Science.gov

Sample records for preliminary rat study

  1. Hyaluronic acid biodegradable material for reconstruction of vascular wall: a preliminary study in rats.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Laura; Zavan, Barbara; Bassetto, Franco; Ferroni, Letizia; Iacobellis, Laura; Abatangelo, Giovanni; Lepidi, Sandro; Cortivo, Roberta; Vindigni, Vincenzo

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to develop a reabsorbable vascular patch that did not require in vitro cell or biochemical preconditioning for vascular wall repair. Patches were composed only of hyaluronic acid (HA). Twenty male Wistar rats weighing 250-350 g were used. The abdominal aorta was exposed and isolated. A rectangular breach (1 mm × 5 mm) was made on vessel wall and arterial defect was repaired with HA made patch. Performance was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks after surgery by histology and immunohistochemistry. Extracellular matrix components were evaluated by molecular biological methods. After 16 weeks, the biomaterial was almost completely degraded and replaced by a neoartery wall composed of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, collagen, and elastin fibers organized in layers. In conclusion, HA patches provide a provisional three-dimensional support to interact with cells for the control of their function, guiding the spatially and temporally multicellular processes of artery regeneration. PMID:21268111

  2. Preliminary studies on the hypoglycaemic effect ofAbroma augusta in alloxan diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Eshrat, H; Hussain, M A; Jamil, K; Rao, M

    2001-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract ofAbroma augusta (Family: Steculiceae) was studied in normal as well as alloxan diabetic rats. Treatement of diabetic rats with 4 ml (4gm dry weight) of agueous extract ofA. augusta for 16 weeks resulted in gradual but significant fall in fasting blood glucose and improvement in glucose tolerance. Serum total and LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol which increased in diabetic rats showed improvement. These results show that the water extract ofA. augusta has both hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects. PMID:23105296

  3. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora. PMID:24329503

  4. [Preliminary study on efficacy and mechanism of Atractylodes Macrocephelae Rhizoma extracts in metabolic hyperlipidemia rats].

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-jing; Chen, Su-hong; Pan, Dan-dan; Li, Bo; Lv, Gui-yan

    2015-05-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major factor causing coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a major indicator for measuring lipid levels. However, there is no an effective medicine that can obviously increase HDL-C at present. According to previous laboratory studies, atractylodes macrocephalae extracts could significantly increase HDL-C level. In this study, the metabolic hyperlipidemia rat model was established by feeding high-sugar and fat diets and alcohol-drinking to explore the effect and mechanism of atractylodes macrocephalae extracts on hyperlipidemia rats. According to the findingins, different doses of atractylodes macrocephalae extracts could reduce the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ACAT and increase the contents of LCAT, HDL-C. Particularly, the atractylodes macrocephalae extracts (100 mg · kg(-1) group showed increase in HDL-C by about 50% and significant declines in HMG-CoA reductase, TC, TG. In conclusion, Atractylodes Macrocephelae Rhizoma extracts could effectively regulate the dyslipidemia of hyperlipidemia rats, especially on HDL-C. Its mechanism may be related to reduction in cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase in livers and increase in lipid metabolism and transport by regulating LCAT and ACAT levels. PMID:26323152

  5. The percutaneous permeability and absorption of dexamethasone esters in diabetic rats: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha-Sha; Song, Zhi-Hua; Xiong, Lu-Qi; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Guo-Feng

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of diabetes on the permeation of dexamethasone acetate (DA) and dexamethansone sodium phosphate (DSP), the two major dexamethansone esters in clinical practice, when applied percutaneously, histochemical staining was used to determine the skin morphology; improved Franz diffusion cells and microdialysis were used to assess the percutaneous permeation of DA and DSP in normal and diabetic rats. Histopathological examination showed that the epidermal tissue of diabetic rat was much thinner, the epidermal cell layer was less clear and the stratified arrangement of epidemic cell had almost disappeared and progressive atrophy were developed on the subcutaneous fat. In vitro studies showed that the cumulative and the penetrated DSP amount in Group DM were higher. The mean flux value and the mean depositional amount of Group DM were increased significantly compared to those of Group CTL, whereas the amount of DA penetrating was of no difference. Microdialysis indicated that there was no significant difference between Group CTL and Group DM for all the pharmacokinetic parameters of DA. In contrast, the subcutaneous AUCall values and the C(max) of DSP were significantly increased compared to the control. In conclusion, diabetic rat skin significantly increased the percutaneous permeation of DSP but had no effect on that of DA. It suggests that patients with diabetes should consider the dose of administration when using DA, DSP or other glucocorticoids topically, as different liposolubilities may play some role in the permeability of these compounds via diabetic skin. PMID:24102159

  6. The antinociceptive effects of tualang honey in male sprague-dawley rats: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Che Badariah Abd; Ismail, Che Aishah Nazariah; Hussin, Che Maraina Che; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2014-10-01

    Tualang honey ( Fēng Mì) is known to have anti-inflammatory property, but its antinociceptive property has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we examined the preemptive effects on administering different doses of Tualang honey and prednisolone on the nociceptive response in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7) and each group received either distilled water, Tualang honey (0.2, 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg) or prednisolone (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. The response to noxious thermal stimulus was assessed using tail flick test on Day 10. The well-being of the rats was also assessed by monitoring their food intake and body weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Scheffe's test and P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In tail flick test, the tail flick latency time was significantly higher in the groups that received 1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg of Tualang honey and 10 mg/kg of prednisolone, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). There was significant reduction in the total food pellet intake in the groups receiving prednisolone and Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) compared to controls; however, the body weight gain was only significantly reduced in the prednisolone group. All the parameters were not significantly affected in the group receiving 0.2 g/kg of Tualang honey. In conclusion, preemptive administration of Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) and prednisolone (10 mg/kg) had reduced the pain responses. The reduced weight gain in the prednisolone group is an unwanted effect due to its metabolic and central actions. Further studies are required to confirm the antinociceptive effects and elucidate the mechanism of antinociceptive action of Tualang honey in the rats. PMID:25379476

  7. Investigation of the effects of Aloe barbadensis on rat ovaries: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kosif, Rengin; Aktas, R Gülhan

    2009-12-01

    Effects of Aloe barbadensis, a type of Aloe vera, on ovaries were investigated during pregnancy. A. vera gel, a commercial and nontherapeutic form of A. barbadensis, was used for this purpose. Three groups (one control and two test groups) of female Wistar albino rats with no prior births were studied. Group I was administered 25 mg (140 mg/kg) of A. barbadensis/day both orally and through gavage. A. barbadensis was contained in capsules with 500 mg of soybean oil; therefore Group II was administered 500 mg of soybean oil. Group III was the control group. All three groups were given normal food and water ad libitum. The substance had been administered for 20 days until birth. Ovaries were examined histologically. Vascular increase and the hyperemic form of ovary in the group administered A. barbadensis were notable. Decrease in primary follicle numbers, increase in secondary follicle numbers, and diminishment of secondary follicle diameters occurred in ovaries. The histological changes imply an angiogenesis effect of A. barbadensis and an effect like that of follicle-stimulating hormone in ovaries. PMID:20041799

  8. A preliminary study of age-related difference in resistance to sepsis in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Wei, C I; Gilliam, M C; Cohen, M D; Cornell, J A; Moazam, F

    1987-11-01

    Although the pathophysiology of intraabdominal sepsis is well established in the adult animal, there is a paucity of similar information in the newborn animal. Using the Wichterman (K.A. Wichterman, A.E. Baue, and I.H. Chaudry, Journal of Surgical Research 29: 189, 1980) model of intraabdominal sepsis, 42 Sprague-Dawley suckling rat pups and 42 adults underwent cecal ligation followed by a single needle puncture of the cecum. Whereas a mortality of 47.6% was noted in the adult animals, only 7.1% of the suckling animals succumbed by the end of 1 week. After the ip LD50 of Escherichia coli was determined independently in each age group, appropriate doses of the bacteria were injected into the peritoneums of 36 suckling and 30 adult rats. The peritoneal fluid was aspirated at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hr and the bacterial concentration in the suspension was determined. The rate of bacterial clearance from the peritoneum of the suckling rats was found to be significantly greater at 2, 4, and 8 hr as compared with the adult animal. In vitro assay of the phagocytic activity of the peritoneal macrophages demonstrated a significantly higher activity in the cells obtained from the suckling rats than in those from the adult (P less than 0.05). A more efficient bacterial clearance and a higher phagocytic activity in the peritoneal macrophages of the suckling rats may contribute to the difference in the mortality between the two age groups. PMID:3316844

  9. Preliminary studies on antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Arun, M; Asha, V V

    2007-04-20

    Physalis peruviana is a medicinal herb used by Muthuvan tribes and Tamilian native who reside in the shola forest regions of Kerala, India against jaundice. It was evaluated for its antihepatotoxic, phytochemical analysis and the acute toxicity of the most promising extract in rats. Water, ethanol and hexane extracts of Physalis peruviana (500mg/kg body weight) showed antihepatotoxic activities against CCl(4) induced hepatotoxicity. The ethanol and hexane extracts showed moderate activity compared to water extract, which showed activity at a low dose of 125mg/kg. The results were judged from the serum marker enzymes. Histopathological changes induced by CCl(4) were also significantly reduced by the extract. Further, the extract administration to rats resulted in an increase in hepatic GSH and decrease in MDA. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various components in the crude aqueous extract. The extract was found to be devoid of any conspicuous acute toxicity in rats. PMID:17161567

  10. Oral ethanol ingestion altered nifedipine pharmacokinetics in the rat: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Boje, K M; Dolce, J A; Fung, H L

    1984-11-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered nifedipine in the presence or absence of concomitant alcohol ingestion in the rat. In the presence of alcohol, the area under the nifedipine plasma concentration vs. time curve and half-life of drug elimination were increased, and the rate constant of elimination was significantly decreased (p less than 0.05), while the apparent volume of distribution was apparently unaffected. Clearance, normalized to control, was significantly decreased (p less than 0.01). Since nifedipine and ethanol both undergo dehydrogenation in their metabolism, it is possible that this observed drug-drug interaction may be due to a metabolic interference. It is not known at this time whether such an interaction exists in man. PMID:6515116

  11. Bladder response to acute sacral neuromodulation while treating rats in different phases of complete spinal cord injury: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Fang, Youfang; Yu, Hongliu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Compared to conventional therapies, sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may offer an alternative, non-destructive treatment for SCI patients with bladder dysfunction. Understanding bladder response to SNM treatment for SCI in different phases may yield new insights for innovative use of this promising technique. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to examine the effects of acute SNM on bladder reflex in complete SCI rats. All rats were anesthetized and set up for continuous saline infusion. Acute SNM treatment was implemented for about 6 hours for each rat. Cystometric parameters, including time between contractions, contraction duration, bladder peak pressure, and number of uninhibited contractions, were analyzed and compared within rats before and after SNM treatment. Results: For the spinally transected rats during early phase (less than two weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration both increased after SNM treatments, yet the increased amplitude was about or less than 20%. For the spinally transected rats with a longer days survival (about two to four weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration substantially increased after SNM treatment and the changes for their average values were more than 90%. For the spinally transected rats with a much longer days survival (more than five weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration increased after SNM treatments, yet the magnitude of changes were less than 30%. Conclusion: The present study suggested that the significant effectiveness of SNM for complete SCI played its role after the spinal shock phase and prior to the development of detrusor overactivity. It indicated that the time point of SNM treatment is necessary to be paid attention. PMID:26742980

  12. [A preliminary study on the mechanism of impaired beta cell function in monosodium glutamate obese rat with insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Quan; Shen, Zhu-Fang

    2008-11-01

    This study is to evaluate beta cell function and investigate the mechanism of impaired pancreatic islet beta cell function in monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rat with insulin resistance, an animal model of metabolic syndrome. Insulin tolerance test was used to screen MSG obese rats with insulin resistance. Blood concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol and insulin were determined. Beta cell function was assessed with hyperglycemic clamp technique. The morphological alterations in pancreas and changes of islet beta cell mass were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Gomori aldehyde fuchsin staining. Lipid, oxidative stress relevant factors, nitric oxide (NO) level and activity of ATPase in pancreas and pancreatic mitochondrial were tested. The MSG obese rats with insulin resistance could be validated as a typical metabolic syndrome animal model possessing increased fasting plasma triglycerides and insulin (P < 0. 001), markedly decreased weight indices of pancreas and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Gomori aldehyde fuchsin staining showed increased adipocytes and fibroplasia deposition in pancreas and reduced beta cell mass. The increased contents of triglyceride and NO level, the decreased SOD levels and activities of total ATPase (P < 0.001), Na+-K+-ATPase (P < 0.001) and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase (P < 0.01) were observed in pancreas and its mitochondria versus normal rat. The study demonstrates that accumulation of lipids in pancreas could lead to increased systemic indicators of inflammation, such as NO, which may influence the activities of several kinds of ATPase in cell membranes and interfere the ion transport, substance metabolism and energy production in pancreas. Finally the MSG obese rats characterized with metabolic syndrome displayed an impairment of beta cell function. PMID:19239028

  13. Morphological changes positive correlates with oxidative stress in COPD. Preliminary data of an experimental rat model--study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Murărescu, Elena Doina; Iancu, Roxana; Mihailovici, Maria Sultana

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that nicotine that is a major toxic component of cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress which is responsible for the lung damages in COPD and cancer. There have been reported some cases of COPD in never smoking patients exposed to air pollutants. The aim of our study is to evaluate the morphological pulmonary changes in rats exposed to cigarette smoke respectively to solid combustible smoke and to establish the relationship between the exposure and the level of oxidative stress measured through serum (s) and pulmonary tissue (l) MDA in rats (TBARS method). Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10): (1) the control group (C), (2) the cigarette smoke group (CS), and (3) the solid combustible smoke group (SC). Apart from the control group, these were treated with solid combustibles smoke or cigarette smoke for six months. We collected blood for serum determination of MDA and the lungs were removed for histopathological analysis and to determine the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The levels of serum and lung MDA were significantly higher in CS and SC groups compared with C group, but not significantly differences between CS and SC group were detected. These findings are positively correlated with histopathological changes (squamous metaplasia and clear cell hyperplasia in the bronchium epithelium, emphysema) found in pulmonary tissue. Preliminary data of our study confirms that not only the cigarette smoke but also the environmental pollutants are involved in the major pathways of COPD. PMID:17502953

  14. Exercise may offset nicotine-induced injury in lung tissue: a preliminary histological study based on a rat model.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, S; Mathew, T C; Dean, E

    2012-05-01

    Nicotine appears to be the primary pharmacologic agent that causes smoking-related pulmonary diseases. An understanding of the effect of nicotine on lungs is essential to develop interventions that can be used to counter smoking-related diseases. Further, it is shown that physical exercise may partially reverse smoking-induced pathological changes in experimental animals. Hence, this study focuses on the pathological changes in rat lung following nicotine administration and the role of exercise in reversing the nicotine-induced lung injury. This is a randomized controlled trial with 3 groups of rats. Control (CG), nicotine-exposed (NG), and nicotine-exposed and exercise group (NEG). Control group received no intervention. Both NG and NEG were given 1.5 mg/kg nicotine base, daily, subcutaneously, but NEG were also subjected to an intensive daily swimming protocol. The rats were sacrificed and the lung tissue was processed for light and transmission electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies. Compared with the control group, the nicotine group showed enlargement and destruction of the alveolar septum, cellular hyperplasia and interstitial fibrosis, and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration with increased intraluminal macrophages. There was only modest morphological change between the nicotine administered and nicotine and exercise groups. Expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase showed a mild increase in the NEG, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed mild and moderate increase in the expression in the NG and NEG, respectively. This study shows that nicotine induces substantial pathological changes in the lung and prolonged exercise may have some beneficial effects in partially reversing the nicotine-induced lung injury by inducing the expression of antioxidants. PMID:22452750

  15. Spinal fusion with demineralized calf fetal growth plate as novel biomaterial in rat model: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Iraj; Oryan, Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Elena; Shafiei-Sarvestani, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal fusions are being performed for various pathologies of the spine such as degenerative diseases, deformities, tumors and fractures. Recently, other bone substitutes such as demineralized bone matrix (DBM) have been developed for spinal fusion. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the intertransverse posterolateral fusion with the Bovine fetal growth plate (DCFGP) and compare it with commercial DBM in rat model. Methods A total of 16 mature male rats (aged 4 months and weighing 200-300 g) were randomly divided in two groups. After a skin incision on posterolateral site, two separate fascial incisions were made 3 mm from the midline. A muscle-splitting approach was used to expose the transverse processes of L4 and L5. Group I (n = 8) underwent with implanted Bovine fetal growth plate among decorticated transverse processes. In group II (n = 8) commercial DBM was placed in the same manner. Fusion was evaluated by manual palpation, radiographical, gross and histopathological analysis. Results The manual palpation, radiological, gross and histopathological findings indicate high potential of the DCFGP in spinal fusion. At the 42nd postoperative day, new bone formation as evidenced by a bridge between L4 and L5 was visualized in all rats implanted with DCFGP and commercial DBM. The newly formed bone tissue was observed in all implanted areas on the 42nd day after operation in the two groups. Conclusions The spinal fusion of the animals of both groups demonstrated more advanced osteogenic potential and resulted in proper fusion of the transverse process of lumbar vertebra. PMID:25694913

  16. Pleurodesis by erythromycin, tetracycline, Aerosil™ 200, and erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 in a rat model: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background None of the current pleurodesing agents fulfil all the criteria for best pleural sclerosant. Therefore, the search for the ideal agent for chemical pleurodesis still continues. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of erythromycin, tetracycline, Aerosil™ 200 (hydrophilic fumed amorphous silica), and erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 in producing pleurodesis in rats. In the present study, talc was not used as a pleurodesing agent due to an unavailability of its sterile and pure form in Iran. Methods Overall, 75 adult male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomized to 5 treatment groups. Each group received an intrapleural injection via 5 Fr Silastic tubes of one of the following sterile agents: 35mg/kg erythromycin in 2 ml of saline, 35mg/kg tetracycline in 2 ml of saline, 35mg/kg Aerosil™ 200 in 2ml of saline, erythromycin (35mg/kg in 2 ml of saline) plus Aerosil™ 200 (35mg/kg in 2 ml of saline), or 2 ml of saline as a control. The animals were euthanized and necropsied 30 days after injection. The pleurae were assessed for macroscopic and microscopic evidence of surrounding inflammation and fibrosis. Results The median macroscopic score in the Aerosil™ 200 group was significantly higher than that in the erythromycin group (P < 0.005). The median microscopic score in the erythromycin group was significantly lower than that in the Aerosil™ 200 and erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 groups (P < 0.005). Furthermore, maximum and minimum pleural fibrosis was observed in the erythromycin plus Aerosil™ 200 and erythromycin groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion This study suggests that Aerosil™ 200 with or without erythromycin may be more potent pleurodesis agent than erythromycin and tetracycline. PMID:23351183

  17. In vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" phenomenon in rat arterial bloodstream: a preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2014-07-01

    The "black hole," a hypo-echoic hole at the center of the bloodstream surrounded by a hyper-echoic zone in cross-sectional views, has been observed in ultrasound backscattering measurements of blood with red blood cell aggregation in in vitro studies. We investigated whether the phenomenon occurs in the in vivo arterial bloodstream of rats using a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system. Longitudinal and cross-sectional ultrasound images of the rat common carotid artery (CCA) and abdominal aorta were obtained using a 40-MHz ultrasound system. A high-frame-rate retrospective imaging mode was employed to precisely examine the dynamic changes in blood echogenicity in the arteries. When the imaging was performed with non-invasive scanning, blood echogenicity was very low in the CCA as compared with the surrounding tissues, exhibiting no hypo-echoic zone at the center of the vessel. Invasive imaging of the CCA by incising the skin and subcutaneous tissues at the imaging area provided clearer and brighter blood echo images, showing the "black hole" phenomenon near the center of the vessel in longitudinal view. The "black hole" was also observed in the abdominal aorta under direct imaging after laparotomy. The aortic "black hole" was clearly observed in both longitudinal and cross-sectional views. Although the "black hole" was always observed near the center of the arteries during the diastolic phase, it dissipated or was off-center along with the asymmetric arterial wall dilation at systole. In conclusion, we report the first in vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" caused by the radial variation of red blood cell aggregation in arterial bloodstream. PMID:24785440

  18. Preliminary assessment of the oral toxicity of 1,5-diazido-3-nitrazapentane, 2- and 6-week feeding study, male and female rats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, E.A.; Harvey, J.G.; Bell, P.A.

    1993-02-01

    A 2 and 6 week gavage feeding of DANPE caused testicular hypospermatogenesis in male rats and pneumonitis in female rats. A NOAEL was not achieved in male rats but was achieved in female rats at the 56.00 mg/kg/day dose level.... 1,5-Diazido-3-Nitrazapentane (DANPE), Gavage, Testicular hypospermatogenesis, Insterstitual Inflammation No-observed-Adverse-Effect-Level(NOAEL), Feeding study.

  19. Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberland, David L.; Agarwal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

    2008-03-01

    Monitoring of anti-rheumatic drug delivery in experimental models and in human diseases would undoubtedly be very helpful for both basic research and clinical management of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we have investigated the potential of an emerging hybrid imaging technology—photoacoustic tomography—in noninvasive monitoring of anti-TNF drug delivery. After the contrast agent composed of gold nanorods conjugated with Etanercept molecules was produced, ELISA experiments were performed to prove the conjugation and to show that the conjugated anti-TNF-α drug was biologically active. PAT of ex vivo rat tail joints with the joint connective tissue enhanced by intra-articularly injected contrast agent was conducted to examine the performance of PAT in visualizing the distribution of the gold-nanorod-conjugated drug in articular tissues. By using the described system, gold nanorods with a concentration down to 1 pM in phantoms or 10 pM in biological tissues can be imaged with good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. This study demonstrates the feasibility of conjugating TNF antagonist pharmaceutical preparations with gold nanorods, preservation of the mechanism of action of TNF antagonist along with preliminary evaluation of novel PAT technology in imaging optical contrast agents conjugated with anti-rheumatic drugs. Further in vivo studies on animals are warranted to test the specific binding between such conjugates and targeted antigen in joint tissues affected by inflammation.

  20. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:26435406

  1. Behavioral sensitization to apomorphine in adult rats exposed to cocaine during the preweaning period: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Busidan, Y; Dow-Edwards, D L

    1999-07-01

    Sixty-day-old rats treated with cocaine (50 mg/kg SC) during postnatal days (PND) 11-20 received daily injections of apomorphine (2.0 mg/kg SC) for 10 consecutive days to examine the development of sensitization to a direct dopamine agonist. Behavior was monitored on days 1, 5, and 10, using a photobeam system, and on day 10 using the videotape assessments as well. Locomotor sensitization to apomorphine developed in the preweaning vehicle-treated males only. Neither the cocaine-treated males nor any females exhibited locomotor sensitization to repeated apomorphine injections at 2 mg/kg. There were no other treatment-related effects except for grooming, which showed an interaction between treatment and gender. Overall, every behavior analyzed showed significant apomorphine effects, except rearing. Margin time (wall hugging), grooming, and quiet were significantly decreased by apomorphine, while locomotion and the duration of sniffing were increased. In summary, these data indicate that with respect to locomotor activity, the development of sensitization to apomorphine at 2.0 mg/kg is prevented by preweaning cocaine administration in males. These data further suggest that developmental cocaine exposure produces long-term alterations in DA D1 receptor-mediated responses in male rats. PMID:10418783

  2. The long-term ingestion of a diet high in extra virgin olive oil produces obesity and insulin resistance but protects endothelial function in rats: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that fatty acids derived from a diet high in saturated fat may negatively affect endothelial function more significantly than a diet high in unsaturated fat; nevertheless, the effects of the long-term ingestion of monounsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function have been poorly studied. Methods To examine the chronic effects of monounsaturated (e.g., extra virgin olive oil (EVOO)) or saturated (e.g., margarine (M)) fatty acid-rich diets on the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in rats, three groups of rats were fed control, high-EVOO or high-M diets for 20 weeks. Body weight, energy consumption, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation and in vitro vascular reactivity with and without metformin were assessed during the study period. Results Both high-fat diets produced obesity and insulin resistance. EVOO-fed rats showed smaller increases in total cholesterol and arterial lipid peroxidation when compared with M-fed rats. Vascular reactivity to phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside was not modified, but the vasodilating effect of carbachol was especially reduced in the M-fed rats compared with the EVOO-fed or control groups. Metformin addition to the incubation media decreased the vascular response to phenylephrine; decrease that was lower in rats fed with both high fat diets, and increased the carbachol and nitroprusside effects, but the metformin-enhanced response to carbachol was lower in the M group. Conclusions Our results suggest that feeding rats with high quantities of EVOO, despite producing obesity and insulin resistance, produces low levels of circulating cholesterol and arterial lipoperoxidation compared to M fed rats and shows a preserved endothelial response to carbachol, effect that is significantly enhanced by metformin only in rats fed with control and EVOO diets. PMID:24330822

  3. Sodium ferulate lowers portal pressure in rats with secondary biliary cirrhosis through the RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathway: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    WEI, LAI; YANG, JUAN; WANG, MIN; XU, SHENG-NAN; LIANG, HUA-MIN; ZHOU, QI

    2014-01-01

    Cirrhotic rats show higher expression levels of hepatic RhoA and Rho-kinase than normal healthy rats, and the activation of this signaling pathway leads to portal hypertension. Sodium ferulate (SF) has been shown to decrease the production of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), a substance essential for RhoA activation. In the present study, to investigate the effects of SF on fibrosis, portal hypertension and the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway, hepatic cirrhosis was induced in rats by bile duct ligation. Liver function and fibrogenesis-related biochemical parameters, the hepatic hydroxyproline content, the pathological characteristics of the liver sections and the levels of hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; by immunohistochemistry) were analyzed to assess effects of SF on hepatic fibrosis. In addition, hepatic RhoA, Rho-kinase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis in the SF-treated and SF + GGPP-treated rat primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and a human stellate cell line (LX-2) was examined by flow cytometry. Intrahepatic resistance and responsiveness to the α1-adrenoceptor agonist, methoxamine, were investigated by in situ liver perfusion. Treatment with SF did not affect fibrosis-related biochemical parameters or the hydroxyproline content; however, SF reduced the histological evidence of fibrosis and hepatocyte damage. The SF-treated rats had a significantly lower expression of α-SMA and Rho-kinase, as well as an increased hepatic eNOS content; however, SF did not affect RhoA expression. The SF-treated HSCs had a significantly increased apoptotic rate compared to the untreated rats. Following the addition of GGPP, the rate apoptotic rate decreased. SF reduced basal intrahepatic resistance and the responsiveness of hepatic vascular smooth muscle to methoxamine. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SF reduces fibrogenesis, decreases portal pressure in cirrhotic rats and inhibits the

  4. Evaluation of Mallotus oppositifolius Methanol Leaf Extract on the Glycaemia and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nwaehujor, C. O.; Ezeigbo, I. I.; Nwinyi, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is folklorically used to “treat” diabetic conditions in some parts of Nigeria therefore the study, to investigate the extract of the leaves for activities on hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation, and increased cholesterol levels in vivo in alloxan diabetic rats as well as its potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods. Albino rats (240–280 g) were given an injection of 120 mg/kg body weight, i.p. of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 days, diabetic animals with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (>9 mmol/L) were considered and selected for the study. Results. Oral treatment with the extract administered every 12 h by gavage at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract to the test rats, for 14 days, resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels from 12.82 ± 1.02 mmol/dL to 4.92 ± 2.01 mmol/dL at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg compared to the control drug and glibenclamide as well as attendant significant decline in diabetic rats employed in the study. Conclusion. The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. oppositifolius leaves. PMID:24224091

  5. Hemorrhage Near Fetal Rat Bone: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.

    2006-05-01

    High-intensity ultrasound has shown potential in treating many ailments requiring noninvasive tissue necrosis. However, little work has been done on using ultrasound to ablate pathologies on or near the developing fetus. For example, Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (cyst on lungs), Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (benign tumor on tail bone), and Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (one twin pumps blood to other twin) are selected problems that will potentially benefit from noninvasive ultrasound treatments. Before these applications can be explored, potential ultrasound-induced bioeffects should be understood. Specifically, ultrasound-induced hemorrhage near the fetal rat skull was investigated. An f/1 spherically focused transducer (5.1-cm focal length) was used to expose the skull of 18- to 19-day-gestation exteriorized rat fetuses. The ultrasound pulse had a center frequency of 0.92 MHz and pulse duration of 9.6 μs. The fetuses were exposed to 1 of 4 exposure conditions (denoted A, B, C, and D) in addition to a sham exposure. Three of the exposures consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 10 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 6.7 MPa, and pulse repetition frequencies of 100 Hz (A), 250 Hz (B), and 500 Hz (C), corresponding to time-average intensities of 1.9 W/cm2, 4.7 W/cm2, and 9.4 W/cm2, respectively. Exposure D consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 6.7 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 5.0 MPa, and a PRF of 500 Hz corresponding to a time-average intensity of 4.6 W/cm2. Hemorrhage occurrence increased slightly with increasing time-average intensity (i.e., 11% for A, 28% for B, 31% for C, and 19% for D with a 9% occurrence when the fetuses were not exposed). The low overall occurrence of hemorrhaging may be attributed to fetal motion (observed in over half of the fetuses from the backscattered echo during the exposure). The mean hemorrhage sizes were 3.1 mm2 for A, 2.5 mm2 for B, 2.7 mm2 for C, and 5.1 mm2 for D. The larger lesions at D may

  6. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  7. Reflectance confocal microscopy as a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring of skin containing vascularized composite allograft rejection: A preliminary study on rats.

    PubMed

    Zor, Fatih; Karagoz, Huseyin; Erdemir, Asli Turgut; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Acikel, Cengiz Han; Kapaj, Rezarta; Guzey, Serbulent; Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Isik, Selcuk; Siemionow, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Vascularized composite allografts can undergo immune-mediated rejection, and skin biopsies are needed for monitoring of the transplant. However it is an invasive method, and requires processing time and pathological assessment. The purpose of this study is to use a new noninvasive monitoring method of the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) to determine severity of the allograft rejection on rats. Five groin flap allotransplantation were performed between 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine A was given to the recipients during 10 days after surgery and was ended at the 10th postoperative days to allow acute transplant rejection. Following cessation of CsA, concomitant RCM evaluation and skin biopsy was performed every other day from each animal until total rejection of the allograft. Complete rejection of the allograft took nearly about 10 days and 4 or 5 RCM evaluation and skin biopsy was performed from each rat during this period. A total of 17 specimens were evaluated. A scoring system was developed based on the RCM findings. Skin biopsies were evaluated according to the Banff 2007 working classification criteria. RCM evaluation revealed epidermal irregularity and collagen destruction, however mild perivascular inflammation and degeneration of the basal epidermal layer were observed in early and late rejection period respectively with histopathologic evaluation. High correlation was found between the RCM scores and histopathologic grading. The RCM may be the useful tool to reduce the need for skin biopsy for monitoring of the skin containing vascularized composite allograft. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:144-151, 2016. PMID:25959719

  8. Optical coherence tomography based microangiography for quantitative monitoring of structural and vascular changes in a rat model of acute uveitis in vivo: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis models in rodents are important in the investigation of pathogenesis in human uveitis and the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies for treatment. Quantitative monitoring of ocular inflammation in small animal models provides an objective metric to assess uveitis progression and/or therapeutic effects. We present a new application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) to a rat model of acute anterior uveitis induced by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. OCT/OMAG is used to provide noninvasive three-dimensional imaging of the anterior segment of the eyes prior to injection (baseline) and two days post-injection (peak inflammation) in rats with and without steroid treatments. OCT imaging identifies characteristic structural and vascular changes in the anterior segment of the inflamed animals when compared to baseline images. Characteristics of inflammation identified include anterior chamber cells, corneal edema, pupillary membranes, and iris vasodilation. In contrast, no significant difference from the control is observed for the steroid-treated eye. These findings are compared with the histology assessment of the same eyes. In addition, quantitative measurements of central corneal thickness and iris vessel diameter are determined. This pilot study demonstrates that OCT-based microangiography promises to be a useful tool for the assessment and management of uveitis in vivo.

  9. Creation and Preliminary Characterization of a Leptin Knockout Rat

    PubMed Central

    Vaira, Sergio; Yang, Chang; McCoy, Aaron; Keys, Kelly; Xue, Shurong; Weinstein, Edward J.; Novack, Deborah V.

    2012-01-01

    Leptin, a cytokine-like hormone secreted mainly by adipocytes, regulates various pathways centered on food intake and energy expenditure, including insulin sensitivity, fertility, immune system, and bone metabolism. Here, using zinc finger nuclease technology, we created the first leptin knockout rat. Homozygous leptin null rats are obese with significantly higher serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin levels than wild-type controls. Neither gender produced offspring despite of repeated attempts. The leptin knockout rats also have depressed immune system. In addition, examination by microcomputed tomography of the femurs of the leptin null rats shows a significant increase in both trabecular bone mineral density and bone volume of the femur compared with wild-type littermates. Our model should be useful for many different fields of studies, such as obesity, diabetes, and bone metabolism-related illnesses. PMID:22948215

  10. Creation and preliminary characterization of a Tp53 knockout rat

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Aaron; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L.; Franklin, Craig L.; Weinstein, Edward J.; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The tumor suppressor TP53 plays a crucial role in cancer biology, and the TP53 gene is the most mutated gene in human cancer. Trp53 knockout mouse models have been widely used in cancer etiology studies and in search for a cure of cancer with some limitations that other model organisms might help overcome. Via pronuclear microinjection of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), we created a Tp53 knockout rat that contains an 11-bp deletion in exon 3, resulting in a frameshift and premature terminations in the open reading frame. In cohorts of 25 homozygous (Tp53Δ11/Δ11), 37 heterozygous (Tp53Δ11/+) and 30 wild-type rats, the Tp53Δ11/Δ11 rats lived an average of 126 days before death or removal from study because of clinical signs of abnormality or formation of tumors. Half of Tp53Δ11/+ were removed from study by 1 year of age because of tumor formation. Both Tp53Δ11/+ and Tp53Δ11/Δ11 rats developed a wide spectrum of tumors, most commonly sarcomas. Interestingly, there was a strikingly high incidence of brain lesions, especially in Tp53Δ11/Δ11 animals. We believe that this mutant rat line will be useful in studying cancer types rarely observed in mice and in carcinogenicity assays for drug development. PMID:22917926

  11. Infrared LED light therapy influences the expression of fibronectin and tenascin in skin wounds of malnourished rats--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Ana Paula Cavalcanti; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Ramos, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves; Trindade, Renan Ferreira; de Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Carneiro, Tuânia Soares; Cangussú, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of infrared (λ 846±20nm) LED irradiation on the expression profile of the extracellular matrix protein components, tenascin and fibronectin on skin wounds induced in well nourished and malnourished rats. Eighteen albino rats (21 days old) were randomly divided into a well-nourished group (standard diet) and a malnourished group (regional basic diet). After receiving the diet for 70 days, skin wounds were created and the animals were subdivided into three groups: well-nourished control (n=6), malnourished control (n=6), and malnourished+LED irradiated (λ 846±20nm, 100mW, 4J/cm(2)) (n=6). The animals were sacrificed 3 and 7 days after injury and histological sections were immunostained for both proteins. They were examined for the presence, intensity, distribution and pattern of immunolabeling. At 3 days, the distribution of tenascin was shown to be greater in the wound bed of malnourished animals compared to the well-nourished group. The intensity and distribution of tenascin was shown to be lower in the malnourished LED irradiated group compared to the malnourished control. There was a significant difference regarding the presence of fibronectin in the malnourished and well-nourished groups after 7 days (p=0.03). The intensity of fibronectin was slight (100%) in the irradiated group and moderate to intense in the malnourished control group. The results of the present study indicate that infrared LED irradiation modulates positively the expression of tenascin and particularly fibronectin. PMID:25028133

  12. Development and validation of a UHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method to quantify in plasma the analgesic candidate PT-31 following a preliminary pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Bessegato, T C; Niehues, M; Buqui, G A; Lopes, N P; Pitta, I R; Galdino, S L; Dalla Costa, T

    2016-06-01

    A selective and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method to determine PT-31, an analgesic drug candidate, in rat plasma was developed and validated. Analyses were performed using a UHPLC-MS/MS system equipped with an electrospray ionization interface operating in the positive ionization mode using a C18 reversed-phase column with a mobile phase of water:acetonitrile (68:31, v/v) containing 0.1% acetic acid eluting in a gradient mode with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Plasma samples were deproteinized with cold acetonitrile containing 0.01% TFA (1:2, v/v) and 50 μL of the supernatant were injected into the system. PT-31 and phenytoin (internal standard) retention times were roughly 1.0 and 1.5 min, respectively. Linear standard curves were plotted for the 0.01-10 µg/mL concentration range, with a coefficient of determination > 0.99. The method's precision was over 88%. Maximum intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were 14.6% and 11.6%, respectively. Interfering substances were not detected in the chromatogram, indicating that the method was specific. PT-31 stability was assessed under different temperature and storage settings. The method was used to characterize PT-31 plasma pharmacokinetics following administration of 5 mg/kg i.v. to Wistar rats. Therefore, the method described is sensitive, linear, precise and specific enough to determine PT-31 in preclinical pharmacokinetic investigations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26379109

  13. Pathological assessment of the nervous and male reproductive systems of rat offspring exposed maternally to acrylamide during the gestation and lactation periods - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Miwa; Shibutani, Makoto; Inoue, Kaoru; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Hirose, Masao; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the developmental effects of exposure to acrylamide (ACR) on the nervous and male reproductive systems, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given ACR at 0, 50, 100 or 200 ppm in the drinking water from gestational day 10 to postnatal day 21 and histopathological assessment of offspring was performed at weaning and postnatal week 11. Neurotoxicity was quantitatively assessed with reference to nerve fiber density, percentages of degenerated and small caliber axons in the sciatic nerves, and numbers of aberrant dot-like structures immunoreactive for synaptophysin in the cerebellar molecular layer. Although maternal neurotoxicity was evident from 100 ppm, no changes suggestive of neurotoxicity or testicular toxicity were observed in offspring. However, lowering of body weights was dose-dependently observed from birth at the dose levels of > or =50 ppm in males and > or =100 ppm in females. Maternal malnutrition was apparent at >/=100 ppm during the lactation period. Therefore, poor lactational ACR-exposure due to maternal toxicity might account for the lack of ACR-induced offspring toxicity other than retarded body growth. PMID:18303180

  14. Preliminary study for the OFFELO

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-08-23

    X-ray Optics-Free FEL Oscillator (OFFELO) has potential of becoming a choice for next generation light sources. Using electron beam for the feedback allows OFFELO to be completely tunable and to combine the peak power of high-gain SASE FELs with extremely narrow bandwidth of the oscillator. While the high-gain X-ray FELs has been studied in depth and has been successfully demonstrated, two other concepts (the transport and the feed-back) involved in OFFELO still need detail studies. In this short paper we focus on the simulation of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. In our initial studies of OFFELO studied the saturation of the system and also its evolution using Genesis 2.0 code with a homemade wrapping code. While and lattice design from the modulator to the radiator, in order to minimize the feedback information loss in transporting the beam.

  15. Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Carlos; Bliss, Linda A.; Vigil, Peter

    This study explored patterns of differences and commonalities in the constructions of identity by Cuban Americans, focusing on the pain of their experiencing "Paradise Lost," a theme identified in earlier research in which Cuban American college students reported: strong Cuban connections; value for the Spanish language, food, and culture; and a…

  16. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  17. Galaxy collisions - A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, B. F.

    1980-01-01

    Collisions of spherical galaxies were studied in a series of numerical experiments to see what happens when galaxies collide. Each experiment starts with two model galaxies, each consisting of 50,000 stars, moving toward each other along a specified orbit. The series of experiments provides a systematic sampling of the parameter space spanned by the initial orbital energy and the initial angular momentum. Deeply penetrating collisions are emphasized. The collisions reported here scale to relative velocities as great as 500 km/s, well into the range for collisions within clusters of galaxies. It is found that: (1) the galaxies contract momentarily to about half their original sizes shortly after close passage; and (2) the initial galaxies blend into a single dynamical system while they are near each other.

  18. Allogeneic anorectal transplantation in rats: technical considerations and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, Flavio H. F.; Waisberg, Daniel R.; Seid, Victor E.; Costa, Anderson C. L.; Chaib, Eleazar; Baptista, Rachel Rossini; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Lanchotte, Cinthia; Cruz, Ruy J.; Araki, Jun; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a challenging condition with numerous available treatment modalities. Success rates vary across these modalities, and permanent colostomy is often indicated when they fail. For these cases, a novel potential therapeutic strategy is anorectal transplantation (ATx). We performed four isogeneic (Lewis-to-Lewis) and seven allogeneic (Wistar-to-Lewis) ATx procedures. The anorectum was retrieved with a vascular pedicle containing the aorta in continuity with the inferior mesenteric artery and portal vein in continuity with the inferior mesenteric vein. In the recipient, the native anorectal segment was removed and the graft was transplanted by end-to-side aorta-aorta and porto-cava anastomoses and end-to-end colorectal anastomosis. Recipients were sacrificed at the experimental endpoint on postoperative day 30. Surviving animals resumed normal body weight gain and clinical performance within 5 days of surgery. Isografts and 42.9% of allografts achieved normal clinical evolution up to the experimental endpoint. In 57.1% of allografts, signs of immunological rejection (abdominal distention, diarrhea, and anal mucosa inflammation) were observed three weeks after transplantation. Histology revealed moderate to severe rejection in allografts and no signs of rejection in isografts. We describe a feasible model of ATx in rats, which may allow further physiological and immunologic studies. PMID:27488366

  19. Allogeneic anorectal transplantation in rats: technical considerations and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Flavio H F; Waisberg, Daniel R; Seid, Victor E; Costa, Anderson C L; Chaib, Eleazar; Baptista, Rachel Rossini; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Lanchotte, Cinthia; Cruz, Ruy J; Araki, Jun; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a challenging condition with numerous available treatment modalities. Success rates vary across these modalities, and permanent colostomy is often indicated when they fail. For these cases, a novel potential therapeutic strategy is anorectal transplantation (ATx). We performed four isogeneic (Lewis-to-Lewis) and seven allogeneic (Wistar-to-Lewis) ATx procedures. The anorectum was retrieved with a vascular pedicle containing the aorta in continuity with the inferior mesenteric artery and portal vein in continuity with the inferior mesenteric vein. In the recipient, the native anorectal segment was removed and the graft was transplanted by end-to-side aorta-aorta and porto-cava anastomoses and end-to-end colorectal anastomosis. Recipients were sacrificed at the experimental endpoint on postoperative day 30. Surviving animals resumed normal body weight gain and clinical performance within 5 days of surgery. Isografts and 42.9% of allografts achieved normal clinical evolution up to the experimental endpoint. In 57.1% of allografts, signs of immunological rejection (abdominal distention, diarrhea, and anal mucosa inflammation) were observed three weeks after transplantation. Histology revealed moderate to severe rejection in allografts and no signs of rejection in isografts. We describe a feasible model of ATx in rats, which may allow further physiological and immunologic studies. PMID:27488366

  20. Preliminary summary of the ETF conceptual studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Bercaw, R. W.; Pearson, C. V.; Owens, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Power plant studies have shown the attractiveness of MHD topped steam power plants for baseload utility applications. To realize these advantages, a three-phase development program was initiated. In the first phase, the engineering data and experience were developed for the design and construction of a pilot plant, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Results of the ETF studies are reviewed. These three parallel independent studies were conducted by industrial teams led by the AVCO Everett Research Laboratory, the General Electric Corporation, and the Westinghouse Corporation. A preliminary analysis and the status of the critical evaluation of these results are presented.

  1. Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea: preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Brian J.; de Boer, Johannes F.; Park, Boris H.; Chen, Zhongping; Nelson, J. Stuart

    1999-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to image the internal structure of a rat cochlea. Immediately following sacrifice, the temporal bone of a SPrague-Dawley rat was harvested. Axial OCT cross sectional images (over regions of interest, 1 x 1 mm to 2 x 8 mm) were obtained with a spatial resolution of 10-15 μm. The osseous borders of the lateral membranous labyrinth overlying the cochlea and the scala vestibuli, media, and tympani which were well demarcated by the modiolus, Reissner's and the basilar membranes were clearly identified. OCT can be used to image internal structures in the cochlea without violating the osseous labyrinth, and may potentially be used to diagnose inner ear pathology in vivo in both animal and human subjects.

  2. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites and Associated Pathogens from Norway Rats in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M. J.; Firth, C.; Bhat, M.; Firth, M. A.; Che, X.; Lee, D.; Williams, S. H.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2015-01-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. Human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. Here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 Norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in Manhattan, New York, NY. Norway rats were host to the tropical rat mite [Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)], the spiny rat mite (Laelaps echidnina Berlese), Laelaps nuttalli Hirst, the spined rat louse [Polyplax spinulosa (Burmeister)], and the Oriental rat flea [(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Rothschild)], with an average of 1.7 species per individual. A flea index of 4.1 X. cheopis was determined, whereas previous studies in New York City reported 0.22 fleas per rat. Multiple species of pathogenic Bartonella were identified from Oriental rat fleas that were related to Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella rochalimae, and Bartonella elizabethae. However, no evidence of Yersinia pestis or Rickettsia spp. infection was detected in fleas. The identification of multiple medically important ectoparasite species in New York City underscores the need for future efforts to fully characterize the diversity and distribution of ectoparasites on Norway rats, and assess the risk to humans of vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26336309

  3. Preliminary neutron crystallographic study of human transthyretin

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Melina; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Mason, Sax A.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Cooper, Jonathan B.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies of perdeuterated crystals of human transthyretin (TTR) have been carried out using the LADI-III and D19 diffractometers at the Institut Laue–Langevin in Grenoble. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full crystallographic analysis to a resolution of 2.0 Å using Laue diffraction and also illustrate the potential of using monochromatic instruments such as D19 for higher resolution studies where larger crystals having smaller unit cells are available. This study will yield important information on hydrogen bonding, amino-acid protonation states and hydration in the protein. Such information will be of general interest for an understanding of the factors that stabilize/destabilize TTR and for the design of ligands that may be used to counter TTR amyloid fibrillogenesis. PMID:22102249

  4. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Susana C. M.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Leal, Ricardo M. F.; Mitchell, Edward P.; Forsyth, V. Trevor

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  5. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  6. Influence of preliminary exercise training on muscle damage indices in rats after one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Hwangbo, Kak; Kim, Young Mi

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on muscle damage indices in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained in either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined following a single bout of prolonged (3-h) intensive exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The study included forty 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for 6 days per week (excluding Sunday) over a 4-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a non-exercise group performed one bout of prolonged (3-h) treadmill exercise for 3 hours at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels differed significantly among the groups. [Conclusion] The preliminary exercise groups showed lower muscle damage and inflammatory response levels than the non-exercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:27390433

  7. Influence of preliminary exercise training on muscle damage indices in rats after one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Hwangbo, Kak; Kim, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on muscle damage indices in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained in either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined following a single bout of prolonged (3-h) intensive exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The study included forty 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for 6 days per week (excluding Sunday) over a 4-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a non-exercise group performed one bout of prolonged (3-h) treadmill exercise for 3 hours at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels differed significantly among the groups. [Conclusion] The preliminary exercise groups showed lower muscle damage and inflammatory response levels than the non-exercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:27390433

  8. Major nonhistone proteins of rat liver chromatin: preliminary identification of myosin, actin, tubulin, and tropomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Douvas, A S; Harrington, C A; Bonner, J

    1975-01-01

    Two major nonhistone polypeptides from rat liver chromatin have been identified as myosin and actin. Preliminary observations indicate that three other chromatin polypeptides of molecular weights 50,000, 34,000, and 32,000 are tubulin and heavy and light tropomyosin, respectively. A sixth component of molecular weight 65,000 which has been purified and electrophoreses as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels may be composed in part of protease-digested myosin. These six polypeptides together account for as much as 38% of the nonhistone protein mass of chromatin in this tissue. Images PMID:1060072

  9. Preliminary design study for an atomospheric science facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R.

    1972-01-01

    The activities and results of the Atmospheric Science Facility preliminary design study are reported. The objectives of the study were to define the scientific goals, to determine the range of experiment types, and to develop the preliminary instrument design requirements for a reusable, general purpose, optical research facility for investigating the earth's atmosphere from a space shuttle orbital vehicle.

  10. Preliminary simulation study of a coincidence Avalanche Pixel Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Cellier, R.; Pittet, P.; Quiquerez, L.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a preliminary study of coincidence Avalanche Pixel Sensors (APiX) for High Energy Physics (HEP) applications is presented. In this preliminary work, some PEB prevention techniques found in literature have been studied by TCAD simulations adopting 2D Cylindrical geometrical models and 130nm CMOS process technological data.

  11. [Reversible sterilization with a physiological solution in the rat: preliminary note].

    PubMed

    Gianaroli, L; Livani, M F; Baffoni, A

    1982-02-01

    In this paper the Authors present a technique of reversible sterilization of female rats. They used saline hot solution through cervix and uterine horns in 45 S.D. female rats. They divided the rats in three groups. The first group received a 43 degree hydrotubation, the second a 50 degree hydrotubation and the third a 60 degree hydrotubation. All the animals were mated several times and the litter sizes were studied. Biopsies were taken by uterine horns and histological results are discussed. PMID:7066108

  12. MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

  13. Changes in Aquaporin 1 Expression in Rat Urinary Bladder after Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Song, Seung Hee; Ahn, Kuyoun; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Ryu, Soo Bang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that facilitate water movement across biological membranes. AQPs are also called water channels, and they have recently been reported to be expressed in rat and human urothelium. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) on the rat urothelium and AQP1 expression in rat urothelium. Materials and Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g each, n=20) were divided into 2 groups: the sham group (the Con group, n=10) and the partial BOO group (the BOO group, n=10). The BOO group underwent a partial BOO. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1 were determined by performing Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on the rat urinary bladder. Results AQP1 immunoreactivity in both the control and the BOO groups was localized in the capillaries, arterioles, and venules of the lamina propria of the urinary bladder. The protein expression of AQP1 was significantly increased in the BOO group. Conclusions This study showed that BOO causes a significant increase in the expression of AQP1. This may imply that AQP1 has a functional role in the detrusor instability that occurs in association with BOO. PMID:20428433

  14. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in man induce aberrant crypt foci in rats: Preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Fard, Sara; Furrer, Rudolf; Archer, Michael C.; Bruce, W. Robert; Lip, HoYin; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J.; Giacca, Adria; Ward, Wendy E.; Femia, A. Pietro; Caderni, Giovanna; Medline, Alan; Banks, Kate

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have demonstrated clear associations between specific dietary and environmental risk factors and incidence of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations are not known. An animal model could facilitate such an understanding. Both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of F344 rats. F344 rats were provided with diets that contained putative risk factors for CRC: low calcium and low vitamin D, high iron, high fructose, and decreased light (UV) exposure or a control diet for 14 wk. The rats were then assessed with biochemical measures and by topological examination for evidence of colon abnormalities. Circulating ionized calcium was decreased from 2.85 to 1.69 mmol/L, and ACF were increased from 0.7 to 13.6 lesions/colon (both P < 0.001). Rats exposed to the multiple environmental conditions associated with colon cancer, developed ACF similar to the heterogeneous or ill-defined ACF in the human colon. Heterogeneous ACF are the most frequently seen in humans and are also seen in rats shortly after exposure to the non-genotoxic colon carcinogen, dextransulfate sodium. The rodent model could be used to assess the pathways from diet and environment to colon cancer and to provide guidance for clinical studies. PMID:26709971

  15. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  16. Preliminary design study. Shuttle modular scanning spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on which to base a detailed design for a Shuttle Modular Scanning Spectroradiometer were developed, and a preliminary design is presented. The recommended design features modularity and flexibility. It includes a 75-cm f/1.7-telescope assembly in an all-reflective Schmidt configuration, a solid state scan system (pushbroom) with high resolution over a 15 deg field of view, and ten detector channels covering the spectral range from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers. It uses charge transfer device techniques to accommodate a large number of detector elements for earth observation measurements. Methods for in-flight radiometric calibration, for image motion compensation, and for data processing are described. Recommendations for ground support equipment are included, and interfaces with the shuttle orbiter vehicle are illustrated.

  17. Eplerenone prevents salt-induced vascular stiffness in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aldosterone levels are elevated in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the Zucker Diabetic fatty rat (ZDF). Moreover blood pressure in ZDF rats is salt-sensitive. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone on structural and mechanical properties of resistance arteries of ZDF-rats on normal and high-salt diet. Methods After the development of diabetes, ZDF animals were fed either a normal salt diet (0.28%) or a high-salt diet (5.5%) starting at an age of 15 weeks. ZDF rats on high-salt diet were randomly assigned to eplerenone (100 mg/kg per day, in food) (ZDF+S+E), hydralazine (25 mg/kg per day) (ZDF+S+H), or no treatment (ZDF+S). Rats on normal salt-diet were assigned to eplerenone (ZDF+E) or no treatment (ZDF). Normoglycemic Zucker lean rats were also divided into two groups receiving normal (ZL) or high-salt diet (ZL+S) serving as controls. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method. The experiment was terminated at an age of 25 weeks. Mesenteric resistance arteries were studied on a pressurized myograph. Specifically, vascular hypertrophy (media-to-lumen ratio) and vascular stiffness (strain and stress) were analyzed. After pressurized fixation histological analysis of collagen and elastin content was performed. Results Blood pressure was significantly higher in salt-loaded ZDF compared to ZDF. Eplerenone and hydralazine prevented this rise similarily, however, significance niveau was missed. Media-to-lumen ratio of mesenteric resistance arteries was significantly increased in ZDF+S when compared to ZDF and ZL. Both, eplerenone and hydralazine prevented salt-induced vascular hypertrophy. The strain curve of arteries of salt-loaded ZDF rats was significantly lower when compared to ZL and when compared to ZDF+S+E, but was not different compared to ZDF+S+H. Eplerenone, but not hydralazine shifted the strain-stress curve to the right indicating a vascular wall composition with less

  18. Applying for Your Own Job: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid

    2008-01-01

    This study undertook a small preliminary investigation of the contemporary employment practice of "applying for your own job". There has not yet been a specific study into the effect upon individuals and organisations of the practice of existing employees being required to apply for the same or a similar position in a competitive application…

  19. Spirituality and the Events of September 11: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Apple, Kevin J.; Aydlett, Ann E.

    2004-01-01

    Personal crises have been associated with spiritual growth. Sparked by the global response to the crisis of September 11, 2001, this study examined the relationship of spirituality and the September 11 tragedy using a sample of convenience from a college student population. This preliminary study used an experimental design to examine various…

  20. A Preliminary Study of Career Education in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, S. R.; Leung, Y. F.; Stewart, K.; Smith, A. C.; Roberts, G. L.; Dees, S.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a preliminary study on the Geosciences in Middle School, which was a career education program in the Southeastern U.S focusing on science based on Super's (1990) theory. The students (n = 80) were found to improve their interests in studying science, increase science knowledge, skills and awareness and highly satisfied with…

  1. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  2. Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Turner, Paul L.; Freeland, Margaret; Corbin, Sara; Driscoll, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This brief paper reports the results of two observational studies examining the impact of fines for youth tobacco possession on public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings are presented that suggest that when police issued warnings and tickets to reduce underage youth possession of tobacco, in both towns the number of youth smoking in public…

  3. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  4. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  5. Student Matriculation: A Proposal to Study a Preliminary Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farland, Ronnald W.; Berg, Ernest

    Developed for the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges (CCC) as part of a larger study of academic quality, this report presents a preliminary analysis of student matriculation, a guidance process which brings the student into an agreement with the college for the purpose of achieving the student's educational objectives through…

  6. Vapor inhalation exposure to soman in conscious untreated rats: preliminary assessment of neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael W; Wong, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Ashley; Devorak, Jennifer L; Dao, Thuy T; Leuschner, Jessica A; Kan, Robert K; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2016-01-01

    Neurological toxicity and brain injury following vapor inhalation exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) soman (GD) were examined in untreated non-anesthetized rats. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were exposed to 600 mg × min/m(3) of soman or vehicle in a customized head-out inhalation system for 7 min. Convulsant animals were observed for clinical signs and various regions of the brain (dorsolateral thalamus, basolateral amygdala, piriform cortex, and lateral cortex) were collected for pathological observations 24 h post-exposure. Signs of CWNA-induced cholinergic crises including salivation, lacrimation, increased urination and defecation, and tremors were observed in all soman-exposed animals. Soman-exposed animals at 24 h post-exposure lost 11% of their body weight in comparison to 2% in vehicle-exposed animals. Whole blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly inhibited in all soman-exposed groups in comparison to controls. Brain injury was confirmed by the neurological assessment of hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and microscopy in the piriform cortex, dorsolateral thalamus, basolateral amygdala, and lateral cortex. Severe damage including prominent lesions, edematous, congested, and/or hemorrhagic tissues was observed in the piriform cortex, dorsolateral thalamus, and lateral cortex in soman-exposed animals 24 h post-exposure, while only minimal damage was observed in the basolateral amygdala. These results indicate that inhalation exposure to soman vapor causes neurological toxicity and brain injury in untreated unanesthetized rats. This study demonstrates the ability of the described soman vapor inhalation exposure model to cause neurological damage 24 h post-exposure in rats. PMID:26711353

  7. Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

  8. Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

    2010-10-01

    The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

  9. Preliminary investigations of rat skin after topical application of optical clearing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Dan

    2011-03-01

    The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs) can enhance the penetration depth of light in tissues, thus improve the capabilities of noninvasive optical diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. However, the optical clearing efficiency of skin caused by topical application of OCAs usually suffers from the barrier of stratum corneum and epithelium. The addition of chemical penetration enhancers to OCAs could significantly improve the optical clearing of skin, but the investigations on their safety are seldom concerned. In this study, based on the direct observation and histological examinations, the short-term and long-term effects of the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone on morphology and microstructure of in vivo rat skin were investigated. The results demonstrated that, in the first week, the hair growth was stunted, some degree of abnormal thickens and vacuoles occurred at the epidermis layer, and the collagen arranged denser. After 2 week, the morphology and microstructure of rat skin was completely recovered. It means that there is no long-term effect on rat skin by the mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone. In addition, this work provides a useful method for assessing the safety of OCAs to skin.

  10. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  11. [Preliminary study of early sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, M C; Saucier, J F

    1991-08-01

    The long term effects of sexual abuse are often measured by measuring behaviours such as social adjustment, job stability and marriage. This study was conducted to add to these internal measures. Using a semi-prospective instrument adapted from G. Kelly's repertory grid, the adolescents' perceptions of themselves and significant others are measured. Three hundred and twelve female adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 (average age = 16) participated in the study; 79 presented with non sexual behaviour disorders (delinquency, stealing, etc.), 56 presented with serious sexual behaviour disorders (prostitution, persistent sexual promiscuity) and 177 presented with no problems requiring psychosocial intervention. Various analyses (descriptive, multiple variance, regression analysis) showed that sexual abuse significantly affects many of the adolescents' perceptions. Sexually abused adolescents perceived their two real parents as less competent and their ideal mother and father as less protective than adolescents who had not been abused. In contrast, their perception of self and the ideal self was not affected by the sexual abuse, a finding which will spark discussion. PMID:1933745

  12. Preliminary systems design study assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  13. A Preliminary Immunologic Study of Urinary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Raymond; Pollak, Victor E.

    1966-01-01

    The clearances of seven different proteins were measured by a quantitative immunodiffusion technique in 15 patients with proteinuria. All urines were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis. The renal histology was evaluated in each case, and no correlation was found between histologic changes and the urinary protein excretion. This observation was confirmed by both immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoretic techniques. No specific urinary protein excretion pattern was found in six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. High-molecular-weight proteins were rarely found in urine, even when the glomerular basement membrane was definitely thickened. Low-molecular-weight proteins were often observed, but their clearances were variable. The results do not support the suggestion that protein clearances are valuable diagnostic and prognostic tools in renal diseases. They also do not support the view that glomerular filtration is the sole factor responsible for the final patterns of urinary proteins; tubular reabsorption is probably another important factor. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:20328484

  14. Preliminary Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1932-01-01

    Photomicrographs were taken of fuel sprays injected into air at various densities for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the stages in the atomization of the fuel. The photomicrographs were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. The results indicate that the theory advanced by Dr. R. A. Castleman, Jr., on the atomization of fuel in carburetors may also be applied to the atomization of fuel sprays of the solid-injection type. The fuel leaves the nozzle as a solid column, is ruffled and then torn into small, irregular ligaments by the action of the air. These ligaments are then quickly broken up into drops by the surface tension of the fuel. The photomicrographs also show that the dispersion of a fuel spray at a given distance from the nozzle increases with an increase in the jet velocity or an increase in the air density. The first portions of fuel sprays injected from an automatic injection valve into air at atmospheric density have a much greater dispersion than the later portions, but this difference decreases rapidly as the air density is increased.

  15. Spectral detection of thalassemia: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thalassemias (Thal) are forms of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorders arising out of mutations in the chromosomes 11 or 16. These disorders lead to poor oxygen delivery to blood vessels and consequent splenomegaly, bone deformities, and shorter life spans. The most common detection methods for Thal are complete blood count (CBC) followed by electrophoresis and molecular diagnosis methods, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping. These methods involve sophisticated instrumentations and are cumbersome and expensive. Results In this study an innovative spectral detection method, based on the fluorescence spectra of a set of biomolecules (tyrosine, tryptophan, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide and porphyrins) found in blood components is presented. An algorithm based on the spectral features of such biomolecules of blood components of 20 Thal patients (10 female and 10 male) and 18 age adjusted normal controls (4 female and 14 male) demonstrate reasonable level of classification with sensitivity and specificity values exceeding 90%. Conclusion This new technique could be of significant value for Thal detection, diagnosis, and subsequent genetic counselling and could be adapted for use in small primary health centres. PMID:24679334

  16. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students. PMID:15648478

  17. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.; Moore, T. J.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of gaseous contaminants through the working fluid to or from sensitive refractory alloys is theoretically possible during long time operation of Brayton and Stirling space power generation systems which use a gas as the working fluid. A test was designed which could give an answer to whether transport of contaminants through the working fluid was a potential major problem. The findings of that preliminary study are summarized.

  18. Preliminary dose comparisons for the MRS Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Lavender, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides preliminary information on the radiological doses to the public and the workers for alternative system configurations proposed in the MRS Systems Study. Information published in the MRS Environmental Assessment (DOE 1986) was used as a basis for this analysis. The risk differences between alternative configurations were found to be small and should not be viewed as a major factor in selecting alternative configurations. 1 ref.

  19. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  20. Survival of cultured plant cells grafted into the subcutaneous tissue of rats (preliminary report).

    PubMed

    Lozoya, X; Madrazo, I; Guizar, G; Villarreal, M L; Grijalva, I; Salgado, H; Boijseauneau, E; Ibarra, A; Arias-Castro, C; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the survival of plant tissue in an animal environment, cultured calli from a Mexican medicinal plant (Mimosa tenuiflora Poir.) were transplanted under sterile conditions into the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Microscopic studies of grafted areas were carried out at the 30th, 60th and 120th days after transplantation. Histological evidence of plant graft survival was found in specimens of all groups. during the first month of subcutaneous grafting a moderate inflammatory reaction around the callus was observed characterized by the presence of polymorphonuclear cells and some macrophages and the formation of a fibrous capsule. Nevertheless, the plant grafts remained viable and a decrease of the inflammatory reaction around the callus was observed in the specimens during the following months. In the fourth month specimens the formation of blood vessels inside the grafted plant tissue was observed. Once removed from rats, plant tissues showed high viability according to the fluorescein test. These calli were then transferred to the original in vitro medium showing growth capacity during the following weeks. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that cultivated cells of higher plants survive in an animal environment, suggesting the possibility to utilize pharmacologically active plant transplants in animals, a technique proposed here as inter-regni transplants. Further studies are required to explore this new field of research that opens numerous questions about plant-animal cellular interaction. PMID:7711454

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η

    SciTech Connect

    Matozo, Huita C.; Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Santos, Maria A. M.; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Fusco, Alfredo; Polikarpov, Igor

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the catalytic domain of rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η was produced in Escherichia coli in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The rat protein tyrosine phosphatase η (rPTPη) is a cysteine-dependent phosphatase which hydrolyzes phosphoester bonds in proteins and other molecules. rPTPη and its human homologue DEP-1 are involved in neoplastic transformations. Thus, expression of the protein is reduced in all oncogene-transformed thyroid cell lines and is absent in highly malignant thyroid cells. Moreover, consistent with the suggested tumour suppression role of PTPη, inhibition of the tumorigenic process occurs after its exogenous reconstitution, suggesting that PTPη might be important for gene therapy of cancers. In this study, the catalytic domain of rPTPη was produced in Escherichia coli in soluble form and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected to 1.87 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.46, b = 63.07, c = 111.64 Å, and contains one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  2. Tree STEM Reconstruction Using Vertical Fisheye Images: a Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berveglieri, A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to assess a tree stem reconstruction technique with panoramic images taken with fisheye lenses. The concept is similar to the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique, but the acquisition and data preparation rely on fisheye cameras to generate a vertical image sequence with height variations of the camera station. Each vertical image is rectified to four vertical planes, producing horizontal lateral views. The stems in the lateral view are rectified to the same scale in the image sequence to facilitate image matching. Using bundle adjustment, the stems are reconstructed, enabling later measurement and extraction of several attributes. The 3D reconstruction was performed with the proposed technique and compared with SfM. The preliminary results showed that the stems were correctly reconstructed by using the lateral virtual images generated from the vertical fisheye images and with the advantage of using fewer images and taken from one single station.

  3. Preliminary Study of a Hybrid Helicon-ECR Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Hala, A.; Oksuz, L.; Ximing, Zhu

    2016-08-01

    A new type of hybrid discharge is experimentally investigated in this work. A helicon source and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source were combined to produce plasma. As a preliminary study of this type of plasma, the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) method was used to obtain values of electron temperature and density under a series of typical conditions. Generally, it was observed that the electron temperature decreases and the electron density increases as the pressure increased. When increasing the applied power at a certain pressure, the average electron density at certain positions in the discharge does not increase significantly possibly due to the high degree of neutral depletion. Electron temperature increased with power in the hybrid mode. Possible mechanisms of these preliminary observations are discussed.

  4. Online gaming dependency: a preliminary study in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    Based on theories and previous studies on problematic Internet use, we propose a model to better understand the contributors to and consequences of online gaming dependency. A preliminary study was conducted through a survey of online gamers in China. The results of path analysis found that maladaptive cognitions, shyness, and depression are positively related to online gaming dependency. Online gaming dependency was also positively related to different types of negative life outcomes. The findings of this study have implications for the prevention and treatment of addictive online gaming. PMID:20557254

  5. Neighborhood Rats as Depressing as Crime, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157831.html Neighborhood Rats as Depressing as Crime, Study Finds Research suggests ... 17, 2016 THURSDAY, March 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Rat infestations may harm the mental health of people ...

  6. Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

  7. Activity of "nonspecific pancreatic carboxylesterase" in rat serum in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis (preliminary results).

    PubMed

    Kálmán, A; Kálmán, Z; Velösy, G; Vargha, G; Vargha, G; Papp, M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain more information on the serum level of "nonspecific pancreatic carboxylesterase" (PCE) in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in rats. The effects of caerulein stimulation, hepatic duct ligation, bile-pancreatic duct ligation or the effect of retrograde injection of saline, 5% taurocholate and sunflower oil were investigated. The activity of PCE and amylase was measured in the serum, pancreatic tissue, pancreatic juice and ascitic fluid. The changes in PCE activity were greater (both in directions to increase or decrease) than that of amylase, produced by different experimental procedures. The results confirm the thesis that the serum activity of PCE is a more sensitive diagnostic method than that of amylase to detect the inflammatory process in the pancreas or the effect of obstruction of the pancreatic duct. PMID:2480696

  8. Biocontamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard A.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Korona, F. Adam; Poritz, Darwin; Smith, Jelanie; Wong, Wing

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study that was conducted to review, test, and improve on current space suit biocontamination control. Biocontamination from crew members can cause space suit damage and objectionable odors and lead to crew member health hazards. An understanding of the level of biocontamination is necessary to mitigate its effects. A series of tests were conducted with the intent of evaluating current suit materials, ground and on-orbit disinfectants, and potential commercial off-the-shelf antimicrobial materials. Included in this paper is a discussion of the test methodology, results, and analysis method.

  9. Energy efficient engine: Preliminary design and integration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Hirschkron, R.; Koch, C. C.; Neitzel, R. E.; Vinson, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Parametric design and mission evaluations of advanced turbofan configurations were conducted for future transport aircraft application. Economics, environmental suitability and fuel efficiency were investigated and compared with goals set by NASA. Of the candidate engines which included mixed- and separate-flow, direct-drive and geared configurations, an advanced mixed-flow direct-drive configuration was selected for further design and evaluation. All goals were judged to have been met except the acoustic goal. Also conducted was a performance risk analysis and a preliminary aerodynamic design of the 10 stage 23:1 pressure ratio compressor used in the study engines.

  10. Experimental Studies of Ion Beam Neutralization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Polansky, J.; Downey, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    A testing platform is designed to study ion beam neutralization in the mesothermal, collisionless region. In the experimental setup, argon neutrals were ionized in a microwave cavity and accelerated by a plasma lens system which was biased to 2500 V above the system ground. Electrons were boiled off from two hot tungsten filaments to neutralize the ion beam. The plasma is diagnosed using Langmuir probe and Faraday probe. A 3-D traversing system and a complete data acquisition loop were developed to efficiently measure 3-D beam profile. Preliminary measurements of beam profiles are presented for different operating conditions.

  11. Preliminary Study of a Pull Plug Friction Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, George R.

    1999-01-01

    A pull plug friction weld, simply defined, comprises inserting a rotating cone-shaped cylinder into a somewhat cone-shaped hole in a plate. The rotating plug makes contact with the edge of the plate and the resulting friction generates heat. The temperature of the plate material eventually reaches a magnitude that will cause the plate material at the edge of the hole to flow. This can be termed a temperature dependent plastic flow. The rotation of the plug is terminated, additional pressure is applied and the metal at the interface of the two materials cools and welding occurs. This preliminary study addresses only three aspects of a complete analysis that is multi-faceted. The transient temperature distribution for different pull plug configurations has been studied in some detail even though the initial conditions and boundary conditions may still be deemed tentative. The stress distribution within the pull plug caused by the heating pressure was studied along with a preliminary analysis of the thermoelastic stress distribution caused by friction heating. There are no definitive results for the stress analysis. Additional study will be required.

  12. Preliminary pharmacological activity of the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia barks in rats

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Hajera; Majumder, Rajib; Al Mamun; Alam, Efte Kharul; Jami, Safkath Ibne; Alam, Badrul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Premna integrifolia Linn (Family: Verbenaceae) synonym of Premna serratifolia has tremendous medicinal value. Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia (MEPI) bark to investigate neuropharmacological, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Materials and methods: Neuropharmacology study was done by open field and hole cross test whereas acetic acid writhing test and formalin induced pain was done for analgesic activity of MEPI. Carrageenan induced inflammatory model was considered for anti-inflammatory activity evaluation. Results: A statistically significant (p0.05) decrease in locomotor activity was observed at all doses in the open-field and hole-cross tests. The extract significantly (p0.05) and dose dependently reduced the writhing reflex in the acetic acid-induced writhing test as well as licking response in the formalin induced inflammatory pain. At 200 mg/kg body weight dose, MEPI showed 71.16% inhibition in carrageenan induced anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: The finding of this study suggests that MEPI will provide scientific support for the use of this species in traditional medicine. PMID:25050319

  13. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the preliminary design of the Telescope Structure System (STR) of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). NAOJ was given responsibility for the TMT STR in early 2012 and engaged Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to take over the preliminary design work. MELCO performed a comprehensive preliminary design study in 2012 and 2013 and the design successfully passed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in November 2013 and April 2014. Design optimizations were pursued to better meet the design requirements and improvements were made in the designs of many of the telescope subsystems as follows: 1. 6-legged Top End configuration to support secondary mirror (M2) in order to reduce deformation of the Top End and to keep the same 4% blockage of the full aperture as the previous STR design. 2. "Double Lower Tube" of the elevation (EL) structure to reduce the required stroke of the primary mirror (M1) actuators to compensate the primary mirror cell (M1 Cell) deformation caused during the EL angle change in accordance with the requirements. 3. M1 Segment Handling System (SHS) to be able to make removing and installing 10 Mirror Segment Assemblies per day safely and with ease over M1 area where access of personnel is extremely difficult. This requires semi-automatic sequence operation and a robotic Segment Lifting Fixture (SLF) designed based on the Compliance Control System, developed for controlling industrial robots, with a mechanism to enable precise control within the six degrees of freedom of position control. 4. CO2 snow cleaning system to clean M1 every few weeks that is similar to the mechanical system that has been used at Subaru Telescope. 5. Seismic isolation and restraint systems with respect to safety; the maximum acceleration allowed for M1, M2, tertiary mirror (M3), LGSF, and science instruments in 1,000 year return period earthquakes are defined in the requirements. The Seismic requirements apply to any EL angle, regardless of the

  14. Transcranial vibro-acoustography can detect traumatic brain injury, in-vivo: Preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Martin W; Dever, David D; Gu, Xiaohan; Ray Illian, P; McClintic, Abbi M; Mehic, Edin; Mourad, Pierre D

    2015-08-01

    Vibro-acoustography (VA) uses two or more beams of confocal ultrasound to generate local vibrations within their target tissue through induction of a time-dependent radiation force whose frequency equals that of the difference of the applied frequencies. While VA has proven effective for assaying the mechanical properties of clinically relevant tissue such as breast lesions and tissue calcifications, its application to brain remains unexplored. Here we investigate the ability of VA to detect acute and focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) in-vivo through the use of transcranially delivered high-frequency (2 MHz) diagnostic focused ultrasound to rat brain capable of generating measurable low-frequency (200-270 kHz) acoustic emissions from outside of the brain. We applied VA to acute sham-control and TBI model rats (sham N=6; TBI N=6) and observed that acoustic emissions, captured away from the site of TBI, had lower amplitudes for TBI as compared to sham-TBI animals. The sensitivity of VA to acute brain damage at frequencies currently transmittable across human skulls, as demonstrated in this preliminary study, supports the possibility that the VA methodology may one day serve as a technique for detecting TBI. PMID:25964238

  15. Preliminary design study of advanced multistage axial flow core compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisler, D. C.; Koch, C. C.; Smith, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to identify an advanced core compressor for use in new high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines to be introduced into commercial service in the 1980's. An evaluation of anticipated compressor and related component 1985 state-of-the-art technology was conducted. A parametric screening study covering a large number of compressor designs was conducted to determine the influence of the major compressor design features on efficiency, weight, cost, blade life, aircraft direct operating cost, and fuel usage. The trends observed in the parametric screening study were used to develop three high-efficiency, high-economic-payoff compressor designs. These three compressors were studied in greater detail to better evaluate their aerodynamic and mechanical feasibility.

  16. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  17. Preliminary paleomagnetic study of the Thetford Mines Ordovician Ophiolite (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Chiara, Anita; Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Extension associated with oceanic ridges at divergent plate boundaries is characterized by normal faulting and episodic magma supply. Studies in modern oceanic settings suggest locally along ridges both lower crust and upper mantle peridotites may be exhumed to the seafloor in features known as oceanic core complexes (OCC). OCC are characterized by long-lived low-angle detachment faults that extend for 10s of km, and that are crosscut by high-angle normal faults oriented parallel to the rift axis. Here we present preliminary results from 12 paleomagnetic sites sampled on an example of fossilized Ordovician OCC preserved in the in the Canadian Appalachians, the Southern Quebec ophiolites. These were obducted and subjected to polyphase deformation during Palaeozoic orogeny along the Laurentian margin of Iapetus. Although locally obscured by tectonic fabrics and structures, the original relationships between the ophiolitic mantle, the overlying plutonic section, and onlapping Ordovician siliciclastic rocks can be reconstructed within the Thetford-Mines ophiolite. Preliminary results from AMS and Thermal demagnetization experiments record a remarkably consistent overprint from the youngest (Acadian) phase of Paleozoic orogeny. Although complicating further study of intra-oceanic deformation along the detachment fault in the original OCC, the results provide further insights into the progressive overprint of deformation events as recorded by AMS.

  18. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  19. Preliminary Studies for Three Experiments at Treiman-Yang Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kres, I. V.; Kondratyev, V. N.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear reactions with three bodies in their final state may proceed through different reaction mechanisms. The Feynman graph technique has been widely used to describe such reactions. However, it is very difficult in general to select the graphs that dominate in given process. The Treiman-Yang criterion is one of the most powerful experimental tests for verifying the pole approximation prediction when describing a quasi-free reaction mechanism. We propose the theoretical study of the H2(B10, α Be7)ns, H1(B11, α1α2)αs, He3(Be9, α1α2)αs reactions at different energies. The preliminary study helps to check the existence of a QF channel by using the TY creterion.

  20. Characterization of burns using hyperspectral imaging technique - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Savastru, Roxana; Manea, Dragos

    2015-02-01

    Surgical burn treatment depends on accurate estimation of burn depth. Many methods have been used to asses burns, but none has gained wide acceptance. Hyperspectral imaging technique has recently entered the medical research field with encouraging results. In this paper we present a preliminary study (case presentation) that aims to point out the value of this optical method in burn wound characterization and to set up future lines of investigation. A hyperspectral image of a leg and foot with partial thickness burns was obtained in the fifth postburn day. The image was analyzed using linear spectral unmixing model as a tool for mapping the investigated areas. The article gives details on the mathematical bases of the interpretation model and correlations with clinical examination pointing out the advantages of hyperspectral imaging technique. While the results were encouraging, further more extended and better founded studies are being prepared before recognizing hyperspectral imaging technique as an applicable method of burn wound assessment. PMID:24997530

  1. Preliminary study: isotopic safeguards techniques (IST) LMFBR fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P. J.; Kroc, T. K.

    1980-06-01

    This memorandum presents the preliminary results of the effort to investigate the applicability of isotope correlation techniques (ICT), formulated for the LWR system, to the LMFBR fuel cycle. The detailed isotopic compositional changes with burnup developed for the CRBR was utilized as the reference case. This differs from the usual LMFBR design studies in that the core uranium is natural uranium rather than depleted. Nevertheless, the general isotopic behavior should not differ significantly and does allow an initial insight into the expected behavior of isotopic correlations for the LMFBR power systems such as: the U.K. PFR and reprocessing plant; the French Phenix and Superphenix; and the US reference conceptual design studies (CDS) of homogeneous and heterogeneous LMFBR systems as they are developed.

  2. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way. PMID:21667381

  3. Reactivity to sensations in borderline personality disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Ahn, Roianne; Geiger, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are widely considered to have problems with emotional reactivity. However, the specific kinds of stimuli that are associated with heightened emotional reactivity in BPD have not been well characterized. Thus, it is unclear whether the emotional dysfunction in BPD occurs in response to any emotionally evocative stimuli, or to specific classes of stimuli. In this study, we used subjective measures (self-report and interview-based) to compare reactivity to sensations (auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, visual) between participants with BPD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 50). Controlling for trait negative emotional reactivity, individuals with BPD reported being significantly more reactive across sensory stimuli. However, the difference between controls and BPD was significantly greater for reactivity to auditory stimuli compared to other sensory stimuli. Findings from this study provide preliminary data suggesting individuals with BPD may be characterized by heightened self-reported reactivity to aversive sounds. PMID:22023306

  4. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) disodium salt (BioPQQ™) in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Koura, Seiko; Chung, Catherine; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Roberts, Ashley

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (BioPQQ™), as a supplemental food ingredient, was evaluated in a range of oral toxicity studies in rats including an acute study, a 14-day preliminary and a 28-day repeated-dose study, and a 13-week subchronic study. The median lethal dose of BioPQQ™ was shown to be 1000-2000mg/kg body weight (bw) in male and 500-1000mg/kgbw in female rats. In the 14-day study, high doses of BioPQQ™ resulted in increases in relative kidney weights with associated histopathology in female rats only, while a follow-up 28-day study in female animals resulted in increases in urinary protein and crystals. These findings were reversible, and resolved during the recovery period. In the 13-week study, a number of clinical chemistry findings and histopathological changes were noted, which were deemed to be of no toxicological significance, as the levels were within the historical control range, were not dose-dependent, occurred at a similar frequency in control groups, or only occurred in the control group. Based on these findings, a no-observed-adverse-effect level of 100mg/kgbw/day was determined for BioPQQ™ in rats, the highest dose tested in the 13-week study. PMID:24995591

  5. Preliminary studies of electromagnetic sounding of cometary nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, A.; Warne, L.; Bednarczyk, S.; Elachi, C.

    1978-01-01

    The internal structure of a comet could be determined with a spacecraft borne electromagnetic sounder. A dielectric profile of the comet could be produced in direct analogy with terrestrial glacier and ice sheet sounding experiments. This profile would allow the detection of a rocky core or ice layers if they exist, just as layers in the ice and the bedrock interface have been clearly observed through the Greenland ice sheet. It would also provide a gross estimate of the amount of dust in the icy region. Models for the response of the nucleus and cometary plasma to electromagnetic sounding are developed and used to derive experimental parameters. A point system design was completed. Preliminary engineering study results indicate that the sounder is well within the bounds of current space technology.

  6. Mathematical modeling of normal pharyngeal bolus transport: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chang, M W; Rosendall, B; Finlayson, B A

    1998-07-01

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a common clinical symptom associated with many diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular diseases, and cancer. Its complications include choking, aspiration, malnutrition, cachexia, and dehydration. The goal in dysphagia management is to provide adequate nutrition and hydration while minimizing the risk of choking and aspiration. It is important to advance the individual toward oral feeding in a timely manner to enhance the recovery of swallowing function and preserve the quality of life. Current clinical assessments of dysphagia are limited in providing adequate guidelines for oral feeding. Mathematical modeling of the fluid dynamics of pharyngeal bolus transport provides a unique opportunity for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of swallowing. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a special case of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In CFD, the flow of a fluid in a space is modeled by covering the space with a grid and predicting how the fluid moves from grid point to grid point. FEA is capable of solving problems with complex geometries and free surfaces. A preliminary pharyngeal model has been constructed using FEA. This model incorporates literature-reported, normal, anatomical data with time-dependent pharyngeal/upper esophageal sphincter (UES) wall motion obtained from videofluorography (VFG). This time-dependent wall motion can be implemented as a moving boundary condition in the model. Clinical kinematic data can be digitized from VFG studies to construct and test the mathematical model. The preliminary model demonstrates the feasibility of modeling pharyngeal bolus transport, which, to our knowledge, has not been attempted before. This model also addresses the need and the potential for CFD in understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Improvements of the model are underway. Combining the model with individualized clinical data should potentially

  7. Preliminary study of an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on K-edge filters

    SciTech Connect

    Golosio, Bruno; Brunetti, Antonio; Oliva, Piernicola; Carpinelli, Massimo; Luca Masala, Giovanni; Meloni, Francesco; Battista Meloni, Giovanni

    2013-08-14

    Digital Subtraction Angiography is commonly affected by artifacts due to the patient movements during the acquisition of the images without and with the contrast medium. This paper presents a preliminary study on an angiographic and angio-tomographic technique based on the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of two images, obtained using two different filters at the exit of an X-ray tube. One of the two filters (K-edge filter) contains the same chemical element used as a contrast agent (gadolinium in this study). This filter absorbs more radiation with energy just above the so called K-edge energy of gadolinium than the radiation with energy just below it. The other filter (an aluminium filter in this study) is simply used to suppress the low-energy contribution to the spectrum. Using proper calibration curves, the two images are combined to obtain an image of the contrast agent distribution. In the angio-tomographic application of the proposed technique two images, corresponding to the two filter types, are acquired for each viewing angle of the tomographic scan. From the two tomographic reconstructions, it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional map of the contrast agent distribution. The technique was tested on a sample consisting of a rat skull placed inside a container filled with water. Six small cylinders with 4.7 mm internal diameter containing the contrast medium at different concentrations were placed inside the skull. In the plain angiographic application of the technique, five out of six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.96%. In the angio-tomographic application, all six cylinders were visible, with gadolinium concentration down to 0.49%. This preliminary study shows that the proposed technique can provide images of the contrast medium at low concentration without most of the artifacts that are present in images produced by conventional techniques. The results encourage further investigation on the feasibility of a clinical

  8. Preliminaries toward studying resonant extraction from the Debuncher

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, Leo; Johnstone, John; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    A recent proposal to detect {mu} {yields} e direct conversion at Fermilab asks for slow extraction of protons from the antiproton source, specifically from the Debuncher. [1] A third-integer resonance originally was considered for this, partly because of the Debuncher's three-fold symmetry and partly because its operational horizontal tune, {nu}{sub x} {approx} 9.765, is already within 0.1 of {nu}{sub x} = 29/3. Using a half integer resonance, {nu}{sub x} = 19/2, though not part of the original proposal, has been suggested more recently because (a) Fermilab has had a good deal of experience with half-integer extraction from the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the erstwhile Main Ring, and (b) for reasons we shall examine later, it depopulates the entire bunch without an abort at the end. This memo presents considerations preliminary to studying both possibilities. It is meant only as a starting point for investigations to be carried out in the future. The working constraints and assumptions have oscillated between two extremes: (1) making minimal changes in the antiproton source to minimize cost and (2) building another machine in the same tunnel. In this memo we adopt an attitude aligned more toward the first. The assumed parameters are listed in Table 1. A few are not (easily) subject to change, such as those related to the beam's momentum and revolution frequency and the acceptance of the debuncher. Two resonance exemplars are presented in the next section, with an explanation of the analytic and semi-analytic calculations that can be done for each. Section 3 contains preliminary numerical work that was done to validate the exemplars within the context of extraction from the Debuncher. A final section contains a summary. Following the bibliography, appendices contain (a) a qualitative, conceptual discussion of extraction for the novice, (b) a telegraphic review of the perturbative incantations used to filter the exemplars as principal resonances of quadrupole

  9. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Archaeoastronomical Information in the Study of Cremation Necropolis: Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, J.; Cerde, M. L.; Rodríguez, C.

    2009-08-01

    This work remarks the significance that archaeoastronomical studies have for archaeological research. These studies provide us data about the perception that ancient societies had about astronomical events and how these facts were added to their religious and ideological world. Thus, archaeoastronomy become a valuable source of information when aimed to solve any question involving the ancient societies. We take as reference in this work some of the Late Bronze Age{'}s cremation necropolis, representatives of usually called Urnfields, to check if their design can be related to some celestial phenomena: Can Bech de Baix (Gerona), Can Pitieu-Can Roqueta(Barcelona), Molá (Tarragona), Can Missert (Tarragona), Les Obagues (Tarragona), La Colomina (Lleida) and La Torraza (Navarra). Likewise a new standard in archaeological excavations maps is proposed. This will allow getting the information more available and improving further studies.

  11. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.; Bergman, W.; Beason, D.

    1994-07-18

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blowout. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  12. Preliminary Study of a Model Rotor in Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, K. W.; Tung, C.; Sharpe, D. L.; Huang, S.; Hendley, E. M.

    2000-01-01

    Within a program designed to develop experimental techniques for measuring the trajectory and structure of vortices trailing from the tips of rotor blades, the present preliminary study focuses on a method for quantifying the trajectory of the trailing vortex during descent flight conditions. This study also presents rotor loads and blade surface pressures for a range of tip-path plane angles and Mach numbers. Blade pressures near the leading edge and along the outer radius are compared with data obtained on the same model rotor, but in open jet facilities. A triangulation procedure based on two directable laser-light sheets, each containing an embedded reference, proved effective in defining the spatial coordinates of the trailing vortex. When interrogating a cross section of the flow that contains several trailing vortices, the greatest clarity was found to result when the flow is uniformly seeded. Surface pressure responses during blade-vortex interactions appeared equally sensitive near the leading edge and along the outer portion of the blade, but diminished rapidly as the distance along the blade chord increased. The pressure response was virtually independent of whether the tip-path plane angle was obtained through shaft tilt or cyclic pitch. Although the shape and frequency of the pressure perturbations on the advancing blade during blade-vortex interaction are similar to those obtained in open-jet facilities, the angle of the tip-path plane may need to be lower than the range covered in this study.

  13. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  14. Preliminary Trade Study of Phase Change Heat Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Leimkeuhler, Thomas; Quinn, Gregory; Golliher, Eric

    2006-01-01

    For short durations, phase change based heat rejection systems are a very effective way of removing heat from spacecraft. Future NASA vehicles, such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), will require non-radiative heat rejection systems during at least a portion of the planned mission, just as their predecessors have. While existing technologies are available to modify, such as Apollo era sublimators, or the Space Shuttle Flash Evaporator System (FES), several new technologies are under development or investigation to progress beyond these existing heat rejection systems. Examples include the Multi-Fluid Evaporator developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, improvements upon the Contaminant Insensitive Sublimator originally developed for the X-38 program, and a Compact Flash Evaporator System (CFES). Other possibilities evaluate new ways of operating existing designs. The new developments are targeted at increasing operating life, expanding the environments in which the system can operate, improving the mass and volume characteristics, or some combination of these or other improvements. This paper captures the process and results of a preliminary trade study performed at Johnson Space Center to compare the various existing and proposed phase change based heat rejection systems for the CEV. Because the new systems are still in development, and the information on existing systems is extrapolation, this trade study is not meant to suggest a final decision for future vehicles. The results of this early trade study are targeted to aid the development efforts for the new technologies by identifying issues that could reduce the chances of selection for the CEV.

  15. Experience from the Argentine Pegvisomant Observational Study: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    García Basavilbaso, N; Guitelman, M; Nagelberg, A; Stalldecker, G; Carabelli, A; Bruno, O; Danilowitz, K; Manavela, M; Mallea Gil, S; Ballarino, C; Guelman, R; Katz, D; Fidalgo, S; Leal, R; Fideleff, H; Servidio, M; Bruera, D; Librandi, F; Chervin, A; Vitale, M; Basso, A

    2010-01-01

    The GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant is an efficient agent to achieve biochemical control of acromegaly in those cases refractory to surgery and medical therapy with somatostatin analogs. We conducted an observational multicenter study consisting of data collection in accordance with the standard management of patients with acromegaly in everyday practice. We reviewed the medical records of 28 patients, 23 females, who were treated with pegvisomant due to the lack of biochemical response or intolerance to the somatostatin analogs. The objective was to monitor long-term safety and efficacy of the antagonist. 82% of the patients had previous pituitary surgery, 53.6% radiotherapy and 96.4% received medical therapy for acromegaly. Only 19.2% of the patients had pituitary residual tumor size larger than 1 cm, the remainder harbored a microadenoma or no visible tumor in the pituitary images. In terms of biochemical efficacy, IGF-I levels decreased to normal ranges in 45% and 58.8% of patients after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, the daily mean dose of pegvisomant being 9.6+/-1.1 mg. Adverse events, potentially related to pegvisomant were reported in 6 patients (21.4%), local injection site reaction and elevated liver enzymes being the most frequent. Tumor size did not show enlargement in the evaluated population (15 patients) during the period of the study. This paper presents preliminary data from a small observational study in Argentina which represents the first database in our country. PMID:20616494

  16. Titan Lake Probe: The Ongoing NASA Decadal Study Preliminary Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter; Brockwell, Tim; Elliot, John; Reh, Kim; Spencer, John; Outer Planets Satellites Decadal Subpanel, The

    2010-05-01

    This talk provides an update on the scientific requirements and preliminary design of a Titan Lake Probe for a future NASA Flagship mission. The starting point for this study is the joint NASA ESA TSSM mission. Using this as a starting point we have revisited the scientific requirements and expanded them to include the possibility of a lake floater and a submersible. The preliminary results of this ongoing study will be presented. The scientific objectives of a Titan Lake Probe mission are: 1) to understand the formation and evolution of Titan and its atmosphere through measurement of the composition of the target lake (e.g., Kraken Mare), with particular emphasis on the isotopic composition of dissolved minor species and on dissolved noble gases, 2) to study the lake-atmosphere interaction in order to determine the role of Titan's lakes in the methane cycle, 3) to investigate the target lake as a laboratory for both pre-biotic organic chemistry in both water (or ammonia-enriched water) solutions and non-water solvents, and 4) to determine if Titan has an interior ocean by measuring tidal changes in the level of the lake over the course of Titan's sixteen-day orbit. The driving requirements for the mission are: 1) the need to land on and explore the lake at depth while adequately communicating the data back to Earth via either direct to Earth or relay communications, 2) thermal design that allows sustained (>32 days) sampling of the 94K lake environment, and 3) a mass spectrometer inlet system that allows sampling of gas, liquid, and solids from the 94K environment. The primary payload is an analytical chemistry laboratory that includes an inlet system for sampling gas, liquid, and solids in and above the lake feeding two capable mass spectrometers that determine the organic and isotopic composition of the sampled materials. The instrumentation also includes a meteorological package that can measure the rate of gas exchange between the lake and the atmosphere, and

  17. Preliminary characterization of the structural proteins of the coronaviruses, sialodacryoadenitis virus and Parker's rat coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, M G; Percy, D H; Hovland, D J; MacInnes, J I

    1994-01-01

    A procedure was developed for the partial purification of the rat coronaviruses, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker's rat coronavirus (PRC). The SDAV and PRC were replicated in L-2 cell monolayer cultures, precipitated with ammonium sulphate, and further concentrated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The major SDAV and PRC proteins were identified by immunoblotting and compared with those of the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-JHM). Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against the M protein of JHM recognized proteins interpreted to be slightly smaller in immunoblots of SDAV and PRC (22.8 vs 23K for JHM). Similarly, a monoclonal antibody against the JHM N protein reacted with proteins of 53K in SDAV and PRC (vs 56 K for JHM). Polyclonal antisera to all three viruses also cross-reacted with the M and N proteins. Some cross-reactivity amongst the S proteins was observed. Based on these data, the structural proteins of the rat coronaviruses, SDAV and PRC are closely related to those of MHV-JHM. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 2. PMID:8004548

  18. Antagonism of anticholinesterase (DFP) toxicity by donepezil plus scopolamine: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, David S; Davis, John M; Overstreet, David H

    2004-02-01

    Studies in animals exploring the antagonism of the cholinesterase inhibitors soman and sarin have shown that pretreatment with low doses of the centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine, alone or in conjunction with the centrally acting anticholinergic agent, scopolamine, is effective against their lethality and toxicity. The current study evaluated the effects of pretreatment with the oral anticholinesterase agent, donepezil (Aricept, 2.0 mg/kg), used to treat Alzheimer's disease, with and without scopolamine in decreasing the hypothermic, hypokinetic, and diarrhea-inducing effects of the irreversible long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP, 1.0 mg/kg) in adult Flinders sensitive line (FSL) male rats. Donepezil alone and donepezil plus scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg) to a greater extent antagonized the decrease in temperature, hypoactivity, and induction of diarrhea due to DFP observed at 4 h after its administration. However, donepezil alone induced hypothermia at 1 and 2 h after treatment. Therefore, these preliminary findings are encouraging, but many additional studies are needed to establish the effectiveness of donepezil as a prophylactic agent against irreversible cholinesterase inhibition by DFP. PMID:14751462

  19. Preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.J.; Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Moore, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.; Ottewitte, E.H.; Motloch, C.G.; Lacy, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes progress made at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the first three quarters of Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 on the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to perform preliminary design studies on the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). This work builds on the FY-92 BATR studies, which identified anticipated mission and safety requirements for BATR and assessed a variety of reactor concepts for their potential capability to meet those requirements. The main accomplishment of the FY-92 BATR program is the development of baseline reactor configurations for the two conventional conceptual test reactors recommended in the FY-91 report. Much of the present report consists of descriptions and neutronics and thermohydraulics analyses of these baseline configurations. In addition, we considered reactor safety issues, compared the consequences of steam explosions for alternative conventional fuel types, explored a Molten Chloride Fast Reactor concept as an alternate BATR design, and examined strategies for the reduction of operating costs. Work planned for the last quarter of FY-92 is discussed, and recommendations for future work are also presented.

  20. Physico-Chemical profile of Puga Khanda: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Baragi, Pramod C.; Baragi, Umapati C.; Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are the oldest known form of medicine in the world. However, the quality control and the assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components. Herbal drugs, singlely or in combinations, contain numerous compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards and the standardization of finished herbal products. Many formulations have been mentioned in Ayurvedic text for Vrushyatwa (aphrodisiac). Puga Khanda is one among such formulations. Aim: To develop preliminary physico-chemical profile of Puga Khanda. Materials and Methods: Puga Khanda was prepared in three batches as per the classical reference mentioned in Bhaishajya Ratnavali. The formulation was subjected for physico-chemical analysis, phytochemical analysis and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results and Conclusion: The study revealed that organoleptic characters, pH and extractive values of all 3 samples were almost equal. All the samples had 60% of sugar needed for preservation and 2/3rd of it was non reducing sugar. The total alkaloids ranged from 0.002 to 0.004% w/w. In TLC study the entire samples showed similar pattern except the 2nd sample of Puga Khanda. PMID:25364209

  1. A Preliminary Study of a Solar-Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Duane W.

    1961-01-01

    A preliminary study is made of some problems associated with the sending of an instrumented probe close to the Sun for the purpose of gathering and telemetering back to Earth information concerning solar phenomena and circumsolar space. The problems considered are primarily those relating to heating and to launch requirements. A nonanalytic discussion of the communications problem of a solar-probe mission is presented to obtain order-of-magnitude estimates of the output and weight of an auxiliary power supply which might be required. From the study it is believed that approaches to the Sun as close as about 4 or 5 million miles do not present insuperable difficulties insofar as heating and communications are concerned. Guidance requirements, in general, do not appear to be stringent. However, in terms of current experience, velocity requirements may be large. It is found, for example, that to achieve perihelion distances between the orbit of Mercury and the visible disc of the Sun, total burnout velocities ranging between 50,000 and 100,000 feet per second are required.

  2. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally actuated advanced clearance control system, lightweight shroudless fan blades, a low maintenance cost one-stage high pressure turbine, a short efficient mixer and structurally integrated engine and nacelle. A conceptual design analysis was followed by integration and performance analyses of geared and direct-drive fan engines with separate or mixed exhaust nacelles to refine previously designed engine cycles. Preliminary design and more detailed engine-aircraft integration analysis were then conducted on the more promising configurations. Engine and aircraft sizing, fuel burned, and airframe noise studies on projected 1990's domestic and international aircraft produced sufficient definition of configurational and advanced technology requirements to allow immediate initiation of component technology development.

  3. Intraarterial Ultrasound in Pancreatic Cancer: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Timm, Stephan; Kickuth, Ralph; Kenn, Werner; Steger, Ulrich; Jurowich, Christian; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2010-08-15

    Despite technological advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, the involvement of the celiac or mesenteric artery in pancreatic cancer remains uncertain in many cases. Infiltration of these vessels is important in making decisions about therapy choices but often can only be definitively determined through laparotomy. Local (intraarterial) ultrasound may increase diagnostic accuracy. Using the Volcano intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, we applied a transfemoral method to scan the celiac and mesenteric arteries directly intraarterial. This technique was used in five patients with suspected pancreatic cancer. Technical success was achieved in all cases. In one case, a short dissection of the mesenteric artery occurred but could be managed interventionally. In tumors that did not contact with the vessels, IVUS was unable to display the tissue pathology. Our main interest was the infiltration of the arteries. In one case, infiltration was certain in the CT scan but uncertain in two patients. In the latter two cases, IVUS correctly predicted infiltration in one and freedom from tumor in the other case. In our preliminary study, IVUS correctly predicted arterial infiltration in all cases. IVUS did not provide new information when the tumor was far away from the vessel. Compared with IVUS in the portal vein, the information about the artery is more detailed, and the vessel approach is easier. These results encouraged us to design a prospective study to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of this method.

  4. Gasoline on hands: preliminary study on collection and persistence.

    PubMed

    Darrer, Melinda; Jacquemet-Papilloud, Joëlle; Delémont, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    The identification of an arsonist remains one of the most difficult challenges a fire investigation has to face. Seeking and detection of traces of gasoline could provide a valuable information to link a suspect with an arson scene where gasoline was used to set-up the fire. In this perspective, a first study was undertaken to evaluate a simple, fast and efficient method for collecting gasoline from hands, and to assess its persistence over time. Four collection means were tested: PVC, PE and Latex gloves, as well as humidified filter paper. A statistical assessment of the results indicates that Latex and PVC gloves worn for about 20 min, as well as paper filter rubbed on hands, allow an efficient collection of gasoline applied to hands. Due to ease of manipulation and to a reduced amount of volatile compounds detected from the matrix, PVC gloves were selected for the second set of experiments. The evaluation of the persistence of gasoline on hands was then carried out using two initial quantities (500 and 1000 microl). Collection was made with PVC gloves after 0, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4h, on different volunteers. The results show a common tendency of massive evaporation of gasoline during the first 30 min: a continued but non-linear decrease was observed along different time intervals. The results of this preliminary study are in agreement with other previous researches conducted on the detection of flammable liquid residues on clothes, shoes and skin. PMID:17714900

  5. A preliminary study of Mars rover/sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) of the NASA Advisory Council recommends that a Mars Sample Return mission be undertaken before the year 2000. Comprehensive studies of a Mars Sample Return mission have been ongoing since 1984. The initial focus of these studies was an integrated mission concept with the surface rover and sample return vehicle elements delivered to Mars on a single launch and landed together. This approach, to be carried out as a unilateral U.S. initiative, is still a high priority goal in an Augmented Program of exploration, as the SSEC recommendation clearly states. With this background of a well-understood mission concept, NASA decided to focus its 1986 study effort on a potential opportunity not previously examined; namely, a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) mission which would involve a significant aspect of international cooperation. As envisioned, responsibility for the various mission operations and hardware elements would be divided in a logical manner with clearly defined and acceptable interfaces. The U.S. and its international partner would carry out separately launched but coordinated missions with the overall goal of accomplishing in situ science and returning several kilograms of surface samples from Mars. Important considerations for implementation of such a plan are minimum technology transfer, maximum sharing of scientific results, and independent credibility of each mission role. Under the guidance and oversight of a Mars Exploration Strategy Advisory Group organized by NASA, a study team was formed in the fall of 1986 to develop a preliminary definition of a flight-separable, cooperative mission. The selected concept assumes that the U.S. would undertake the rover mission with its sample collection operations and our international partner would return the samples to Earth. Although the inverse of these roles is also possible, this study report focuses on the rover functions of MRSR because rover operations have not

  6. Planning Genomic Study in an Animal Model of Depression: a Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Farnam, Alireza; Fakhari, Ali; Roshangar, Leila; Kahni, Sajjad; Farhang, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Interaction of several genes is responsible for psychiatric diseases such as depression. Despite the numerous microarray studies in this field, findings are controversial and hard to conclude. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly selected to receive Chronic Mild Stress model for 4 weeks. Different aspects of depression were measured by forced swimming test, open field trial and sucrose preference tests in the experience group and controls. Results Sucrose was preferred by 40% of CMS group and 80% of controls (p=0.025). Twenty percent of CMS group and 80% of controls were “active” (p=0.001). Last escape was at minute 238 for CMS group and minute 245 for controls and controls had more escape efforts. Conclusion This paper is a preliminary report of a genomic study on animal model of depression which tries to achieve reliable results by a joint of clinical view with recent techniques. Predicted challenges in this procedure and the solutions as well as the limitations may be helpful for future researches. PMID:23678424

  7. Preliminary study of a scale measuring depression and somatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-I; Weng, Li-Jen; Su, Yi-Jen; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2006-10-01

    This description concerns the development of a scale measuring depression and somatic symptoms and the selection of its items for a Taiwanese sample. 102 Taiwanese outpatients (28 men, 74 women) with major depressive disorder completed a 44-item preliminary scale. All had experienced a major depressive episode but had not been treated by antidepressants within the prior two weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was administered to evaluate the validity of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS). Items, 12 for the Depression Subscale and 10 for the Somatic Subscale, were selected for the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale according to their frequency and their association with rated severity of depression and clinical practices. The mean Hamilton Depression score was 23.9 (SD = 5.2) versus 38.4 (SD = 11.3) for the total DSSS; means for the Depression subscale were 23.5 +/- 6.0 and the Somatic subscale 14.9 +/- 6.8. Cronbach alpha was .88 for the total DSSS, .78 for the Depression subscale, and .86 for the Somatic subscale. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the two scales was .59 (p <.01). The new scale had adequate internal consistency reliability and convergent validity. Much study is required to assess its structure, item characteristics, and in judging its applicability and limitations, and sensitivity to cultural differences in clinical settings. PMID:17153806

  8. ECG response of koalas to tourists proximity: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Brooks, Lisa; Yamamoto, Maki; Kato, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Koalas operate on a tight energy budget and, thus, may not always display behavioral avoidance reaction when placed in a stressful condition. We investigated the physiological response of captive koalas Phascolarctos cinereus in a conservation centre to the presence of tourists walking through their habitat. We compared, using animal-attached data-recorders, the electrocardiogram activity of female koalas in contact with tourists and in a human-free area. One of the koalas in the tourist zone presented elevated heart rate values and variability throughout the recording period. The remaining female in the exhibit area showed a higher field resting heart rates during the daytime than that in the isolated area. In the evening, heart rate profiles changed drastically and both the koalas in the exhibit and in the tourist-free zones displayed similar field resting heart rates, which were lower than those during the day. In parallel, the autonomic nervous systems of these two individuals evolved from sympathetic-dominant during the day to parasympathetic-dominant in the evening. Our results report ECG of free-living koalas for the first time. Although they are preliminary due to the difficulty of having sufficient samples of animals of the same sex and age, our results stress out the importance of studies investigating the physiological reaction of animals to tourists. PMID:19823679

  9. Relationship between electrohysterogram and internal uterine pressure: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rabotti, C; Mischi, M; van Laar, J O E H; Aelen, P; Oei, S G; Bergmans, J W M

    2006-01-01

    Electrohysterography (EHG) is a promising technique for monitoring the uterine activity, based on electrical recordings on the abdominal surface. However, a quantitative estimation of the internal uterine pressure (IUP) by means of EHG is not available for clinical practice. In this paper we present a preliminary study on the estimation of the mechanical uterine activity from abdominal EHG measurements. For the EHG analysis we use two different Time Frequency Distributions (TFD): the spectrogram and the Wigner-Ville Distribution. We assume the EHG to be the sum of frequency modulated signals. Based on this assumption, the IUP is estimated from the unnormalized first moment of the TFD. Eventually, a third order polynomial model is applied to the estimated IUP in order to improve the estimate accuracy. A recent method for detection of uterine contraction by EHG is employed for comparison of the performance. The algorithms were tested on two patient recordings. The results were compared with a reference IUP which is simultaneously measured by an intrauterine catheter. The IUP estimated by our method showed a correlation coefficient with the reference IUP (R=0.93) higher than that achieved by the comparison method (R=0.85). Therefore the proposed method may be considered as a promising clinical technique for accurate non invasive IUP measurements. PMID:17946058

  10. The treatment of nonstreptococcal pharyngitis with erythromycin: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Marlow, R A; Torrez, A J; Haxby, D

    1989-01-01

    This preliminary study evaluated the effectiveness of enteric-coated erythromycin in the treatment of adults with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. Twenty-six patients, aged 12 or older, with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either enteric-coated erythromycin or placebo for 10 days. Each day the patients rated the soreness of their throats and how sick they felt. The use of erythromycin appeared to decrease the median number of days for the feeling of sickness to improve (two days versus four days, P less than .01) as well as to decrease the median number of days for the feeling of sickness to resolve (three-and-a-half days versus five days, P less than .05). This apparent improvement in sickness occurred even though there was no significant decrease in the soreness of the throat in patients treated with erythromycin compared to those patients treated with placebo. Treatment with enteric-coated erythromycin appeared to shorten the time until improvement in this group of adults with nonstreptococcal pharyngitis. PMID:2612797

  11. Predicting use of hearing protection: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Kelemen, M J

    1993-09-01

    The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health targeted noise-induced hearing loss as one of the top 10 occupational hazards. Research has been directed toward reducing noise exposure rather than identifying the factors associated with workers' decision consistently to use hearing protection. The long-term goal of this program of research is to develop a causal model explaining workers' use of hearing protection to guide development of nursing interventions. This study was a preliminary one to prepare for testing Pender's health-promotion model (HPM) as a causal model. Ninety-eight skilled tradesmen completed written questionnaires at their work site. Although 98% indicated they were supposed to wear protection, their reported use averaged 50.3% of the time. Reported use significantly and positively correlated with workers' perceptions of the benefits and self-efficacy of use, value of outcomes regarding keeping out noise and increased well-being, and health-promoting behaviors in the areas of self-actualization and stress management. Perceptions of barriers of use were significantly and negatively related to use. In regression analyses of use of hearing protection on components of the HPM and dimensions of health behavior and lifestyle, one component of the HPM (benefits) and two dimensions of health behavior and lifestyle (self-actualization and interpersonal support) significantly predicted use, accounting for 24% of the variance in use of protection. Knowledge of the predictors of hearing protection use will ultimately aid nurses in implementing interventions, increasing use, and decreasing hearing losses. PMID:8234157

  12. A Preliminary Study of Sex Differences in Emotional Experience.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Aguilar, Azalea; Barrios, Fernando A

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary approaches have proposed that women possess an advantage over men in emotional functioning to promote attachment for child-rearing. Likewise, sex differences have been reported in traits such as personality and empathy, traits that likely modulate emotional processing. In this preliminary study, sex differences in emotional processing were analyzed, including empathy as a social emotion and personality traits, as well as whether there exist relationships between those measures. Young volunteers (N = 105) indicated the emotional valence, activation, and dominance that they experience in situations categorized as emotionally positive, negative, or neutral. The results of comparison between sexes supported the approach that women showed more sensitivity to high activation and dominance for positive emotions and empathy, and men were more sensitive to negative situations. Correlation analysis showed only one positive relationship between scores of Self-transcendence, a subscale of Temperament and Character Inventory, with activation scores of neutral situations, but not with emotionally charged situations, perhaps because emotions are context-dependent processes while personality traits are considered context-independent descriptions of habits. These findings should be replicated to enrich knowledge about problems in emotional processing. PMID:27154367

  13. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  14. Preliminary design studies on a nuclear seawater desalination system

    SciTech Connect

    Wibisono, A. F.; Jung, Y. H.; Choi, J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. I.; Jeong, Y. H.; No, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    Seawater desalination is one of the most promising technologies to provide fresh water especially in the arid region. The most used technology in seawater desalination are thermal desalination (MSF and MED) and membrane desalination (RO). Some developments have been done in the area of coupling the desalination plant with a nuclear reactor to reduce the cost of energy required in thermal desalination. The coupling a nuclear reactor to a desalination plant can be done either by using the co-generation or by using dedicated heat from a nuclear system. The comparison of the co-generation nuclear reactor with desalination plant, dedicated nuclear heat system, and fossil fueled system will be discussed in this paper using economical assessment with IAEA DEEP software. A newly designed nuclear system dedicated for the seawater desalination will also be suggested by KAIST (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology) research team and described in detail within this paper. The suggested reactor system is using gas cooled type reactor and in this preliminary study the scope of design will be limited to comparison of two cases in different operating temperature ranges. (authors)

  15. Textual appropriation in engineering master's theses: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Edward J

    2011-09-01

    In the thesis literature review, an engineering graduate student is expected to place original research in the context of previous work by other researchers. However, for some students, particularly those for whom English is a second language, the literature review may be a mixture of original writing and verbatim source text appropriated without quotations. Such problematic use of source material leaves students vulnerable to an accusation of plagiarism, which carries severe consequences. Is such textual appropriation common in engineering master's writing? Furthermore, what, if anything, can be concluded when two texts have been found to have textual material in common? Do existing definitions of plagiarism provide a sufficient framework for determining if an instance of copying is transgressive or not? In a preliminary attempt to answer these questions, text strings from a random sample of 100 engineering master's theses from the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database were searched for appropriated verbatim source text using the Google search engine. The results suggest that textual borrowing may indeed be a common feature of the master's engineering literature review, raising questions about the ability of graduate students to synthesize the literature. The study also illustrates the difficulties of making a determination of plagiarism based on simple textual similarity. A context-specific approach is recommended when dealing with any instance of apparent copying. PMID:20521174

  16. Alcoholic Steatosis in Different Strains of Rat: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Fernando, Harshica; Boor, Paul J.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Shakeel Ansari, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Different strains of rats have been used to study alcoholic liver disease (ALD) while the reason for selecting a particular rat strain was not apparent. Purpose The aim of our study was to compare outbred (Wistar) and inbred (Fischer) strains to evaluate pathological, biochemical changes, and gene expression differences associated with ethanol-induced early hepatic steatosis. Study Design Male Wistar and Fischer-344 rats were pair-fed for 6 weeks with or without 5% ethanol in Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet. Livers were analyzed for histological and lipid-related differences. Results Hepatic midzonal steatosis was mainly found in Wistar rats while Fischer rats showed mostly pericentral steatosis. Increased hepatic steatosis in ethanol-fed Wistar rats is supported by increases in lipids with related genes and transcription factors involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. Conclusion Our data showed that Fischer rats are relatively less prone to ethanol-mediated steatosis with pericentral lipid deposition pattern in the liver which is similar to humans and show no trace level of lipid accumulation in pair-fed controls as observed in Wistar (outbred) strain. Therefore, Fischer rats are better suited for lipid studies in an early development of ALD. PMID:27213081

  17. Bio-Contamination Control for Spacesuit Garments - A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Richard; Korona, Adam; Orndoff, Evelyn; Ott, Mark; Poritz, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary study to review, test, and improve upon the current state of spacesuit bio-contamination control. The study includes an evaluation of current and advanced suit materials, ground and on-orbit cleaning methods, and microbial test and analysis methods. The first aspect of this study was to identify potential anti-microbial textiles and cleaning agents, and to review current microbial test methods. The anti-microbial cleaning agent and textile market survey included a review of current commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products that could potentially be used as future space flight hardware. This review included replacements for any of the softgood layers that may become contaminated during an extravehicular activity (EVA), including the pressure bladder, liquid cooling garment, and ancillary comfort undergarment. After a series of COTS anti-microbial textiles and clean ing agents were identified, a series of four tests were conducted: (1) a stacked configuration test that was conducted in order to review how bio-contamination would propagate through the various suit layers, (2) a individual materials test that evaluated how well each softgood layer either promoted or repressed growth, (3) a cleaning agent test that evaluated the efficacy on each of the baseline bladders, and (4) an evaluation of various COTS anti-microbial textiles. All antimicrobial COTS materials tested appeared to control bacteria colony forming unit (CFU) growth better than the Thermal Comfort Undergarment (TCU) and ACES Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG)/EMU Liquid Cooling Ventilation Garment (LCVG) materials currently in use. However, a comparison of fungi CFU growth in COTS to current suit materials appeared to vary per material. All cleaning agents tested in this study appeared to inhibit the level of bacteria and fungi growth to acceptable levels for short duration tests. While several trends can be obtained from the current analysis, a series of test improvements are

  18. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  19. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10‑8 m3 kg‑1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  20. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, C.; Vaska, P.; Schlyer, D.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, S.; Park, S.-J.; Stoll, S.; Purschke, M.; Southekal, S.; Kriplani, A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Maramraju, S.; Lee, D.; Schiffer, W.; Dewey, S.; Neill, J.; Kandasamy, A.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Fontaine, R.; Lecomte, R.

    2007-02-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4×8 array of 2.2×2.2×5 mm 3 LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of ˜14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using 18F-FDG and 11C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP.

  1. Chronological and morphological study of heart development in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marcela, Salazar García; Cristina, Revilla Monsalve María; Angel, Palomino Garibay Miguel; Manuel, Arteaga Martínez; Sofía, Díaz-Cintra; Patricia, De La Rosa-Santander; Bladimir, Roque-Ramírez; Concepción, Sánchez Gómez

    2012-08-01

    Adult and embryonic laboratory rats have been used as a mammalian model organism in biomedical research, descriptive and experimental cardiac embryology, and experimental teratology. There have been, however, considerable variations and discrepancies concerning the developmental staging of the rat embryo in the reported literature, which have resulted in several controversies and inconsistencies. Therefore, we carried out a careful anatomical and histological study of rat cardiac morphogenesis from the premorphogenetic period to the mature heart in a newborn pup. A correlation between the chronology and morphological features of the heart and embryo or newborn was made. We provide a simple and comprehensive guide relating the developmental timing and fate of the embryonic components of the heart and their morphological changes in the rat based on in vivo labeling studies in the chick. We also compare the timing of heart development in rats, humans, and mice. PMID:22715162

  2. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  3. A Preliminary Feasibility Study On Seismic Monitoring Of Polymer Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, P. K.; Park, C.; Lim, B.; Nam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polymer flooding using water with soluble polymers is an enhanced oil recovery technique, which intends to maximize oil-recovery sweep efficiency by minimizing fingering effects and as a result creating a smooth flood front; polymer flooding decreases the flow rates within high permeability zone while enhances those of lower permeabilities. Understanding of fluid fronts and saturations is critical to not only optimizing polymer flooding but also monitoring the efficiency. Polymer flooding monitoring can be made in single well scale with high-resolution wireline logging, in inter-well scale with tomography, and in reservoir scale with surface survey. For reservoir scale monitoring, this study makes a preliminary feasibility study based on constructing rock physics models (RPMs), which can bridge variations in reservoir parameters to the changes in seismic responses. For constructing RPMs, we change reservoir parameters with consideration of polymer flooding to a reservoir. Time-lapse seismic data for corresponding RPMs are simulated using a time-domain staggered-finite-difference modeling with implementation of a boundary condition of conventional perfect match layer. Analysis on time-lapse seismic data with respect to the changes in fluid front and saturation can give an insight on feasibility of surface seismic survey to polymer flooding. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2012T100201588). Myung Jin Nam was partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST) (No. 2011-0014684).

  4. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  5. Bone tissue reaction to Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%) in a rodent model: a preliminary SEM study.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Muñoz, Diego F; Sundaram, Paul Antony; Ramírez, Norman

    2007-07-01

    A variety of metals have been used to replace the skeletal framework of human beings. Gamma titanium aluminide (gammaTiAl) has been recently developed as a prospective material for turbine applications. In this preliminary study, the potential of gammaTiAl as a biomaterial was evaluated using an in vivo rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with gammaTiAl cylinders in the femur and observed for an experimental period lasting up to 180 days. The rats were sacrificed after periods of 45, 90 and 180 days. The femurs with the gammaTiAl implants were extracted and examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Normal bone growth processes were observed as early as 45 days after gammaTiAl cylinder implantation. No signs of rejection of the implant metal were observed. In fact, a layered bone growth was observed on the implant metal surface. The bone-metal interface showed signs of tissue growth from original bone to the metal surface. gammaTiAl appears to elicit a normal bone tissue reaction and hence, has potential as a metallic implant material. PMID:17387593

  6. Contraceptive effect and potential side-effects of deslorelin acetate implants in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Grosset, Claire; Peters, Stijn; Peron, Franck; Figuéra, Joëlle; Navarro, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    During the last ten years, numerous species have been treated with deslorelin implants to induce contraception. The aims of the study were 1) to assess contraceptive efficacy of 4.7 mg subcutaneous deslorelin implants in rats, 2) to determine the latency of contraceptive effect, and 3) to determine potential side effects. Three experimental females were implanted and their estrous cycle was studied by vaginal smear. Two weeks after implantation, a male whose fertility was previously assessed with a control female, was introduced into their cage. No female conceived during the 4 mo following implantation. Additionally, 38 pet rats were recruited from clients in practice to test for potential side effects, including 6 males and 32 females with a mean age of 14 mo. Local reaction and transient weight gain during the first 2 wk, as well as behavioral changes were recorded. According to this pilot study, deslorelin implant could be used as a contraceptive method in female rats. The latency period is about 2 wk. Nevertheless, it might be possible to refine the treatment further using hormonal measurements. The duration of contraceptive effect is to be determined in an upcoming study. PMID:23277700

  7. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    above parameters were varied one at a time to study their effects on roxarsone adsorption. Desorption studies were carried out using 125 mg/L phosphorous at predetermined interval of time. In addition to analyzing for total As by an ICP-MS, aqueous speciation of As was performed using a coupled HPLC-ICP-MS system. Preliminary studies show significant roxarsone adsorption capacity of the WTRs.

  8. Preliminary study of volcano monitoring using geochemical composition of lichen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUAN, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taipei City, the capital of Taiwan, is bounded with Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which is not active since 200 ka. However, some evidences indicate that the latest explosion of volcanic ash was dated to 5-6 ka as well as TVG is so close to metropolis. The monitoring on TVG is crucial for crisis management. For monitoring TVG, changes of geochemical signal in some volcanic gases and hot springs are currently assessed by monthly sampling. The geochemistry of volcanic gas and hot spring represents a short-term condition on sampling time and is highly controlled by temperature and precipitation on the surface. A long-term average geochemistry will be very helpful to be compared with the results of volcanic gas and hot spring. A bioindicator not only has the ability to store geochemical compositions in their tissues but also has a wide geographical distribution. It is very suitable in this kind of study and lichen is one of the best bioindicators mainly because lichens grow slowly and have a large-scale dependence upon the environment for their nutrition, In TVG, the high SO2 content in the atmosphere results in the absence of fruticose lichen. On the contrary, crustos lichen is the most common species in the study area. For the preliminary analysis, one fruticose, four foliose and four crustos lichens were collected around the major emission centers of volcanic gas. According to the results of ICP-MS analysis, the abundances of heavy metals are generally in the order of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, V, Co and U. Factor analysis (FA) demonstrates that most of the metals show very high loadings in the first factor. This means that the fractionation of metals among different lichen species is minor and the geochemical compositions of lichen are possibly controlled by the same source (atmosphere). The second factor of FA includes Mn, Sr and Ba, which share the same oxidation state of +2 in acidic environment. This factor can describe the variation of Mn, Sr and Ba in the

  9. Infrared laser sealing of porcine tissues: preliminary in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Perkins, William C.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    We are exploring infrared (IR) lasers as an alternative energy modality to radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices intended to provide rapid surgical hemostasis with minimal collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. Previously, a 1470-nm IR laser sealed and cut ex vivo porcine renal arteries of 1-8 mm in 2 s, yielding burst pressures < 1200 mmHg (compared to normal systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg) and thermal coagulation zones < 3 mm (including the seal). This preliminary study describes in vivo testing of a laser probe in a porcine model. A prototype, fiber optic based handheld probe with vessel/tissue clasping mechanism was tested on blood vessels < 6 mm diameter using incident 1470-nm laser power of 35 W for 1-5 s. The probe was evaluated for hemostasis after sealing isolated and bundled vasculature of abdomen and hind leg, as well as liver and lung parenchyma. Sealed vessel samples were collected for histological analysis of lateral thermal damage. Hemostasis was achieved in 57 of 73 seals (78%). The probe consistently sealed vasculature in small bowel mesentery, mesometrium, and gastro splenic and epiploic regions. Seal performance was less consistent on hind leg vasculature including saphenous arteries and bundles and femoral and iliac arteries. Collagen denaturation averaged 1.6 mm in 8 samples excised for histologic examination. A handheld laser probe sealed porcine vessels in vivo. With further improvements in probe design and laser parameter optimization, IR lasers may provide an alternative to RF and US vessel sealing devices.

  10. Preliminary results of spectral reflectance studies of tycho crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Coombs, C. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Bell, J. F.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and interpretation of near infrared spectra obtained for both the interior and exterior deposits associated with the Tycho crater is presented. Specific objectives were: (1) to determine the composition and stratigraphy of the highland crust in the Tycho target site; (2) to determine the likely composition of the primary ejecta which may be present in ray deposits; (3) to investigate the nature of spectral units defined in previous studies; (4) to further investigate the nature and origin of both the bright and dark haloes around the rim crest; and (5) to compare the compositions determined for the Tycho units with those of the Aristarchus crater as well as typical highland deposits. The spectra obtained for the interior areas exhibit similar spectral features. These include relatively strong 1 micron absorption bands whose minima are centered between 0.97 and 0.99 microns and shallow to intermediate continuum slopes. The spectra generally exhibit indications of a 1.3 micron feature consistent with the presence of Fe(2+) bearing plagioclase feldspar. The strong 1 micron absorption features indicate a dominant high Ca clinopyroxene component. Results obtained from the ejecta deposits show that the spectrum of the inner, bright halo is almost identical with those obtained for interior units. The spectrum of the dark halo exhibits a wide, relatively shallow absorption feature centered at 1.01 microns, a 1.3 micron absorption, and a steep continuum slope. This spectrum is interpreted as indicating the presence of pyroxene, Fe-bearing feldspar, and a significant component of Fe-bearing impact melt glass. Finally, the spectra of spots inside Tycho show similarity with certain spectra for Aristarchus. However, the suite of spectra obtained for Tycho exhibits a different trend in terms of band center versus width.

  11. A Preliminary Outcome Study of Response Ability Pathways Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forthun, Larry F.; McCombie, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 68 classroom teachers participated in a preliminary evaluation of Response Ability Pathways (RAP), a reclaiming training course for adults who work with children and youth. RAP offers basic training in the Circle of Courage Model and provides participants with general strategies for assisting youth who are experiencing challenges.…

  12. Preliminary design study of astronomical detector cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design of an astronomical detector cooling system for possible use in the NASA C-141 Airborne Infrared Observatory is presented. The system consists of the following elements: supercritical helium tank, Joule-Thomson supply gas conditioner, Joule-Thomson expander (JTX), optical cavity dewar, optical cavity temperature controller, adjustable J-T discharge gas pressure controller, and vacuum pump.

  13. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  14. Chronic toxicity study of neosaxitoxin in rats.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Ramiro J; Candiracci, Manila; Lobos, Nicolas; Lux, Sebastian; Miranda, Hugo F

    2014-09-01

    Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) is a specific reversible blocker of voltage gated sodium channels on excitable cells. In the last decade, it has been tested in a number of interesting clinical trials, however there is still little information available on mammalian toxicity. Rats were treated for 12 weeks with doses of 1, 3 or 6 μg/kg of subcutaneous NeoSTX. At weeks 12 and 17, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination and histopathological assessments. The lowest acute toxicity via the intraperitoneal (ip) route was (30.35 μg/kg) and there was no significant difference between intramuscular and subcutaneous routes (11.4 and 12.41 μg/kg). The NeoSTX adiministration did not produce lethality at week 12 and after five weeks of suspension. NeoSTX 6 μg/kg ip produced reductions (p < 0.05) in body weight and food intake, and increased blood level of total and direct bilirubin, GGT and SGOT at week 12; all of these were reversed in the recovery period. NeoSTX 1 and 3 μg/kg ip did not show significant changes with the control group. Histopathological presentations were normal in all groups. This study revealed that NeoSTX is safe in vivo, giving a reliable security margin for its use like a local anesthetic. PMID:25257789

  15. Chronic Toxicity Study of Neosaxitoxin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda, Ramiro J.; Candiracci, Manila; Lobos, Nicolas; Lux, Sebastian; Miranda, Hugo F.

    2014-01-01

    Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) is a specific reversible blocker of voltage gated sodium channels on excitable cells. In the last decade, it has been tested in a number of interesting clinical trials, however there is still little information available on mammalian toxicity. Rats were treated for 12 weeks with doses of 1, 3 or 6 μg/kg of subcutaneous NeoSTX. At weeks 12 and 17, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination and histopathological assessments. The lowest acute toxicity via the intraperitoneal (ip) route was (30.35 μg/kg) and there was no significant difference between intramuscular and subcutaneous routes (11.4 and 12.41 μg/kg). The NeoSTX adiministration did not produce lethality at week 12 and after five weeks of suspension. NeoSTX 6 μg/kg ip produced reductions (p < 0.05) in body weight and food intake, and increased blood level of total and direct bilirubin, GGT and SGOT at week 12; all of these were reversed in the recovery period. NeoSTX 1 and 3 μg/kg ip did not show significant changes with the control group. Histopathological presentations were normal in all groups. This study revealed that NeoSTX is safe in vivo, giving a reliable security margin for its use like a local anesthetic. PMID:25257789

  16. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; De Martino, C; Scorza Barcellona, P; Natali, P G

    1983-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of smooth muscle actin, myosin, fibronectin and basement membrane has been investigated immunohistochemically, using the indirect immunofluorescence technique, in the rat epididymis. The findings were correlated with the ultrastructural organization of the organ. Actin was found to be distributed in the stereociliary region of the epithelial principal cells and in the terminal web region. Actin was also visible along the base of the epithelium. Myosin was detected in the terminal web and in the terminal bar regions of the epithelium. The contractile cells showed a strong stain for both proteins. Basement membrane immunoreactivity was distributed along the epithelial basement membrane and around the contractile cells of the wall. In the cauda, between the epithelium and the contractile cell layers, the lamina propria, containing blood vessels and a thin layer of cells, was negative for all antigens investigated. Fibronectin showed a granular distribution around the contractile cells, mainly in the cauda. The ultrastructural study showed only thin (5-6 nm in diameter) filaments in the stereocilia and terminal web region. Thin filaments were also visible in the cytoplasm of the basal cells, thus suggesting a contractile function of this cell type. The heterogeneous appearance of the contractile cells of the wall seemed to support the different contractile pattern of the epididymal regions: caput, corpus and cauda. The cells present in the lamina propria showed cytoplasmic vesicles with dark granules resembling the "A" cell granules of the endocrine pancreas and gut mucosa cells. PMID:6354463

  17. Stereospecific analytical method development and preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetic characterization of pinostrobin in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Casey L; Zhang, Yangmiao; Martinez, Stephanie E; Takemoto, Jody K; Davies, Neal M

    2013-05-01

    The complete pharmacokinetic disposition of the chiral flavonoid (±) pinostrobin remains unknown without the development of an analytical method of detection and quantitation of its individual enantiomers. Resolution of the enantiomers of pinostrobin was achieved using as simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method. A Chiralpak(®) AD-RH column was employed to perform baseline separation with UV detection at 287 nm. The standard curves were linear ranging from 0.5 to 100 µg/mL for each enantiomer. The limit of quantification was 0.5 µg/mL. Precision and accuracy of the assay was < 15% (RSD) and was with a bias <15% for all points on the calibration curve. The assay was applied successfully to stereoselective serum disposition of pinostrobin enantiomers in rats. Both enantiomers had a serum half-life of ~7 h. They also shared similar values of volume of distribution (V(d) S-pinostrobin, 8.2 L/kg; V(d) R-pinostrobin, 8.9 L/kg), total clearance (S-pinostrobin CL(total), 0.959 L//h/kg; R-pinostrobin CL(total), 1.055 L//h/kg), and area under the curve (S-pinostrobin AUC(inf), 23.16 µg h/mL; R-pinostrobin AUC(inf), 21.296 µg h/mL). The large volume of distribution suggests extensive distribution of pinostrobin into tissues. PMID:23070926

  18. Preliminary design studies for the DESCARTES and CIDER codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Ouderkirk, S.J.; Nichols, W.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project is developing several computer codes to model the release and transport of radionuclides into the environment. This preliminary design addresses two of these codes: Dynamic Estimates of Concentrations and Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments (DESCARTES) and Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides (CIDER). The DESCARTES code will be used to estimate the concentration of radionuclides in environmental pathways, given the output of the air transport code HATCHET. The CIDER code will use information provided by DESCARTES to estimate the dose received by an individual. This document reports on preliminary design work performed by the code development team to determine if the requirements could be met for Descartes and CIDER. The document contains three major sections: (i) a data flow diagram and discussion for DESCARTES, (ii) a data flow diagram and discussion for CIDER, and (iii) a series of brief statements regarding the design approach required to address each code requirement.

  19. Preliminary experimental study of a carbon fiber array cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, An-kun; Fan, Yu-wei

    2016-08-01

    The preliminary experimental results of a carbon fiber array cathode for the magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) operations are reported. When the diode voltage and diode current were 480 kV and 44 kA, respectively, high-power microwaves with a peak power of about 3 GW and a pulse duration of about 60 ns were obtained in a MILO device with the carbon fiber array cathode. The preliminary experimental results show that the shot-to-shot reproducibility of the diode current and the microwave power is stable until 700 shots. No obvious damage or deterioration can be observed in the carbon fiber surface morphology after 700 shots. Moreover, the cathode performance has no observable deterioration after 700 shots. In conclusion, the maintain-free lifetime of the carbon fiber array cathode is more than 700 shots. In this way, this carbon fiber array cathode offers a potential replacement for the existing velvet cathode.

  20. (D, L) polylactide microspheres as embolic agent. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Flandroy, P; Grandfils, C; Collignon, J; Thibaut, A; Nihant, N; Barbette, S; Jerome, R; Teyssie, P

    1990-01-01

    Owing to their shape, accurately calibrated microspheres appear to be very suitable material for distal embolization. Moreover, the biocompatible (D, L) polyactide (PLA) microspheres possess two other valuable advantages: easy adjustment of their biodegradation rate, and incorporation of chemotherapeutic agents during their production. The authors describe the preparation of these (D, L) PLA microspheres and their clinical applications as a preliminary step to arterial chemoembolization. PMID:2234391

  1. Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: A Preliminary Study for microCT Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Montano Garcia, C.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.

    2006-09-08

    Preliminary measurements for microCT dosimetry are reported in this work, using TLD-100 crystals (1x1x1 mm3) within a solid water phantom specially designed with approximate dimensions of a mouse. A dose dependence as a function of radial distance and position along the axis of the phantom was found. Because of the smaller doses used in this work we can say that it is feasible to perform dosimetry measurements with high accuracy using TLD-100 microcubes.

  2. Preliminary Fatigue Studies on Aluminum Alloy Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Preliminary information on the complex subject of the fatigue strength of fabricated structural members for aircraft is presented in the test results obtained on several different types of airship girders subjected to axial tension and compression in a resonance fatigue machine. A description of this machine as well as numerous photographs of the fatigue failures are given. There is also presented an extended bibliography on the subject of fatigue strength.

  3. Computing and information sciences preliminary engineering design study

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J O; Pearson, E W; Thomas, J J; Brothers, J W; Campbell, W K; DeVaney, D M; Jones, D R; Littlefield, R J; Peterson, M J

    1991-04-01

    This document presents the preliminary design concept for the integrated computing and information system to be included in the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EMSL is scheduled for completion and occupancy in 1994 or 1995 and will support the DOE environmental mission, in particular hazardous waste remediation. The focus of the report is on the Computing and Information Sciences engineering task of providing a fully integrated state-of-the-art computing environment for simulation, experimentation and analysis in support of molecular research. The EMSL will house two major research organizations, the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) and part of the Environmental Sciences Research Center (ESRC). Included in the report is a preliminary description of the computing and information system to be included. The proposed system architecture is based on a preliminary understanding of the EMSL users' needs for computational resources. As users understand more about the scientific challenges they face, the definition of the functional requirements will change. At the same time, the engineering team will be gaining experience with new computing technologies. Accordingly, the design architecture must evolve to reflect this new understanding of functional requirements and enabling technologies. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Qiao, Hong; Berglin, Eric J.; Hatchell, Brian K.

    2013-12-26

    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  5. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of thermostable RNase HIII from Bacillus stearothermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Chon, Hyongi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2005-03-01

    A thermostable ribonuclease HIII from B. stearothermophilus (Bst RNase HIII) was crystallized and preliminary crystallographic studies were performed. Plate-like overlapping polycrystals were grown by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 283 K.

  7. Newly made antibacterial braided nylon sutures. I. In vitro qualitative and in vivo preliminary biocompatibility study.

    PubMed

    Chu, C C; Tsai, W C; Yao, J Y; Chiu, S S

    1987-11-01

    A new type of braided nylon thread with a silver compound coating was made for the purpose of designing a biocidal suture material. The study used standard bacterial culture techniques to evaluate the antibacterial property of the new Ag-coated nylon thread. Seven types of bacterial species were tested; S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. dysenteriae, S. maruslens, and P. mirabilis. The commercial size 2/0 Nurolon suture from Ethicon served as the control. A weak direct current ranging from 0.4-400 microA was applied to the specimens to examine whether the biocidal property of silver could be enhanced by current. The antibacterial property was evaluated by the width and sterility of the clear zone in the bacterial culture plates. It was found that the new nylon thread exhibited very good to moderate bactericidal property toward these seven bacterial species. P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive species, while P. mirabilis was the least sensitive one. Application of direct current through the Ag-coated specimens positively enhanced their antibacterial property and the degree of enhancement depended on the direct current level. The material also exhibited an antibacterial property toward well-established bacterial colonies, but the effect was less strong than the case when direct current was applied simultaneously with incubation. Silver ions released from the coated nylon thread were responsible for the observed antibacterial property; and the application of a weak direct current to the material enhanced this effect. A preliminary biocompatibility study of this new material in rat gluteal muscle indicated that the new material caused less inflammatory reaction than the control Nurolon suture up to 60 days after implantation. PMID:3316233

  8. Decontamination of Johnston Island Coral: a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Kochen, R.L.

    1986-02-17

    A preliminary investigation was completed on the characterization and decontamination of coral samples from Johnston Island. These samples were found to contain individual particles (2 to 0.25 mm) of contaminated coral as well as a piece of contaminated magnetic metal. They ranged in activity from about 70 to 811 nCi Am-241. The decontamination methods investigated were froth flotation, ferrite treatment, attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment and dry sieving. Dry sieving, the more effective technique, separated about 42 wt % of the coral into a decontaminated fraction. This fraction (>4 mm) contained about 0.5% of the total activity. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    Electricity power generation using alternative energy sources in Indonesia has become an important policy. Until now, the contribution from alternative energy sources (especially from renewable energy sources) is very small, only about 1% of the total energy supply. It is expected that in the next 10 years this contribution will be raised to 20%. The development of renewable energy sources is primarily performed in remote areas, that are poor in infrastructure facilities. This is considered to be a good policy since there are many such remote areas in Indonesia that need development programs. The existence of Solar Power Satellite system will open a new horizon in alternative energy supply, including Indonesia, because of its higher efficiency compared to conventional terrestrial solar cells, with almost no influence from either climate or solar position. Like other countries in the world, Indonesia, although one of the largest mineral energy producers in the world (i.e. oil, coal, and natural gas), still gives attention to energy diversification programs, including solar energy utilization. SPS, being based on solar energy, could be a good choice. The Indonesian archipelago consists of thousands of islands (more than 13,000) and is the equatorial country with the longest equatorial extent (more than 5000 km). This condition is very good for energy reception from the SPS 2000 pilot plant since the energy transmitting system (spacetenna) will orbit above the equator. Along the equator there could be placed more than four receiving stations (rectenna), especially in remote areas. Thus, it is very important to consider the involvement of Indonesia in SPS energy reception research. This paper describes a preliminary study of the development possibilities in SPS energy reception in Indonesia. To define the rectenna sites and physical development aspect, this study considers some major aspects: environmental, technical, social, and economic aspects. Environmental aspects

  10. Studies on the antihyperlipidemic properties of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit in rats.

    PubMed

    Ambili, Savithri; Subramoniam, Appian; Nagarajan, Natesan Shanmugam

    2009-01-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. fruit and its extracts were screened for antihypercholesterolemic activity using Triton-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats as a model. The fruit and its water extract, but not alcohol and hexane extracts, showed remarkable antihypercholesterolemic activity. An active fraction, which showed activity at a low dose of 0.8 mg/kg, was purified from the water extract. An active component was isolated from the active fraction, which showed optimum activity at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg. The efficacy of the fruit was tested in chronic high-fat diet fed hyperlipidemic rats. The fruit (125 mg/kg) as well as its water extract (50 mg/kg) were found to be effective in lowering lipids in the high-fat diet fed rats. The fruit was subjected to preliminary general toxicity evaluation in mice. Oral administration of the fruit homogenate daily for 15 days did not result in any toxic symptoms up to a dose of 1 g/kg studied. Thus, this fruit can be used as a dietary ingredient to prevent as well as treat hyperlipidemia. PMID:19031370

  11. A preliminary study of the modified Ericsson for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, J.; Louis, J. F.; Juhasz, A.

    1985-01-01

    Simple modifications of the Ericsson cycle are analyzed for their application as high power, compact and reliable space power systems. They use the same components as the technologically advanced and reliable Brayton system. These modifications approximate the Ericsson cycle's isothermal expansion by several stages of expansion with reheat and the isothermal compression by several compression stages with intercooling. Preliminary cycle analysis including non-ideal components indicates potential advantages in both power per unit area and efficiency over the Brayton system. Evaluation of the system mass indicates a significant mass and radiator area advantage of a Modified Ericsson cycle using one reheat and one expansion stage when a high temperature titanium radiator is used. Whereas the configuration using one reheat and one intercooling with two stages of compression and expansion provided the lowest mass per unit power using a lower temperature aluminum radiator.

  12. Preliminary study of niobium alloy contamination by transport through helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Coulson M.; Moore, Thomas J.; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary tests were conducted to determine if interstitial element transport through a circulating helium working fluid was a potential problem in Brayton and Stirling space power systems. Test specimens exposed to a thermal gradient for up to 3000-hr included Nb-1%Zr, a Sm-Co alloy (referred to as SmCo in this paper), Hiperco 50 steel, and alumina to simulate various engine components of the Brayton and Stirling systems. Results indicate that helium transport of interstitial contaminants can be minimized over a 7-yr life with a monometallic Nb-1%Zr design. Exposure with other materials indicated a potential for interstitial contaminant transport. Determination of contamination kinetics and the effects on structural integrity will require additional testing.

  13. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Preliminary Observations on Sensitivity and Specificity of Magnetization Transfer Asymmetry for Imaging Myelin of Rat Brain at High Field

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Woong; Choi, Jiye; Cho, Janggeun; Lee, Chulhyun; Jeon, Daejong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) has been often used for imaging myelination. Despite its high sensitivity, the specificity of MTR to myelination is not high because tissues with no myelin such as muscle can also show high MTR. In this study, we propose a new magnetization transfer (MT) indicator, MT asymmetry (MTA), as a new method of myelin imaging. The experiments were performed on rat brain at 9.4 T. MTA revealed high signals in white matter and significantly low signals in gray matter and muscle, indicating that MTA has higher specificity than MTR. Demyelination and remyelination studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of MTA to myelination was as high as that of MTR. These experimental results indicate that MTA can be a good biomarker for imaging myelination. In addition, MTA images can be efficiently acquired with an interslice MTA method, which may accelerate clinical application of myelin imaging. PMID:26413534

  15. Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity Study of n-pentane in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hae-Won; Han, Jeong-Hee; Lee, Sung-Bae; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Rim, Kyung-Taek; Yang, Jeong-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to obtain information concerning the health hazards that may result from a 13 week inhalation exposure of n-pentane in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods This study was conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines for the testing of chemicals No. 413 'Subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study (as revised in 2009)'. The rats were divided into 4 groups (10 male and 10 female rats in each group), and were exposed to 0, 340, 1,530, and 6,885 ppm n-pentane in each exposure chamber for 6 hour/day, 5 days/week, for 13 weeks. All of the rats were sacrificed at the end of the treatment period. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, locomotion activity, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, organ weights, and histopathology were assessed. Results During the period of testing, there were no treatment related effects on the clinical findings, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, relative organ weight, and histopathological findings. Conclusion The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of n-pentane is evaluated as being more than 6,885 ppm (20.3 mg/L) in both male and female rats. n-pentane was not a classified specific target organ toxicity in the globally harmonized classification system (GHS). PMID:23019535

  16. Preliminary study of a centrifugal-flow singlet oxygen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, W; Deng, L; Yang, H; Sha, G; Zhang, C

    2008-02-28

    By using the concept of a high-pressure, gravity-independent singlet oxygen generator (SOG) proposed by Emanuel and based on the principle that a rotating fluid is capable of producing an enormous centrifugal force, a novel-type centrifugal-flow singlet oxygen generator (CFSOG) was designed and constructed. In this device, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) was generated in the reaction of gaseous Cl{sub 2} with a rotating basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) liquid flow and then was removed from the BHP liquid phase by the centrifugal force. Meanwhile, the microdroplets formed during the Cl{sub 2}+BHP reaction were removed from the O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) gas flow by the centrifugal force produced by the high-speed flow along an arc-shaped channel. Preliminary investigations showed that, because the specific reactive surface area of this SOG was noticeably larger than that of the jet-SOG normally used in current chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COILs), the O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) yield of {approx}60%, the O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) partial pressure as high as 31 Torr, and chlorine utilisation higher than 96% were realised. Moreover, steady operation was obtained. (laser components)

  17. Analytic study of the Tadoma method: background and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Norton, S J; Schultz, M C; Reed, C M; Braida, L D; Durlach, N I; Rabinowitz, W M; Chomsky, C

    1977-09-01

    Certain deaf-blind persons have been taught, through the Tadoma method of speechreading, to use vibrotactile cues from the face and neck to understand speech. This paper reports the results of preliminary tests of the speechreading ability of one adult Tadoma user. The tests were of four major types: (1) discrimination of speech stimuli; (2) recognition of words in isolation and in sentences; (3) interpretation of prosodic and syntactic features in sentences; and (4) comprehension of written (Braille) and oral speech. Words in highly contextual environments were much better perceived than were words in low-context environments. Many of the word errors involved phonemic substitutions which shared articulatory features with the target phonemes, with a higher error rate for vowels than consonants. Relative to performance on word-recognition tests, performance on some of the discrimination tests was worse than expected. Perception of sentences appeared to be mildly sensitive to rate of talking and to speaker differences. Results of the tests on perception of prosodic and syntactic features, while inconclusive, indicate that many of the features tested were not used in interpreting sentences. On an English comprehension test, a higher score was obtained for items administered in Braille than through oral presentation. PMID:904318

  18. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clive, P. J. M.; Chindurza, I.; Ravey, I.; Bass, J.; Boyle, R. J.; Jones, P.; Lang, S. J.; Bradley, S.; Hay, L.; Oldroyd, A.; Stickland, M.

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  19. Preliminary study of a dispersed fringe type sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Gen-Rong; Wang, Yue-Fei; Li, Ye-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Liang

    2009-08-01

    Telescopes with large aspherical primary mirrors collect more light and are therefore sought after by astronomers. Instead of using a single large one-piece mirror, smaller segments can be assembled into a useable telescopic primary. Because the segments must fit together to create the effect of a single mirror, segmented optics present unique challenges to the fabrication and testing that are absent in monolithic optics. A dispersed fringe sensor (DFS) using a broadband point source is an efficient method for cophasing and is also highly automated and robust. Unlike the widely adopted Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor and curvature wavefront sensor with edge sensors for calibration of relative pistons, DFS can estimate the piston between segments by only using the spectrum formed by the transmissive grating's dispersion, and therefore can replace the edge sensors, which are difficult to calibrate. We introduce the theory of the DFS and Dispersed Hartmann Sensor (DHS) for further utilization of the coarse phasing method of DFS. According to the theory, we bring out the preliminary system design of the cophasing experimental system based on DFS and DHS which is now established in our institute. Finally, a summary is reached.

  20. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of pentachlorophenol in rats.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R S; Maronpot, R M; Bucher, J R; Haseman, J K; Toft, J D; Hejtmancik, M R

    1999-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used as an herbicide, algaecide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. A 28-day toxicity study of PCP in F344/N rats of both sexes was conducted to select dose levels for a carcinogenicity study. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were given 0, 200, 400, 800, 1600, or 3200 ppm PCP in feed for 28 days. The incidences of minimal to mild hepatocyte degeneration in males and females exposed to 400 ppm or greater and the incidences of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy in the 3200-ppm groups were increased. For carcinogenicity studies, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 PCP for 2 years. A stop-exposure group of 60 male and 60 female rats received 1000 ppm of PCP in feed for 52 weeks and control feed thereafter for the remainder of the 2-year studies; 10 male and 10 female rats were evaluated at 7 months. Survival of 600-ppm males was significantly greater than that of the controls; survival of all other exposed groups was similar to that of the control groups. Mean body weights of the 400- and 600-ppm groups were generally less than those of the controls throughout the studies. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCP in male or female rats fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 ppm for 2 years. Stop-exposure study males and females regained a transitory body weight reduction by the end of the 2 year study, and males had better survival than the controls. At a 7-month interim evaluation, the incidences of centrilobular hypertrophy in stop-exposure males and females exceeded those in the controls. At 2 years, malignant mesothelioma originating from the tunica vaginalis was present in 9 1000-ppm males and 1 control male (p = 0.014). Nasal squamous cell carcinomas were present in five 1000-ppm males and 1 control male. This incidence was not significantly increased but exceeded the historical control range (0-4%). Based on the increased

  1. NASA Desert RATS 2010: Preliminary Results for Science Operations Conducted in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lofgren, G. E.; Bluethmann, W. J.; Bell, E. R.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with international partners to develop the space architectures and mission plans necessary for human spaceflight beyond earth orbit. These mission plans include the exploration of planetary surfaces with significant gravity fields. The Apollo missions to the Moon demonstrated conclusively that surface mobility is a key asset that improves the efficiency of human explorers on a planetary surface. NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona. Conducted since 1998, these activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in relatively harsh climatic conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable

  2. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. [Preliminary study on substitution of Antelope Horn in Danqi Piantan capsule with artificial bezoar].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yan-jun; Cui, Wei-li; Li, Jin

    2015-09-01

    To study the protective effect of Danqi Piantan capsule ( DPC) and its antelope horn substitution (DPCAS) on the cerebral ischemia, in order to preliminary study the possibility of replacing antelope horn with artificial bezoar. In this study, the left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was adopted. Totally 150 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the sham operation group, the model group, the Danqi Piantan capsule (DPC) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn (DPCRA) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn and with double artificial bezoar (DPCDB) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The MCAO model was prepared 1 h later after the administration on the 5th day. At 24 h after the operation, the inner canthus blood was collected to determine the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the endothelin (ET) content. At 72 h after the operation, the cerebral infarct size and the cerebral index were determined by TTC-staining. The fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to detect brain Bcl-2, Caspase-3, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions. The mmunohistochemical method was used to detect ICAM-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 expressions in ischemic penumbra. According to the results, compared with the model group, DPCDB and DPC groups showed almost consistent results, indicating both of the two group can significantly improved cerebral infarction index and cerebral index (P < 0.05), increase the serum SOD activity (P < 0.05), decrease the serum ET level and Caspase-3 expression, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions in brain tissues (P < 0.05) and expressions of ICAM-1, IL-1,6, TNF-α, IL-6 positive cells in ischemic penumbra (P < 0.05) and increase the Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.05). The DPCRA group showed much lower impacts on indexes than DPCDB and DPC groups. This suggests that DPCDB and DPC reveal similar efficacies and antelope horn in

  4. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-11-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of /sup 3/H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease.

  5. Studies on glutathione S-alkyltransferase of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. K.

    1966-01-01

    1. A rat-liver enzyme catalysing the S-alkylation of glutathione by iodomethane and various other alkyl compounds has been identified and partially purified; its stability, specificity and response to inhibitors and activators and to changes in reaction pH have been studied. 2. The enzyme is distinct from glutathione S-aryltransferase, but both enzymes respond similarly to various inhibitors. 3. A similar enzyme has been found in the kidney and adrenal of rat and in the liver and kidney of numerous species. 4. The identity and the physiological role of the enzyme are discussed. PMID:5938663

  6. MULTIGENERATION STUDY OF 1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rats were continuously exposed to 0, 25, 100, or 400 ppm 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) in the drinking water, beginning with birth of the Fo generation and continuing through weaning of the F2 generation. These studies demonstrate that chronic or acute doses of TCB can produce adr...

  7. Identification of Emerging Self-Injurious Behavior in Young Children: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Huete, John M.; Cataldo, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a chronic disorder that often begins in early childhood; however, few studies have examined the onset of SIB in young children. This preliminary study reports on the identification, assessment, and observation of SIB in 32 children who had begun to engage in SIB within the previous 6 months. Participants were under…

  8. Preliminary Study: Special Education Doctoral Students' Perceptions of Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyeong-Hwa; Morningstar, Mary E.; Jung, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary study investigated 118 special education doctoral students' knowledge of and attitudes toward self-determination. In addition, this study examined the relationship between self-determination coursework and special education doctoral students' perceptions of how well they were prepared for implementing self-determination…

  9. A Preliminary Study of Guided Math in Title I Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Katherine Roberts

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to provide a preliminary examination of the relationship between the implementation of Guided Math and student achievement in Title I schools as measured by the percentage of students who met or exceeded the standard for the Georgia Mathematics CRCT. The study examined data from thirty Title I elementary schools in one suburban…

  10. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  11. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  12. The Status of Women in Alaska, 1977. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy M.; And Others

    To determine the precise nature and extent of the problem confronting Alaskan women, the Legislature in 1976 directed the Human Rights Commission to conduct a study on the status of women in education, employment, health, and the justice system. This publication contains the results of that study. Data for the study were secured through interviews…

  13. Preliminary planning study for safety relief valve experiments in a Mark III BWR pressure suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.

    1980-04-21

    In response to a request from the Water Reactor Safety Research Division of the US NRC, a preliminary study is provided which identifies key features and consideration involved in planning a comprehensive in-plant Safety Relief Valve experimental program for a Mark III containment design. The report provides identification of program objectives, measurement system requirements, and some details quantifying expected system response. In addition, a preliminary test matrix is outlined which involves a supporting philosophy intended to enhance the usefulness of the experimental results for all members of the program team: experimentalists, analysts, and plant operator.

  14. Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2. Preliminary program development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary development plan for the Pioneer Venus program is presented. This preliminary plan treats only developmental aspects that would have a significant effect on program cost. These significant development areas were: master program schedule planning; test planning - both unit and system testing for probes/orbiter/ probe bus; ground support equipment; performance assurance; and science integration Various test planning options and test method techniques were evaluated in terms of achieving a low-cost program without degrading mission performance or system reliability. The approaches studied and the methodology of the selected approach are defined.

  15. Preliminary study of Kelso Dunes using AVIRIS, TM, and AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Pung; Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing of sand dunes helps in the understanding of aeolian process and provides important information about the regional geologic history, environmental change, and desertification. Remotely sensed data combined with field studies are valuable in studying dune morphology, regional aeolian dynamics, and aeolian depositional history. In particular, active and inactive sands of the Kelso Dunes have been studied using landsat TM and AIRSAR. In this report, we describe the use of AVIRIS data to study the Kelso dunes and to compare the AVIRIS information with that from TM and AIRSAR.

  16. Young Children's Perceptions of Scientists: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since the 1950s, there has been a growing body of research dealing with perceptions children have of scientists. Typically, research studies in this area have utilized children's drawings in an effort to discern what those perceptions are. Studies assessing perceptions children have of scientists have shown that children have…

  17. Supporting Off-Shore Students: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussin, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of a recent research study into current initiatives to support the learning of non-English speaking background (NESB) transnational students in Asia who are studying off-shore at Australian universities. Learning support and development staff in 12 universities were surveyed using a questionnaire. The survey…

  18. Citations to Wikipedia in Chemistry Journals: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazzeal, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia has been the subject of an increasing number of studies. Many of these have focused on the quality of Wikipedia articles and the use of Wikipedia by students. Little research has focused on the use of Wikipedia by scholars. This study helps to fill that gap by examining citations to Wikipedia in chemistry journals from three major…

  19. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking …

  20. School Library Support of Health Education in China: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Geoffrey Z.; Zhang, Wuhong

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study investigates the current situation of school library support of K-12 health education in China. A survey of 42 school librarians and 115 K-12 teachers from selected schools was conducted to find out their views about school library's role in school health education and their current practice of library use in health…

  1. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  2. Factors affecting weight gain and dietary intake in Latino males residing in Mississippi: A preliminary study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research indicates that as Latinos become more acculturated to the United States, their diet changes and they experience weight gain. There is also a high incidence of depression in this population. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the correlations between sociodemographic factor...

  3. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  4. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  5. Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2: Results of Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Diken, Ozlem; Gilliam, James E.; Ardic, Avsar; Sweeney, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the validity and reliability of Turkish Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (TV-GARS-2). Participants included 436 children diagnosed with autism (331 male and 105 female, mean of ages was 8.01 with SD = 3.77). Data were also collected from individuals diagnosed with intellectual…

  6. Factorial Structure of the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheing, Gladys L. Y.; Lai, Amy K. M.; Vong, Sinfia K. S.; Chan, Fong H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the preliminary validation results for the Pain Rehabilitation Expectations Scale (PRES). The PRES is a clinical tool developed to measure the expectations about rehabilitation treatment and outcome for people with back pain. Fifty people with chronic back pain were recruited from 11 physiotherapy outpatient…

  7. Comparison of Brain Activity during Drawing and Clay Sculpting: A Preliminary qEEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruk, Kerry A.; Aravich, Paul F.; Deaver, Sarah P.; deBeus, Roger

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary experimental study examined brain wave frequency patterns of female participants (N = 14) engaged in two different art making conditions: clay sculpting and drawing. After controlling for nonspecific effects of movement, quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) recordings were made of the bilateral medial frontal cortex and…

  8. The Development of a Computer Model for Projecting Statewide College Enrollments: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rensselaer Research Corp., Troy, NY.

    The purpose of this study was to develop the schema and methodology for the construction of a computerized mathematical model designed to project college and university enrollments in New York State and to meet the future increased demands of higher education planners. This preliminary report describes the main structure of the proposed computer…

  9. A Preliminary Study of Teachers' Perceptions of Sex Education in Hong Kong Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yuk Ching

    2006-01-01

    In Hong Kong, once a British colony, sex has traditionally been viewed as taboo and, as such, seldom talked about or openly discussed in public. As a result, there is reluctance on the part of most pre-to-secondary schools to implement sex education. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of preschool sex…

  10. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  11. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing (/sup 3/H)-biotin and (/sup 14/C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 ..mu..M biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host.

  12. Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility preliminary study, volume 2 and appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data to support results obtained in technology assessment studies are presented. Objectives, starting points, and future study tasks are outlined. Key design issues discussed in appendices include: data allocation, transposition network design, fault tolerance and trustworthiness, logic design, processing element of existing components, number of processors, the host system, alternate data base memory designs, number representation, fast div 521 instruction, architectures, and lockstep array versus synchronizable array machine comparison.

  13. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF NORMOGLYCEMIC, ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC AND DYSLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ON DIABETIC RAT.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Mir Mohammad Reza Seyed; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Mahmudi, Roziahanim

    2016-01-01

    Tinospora crispa is an indigenous medicinal plant belonging to Menispermaceae family, known localy as "akar patawali" or as "akar seruntum". Different parts of this plant are used for various therapeutic purposes for treatment of hypertension, stimulation of appetite, protection from mosquito bites and to treat ailments like jaundice, wounds, intestinal worms and skin infections, tooth and stomach aches, coughs, asthma and pleurisy. The stems were washed, dried, pulverized using Wiley Laboratory Mill apparatus and stored in dry air-tight plastic containers until use. Then, they were extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and finally with water by maceration. The solvent was evaporated from each extract (using rotary evaporator), dried extract were stored at -4°C until used. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and each group having 6 animals for two sets of experiments. In the first test, healthy rats were treated orally with the plant extracts (1 g/kg) suspended in Tween 80. In the second test, the diabetic rats were fasted overnight. The test groups of 6 diabetic rats were treated orally with extracts of Tinospora crispa (1 g/kg), glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) and 10% Tween 80, (10 mL/kg), respectively. In these results, there was no significant effect on blood glucose levels in normal rats treated with different extracts of Tinospora crispa. The water extract of Tinospora crispa decreased the glucose levels in diabetic rats and has the ability to reduce lipid profile in diabetic rats as compared to control diabetic rats. PMID:27008807

  14. Preliminary studies of combustor sensitivity to alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Combustion problems associated with using alternative fuels ground power and aeropropulsion applications were studied. Rectangular sections designed to simulate large annular combustor test conditions were examined. The effects of using alternative fuels with reduced hydrogen content, increased aromatic content, and a broad variation in fuel property characteristics were also studied. Data of special interest were collected which include: flame radiation characteristics in the various combustor zones; the correponding increase in liner temperature from increased radiant heat flux; the effect of fuel bound nitrogen on oxides of nitrogen (NO sub x) emissions; and the overall total effect of fuel variations on exhaust emissions.

  15. From Numbers to Action: A Preliminary Study of Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Shelia Parker; Greenlee, Harry

    This study examined retention at Christopher Newport University (CNU) in Newport News, Virginia, focusing on the demographic characteristics of those students who left the university as well as the reasons why they left. A total of 159 students who had attended CNU during the 1994-95 academic year but who did not re-enroll in the fall of 1995 were…

  16. Preliminary study of NAVSTAR/GPS for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, R. D.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The activities conducted as a planning effort to focus attention on the applicability of the global positioning system for general aviation are described. The description of GPS, its impact on economic and functional aspects of general aviation avionics, as well as a declaration of potential extensions of the basic concept have been studied in detail.

  17. Competence Supporting Aspects of Day Care Environments: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Andrew; And Others

    This study examined the applicability of Watts' Human Interaction Scale to day care settings, and was also concerned at a more general level with the question of whether it is possible for day care settings to approximate good homes. Six 2-year-olds in each of two day care centers were each videotaped for a total of 45 minutes in a variety of…

  18. US Army Chemical Corps Vietnam veterans health study: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Dalager, N A; Needham, L L; Patterson, D G; Matanoski, G M; Kanchanaraksa, S; Lees, P S

    2001-01-01

    The long-term health consequences of exposure to phenoxyherbicides used in Vietnam has been a great concern to the veterans. In addition to the Air Force Ranch Hand personnel, Army Chemical Corps personnel who served in Vietnam are thought to have had some of the highest herbicide exposures. The Department of Veterans Affairs commenced a study of veterans who served in Vietnam as members of the Army Chemical Corps and a comparison cohort of Army Chemical Corps personnel who served elsewhere. A total of 2872 Vietnam veterans and 2737 non-Vietnam veterans who served in the Army Chemical Corps were identified for inclusion in a telephone health interview survey with a random 20% sample of veterans receiving serum dioxin and other congeners assessments. In a feasibility study which included 284 Vietnam veterans and 281 non-Vietnam veterans, 100 serum assessments were conducted of which 95 were included in the analysis. Vietnam veterans with a history of spraying herbicides were found to have a statistically significant elevation in their current serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations compared to non-Vietnam veterans without a spray history (P = 0.05). Other 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins levels were comparable to the levels found in the non-Vietnam veterans. This feasibility study demonstrated that serum dioxin concentrations from a sample of the study participants can be used to identify exposure variables in the health survey that can serve as a surrogate measure of phenoxyherbicide exposure. PMID:11372888

  19. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  20. Burnout among Special Education Administrators: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the extent of stress and burnout among special education administrators is not as well developed as research on the extent of stress and burnout among teachers. This study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine levels of stress and burnout among administrators of special education. Results indicated administrators of…

  1. Problems of Eskimo Relocation for Industrial Employment. A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, D. S.

    A study was conducted to determine the reasons for variable success in relocating Eskimo families from rural areas of the northern territories of Canada to southern centers of industrial employment (railways, mining centers). The data were collected by interviewing 105 Eskimos, both male and female, married and single, who had migrated south. The…

  2. Preliminary lithostratigraphic correlation study in OAPEC member countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lababidi, M.M.; Hamdan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines a study correlating rock units in the Middle Eastern and North African member countries, based on direct information from the members. It comprises Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic correlation charts for each region and a lexicon giving the definition, age, lithology, and equivalents of each formation.

  3. Computer-Generated Geometry Instruction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Helen W.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that increased intensity of graphic information, presented in computer-generated instruction, could be differentially beneficial for students with hyperactivity and inattention by improving their ability to sustain attention and hold information in-mind. To this purpose, 18 2nd-4th grade students, recruited from general…

  4. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  5. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who work in…

  6. Methods Courses, So What? Preliminary Findings of a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard J.; Flores-Duenas, Leila; Rossi, Pamela

    This study examined influences that preservice literacy teacher education courses and sustained relationships with literacy researchers had on the literacy practices of three preservice teachers during student teaching and their subsequent self-efficacy and performance as literacy teachers during their first teaching years. Data collected during…

  7. Functional Communication Training in Rett Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population (Sigafoos et al., 2009). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and…

  8. Gravity of the New Madrid seismic zone; a preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Mo. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  9. Image deconvolution in digital autoradiography: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mutian; Chen, Qing; Li, Xiao-Feng; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Ruan, Shutian; Zanzonico, Pat; Ling, C Clifton; Humm, John L

    2008-02-01

    Digital autoradiography (DAR) is a powerful method to determine quantitatively the "small-scale" (i.e., submillimeter) distribution of a radiotracer within a tissue section. However, the limited spatial resolution of the DAR image, due to blurring by the point spread function (PSF), can result in a poor correlation with tissue histology and immunohistochemistry. The authors attempt to overcome this limitation by recovering the radiotracer distribution by image deconvolution using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm and a measured PSF obtained from a small radioactive source on hydrophobic microscope slide. Simulation studies have shown that the deconvolution algorithm reliably recovers the pixel values corresponding to the radioactivity distributions. As an example, the proposed image restoration approach has been tested with DAR images of different radiolabeled markers on tumor sections obtained from clinical and preclinical animal model studies. Digital autoradiograms following deconvolution show improved sharpness and contrast relative to the unprocessed autoradiograms. PMID:18383673

  10. Sleep habits and patterns of college students: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B

    2001-11-01

    The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance. PMID:11765249

  11. Depressed patients’ preferences for type of psychotherapy: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yrondi, Antoine; Rieu, Julie; Massip, Claire; Bongard, Vanina; Schmitt, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background The treatment recommendations for depressed patients by the American Psychiatric Association encourage a focus on the patient’s preferences. The focus of this study was the preference of depressed inpatients for the type of psychotherapy. Methods Twenty-nine subjects of both sexes who were hospitalized with a major depressive episode were interviewed at 5-day intervals with the same questions after the depressive episode resolved, as indicated by a score less than 7 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The selection of items was performed by expert consensus. Results The supportive psychotherapy scores were the highest, followed by psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The two sessions conducted at 5-day intervals showed no significant difference, which reflected the stability of choices and preferences of patients. Conclusion In this study, the patients preferred supportive psychotherapy as first-line therapy compared to psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:26491265

  12. A preliminary study of flat-panel displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    Six display technologies that might be of future value in a spacelab workstation are discussed. Some have been developed to the point where they could be used as a computer display while others have not. The display technologies studied are electroluminescents, light-emitting didodes, gas plasma, liquid crystal, electrochromic, and electrophoretic. An explanation of each mechanism is provided along with the state-of-the-art development.

  13. Preliminary results from two international pluvial flood event studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roezer, Viktor; Spekkers, Matthieu; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial floods have caused severe damages to urban dwellings in Europe and elsewhere in recent years. With a predicted increase in extreme weather events as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. These type of flood events, caused by stormwater being unable to enter urban drainage systems or flowing out of urban drainage systems when capacity is exceeded, often happen with little warning and in areas which are often not obviously prone to flooding. Up to now little research was done on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods, as empirical damage data of pluvial flooding is scarce. In this study, results of two telephone surveys are discussed. The surveys comprise interviews with more than 500 flood-affected households in Germany (Münster and Greven) and the Netherlands (Amsterdam), related to the severe rain event of July 28th 2014. Respondents were asked a series of questions about the damage to their building structure and contents, as well as on topics such as early warning, emergency and precautionary measures, building properties and hazard characteristics. The questionnaire was developed with the aim to create a harmonized transnational pluvial flood damage survey that can potentially be extended to other European countries. New indicator variables have been developed to account for different national and regional standards in building structure, early warning, socio-economic data and recovery. The survey data from the German and Dutch case studies are compared with the goal to identify similarities and differences in damage reducing factors and recovery. Water level data and other hazard characteristics are used to form comparable groups out of the German and Dutch sample. Within these groups, regional distinctions in building topology and use are expected to have the strongest impact on differences between reported damage amounts of the two case studies. The newly collected data will be used in

  14. Preliminary space station solar array structural design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, J. T.; Bush, H. G.; Mikulas, M. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Structurally efficient ways to support the large solar arrays (3,716 square meters which are currently considered for space station use) are examined. An erectable truss concept is presented for the on orbit construction of winged solar arrays. The means for future growth, maintenance, and repair are integrally designed into this concept. Results from parametric studies, which highlight the physical and structural differences between various configuration options are presented. Consideration is given to both solar blanket and hard panel arrays.

  15. [Omeprazole: a new treatment for paranasal sinus polyps in Widal syndrome. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Serra, J; Piñas, J; Arnaiz, J A; Quesada, P; Naches, S; Lorente, J; Carne, X

    1998-05-01

    A preliminary report is made of the potential therapeutic effect of omeprazol in reducing nasosinusal polyps. This study is based on the empirical observation of nasal airflow improvement in patients suffering from nasosinusal polyposis after administering omeprazol. Different phases of the study suggested that patients with Widal's syndrome benefited the most. Based on the results of this study, we have undertaken a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. PMID:9707740

  16. Preliminary studies on cryopreservation of snakehead (Channa striata) embryos.

    PubMed

    Mohd Sharifuddin, M; Siti Azizah, M N

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of the ongoing studies on cryopreservation of the snakehead, Channa striata embryos. The specific objective of this study was to collect data on the sensitivity of C. striata embryo hatching rate to low temperatures at two different developmental stages in the presence of four different cryoprotectants. Embryos at morula and heartbeat stages were selected and incubated in 1M dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), 1M ethylene glycol (EG), 1M methanol (MeOH) and 0.1M sucrose solutions at different temperatures for a period of time. Embryos were kept at 24 °C (control), 15 °C, 4 °C and -2 °C for 5 min, 1h and 3h. Following these treatments, the embryos were then transferred into a 24 °C water bath until hatch to evaluate the hatching rate. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of hatching rate in both developmental stages following exposure to 4 °C and -2 °C at 1h and 3h exposure in each treatment. Heartbeat stage was more tolerant against chilling at -2 °C for 3h exposure in Me2SO followed by MeOH, sucrose and EG. Further studies will be conducted to find the best method to preserve embryos for long term storage. PMID:24726775

  17. A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.

  18. Preliminary results from the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandis, S. N.; Davidson, C. I.; Robinson, A. L.; Khlystov, A. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) is a collaborative effort among 20 research groups, and is part of the EPA Supersite Program. In collaboration with several other Supersites around the country, PAQS is also one component of an intensive experiment conducted in July 2001. The PAQS study includes monitoring for aerosol number, surface, and volume distributions, PM mass in several size ranges, single particle chemical composition, continuous aerosol sulfate, nitrate, and carbon mass, bioaerosols, hygroscopic aerosol growth, and filter-based aerosol chemical composition including trace metals, anions/cations, elemental and organic carbon, and various organic compounds. Meteorological data and concentrations of several trace gases are obtained simultaneously. The results will be used to test a variety of hypothesis on atmospheric aerosols. Examples include our ability to account for aerosol mass by summing contributions of individual chemical species, the extent to which single particle chemical composition data can be used to determine bulk chemical concentrations, our ability to predict natural and anthropogenic sources of aerosols, and the extent to which aerosols contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in Pittsburgh. This paper summarizes a few of the interesting results obtained during the study, such as closure of the aerosol mass balance, frequent new particle formation, aerosol water content and artifacts when sampling carbonaceous aerosol.

  19. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Wells, Beric E.; Bao, Jie; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Chun, Jaehun; Karri, Naveen K.; Li, Huidong; Tran, Diana N.

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  20. A preliminary study of dengue infection in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Devi, Shamala

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of dengue infection in Brunei and to determine the predominant serotype circulating in the country. The study generated useful epidemiological data on dengue infection in Brunei. A total of 271 samples from patients suspected of having dengue infections were selected and analyzed. All patients were seen in clinics and hospitals in Brunei. The samples were collected from April 2005 to April 2006 and transported to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus Reference and Research, University of Malaya, Malaysia. The following tests were used to achieve the objectives: in-house IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus isolation in mosquito albopictus cell line (C6/36), and viral RNA detection and serotyping by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that 45 people were positive for dengue-specific IgM (27 males and 18 females), while RT-PCR detected dengue viral RNA in 12 patients, 3 identified as DEN-1 and 9 as DEN-2. Dengue virus was isolated from 6 patients using the C6/36 cell line; 3 were DEN-2 isolates and 3 were DEN-1 isolates. These data show that dengue virus is circulating in Brunei and the predominant infecting serotype for that period was DEN-2 followed by DEN-1. This study is the first to report the detection and isolation of dengue virus from Brunei using RT-PCR and culture in the C6/36 albopictus mosquito cell line. PMID:17642533

  1. Regenerative therapies for equine degenerative joint disease: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Sarah; Zimmerman, Marieke; Crocetti, Sara; Suls, Marc; Mariën, Tom; Ferguson, Stephen J; Chiers, Koen; Duchateau, Luc; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Wuertz, Karin; Spaas, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. The horses were then evaluated by means of a clinical scoring system after 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), 6 months (T3) and 12 months (T4) post injection. In a second study, 30 horses with the same medical background were randomly assigned to one of the two combination therapies and evaluated at T1. The protein expression profile of native MSCs was found to be negative for major histocompatibility (MHC) II and p63, low in MHC I and positive for Ki67, collagen type II (Col II) and Vimentin. Chondrogenic induction resulted in increased mRNA expression of aggrecan, Col II and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) as well as in increased protein expression of p63 and glycosaminoglycan, but in decreased protein expression of Ki67. The combined use of PRP and MSCs significantly improved the functionality and sustainability of damaged joints from 6 weeks until 12 months after treatment, compared to PRP treatment alone. The highest short-term clinical evolution scores were obtained with chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP. This study reports successful in vitro chondrogenic induction of equine MSCs. In vivo application of (induced) MSCs together with PRP in horses suffering from DJD in the fetlock joint resulted in a significant clinical improvement until 12 months after treatment. PMID:24465787

  2. Mesiodistal odontometrics as a distinguishing trait: A comparative preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Taneeru; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Narasimha, Vanajakshi China

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sex determination is a vital step in reconstructing an individual profile from unidentified skeletal remnants. Variations in tooth size are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Tooth size variations have been reported among different populations. Aim: To identify the sex by determining the mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of maxillary canines. Objectives: (1) To compare the MD diameter of all maxillary canines — (a) in the entire urban and tribal population, (b) in urban male and urban female populations, (c) in tribal male and tribal female populations, and (d) in the entire male and female populations and (2) To estimate the percentage of sexual dimorphism individually in urban and tribal populations. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from urban and tribal populations in equal gender ratio were selected in Khammam district, Telangana, for the purpose of this study. After obtaining informed consent, maxillary study models of the selected subjects were made. MD diameters of left and right maxillary canines were measured on casts using vernier calipers. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: (1) The total tribal population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the total urban population, (2) Urban males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than urban females, (3) Tribal males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than tribal females, (4) The entire male population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the entire female population, and (5) The percentage of dimorphism between males and females in individual groups was found to be significant. Conclusion: The study showed maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used as a distinguishing trait for sex determination along with other procedures. PMID:27555727

  3. [Animal health policies and practices in the Americas: preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Rojas, H; Stuardo, L; Benavides, D

    2005-08-01

    The Americas have a large population of farm animals, mostly for export. There are diverse production systems distributed over an extensive and varied geography, which hampers efforts to respond to the demands of the different markets. This study provides an overview of the elements influencing animal welfare implementation, such as the requirements of importing countries, the requirements of private agents, the demands of producers and manufacturers, quality promotion policies, the demands of the community, the recommendations of reference bodies and the results of applied research. To explore the level of animal welfare development in the countries of the region, a detailed case study was made of Chile, in addition to a survey of the Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the Americas. An analysis was made of progress with the issues considered by the OIE as priorities, namely humane slaughter for human consumption, transport and killing for disease control purposes. Furthermore, the study considers various aspects of production which the OIE has not included up to now. It also explores the status of research and producer and consumer perceptions of the issue. The results reveal that the level of development and implementation of animal welfare differs from one country to another. While the adoption of animal welfare regulations certainly relates to all the above-mentioned aspects, the one which appears to have the most impact is the export of livestock products to certain markets. Although there is great interest in improving animal welfare conditions, this calls for the general characteristics of animal husbandry in the various countries to be taken into account. While some livestock production in the Americas follows world patterns, many countries still find it difficult to integrate good animal welfare practices, owing to specific geographical, social and cultural situations that are reflected in local livestock development

  4. The ABC Schizophrenia Study: a preliminary overview of the results.

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; Maurer, K; Löffler, W; an der Heiden, W; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Hambrecht, M; Riecher-Rössler, A

    1998-08-01

    The ABC Schizophrenia Study, a large-scale epidemiological and neurobiological research project commenced in 1987, initially pursued two aims: (1) to elucidate the possible causes of the sex difference in age at first admission for schizophrenia and (2) to analyse the early course of the disorder from onset until first contact and its implications for further course and outcome. First, transnational case-register data (for Denmark and Germany) were compared, second, a population-based sample of first-episode cases of schizophrenia (n = 232) were selected and third, the results obtained were compared with data from the WHO Determinants of Outcome Study by using a systematic methodology. A consistent result was a 3-4 years higher age of onset for women by any definition of onset, which was not explainable by social variables, such as differences in the male-female societal roles. A sensitivity-reducing effect of oestrogen on central D2 receptors was identified as the underlying neurobiological mechanism in animal experiments. Applicability to humans with schizophrenia was established in a controlled clinical study. A comparison of familial and sporadic cases showed that in cases with a high genetic load, the sex difference in age of onset disappeared due to a clearly reduced age of onset in women, whereas in sporadic cases it increased. To analyse early course retrospectively, a semistructured interview, IRAOS, was developed. The early stages of the disorder were reconstructed in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls from the same population of origin. The initial signs consisted mainly of negative and affective symptoms, which accumulated exponentially until the first episode, as did the later emerging positive symptoms. Social disability appeared 2-4 years before first admission on average. In early-onset cases, social course and outcome, studied prospectively over 5 years, was determined by the level of social development at onset through social stagnation

  5. Manufacture of nanoparticles from bone: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated a mechanical processing method using vibratory milling to reduce the particle size of bone ash to produce hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles from bovine bone. Bovine femurs were cleaned of soft tissue, cut into small pieces, heated to 600 deg for 24 h, and ground into a coarse powder. A 50 wt% suspension was prepared, vibratory milled for 18 h, and then the milled suspension was filter pressed, dried, and ground into powder. The powder was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, which confirmed the particle size and the chemical composition of the powder-matched HA. The results of this study qualitatively showed that it is possible to produce HA nanoparticles from bone. This research explores a "green" manufacturing process that reuses a scrap material from the food industry and reduces the use of chemical precursors for synthetic nanoparticle synthesis. Such HA powder can potentially be used as a bone substitute and for coating orthopedic and dental implants. PMID:21083538

  6. Psychophysiological patterns during cell phone text messaging: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Mei; Peper, Erik

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the psychophysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of the non-texting hand; and respiration from the thorax and abdomen. The counter-balanced procedure consisted of a 2 min pre-baseline, 1 min receiving text messages, 2 min middle baseline, 1 min sending text messages and 2 min post-baseline. The results indicated that all subjects showed significant increases in respiration rate, heart rate, SC, and shoulder and thumb SEMG as compared to baseline measures. Eighty-three percentage of the participants reported hand and neck pain during texting, and held their breath and experienced arousal when receiving text messages. Subjectively, most subjects were unaware of their physiological changes. The study suggests that frequent triggering of these physiological patterns (freezing for stability and shallow breathing) may increase muscle discomfort symptoms. Thus, participants should be trained to inhibit these responses to prevent illness and discomfort. PMID:19199025

  7. Preliminary 1H NMR study on archaeological waterlogged wood.

    PubMed

    Maccotta, Antonella; Fantazzini, Paola; Garavaglia, Carla; Donato, Ines D; Perzia, Patrizia; Brai, Maria; Morreale, Filippa

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Relaxation (MRR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are powerful tools to obtain detailed information on the pore space structure that one is unlikely to obtain in other ways. These techniques are particularly suitable for Cultural Heritage materials, because they use water 1H nuclei as a probe. Interaction with water is one of the main causes of deterioration of materials. Porous structure in wood, for example, favours the penetration of water, which can carry polluting substances and promote mould growth. A particular case is waterlogged wood from underwater discoveries and moist sites; in fact, these finds are very fragile because of chemical, physical and biological decay from the long contact with the water. When wood artefacts are brought to the surface and directly dried in air, there is the collapse of the cellular structures, and wood loses its original form and dimensions and cannot be used for study and museum exhibits. In this work we have undertaken the study of some wood finds coming from Ercolano's harbour by MRR and MRI under different conditions, and we have obtained a characterization of pore space in wood and images of the spatial distribution of the confined water in the wood. PMID:16485652

  8. A preliminary anatomical study on carotid body of Makouei sheep

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Gholamreza; Soltanalinejad, Farhad; Hasanzadeh, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    The carotid is a small mass of chemoreceptor's and sustentacular cells that detects changes in the composition of the arterial blood. The aim of the present study was to identify the size, color, location, blood and nerve supply of the carotid body in Makouei sheep. Fourteen heads of sheep from both sexes were collected from Urmia public slaughter-house. The exact situation and nerve supply of the carotid body was determined. Before dissection, blue latex was injected into right and left common carotid arteries. All the branches of the common carotid artery and the branch supplying carotid body were investigated. This study showed that, carotid body in sheep has been situated around the muscular branch of the occipital artery. The mean weight, width and length, thickness of carotid body were 0.01 g, 0.83 mm, 1.07 mm, and 1.06 mm respectively. Blood to the carotid body was supplied by glomic artery which was a branch of occipital artery. It was innervated by herring nerve which was a branch of glossopharyngeal nerve. PMID:25653785

  9. Static Balance in Patients with Vestibular Impairments: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Hossein; Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Abtahi, Seyed Hamid Reza; Fereshtenejad, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Vestibular system is indicated as one of the most important sensors responsible for static and dynamic postural control. In this study, we evaluated static balance in patients with unilateral vestibular impairments. Materials and Methods. We compared static balance control using Kistler force plate platform between 10 patients with unilateral vestibular impairments and 20 normal counterparts in the same sex ratio and age limits (50 ± 7). We evaluated excursion and velocity of center of pressure (COP) and path length in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) planes with eyes open and with eyes closed. Results. There was no significant difference between COP excursions in ML and AP planes between both groups with eyes open and eyes closed (p value > 0.05). In contrast, the difference between velocity and path length of COP in the mentioned planes was significant between both groups with eyes open and eyes closed (p value < 0.05). Conclusions. The present study showed the static instability and balance of patients with vestibular impairments indicated by the abnormal characteristics of body balance. PMID:27379198

  10. Sleep Stage Coordination of Respiration and Swallowing: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Kentaro; Nohara, Kanji; Takai, Etsuko; Sakai, Takayoshi; Fleetham, John A; Ayas, Najib T; Lowe, Alan A; Almeida, Fernanda R

    2016-08-01

    Swallowing is an important physiological response that protects the airway. Although aspiration during sleep may cause aspiration pneumonia, the mechanisms responsible have not yet been elucidated. We evaluated the coordination between respiration and swallowing by infusing water into the pharynx of healthy young adults during each sleep stage. Seven normal subjects participated in the study. During polysomnography recordings, to elicit a swallow we injected distilled water into the pharynx during the awake state and each sleep stage through a nasal catheter. We assessed swallow latency, swallow apnea time, the respiratory phase during a swallow, the number of swallows, and coughing. A total number of 79 swallows were recorded. The median swallow latency was significantly higher in stage 2 (10.05 s) and stage 3 (44.17 s) when compared to awake state (4.99 s). The swallow latency in stage 3 showed a very wide interquartile range. In two subjects, the result was predominantly prolonged compared to the other subjects. There was no significant difference in the swallow apnea time between sleep stages. The presence of inspiration after swallowing, repetitive swallowing, and coughing after swallowing was more frequent during sleep than when awake. This study suggests that the coordination between respiration and swallowing as a defense mechanism against aspiration was impaired during sleep. Our results supported physiologically the fact that healthy adult individuals aspirate pharyngeal secretions during sleep. PMID:27338262