight, and probability of loss of the aircraft or pilot. The overall background and methodology are described, and preliminary results are shown for the first phase of the study to evaluate characteristics in the longitudinal axis. For these preliminary results a simplified analytical model of the aircraft response to uncommanded nose-up pitching moments was developed and used to characterize the requirements for recoveries to controlled flight conditions and to evaluate some parameters that affect the survivability of the aircraft and the pilot.

  6. Preliminary study on quality evaluation of pecans with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Cao, Wei; Mathanker, Sunil; Zhang, Weili; Wang, Ning

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports a preliminary work on a feasibility study of applying terahertz (THz) technology for pecan quality evaluation. A set of native pecan nuts collected in 2009 were used during the experiment. Each pecan nutmeat was manually sliced at a thickness of about 1mm, 2mm, and 3mm and a size of about 2cm (length) ×1cm (width). Pecan shell and inner separator were also cut into the same size. The absorption spectra for the nutmeat slices, shell, and inner separator were collected using a THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) developed by a group of researchers at Oklahoma State University. The test results show that nutmeat, shell, and inner separator had different absorption characteristics within the bandwidth of 0.2-2.0 THz. To study the capability of insect damage detection of the THz spectroscopy, the absorption spectra of insects (living manduca sexta and dry pecan weevil) were also collected. Due to high water contents in the insects, very obvious spectral characteristics were found. The results from the preliminary study show a potential of THz technology applied for quality detection of bio-products. However, since bio-products mostly have high water content and are handled under an environment with certain levels of water content, practical issues needs to be further investigated to make the THz technology a feasible tool for quality evaluation.

  7. Comparative 90-day dietary study of paraffin wax in Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Griffis, L C; Twerdok, L E; Francke-Carroll, S; Biles, R W; Schroeder, R E; Bolte, H; Faust, H; Hall, W C; Rojko, J

    2010-01-01

    Highly refined mineral hydrocarbons (MHCs) such as low melting point paraffin wax (LMPW) and low viscosity white oils can cause inflammatory changes in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of the Fischer-344 (F-344) rat. In contrast, only minimal MLN changes are seen in the Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rat with no changes in the liver. In this study, the response of female F-344 and S-D rats was compared after 90days dietary treatment with 0%, 0.2% or 2% LMPW. Effects in the F-344 rats were significantly greater than in the S-D rats: increased liver and splenic weights and inflammatory changes (hepatic microgranulomas) in these tissues were observed only in the F-344 rats. Microgranulomas in the MLNs were observed in both strains but the effects were substantially greater in the F-344 rats. Cellular markers of inflammation were examined in a subset of rats from each group using immunohistochemical staining. An increase in staining for CD3 (T-cells), CD8a (suppresser/cytotoxic T-cells) and CD4 (helper T-cells) correlated with an increase in lymphoid cells in the livers of treated F-344 rats. The majority of macrophages in the hepatic microgranulomas of treated F-344 rats were negative for the ED2 marker, indicating a likely origin from non-resident macrophages. Electron microscopy showed Kupffer cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in treated F-344 rats. However, lysozyme staining (indicating activation of epithelioid macrophages) decreased with increasing granuloma size. Non-ED2 expressing cells may have been recruited but not sufficiently activated to be lysozyme positive. Inflammatory changes in the cardiac mitral valve noted in previous studies of LMPW were also seen in the F-344 rats in this study but not in the S-D rats. Chemical analysis showed that MHC accumulated in livers from treated F-344 but not S-D rats and the concentration was more than 2-fold greater in MLNs from the F-344 than from the S-D rats. The F-344 appears to be more immunologically sensitive to

  8. A stereologic study of the plantar fat pad in young and aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Molligan, Jeremy; Schon, Lew; Zhang, Zijun

    2013-01-01

    Plantar fat pad (PFP) is a tissue structure that absorbs the initial impact of walking and running and ultimately bears body weight at standing. This study was designed to quantify the histomorphological changes of the PFP in aged rats. The most medial PFP was dissected from the hind feet of young rats (4 months old, n = 6) and aged rats (24 months old, n = 6). Histological structure and cellular senescence of PFP were analyzed stereologically and histomorphometrically. Immunohistochemistry of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was also performed on PFP tissue sections. Compared with young rats, the thickness of epidermis, dermis and septa of the PFP were significantly reduced in the aged rats. The total volume of adipose tissue in the PFP of aged rats was only about 65% of that in the young rats. The microvascular density and the number of fat pad units (FPU), a cluster of adipocytes enclosed by elastin septa, in the PFP were unchanged in the aged rats. In the aged rats, the number of adipocytes per FPU was reduced but the number of simple adipocyte clusters, without surrounding septa, was increased. The shift of the types of adipocyte clusters in the aged PFP was accompanied by degradation of elastin fibers and increased expression of MMP9. In conclusion, the PFP, particularly the elastic septa, degenerates significantly in aged rats and this may contribute to the pathology of PFP-related diseases. PMID:24033117

  9. Spirulina acceptability trials in rats. A study for the ``Melissa'' life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquille, N.; Emeis, J. J.; de Chambure, D.; Binot, R.; Tamponnet, C.

    1994-11-01

    Groups of five rats were fed for sixteen weeks a slightly deficient diet, supplemented with 0-40% of a dried preparation of the blue-green alga Spirulina as a protein source. Control groups were fed a normal rat diet. No significant differences between groups were found in food intake, growth rate or carbon dioxide production. All animals remained apparently healthy, and had similar organ weights. The study suggests taht Spirulina may be used as a protein source in rat diets.

  10. The rat: a laboratory model for studies of the diving response.

    PubMed

    Panneton, W Michael; Gan, Qi; Juric, Rajko

    2010-04-01

    Underwater submersion in mammals induces apnea, parasympathetically mediated bradycardia, and sympathetically mediated peripheral vasoconstriction. These effects are collectively termed the diving response, potentially the most powerful autonomic reflex known. Although these physiological responses are directed by neurons in the brain, study of neural control of the diving response has been hampered since 1) it is difficult to study the brains of animals while they are underwater, 2) feral marine mammals are usually large and have brains of variable size, and 3) there are but few references on the brains of naturally diving species. Similar responses are elicited in anesthetized rodents after stimulation of their nasal mucosa, but this nasopharyngeal reflex has not been compared directly with natural diving behavior in the rat. In the present study, we compared hemodynamic responses elicited in awake rats during volitional underwater submersion with those of rats swimming on the water's surface, rats involuntarily submerged, and rats either anesthetized or decerebrate and stimulated nasally with ammonia vapors. We show that the hemodynamic changes to voluntary diving in the rat are similar to those of naturally diving marine mammals. We also show that the responses of voluntary diving rats are 1) significantly different from those seen during swimming, 2) generally similar to those elicited in trained rats involuntarily "dunked" underwater, and 3) generally different from those seen from dunking naive rats underwater. Nasal stimulation of anesthetized rats differed most from the hemodynamic variables of rats trained to dive voluntarily. We propose that the rat trained to dive underwater is an excellent laboratory model to study neural control of the mammalian diving response, and also suggest that some investigations may be done with nasal stimulation of decerebrate preparations to decipher such control. PMID:20093670

  11. Single dose toxicity study of IRDye 800CW in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Milton V.; Draney, Daniel; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Olive, D. Michael

    2010-02-01

    Fluorophore-labeled contrast imaging agents are moving toward clinical use as aids in nodal staging and intraoperative resection of tumors. Near-infrared fluorophores with defined toxicity properties will be needed before these agents can be translated to the clinic. The near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW is frequently used in its N-hydroxysuccinamide (NHS) ester form for labeling these agents. Following conjugation or breakdown of a labeled ligand, excess NHS ester is converted to the carboxylate form. We report here the results of a preliminary toxicity study on IRDye 800CW carboxylate in preparation for its use as a labeling moiety for targeted contrast agents. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were given a single intravenous or intradermal administration of IRDye 800CW carboxylate; indocyanine green was used as a comparative control. Following administration of varying doses of either the dyes or saline, animals were observed for up to fourteen days during which time, hematological, clinical chemistry, enzymological, and histological testing was performed on animal subgroups. Under the conditions tested, a single administration of IRDye 800CW carboxylate intravenously at dose levels of 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg intradermally produced no pathological evidence of toxicity. A dose of 20 mg/kg was identified as the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) following IV or ID routes of administration of IRDye 800CW.

  12. An electrophoretic study of urinary protein in the rat.

    PubMed

    SELLERS, A L; ROBERTS, S; RASK, I; SMITH, S; MARMORSTON, J; GOODMAN, H C

    1952-05-01

    The nature of the proteins present in the urine of the normal rat has been investigated by electrophoretic analysis and by fractional precipitation of these proteins by ammonium sulfate. Components similar to serum alpha- and beta-globulin constitute the major portion of the urinary protein in both male and female rats. Following the intraperitoneal injection of renin, a massive proteinuria occurs. The proteins excreted are similar in proportion and electric mobility to those of normal rat serum. PMID:14927799

  13. AN ELECTROPHORETIC STUDY OF URINARY PROTEIN IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Alvin L.; Roberts, Sidney; Rask, Irene; Smith, Stephen; Marmorston, Jessie; Goodman, Howard C.

    1952-01-01

    The nature of the proteins present in the urine of the normal rat has been investigated by electrophoretic analysis and by fractional precipitation of these proteins by ammonium sulfate. Components similar to serum α- and β-globulin constitute the major portion of the urinary protein in both male and female rats. Following the intraperitoneal injection of renin, a massive proteinuria occurs. The proteins excreted are similar in proportion and electric mobility to those of normal rat serum. PMID:14927799

  14. Histomorphometric Study of Alveolar Bone Healing in Rats Fed a Boron-Deficient Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone healing after tooth extraction in rats is a suitable experimental model to study bone formation. Thus, we performed a study to determine the effects of boron (B) deficiency on bone healing by using this model. Weanling Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (+B; 3 mg B/kg diet), and ...

  15. Fetal alcohol syndrome disorders: experience on the field. The Lazio study preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Spagnolo, Primavera Alessandra; Prastaro, Adele; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    In Italy, little is known about the problems related to alcohol drinking during pregnancy. In this paper, the Italian literature about this subject is briefly reviewed. This first Italian experience of a field study, aimed to the assessment of the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in an area in the Rome province (Lazio region) is reported. This in-field study was performed in the school years 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 in cooperation with American researchers, most from University of New Mexico (Albuquerque), and Italian researchers from University "la Sapienza" of Rome. First grade children (n(o) = 1,086) of primary school were contacted to enter in the in-school study for the detection of FAS and FASD and were examined by the experts team of clinicians, pediatrics, psychologists. Preliminary consideration and the implications of this study for FASD prevention are discussed. PMID:16801726

  16. Payload specialist station study. Volume 2, part 1: Preliminary design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The details of six tasks of the payload Specialist Station study are discussed: (1) derive payload control and display requirements; (2) perform functional analyses; (3) perform system synthesis; (4) perform trade studies; (5) perform preliminary design; and (6) provide data format. Functional analysis diagrams were developed for the study payloads. These diagrams presented the payload's functional activities flow based on the six mission phases established. These phases are: (1) launch, ascent, orbit insertion; (2) on-orbit checkout and activation; (3) on-orbit operation; (4) deployment/retrieval; (5) on-orbit deactivation; and (6) descent, landing, post-landing. To perform system synthesis the widest variety of available hardware and software, as individual pieces of equipment and as systems, was investigated. The intent was to synthesize a complete AFD system or systems which could accommodate the range of requirements identified for the study missions.

  17. Development of an online automatic computed radiography dose data mining program: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Curtise K C; Sun, Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have reported the computed radiography (CR) dose creep problem and therefore the need to have monitoring processes in place in clinical departments. The objective of this study is to provide a better technological solution to implement a regular CR dose monitoring process. An online automatic CR dose data mining program which can be applied to different systems was developed based on freeware and existing softwares in the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) server. The program was tested with 69 CR images. This preliminary study shows that the program addresses the major weaknesses of some existing studies including involvement of manual procedures in the monitoring process and being only applicable to a single manufacturer's CR images. The proposed method provides an efficient and effective solution to implement a CR dose monitoring program regularly in busy clinical departments to regulate the dose creep problem so as to reinforce the 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principle. PMID:19640604

  18. Evaluation of monophosphoryl lipid A as an immune adjuvant for photodynamic therapy in a rat sarcoma model: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.

    1999-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment option for several forms of human cancer, and like traditional chemotherapy and ionizing radiation therapy, PDT alone is not curative for some cases. Recent efforts have aimed at developing strategies for adjuvant therapy for PDT. Given the nature of PDT-mediated cell damage, immunotherapy is a promising adjuvant for long-term control of solid tumors. A candidate immune stimulant for use with PDT is monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA), a non-toxic fraction of the endotoxin molecule. The hypothesis is that adjuvant MLA immunotherapy with PDT will improve local tumor control and prevent growth of subsequently implanted tumor cells when compared to PDT alone. To date, no significant differences in circulating leukocyte populations or tumor infiltrating lymphocyte populations have been identified in 9L tumor-bearing F344 rats after systemic administrations of MLA. Likewise, no significant difference has been identified in local tumor control following PDT of 9L tumors with or without adjuvant MLA. Further results are pending.

  19. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Kling, G. W.

    2012-03-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hot-spots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong cross-sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this cross-sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hot-spots.

  20. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Kling, G. W.

    2012-08-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hotspots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hotspots.

  1. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: Preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Röhrich, Jörg; Scrivens, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  2. Light ion production for a future radiobiological facility at CERN: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford-Haworth, Joshua; Bellodi, Giulia; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Scrivens, Richard; Röhrich, Jörg

    2014-02-15

    Recent medical applications of ions such as carbon and helium have proved extremely effective for the treatment of human patients. However, before now a comprehensive study of the effects of different light ions on organic targets has not been completed. There is a strong desire for a dedicated facility which can produce ions in the range of protons to neon in order to perform this study. This paper will present the proposal and preliminary investigations into the production of light ions, and the development of a radiobiological research facility at CERN. The aims of this project will be presented along with the modifications required to the existing linear accelerator (Linac3), and the foreseen facility, including the requirements for an ion source in terms of some of the specification parameters and the flexibility of operation for different ion types. Preliminary results from beam transport simulations will be presented, in addition to some planned tests required to produce some of the required light ions (lithium, boron) to be conducted in collaboration with the Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie, Berlin.

  3. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Study of the strontium response in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Barreda, A; Anselmi, E

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the cumulative application of Sr2+ in isolated rat aorta in a normal and in a Ca2+-free solution containing EDTA 1 mM. Sr2+ induced a concentration-dependent contraction which was reduced by verapamil (5 X 10(-6) and 10(-7) M) and lanthanum (1 and 2 mM). Sr2+ also induced a contraction in K+-depolarized medium. In aorta strips depleted of Ca2+ by several applications of noradrenaline (10(-6) M), Sr2+ induced a dose-response contraction in a Ca2+-free solution. These findings suggest that the influx of external Ca2+ is only partly responsible for the Sr2+-induced contraction and that another intracellular mechanism is involved in the response. PMID:2774765

  5. A study of glaucine-induced relaxation of rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Loza, I; Orallo, F; Verde, I; Gil-Longo, J; Cadavid, I; Calleja, J M

    1993-06-01

    The vasorelaxant effect of glaucine, the major alkaloid of Platycapnos spicata (L.) Bernh., was studied. At concentrations of 10 microM-0.3 mM in normal Krebs solution it was almost equieffective in relaxing K(+)-induced and noradrenaline-induced tension in rat aortic rings without endothelium, with IC50 values of 160 +/- 16 microM and 90 +/- 14 microM respectively. In experiments in a calcium-free medium, 10 microM glaucine strongly inhibited noradrenaline-induced contractions. Glaucine (0.3 mM) did not affect basal uptake of 45Ca, but induced uptake was reduced to 100% (K+) and 97.7% (noradrenaline) of the basal value. These results suggest that glaucine has an intracellular effect and also acts on the cell membrane by blocking voltage-dependent and receptor-operated calcium channels. PMID:8316591

  6. Toxicity profile of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in three independent rat toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Suma; Montcrief, Scott

    2007-10-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a d-amphetamine prodrug developed for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The toxicity profile of orally administered LDX has been evaluated in rats. In an acute study, LDX doses of 60 mg/kg and higher caused increased motor activity. At 1000 mg/kg, one rat died and another was euthanized. In a 7-day repeat-dose study, all rats dosed with LDX (14 per dose group for each sex) showed increased activity; 10 male rats and 11 female rats at 300 mg/kg/day and 3 female rats at 100 mg/kg/day were euthanized because of self-mutilation and 1 male rat at 300 mg/kg/day was found dead. In a 28-day study, only rats at 80 mg/kg showed signs of self-mutilation and thin body condition. In both the 7- and 28-day studies, LDX caused significant changes in some blood chemistry parameters (e.g. blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase) and organ weights (e.g. particularly heart, liver, brain, and spleen). Overall, no apparent treatment-related histopathologic changes were observed. Toxicokinetic assessments indicated that as the dose of LDX was increased, rats were exposed to increasing levels of LDX and d-amphetamine. The extent of exposure to LDX and d-amphetamine increased after repeated-dose in the 28-day study. The findings of the repeat-dose studies indicate that the toxicity profile in rats administered LDX orally is comparable to that for d-amphetamine; however, the apparent lethal dose of LDX in rats is more than five times higher than the LD(50) of orally administered d-amphetamine, supporting a putative protective effect of conjugating amphetamine with lysine. PMID:17845504

  7. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a Spacelab mission payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The following areas related to the final definition and preliminary design study of the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory (ACPL) were covered: (1) proposal organization, personnel, schedule, and project management, (2) proposed configurations, (3) study objectives, (4) ACPL experiment program listing and description, (5) mission/flight flexibility and modularity/commonality, (6) study plan, and (7) description of following tasks: requirement analysis and definition task flow, systems analysis and trade studies, subsystem analysis and trade studies, specifications and interface control documents, preliminary design task flow, work breakdown structure, programmatic analysis and planning, and project costs. Finally, an overview of the scientific requirements was presented.

  8. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Gil-Jong; Maeng, Eun-Ho; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm) on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5-19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%); resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnO(SM20(+)) NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. PMID:25565834

  9. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Gil-Jong; Maeng, Eun-Ho; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+) NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm) on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+) NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%); resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated significant differences in incidences of abnormalities in the group administered 400mg/kg/day. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed that oral doses for the study with 15-days repeated of ZnOSM20(+) NPs were maternotoxic in the 200 mg/kg/day group, and embryotoxic in the 400 mg/kg/day group. PMID:25565834

  10. Preliminary study of corrosion mechanisms of actinides alloys: calibration of FT-IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Magnien, Veronique; Cadignan, Marx; Faivret, Olivier; Rosa, Gaelle

    2008-07-01

    In situ analyzes of gaseous atmospheres could be performed by FT-IR spectroscopy in order to study the corrosion reactions of actinides. Nevertheless experimental conditions and the nature of studied species have a strong effect on IR absorption laws. Thus a prior calibration of our set-up is required to obtain an accurate estimation of gas concentration. For this purpose, the behavior of several air pure gases has been investigated according to their concentration from IR spectra. Reproducible results revealed subsequent increases of the most significant peak areas with gas pressure and small deviations from Beer Lambert's law. This preliminary work allowed to determine precise absorption laws for each studied pure gas in our in situ experimental conditions. Besides our FT-IR set-up was well suitable to quantitative analysis of gaseous atmosphere during corrosion reactions. Finally the effect of foreign gas will be investigated through more complex air mixtures to obtain a complete calibration network. (authors)

  11. A Preliminary Study of Flame Propagation in a Spark-ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1937-01-01

    The N.A.C.A. combustion apparatus was altered to operate as a fuel-injection, spark-ignition engine, and a preliminary study was made of the combustion of gasoline-air mixtures at various air-fuel ratios. Air-fuel ratios ranging from 10 to 21.6 were investigated. Records from an optical indicator and films from a high-speed motion-picture camera were the chief sources of data. Schlieren photography was used for an additional study. The results show that the altered combustion apparatus has characteristics similar to those of a conventional spark-ignition engine and should be useful in studying phenomena in spark-ignition engines. The photographs show the flame front to be irregularly shaped rather than uniformly curved. With a theoretically correct mixture the reaction, as indicated by the photographs, is not completed in the flame front but continues for some time after the combustion front has traversed the mixture.

  12. Selection and durability of seal materials for a bedded salt repository: preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report details preliminary results of both experimental and theoretical studies of cementitious seal materials for use in a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. Effects of changes in bulk composition and environment upon phase stability and physical/mechanical properties have been evaluated for more than 25 formulations. Bonding and interfacial characteristics of the region between host rock and seal material or concrete aggregate and cementitious matrix for selected formulations have been studied. Compatibilities of clays and zeolites in brines typical of the SE New Mexico region have been investigated, and their stabilities reviewed. Results of these studies have led to the conclusion that cementitious materials can be formulated which are compatible with the major rock types in a bedded salt repository environment. Strengths are more than adequate, permeabilities are consistently very low, and elastic moduli generally increase only very slightly with time. Seal formulation guidelines and recommendations for present and future work are presented. 73 references, 25 figures, 61 tables.

  13. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  14. Diversity of Alticinae in Oaxaca, Mexico: A preliminary study (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)1

    PubMed Central

    Furth, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This is a preliminary study of the diversity of the Flea Beetles (Alticinae) of the Mexican state of Oaxaca based on fieldwork by the author in 1991, 1997, and 2010, the literature, and specimens in several institutional collections. The number of genera and species for Mexico as well as for Oaxaca increased significantly from previous studies. There are now 625 species in 90 genera recorded from Mexico with 275 species in 68 genera recorded from Oaxaca. There are 113 species known only from the state of Oaxaca and another 38 species known only from Oaxaca and the surrounding states. Oaxaca has a relatively high diversity as well as a high percentage of endemism. This study also demonstrates the effects of how even a small amount of fieldwork together with extracting specimen data from institutional collections can significantly increase the total faunistic and diversity knowledge of an area. A complete list of the genera and species known from Oaxaca is included. PMID:24163579

  15. Two-coordinate terminal zinc hydride complexes: synthesis, structure and preliminary reactivity studies.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Michael J C; Middleton, Ewart; Kefalidis, Christos E; Dange, Deepak; Juckel, Martin M; Maron, Laurent; Jones, Cameron

    2016-08-18

    The first examples of essentially two-coordinate, monomeric zinc hydride complexes, LZnH (L = -N(Ar)(SiR3)) (Ar = C6H2{C(H)Ph2}2R'-2,6,4; R = Me, R' = Pr(i) (L'); R = Pr(i), R' = Me (L*); R = Pr(i), R' = Pr(i) (L(†))) have been prepared and shown by crystallographic studies to have near linear N-Zn-H fragments. The results of computational studies imply that any PhZn interactions in the compounds are weak at best. Preliminary reactivity studies reveal the compounds to be effective for the stoichiometric hydrozincation and catalytic hydrosilylation of carbonyl compounds. PMID:27499232

  16. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Oller, Adriana R. Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 {mu}m, GSD = 2.4 {mu}m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies.

  17. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype. PMID:24184606

  18. Preliminary study of a millimeter wave FMCW InSAR for UAS indoor navigation.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Antonio F; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3Dmapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  19. Induced Brain Plasticity after a Facilitation Programme for Autobiographical Memory in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Alexandra; Botzung, Anne; Gounot, Daniel; Sellal, François; Blanc, Frédéric; de Seze, Jerome; Manning, Liliann

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study tackles the assessment and treatment of autobiographical memory (AbM) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. Our aim was to investigate cerebral activation changes, following clinical improvement of AbM due to a cognitive training based on mental visual imagery (MVI). We assessed AbM using the Autobiographical Interview (AI) in eight patients and 15 controls. The latter subjects established normative data. The eight patients showed selective defective performance on the AI. Four patients were trained cognitively and underwent pre- and post-AI and fMRI. The remaining four patients took a second AI, at the same interval, but with no intervention in between. Results showed a significant improvement of AbM performance after the facilitation programme that could not be explained by learning effects since the AI scores remained stable between the two assessments in the second group of patients. As expected, AbM improvement was accompanied by an increased cerebral activity in posterior cerebral regions in post-facilitation fMRI examination. We interpret this activation changes in terms of reflecting the emphasis made on the role of MVI in memory retrieval through the facilitation programme. These preliminary significant clinical and neuroimaging changes suggest the beneficial effects of this technique to alleviate AbM retrieval deficit in MS patients. PMID:23125932

  20. Retentiveness of various luting agents used with implant-supported prostheses: a preliminary in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pooja; Gupta, Gaurav; Prithviraj, D R; Pujari, Malesh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary in vitro study was to compare the retentiveness of a luting agent designed for use with dental implants to luting agents designed for use with tooth-retained restorations. The following luting agents were tested: (1) implant cement, (2) resin-bonded zinc oxide-eugenol cement, (3) zinc phosphate cement, (4) zinc polycarboxylate cement, and (5) glass-ionomer cement. After cementation, each sample was subjected to a pull-out test using a universal testing machine, and the loads required to remove the crowns were recorded. The mean values and standard deviations of cement failure loads were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test. The mean cement failure loads (N) were 333.86 ± 18.91 for implant cement, 394.62 ± 9.76 for resin-bonded zinc oxide-eugenol cement, 629.30 ± 20.65 for zinc phosphate cement, 810.08 ± 11.52 for zinc polycarboxylate cement, and 750.17 ± 13.78 for glass-ionomer cement. The retention provided by polycarboxylate cement was significantly greater than that of all other luting agents; the implant cement showed the lowest retention values. These preliminary in vitro observations need to be confirmed under conditions that more closely approximate the clinical environment. PMID:23342339

  1. Preliminary Study of a Millimeter Wave FMCW InSAR for UAS Indoor Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Scannapieco, Antonio F.; Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Small autonomous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could be used for indoor inspection in emergency missions, such as damage assessment or the search for survivors in dangerous environments, e.g., power plants, underground railways, mines and industrial warehouses. Two basic functions are required to carry out these tasks, that is autonomous GPS-denied navigation with obstacle detection and high-resolution 3D mapping with moving target detection. State-of-the-art sensors for UAS are very sensitive to environmental conditions and often fail in the case of poor visibility caused by dust, fog, smoke, flames or other factors that are met as nominal mission scenarios when operating indoors. This paper is a preliminary study concerning an innovative radar sensor based on the interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) principle, which has the potential to satisfy stringent requirements set by indoor autonomous operation. An architectural solution based on a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) scheme is proposed after a detailed analysis of existing compact and lightweight SAR. A preliminary system design is obtained, and the main imaging peculiarities of the novel sensor are discussed, demonstrating that high-resolution, high-quality observation of an assigned control volume can be achieved. PMID:25621606

  2. LIVER REGENERATION STUDIES WITH RAT HEPATOCYTES IN PRIMARY CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult rat parenchymal hepatocytes in primary culture can be induced to enter into DNA synthesis and mitosis. The optimal conditions for hepatocyte replication are low plating density (less than 10,000 cells/sq cm) and 50% serum from two-thirds partially hepatectomized rats (48 hr...

  3. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  4. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum

    PubMed Central

    Panti-May, Jesús A.; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S. A.; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G.; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C.; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N.; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013–2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  5. Effects of Idazoxan on Alcohol Pharmacokinetics and Intoxication: A Preliminary Human Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo; Davidson, Dena; Swift, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preliminary basic and human studies suggest that the α2-adrenergic antagonist idazoxan may represent a novel medication for alcohol dependence (AD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the co-administration of idazoxan with alcohol and explore whether pharmacokinetics (PK) and biobehavioral (Pharmacodynamics, PD) mechanisms of idazoxan may alter alcohol's effects. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomized human laboratory study. Ten social drinkers were dosed, in two different alcohol challenge sessions (ACS), with a single oral dose of idazoxan (40-mg) or placebo, followed by a fixed alcohol dose 60 minutes later. Participants returned after a one-week wash-out and they were crossed over to the opposite medication condition. Results There were no significant differences in adverse events (AEs) between idazoxan and placebo. Moreover, during the ACS paradigm, 40-mg idazoxan was well tolerated with no significant autonomic effects compared to placebo; idazoxan reduced the peak blood alcohol level (Cmax) (p<.01) and time to peak (tmax) (p<.05) compared to placebo. A PK/PD model aligned the biobehavioral effects, demonstrating that the co-administration of 40-mg idazoxan with alcohol, decreased alcohol-related stimulation (p<.05) and increased alcohol-related sedation (p<.05). Conclusions This study supports the safety and tolerability of 40-mg idazoxan when co-administered with alcohol. Additionally, this study suggests that idazoxan may alter the biphasic effects of alcohol by decreasing stimulation and increasing sedation. These findings have implications for further investigation of using idazoxan as a probe to develop potential novel medications to treat alcoholic patients. PMID:25833022

  6. Preliminary Study of OCD and Health Disparities at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Tom; Vera, Beatriz; Perez, Oriana

    2007-01-01

    The widespread and devastating nature of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) sharply contrasts with the paucity of research involving Mexican Americans and Mexicans who suffer from this condition. This mixed-methods preliminary study was intended to provide initial data and to pilot the procedures for a larger investigation of the cultural identification, symptomatology, health concerns, coping mechanisms, and quality of life of Mexican Americans and Mexicans with OCD living in the U.S.-Mexico border region of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. For the sample of six participants, whose symptoms ranged from moderate to extreme, OCD was associated with marked impairment in quality of life, particularly in terms of social functioning, an area of central importance for many Mexican Americans and Mexicans. Areas of further study were identified, with the aim of developing culturally sensitive interventions to decrease health disparities involving OCD. PMID:17917689

  7. Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in molten salt reactor miniFUJI

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, A.

    2014-09-30

    Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in 25MWth and 50MWth of miniFUJI MSR (molten salt reactor) has been carried out. In this study, a very high enriched uranium that we called weapon grade uranium has been employed in UF{sub 4} composition. The {sup 235}U enrichment is 90 - 95 %. The results show that the 25MWth miniFUJI MSR can get its criticality condition for 1.56 %, 1.76%, and 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at least 93%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the 50 MWth miniFUJI reactor can be critical for 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at smallest amount 95%. The neutron spectra are almost similar for each power output.

  8. A Preliminary Study on the Vapor/Mist Phase Lubrication of a Spur Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphates have been the primary compounds used in vapor/mist phase lubrication studies involving ferrous bearing material. Experimental results have indicated that the initial formation of an iron phosphate film on a rubbing ferrous surface, followed by the growth (by cationic diffusion) of a lubricious pyrophosphate-type coating over the iron phosphate, is the reason organophosphates work well as vapor/mist phase lubricants. Recent work, however, has shown that this mechanism leads to the depletion of surface iron atoms and to eventual lubrication failure. A new organophosphate formulation was developed which circumvents surface iron depletion. This formulation was tested by generating an iron phosphate coating on an aluminum surface. The new formulation was then used to vapor/mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox in a preliminary study.

  9. Preliminary study on detection of irradiated foodstuffs from the Romanian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Chirita, Daniel; Savu, Diana; Elisabeta Secu, Corina; Mihai, Radu; Secu, Mihai; Ponta, Corneliu

    2007-08-01

    In order to fulfil the European task for market survey in food irradiation the first Romanian laboratory for detection of irradiated foodstuffs was established at IRASM Irradiation Centre. In this preliminary study, a wide range of Romanian food samples (spices, vegetables and meat) gamma irradiated at IRASM have been studied using different detection methods: (1) DNA comet assay, (2) thermoluminescence (TL) and (3) electron spin resonance (ESR) for foodstuffs containing bone or cellulose. The results suggest that there is no general available detection method and there is no perfect detection method. In conclusion, in order to carry out a correct identification of radiation treatment of a food sample it is recommended to use at least two standardised detection methods.

  10. Comparison of Guided and Unguided Ocriplasmin Injection for the Treatment of Vitreomacular Traction: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Di Antonio, Luca; Ciciarelli, Vincenzo; Aharrh-Gnama, Agbeanda; Rispoli, Marco; Carpineto, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective quality control study aimed at comparing resolution in patients treated with intravitreal ocriplasmin (IVO) using two injection techniques, classical injection procedure (unguided) and targeted injection using a surgical microscope with a 30-gauge 1-inch needle (guided) for the treatment of focal VMT without macular hole. The two groups presented a statistically significant difference in terms of resolution of VMT within the first month following treatment: 1/7 for the unguided group versus 6/7 for the guided group (p = 0.0291). The majority of the guided group presented an earlier resolution than the single resolved case in the unguided group. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the injection of ocriplasmin closer to the site of VMT results in the resolution in a higher number of cases and that this resolution occurs in a short time interval. PMID:27066269

  11. Preliminary Structural Sizing and Alternative Material Trade Study of CEV Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steve M.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary structural sizing and alternate material trade study for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Crew Module (CM). This critical CEV component will house the astronauts during ascent, docking with the International Space Station, reentry, and landing. The alternate material design study considers three materials beyond the standard metallic (aluminum alloy) design that resulted from an earlier NASA Smart Buyer Team analysis. These materials are graphite/epoxy composite laminates, discontinuously reinforced SiC/Al (DRA) composites, and a novel integrated panel material/concept known as WebCore. Using the HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation) structural sizing software and NASTRAN finite element analysis code, a comparison is made among these materials for the three composite CM concepts considered by the 2006 NASA Engineering and Safety Center Composite Crew Module project.

  12. Preliminary study of using pipetron-type magnets for a pre-accelerator for the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    de Rijk, G.; Rossi, L.; Piekarz, H.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    One of the luminosity limitations of the LHC is the rather low injection energy (0.45 TeV) with respect to the collision energy (7 TeV). The magnetic multipoles in the main dipoles at low field and their dynamic behavior are considered to limit the achievable bunch intensity and emittance. We report on a preliminary study to increase the injection energy to 1.5 TeV using a two-beam pre-accelerator (LER) in the LHC tunnel. The LER is based on ''Pipetron'' magnets as originally proposed for the VLHC. The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility and to identify the critical processes or systems that need to be investigated and developed to render such a machine possible.

  13. Preliminary engineering study: Quick opening valve MSFC high Reynolds number wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    FluiDyne Engineering Corporation has conducted a preliminary engineering study of a quick-opening valve for the MSFC High Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel under NASA Contract NAS8-35056. The subject valve is intended to replace the Mylar diaphragm system as the flow initiation device for the tunnel. Only valves capable of opening within 0.05 sec. and providing a minimum of 11.4 square feet of flow area were considered. Also, the study focused on valves which combined the quick-opening and tight shutoff features in a single unit. A ring sleeve valve concept was chosen for refinement and pricing. Sealing for tight shutoff, ring sleeve closure release and sleeve actuation were considered. The resulting cost estimate includes the valve and requisite modifications to the facility to accommodate the valve as well as the associated design and development work.

  14. Preliminary study of spectral features of normal and malignant cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Farooq, W. A.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-04-01

    In this study the fluorescence emission spectra of normal and malignant cell cultures were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 290 nm, corresponding to the higher fluorescence intensity at 350 nm (due to tryptophan) of three malignant cells and normal cells. Similarly, Stokes shift spectra were recorded for normal and malignant cell cultures with a shift, Δλ, of 70 nm. The Stokes shift shows the existence of discriminating features between normal and carcinoma cell lines due to the higher concentration of phenylalanine and tryptophan in carcinoma cell lines which are completely absent in normal cell lines. Hence, both the emission spectra and the Stokes shift spectra showed considerably different spectral features between the normal and malignant cells. The preliminary studies indicate the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy for cancer detection using the spectral features of biofluorophores.

  15. Using Financial Ratios to Select Companies for Tax Auditing: A Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghescu, Dorina; Kallio, Minna; Back, Barbro

    Tax auditing procedures include an investigation of the accounting records of a company and of other sources of information in order to assess whether the taxation has been based on correct and complete information. When there are found discrepancies between the accounting information and the real situation, the taxation should be corrected so that the eventual tax defaults are assessed and debited. The paper analyzes to what extent the financial performance of a company can be used as an indicator of tax defaults. We focus on one type of tax, namely employer's contribution, and four financial ratios. We evaluate the model in a study of Finnish companies by using a binomial logistic regression analysis. The study is exploratory and at a preliminary stage.

  16. Preliminary Study on Willingness to Pay for Environmentally Certified Wood Products Among Consumers in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Shukri; Lukhman Ibrahim, Muhamad

    Consumers are expected to demand and would be willing to pay a price premium for environment-friendly products stemming from the growing global environmental consumerism. While consumers in the developed countries are reported to be willing to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products, there is hardly any study on consumers` willingness in other markets. This preliminary study examines consumer willingness to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products in Malaysia. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 100 systematically-sampled, mall-intercepted respondents. Results indicated that some 38% of the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 14.4% more for environmentally certified wood products.

  17. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Joana; Frias, Clara; Canto e Castro, Carlos; Botelho, Maria Luísa; Marques, António Torres; Simões, José António Oliveira; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Potes, José

    2012-01-01

    This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth. PMID:22701304

  18. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF TCDD ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG EVANS RATS: A TWO GENERATIONAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have demonstrated variable effects on mammary gland development in rat offspring exposed to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1 ug/kg, gavage) on day 15 of gestation. We have characterized these effects in Long Evans rats, in both one and two-generational...

  19. A wireless beta-microprobe based on pixelated silicon for in vivo brain studies in freely moving rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märk, J.; Benoit, D.; Balasse, L.; Benoit, M.; Clémens, J. C.; Fieux, S.; Fougeron, D.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Janvier, B.; Jevaud, M.; Genoux, A.; Gisquet-Verrier, P.; Menouni, M.; Pain, F.; Pinot, L.; Tourvielle, C.; Zimmer, L.; Morel, C.; Laniece, P.

    2013-07-01

    The investigation of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the functional specificity of brain regions requires the development of technologies that are well adjusted to in vivo studies in small animals. An exciting challenge remains the combination of brain imaging and behavioural studies, which associates molecular processes of neuronal communications to their related actions. A pixelated intracerebral probe (PIXSIC) presents a novel strategy using a submillimetric probe for beta+ radiotracer detection based on a pixelated silicon diode that can be stereotaxically implanted in the brain region of interest. This fully autonomous detection system permits time-resolved high sensitivity measurements of radiotracers with additional imaging features in freely moving rats. An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) allows for parallel signal processing of each pixel and enables the wireless operation. All components of the detector were tested and characterized. The beta+ sensitivity of the system was determined with the probe dipped into radiotracer solutions. Monte Carlo simulations served to validate the experimental values and assess the contribution of gamma noise. Preliminary implantation tests on anaesthetized rats proved PIXSIC's functionality in brain tissue. High spatial resolution allows for the visualization of radiotracer concentration in different brain regions with high temporal resolution.

  20. Preliminary study on radio-chemo-induced oral mucositis and low level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo; Clini, Fabio; Cella, Luigi; Vescovi, Paolo; Oppici, Aldo

    2012-09-01

    Background: Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of antineoplastic radiation and drug therapy: its incidence in onco-hematological radio-chemotreated patients is variable between 50 and 100% and its impact on this populations is directly linked with the experience of intense pain causing reduction and modification of therapy regimens, decreased survival rates and increased cost of care. Purpose: Aim of this study is the preliminary evaluation of a Low Level Laser therapy (LLLT) protocol on healing process of oral mucositis and on pain and quality of life of patients experiencing this dramatic side-effect. Materials and methods: Patients were evaluated and treated at the Unita` Operativa Semplice Dipartimentale di Odontostomatologia e Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale of the Hospital of Piacenza were they were treated for primary disease with protocols of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. LLLT protocol was performed with a diode laser (808 nm -XD Smile - Fotona -Slovenia) on a two weeks-6 treatments schedule with power of 0.5 W and application of 30 seconds. Mucositis grading was scored on the basis of WHO classification by two blind operators at each treatment and at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. Pain and capability of deglutition were described by patients by means questionnaires based on Visual Analogue Scale, Numerical Rating Scale and Quality of Life. Results: A relevant improvement of healing of oral mucositis, in terms of reduction of grading score, and of pain, swallowing discomfort and quality of life was recorded. Discussion and conclusion: Results of this preliminary study are encouraging for the realization of larger studies focused on the application of LLLT protocols in management of radio-chemotreated patients with oral mucositis.

  1. A preliminary study of the mechanism of hypoglycaemic activity of Nauclea latifolia leaf ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Gidado, Abubakar; Ameh, Danladi A; Atawodi, Sunday E; Ibrahim, Sani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possible underlying mechanism of the hypoglycaemic activity of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia leaves in rats. The extract, glibenclamide or water was administered orally in a glucose, sucrose and maltose tolerance tests. In addition, the effect of the extract on α-glucosidase enzymes was also studied. The ethanolic extract at 200mg/kg body weight inhibited the increase in glucose level after both oral and intraperitoneal glucose loads as did glibenclamide. The extract also dose dependently inhibited both maltase and sucrase activities in vitro but not in vivo. The hypoglycaemic effect of N. latifolia leaf ethanolic extract thus appears to be most probably exerted through a mechanism similar to that of glibenclamide which is related to increased insulin release from pancreatic β-cells. PMID:22944715

  2. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Comparative toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of tetracycline and oxytetracycline in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Dietz, D D; Abdo, K M; Haseman, J K; Eustis, S L; Huff, J E

    1991-08-01

    Two-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and tetracycline hydrochloride, two structurally similar and widely used antibiotics, were performed in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Rats and mice were continuously exposed via their diet to the following levels of antibiotic: oxytetracycline HCl--rats 0, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm; mice 0,6,300, or 12,500 ppm; tetracycline HCl--rats and mice 0, 12,500, or 25,000 ppm. On a milligram per kilogram of body weight basis these exposures represent doses that are 20 to 140 times daily human therapeutic doses. Dose-related increased survival was noted among oxytetracycline-treated male rats and tetracycline-treated female rats and male mice, while treatment-related reduced body weight gain occurred in oxytetracycline- and tetracycline-treated mice. Microscopic changes included fatty metamorphosis and focal cellular change in livers of oxytetracycline-treated male rats and basophilic cytoplasmic and clear cell change in livers of tetracycline-treated male rats. The only neoplastic changes were a marginally increased trend in pheochromocytoma of the adrenal medulla (equivocal evidence only) among oxytetracycline-exposed male rats (12/50 controls, 19/50 low dose, 24/50 high dose) and an increased incidence of pituitary adenoma or adenocarcinoma among high-dose oxytetracycline-treated female rats (20/50 controls, 32/50 high dose). Although oxytetracycline and tetracycline appeared to increase the incidence of pituitary hyperplasia in high-dose male and female rats, respectively, the total incidence of proliferative changes (hyperplasia, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma) was not affected by antibiotic exposure. The results from these studies therefore support the notion that neither antibiotic is carcinogenic in rodents. There were several negative trends suggesting possible protective effects by both these tetracycline analogs against certain spontaneous neoplastic and non-neoplastic changes. PMID:1765221

  5. Studies of embryo toxicity in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lorke, D; Machemer, L

    1975-01-01

    Embryo toxicity studies were carried out to investigate the effects of different doses of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) after oral administration to pregnant rats from the 6th to the 15th day of pregnancy and to rabbits from the 6th to the 18the day of pregnancy. In own studies two FWAs of the bis(triazinylamino or triazoly)stilbenedisulfonic acid type showed no embryo-toxic or teratogenic effect on wither species at daily doses up to 1000 mg/kg. Also the toxic dose to the mothers, 3000 mg/kg, given to rabbits in case of one FWA was without these effects. In the studies of KEPLINGER, et al. (Toxicol. Appl. Parmacol. 27: 494-506, 1974) a triazolylstilbenemonosulfonic acid derivative, two bis(triazinylamino)stilbenedisulfonic acid derivatives and a bis(sulfostyryl)diphenyl derivative had no terato-enic effect on rabbits when administered orally in doses of up to 30 mg/kg/day. PMID:1064542

  6. Occurrence of moulds from bee pollen in Central Italy - A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; D'Ascenzi, Carlo; Rocchigiani, Guido; Moretti, Valentina; Mancianti, Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to preliminary evaluate the occurrence of fungi in 40 specimens of trapped pollen collected from April - September 2015 in 40 apiaries from Tuscany (Central Italy). Cultural and microscopical examinations allowed the recognition of Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp., Humicola sp. Mucoraceae and Acremonium sp. Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus were also identified. Yeasts and Fusarium spp. were not isolated. All pollen specimens were positive for at least one fungal isolate. Total CFU per gram ranged from 4-568. Aspergillus and Penicillium were obtained from 8 (20%) and from 22 (55%) pollen samples, respectively, associated in 4 cases (10%). The recovery of storage fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium in trapped pollen presents a potential risk for human health and attention should be paid to all stages of the post-harvest process. PMID:27010410

  7. Quality analysis of blue-veined cheeses by MRI: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onea, Alexandru; Collewet, Guykaine; Fernandez, Christine; Vertan, Constantin; Richard, Noeul; Mariette, Francois

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study aimed at improving the quality of soft-blue veined cheeses by the use of magnetic resonance images analysis. MRI measurements were performed on thirty-two samples from two different processing conditions and at three different stages from day 3 after the production to day 37. A segmentation algorithm based on a Self Organizing Map was used to segment the images into six classes. A cavity extraction was then performed. A principal component analysis was computed on variables corresponding to the cavities surface distribution. The results pointed out differences between the two types of cheese, particularly for day 3 and day 37. This confirmed the interest to use MRI to analyze such products. Further investigations are planned for the analysis of other characteristics of the cheeses and other methods of segmentation.

  8. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  9. Preliminary Neutronic Study of D2O-cooled High Conversion PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary neutronics analysis of tight-pitch D2O-cooled high-conversion PWRs loaded with MOX fuel aiming at high Pu conversion and negative void coefficient. SCALE6.1 has been exclusively utilized for this study. The analyses are performed in two separate parts. The first part of this paper investigates the performance of axial and internal blankets and seeks break-even or near-breeder core even without the presence of radial blankets. The second part of this paper performs sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of integral parameters (keff and void coefficient) for selected systems in order to analyze the characters of this high-conversion PWR from different aspects.

  10. Mobile biofeedback of heart rate variability in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Druschky, Katrin; Druschky, Achim

    2015-09-01

    Biofeedback of heart rate variability (HRV) was applied to patients with diabetic polyneuropathy using a new mobile device allowing regularly scheduled self-measurements without the need of visits to a special autonomic laboratory. Prolonged generation of data over an eight-week period facilitated more precise investigation of cardiac autonomic function and assessment of positive and negative trends of HRV parameters over time. Statistical regression analyses revealed significant trends in 11 of 17 patients, while no significant differences were observed when comparing autonomic screening by short-term HRV and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at baseline and after the 8 weeks training period. Four patients showed positive trends of HRV parameters despite the expected progression of cardiac autonomic dysfunction over time. Patient compliance was above 50% in all but two patients. The results of this preliminary study indicate a good practicality of the handheld device and suggest a potential positive effect on cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24438496

  11. Preliminary work for SiC-based piezoelectric energy harvester with mathematical modelling and simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. N. Fakhzan M., K.; Nasrul F. M., N.; Raman, S.; Muthalif, Asan G. A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary work to explore the feasibility of cubic silicon carbide on silicon wafers with integrated proof mass as horizontal cantilever with vertical displacement. The reason of harvesting ambient vibration energy is to convert mechanical energy produces by piezoelectric into useful electrical energy. The collectable energy is useful for powering the low-power devices. Theoretically, the resonant phenomena are a special characteristic in order to optimize the generated output power. The natural frequency of the cantilever can to be tuned with difference proof masses. Another parameter considered in this paper is the damping ratio. Throughout analytical study, small damping ratio will enhance the output power of the piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH). This paper will present a mathematical modelling approach and the simulation validation.

  12. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preliminary Pharmacokinetics Studies of a New Diclofenac Prodrug without Gastric Ulceration Effect

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Jean Leandro; Moreira, Vanessa; Campos, Michel Leandro; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; de Castro Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Teixeira, Catarina; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Chin, Chung Man

    2012-01-01

    Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE2 levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy. PMID:23203127

  13. Effects of Sensitive Electrical Stimulation Based Cueing in Parkinson's Disease: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Sijobert, Benoît; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Andreu, David; Verna, Claudia; Geny, Christian

    2016-06-13

    This study aims to investigate the effect of a sensitive cueing on Freezing of Gait (FOG) and gait disorders in subjects suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). 13 participants with Parkinson's disease were equipped with an electrical stimulator and a foot mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU). An IMU based algorithm triggered in real time an electrical stimulus applied on the arch of foot at heel off detection. Starting from standing, subjects were asked to walk at their preferred speed on a path comprising 5m straight, u-turn and walk around tasks. Cueing globally decreased the time to achieve the different tasks in all the subjects. In "freezer" subjects, the time to complete the entire path was reduced by 19%. FOG events occurrence was lowered by 12% compared to baseline before and after cueing. This preliminary work showed a positive global effect of an electrical stimulation based cueing on gait and FOG in PD. PMID:27478565

  14. A preliminary study of a cryogenic equivalence principle experiment on Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, C. W. F.; Worden, P. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Weak Equivalence Principle is the hypothesis that all test bodies fall with the same acceleration in the same gravitational field. The current limit on violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle, measured by the ratio of the difference in acceleration of two test masses to their average acceleration, is about 3 parts in one-hundred billion. It is anticipated that this can be improved in a shuttle experiment to a part in one quadrillion. Topics covered include: (1) studies of the shuttle environment, including interference with the experiment, interfacing to the experiment, and possible alternatives; (2) numerical simulations of the proposed experiment, including analytic solutions for special cases of the mass motion and preliminary estimates of sensitivity and time required; (3) error analysis of several noise sources such as thermal distortion, gas and radiation pressure effects, and mechanical distortion; and (4) development and performance tests of a laboratory version of the instrument.

  15. Preliminary In Vitro Study on O-Ring Wear in Mini-Implant-Retained Overdentures.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Carolina Andrade; Souza, Raphael Freitas; Cunha, Tatiana Ramirez; Vecchia, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Adriana Barbosa; Bruniera, João Felipe; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary in vitro study evaluated the simulated retention force of O-rings used for mini-implant overdenture treatment and the effect of mechanical fatigue corresponding to 6 months of wear. A mandibular overdenture analog device was attached to two mini-implants and underwent a tensile strength test before and after the application of insertion-removal and simulated masticatory cycles. Insertion-removal cycles led to a retention loss of 24%, whereas masticatory cycles did not influence retention. Micro-CT scans showed minor deformation following mechanical cycling, but the changes were milder than those observed in similar clinical specimens. Both experimental loading methods led to physical changes in the O-rings, which explains in part the similar clinically observed wear. PMID:27479342

  16. Stable isotope variations in benthic primary producers along the Bosphorus (Turkey): A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Calizza, Edoardo; Aktan, Yelda; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Loreto

    2015-08-15

    The Bosphorus Strait is a dynamic and complex system. Recent evidences showed nitrogen and heavy metal concentrations to follow opposite patterns across the Strait, suggesting a complex spatial organisation of the anthropogenic disturbance in this system. Here, we provide isotopic information on the origin and transportation of dissolved nitrogen along the Bosphorus. C and N isotopic and elemental analyses were performed on specimens of Ulva lactuca and associated epiphytes sampled in five locations across the Strait. Variations in C and N isotopic signatures were observed in U. lactuca, pointing to a decrease in the availability of anthropogenic organic dissolved nitrogen along a north-south direction. Conversely, epiphytes did not show isotopic or elemental patterns across the Strait. These results suggest that preliminary stable isotope surveys in extended costal systems basing on U. lactuca can represent a valuable tool to focus meaningful targets and hypotheses for pollution studies in the Mediterranean region. PMID:25982821

  17. Effects of Sensitive Electrical Stimulation Based Cueing in Parkinson’s Disease: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Sijobert, Benoît; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Andreu, David; Verna, Claudia; Geny, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of a sensitive cueing on Freezing of Gait (FOG) and gait disorders in subjects suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD). 13 participants with Parkinson’s disease were equipped with an electrical stimulator and a foot mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU). An IMU based algorithm triggered in real time an electrical stimulus applied on the arch of foot at heel off detection. Starting from standing, subjects were asked to walk at their preferred speed on a path comprising 5m straight, u-turn and walk around tasks. Cueing globally decreased the time to achieve the different tasks in all the subjects. In “freezer” subjects, the time to complete the entire path was reduced by 19%. FOG events occurrence was lowered by 12% compared to baseline before and after cueing. This preliminary work showed a positive global effect of an electrical stimulation based cueing on gait and FOG in PD. PMID:27478565

  18. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of a 2S albumin seed protein from Lens culinaris

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Pankaj; Gaur, Vineet; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-08-01

    A 2S albumin from L. culinaris was purified and crystallized and preliminary crystallographic studies were carried out. Lens culinaris (lentil) is a widely consumed high-protein-content leguminous crop. A 2S albumin protein (26.5 kDa) has been identified using NH{sub 2}-terminal sequencing from a 90% ammonium sulfate saturation fraction of total L. culinaris seed protein extract. The NH{sub 2}-terminal sequence shows very high homology to PA2, an allergy-related protein from Pisum sativum. The 2S albumin protein was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Crystals of the 2S seed albumin obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and were indexed in space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.6, c = 135.2 Å.

  19. Preliminary Theoretical Study of the Formation and Growth of Droplets in Nucleating Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasini, Hasril; Yusoff, Mohd. Zamri; Shuaib, Norshah Haffez

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the preliminary study for the prediction of the formation and growth of water droplets in wet stages of a steam turbine. Emphasis is given towards the determination of suitable methods of calculation of suspended droplets in superheated steam. The one dimensional calculation is applied to a duct where superheated steam is allowed to supercool instantaneously as it enters the duct. At the same instance the formation of droplet embryos begins and subsequently, if the surrounding condition permits, it will grow by collecting its surrounding molecules. This process continue for a limited range of time and stops when the supercooling drops, at which the droplets can no longer survives and begins to evaporate. The accumulation of water droplets increases the level of wetness inside the duct. This mechanism is extremely important in the design and operation of low pressure steam turbine, in particular for the prediction of wet region within the machine.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis chorismate mutase

    SciTech Connect

    Qamra, Rohini; Prakash, Prachee; Aruna, Bandi; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Mande, Shekhar C.

    2005-05-01

    Chorismate mutase from M. tuberculosis has been crystallized. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies reveal the occurrence of a dimeric molecule in the crystal asymmetric unit. Chorismate mutase catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine in bacteria, fungi and higher plants. The recent re-annotation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome has revealed the presence of a duplicate set of genes coding for chorismate mutase. The mycobacterial gene Rv1885c bears <20% sequence homology to other bacterial chorismate mutases, thus serving as a potential target for the development of inhibitors specific to the pathogen. The M. tuberculosis chorismate mutase was crystallized in space group C2 and the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.2 Å. Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function calculations revealed the presence of two monomers in the asymmetric unit.

  1. Serotonine and suicide: a preliminary study concerning a sample of violent suicidal patients.

    PubMed

    Cremniter, D; Thenault, M; Jamain, S; Meidinger, A; Delmas, C; Gaillard, M

    1994-09-01

    1. A sample of patients having attempted to commit suicide by using violent methods (hanging, jumping) was investigated according to the following procedure: for each patient, some evaluative tests (the MADRS, the SCL 90 and an agressivity scale) were administered and DSM III diagnosis was provided as well as the therapeutical orientation. 2. The 5 HIAA' level was measured in the CSF soon after the suicide attempt except for patients with rachis fracture or exposed to a cerebral oedeme. 3. Results were compared to those of a control group composed with patients having operated with rachi-anesthesia for orthopedic surgery. 4. The preliminary results show that 5 HIAA' levels were lower for suicide patients except for one schizophrenic patient. 5. This study suggests the possible link between a low 5 HIAA' level in CSF and the clinical aspects of severe suicidal behaviour. PMID:7526419

  2. Subcutaneous administration of paclitaxel in dogs with cancer: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniella M.; Franciosi, Aline I.; Pezzini, Paula C.F.; Guérios, Simone D.

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous paclitaxel has been underused in dogs due to severe and acute hypersensitivity reactions. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of paclitaxel and its safety are unknown. In this preliminary study, SC administration of paclitaxel was evaluated for hypersensitivity reactions and toxicity in 21 dogs with advanced cancer. Dogs received 1 to 5 paclitaxel doses, ranging from 85 to 170 mg/m2, SC every 14 or 21 days. A total of 40 paclitaxel doses were administered and none of the 21 dogs developed systemic or acute local hypersensitivity reactions. Severe skin lesions at the injection site developed in 2 dogs after the 4th injection at the same location. Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in 50% of the dogs 5 days after the first treatment at 115 mg/m2 (n = 14). Two animals developed Grade 5 diarrhea and died likely due to hemodynamic failure or sepsis. Paclitaxel can be administered SC in dogs with no hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:26246628

  3. A randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy for clinical perfectionism: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Caroline; Lee, Michelle; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Shafran, Roz

    2007-01-01

    Perfectionism can be a problem in its own right and it can impede the progress of treatment of Axis I disorders. This study reports on a preliminary randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for “clinical perfectionism”. Twenty participants were randomly assigned to either immediate treatment (IT) (n=10) or a waitlist (NL) (n=10). Treatment consisted of ten sessions of CBT over eight weeks. Two participants did not complete the follow-up assessments (10%). Fifteen of the original 20 participants (75%) were clinically significantly improved after treatment and the effect size was large (1.8). Treatment gains were maintained at 8-week and 16-week follow-up. PMID:17275781

  4. Compressed sensing sodium MRI of cartilage at 7T: Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madelin, Guillaume; Chang, Gregory; Otazo, Ricardo; Jerschow, Alexej; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium MRI has been shown to be highly specific for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in articular cartilage, the loss of which is an early sign of osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative sodium MRI techniques are therefore under development in order to detect and assess early biochemical degradation of cartilage, but due to low sodium NMR sensitivity and its low concentration, sodium images need long acquisition times (15-25 min) even at high magnetic fields and are typically of low resolution. In this preliminary study, we show that compressed sensing can be applied to reduce the acquisition time by a factor of 2 at 7T without losing sodium quantification accuracy. Alternatively, the nonlinear reconstruction technique can be used to denoise fully-sampled images. We expect to even further reduce this acquisition time by using parallel imaging techniques combined with SNR-improved 3D sequences at 3T and 7T.

  5. Speed and accuracy of facial expression classification in avoidant personality disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Kim, Kwanguk; Herr, Nathaniel R; Smoski, Moria J; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R; Kosson, David S

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to examine whether individuals with avoidant personality disorder (APD) could be characterized by deficits in the classification of dynamically presented facial emotional expressions. Using a community sample of adults with APD (n = 17) and non-APD controls (n = 16), speed and accuracy of facial emotional expression recognition was investigated in a task that morphs facial expressions from neutral to prototypical expressions (Multi-Morph Facial Affect Recognition Task; Blair, Colledge, Murray, & Mitchell, 2001). Results indicated that individuals with APD were significantly more likely than controls to make errors when classifying fully expressed fear. However, no differences were found between groups in the speed to correctly classify facial emotional expressions. The findings are some of the first to investigate facial emotional processing in a sample of individuals with APD and point to an underlying deficit in processing social cues that may be involved in the maintenance of APD. PMID:22448805

  6. Preliminary feasibility study of a multi-Phobos encounter experiment during the Viking extended mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolson, R. H.; Blanchard, R. C.; Daniels, E. F.

    1974-01-01

    The Viking '75 Mission to Mars is reported which permits a truly unique opportunity to explore the natural satellite, Phobos, from distances measured in tens of kilometers. A preliminary feasibility study has been made which shows that a science mission involving a Phobos close encounter is technically feasible and within the capabilities of the current Viking design. For less than 20 m/s, the Viking Orbiter can provide approximately two 40-day periods of close observation of Phobos, with the first encounter period in January and the second in March, 1977. Multi-pass images of the entire satellite from nearly all aspect angles and with resolution on the order of 10 meters are possible. Close encounters will permit mass determinations to an accuracy of tens of percent. These experiments can be performed in series with the nominal mission; thus, providing complementary scientific information without compromising the original mission and science objectives.

  7. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  8. Preliminary Sizing Study of Ares-I and Ares-V Liquid Hydrogen Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Stanley T.; Harper, David W.

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary sizing study of two cryogenic propellant tanks was performed using a FORTRAN optimization program to determine weight efficient orthogrid designs for the tank barrels sections only. Various tensile and compressive failure modes were considered, including general buckling of cylinders with a shell buckling knockdown factor. Eight independent combinations of three design requirements were also considered and their effects on the tanks weight. The approach was to investigate each design case with a variable shell buckling knockdown factor, determining the most weight efficient combination of orthogrid design parameters. Numerous optimization analyses were performed, and the results presented herein compare the effects of the different design requirements and shell buckling knockdown factor. Through a series of comparisons between design requirements or shell buckling knockdown factors, the relative change in overall tank barrel weights is shown. The findings indicate that the design requirements can substantually increase the tank weight while a less conservative shell buckling knockdown factor can modestly reduce the tank weight.

  9. Preliminary design study of a quiet, high flow fan (QHF) stage. [turbofans - quiet engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Kisner, L. S.; Delaney, R. A.; Beguhn, A. A.; Frye, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Concepts selected to reduce fan generated noise in a turbofan are presented. Near-sonic flow at the fan inlet to reduce upstream propagated noise and the use of long-chord vanes to reduce downstream noise is discussed. The near-sonic condition at the rotor inlet plane was achieved by designing for high specific mass flow and by maintaining the high flow at reduced power by variable stators and variable fan exhaust nozzle. The long-chord vanes reduce response to unsteady flow. The acoustic design showed that long-chord stators would significantly reduce turbofan source noise and that other stator design parameters have no appreciable effect on noise for the spacing and chord length of the turbofan design. Four rig flow paths studied in the aerodynamic preliminary design are discussed. Noise prediction results indicate that a turbofan powered aircraft would be under federal air regulations levels without any acoustic treatment.

  10. XeCl excimer laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for human cerebral tumor diagnosis: preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrillier, Sigrid; Hor, Frederic; Desgeorges, Michel; Ettori, Dominique; Sitbon, Jean R.

    1993-09-01

    Three-hundred-eight nm laser-induced autofluorescence spectra of the normal human brain, astrocytoma grade IV and glioblastoma grade IV specimens, have been recorded in vitro two hours after surgical resection. Typical fluorescence spectra for normal (N) and malignant (M) tissue show 4 maxima at about 352, 362, 383, and 460 nm. These spectra are analyzed in detail. Subtle differences in normalized spectra of N and M tissues appear to be large enough for diagnosis. Several criteria such as maxima and minima absolute intensity and intensity ratios at typical wavelengths are computed and used to classify the tissue. This preliminary study shows that fluorescence spectroscopy with 308 nm UV excitation could be a valid technique for discriminating tumor types. However, it should be noted that these measurements are made in vitro. Living tissues may have different spectral characteristics, therefore future in vivo investigations must be performed.

  11. Preliminary study of rib articulated model based on dynamic fluoroscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villard, Pierre-Frederic; Escamilla, Pierre; Kerrien, Erwan; Gorges, Sebastien; Trousset, Yves; Berger, Marie-Odile

    2014-03-01

    We present in this paper a preliminary study of rib motion tracking during Interventional Radiology (IR) fluoroscopy guided procedures. It consists in providing a physician with moving rib three-dimensional (3D) models projected in the fluoroscopy plane during a treatment. The strategy is to help to quickly recognize the target and the no-go areas i.e. the tumor and the organs to avoid. The method consists in i) elaborating a kinematic model of each rib from a preoperative computerized tomography (CT) scan, ii) processing the on-line fluoroscopy image and iii) optimizing the parameters of the kinematic law such as the transformed 3D rib projected on the medical image plane fit well with the previously processed image. The results show a visually good rib tracking that has been quantitatively validated by showing a periodic motion as well as a good synchronism between ribs.

  12. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of adeno-associated virus serotype 6

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qing; Ongley, Heather M.; Hare, Joan; Chapman, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses are being developed as vectors for gene therapy and have been used in a number of clinical trials. Vectors to date have been based on the type species AAV-2, the structure of which was published in 2002. There is growing interest in modulating the cellular tropism and immune neutralization of AAV-2 with variants inspired by the properties of other serotypes. Towards the determination of a structure for AAV type 6, this paper reports the high-yield production, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of infectious AAV-6 virions. The crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The most promising crystal form belonged to space group R3 and appeared to be suitable for initial structure determination. PMID:18997346

  14. A Study of Volume-Limited Hipparcos Sample within 100 pc: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, P. L.; Holtzman, J. A.; Smith, V. V.

    2004-12-01

    Accurate parallax measurements of solar neighborhood stars from the Hipparcos catalog have enabled detailed studies of stellar properties. Subgiants are of particular interest because their ages could be determined with fair accuracy and they are found to be a decent trace of chemical evolution in our Galaxy. Hence we have initiated a project to obtain high-resolution Echelle spectra of evolved Hipparcos stars in a volume-limited sample within 100 parsec. We will perform detailed abundance analysis to constraint stellar properties and investigate the chemical evolution and the star formation history of the solar neighborhood. Here, we present some preliminary results of this project. In particular, we have obtained stellar properties for several subgiants in our sample, and we compare the surface gravities of these stars derived from both trigonometric and spectroscopic methods.

  15. Preliminary results in use of ERS-1 imagery for Black Sea coastal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necsoiu, Marius; Atkinson, Samuel F.

    1994-12-01

    A preliminary study of ERS-1 imagery over a portion of Romanian coastal zone is presented. After compression from 16 bit to 8 bit data and application of adaptive filter to reduce speckle and antenna pattern correction for one of the images, the mean radar return from an offshore region with uniform backscatter has been related to the wind conditions. As a particularity for Black Sea, tidal conditions do not influence much spectral signature of data. Smooth slicks, regions of low backscatter also appear to correlate with coastal outfalls. Meteo and seastate observations have been obtained during ERS-1 data acquisition, which may give an answer after ERS-1 data have been processed in future.

  16. A preliminary study on the safeguardability of a Korean advanced pyro-processing facility (KAPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Thomas, K.E.; Marlow, J.B.; Menlove, H.O.; Ko, W.I.; Yang, M.S.; Park, S.W.

    2007-07-01

    A preliminary study on the safeguardability of the Korean Advanced Pyro-processing Facility (KAPF) was performed. The main processes of the facility include voloxidation, electrolytic reduction, electrorefining, electrowinning, and salt recycling with a transuranic (TRU) recovery process. The subprocesses and material flow of the conceptually designed KAPF with a unit capacity of 100 tHM/year were analysed, and subsequently, the relevant material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) were designed for material accounting. Uncertainty in material accounting was evaluated with designed MBA and KMP, together with measurement uncertainties of analytic methods identified for the KAPF. It was found that the major safeguards challenges were Pu input accountability and U/Pu inventory measurement at each subprocess. The continuous association of Pu with Cm presents measurement options in both cases. It was concluded that a safeguards system for the KAPF could be designed to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency's comprehensive safeguards objective. (authors)

  17. Compressed Sensing Sodium MRI of Cartilage at 7T: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Chang, Gregory; Otazo, Ricardo; Jerschow, Alexej; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium MRI has been shown to be highly specific for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in articular cartilage, the loss of which is an early sign of osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative sodium MRI techniques are therefore under development in order to detect and assess early biochemical degradation of cartilage, but due to low sodium NMR sensitivity and its low concentration, sodium images need long acquisition times (15 to 25 min) even at high magnetic fields and are typically of low resolution. In this preliminary study, we show that compressed sensing can be applied to reduce the acquisition time by a factor of 2 at 7T without losing sodium quantification accuracy. Alternatively, the nonlinear reconstruction technique can be used to denoise fully-sampled images. We expect to even further reduce this acquisition time by using parallel imaging techniques combined with SNR-improved 3D sequences at 3T and 7T. PMID:22204825

  18. Confined liquid crystaline 5CB in 2D Thermodynamic Space - Preliminary Dielectric Relaxation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlus, S.; Osinska, J.; Rzoska, S. J.; Kralj, S.; Cordoyiannis, G.

    Results of preliminary broadband dielectric spectroscopy studies in a wide range of temperatures and pressures range for a mixture of rod-like liquid crystalline 4-cyano-4-pentylalkylbiphenyl (5CB) and hydrophilic silica spheres (Aerosil 300) are shown. Pretransitional anomaly, observed previously in the bulk 5CB, has been found. Temperature dynamics of the mixture was investigated with via the DC conductivity σ, coupled to the reorientational relaxation. The derivative based analysis of electric conductivity showed a clear non-Arrhenius dynamics and indicated the anomalous increase of the fragility strength coefficient on approaching the isotropic-nematic transition. Pressure investigations of the solidification from the nematic phase showed the increase of the transition temperature on pressuring but with unusual increasing of dT NS /dP coefficient.

  19. Preliminary results of the scientific experiments on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The scientific equipment and experiments on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite are described, including various ground controls and the lab unit for studies at the descent vehicle landing site. Preliminary results are presented of the physiological experiment with rats, biological experiments with drosophila and higher and lower plants, and radiation physics and radiobiology studies for the planning of biological protection on future space flights. The most significant conclusion from the preliminary data is that rats tolerate space flight better with an artificial force of gravity.

  20. Home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) for Depressed, Cognitively Impaired, Disabled Elders: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Arean, Patricia A.; Teri, Linda; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This preliminary study examines the efficacy of 12-week home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) vs. home-delivered Supportive Therapy (ST) in reducing depression and disability in 30 depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled older adults. Design A 12-week randomized clinical trial. Research assistants were unaware of the participants' randomization status. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Setting Weill Cornell - Advanced Center for Interventions and Services Research (ACISR). Participants Thirty elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability were recruited through advertisement and the Home-Delivered Meals Program of the Westchester County Department of Senior Programs and Services. Intervention PATH is a home-delivered intervention designed to reduce depression and disability in depressed, cognitively impaired, disabled elders. PATH is based on Problem Solving Therapy (PST) and integrates environmental adaptation and caregiver participation. PATH is consistent with Lawton's ecological model of adaptive functioning in aging. Measurements Depression and disability were measured with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale – 24 items and Sheehan Disability Scale, respectively. Client Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction with treatment. Results Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that PATH was more efficacious than ST in reducing depression and disability at 12 weeks. Participants in both treatment groups were satisfied with treatment. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that PATH is well accepted and efficacious in depressed elders with major depression, cognitive impairment, and disability. Because this population may not adequately respond to antidepressant medication treatment, PATH may provide relief to many patients who would otherwise remain depressed and suffer. PMID:20808092

  1. Improving Decision Making for Massive Transfusions in a Resource Poor Setting: A Preliminary Study in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Riviello, Elisabeth D.; Letchford, Stephen; Cook, Earl Francis; Waxman, Aaron B.; Gaziano, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The reality of finite resources has a real-world impact on a patient’s ability to receive life-saving care in resource-poor settings. Blood for transfusion is an example of a scarce resource. Very few studies have looked at predictors of survival in patients requiring massive transfusion. We used data from a rural hospital in Kenya to develop a prediction model of survival among patients receiving massive transfusion. Methods Patients who received five or more units of whole blood within 48 hours between 2004 and 2010 were identified from a blood registry in a rural hospital in Kenya. Presenting characteristics and in-hospital survival were collected from charts. Using stepwise selection, a logistic model was developed to predict who would survive with massive transfusion versus those who would die despite transfusion. An ROC curve was created from this model to quantify its predictive power. Results Ninety-five patients with data available met inclusion criteria, and 74% survived to discharge. The number of units transfused was not a predictor of mortality, and no threshold for futility could be identified. Preliminary results suggest that initial blood pressure, lack of comorbidities, and indication for transfusion are the most important predictors of survival. The ROC curve derived from our model demonstrates an area under the curve (AUC) equal to 0.757, with optimism of 0.023 based on a bootstrap validation. Conclusions This study provides a framework for making prioritization decisions for the use of whole blood in the setting of massive bleeding. Our analysis demonstrated an overall survival rate for patients receiving massive transfusion that was higher than clinical perception. Our analysis also produced a preliminary model to predict survival in patients with massive bleeding. Prediction analyses can contribute to more efficient prioritization decisions; these decisions must also include other considerations such as equity, acceptability

  2. Water quality of a reservoir as affected by agriculture in the east of Thailand: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tonmanee, N; Wada, H

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary study on the water quality of a reservoir, affected by agriculture, in the east of Thailand was conducted during 1996-1997. Monitoring water quality of a reservoir is important because the sloping lands surrounding the reservoirs are mainly utilized for cultivating cash crops (pineapple, cassava, etc). A lot of fertilizers and agrochemicals were applied to soil and crops which can polluted the water. The results from the preliminary studied will be applied for the monitoring of the water quality in other reservoirs in the 16 pilot areas. PMID:11724479

  3. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  4. Validation study of the combined repeated-dose toxicity and genotoxicity assay using gpt delta rats

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Jun-ichi; Toyoda, Takeshi; Cho, Young-Man; Mizuta, Yasuko; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic rodents carrying reporter genes to detect organ-specific in vivo genetic alterations are useful for risk assessment of genotoxicity that causes cancer. Thus, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has established the guideline for genotoxicity tests using transgenic animals, which may be combined with repeated-dose toxicity studies. Here, we provide evidence to support equivalence of gpt delta and wild type (WT) rats in terms of toxicological responses to a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), and a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). gpt delta rats treated with DEHP showed similar increases in liver and kidney weights, serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratios, and incidence of diffuse hepatocyte hypertrophy compared to WT F344 and Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. DEN-treated gpt delta rats showed equivalent increases in the number and area of precancerous GST-P-positive foci in the liver compared to WT rats. The livers of DEN-treated gpt delta rats also showed increased frequencies of gpt and Spi− mutations; such changes were not observed in DEHP-treated gpt delta rats. These results indicated that gpt delta rats (both F344 and SD backgrounds) showed comparable DEHP-induced toxicity and DEN-induced genotoxicity to those observed in WT rats. With regard to the administration period, the general toxicity of 1.2% DEHP was evident throughout the experimental period, and the genotoxicity of 10 p.p.m. DEN could be detected after 2 weeks of administration and further increased at 4 weeks. These results suggested that combined assays using gpt delta rats could detect both general toxicity and genotoxicity by the canonical 4-week administration protocol. Therefore, this assay using gpt delta rats would be applicable for risk assessment including early detection of genotoxic carcinogens and ultimately serve to reduce cancer risks in humans from environmental chemicals. PMID:25683344

  5. Validation study of the combined repeated-dose toxicity and genotoxicity assay using gpt delta rats.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Jun-Ichi; Toyoda, Takeshi; Cho, Young-Man; Mizuta, Yasuko; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic rodents carrying reporter genes to detect organ-specific in vivo genetic alterations are useful for risk assessment of genotoxicity that causes cancer. Thus, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has established the guideline for genotoxicity tests using transgenic animals, which may be combined with repeated-dose toxicity studies. Here, we provide evidence to support equivalence of gpt delta and wild type (WT) rats in terms of toxicological responses to a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), and a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). gpt delta rats treated with DEHP showed similar increases in liver and kidney weights, serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratios, and incidence of diffuse hepatocyte hypertrophy compared to WT F344 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. DEN-treated gpt delta rats showed equivalent increases in the number and area of precancerous GST-P-positive foci in the liver compared to WT rats. The livers of DEN-treated gpt delta rats also showed increased frequencies of gpt and Spi(-) mutations; such changes were not observed in DEHP-treated gpt delta rats. These results indicated that gpt delta rats (both F344 and SD backgrounds) showed comparable DEHP-induced toxicity and DEN-induced genotoxicity to those observed in WT rats. With regard to the administration period, the general toxicity of 1.2% DEHP was evident throughout the experimental period, and the genotoxicity of 10 p.p.m. DEN could be detected after 2 weeks of administration and further increased at 4 weeks. These results suggested that combined assays using gpt delta rats could detect both general toxicity and genotoxicity by the canonical 4-week administration protocol. Therefore, this assay using gpt delta rats would be applicable for risk assessment including early detection of genotoxic carcinogens and ultimately serve to reduce cancer risks in humans from environmental chemicals. PMID:25683344

  6. A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic…

  7. PRELIMINARY FACTOR ANALYSIS OF VISUAL COGNITION AND MEMORY. STUDIES IN CINE-PSYCHOMETRY, FINAL REPORT, PART I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEIBERT, WARREN F.; AND OTHERS

    PRELIMINARY ANALYSES WERE UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THE POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION OF MOTION PICTURE FILMS TO FACTOR ANALYTIC STUDIES OF HUMAN INTELLECT. OF PRIMARY CONCERN WERE THE OPERATIONS OF COGNITION AND MEMORY, FORMING TWO OF THE FIVE OPERATION COLUMNS OF GUILFORD'S "STRUCTURE OF INTELLECT." THE CORE REFERENCE FOR THE STUDY WAS DEFINED AS THE…

  8. Plasma stress hormones in resting rats - Eighty four day study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, Vojin; Honeycutt, Clegg

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a repeated mild stress of handling and placing rats temporarily into unfamiliar cages on the blood-plasma concentration of the stress hormones (corticosterone, ACDH, and prolactin) were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to this type of stress once every week during a period of three months. Results showed that repeated mild stress of handling (as well as repeated blood sampling) did not affect the plasma stress-hormone concentrations in these animals.

  9. Astrometric telescope facility. Preliminary systems definition study. Volume 3: Cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobeck, Charlie (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Astrometric Telescope Facility (ATF) Preliminary System Definition Study conducted in the period between March and September 1986 are described. The main body of the report consists primarily of the charts presented at the study final review which was held at NASA Ames Research Center on July 30 and 31, 1986. The charts have been revised to reflect the results of that review. Explanations for the charts are provided on the adjoining pages where required. Note that charts which have been changed or added since the review are dated 10/1/86; unchanged charts carry the review date 7/30/86. In addition, a narrative summary is presented of the study results and two appendices. The first appendix is a copy of the ATF Characteristics and Requirements Document generated as part of the study. The second appendix shows the inputs to the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base submitted in May 1986. The report is issued in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an executive summary of the ATF mission, strawman design, and study results. Volume 2 contains the detailed study information. Volume 3 has the ATF cost estimate, and will have limited distribution.

  10. A Preliminary Study in the Spratly, Southern Part of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.

    2005-12-01

    From 20 June to 1 August (a total of 44 days) this year, a group of 8 scientists conducted a preliminary geological and geophysical study from the Taiping reef island, also called as the Ita Abu, owned by Taiwan. Since the Taiping Island is the biggest island (1,300 m in length, 400 m in width) in these some 102 reef islands, atolls, and sand bars in the southern part of the South China Sea. It is also the only island having the ground water and a hospital in a radius of 1,000 km of this tropical reef islands. Before the cruise, we requested the satellite images from the Taiwan-owned FORMOSA satellite in this region. During the survey, we acquired the echo sounding and side scan sonar data in the lagoon in order to give us a first topographical expression of the seafloor and to identify the dredge sites. Inside the wave break reef and beach site, we drilled several series of 30-cm cores, about 30 sites. Outside the wave break, we had a wonderful time to conduct many underwater photography and investigations. All of these efforts are aiming to get a better understanding of early rifting of the South China Sea and the evolution of reef growth in this tropical environment. Since the corals are the doctors of their living ecological system; they record the temperature, salinity, storm events, and El Nino. Our preliminary survey will provide a first glance of the last hundred and thousand years of our climate change. We will continue with our adventures. We also understand the political conflicts in this region. However, the Spratly islands hold the major key to reveal the sciences of the South China Sea, such as the early continental rifting, reef evolution, coral ecosystem, fishery resource and possible energy resource. We intend to open the Taiping Island as an International Marine Science Observatory.

  11. Comparative studies on the anticonvulsant effectiveness of nootropic drugs in kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to characterize the anticonvulsant efficacy of nootropics, their effect on different types of kindled seizures in rats has been studied. Nootropics in doses known to have protective effects in damaged brain functions possess anticonvulsant potency preferentially in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats and generalized seizures. The most pronounced potency was seen in PTZ-kindled rats, where all substances tested (piracetam, meclofenoxate, pyritinol, vinpocetine, methylglucamine orotate, naftidrofuryl) led to significant dose-dependent anticonvulsant effects. In amygdala-kindled rats only vinpocetine, meclofenoxate and piracetam were effective. In neocortically kindled rats only vinpocetine and, to a smaller extent, pyritinol showed anticonvulsant effects. The data support the potential antiepileptic potency of nootropics. PMID:2271012

  12. Acute, 2-week, and 13-week inhalation toxicity studies on dimethylethoxysilane vapor in Fischer 344 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, D. E.; Stuart, B. O.; Rothenberg, S. J.; Kershaw, M.; Mann, P. C.; James, J. T.; Lam, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    Dimethylethoxysilane (DMES), a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the heat-protective silica tiles and blankets on the Space Shuttle. Acute, 2-wk, and 13-wk inhalation exposures to DMES vapor were conducted in male and female Fischer 344 rats. In the acute study, rats were exposed to 4000, 2000, 1000, 500, or 0 (control) ppm DMES for 4 h and observed for 14 days. There were no deaths. Narcosis and ataxia were observed in rats of the two highest concentrations only. These signs disappeared within 1 h following exposure. There were no DMES-related gross or microscopic tissue lesions in rats of all exposure groups. In the 2-wk study, rats were exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk to 3000, 1000, 300, 100, or 0 ppm DMES. During exposure, narcosis was observed in rats of the 3000 and 1000 ppm groups. There was a mild decrease in body weight gain in rats of the 3000 ppm group. A decrease in platelet count, an increase in bile acids, and reduced weights of the thymus, testis, and liver were observed in rats of the 3000 ppm group. Microscopically, hypospermatogenesis and spermatid giant cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules of the testes of rats exposed to 3000 ppm DMES. In the 13-wk study, rats were exposed 6 h/day, 5 days/wk to 2000, 600, 160, 40, or 0 ppm DMES. During exposure, rats of the 2000 ppm group exhibited mild narcosis and loss of startle reflex. Recovery from these central nervous system signs was rapid. Body weights were mildly decreased for rats of the 2000 ppm group. There were no exposure-related effects in hematology, serum chemistry, or urinalysis. Female rats of the 2000 ppm group had delayed estrous cycles (6 days compared to 5 days in control rats). Noteworthy organ weight changes in rats of the 2000 ppm group included decreases in thymus, liver, and testicular weights; however, pathologic lesions were observed in the testes only. Sperm motility, epididymal sperm count, and testicular spermatid count were dramatically reduced

  13. A novel device for studying weight supported, quadrupedal overground locomotion in spinal cord injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Marvin; Traughber, Terrance; Reinkensmeyer, David J.; de Leon, Ray D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Providing weight support facilitates locomotion in spinal cord injured animals. To control weight support, robotic systems have been developed for treadmill stepping and more recently for overground walking. New Method We developed a novel device, the body weight supported ambulatory rodent trainer (i.e. BART). It has a small pneumatic cylinder that moves along a linear track above the rat. When air is supplied to the cylinder, the rats are lifted as they perform overground walking. We tested the BART device in rats that received a moderate spinal cord contusion injury and in normal rats. Locomotor training with the BART device was not performed. Results All of the rats learned to walk in the BART device. In the contused rats, significantly greater paw dragging and dorsal stepping occurred in the hindlimbs compared to normal. Providing weight support significantly raised hip position and significantly reduced locomotor deficits. Hindlimb stepping was tightly coupled to forelimb stepping but only when the contused rats stepped without weight support. Three weeks after the contused rats received a complete spinal cord transection, significantly fewer hindlimb steps were performed. Comparison with Existing Methods Relative to rodent robotic systems, the BART device is a simpler system for studying overground locomotion. The BART device lacks sophisticated control and sensing capability, but it can be assembled relatively easily and cheaply. Conclusions These findings suggest that the BART device is a useful tool for assessing quadrupedal, overground locomotion which is a more natural form of locomotion relative to treadmill locomotion. PMID:25794460

  14. Improving Bone Microarchitecture in Aging with Diosgenin Treatment: A Study in Senescence-Accelerated OXYS Rats.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, Maria A; Ting, Che-Hao; Kolosova, Nataliya G; Hsu, Chao-Yu; Chen, Jian-Horng; Huang, Chi-Wen; Tseng, Ging-Ting; Hung, Ching-Sui; Kao, Pan-Fu; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Ho, Ying-Jui

    2015-10-31

    Osteoporosis is a major disease associated with aging. We have previously demonstrated that diosgenin prevents osteoporosis in both menopause and D-galactose-induced aging rats. OXYS rats reveal an accelerated senescence and are used as a suitable model of osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to analyze microarchitecture and morphological changes in femur of OXYS rats using morphological tests and microcomputed tomography scanning, and to evaluate the effects of oral administration of diosgenin at 10 and 50 mg/kg/day on femur in OXYS rats. The result showed that, compared with age-matched Wistar rats, the femur of OXYS rats revealed lower bone length, bone weight, bone volume, frame volume, frame density, void volume, porosity, external and internal diameters, cortical bone area, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th, but higher Tb.Sp. Eight weeks of diosgenin treatment decreased porosity and Tb.Sp, but increased BV/TV, cortical bone area, Tb.N and bone mineral density, compared with OXYS rats treated with vehicle. These data reveal that microarchitecture and morphological changes in femur of OXYS rats showed osteoporotic aging features and suggest that diosgenin may have beneficial effects on aging-induced osteoporosis. PMID:26387656

  15. Comparative study of choleretic agents in anesthetized rats as well as in restrained and and unrestrained rats, with or without compensation for biliary loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrid, C.; Dureng, G.; Tachon, J.; Duchene-Marullaz, P.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted on Wistar rats by using 3 control choleretic agents: 1-phenyl-1-hydroxy n-pentane, dehydrocholic acid, and phenyl-dimethylacetic acid. The effects of these agents were compared in different experimental conditions. The comparative study of choleretic agents in anesthetized rats, in restrained and unrestrained rats, with or without compensation for biliary loss by the biliary secretion of restrained or unrestrained rats does not show, in systematic pharmecodynamic investigations, an obvious superiority over the methods based on the simple technique.

  16. Acute hyperuricemic nephropathy in rats. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Waisman, J.; Mwasi, L. M.; Bluestone, R.; Klinenberg, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Hyperuricemia and uricosuria were induced in rats fed uric acid and oxonic acid. Kidneys then were studied by light and electron microscopy. After 1 day of hyperuricemia, animals had deposits of uric acid and urate crystals within collecting tubules of the renal papillae, and tubular cells were altered. By 10 days, there was an exudative response with further injury to epithelium. Clear spaces within lumens, epithelium, and neutrophils suggested the presence of crystals; however, there was no direct ultrastructural evidence that neutrophils or epithelial cells ingested crystals and suffered injury. Presumably, crystals readily seen in frozen, unfixed tissue were lost during preparation for electron microscopy. Nonetheless, the ultrastructural findings indicated that hyperuricemic nephropathy was initiated in a fashion analogous to urate arthropathy. Urate crystals formed within collecting tubules, epithelial cells were altered, and most likely there was chemotaxis of neutrophils which underwent degranulation and vacuolation followed by lysis freeing any ingested urate. Release of ingested crystals plus precipitation of new crystals both might serve to sustain the nephritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1190294

  17. Rat intestinal trehalase. Studies of the active site.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Guo, W J; Isselbacher, K J

    1987-11-01

    Rat intestinal trehalase was solubilized, purified and reconstituted into proteoliposomes. With octyl glucoside as the solubilizing detergent, the purified protein appeared as a single band on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. Kinetic studies indicated that the active site of this enzyme can be functionally divided into two adjacent regions, namely a binding site (with pKa 4.8) and a catalytic site (with pKa 7.2). Other findings suggested that the catalytic site contains a functional thiol group, which is sensitive to inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide, Hg2+ and iodoacetate. Substrate protection and iodoacetate labelling of the thiol group demonstrated that only a protein of 67 kDa was labelled. Furthermore, sucrose and phlorizin protected the thiol group, but Tris-like inhibitors did not. Structure-inhibition analysis of Tris-like inhibitors, the pH effect of Tris inhibition and Tris protection of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodi-imide inactivation permitted characterization and location of a separate site containing a carboxy group for Tris binding, which may also be the binding region. On the basis of these findings, a possible structure for the active site of trehalase is proposed. PMID:3426558

  18. Elemental and structural studies of the rat galactose cataract

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, C.V.; Unakar, N.J.; Bagchi, M.; Chylack, L.T. Jr.; Jampel, R.S.; Bobrowski, W.F.; Dang, L.; Tsui, J.Y.; Harding, D. )

    1989-01-01

    A series of rat galactose lenses, from 1 to 20 days on the 50% galactose diet, were frozen in the whole eye, and fractured from pole to pole in the frozen state. Lyophilized half-lenses were prepared for analysis by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Following elemental analysis, some specimens were embedded and sectioned for histological studies. Elemental X-ray maps, and/or profiles, were made for K, Na, Cl, Ca, P, and S. As early as two days on the galactose diet, a crescent-shaped region (streak) of Cl, Na, and Ca gain, and K loss develops near the equatorial surface. Between this region and the equatorial surface are the nucleated differentiating fiber cells which maintain low Cl, Na, and Ca, and high K (viable equatorial zone, VEZ). With time the streak expands anteriorly, centrally and posteriorly, eventually (by 20 days) including most of the lens. The VEZ, including the epithelium, however, is non-reactive to the galactose diet, which is deleterious to the fully differentiated fiber cells. Eventually, the VEZ undergoes a characteristic morphological change, apparently due in part to changes in its physical environment.

  19. Studies on the phospholipases of rat intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, P. V.; Ganguly, J.

    1970-01-01

    1. Subcellular distribution and characteristics of different phospholipases of rat intestinal mucosa were studied. 2. The presence of free fatty acid was necessary for the maximal hydrolysis of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), but there was no accumulation of lysolecithin (1 or 2-acylglycerophosphorylcholine);lysolecithin accumulated when the reaction was carried out in the presence of sodium deoxycholate and at or above pH8.0. 3. The fatty acid-activated phospholipase B as well as lysolecithinase showed optimum activity at pH6.5, whereas for the phospholipase A it was about pH8.6. 4. The bulk of the phospholipase A was present in the microsomal fraction, whereas the phospholipase B and lysolecithinase activities were distributed between the microsomal and soluble fractions of the mucosal homogenate. 5. Phospholipase A was equally distributed between the brush border and brush-border-free particulate fraction, with the brush border having highest specific activity, whereas the other two activities were distributed between the brush-border-free particulate and soluble fractions. 6. Various treatments showed marked differences between the phospholipase A and phospholipase B activities, but not between phospholipase B and lysolecithinase activities. 7. By using (β[1-14C]-oleoyl) lecithin it was shown that the mucosal phospholipase A was specific for the β-ester linkage of the lecithin molecule. PMID:5484667

  20. A preliminary study of the effectiveness of an otolaryngology-based multidisciplinary falls prevention clinic.

    PubMed

    Alvord, Lynn S; Benninger, Michael S; Stach, Brad A

    2008-09-01

    Because the cause of falls is often multifactorial, efforts to identify risk factors and promote prevention would benefit from a multidisciplinary approach in which the contributions of a broad range of body systems are considered. We describe the practices and procedures followed at the otolaryngology-based multidisciplinary Falls Prevention Clinic at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. Our team is made up of an otolaryngologist, an audiologist, an internist, and a physical therapist. Our multidisciplinary approach involves evaluations of vestibular and balance function, cardiovascular function, and visual function; lower-extremity strength and sensation; cognition and mood; and medication use. We also assess a number of nonmedical risk factors. Evaluations are made over the course of two clinic visits. To assess the effectiveness of our approach, we conducted a preliminary study based on chart reviews and telephone interviews of 52 patients who had been referred to our clinic for evaluation and counseling. The basis of our study was a comparison of the number of falls that patients had experienced during the 6 months prior to their first visit to our clinic and the number of falls they experienced during the 6 months after their second visit. We found that among "true fallers" (i.e., those who had actually experienced a fall at some point during the study), 64.7% reported that they had experienced fewer falls after their clinic visits than before (p < 0.001). Also, 59.1% of patients who had been "frequent fallers" prior to their clinic evaluation (i.e., >or=3 falls during the previous 6 mo) reported that they had not fallen at all during the 6 months following their last visit. Finally, our evaluations identified a substantial number of risk factors in individual patients that had been missed previously, including many nonvestibular factors that might not have been detected without a multidisciplinary approach. We conclude that the results of this preliminary study

  1. Reproduction study with dibasic esters following inhalation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D P; Kennedy, G L; Keenan, C M

    1998-08-01

    Groups of 20 male and 20 female Crl:CD(SD)BR rats were exposed to Dibasic Esters (DBE) at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.16, 0.40 (maximum attainable vapor), or 1.0 mg/L (aerosol). Exposures were conducted for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks (pre-breeding) then 7 days/week for 8 weeks (through breeding, gestation, and lactation). The exposures were interrupted for female rats between gestation day 19 and postpartum day 3. Gestation day 1 was defined as the day a copulatory plug was found, postpartum day 1 was defined as the day of birth. No significant differences were observed between control and test rats with respect to mating performance, fertility, length of gestation, or progeny numbers, structure, and viability. Body weights of parental rats and of their offspring were reduced at 1.0 mg/L. The only histopathologic changes detected were in the nasal tissues of the parental rats, where an exposure-related increase in squamous metaplasia in the olfactory epithelium was observed. There was an increase in liver-to-body weight ratios in the two higher parental exposure groups and an increase in the lung-to-body weight ratio also seen at 1.0 mg/L. It is concluded that reproduction in rats was not altered by repeated inhalation exposure to up to 1.0 mg/L DBE, a concentration that produced both body weight and histologic effects in parental rats. PMID:9706459

  2. Sexual Behavior of Married Young Women: A Preliminary Study from North India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kaur, Rajinder; Prakash, Om; Banerjee, Anindya; Kumar, Lata; Kulhara, P

    2008-01-01

    Background: There are significant gaps in the scientific literature concerning female sexual behavior and attitudes surrounding sexuality, which have definitive implications on public health and clinical work. Aim: To study the sexual behavior of young married Indian women. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 100 consecutive women attending the Department of Pediatrics for the care of noncritical children in a multispecialty, tertiary care teaching hospital setting in North India. Current levels of sexual functioning and satisfaction were assessed by using the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women (BISF-W). All participants were also administered a translated and culturally adapted instrument called Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire-II (SKAQ-II). Results: Peno-vaginal sex continues to be considered the most desired and actually performed sexual activity for arousal and orgasm, followed by kissing and foreplay. Difficulties while performing sexual activity, in the form of physical problems, were faced by 17% of the participants. The participants displayed adequate sexual knowledge and favorable attitude towards sexuality as measured by SKAQ-II. Conclusion: The present study is a preliminary effort to understand the contemporary female sexual behavior, knowledge and attitude by employing standard instruments. Still further studies are required in this area. PMID:19876477

  3. Analytical methods used for the discrimination of substances suspected to be bar soap: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Marlo; LaPorte, Gerald M; Wilson, Jeffrey D; McConnell, Tyra; Shaffer, Douglas K; Stam, Marianne

    2006-11-01

    The submission to forensic laboratories of unknown specimens suspected of being biological or chemical warfare agents has increased tremendously with the threat of terrorism. Oftentimes, a threatening correspondence that contains hoax materials is intended to make the recipient(s) believe they have been exposed to a toxin. In some cases, the perpetrator can use standard household products, such as detergents and soaps. Once these materials are received, they become forensic evidence and may be analyzed for identification and/or comparison with known seized material from a suspect(s). Two separate studies were conducted using different analytical protocols for bar soaps. In the first set, the forensic laboratory at the United States Secret Service conducted tests on 68 bars of soap using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The 68 different soaps displayed unique total ion chromatogram profiles. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy was also used to characterize 46 of the 68 soaps as a preliminary study. In a second set of studies, as part of a homicide investigation, the laboratory at the California Department of Justice, Riverside, conducted examinations on 13 bars of soap by utilizing Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The case study demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish some bar soaps using infrared analysis. Furthermore, the bar soaps could be distinguished from typical laundry detergents using this technique. PMID:17199619

  4. Preliminary studies for the development of a second generation granulocytapheresis (G-CAP) column.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Sugita, Yoichi; Motomura, Tadashi; Ohta, Kazuhide; Nosé, Yukihiko

    2010-07-01

    The preliminary studies for developing a second generation granulocytapheresis (G-CAP) column were made. In the past, the G-CAP column has been used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, recent clinical studies have revealed that the therapeutic effects of the G-CAP column are not significant compared with those of the sham column. These results were considered to be due to insufficient reduction of granulocytes. Thus, development of a better granulocyte removal column was attempted. Realizing that white cells adhered on small-diameter synthetic fibers of 1-2 microm, small diameter cotton fibers were subjected to the studies of their granulocyte-removing capabilities. Three types of cotton, Pakistani, Australian and Egyptian cottons, were evaluated using normal human blood in vitro. Miniature columns were made of each fiber, and CBC and WBC differentiation was compared between pre- and post-filtered blood. The Egyptian cotton removed leukocytes, especially granulocytes, the most efficiently of the three types of cotton. The Egyptian cotton's granulocyte adhesion properties were not altered after different chemical treatments. A 4-ml column of packaged Egyptian cotton with a density of more than 0.125 g/ml could remove granulocytes effectively up to 80 ml of blood passages. Based upon these studies, second generation G-CAP could be carried out with Egyptian cotton fibers as a scaled-up clinical module. PMID:20364286

  5. Will environmental interventions affect the level of mastery motivation among children with disabilities? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim

    2015-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities tend to demonstrate lower levels of mastery motivation in comparison with typically developing children. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of physical and social environmental interventions on the mastery motivation of children with disabilities. Participants included 19 children (from two classes) with disabilities between the ages of 2-4 years from an educational rehabilitation centre. The Individualized Assessment of Mastery Motivation was used to assess the level of mastery motivation; the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised and the Teacher-Child Interaction Observation were used to assess the physical and social environments. A counterbalance study design was used such that the children from the two classes received two phases of intervention, social and physical environmental interventions. The study's results point to the advantage of the social intervention, over the physical one, in improving the child's mastery motivation. However, the results lend support for the efficacy of using both aspects of environmental changes to the overall persistent score. The study findings, although preliminary, demonstrate the efficacy of providing both social and physical environmental interventions to improve mastery motivation. PMID:25308165

  6. Preliminary clinical nursing leadership competency model: a qualitative study from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Supamanee, Treeyaphan; Krairiksh, Marisa; Singhakhumfu, Laddawan; Turale, Sue

    2011-12-01

    This qualitative study explored the clinical nursing leadership competency perspectives of Thai nurses working in a university hospital. To collect data, in-depth interviews were undertaken with 23 nurse administrators, and focus groups were used with 31 registered nurses. Data were analyzed using content analysis, and theory development was guided by the Iceberg model. Nurses' clinical leadership competencies emerged, comprising hidden characteristics and surface characteristics. The hidden characteristics composed three elements: motive (respect from the nursing and healthcare team and being secure in life), self-concept (representing positive attitudes and values), and traits (personal qualities necessary for leadership). The surface characteristics comprised specific knowledge of nurse leaders about clinical leadership, management and nursing informatics, and clinical skills, such as coordination, effective communication, problem solving, and clinical decision-making. The study findings help nursing to gain greater knowledge of the essence of clinical nursing leadership competencies, a matter critical for theory development in leadership. This study's results later led to the instigation of a training program for registered nurse leaders at the study site, and the formation of a preliminary clinical nursing leadership competency model. PMID:22122346

  7. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  8. Barrier analogs: Long-term performance issues, preliminary studies, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.; Chatters, J.C.; Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Link, S.O.; Hunter, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Protective Barrier Development Program is funding studies of natural analogs of the long-term performance of waste site covers. Natural-analog studies examine past environments as evidence for projecting the future performance of engineered structures. The information generated by analog studies is needed to (1) evaluate the designs and results of short term experiments and demonstrations, (2) formulate performance-modeling problems that bound expected changes in waste site environments, and (3) understand emergent system attributes that cannot be evaluated with short-term experiments or computer models. Waste site covers will be part of dynamic environmental systems with attributes that transcend the traits of engineered components. This report discusses results of the previously unreported preliminary studies conducted in 1983 and 1984. These results indicate that analogs could play an important role in predicting the long-term behavior of engineered waste covers. Layered exposures of glacial-flood-deposited gravels mantled with silt or sand that resemble contemporary barrier designs were examined. Bergmounds, another anomaly left by cataclysmic glacial floods, were also examined as analogs of surface gravel.

  9. A preliminary study of containment concepts for aircraft landing on elevated STOL-ports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haviland, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary study of containment systems for aircraft landing on elevated STOL-ports was conducted as part of an overall study of human acceptance problems associated with STOL operations. The study included a survey and feasibility study of different concepts and a computer analysis of four arrestment systems. The principal conclusion was that a system referred to as the FAA system appears to offer the greatest promise. In this system, standard arresting gear cables are stretched across the roof-top, at roughly 100-foot intervals, but are shielded over the 100-foot-wide primary landing strip. Thus a pilot can land with an arresting hook down, but will not contact the cable unless he swerves off the landing strip, either because he has made a bad landing, or because his landing gear has failed. It was also noted that a suitable curb or guard rail should be developed. Presently available arresting gears and nylon net barriers were considered satisfactory for the overshoot problem.

  10. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  11. [Morphological study of the adrenals of rats exposed on the Kosmos-690 satellite].

    PubMed

    Savina, E A; Alekseev, E I

    1979-01-01

    Adrenals of 12 rats flown aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-690 and 30 rats used in the ground-based experiments Control-1 and Control-2 were studied morphologically. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd and 27th days after completion of the experiments (i. e., on the 12 and 37th days after irradiation at a total dose of 800 rad). A comparative study of morphological changes in the adrenals of flight and control rats did not show any distinct differences. It is therefore concluded that space flight factors did not produce a significant effect on the adrenal response to irradiation at a dose of 800 rad. PMID:423508

  12. The Study on Long-Term Toxicity of D-Psicose in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Kanako; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    D-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that D-psicose suppresses plasma glucose increases and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, D-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD50 = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of long term feeding of D-psicose in rats will be essential prior to its utilization as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% D-psicose or sucrose for 12–18 months. The rats actually ingested 1.28 g/kg body weight per day D-psicose or 1.22 g/kg body weight per day of sucrose. Body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight in rats fed the D-psicose diet for 18 months were significantly lower than those in rats fed the sucrose diet. Relative weights of liver and kidney were significantly higher in the D-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% D-psicose or correlated with hypertrophy of liver and kidney. No clinical chemical test value was suggestive of overt D-psicose treatment-related toxicity. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects at 3% D-psicose in the diet. PMID:19902016

  13. Rat model of Achilles tendon disorder. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Messner, K; Wei, Y; Andersson, B; Gillquist, J; Räsänen, T

    1999-01-01

    Three-month-old male rats were subjected 3 times weekly for 1 h to eccentric exercise of one triceps surae muscle (30 stimulations/min) under general anesthesia in order to induce Achilles tendon disorder corresponding to paratenonitis and tendinosis in man. Net muscle work during the sessions ranged between 0.67 and 4.37 mJ (mean 1.72, SD 0.77). After 9 and 13 sessions, respectively, 2 rats started to show gait alterations during the functional test which was performed 2-3 times weekly. These rats were killed after additional sessions which showed a worsening of the limp. The other trained rats and controls did not limp and were killed after 7-11 weeks. Histologic evaluation of the Achilles tendons from the exercised limb showed in the majority of the cases hypervascularization, increased number of nerve filaments and increased immunoreactivity for substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. The tendons from the nonstimulated limb looked normal. The distribution of collagen types I and II appeared normal in the tendon and its insertion to the calcaneus. Inflammation of the epi- and paratenon could be provoked in the rat, but tendon changes corresponding to chronic tendinosis did not develop within 11 weeks with the used training regime. The clinical relevance of this model for chronic tendon disease needs to be evaluated further. PMID:10460971

  14. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Acetonitrile in rats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Boyd, P.J.; Hayden, B.K.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The potential for acetonitrile to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 100, 400, or 1200 ppM acetonitrile, 6 hours/day, 7 days/week. Exposure of rats to these concentrations of acetonitrile resulted in mortality in the 1200 ppM group (2/33 pregnant females; 1/10 non-pregnant females). However, there were no treatment-related effects upon body weights or reproduction indices at any exposure level, nor was there a significant increase in the incidence of fetal malformations or variations. The only effect observed in the fetuses was a slight, but not statiscally significant, exposure-correlated increase in the incidence of supernumerary ribs. Determination of acetonitrile and cyanide concentrations in maternal rat blood showed that acetonitrile concentration in the blood increased with exposure concentration for all exposed maternal rats. Detectable amounts of cyanide in the blood were found only in the rats exposed to 1200 ppM acetonitrile ({approximately}2 {mu}g cyanide/g of blood).

  15. A structural study of the rat proximal and distal nephron: effect of peptide and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Koechlin, N; Elalouf, J M; Kaissling, B; Roinel, N; de Rouffignac, C

    1989-05-01

    The effects of the absence of various hormones (antidiuretic hormone, thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin) on proximal and distal structures were studied in diabetes insipidus (DI) Brattleboro rats. The cross-sectional area of the first segment of proximal convoluted tubules (S1) was significantly reduced in thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) DI rats compared with Long-Evans rats (the strain of origin of DI rats) and untreated DI rats. Administration of triiodothyronine (T3, 10 micrograms/day for 7 days) to TPTX-DI rats restored the proximal tubule structure. In the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) the cross-sectional area of the epithelium and the number of nuclei per cross-sectional area were significantly greater in untreated ADH-deficient DI rats than in the control Long-Evans rats. Daily administration of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP, 500 ng/day for 3 wk) significantly reduced the size and the number of DCT cells in DI rats. Cortical micropuncture data indicated that the Na+ concentration in the fluid delivered to the DCT and the absolute amount of Na+ reabsorbed along the DCT were higher in DI than in dDAVP-treated DI rats. It is concluded that functional changes in the PCT, subsequent to chronic TPTX, are accompanied by marked alteration of the cell anatomy of this nephron segment, and that the processes that modify the Na load delivered to the DCT and the Na transport in the DCT are accompanied by structural modifications of this segment. PMID:2719159

  16. Salivary Stress-Related Responses in Tinnitus: A Preliminary Study in Young Male Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Alsalman, Ola A.; Tucker, Denise; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This preliminary study examined if baseline measures of stress-related biomarkers as measured by salivary secretions of specific autonomic [measured by salivary α-amylase (sAA)], endocrine (measured by salivary cortisol), and immune (measured by salivary neopterin) responses are greater in male subjects with tinnitus in response to an induced-stress task. Method: Twenty male subjects with no significant hearing loss, 10 with tinnitus, and 10 without tinnitus were enrolled in this study.Salivary secretions were collected before and after the induced stress task at four different time intervals. Results: sAA levels were lower in the tinnitus group in comparison to subjects without tinnitus, suggesting impaired sympathetic activity in the subjects with tinnitus although these levels remained stable throughout the stress experiment.While no significant effects could be obtained for salivary cortisol or neopterin, salivary neopterin levels were trending toward significance over all measurements. Behavioral measures of stress were found to correlate negatively with measures of sAA and salivary neopterin. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest impaired stress-related sAA mechanisms in male subjects with tinnitus, as evidenced by the different stress reactions induced in the endocrine system (as measured by salivary cortisol) and the immune system (as measured by salivary neopterin). PMID:27489534

  17. Preliminary studies: differences in microRNA expression in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Pająk, Aneta; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr; Szemraj, Janusz; Goździńska-Nielepkowicz, Agnieszka; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The asthma- and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related morbidity has been increasing during the recent years. Both asthma and COPD are diseases of inflammatory etiology. The increasing interest in the pathomechanisms involved in the development of obstructive pulmonary diseases seems to be fully justified. Recent research has attempted to determine the associations of microRNA with the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases. Aim To assess the expression of microRNA in the blood sera of patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in comparison with healthy subjects. Material and methods In our study, at the preliminary stage, we compared the expression of miRNA in the groups of patients with asthma and COPD versus the control group of healthy subjects. Results A significant difference in hsa-miRNA-224, hsa-miRNA-339-5p, hsa-miRNA-382 in patients with asthma and COPD as compared with the controls was noted. Conclusions With such difference of expression of specific micro-RNA in serum of patient with asthma and COPD, those small non-coding RNA has to play a significant role in those diseases pathway. Therefore we expect to increase the size and differentation of the study groups in next studies. PMID:27605898

  18. Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Children: Preliminary Study in Pediatric Hospital Albert Royer, Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Mbaye; Gueye, Doudou; Wellé, Ibrahima Bocar; Lo, Faty Balla; Sagna, Aloise; Diop, Marie; Fall, Ibrahima

    2015-01-01

    Appendiceal pathology's management has benefited in recent years from the advent of laparoscopic surgery. This study is to make a preliminary assessment of laparoscopic management of acute and complicated appendicitis in children after a few months of practice at the University Hospital Albert Royer, Dakar. This is a retrospective study of 22 cases of patients, all operated on by the same surgeon. The parameters studied were age, sex, clinical data and laboratory features, radiological data, and results of surgical treatment. The mean age of patients was 9.5 years with a male predominance. The series includes 14 cases of acute appendicitis and 8 complicated cases. Appendectomy anterograde is practiced in 81% of cases. Appendectomy was associated with peritoneal wash in 17 patients including 9 cases of acute appendicitis. Drainage of Douglas pouch is performed in 2 patients with complicated appendicitis; the average production was 300 cc of turbid liquids and any complications were not founded. An abscess of Douglas pouch is noted in 2 patients with complicated appendicitis undrained. These Douglas abscesses were treated medically. No conversion of laparotomy was performed in the series. After an average of 8 months no other problems were noted. PMID:26448743

  19. 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study: Fog measurements in the Northern San Joaquin Valley - preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, J. Jr.; Bator, A.; Sherman, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Vertical gradients in fog chemistry and physics were measured from a 430 m television broadcast tower in the northern San Joaquin Valley near Walnut Grove, California. Fog was collected on the ground and at two elevations on the tower using Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collectors Version 2 (CASCC2). Work was conducted as part of the 1995 Integrated Monitoring Study (IMS95). Results will be used to evaluate the need to make measurements aloft in future regional studies of fog processing of atmospheric particles and for testing whether vertically resolved fog models provide realistic simulations of fog physics and chemistry above the ground. Two fog/low cloud events were sampled during the tower study. Preliminary results show concentrations of major species in the fogwater typically decreasing with altitude, while liquid water contents increase. Fogwater loadings of major species, the total amount of a species in the aqueous phase per unit air volume, were observed to increase with altitude. Major species concentrations were typically quite stable at a given elevation, while significant decreases were observed over time in liquid water content. Fogwater concentrations of soluble hydroperoxides were highest near the surface and increased with time after sunrise and were observed to coexist in the high pH fog with S(IV). Time lapse video footage of the top of the fog/cloud layer revealed a very dynamic interface, suggesting entrainment of material from the clear air into the fog/cloud may be significant. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Identification of Emerging Self-Injurious Behavior in Young Children: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Huete, John M.; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a chronic disorder that often begins in early childhood; however, few studies have examined the onset of SIB in young children. This preliminary study reports on the identification, assessment and observation of SIB in 32 children who had begun to engage in SIB within the previous 6 months. Participants were ages birth to 5 years and presented with or were at risk for intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. Assessment measures included parental interviews, developmental and language measures, standardized measures of problem behavior, and direct observations conducted in the home. Results indicated that for most children, SIB emerged prior to age 1 year, and multiple topographies of SIB and other problem behaviors developed in most children. Multiple measures were useful in identifying SIB and in characterizing the behavior by topography, frequency, and severity. Findings from the examination of child communication in relation to SIB were inconclusive. Results are discussed in relation to theories of SIB emergence, and previous observational studies of young children with SIB. PMID:22844389