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Sample records for premature epiphyseal fusion

  1. Time course of epiphyseal growth plate fusion in rat tibiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, E. A.; Ritman, E. L.; Turner, R. T.

    2003-01-01

    Although the rat is the most common animal model used in studying osteoporosis, it is often used inappropriately. Osteoporosis is a disease that most commonly occurs in humans long after growth plate fusion with the associated cessation of longitudinal bone growth, but there has been a question as to when or to what extent the rat growth plate fuses. To investigate this question, we used microcomputed X-ray tomography, at voxel resolutions ranging from (5.7 micro m)(3) to (11 micro m)(3), to image the proximal epiphyseal growth plates of both male (n = 19) and female (n = 15) rat tibiae, ranging in age from 2 to 25 months. The three-dimensional images were used to evaluate fusion of the epiphyseal growth plate by quantitating the amount of cancellous bone that has bridged across the growth plate. The results suggest that the time course of fusion of the epiphyseal growth plate follows a sigmoidal pattern, with 10% of the maximum number of bridges having formed by 3.9 months in the male tibiae and 5.8 months in the female tibiae, 50% of the maximum number of bridges having formed by 5.6 months in the male tibiae and 5.9 months in the female tibiae, and 90% of the total maximum of bridges have formed by 7.4 months for the males and 6.5 months for the females. The total volume of bridges per tibia at the age at which the maximum number of bridges per tibia has first formed is 0.99 mm(3)/tibia for the males and 0.40 mm(3)/tibia for the females. After the maximum number of bridges (-290 for females, -360 for males) have formed the total volume of bridges per tibia continues to increase for an additional 7.0 months in the males and 17.0 months for the females until they reach maximum values (-1.5 mm(3)/tibia for the males and -2.2 mm(3)/tibia for the females).

  2. Clinical features of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia expressed in the knee.

    PubMed

    Miura, H; Noguchi, Y; Mitsuyasu, H; Nagamine, R; Urabe, K; Matsuda, S; Iwamoto, Y

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the clinical features of the knee affected by multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Thirty-one cases of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia were reviewed. Of the patients, 11 were male and 20 were female. The average age at onset of symptoms was 22.5 years. The average age at initial visit to the authors' hospital was 28.9 years. Radiographic findings showed epiphyseal abnormality of the knee in all but two (93%) cases. Irregularity, segmentation of the epiphysis, widening of the joint space, and genu valgum deformity were the dominant findings before epiphyseal closure. After epiphyseal closure, the most characteristic finding was a shallow femoral trochlear groove, which was observed in 56.5% of the cases. Other findings in adult patients included early onset osteoarthritic change, genu valgum, depression of the lateral tibial plateau, and multiple free bodies. However, there still is a possibility that multiple epiphyseal dysplasia exists, even if the patient lacks a shallow femoral trochlear groove. If genu valgum or varum, free bodies, and premature osteoarthritis are observed, one should evaluate other joints, keeping a diagnosis of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia in mind. Patients with knees that have a femoral trochlear groove of normal or near normal shape do exist, and premature osteoarthritic changes may develop in such patients. PMID:11064990

  3. Premature Activation of the Paramyxovirus Fusion Protein before Target Cell Attachment with Corruption of the Viral Fusion Machinery*

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Palermo, Laura M.; Yokoyama, Christine C.; Orefice, Gianmarco; Fornabaio, Micaela; Sarkar, Aurijit; Kellogg, Glen E.; Greengard, Olga; Porotto, Matteo; Moscona, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses, including the childhood pathogen human parainfluenza virus type 3, enter host cells by fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. This fusion results from the concerted action of its two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion protein (F). The receptor-bound HN triggers F to undergo conformational changes that render it competent to mediate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We proposed that, if the fusion process could be activated prematurely before the virion reaches the target host cell, infection could be prevented. We identified a small molecule that inhibits paramyxovirus entry into target cells and prevents infection. We show here that this compound works by an interaction with HN that results in F-activation prior to receptor binding. The fusion process is thereby prematurely activated, preventing fusion of the viral membrane with target cells and precluding viral entry. This first evidence that activation of a paramyxovirus F can be specifically induced before the virus contacts its target cell suggests a new strategy with broad implications for the design of antiviral agents. PMID:21799008

  4. Longitudinal epiphyseal bracket.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jimmy Q; Gatewood, Jason B; Beall, Douglas; Herndon, William; Puffinberger, William R; Ly, Justin; Fish, Jon R

    2007-10-01

    A longitudinal epiphyseal bracket (LEB) is a defect of the tubular bones and has been primarily described in the hands and feet, especially the proximal phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals. The LEB results from a defective C-shaped secondary ossification center that brackets the diaphysis and metaphysis, causing restricted longitudinal growth in these bones with resultant shortening and angular deformities. Deformities associated with metatarsal epiphyseal bracket include a short, broad metatarsal and medial deviation of the metatarsophalangeal joint (hallux varus deformity). Excision of the cartilaginous LEB has been proposed to prevent future soft tissue contractures and osseous deformities. The LEB has been associated with numerous syndromes including Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Cenani-Lenz syndactyly, isolated oligosyndactyly, and Nievergelt syndrome. We describe a two-month-old patient in whom plain film and MR imaging demonstrated bilateral bracketed first metatarsals with associated hallux varus deformities. Bilateral bracket excision was performed with excellent clinical results. PMID:18085094

  5. Age estimation from stages of epiphyseal union in the presacral vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Ríos, Luis

    2011-02-01

    The presacral vertebrae have various secondary centers of ossification, whose timing of fusion can be used for age estimation of human skeletal remains up to the middle to the latter third decade. However, detailed information about the age at which these secondary centers of ossification fuse has been lacking. In this study, the timing of epiphyseal union in presacral vertebrae was studied in a sample of modern Portuguese skeletons (57 females and 47 males) between the ages of 9 and 30, taken from the Lisbon documented skeletal collection. A detailed photographic record of these epiphyses and the age ranges for the different stages of epiphyseal union are provided. Partial union of epiphyses was observed from 11 to 27 years of age. In general, centers of ossification begin to fuse first in the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, followed by centers of ossification in the thoracic region. The first center of ossification to complete fusion is usually that of the mammillary process in lumbar vertebrae. This is usually followed by that of the transverse process, spinous transverse process, and annular ring, regardless of vertebra type. There were no statistically significant sex differences in timing of fusion, but there was a trend toward early maturation in females for some vertebra or epiphyses. Bilateral epiphyses did not show statistically significant differences in timing of fusion. This study offers information on timing of fusion of diverse epiphyseal locations useful for age estimation of complete or fragmented human skeletal remains. PMID:20872802

  6. Epiphyseal injuries in the growing athlete.

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The epiphyses and epiphyseal plates are vital structures in the bone development of the growing athlete. The epiphyseal plate is two to five times weaker than the surrounding fibrous tissue in children and adolescents; consequently a force causing a ligamentous tear in adults is likely to cause an epiphyseal plate injury in growing children. Two types of epiphyseal injury that are common in the growing athlete are (a) separation across the epiphyseal plate, which is usually produced by a direct blow to the joint area or by a strong muscular contraction, and (b) traumatic epiphysitis, the more common of the two, which is usually caused by strong, repetitive contraction of a muscle attached to a traction epiphysis. Each epiphyseal site has specific anatomic features and the forces causing injury differ slightly at each site. An improperly treated separation of an intra-articular pressure epiphysis can have a disastrous effect on the proper functioning of the normally well-fitted articulation of bone ends in the joint. Consequently, proper diagnosis and treatment are essential. Traumatic epiphysitis can result in chronic inflammation or fragmentation, or both, if the condition is not arrested. Therefore the athlete must discontinue the activities that are causing the trauma until the inflammation is completely arrested. Absolute rest may even be required. PMID:902208

  7. [Transitional fractures : Epiphyseal injuries in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Schneidmueller, D; von Rüden, C; Friederichs, J; Bühren, V

    2016-06-01

    The so-called transitional fractures describe articular fractures in adolescents with partial closure of the epiphyseal growth plate. This shows a specific stereotype fracture pattern, which can be differentiated into biplane, triplane I and triplane II fractures depending on the involvement of the metaphysis and the number of fragments. The diagnostics and therapy can differ from fractures where the epiphyseal growth plate is still open. The main focus for surgical treatment is the reconstruction of the articular surface whereas relevant growth disturbances no longer need to be feared when the epiphysis has already begun to close. PMID:27240851

  8. Sudden death in spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cristina; Cairns, Robyn; Patel, Millan S

    2009-01-01

    The spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasias are an expanding group of skeletal dysplasias with specific features differentiating each subtype. We review the precocious carpal mineralization, unique metacarpal shape, triangular distal phalanges and mushroom cloud-shaped proximal phalanges present at an early age in spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type (SMED SL-AC) and report two patients with clinical and radiographic features consistent with SMED SL-AC, who died suddenly because of spinal cord compression. The patients presented are female siblings, providing further evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance. Cervical cord compression is found in half of reported patients and is the major cause of mortality. SMED SL-AC should be added to the list of genetic causes of sudden death. Radiological features in the hand may be used in the first few years of life to support an early diagnosis and thus allow for prevention of premature demise. PMID:19050401

  9. Premature Contractions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Premature Contractions - PACs and PVCs Updated:Apr 6,2016 Premature contraction = early beat ... chambers of the heart (atria). Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) start in the lower chambers of the heart ( ...

  10. Premature Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, UB; Ezenyeaku, CC

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk. PMID:23634337

  11. Premature labour

    PubMed Central

    Koh, K.S.

    1976-01-01

    Prematurity is by far the commonest cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The management of premature labour is empirical because little is understood about the mechanism of labour. Effective uterine relaxant drugs have an important, albeit minor role. Phototherapy has reduced the complications of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and the beneficial effect of antepartum corticosteroid therapy in minimizing the risk of respiratory distress syndrome is now convincing. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy in premature rupture of the membranes does not alter perinatal mortality, although postpartum maternal morbidity is reduced. The introduction of neonatal intensive care units has improved the survival rate of premature infants. Sound clinical judgement remains the mainstay in the management of premature labour. PMID:4217

  12. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant. Common signs of prematurity include: Abnormal breathing patterns (shallow, irregular pauses in breathing called apnea) Body hair (lanugo) Enlarged clitoris (in female infants) Less body fat Lower muscle tone and ...

  13. Premature infant

    MedlinePlus

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  14. Premature Ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... orgasm before he wants to, he loses his erection and can’t continue with intercourse. Premature ejaculation ... seconds so that you begin to lose your erection. You repeat this process several times before you ...

  15. Avascular necrosis of the hip in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, W.G.; Bassett, G.S.; Mandell, G.A.; Scott, C.I. Jr. )

    1989-11-01

    We observed radiographic changes of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the capital femoral epiphysis in 9 hips of 11 patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Plain roentgenography, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies all revealed characteristic asymmetric changes in the presence of AVN superimposed on dysplastic femoral heads.

  16. Chronic slipping of bilateral distal humeral epiphyses in a gymnastist.

    PubMed

    Oda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Ichimaru, Kozo; Morihara, Toru; Ikeda, Takumi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    In children, fracture-separation of the epiphyseal plate near the elbow joint is a common occurrence. However, separation of the distal humeral epiphysis is very rare, and in most cases, it is caused by high-impact trauma. In all reported cases, there has been a clear mechanism of injury. We report a case of an 11-year-old male patient who sustained separation of the distal humeral epiphyses bilaterally after 2 years of gymnastics, without a clear mechanism of injury. This patient had been using the vault since he was 9 years old, although children of that age do not normally perform on the vault. When gymnasts place their hands on the vault with their elbows flexed and subsequently extend their elbows to push off, the biomechanical load is placed equally on the right and left arms. Consequently, this type of repeated stress induces injury to the epiphyseal cartilages bilaterally, resulting in chronic progression of separation of the distal humeral epiphyses. PMID:25438108

  17. [Premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Sapetti, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is the more frequent sexological consultation in men along with the Erectile Dysfunction. In this article a revision will become of its definitions, its clinical manifestations that allow to an effective diagnosis and its therapeutic boarding with Sexual Therapies and, in certain cases, with drugs like PDE-5 Inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, IRSS, or dapoxetine. PMID:24260751

  18. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...

  19. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  20. Primary Epiphyseal Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Of Distal Ulna

    PubMed Central

    Kapila, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh; Sohal, Yadwinder Singh; Singh, Dhalwinder; Singh, Sukhpal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aneurysmal Bone Cyst (ABC) is a benign expansile cystic blood filled reactive lesion of the bone, most common in the first 2 decades of life. Though it can involve any bone in the body but tibia, humerus, femur and posterior elements of spine are most commonly affected. They most commonly involve metaphysis or metaphysio-diaphyseal part of the bone. Primary involvement of epiphysis is rarely reported. Here we present a case of 6 year old male child with an epiphyseal ABC of distal ulna. Its diagnosis, surgical management, clinical outcome with review of literature is discussed. PMID:27299110

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity

    MedlinePlus

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is abnormal blood vessel development in the retina of the eye. It occurs in infants ... Certified Orthoptists. Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics . 2013;131(1):189-95. PMID: 23277315 ...

  2. Osteopenia - premature infants

    MedlinePlus

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the bone. This can cause bones to be weak and ...

  3. Premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2007-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have “definite” PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have “probable” PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects. PMID:19675782

  4. Multiparametric MRI of Epiphyseal Cartilage Necrosis (Osteochondrosis) with Histological Validation in a Goat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luning; Nissi, Mikko J.; Tóth, Ferenc; Shaver, Jonah; Johnson, Casey P.; Zhang, Jinjin; Garwood, Michael; Carlson, Cathy S.; Ellermann, Jutta M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate multiple MRI parameters in a surgical model of osteochondrosis (OC) in goats. Methods Focal ischemic lesions of two different sizes were induced in the epiphyseal cartilage of the medial femoral condyles of goats at 4 days of age by surgical transection of cartilage canal blood vessels. Goats were euthanized and specimens harvested 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10 weeks post-op. Ex vivo MRI scans were conducted at 9.4 Tesla for mapping the T1, T2, T1ρ, adiabatic T1ρ and TRAFF relaxation times of articular cartilage, unaffected epiphyseal cartilage, and epiphyseal cartilage within the area of the induced lesion. After MRI scans, safranin O staining was conducted to validate areas of ischemic necrosis induced in the medial femoral condyles of six goats, and to allow comparison of MRI findings with the semi-quantitative proteoglycan assessment in corresponding safranin O-stained histological sections. Results All relaxation time constants differentiated normal epiphyseal cartilage from lesions of ischemic cartilage necrosis, and the histological staining results confirmed the proteoglycan (PG) loss in the areas of ischemia. In the scanned specimens, all of the measured relaxation time constants were higher in the articular than in the normal epiphyseal cartilage, consistently allowing differentiation between these two tissues. Conclusions Multiparametric MRI provided a sensitive approach to discriminate between necrotic and viable epiphyseal cartilage and between articular and epiphyseal cartilage, which may be useful for diagnosing and monitoring OC lesions and, potentially, for assessing effectiveness of treatment interventions. PMID:26473611

  5. Bilateral Second Carpal Row Duplication Associated with Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cladiere-Nassif, Victoire; Delaroche, Caroline; Pottier, Edwige; Feron, Jean-Marc

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of a 75-year-old woman presenting a hitherto undescribed condition of bilateral second carpal row duplication. She was diagnosed in childhood with both Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, with no clear evidence and no further medical follow-up. She presented throughout her life with various articular symptoms, which appeared to be compatible with a diagnosis of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, and underwent several surgical procedures on her knees and hips. Most recently, she was reporting pain at the base of the fifth metacarpal bone of the left hand. X-ray images and computed tomography (CT) were obtained for exploration and showed a total second row duplication in both carpi, with a total number of 18 carpal bones in each wrist. PMID:26649258

  6. Early Menopause (Premature Menopause)

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been called “premature menopause” or “premature ovarian failure.” But a better term is “primary ovarian insufficiency,” ... and what procedures might cause it. Premature Ovarian Failure: Premature Menopause (Copyright © American Pregnancy Association) - This article ...

  7. Automated Classification of Epiphyses in the Distal Radius and Ulna using a Support Vector Machine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-hui; Liu, Tai-ang; Wei, Hua; Wan, Lei; Ying, Chong-liang; Zhu, Guang-you

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to automatically classify epiphyses in the distal radius and ulna using a support vector machine (SVM) and to examine the accuracy of the epiphyseal growth grades generated by the support vector machine. X-ray images of distal radii and ulnae were collected from 140 Chinese teenagers aged between 11.0 and 19.0 years. Epiphyseal growth of the two elements was classified into five grades. Features of each element were extracted using a histogram of oriented gradient (HOG), and models were established using support vector classification (SVC). The prediction results and the validity of the models were evaluated with a cross-validation test and independent test for accuracy (PA ). Our findings suggest that this new technique for epiphyseal classification was successful and that an automated technique using an SVM is reliable and feasible, with a relative high accuracy for the models. PMID:27404614

  8. Slipped femoral capital epiphyses in irradiated children: dose, volume and age relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, C.L.; Thomas, P.R.M.; McAlister, W.H.; Walker, S.; Whiteside, L.A.

    1981-10-01

    Between 1960 and 1979, 50 patients under 15 years of age received radiotherapy to the pelvis including the non-fused capital femoral epiphyseal plate. A total of 83 epiphyseal plates were at risk. Eight epiphyseal plates (9.6%) in five patients were abnormal: symptomatic capital femoral epiphyseal slippage--4, asymptomatic slippage--1, severe epiphyseal abnormalities of radiographs--3. No complication occurred below doses of 2,500 rad (25 Gy). Children under the age of 4 at time of irradiation were at a higher risk (7/15-47%) than those over 4 years of age (1/21-4.7%). Most slippages occurred at ages between 8 and 10 years. No dose response curve was obtained--higher doses above the threshold dose of 2,500 rad did not increase the incidence of slippage. A mechanism of action is postulated. This is a preventable complication; judicious use of primary or secondary blocking systems can eliminate or limit the dose to the non-fused epiphyseal plate and prevent later morbid complications.

  9. Premature rupture of membranes

    MedlinePlus

    ... When the water breaks early, it is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Most women will go ... th week of pregnancy, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The earlier your water ...

  10. Novel DDR2 mutation identified by whole exome sequencing in a Moroccan patient with spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Maria; Kayserili, Hülya; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Nishimura, Gen; Iida, Aritoshi; Lyahyai, Jaber; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Sefiani, Abdelaziz; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-02-01

    Spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type (SMED, SL-AC), is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder with various skeletal changes characterized by premature calcification leading to severe disproportionate short stature. Twenty-two patients have been reported until now, but only five mutations (four missense and one splice-site) in the conserved sequence encoding the tyrosine kinase domain of the DDR2 gene has been identified. We report here a novel DDR2 missense mutation, c.370C > T (p.Arg124Trp) in a Moroccan girl with SMED, SL-AC, identified by whole exome sequencing. Our study has expanded the mutational spectrum of this rare disease and it has shown that exome sequencing is a powerful and cost-effective tool for the diagnosis of clinically heterogeneous disorders such as SMED. PMID:26463668

  11. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…

  12. Precise localization of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and pseudoachondroplasia mutations by genetic and physical mapping of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, R.G.; Cekleniak, J.A.; Cohn, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (EDM1), a dominantly inherited chondrodysplasia resulting in peripheral joint deformities and premature osteoarthritis, and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH), a more severe disorder associated with short-limbed dwarfism, have recently been mapped to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19. Chondrocytes from some PSACH patients accumulate lamellar deposits in the endoplasmic reticulum that are immunologically cross-reactive with aggrecan. However, neither aggrecan nor any known candidate gene maps to the EDM1/PSACH region of chromosome 19. Genetic linkage mapping in two lage families had placed the disease locus between D19S215 (19p12) and D19S212 (19p13.1), an interval of about 3.5 Mb. With at least five potentially informative cross-overs within this interval, recombination mapping at greater resolution was undertaken. From cosmids assigned to the region by fluorescence in situ hybridization and contig assembly, dinucleotide repeat tracts were identified for use as polymorphic genetic markers. Linkage data from three new dinucleotide repeat markers from cosmids mapped between D19S212 and D19S215 limit the EDM1/PSACH locus to an interval spanning approximately 2 Mb.

  13. A systematic approach to magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of epiphyseal lesions.

    PubMed

    Thawait, Shrey K; Thawait, Gaurav K; Frassica, Frank J; Andreisek, Gustav; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the preferred modality of choice to image epiphyseal lesions. It provides excellent soft tissue resolution and extent of disease. A wide spectrum of tumor and tumor like lesions can involve the epiphysis. Early and accurate diagnosis as well as appropriate management of epiphyseal lesions is critical as these conditions may lead to disabling complications such as, limb length discrepancy, angular or joint surface deformities and secondary osteoarthritis. In this article, we discuss the role of conventional sequences, such as T1W, fluid sensitive T2W and intravenous (IV) Gadolinium enhanced sequences as well as the additional value of problem solving MRI sequences such as, chemical shift and diffusion weighted imaging. Based on the imaging findings on various MRI sequences and lesion characteristics, a systematic approach directed to the diagnoses of epiphyseal lesions is presented and discussed. MRI features of clinically and biopsy proven examples of the epiphyseal lesions, such as osteomyelitis, intra-osseous abscess, infiltrative malignancy, metastases, transient osteoporosis, subchondral insufficiency fracture, avascular necrosis, osteochondral fracture, osteochondritis dissecans, eosinophilic granuloma and geode are demonstrated. Using this systematic approach, the reader will be able to better characterize epiphyseal lesions with a potential to positively affect patient management. PMID:23102949

  14. Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine articular and epiphyseal cartilage: light ane electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, R; Christian, R G; Nakano, T; Aherne, F X; Thompson, J R

    1981-04-01

    Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine were studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in articular cartilage and light microscopy and epiphyseal cartilage of swine from three days to 30 weeks of age. Thickness, cellularity and vascularity of both the epiphyseal and articular cartilage, decreased as the swine aged. Osteochondrotic changes included formation of "plugs" of cartilage indicating localized failure of ossification and separation and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage. Eosinophilic streaks and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage was observed in relation to epiphyseal separation. Electron microscopy showed a continuous fibrillar layer on the surface of the cartilage corresponding to the lamina splendens of light microscopy. This layer increased in the thickness and showed accumulation of amorphous material between the fibrils with aging. In the matrix, the orientation and distribution of the collagen fibers changed with growth and thicker fibers with clear sub banding were more common in older age groups. Also, necrotic cells, glycogen containing bodies and cellular debris were noticed in the matrix of normal cartilage in old animals. Chondrocytes in the younger cartilage showed accumulation of organelles responsible for protein synthesis; while Golgi bodies, vesicles, lysosomes, well developed foot processes and other inclusions were noticed in older cartilage. Cartilage erosions had a clumped and disrupted lamina splendens on the surface and electron lucent patches in the ground substances of the matrix and chondrocyte cytoplasm. PMID:7260732

  15. Cartilaginous Epiphyses in Extant Archosaurs and Their Implications for Reconstructing Limb Function in Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, Casey M.; Ridgely, Ryan C.; Sedlmayr, Jayc C.; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2010-01-01

    Extinct archosaurs, including many non-avian dinosaurs, exhibit relatively simply shaped condylar regions in their appendicular bones, suggesting potentially large amounts of unpreserved epiphyseal (articular) cartilage. This “lost anatomy” is often underappreciated such that the ends of bones are typically considered to be the joint surfaces, potentially having a major impact on functional interpretation. Extant alligators and birds were used to establish an objective basis for inferences about cartilaginous articular structures in such extinct archosaur clades as non-avian dinosaurs. Limb elements of alligators, ostriches, and other birds were dissected, disarticulated, and defleshed. Lengths and condylar shapes of elements with intact epiphyses were measured. Limbs were subsequently completely skeletonized and the measurements repeated. Removal of cartilaginous condylar regions resulted in statistically significant changes in element length and condylar breadth. Moreover, there was marked loss of those cartilaginous structures responsible for joint architecture and congruence. Compared to alligators, birds showed less dramatic, but still significant changes. Condylar morphologies of dinosaur limb bones suggest that most non-coelurosaurian clades possessed large cartilaginous epiphyses that relied on the maintenance of vascular channels that are otherwise eliminated early in ontogeny in smaller-bodied tetrapods. A sensitivity analysis using cartilage correction factors (CCFs) obtained from extant taxa indicates that whereas the presence of cartilaginous epiphyses only moderately increases estimates of dinosaur height and speed, it has important implications for our ability to infer joint morphology, posture, and the complicated functional movements in the limbs of many extinct archosaurs. Evidence suggests that the sizes of sauropod epiphyseal cartilages surpassed those of alligators, which account for at least 10% of hindlimb length. These data suggest that

  16. Prevention of Premature Fusion of Calvarial Suture in GLI-Kruppel Family Member 3 (Gli3)-deficient Mice by Removing One Allele of Runt-related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2)*

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Yukiho; Veistinen, Lotta; Alakurtti, Kirsi; Takatalo, Maarit; Rice, David P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the zinc finger transcription factor GLI3 (GLI-Kruppel family member 3) have been identified in patients with Grieg cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome in which premature fusion of calvarial suture (craniosynostosis) is an infrequent but important feature. Here, we show that Gli3 acts as a repressor in the developing murine calvaria and that Dlx5, Runx2 type II isoform (Runx2-II), and Bmp2 are expressed ectopically in the calvarial mesenchyme, which results in aberrant osteoblastic differentiation in Gli3-deficient mouse (Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J) and resulted in craniosynostosis. At the same time, enhanced activation of phospho-Smad1/5/8 (pSmad1/5/8), which is a downstream mediator of canonical Bmp signaling, was observed in Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J embryonic calvaria. Therefore, we generated Gli3;Runx2 compound mutant mice to study the effects of decreasing Runx2 dosage in a Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J background. Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J Runx2+/− mice have neither craniosynostosis nor additional ossification centers in interfrontal suture and displayed a normalization of Dlx5, Runx2-II, and pSmad1/5/8 expression as well as sutural mesenchymal cell proliferation. These findings suggest a novel role for Gli3 in regulating calvarial suture development by controlling canonical Bmp-Smad signaling, which integrates a Dlx5/Runx2-II cascade. We propose that targeting Runx2 might provide an attractive way of preventing craniosynostosis in patients. PMID:22547067

  17. Retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Catherine O

    2014-06-01

    Premature infants born at 30 weeks' gestational age or younger, or 1500 g or smaller, are screened for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Guidelines for supplemental oxygen in neonatal intensive care units have decreased but not eliminated the incidence of severe ROP. The underlying cause for ROP is prematurity and low birth weight, and with the survival of smaller and younger babies, ROP continues to be a significant problem facing premature infants. Threshold ROP is treated with retinal photocoagulation, but newer treatments such as intraocular injections of bevacizumab (Avastin) are being used alone or in conjunction with laser. PMID:24852153

  18. Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trief, E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has increased due to a high incidence of premature, low birthweight infants. Stages of severity range from no visual damage to total blindness, and educational problems of ROP children parallel those of other visually impaired children, early intervention being crucial. Treatments are either pharmacological or…

  19. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  20. [Treatment of premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Targoński, Aleksander; Prajsner, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Its prevalence rate in Europe and in United States is estimated to be between 20% and 30%. The diagnosis of premature ejaculation is based on three main criteria: increased intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), lack of control over ejaculation and interpersonal psychological disturbances. Premature ejaculation is classified as lifelong (primary) or acquired (secondary) and might be facilitated by chronic prostatitis, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, obesity. The exact etiology of the disease remains unclear, although 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptors are known to have a significant role. The use of SSRIs (selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors) is old and efficient form of therapy for premature ejaculation. Other drugs like tramadol, clomipramine, local anaesthetics and PDE-5 (phosphodiesterase 5) inhibitors also have some efficacy in the treatment of premature ejaculation. To minimize adverse effects the "on demand" therapy is preferred to the daily treatment. Simple questionnaires for patients are used to assess treatment effects. PMID:22827115

  1. Manganese levels and the morphology of the epiphyseal plate in broilers with slipped tendons.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K W; Lowther, D A

    1976-09-01

    Manganese deficiency in chickens results in perosis and a higher incidence of slipped tendon. Perosis is associated with a disorganization of the epiphyseal growth plates and changes in the chemical composition of the cartilage matrix. Male broilers with slipped tendons were selected from a commercial broiler farm over a 9 week growing period. Their growth rates, epiphyseal cartilage histology and tissue manganese concentrations were examined and compared with (a) normal broilers from the same farm, and (b) similar broilers raised on control and manganese deficient diets. Field broilers with slipped tendons showed no evidence of abnormality in the histological appearance of the proximal tibial growth plate at any of the ages examined. The manganese content of liver and epiphyseal cartilage from field broilers showing slipped tendon was comparable with that present in tissue from normal broilers wither from the field or raised on a chemically defined diey supplemented with managese. The slightly retared growth rate seen in the field broilers was attributed to feeding problems associated with the lameness condition. These results provide conclusive evidence that slipped tendon in field broilers is not dur to a manganese deficiency in the tissues, nor does it appear to be associated with abnormal proliferation of the chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate. PMID:995818

  2. Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine articular and epiphyseal cartilage: light ane electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, R; Christian, R G; Nakano, T; Aherne, F X; Thompson, J R

    1981-01-01

    Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine were studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in articular cartilage and light microscopy and epiphyseal cartilage of swine from three days to 30 weeks of age. Thickness, cellularity and vascularity of both the epiphyseal and articular cartilage, decreased as the swine aged. Osteochondrotic changes included formation of "plugs" of cartilage indicating localized failure of ossification and separation and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage. Eosinophilic streaks and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage was observed in relation to epiphyseal separation. Electron microscopy showed a continuous fibrillar layer on the surface of the cartilage corresponding to the lamina splendens of light microscopy. This layer increased in the thickness and showed accumulation of amorphous material between the fibrils with aging. In the matrix, the orientation and distribution of the collagen fibers changed with growth and thicker fibers with clear sub banding were more common in older age groups. Also, necrotic cells, glycogen containing bodies and cellular debris were noticed in the matrix of normal cartilage in old animals. Chondrocytes in the younger cartilage showed accumulation of organelles responsible for protein synthesis; while Golgi bodies, vesicles, lysosomes, well developed foot processes and other inclusions were noticed in older cartilage. Cartilage erosions had a clumped and disrupted lamina splendens on the surface and electron lucent patches in the ground substances of the matrix and chondrocyte cytoplasm. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2 and 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10 and 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. PMID:7260732

  3. Medical complications of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Allen, M C; Jones, M D

    1986-03-01

    The improved survival of extremely premature infants has generated intense interest in the quality of life of the survivors. This review focuses on the major long-term complications of prematurity (developmental disability, retinopathy of prematurity, chronic lung disease) and concludes with an overview of the broader spectrum of morbidity. Severe impairment (cerebral palsy, mental retardation, retrolental fibroplasia, severe chronic lung disease) fortunately occurs in a small proportion of survivors. However, the prevalence of the lesser morbidities (minimal cerebral dysfunction/learning disability, poor growth, postneonatal illnesses, rehospitalization) is less clearly defined. These problems all have an impact on families, and on medical and educational services. PMID:2935764

  4. Apnea of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Eichenwald, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity is one of the most common diagnoses in the NICU. Despite the frequency of apnea of prematurity, it is unknown whether recurrent apnea, bradycardia, and hypoxemia in preterm infants are harmful. Research into the development of respiratory control in immature animals and preterm infants has facilitated our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of apnea of prematurity. However, the lack of consistent definitions, monitoring practices, and consensus about clinical significance leads to significant variation in practice. The purpose of this clinical report is to review the evidence basis for the definition, epidemiology, and treatment of apnea of prematurity as well as discharge recommendations for preterm infants diagnosed with recurrent apneic events. PMID:26628729

  5. Premature Ovarian Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is when a woman's ovaries stop working before she is 40. POF is different from ... There is no treatment that will restore normal ovarian function. However, many health care providers suggest taking ...

  6. Apnea of prematurity

    MedlinePlus

    Apnea - newborns; AOP; As and Bs; A/B/D; Blue spell - newborns; Dusky spell - newborns; Spell - newborns; Apnea - neonatal ... the airway open are weak Other stresses in a sick or premature baby may worsen apnea, including: ...

  7. Dapoxetine: in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J

    2010-07-30

    Dapoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is the first oral pharmacological agent indicated for the treatment of men aged 18-64 years with premature ejaculation. In four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre studies of 12-24 weeks' duration, oral dapoxetine 30 or 60 mg (administered as needed) was effective in the treatment of men with premature ejaculation, inducing significantly (p < 0.001) greater improvements from baseline than placebo in the primary efficacy endpoint (mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time [IELT] or mean average IELT [defined as the average of IELT values over the previous 4 weeks], as measured by the female partner utilizing a stopwatch). For the most part, dapoxetine recipients achieved significantly better outcomes than placebo recipients with regard to the secondary endpoints, including the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) domains and the Clinical Global Impression or Patient Global Impression ratings of change in premature ejaculation, across these clinical studies. The beneficial effects of dapoxetine therapy on the perceived control over ejaculation and satisfaction with sexual intercourse PEP domains were sustained in a 9-month noncomparative extension phase of two identical 12-week, double-blind studies. Oral dapoxetine therapy for up to 12 months was generally well tolerated in men with premature ejaculation, with the nature of treatment-emergent adverse events generally similar across the clinical studies and between dapoxetine and placebo. PMID:20614950

  8. Prematurity: present and future

    PubMed Central

    Tsimis, M. E.; Al-Hamayel, N. Abu; Germaine, H.; Burd, I.

    2014-01-01

    The study of preterm labor and prematurity, as with any medical science, has undergone a major transformation in its approach from an inevitable part of obstetrics with few answers to one in which science has led to knowledge and clinical intervention. Despite these advancements, understanding of preterm labor and prevention of prematurity is still limited. In the current review, we begin the discussion with fetal viability, first from a historical perspective and then from the understanding of this issue from a prospective of various professional organizations. We then present the scope of the problem of preterm birth from various countries including the discrepancy between the US and Europe. We continue with updates on extreme prematurity and outcomes with two longitudinal studies from the past 2 years. We further review available interventions for prematurity and discuss the use of antenatal corticosteroids. First, we examine their use in the context of professional recommendations and then examine the trajectory of their continued use in the late preterm period. We focus on a European-based trial with preliminary results and an ongoing American counterpart. The current knowledge of molecular mechanisms behind preterm labor is presented with a focus on the multiple etiologies of preterm labor, both known and presumed, with updates in the basic science realm. Furthermore, up-to-date studies on prediction of preterm birth and prematurity-related morbidity are presented. PMID:25300768

  9. The effects of low-level laser therapy, 670 nm, on epiphyseal growth in rats.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Adriana Regina; Meireles, Anamaria; Artifon, Elisangela Lourdes; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ferreira, José Roberto Leonel; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2012-01-01

    The longitudinal growth of long bones is attributed to epiphyseal growth. However, the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in such structures has still not been studied extensively in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of LLLT, 670 nm, at three different doses on the epiphyseal growth of the right tibia of rats. Twenty-one Wistar rats, aged four weeks, were subjected to the application of LLLT, with dosage according to the group (G4: were submitted to the application of 4 J/cm(2); G8: were submitted to the application of 8 J/cm(2); G16: were submitted to the application of 16 J/cm(2)). After completion of protocol they were kept until they were 14 weeks of age and then submitted to a radiological examination (evaluation of limb length) and euthanised. The histological analysis of the growth plates (total thickness and hypertrophic and proliferative zones) was then performed. Comparisons were made with the untreated left tibia. No differences were observed in any of the reviews (radiological and histological), when comparing the right sides (treated) to the left (untreated). It was concluded that the treatment with LLLT within the parameters used caused changes neither in areas of the epiphyseal cartilage nor in the final length of limbs. PMID:22654576

  10. Dapoxetine for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    Premature ejaculation, also referred to as rapid or early ejaculation, is a poorly understood disorder with no single, widely-recognised, evidence-based definition. Studies based on patient self-reporting indicate that premature ejaculation is a common complaint with estimated prevalence ranging from 4%-39% of men in the general community.(1) However, a lack of an accurate validated definition has made comparison of the results of such studies difficult.(2) In addition, perception of normal ejaculatory latency varies by country and differs when assessed by the patient or their partner.(3) ▾Dapoxetine (Priligy-A. Menarini Farmaceutica Internazionale SRL), a short-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is the first drug to be licensed in the UK for on-demand management of diagnosed premature ejaculation.(4) In this article we review the evidence for dapoxetine and discuss some of the challenges associated with its introduction. PMID:24627135

  11. Effects of hyperprolactinemia on the tibial epiphyseal plate of mice treated with sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Roberta B; Gomes, Regina Celia T; do Amaral, Vinicius C; da Silva, Priscilla L; Simoncini, Tommaso; Prosdocimi, Fabio Cesar; Simoes, Ricardo S; Simões, Manuel Jesus S; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares-Jr, José Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia on the tibial epiphyseal plate of hormone-treated oophorectomized mice. For this purpose, 18 animals with intact ovaries were allocated to two groups, M (metoclopramide) and V (vehicle). One hundred and eight oophorectomized animals were allocated to 12 subgroups: Oophx/V (vehicle); Ooph/M (metoclopramide); Oophx/V + E (vehicle + estradiol); Oophx/M + E (metoclopramide + estradiol); Oophx/V + P (vehicle + progesterone); Oophx/M + P (metoclopramide + progesterone); Oophx/V + T (vehicle + testosterone); Oophx/M + T (metoclopramide + testosterone); Oophx/V + E + P (Vehicle + estradiol + progesterone); Oophx/M + E + P (metoclopramide + estradiol + progesterone); Oophx/V + E + P + T (vehicle + estradiol + progesterone + testosterone); Oophx/M + E + P + T (metoclopramide + estradiol + progesterone + testosterone). After a 50-day treatment was performed histomorphometric and immunohistochemical cell death analysis. In the epiphyseal plate of the hyperprolactinemic and/or oophorectomized animals, cell proliferation and bone formation decreased, inducing intensified cell death. In the sex steroid-treated animals, estrogen boosted cell proliferation; progesterone, bone formation and testosterone, both cell proliferation and bone formation. These findings suggest that oophorectomy and hyperprolactinemia changed epiphyseal plate morphology causing cartilage degeneration. Treatment with combined sex steroids may diminish such deleterious effects. PMID:26193892

  12. Delayed hypertrophic differentiation of epiphyseal chondrocytes contributes to failed secondary ossification in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs.

    PubMed

    Peck, Sun H; O'Donnell, Philip J M; Kang, Jennifer L; Malhotra, Neil R; Dodge, George R; Pacifici, Maurizio; Shore, Eileen M; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

    2015-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient β-glucuronidase activity, which leads to the accumulation of incompletely degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS VII patients present with severe skeletal abnormalities, which are particularly prevalent in the spine. Incomplete cartilage-to-bone conversion in MPS VII vertebrae during postnatal development is associated with progressive spinal deformity and spinal cord compression. The objectives of this study were to determine the earliest postnatal developmental stage at which vertebral bone disease manifests in MPS VII and to identify the underlying cellular basis of impaired cartilage-to-bone conversion, using the naturally-occurring canine model. Control and MPS VII dogs were euthanized at 9 and 14 days-of-age, and vertebral secondary ossification centers analyzed using micro-computed tomography, histology, qPCR, and protein immunoblotting. Imaging studies and mRNA analysis of bone formation markers established that secondary ossification commences between 9 and 14 days in control animals, but not in MPS VII animals. mRNA analysis of differentiation markers revealed that MPS VII epiphyseal chondrocytes are unable to successfully transition from proliferation to hypertrophy during this critical developmental window. Immunoblotting demonstrated abnormal persistence of Sox9 protein in MPS VII cells between 9 and 14 days-of-age, and biochemical assays revealed abnormally high intra and extracellular GAG content in MPS VII epiphyseal cartilage at as early as 9 days-of-age. In contrast, assessment of vertebral growth plates and primary ossification centers revealed no significant abnormalities at either age. The results of this study establish that failed vertebral bone formation in MPS VII can be traced to the failure of epiphyseal chondrocytes to undergo hypertrophic differentiation at the appropriate developmental stage, and suggest that aberrant processing of Sox9 protein

  13. [Premature ovarian failure].

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Carmen Regina Leal de

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review on different aspects of premature ovarian failure (POF) defined as the development of hypogonadism in women before 40 years of age. The review will discuss the etiopathogeny, autoimmune and iatrogenic causes, abnormalities of chromosome X, as well as clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. Most of the women with this disorder do not have menstrual history, specific of POF development, but infertility associated with the diagnosis is the most problematic aspect of the disease. PMID:24830590

  14. Prematurely terminated slug tests

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, K. )

    1990-07-01

    A solution of the well response to a prematurely terminated slug test (PTST) is presented. The advantages of a PTST over conventional slug tests are discussed. A systematized procedure of a PTST is proposed, where a slug test is terminated in the midpoint of the flow point, and the subsequent shut-in data is recorded and analyzed. This method requires a downhole shut-in device and a pressure transducer, which is no more than the conventional deep-well slug testing. As opposed to slug tests, which are ineffective when a skin is present, more accurate estimate of formation permeability can be made using a PTST. Premature termination also shortens the test duration considerably. Because in most cases no more information is gained by completing a slug test to the end, the author recommends that conventional slug tests be replaced by the premature termination technique. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland.

  15. Surgical Repair with External Fixation of Epiphyseal Fractures of the Proximal Phalanges of Three Fingers: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Yasushi; Takayama, Shinichiro; Sato, Kazuki

    2015-10-01

    A 13-year-old girl sustained epiphyseal fractures of the proximal phalanges of the left index, middle, and ring fingers. Though manual reduction of the 3 fingers was possible, it was difficult to maintain the reduction due to severe instability of the middle and ring fingers, and closed reduction with external fixation was performed. At 4 years post-injury, the patient had no impairment of daily activities. The use of external fixation (1) causes no injury to the epiphyseal cartilage, (2) enables accurate reduction and maintenance of reduction, (3) is technically easier than pinning, (4) enables earlier range of motion (ROM) exercises of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the externally fixated and other fingers, and (5) allows repeated fine adjustments after reduction. External fixation is an option for the treatment of children with highly unstable epiphyseal fractures of the proximal phalanges. PMID:26388013

  16. A case with oto-spondylo-mega-epiphyseal-dysplasia (OSMED): the clinical recognition and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Karaer, Kadri; Rosti, Rasim Ozgür; Torun, Deniz; Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Bahçe, Muhterem; Güran, Sefik

    2011-01-01

    The oto-spondylo-mega-epiphyseal-dysplasia (OSMED) phenotype is an autosomal recessive trait that is a skeletal dysplasia with the hallmark findings of limb shortening, multiple skeletal and radiological abnormalities, mid-face hypoplasia with a flat nasal bridge, small upturned nasal tip, and sensorineural hearing loss. A 3.5-year-old girl born to consanguineous Turkish parents had characteristic facial features at birth: mid-face hypoplasia, mild hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, prominent supraorbital ridges, depressed nasal bridge, small upturned nasal tip, long philtrum, and micrognathia. Radiological examination at three years of age revealed large flaring metaphyses and wide flat epiphyses. The humerus and femur showed the characteristic dumbbell shape. She had bilateral hearing loss with no ophthalmologic findings. There is continuing debate over the clinical overlap and differential diagnosis of OSMED syndrome. The patient was examined considering Weissenbacher-Zweymuller, Stickler type 3, Marshall syndrome, and Kniest dysplasia as possible differential diagnoses. We believe that the presented patient clinically manifested features of OSMED syndrome. We would like to point out that the management of OSMED calls for a coordinated multidisciplinary approach. PMID:21980822

  17. Premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Poma, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    The management of patients with premature rupture of membranes has changed markedly in the past several years. The basis for this is a combination of a better understanding of newborn physiology, improved neonatal care, refinements in antibiotic therapy, and the widespread use of maternal and fetal monitoring. The best outcome for both mother and infant undoubtedly reflects data based on a combination of factors, among which are gestational age survival, evidence of fetal distress, presence or absence of labor and sepsis, and of course, the cervical condition as it is related to labor-readiness. An important recent advance is the recognition that an active observation management program is associated with less morbidity and mortality than the classic management course of delivery within 12 hours of membrane rupture. The fact that preterm premature rupture of membranes tends to recur in subsequent pregnancies offers an opportunity for prevention. Moreover, advances in perinatal and neonatal care will continue to improve the outcomes of these women and their children. PMID:8583489

  18. Discontinuities in the endothelium of epiphyseal cartilage canals and relevance to joint disease in foals.

    PubMed

    Hellings, Ingunn Risnes; Ekman, Stina; Hultenby, Kjell; Dolvik, Nils Ivar; Olstad, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage canals have been shown to contain discontinuous blood vessels that enable circulating bacteria to bind to cartilage matrix, leading to vascular occlusion and associated pathological changes in pigs and chickens. It is also inconsistently reported that cartilage canals are surrounded by a cellular or acellular wall that may influence whether bacterial binding can occur. It is not known whether equine cartilage canals contain discontinuous endothelium or are surrounded by a wall. This study aimed to examine whether there were discontinuities in the endothelium of cartilage canal vessels, and whether canals had a cellular or acellular wall, in the epiphyseal growth cartilage of foals. Epiphyseal growth cartilage from the proximal third of the medial trochlear ridge of the distal femur from six healthy foals that were 1, 24, 35, 47, 118 and 122 days old and of different breeds and sexes was examined by light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry. The majority of patent cartilage canals contained blood vessels that were lined by a thin layer of continuous endothelium. Fenestrations were found in two locations in one venule in a patent cartilage canal located deep in the growth cartilage and close to the ossification front in the 118-day-old foal. Chondrifying cartilage canals in all TEM-examined foals contained degenerated endothelial cells that were detached from the basement membrane, resulting in gap formation. Thirty-three percent of all canals were surrounded by a hypercellular rim that was interpreted as contribution of chondrocytes to growth cartilage. On LM, 69% of all cartilage canals were surrounded by a ring of matrix that stained intensely eosinophilic and consisted of collagen fibres on TEM that were confirmed to be collagen type I by immunohistochemistry. In summary, two types of discontinuity were observed in the endothelium of equine epiphyseal cartilage canal vessels: fenestrations were observed in

  19. Premature ejaculation: A review.

    PubMed

    Gajjala, Sukumar Reddy; Khalidi, Azheel

    2014-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.([1]) Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation) is not included in this definition, an IELT of <2 min, or ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE.([2]) Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory. PMID:26396440

  20. Premature ejaculation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Gajjala, Sukumar Reddy; Khalidi, Azheel

    2014-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as “ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.[1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation) is not included in this definition, an IELT of <2 min, or ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE.[2] Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory. PMID:26396440

  1. Stimulation of body weight increase and epiphyseal cartilage growth by insulin like growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.

  2. Late presented case of distal humerus epiphyseal separation in a newborn.

    PubMed

    Mane, Prajwal Prabhudev; Challawar, Nikhil Subhash; Shah, Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of traumatic bone injuries occurring during birth is rare (1 per 1000 live births). Of all long bone fractures, the humerus is one of the commonest bones to be involved. However, distal humeral epiphyseal separation is rare and has seldom been written up in case reports and small case series. It warrants some critical assessment and appropriate attention. This injury is sometimes missed as it is difficult to diagnose at initial presentation. It may be mistaken for dislocation of the elbow, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis or brachial plexus injury, owing to lack of movement of the upper limb. Knowledge of its clinical and radiological findings will enable the treating physician to diagnose it at the appropriate time. Masterful observation is adequate treatment for this condition, and leads to a better clinical and radiological outcome. Timely diagnosis with an optimistic prognosis will prevent unnecessary parental apprehension. PMID:27247206

  3. Refinement of the localization of the gene responsible for spondylo epiphyseal dysplasia in Xp22

    SciTech Connect

    Hors-Cayla, M.C.; Heuertz, S.; Smahi, A.

    1994-09-01

    Spondylo epiphyseal dysplasia tarda (SEDL) (MIM 313400) is an X-linked recessive disease characterized by short stature which is caused by a growth defect of the vertebral bodies. Using RFLP markers, we have previously localized the gene responsible to Xp22 between DXS16 and DXS92 in a 13% recombination fraction interval. Further genetic analysis was carried out using microsatellite markers. As their localization with respect to the RFLP markers was unknown, we first obtained a physical map integrating RFLP and microsatellite markers, with the help of a panel of radiation reduced hybrids. Studying recombinants between the SEDL gene and RFLP and microsatellite markers, we refined the position of the gene on Xp22 between DXS16 and DXS987 on a 1 to 2 Mb chromosomal segment.

  4. [Fractures and slipped epiphyses of the proximal humerus in children. Place and methods of surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Guibert, L; Allouis, M; Bourdelat, D; Catier, P; Bracq, H; Babut, J M

    1983-01-01

    Fractures and Epiphyseal separations of the proximal humerus are usually non-operatively treated with a generally good result. However, sometimes, a surgical treatment may be required. Twenty fractures of the proximal humerus occurring in children were treated operatively. From these 20 cases, the authors precise the indications and the ways of surgical treatment in this type of lesion. They insist upon the value of the angulation on the lateral radiograph of the shoulder which, if important, may often signify an interposition of the tendon of the long head of the biceps between the fracture fragments causing irreductibility; they propose a classification of the fractures referring to this angle. Considering surgical procedure, delto-pectoral approach is the most commonly used, although axillary way is more esthaetic. Kirschner wires and screws are the best means of synthesis. Anyway, this surgical treatment has to remain exceptional. PMID:6627539

  5. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  6. Advances in treating premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Cayan, Selahittin; Serefoğlu, Ege Can

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its high prevalence and long history, the ambiguity regarding the definition, epidemiology and management of premature ejaculation continues. Topical anesthetic creams and daily or on-demand selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment forms the basis of pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation today, in spite of low adherence by patients. Psychotherapy may improve the outcomes when combined with these treatment modalities. Tramadol and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have a limited role in the management of premature ejaculation. Further research is required to develop better options for the treatment of this common sexual disorder. PMID:25184045

  7. Advances in treating premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Şerefoğlu, Ege Can

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its high prevalence and long history, the ambiguity regarding the definition, epidemiology and management of premature ejaculation continues. Topical anesthetic creams and daily or on-demand selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment forms the basis of pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation today, in spite of low adherence by patients. Psychotherapy may improve the outcomes when combined with these treatment modalities. Tramadol and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have a limited role in the management of premature ejaculation. Further research is required to develop better options for the treatment of this common sexual disorder. PMID:25184045

  8. Dapoxetine for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Feige, A M; Pinsky, M R; Hellstrom, W J G

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common form of male sexual dysfunction, with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 20–30%.1 Although PE is not life threatening, it has significant impact on quality of life. The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)defines PE as “persistent or recurrent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it” that “causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty” and “is not due exclusively to the direct effects of a substance.”2 The International Society for Sexual Medicine, which recently modified the definition to include the threshold ejaculatory latency time, defines PEas “male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs prior to or within 1 min of vaginal penetration; the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and negative personal consequences such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy.”3 The lack of ejaculatory control is consistent among all clinical definitions of PE and is a highly sensitive predictor of the condition. PMID:21085116

  9. Your Premature Baby: Low Birthweight

    MedlinePlus

    ... experts Calculating your due date Ovulation calendar 39 weeks is best Order bereavement materials News Moms Need ... birthweight: Premature birth . This is birth before 37 weeks of pregnancy. About 7 of 10 low-birthweight ...

  10. [Premature ovarian failures].

    PubMed

    Bricaire, Léopoldine; Laroche, Emmanuelle; Bourcigaux, Nathalie; Donadille, Bruno; Christin-Maitre, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is clinically suspected by amenorrhea and confirmed by an elevated FSH serum level above 40 mUI/L (even 20 mUI/L) twice, in a woman before the age of 40. Prevalence of POF is between 1 to 2% in women. In 90% of cases, no aetiology is identified. Obvious causes are chemotherapy, pelvic radiotherapy, ovarian surgery and diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero. A karyotype should be performed as Turner Syndrome is the most frequent genetic cause of POF. Some X abnormalities such as X deletion or X autosome translocation can be found. FMR1 pre-mutation (fragile X syndrome) should be searched for, even though no cases of mental retardation are known, in the family. Other genetic abnormalities can be suggested by associated symptoms (i.e.: FOXL2, SF1 mutations). Auto-immune aetiology can be suspected if other auto-immune features are present, however, there are no reliable auto-antibodies to confirm auto-immunity in POF. Treatment of POF is based on hormonal replacement therapy in order to avoid estrogen deficiency, suppress vasomotor symptoms and avoid bone loss as well as cardiovascular risk. Estrogens should be associated with progesterone or a progestin, at least up to the age of 51. Patients with POF should be informed that spontaneous pregnancies may occur (in 5% of cases). In case of desire of pregnancy, the patient should be oriented to a specialized unit for in vitro fertilization with oocyte donation. Psychological support is essential and should be part of the treatment. POF is associated with an increased risk of emotional distress and depression. No preventive treatment of POF is available so far. PMID:24157186

  11. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  12. Responses of articular and epiphyseal cartilage zones of developing avian radii to estrone treatment and a 2-G environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negulesco, J. A.; Kossler, T.

    1978-01-01

    Histological measurements of radii from chickens exposed to estrone and hypergravity are reported. Female chicks at two weeks post-hatch were maintained for two weeks at earth gravity or 2 G with daily injections of 0.2 or 0.4 mg estrone. Animals were sacrificed after the last injection, and the radii were processed by described histological techniques. The results suggest that proximal and distal epiphyses of developing radii show different morphological responses to estrone and hypergravity.

  13. Genetic linkage mapping of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19.

    PubMed Central

    Oehlmann, R.; Summerville, G. P.; Yeh, G.; Weaver, E. J.; Jimenez, S. A.; Knowlton, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is an inherited chondrodystrophy that results in deformity of articular surfaces and in subsequent degenerative joint disease. The disease is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance. An MED mutation has been mapped by genetic linkage analysis of DNA polymorphisms in a single large pedigree. Close linkage of MED to 130 tested chromosomal markers was ruled out by discordant inheritance patterns. However, strong evidence for linkage of MED to markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19 was obtained. The most closely linked marker was D19S215, with a maximum LOD score of 6.37 at theta = .05. Multipoint linkage analysis indicated that MED is located between D19S212 and D19S215, a map interval of 1.7 cM. Discovery of the map location of MED in this family will facilitate identification of the mutant gene. The closely linked DNA polymorphisms will also provide the means to determine whether other inherited chondrodystrophies have underlying defects in the same gene. PMID:8279467

  14. Epiphyseal Sparing and Reconstruction by Frozen Bone Autograft after Malignant Bone Tumor Resection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hamed Kassem Abdelaal, Ahmed; Yamamoto, Norio; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Miwa, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Limb salvage surgery has become the standard treatment for malignant primary bone tumors in the extremities. Limb salvage represents a challenge in skeletally immature patients. Several treatment options are available for limb reconstruction after tumor resection in children. We report our results using the technique of epiphyseal sparing and reconstruction with frozen autograft bone in 18 children. The mean follow-up period for the all patients included in this study is 72 ± 26 m. Eight patients remained disease-free, seven patients lived with no evidence of disease, two were alive but with disease, and one patient died of the disease. Five- and ten-year rates of survival were 94.4%. Graft survival at 5 and 10 years was 94.4%. Functional outcome using the Enneking scale was excellent in 17 patients (94.4%) and poor in one patient (5.5%). Complications include 2 nonunions, 2 fractures, 2 deep infections, 1 soft tissue recurrence, and leg length discrepancy in 7 cases. This technique is a good reconstructive choice in a child with a nonosteolytic primary or secondary bone tumor, responsive to chemotherapy, without involvement of the articular cartilage. It is a straight forward, effective, and biological technique, which affords immediate mobilization of joints and possible cryoimmune effects, with excellent long term functional outcome and less complication. PMID:27034614

  15. Automatic Segmentation of Phalanx and Epiphyseal/Metaphyseal Region by Gamma Parameter Enhancement Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, C. W.; Chen, C. Y.; Jong, T. L.; Liu, T. C.; Chiu, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of bone age assessment is highly correlated with the extraction of bony tissue from soft tissues, and the key problem is how to successfully separate epiphyseal/metaphyseal region of interests (EMROIs) from the background and soft tissue. In our experiment, a series of image preprocessing procedures are used to exclude the background and locate the EMROIs of left-hand radiographs. Subsequently, automatic gamma parameter enhancement is applied to test the two segmentation methods (adaptive two-means clustering algorithm and gradient vector flow snake) among children of different age (the age from 2 to 16 years for 80 girls and boys). Four error measurements of misclassification error, relative foreground area error, modified Hausdorff distances, and edge mismatch, are included to evaluate the segmentation performance. The result shows that the two segmentation algorithms are corresponding to different ranges of optimal gamma parameters. Furthermore, the margin of EMROIs can be obtained more precisely by developing an automatic bone age assessment method with the gamma parameter enhancement.

  16. Visualization of sulfur-containing components associated with proliferating chondrocytes from rat epiphyseal growth plate cartilage: Possible proteoglycan and collagen co-migration

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, W.J.; Hodgens, K.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Electron microscopy of epiphyseal growth plate cartilage from normal 4-5-week-old rats has revealed extensive fibrillar aggregates and globules in the pericellular spaces of proliferating chondrocytes. These cells contained small globules and diffusely coiled, fine filaments located within large, membrane-invested vacuoles. All such structures were observed after a variety of different tissue fixation regimes, including glutaraldehyde, osmium tetroxide, and potassium pyroantimonate. The fibrillar aggregates and globules were often overlapping and intermeshed and extended to 0.5 micron in length from their point of origin at cell membranes. Vacuoles were usually found at the periphery of cells, and some, by membrane fusion with the cell envelope, appeared contiguous with extracellular spaces wherein their contents could be discharged. Fine filaments and globules were occasionally observed in the Golgi complex and cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum of the chondrocytes. Further characterization of the cellular and pericellular components by electron microscopic radioautography, electron probe microanalysis, and electron spectroscopic imaging indicated the presence of sulfur, a result suggesting these aggregates, filaments, and globules in part represent proteoglycans in various stages of synthesis, secretion, and assembly. Additional radioautography utilizing 3H-proline implied that filament bundles are also composed of collagen, a result posing the possibility that this protein and the putative proteoglycans may co-migrate both intracellularly and within pericellular matrices. In extracellular matrices adjacent to cell lacunae, the fibrillar aggregates appeared in close association with typical collagen type II fibrils, an observation providing evidence for proteoglycan-collagen network formation in this region of the rat epiphysis.

  17. CSB-PGBD3 Mutations Cause Premature Ovarian Failure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangyu; Tang, Tie-Shan; Zhao, Shidou; Jiao, Xue; Gong, Juanjuan; Gao, Fei; Guo, Caixia; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a rare, heterogeneous disorder characterized by cessation of menstruation occurring before the age of 40 years. Genetic etiology is responsible for perhaps 25% of cases, but most cases are sporadic and unexplained. In this study, through whole exome sequencing in a non-consanguineous family having four affected members with POF and Sanger sequencing in 432 sporadic cases, we identified three novel mutations in the fusion gene CSB-PGBD3. Subsequently functional studies suggest that mutated CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein was impaired in response to DNA damage, as indicated by delayed or absent recruitment to damaged sites. Our data provide the first evidence that mutations in the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein can cause human disease, even in the presence of functional CSB, thus potentially explaining conservation of the fusion protein for 43 My since marmoset. The localization of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein to UVA-induced nuclear DNA repair foci further suggests that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein, like many other proteins that can cause POF, modulates or participates in DNA repair. PMID:26218421

  18. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  19. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  20. A novel mutation in DDR2 causing spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia with short limbs and abnormal calcifications (SMED-SL) results in defective intra-cellular trafficking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rare autosomal genetic disorder, Spondylo-meta-epiphyseal dysplasia with short limbs and abnormal calcifications (SMED-SL), is reported to be caused by missense or splice site mutations in the human discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene. Previously our group has established that trafficking defects and loss of ligand binding are the underlying cellular mechanisms of several SMED-SL causing mutations. Here we report the clinical characteristics of two siblings of consanguineous marriage with suspected SMED-SL and identification of a novel disease-causing mutation in the DDR2 gene. Methods Clinical evaluation and radiography were performed to evaluate the patients. All the coding exons and splice sites of the DDR2 gene were sequenced by Sanger sequencing. Subcellular localization of the mutated DDR2 protein was determined by confocal microscopy, deglycosylation assay and Western blotting. DDR2 activity was measured by collagen activation and Western analysis. Results In addition to the typical features of SMED-SL, one of the patients has an eye phenotype including visual impairment due to optic atrophy. DNA sequencing revealed a novel homozygous dinucleotide deletion mutation (c.2468_2469delCT) on exon 18 of the DDR2 gene in both patients. The mutation resulted in a frameshift leading to an amino acid change at position S823 and a predicted premature termination of translation (p.S823Cfs*2). Subcellular localization of the mutant protein was analyzed in mammalian cell lines, and it was found to be largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which was further supported by its N-glycosylation profile. In keeping with its cellular mis-localization, the mutant protein was found to be deficient in collagen-induced receptor activation, suggesting protein trafficking defects as the major cellular mechanism underlying the loss of DDR2 function in our patients. Conclusions Our results indicate that the novel mutation results in defective trafficking

  1. ALL‐EPIPHYSEAL ACL RECONSTRUCTION: A THREE‐YEAR FOLLOW‐UP

    PubMed Central

    Akinleye, Sheriff D.; Sewick, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Background/Introduction: With an increasing number of pre‐adolescents participating in sports, anterior cruciate ligament injuries and resultant reconstruction in the skeletally immature athlete are becoming more common. Many different surgical techniques and rehabilitation protocols have been proposed for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, but there is a lack of agreement as to which approach results in the best outcome. Rehabilitation protocols have marked variation regarding postoperative weight bearing, immobilization, bracing, and length. Case description: This is a case of a ten year old female who sustained bilateral ACL tears within the period of a year. The purpose of this case report is to describe the early result and subsequent rehabilitation following bilateral physeal‐sparing all‐epiphyseal ACL reconstructions on a skeletally immature patient with a three‐year follow‐up. Outcomes: The early post‐surgical recovery period on the first injured knee was complicated by knee stiffness requiring manipulation. Following this minor setback, the patient met all physical therapy goals and had no additional complications. The rehabilitation after the second surgery followed a typical course. At three‐year follow‐up, the patient had grown an additional seven inches, with radiographic evidence of symmetric physeal growth and joint stability. She has returned to playing competitive sports. Discussion and Conclusion: This innovative physeal‐sparing technique has huge implications as, historically; the feared complication of growth disturbance and angular deformity from transphyseal ACL reconstruction has complicated the management of ACL injuries in children and pre‐adolescents. This case report demonstrates the success of this technique, and the subsequent rehabilitation, as this patient did not experience a reduction in long‐term bone growth. Level of Evidence: 5 Case Report PMID:23772346

  2. A mathematical model of epiphyseal development: hypothesis on the cartilage canals growth.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Alvarado, Diego Alexander; Peinado Cortes, Liliana Mabel; Cardenas Sandoval, Rosy Paola

    2010-12-01

    The role of cartilage canals is to transport nutrients and biological factors that cause the appearance of the secondary ossification centre (SOC). The SOC appears in the centre of the epiphysis of long bones. The canal development is a complex interaction between mechanical and biological factors that guide its expansion into the centre of the epiphysis. This article introduces the 'Hypothesis on the growth of cartilage canals'. Here, we have considered that the development of these canals is an essential event for the appearance of SOC. Moreover, it is also considered to be important for the transport of molecular factors (RUNX2 and MMP9) at the ends of such canals. Once the canals are merged in the centre of the epiphysis, these factors are released causing hypertrophy of adjacent cells. This RUNX2 and MMP9 release occurs due to the action of mechanical loads that supports the epiphysis. In order to test this hypothesis, we use a hybrid approach using the finite element method to simulate the mechanical stresses present in the epiphysis and the cellular automata to simulate the expansion of the canals and the hypertrophy factors pathway. By using this hybrid approach, we have obtained as a result the spatial-temporal patterns for the growth of cartilage canals and hypertrophy factors within the epiphysis. The model is in qualitative agreement with experimental results previously reported by other authors. Thus, we conclude that this model may be used as a methodological basis to present a complete mathematical model of the processes involved in epiphyseal development. PMID:20526919

  3. Deletion of IFT80 Impairs Epiphyseal and Articular Cartilage Formation Due to Disruption of Chondrocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xue; Yang, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFT) play important roles in cilia formation and organ development. Partial loss of IFT80 function leads Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) or short-rib polydactyly (SRP) syndrome type III, displaying narrow thoracic cavity and multiple cartilage anomalies. However, it is unknown how IFT80 regulates cartilage formation. To define the role and mechanism of IFT80 in chondrocyte function and cartilage formation, we generated a Col2α1; IFT80f/f mouse model by crossing IFT80f/f mice with inducible Col2α1-CreER mice, and deleted IFT80 in chondrocyte lineage by injection of tamoxifen into the mice in embryonic or postnatal stage. Loss of IFT80 in the embryonic stage resulted in short limbs at birth. Histological studies showed that IFT80-deficient mice have shortened cartilage with marked changes in cellular morphology and organization in the resting, proliferative, pre-hypertrophic, and hypertrophic zones. Moreover, deletion of IFT80 in the postnatal stage led to mouse stunted growth with shortened growth plate but thickened articular cartilage. Defects of ciliogenesis were found in the cartilage of IFT80-deficient mice and primary IFT80-deficient chondrocytes. Further study showed that chondrogenic differentiation was significantly inhibited in IFT80-deficient mice due to reduced hedgehog (Hh) signaling and increased Wnt signaling activities. These findings demonstrate that loss of IFT80 blocks chondrocyte differentiation by disruption of ciliogenesis and alteration of Hh and Wnt signaling transduction, which in turn alters epiphyseal and articular cartilage formation. PMID:26098911

  4. The aromatase inhibitor letrozole increases epiphyseal growth plate height and tibial length in peripubertal male mice.

    PubMed

    Eshet, R; Maor, G; Ben Ari, T; Ben Eliezer, M; Gat-Yablonski, G; Phillip, M

    2004-07-01

    Sex hormones may influence longitudinal growth, either indirectly, by affecting the growth-hormone-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis, or directly, by affecting changes within the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, on longitudinal growth and changes in the EGP in vivo. Eighteen peripubertal male mice were divided into three groups. The first group was killed at baseline, the second was injected with letrozole (Femara) s.c., 2 mg/kg body weight/day, for 10 days, and the third was injected with the vehicle alone. Serum testosterone levels were found to be significantly higher in the treated group than in the controls. Letrozole induced a significant increase in body weight, tail length and serum growth hormone level, but had no significant effect on the level of serum IGF-I. On histomorphometric study, there was a significant increase (12%) in EGP height in the treated animals compared with controls. Immunohistochemistry showed a 3.4-fold letrozole-induced increase in the proliferation of the EGP chondrocytes, as estimated by the number of proliferation cell nuclear antigen-stained cells, and a decrease in the differentiation of the EGP chondrocytes, as estimated by type X collagen staining. Letrozole did not interfere with type II collagen levels. The study group also showed a twofold increase in the number of IGF-I receptor-positive cells compared with controls. In conclusion, the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, appears to increase the linear growth potential of the EGP in mice. PMID:15225141

  5. Deletion of IFT80 Impairs Epiphyseal and Articular Cartilage Formation Due to Disruption of Chondrocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xue; Yang, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFT) play important roles in cilia formation and organ development. Partial loss of IFT80 function leads Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) or short-rib polydactyly (SRP) syndrome type III, displaying narrow thoracic cavity and multiple cartilage anomalies. However, it is unknown how IFT80 regulates cartilage formation. To define the role and mechanism of IFT80 in chondrocyte function and cartilage formation, we generated a Col2α1; IFT80f/f mouse model by crossing IFT80f/f mice with inducible Col2α1-CreER mice, and deleted IFT80 in chondrocyte lineage by injection of tamoxifen into the mice in embryonic or postnatal stage. Loss of IFT80 in the embryonic stage resulted in short limbs at birth. Histological studies showed that IFT80-deficient mice have shortened cartilage with marked changes in cellular morphology and organization in the resting, proliferative, pre-hypertrophic, and hypertrophic zones. Moreover, deletion of IFT80 in the postnatal stage led to mouse stunted growth with shortened growth plate but thickened articular cartilage. Defects of ciliogenesis were found in the cartilage of IFT80-deficient mice and primary IFT80-deficient chondrocytes. Further study showed that chondrogenic differentiation was significantly inhibited in IFT80-deficient mice due to reduced hedgehog (Hh) signaling and increased Wnt signaling activities. These findings demonstrate that loss of IFT80 blocks chondrocyte differentiation by disruption of ciliogenesis and alteration of Hh and Wnt signaling transduction, which in turn alters epiphyseal and articular cartilage formation. PMID:26098911

  6. Isometric Scaling in Developing Long Bones Is Achieved by an Optimal Epiphyseal Growth Balance

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Tomer; Aviram, Rona; Rot, Chagai; Galili, Tal; Sharir, Amnon; Kalish Achrai, Noga; Keller, Yosi; Shahar, Ron; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    individual epiphyseal plates. PMID:26241802

  7. Recessively inherited multiple epiphyseal dysplasia with normal stature, club foot, and double layered patella caused by a DTDST mutation.

    PubMed

    Superti-Furga, A; Neumann, L; Riebel, T; Eich, G; Steinmann, B; Spranger, J; Kunze, J

    1999-08-01

    We have observed over 25 different mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulphate transporter gene (DTDST) in association with the recessive disorders achondrogenesis 1B, atelosteogenesis 2, and diastrophic dysplasia. The c862t (R279W) transition is the most common mutation in non-Finnish patients, but in these disorders it is usually combined with other DTDST mutations. We had not seen a case of homozygosity for c862t (R279W) until we analysed DNA from a 36 year old male with tall-normal stature (180 cm) who asked for genetic counselling for suspected multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. He was treated for club foot and hip dysplasia at birth. Skeletal changes consistent with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, with the peculiar finding of a double layered patella, were recognised during childhood. Cleft palate, swelling of the ear pinna, and hitch hiker thumb were absent. He was found to be homozygous, and both healthy parents heterozygous, for the R279W mutation in DTDST, and his fibroblasts showed a sulphate incorporation defect typical of DTDST disorders. Counselling was given for a recessive disorder, thereby considerably reducing the probability of affected offspring. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia is more frequently caused by dominant mutations in the COMP (EDM1, McKusick 132400) and COL9A2 genes (EDM2, McKusick 600204). A few other patients and families with features similar to our proband have been described previously and considered to have autosomal recessive MED (EDM4, McKusick 226900). This observation confirms the existence of this entity and assigns it to the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations at the DTDST locus. PMID:10465113

  8. Relationship between the chondrocyte maturation cycle and the endochondral ossification in the diaphyseal and epiphyseal ossification centers.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Benetti, Anna; Zarattini, Guido

    2016-09-01

    The chondrocyte maturation cycle and endochondral ossification were studied in human, fetal cartilage Anlagen and in postnatal meta-epiphyses. The relationship between the lacunar area, the inter-territorial fibril network variations, and calcium phosphorus nucleation in primary and secondary ossification centers were assessed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphometry. The Anlage topographic, zonal classification was derived from the anatomical nomenclature of the completely developed long bone (diaphysis, metaphyses and epiphyses). A significant increase in the chondrocyte lacunar area was documented in the Anlage of epiphyseal zones 4 and 3 to zone 2 (metaphysis) and zone 1 (diaphysis), with the highest variation from zone 2 to zone 1. An inverse reduction in the intercellular matrix area and matrix interfibrillar empty space was also documented. These findings are consistent with the osmotic passage of free cartilage water from the interfibrillar space into the swelling chondrocytes, which increased the ion concentrations to a critical threshold for mineral precipitation in the matrix. The mineralized cartilage served as a scaffold for osteoblast apposition both in primary and secondary ossification centers and in the metaphyseal growth plate cartilage, though at different periods of bone Anlage development and with distinct patterns for each zone. All developmental processes shared a common initial pathway but progressed at different rates, modes and organization in diaphysis, metaphysis and epiphysis. In the ossification phase the developing vascular supply appeared to play a key role in determining the cortical or trabecular structure of the long bones. J. Morphol. 277:1187-1198, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27312928

  9. Galeazzi - Equivalent Pronation Type Injury with Splitting of Ulnar Epiphyseal Plate into Two Fragments – A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    J, Ashish Suthar; V, Ashish Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In children and adolescents distal forearm physeal fractures are common. Usually distal forearm physeal injuries of are common injuries in children and adolescents. Epiphyseal injuries to the distal radius are common in children, but involvement of the distal ulna is rare. Fracture of the distal radius with dislocation of the DRUJ is known as a True Galeazzi fracture dislocation and an epiphyseal separation of the distal ulna occurred instead of dislocation of DRUJ or both)[10] is called Galeazzi equivalent lesions. Galeazzi fractures in children are less common than in adults. [4] These injuries are uncommon and there are few descriptions of them in the current literature. Case Report: Here we report the case of a 13-year-old boy, student with history of RTA presented with pain and swelling of distal forearm diagnosed with closed injury of Galeazzi equivalent type. Here injury to the distal ulnar epiphyseal plate is in the form of epiphyseal separation (Salter Harris type I / Peterson type III) with splitting of epiphysis into two fragment – [ulnar styloid & radial side of ulnar epiphyseal plate] (Salter Harris type III / Peterson type IV) with fracture of metaphysis of lower end radius (Peterson type I) without neurovascular deficit. Patient was given surgical treatment in the form of closed reduction and K-wire fixation for fracture of distal radius and open reduction using extended ulnar approach and fixation with K-wire for ulnar epiphyseal fracture as closed reduction was not possible due to soft tissue interposition. Conclusion: Galeazzi equivalent injury is rare. It may require radiographic comparison of opposite uninvolved distal forearm with wrist, CT or MR imaging to define injury accurately. It may also require open reduction for anatomical or acceptable reduction of fracture to minimize chances of growth arrest which may occur as a complication of injury. It is also necessary for frequent follow up to identify complication early

  10. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (<1000 g) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address

  11. [Cerebral syndromes in premature children].

    PubMed

    Edel'shteĭn, E A; Bandarenko, E S

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral disturbances observed in premature infants are analyzed. These disturbances are a consequence of developmental slowdown and are associated with the pathological immaturity of the brain structures. On condition an active pathogenetic therapy is given these disturbances may gradually regress. On the basis of long-term observations of 600 prematurely born infants the authors describe the following clinical syndromes: muscular hypotonicity lasting up to 4-5 months and followed with a rise of the tone; the syndrome of "paretic hands" observed during the first two months of life; a hypertensive-hydrocephalic syndrome combined with a rise of the neuro-reflectory excitability; the syndrome of psychomotor development retardation followed at an age of over 1.5 to 2 years by complete recovery or minimal cerebral insufficiency with belated development of motor speech and neurosis-like reactions. PMID:6880498

  12. [Premature orgasm in the male].

    PubMed

    Köhn, F M

    2003-11-13

    To date, we have no uniform definition of ejaculatio praecox. In a qualitative approach, premature ejaculation is ascribed to a failure to control excitement. As causes, organic disorders and erectile dysfunction must be excluded. The majority of cases, however, are due to psychological or partnership problems. The history-taking should aim, in particular, to uncover possible anxiety in conjunction with premature orgasm, and also to establish the reactions of the partner. As therapy, medication (local anesthetics, antidepressive agents, PDE-5 inhibitors) and sexual-therapeutic measures are available. Since few sufferers take the initiative in seeking treatment, particular importance attaches to providing the public with information about the therapeutic options for treating this common disorder. PMID:14699829

  13. Multipurpose contrast enhancement on epiphyseal plates and ossification centers for bone age assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The high variations of background luminance, low contrast and excessively enhanced contrast of hand bone radiograph often impede the bone age assessment rating system in evaluating the degree of epiphyseal plates and ossification centers development. The Global Histogram equalization (GHE) has been the most frequently adopted image contrast enhancement technique but the performance is not satisfying. A brightness and detail preserving histogram equalization method with good contrast enhancement effect has been a goal of much recent research in histogram equalization. Nevertheless, producing a well-balanced histogram equalized radiograph in terms of its brightness preservation, detail preservation and contrast enhancement is deemed to be a daunting task. Method In this paper, we propose a novel framework of histogram equalization with the aim of taking several desirable properties into account, namely the Multipurpose Beta Optimized Bi-Histogram Equalization (MBOBHE). This method performs the histogram optimization separately in both sub-histograms after the segmentation of histogram using an optimized separating point determined based on the regularization function constituted by three components. The result is then assessed by the qualitative and quantitative analysis to evaluate the essential aspects of histogram equalized image using a total of 160 hand radiographs that are implemented in testing and analyses which are acquired from hand bone online database. Result From the qualitative analysis, we found that basic bi-histogram equalizations are not capable of displaying the small features in image due to incorrect selection of separating point by focusing on only certain metric without considering the contrast enhancement and detail preservation. From the quantitative analysis, we found that MBOBHE correlates well with human visual perception, and this improvement shortens the evaluation time taken by inspector in assessing the bone age. Conclusions

  14. The canine epiphyseal-derived mesenchymal stem cells are comparable to bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, Ya-Pei; HONG, Hsuan-Ping; LEE, Yen-Hua; LIU, I-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great potential in cell therapy and have attracted increasing interests in a wide range of biomedical sciences. However, the scarcity of MSCs and the prolonged isolation procedure limited the clinical application. To address these 2 issues, we developed a method to isolate MSCs from bone biopsy tissues of euthanized canine body donors. Compared to the traditional method to isolate MSCs from aspirated bone marrow (BMSCs), the isolation procedure for MSCs from harvested epiphyseal cancellous bone (EMSCs) was less time-consuming. The isolated EMSCs had similar plastic-adherence, tri-lineage differentiation and consistent surface marker profiles compared to BMSCs. We harvested BMSCs and EMSCs from 24 euthanized cases from clinics and 42 euthanized donors from a local shelter. The successful rate for EMSC isolation is significantly higher compared to BMSC isolation, while the other properties of the isolated MSCs including the clonogenicity, proliferative potentials and molecular phenotypes were not discernibly different between the MSCs established by the two methods. In conclusion, we demonstrated a new procedure to harvest MSCs by bone biopsy at the epiphyseal region. This method is less time consuming and more reliable, and the resulting MSCs are comparable to those harvested by bone marrow aspiration. The combination of the two methods can greatly improve the efficiency to harvest MSCs. PMID:25391394

  15. SLC26A2 disease spectrum in Sweden - high frequency of recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (rMED).

    PubMed

    Mäkitie, O; Geiberger, S; Horemuzova, E; Hagenäs, L; Moström, E; Nordenskjöld, M; Grigelioniene, G; Nordgren, A

    2015-03-01

    Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia caused by SLC26A2 mutations. Clinical features include short stature, joint contractures, spinal deformities, and cleft palate. SLC26A2 mutations also result in other skeletal dysplasias, including the milder recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (rMED). DTD is overrepresented in Finland and we speculated that this may have influenced the prevalence and spectrum of SLC26A2-related skeletal conditions also in Sweden. We reviewed the patient registry at Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm to identify subjects with SLC26A2 mutations. Seven patients from six families were identified; clinical data were available for six patients. All but one patient had one or two copies of the Finnish SLC26A2 founder mutation IVS1+2T>C. Arg279Trp mutation was present in compound heterozygous form in five patients with phenotypes consistent with rMED. Their heights ranged from -2.6 to -1.4 standard deviation units below normal mean and radiographic features included generalised epiphyseal dysplasia and double-layered patellae. Two rMED patients had hypoplastic C2 and cervical kyphosis, a severe manifestation previously described only in DTD. Our study confirms a high prevalence of rMED in Sweden and expands the phenotypic manifestations of rMED. PMID:24598000

  16. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations. PMID:27179987

  17. [Forensic importance of premature craniosynostosis].

    PubMed

    Fehlow, P

    1991-01-01

    In agreement with Canabis craniosynostosis as a little known organic partial factor of sociopathy is demonstrated. A psychic syndrome of the frontal lobe with increased susceptibility in environmental damages is assumed to be basic disorder. In the criminals of the material sexual offenders were preponderating. Associated craniofacial dysplasias are a risk for psychic maldevelopment. The importance of premature craniosynostocis as a biological risk factor, incidence, diagnostic, indication for an operation, also in the meaning of a neurosurgical "Konflikttherapie" (cosmetical indication) are discussed. PMID:1811531

  18. [Skin antisepsis in premature infants].

    PubMed

    Agolini, G; Faldella, G; Janes, E; Raitano, A; Spinelli, M; Vitali, M

    2011-01-01

    In some premature newborns, 7 months old and with less than 1 kg of body wheight, total parenteral nutrition is used for weeks, so that good antiseptics can cooperate to the prevention of nosocomial infections, associating the best biocide effects to the best topical tolerability. Details are reported on the biocide cutaneous properties of some chloro-derivates, as sodium hypochlorite and NaDCC, of ethyl and propyl alcohols, of chlorhexidine, of iodophors and also of triclosan and octenidine (even if these latter biocids are not normally available in Italy as cutaneous antiseptics). PMID:22423476

  19. Premature ejaculation: is there an efficient therapy?

    PubMed

    Francischi, Fábio Barros de; Ayres, Daniel Cernach; Itao, Ricardo Eidi; Spessoto, Luis Cesar Fava; Arruda, Jose Germano Ferraz Del; Facio Junior, Fernando Nestor

    2011-12-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most frequent male sexual dysfunction, estimated to affect 20 to 30% of men at some time in their life. A Pubmed search from the year 2000 to the present was performed to retrieve publications related to management or treatment of premature ejaculation. Behavioral techniques have been the mainstay of premature ejaculation management for many years, although evidence of their short-term efficacy is limited. Topical therapies for premature ejaculation act by desensitizing the penis and do not alter the sensation of ejaculation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly used in the treatment of depression, are often used to treat premature ejaculation, based on the observation that delayed ejaculation is a frequent side effect of this drug class. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI formulated to treat premature ejaculation, and results seem very promising. PMID:26761263

  20. Metatarsal fusion pattern and developmental morphology of the Olduvai Hominid 8 foot: Evidence of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Susman, Randall L; Patel, Biren A; Francis, Megan J; Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of the Olduvai Hominid (OH) 8 foot and the sequence of metatarsal epiphyseal fusion in modern humans and chimpanzees support the hypothesis that OH 8 belonged to an individual of approximately the same relative age as the OH 7 subadult, the holotype of Homo habilis. Modern humans and chimpanzees exhibit a variety of metatarsal epiphyseal fusion patterns, including one identical to that observed in OH 8 in which metatarsal 1 fuses before metatarsals 2-5. More than the metatarsal fusion sequence, however, the principal evidence of the youthful age of OH 8 lies in the morphology of metatarsals 1, 2, and 3. Because both OH 8 and OH 7 come from the same stratum at the FLK NN type site, the most parsimonious explanation of the OH 8 and OH 7 data is that this material belonged to the same individual, as originally proposed by Louis Leakey. The proposition that OH 8 belonged to an adult is unsupported by morphology, including radiographic evidence, and the fusion sequences in human and chimpanzee skeletal material reported here and in the literature. PMID:21074829

  1. Advances in understanding and treating premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Saitz, Theodore R; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2015-11-01

    Over the past several years, many advances have been made in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of premature ejaculation. Newly developed definitions of premature ejaculation are now available, and our perception of the classification, prevalence, aetiological factors, and treatment options for premature ejaculation have evolved. Despite ongoing research, there remains much to be learned about all aspects of this common sexual disorder, in particular effective clinical diagnosis and treatment options. PMID:26502991

  2. Biomechanical reasons for the divergent morphology of the knee joint and the distal epiphyseal suture in hominoids.

    PubMed

    Preuschoft, H; Tardieu, C

    1996-01-01

    The obliquity of the femoral diaphysis accounts for the valgus position of the human knee joint and reduces bending moments in the frontal plane. A high angle of obliquity is considered a hallmark of hominid bipedality, but its functional importance has rarely been identified correctly. A biostatic investigation of the knee joint in various realistic positions unveils resultant joint forces which do not deviate greatly from the long axis of the femoral shaft. This is due to the length of the femur and to the shortness of the human foot. The flat epiphyseal suture is more or less perpendicular to these joint forces, and the equal size of the femoral condyles reflects the even distribution of forces between them. In great apes the resultant forces acting in the knee joint vary considerably in dependence on the degree of flexion and rotation of the knee joint. The resultant joint force may be line with the femur shaft or diverge. The epiphyseal surfaces offer facets to all joint forces found in the course of the study. Due to the pronounced varus position of the knee joint, the joint itself and the adjacent part of the femur are under medially concave bending moments, which lead to higher compressive forces at the medial than at the lateral condyle. The enlarged medial condyle allows the distribution of medially displaced joint forces over a relatively large area, and the elliptic cross-section yields high bending resistance in the frontal plane. A human-like angle of obliquity is present in the early australopithecines, the values being mostly within the range of variation of children. The valgus position of the australopithecine knee joint is considered to be a functional, and epigenetic consequence of habitual bipedality. It is particularly pronounced because of the short length of the femur and the great bitrochanteric width. PMID:8953752

  3. [Sexological intervention on premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    San Martín Blanco, C

    2014-07-01

    Strategies, recommendations and techniques proposed by sex therapy for intervention on premature ejaculation, have represented for nearly four decades the most effective model of intervention in this sexual dysfunction, which currently is complemented by the efficacy of dapoxetine drug treatment. Clinical experience and recent studies support that combined intervention offers the best therapeutic results. In addition in sex therapy, etiologic diagnosis is obtained from the analysis of the interrelationship of the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has to be always centered in the relationship, so the techniques and resources must be applied with the expectation of being implemented in the sexual interaction. It will therefore be the relationship that receive treatment, even if medication is used for one of the members of the couple. On the other hand, this model of intervention can be implemented by a professional with training, although not necessarily a specialist. PMID:25953038

  4. [Communicating with premature newborns through touch].

    PubMed

    Berne-Audéoud, Frédérique; Marcus, Leila; Lejeune, Fleur; Gentaz, Edouard; Debillon, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    How does the premature newborn perceive the outside world? The first sense developed by the foetus is touch. Through the physiology of sensoriality and brain maturation, touch can constitute an essential vector in communicating with and caring for the premature child. PMID:20925301

  5. 28 CFR 51.22 - Premature submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premature submissions. 51.22 Section 51.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... § 51.22 Premature submissions. The Attorney General will not consider on the merits: (a) Any...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth...

  8. Accuracy of scoring of the epiphyses at the knee joint (SKJ) for assessing legal adult age of 18 years.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Mihanović, Frane; Giuliodori, Alice; Conforti, Federica; Cingolani, Mariano; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Important aspects of forensic practice are age estimation and discrimination of individuals of unknown age as adults and minors. The developing knee joint was recognized as a potential site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed a sample of anteroposterior x-rays of the knee joints from 446 living individuals from Umbria, Italy (234 males and 212 females), aged between 12 and 26 years. We evaluated the ossification of the distal femoral (DF), proximal tibial (PT), and proximal fibular (PF) epiphyses. We took into account possible persistence of the epiphyseal scars in the ossified epiphyses by the adopted stages of those previously introduced by Cameriere et al. (2012). We also used measurements from all three epiphyses to calculate the total score of maturation for the knee joint (SKJ). Cohen Kappa coefficients of intrarater agreement for staging the DF, PT, and PF epiphyses were 0.839, 0.894, and 0.907, while interrater agreement was 0.919, 0.791, and 0.907, respectively. The resulting receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of SKJ show better discriminatory power than those for DF, PT, and PF epiphyses in predicting that the participant, either male or female, was an adult or a minor. The areas under the curves for SKJ were 0.991 and 0.968 vs. 0.944, 0.962, 0.974 and 0.891, 0.910, 0.918 for males and females, respectively. The results of the 2 by 2 contingency tables showed that SKJ score of 4 in males and SKJ score of 5 in females were the most suitable cut-off value in discriminating between adults and minors. Principally, the sensitivity test for males was 0.94, with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.90 to 0.97 and specificity was 0.96 (95 % CI 0.91 to 0.98). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91 to 0.97). For females, the sensitivity test was 0.89 (95 % CI 0.84 to 0.92) and specificity was 0.92 (95 % CI 0.87 to 0.96), the proportion of correctly classified individuals was 0.90 (95 % CI 0

  9. A revised classification of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Quinn, G E; Schaffer, D B; Johnson, L

    1982-12-01

    We have developed a classification system for the acute phases of retinopathy of prematurity based on more than 13,000 ophthalmoscopic examinations of more than 3,400 premature infants between 1968 and 1982. Two forms of the active disease exist. Retinopathy of prematurity is a relatively common mild disease and retinopathy of prematurity plus is characterized by rapid progression and posterior pole vascular tortuosity and dilation. The five grades progress from peripheral vascular abnormalities (Grade 1) through a demarcation line (Grade 2) and extraretinal neovascularization (Grade 3) to partial (Grade 4) or total (Grade 5) retinal detachment. The persistence of abnormal retinal vessels during the first year of life is considered "transitional" retinopathy of prematurity unless unequivocal cicatricial changes with macular distortion develop. PMID:6897494

  10. Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) suppresses premature calcium release in mouse eggs.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Miranda L; Lowther, Katie M; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; McDonough, Caitlin E; Lee, Katherine N; Evsikov, Alexei V; Uliasz, Tracy F; Chidiac, Peter; Williams, Carmen J; Mehlmann, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    During oocyte maturation, capacity and sensitivity of Ca(2+) signaling machinery increases dramatically, preparing the metaphase II (MII)-arrested egg for fertilization. Upon sperm-egg fusion, Ca(2+) release from IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum stores results in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) oscillations that drive egg activation and initiate early embryo development. Premature Ca(2+) release can cause parthenogenetic activation prior to fertilization; thus, preventing inappropriate Ca(2+) signaling is crucial for ensuring robust MII arrest. Here, we show that regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) suppresses Ca(2+) release in MII eggs. Rgs2 mRNA was recruited for translation during oocyte maturation, resulting in ∼ 20-fold more RGS2 protein in MII eggs than in fully grown immature oocytes. Rgs2-siRNA-injected oocytes matured to MII; however, they had increased sensitivity to low pH and acetylcholine (ACh), which caused inappropriate Ca(2+) release and premature egg activation. When matured in vitro, RGS2-depleted eggs underwent spontaneous Ca(2+) increases that were sufficient to cause premature zona pellucida conversion. Rgs2(-/-) females had reduced litter sizes, and their eggs had increased sensitivity to low pH and ACh. Rgs2(-/-) eggs also underwent premature zona pellucida conversion in vivo. These findings indicate that RGS2 functions as a brake to suppress premature Ca(2+) release in eggs that are poised on the brink of development. PMID:26160904

  11. Therapeutic targets for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Karl-Erik; Abdel-Hamid, Ibrahim A

    2011-09-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual complaint, and may exert a profound negative impact on the man's life and partnership. Using currently available treatment alternatives (e.g., selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, agents acting locally on the penis), PE can be treated in most, but not all patients. However, since long term success rates have been disappointing, and the only approved treatment so far is the short-acting selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor dapoxetine, there is currently an intensive search for new treatment modalities. Selection of the most promising therapeutic targets from a host of current and potential candidates depends heavily on their roles in the pathophysiology of PE. Possible central nervous targets that will be discussed are serotonin transporters, and CNS receptors for 5-HT(IA) and 5-HT(1B), dopamine, oxytocin, opioids, neurokinin-1, and glutamate. Putative peripheral targets include α(1)-adrenoceptors, phosphodiestrase enzymes, Rho kinases, purinergic (P2X) receptors, and penile sensory nerves. It is clear that exploiting the full therapeutic potential of these targets will require additional basic and clinical research. PMID:21816550

  12. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-10-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and topical desensitizing creams. Most of these treatments increase the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and patient satisfaction scores, with the most convincing evidence for SSRIs and topical creams. Daily SSRIs such as paroxetine, although efficacious, do have a substantial and prolonged side effect profile. Dapoxetine, which is a on-demand SSRI, is the only licensed drug for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by a factor of 2.5 to 3 with limited and tolerable side effects. In the near future, the topical aerosol PSD502 is due to be licensed for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by up to a factor of 6 but having minimal local and negligible systemic side effects. PMID:22046199

  13. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and topical desensitizing creams. Most of these treatments increase the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and patient satisfaction scores, with the most convincing evidence for SSRIs and topical creams. Daily SSRIs such as paroxetine, although efficacious, do have a substantial and prolonged side effect profile. Dapoxetine, which is a on-demand SSRI, is the only licensed drug for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by a factor of 2.5 to 3 with limited and tolerable side effects. In the near future, the topical aerosol PSD502 is due to be licensed for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by up to a factor of 6 but having minimal local and negligible systemic side effects. PMID:22046199

  14. [Premature newborn: a case presentation].

    PubMed

    Pastor Rodríguez, Jesús David; Pastor Bravo, María Del Mar; López García, Visitación; Cotes Teruel, María Isabel; Mellado, Jesús Eulogio; Cárceles, José Jara

    2010-01-01

    A case is presented of a premature newborn of 27 weeks gestation and weighing 420 grams who was delivered as a result of a maternal pre-eclampsia and retarded intra-uterine growth. During the 125 days of hospitalisation, an individual care plan based on the Virginia Henderson model was devised and applied to both the child and her parents using NANDA diagnostics, interventions according to the NIC classification, and the expected results according to the NOC classification. The Marjory Gordon functional patterns were used for the initial assessment. By applying the pre-term newborn (PTNB) plan, all their needs were provided and were modified throughout the hospital stay, with new needs that were added to the established ones. These required a continuous assessment with the subsequent adapting of the care plan. Likewise, the care required by the parents varied from the initial grief due to the possible loss of their child to learning the alarm signs and the home care that their child would need. The child was finally discharged weighing 2900 grams and with normal neurological and psychomotor development, although with a lower weight appropriate to her age. Currently, at 2 years old, the child has a normal neurological and psychomotor development, but with weight and size lower than the P(3) percentile. She requires speech therapy treatment due to paralysis of the right vocal cord. PMID:20605104

  15. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  16. Experiment K-6-06. Morphometric and EM analyses of tibial epiphyseal plates from Cosmos 1887 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, P. J.; Montufar-Solis, D.; Durnova, G.

    1990-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy studies were carried out on decalcified tibial epiphyseal plates of rats flown aboard Cosmos 1887 (12.5d flight plus 53.5h recovery). Analysis of variance showed that the proliferative zone of flight animals was significantly higher than that of synchronous controls, while the hypertrophic/calcification zone was significantly reduced. Flight animals had more cells than synchronous controls in the proliferative zone, and less in the hypertrophic/calcification region. The total number of cells, however, was significantly higher in flight animals. No differences were found for perimeter or shape factor of growth plates, but area was significantly lower in flight animals in comparison to synchronous controls. Collagen fibrils in flight animals were shorter and wider than in synchronous controls. The time required for a cell to cycle through the growth plate is 2 to 3 days, so most of the cells and matrix present were formed after the animals had returned to 1 g, and probably represent stages of recovery from microgravity exposure, which in itself is an interesting question.

  17. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  18. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  19. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  20. Curve progression in Risser stage 0 or 1 patients after posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Roberto, R F; Lonstein, J E; Winter, R B; Denis, F

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed to determine "crankshaft" prevalence in 86 immature patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis. Tanner stage, chronologic age, bone age, and epiphyseal status were used as maturity indicators. Overall, 62 (72%) patients progressed < or = 10 degrees, 18 (21%) patients progressed 11-15 degrees, and six (7%) patients progressed > or = 16 degrees in the coronal plane. Tanner I patients with open triradiate cartilage had the highest rate of crankshaft occurrence; nine (75%) of 12 patients progressed >10 degrees (p < 0.05). Fifty-two percent of Tanner I, 26% of Tanner II, 11% of Tanner III, and no Tanner IV patients progressed >10 degrees (p < 0.05). Cobb angle increases of >10 degrees degrees occurred in 54% of patients with open triradiate cartilage (p < 0.05) and in 48% of patients with open capital femoral epiphyses (p < 0.05). Anterior and posterior spinal fusion should be considered in prepubertal (Tanner I) patients with open triradiate cartilage. PMID:9591972

  1. At U. of Utah, Cold-Fusion Controversy Offers Lessons for Scientists, Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kim A.

    1990-01-01

    Summerizes the controversy surrounding the claim by two University of Utah professors to have achieved cold fusion. Noted are the failure of university administrators to involve other campus scientists in review of the claim and premature establishment of an institute dedicated to the cold-fusion technology. (DB)

  2. Correlation between primary stability and bone healing of surface treated titanium implants in the femoral epiphyses of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rozé, Julie; Hoornaert, Alain; Layrolle, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the stability and osseointegration of surface treated titanium implants in rabbit femurs. The implants were either grit-blasted and acid-etched (BE Group), calcium phosphate (CaP) coated by using the electrodeposition technique, or had bioactive molecules incorporated into the CaP coatings: either cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or dexamethasone (Dex). Twenty four cylindrical titanium implants (n = 6/group) were inserted bilaterally into the femoral epiphyses of New Zealand White, female, adult rabbits for 4 weeks. Implant stability was measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) the day of implantation and 4 weeks later, and correlated to histomorphometric parameters, bone implant contact (BIC) and bone growth around the implants (BS/TS 0.5 mm). The BIC values for the four groups were not significantly different. That said, histology indicated that the CaP coatings improved bone growth around the implants. The incorporation of bioactive molecules (cAMP and Dex) into the CaP coatings did not improve bone growth compared to the BE group. Implant stability quotients (ISQ) increased in each group after 4 weeks of healing but were not significantly different between the groups. A good correlation was observed between ISQ and BS/TS 0.5 mm indicating that RFA is a non-invasive method that can be used to assess the osseointegration of implants. In conclusion, the CaP coating enhanced bone formation around the implants, which was correlated to stability measured by resonance frequency analysis. Furthers studies need to be conducted in order to explore the benefits of incorporating bioactive molecules into the coatings for peri-implant bone healing. PMID:24818874

  3. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  4. Clinical use of deslorelin implants for the long-term contraception in prepubertal bitches: effects on epiphyseal closure, body development, and time to puberty.

    PubMed

    Kaya, D; Schäfer-Somi, S; Kurt, B; Kuru, M; Kaya, S; Kaçar, C; Aksoy, Ö; Aslan, S

    2015-04-15

    Long-acting GnRH agonists have been used both for canine estrus induction and prevention. The objective of the study was to investigate the use of a deslorelin implant as a long-term and reversible contraceptive in prepubertal bitches with special regard to the time of epiphyseal closure. Thirteen healthy, crossbreed, medium-sized prepubertal female dogs were used in this study. An implant containing 9.4 mg (G1, n = 5) and 4.7 mg (G2, n = 4) deslorelin acetate (Suprelorin) or a placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%; G3, n = 4) was inserted subcutaneously in the interscapular region. Estrus was monitored once daily by physical and sexual behavioral changes. Body development, vaginal cytology, and serum progesterone and estradiol 17β concentration were monitored weekly for the first 5 weeks, and then every 3 weeks throughout the treatment period. Radiographic examinations were performed monthly to determine the epiphyseal closure. Half of the deslorelin-treated bitches (G1: n = 2 and G2: n = 2) came into estrus during the 83-week observation period. All animals in the control group showed estrus between the 39th and 64th weeks of observation. Time to puberty averaged 82.7 ± 8.9 and 61.9 ± 9.7 weeks in the deslorelin-treated (G1 and G2) and the control bitches, respectively (P < 0.02). Both deslorelin implants (9.4 and 4.7 mg) can be used efficiently for the long-term prevention of estrus in prepubertal bitches; however, epiphyseal closure is clearly delayed which was without any clinical effect in the present study. PMID:25619808

  5. Laterality in Prematurely-Born Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalwitz, Sidney J.; Chapman, Jacqueline S.

    The study examined the relationship between perinatal stress and decreased right handedness and decreased left cerebral dominance for speech with 215 children born prematurely, followed from birth, and tested at age 5. Results indicated that neither hand preference nor hand performance correlated with degree of perinatal stress and that eye…

  6. Osteopenia (metabolic bone disease) of prematurity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteopenia is defined as postnatal bone mineralization that is inadequate to fully mineralize bones. Osteopenia occurs commonly in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Prior to the use of high-mineral containing diets for premature infants, which is the current practice, significant radiographic ch...

  7. Alone no more: pain in premature children.

    PubMed

    Bellieni, C V; Bagnoli, F; Buonocore, G

    2003-01-01

    It is only recently that newborns have been recognised to feel pain. To avoid the drawbacks of common analgesics, alternative analgesic methods (e.g. sucking and/or oral sugar) have been proposed. We showed that these methods are of little effect without the relaxing, distracting, comforting presence of a person at the cribside who talks to and massages the baby. This is a further demonstration that newborns, including premature babies, look for a reassuring presence when experiencing pain. This is surprising as premature babies are relatively unreactive, often completely isolated in an incubator and considered incapable of social behavior. To the attentive observer, however, they reveal an unsuspected emotional world. Not only do they feel pain, but they are also capable of suffering, distress, anxiety and fear. This needs to be considered in neonatal analgesic treatment, even for extremely premature children. It is mandatory for caregivers to be a reassuring presence during painful procedures: premature babies are exacting patients. They not only feel pain, they even suffer; they request not only drugs, but a human presence nearby. PMID:14700042

  8. 7 CFR 29.1050 - Prematurity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prematurity. 29.1050 Section 29.1050 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official...

  9. Telemedicine for evaluation of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Fierson, Walter M; Capone, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains a significant threat to vision for extremely premature infants despite the availability of therapeutic modalities capable, in most cases, of managing this disorder. It has been shown in many controlled trials that application of therapies at the appropriate time is essential to successful outcomes in premature infants affected by ROP. Bedside binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy has been the standard technique for diagnosis and monitoring of ROP in these patients. However, implementation of routine use of this screening method for at-risk premature infants has presented challenges within our existing care systems, including relative local scarcity of qualified ophthalmologist examiners in some locations and the remote location of some NICUs. Modern technology, including the development of wide-angle ocular digital fundus photography, coupled with the ability to send digital images electronically to remote locations, has led to the development of telemedicine-based remote digital fundus imaging (RDFI-TM) evaluation techniques. These techniques have the potential to allow the diagnosis and monitoring of ROP to occur in lieu of the necessity for some repeated on-site examinations in NICUs. This report reviews the currently available literature on RDFI-TM evaluations for ROP and outlines pertinent practical and risk management considerations that should be used when including RDFI-TM in any new or existing ROP care structure. PMID:25548330

  10. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    PubMed

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.). PMID:25080553

  11. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  12. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  13. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  14. Autosomal recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia with homozygosity for C653S in the DTDST gene: double-layer patella as a reliable sign.

    PubMed

    Mäkitie, Outi; Savarirayan, Ravi; Bonafé, Luisa; Robertson, Stephen; Susic, Miki; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Cole, William G

    2003-10-15

    Mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST) gene result in a family of skeletal dysplasias, which comprise lethal (achondrogenesis type 1B and atelosteogenesis type 2) and non-lethal conditions (diastrophic dysplasia and recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (rMED)). The most frequent mutation is R279W, which in a homozygous state results in rMED with bilateral clubfoot, MED, and "double layered" patella. We describe three patients with rMED caused by a previously unreported homozygous mutation in the DTDST gene. The three patients (from two families) were born to healthy, non-consanguineous parents. All developed signs of hip dysplasia in early childhood and two had episodes of recurrent patella dislocation. Two underwent bilateral total hip replacements at ages 13 and 14 years. The feet, external ears, and palate were normal. Stature was normal in all cases. Radiographs showed dysplastic femoral heads, mild generalized epiphyseal dysplasia, abnormal patella ossification, and normal hands and feet. Direct sequence analysis of genomic DNA demonstrated a homozygous 1984T > A (C653S) change in the DTDST gene in all patients. The clinically normal parents were heterozygous for the change. This is the first description of a homozygous C653S mutation of the DTDST gene. Hip dysplasia and patella hypermobility dominates the otherwise mild phenotype. These patients further expand the range of causative mutations in the DTD skeletal dysplasia family. PMID:12966518

  15. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  16. Single base substitution in OsCDC48 is responsible for premature senescence and death phenotype in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-Na; Shi, Yong-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Song, Li-Xin; Feng, Bao-Hua; Wang, Hui-Mei; Xu, Xia; Li, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Dan; Wu, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    A premature senescence and death 128 (psd128) mutant was isolated from an ethyl methane sulfonate-induced rice IR64 mutant bank. The premature senescence phenotype appeared at the six-leaf stage and the plant died at the early heading stage. psd128 exhibited impaired chloroplast development with significantly reduced photosynthetic ability, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, root vigor, soluble protein content and increased malonaldehyde content. Furthermore, the expression of senescence-related genes was significantly altered in psd128. The mutant trait was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Using map-based strategy, the mutation Oryza sativa cell division cycle 48 (OsCDC48) was isolated and predicted to encode a putative AAA-type ATPase with 809 amino-acid residuals. A single base substitution at position C2347T in psd128 resulted in a premature stop codon. Functional complementation could rescue the mutant phenotype. In addition, RNA interference resulted in the premature senescence and death phenotype. OsCDC48 was expressed constitutively in the root, stem, leaf and panicle. Subcellular analysis indicated that OsCDC48:YFP fusion proteins were located both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. OsCDC48 was highly conserved with more than 90% identity in the protein levels among plant species. Our results indicated that the impaired function of OsCDC48 was responsible for the premature senescence and death phenotype. PMID:26040493

  17. Apnea of prematurity: from cause to treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Gonzalez, Fernando; Mu, Dezhi

    2011-09-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common problem affecting premature infants, likely secondary to a "physiologic" immaturity of respiratory control that may be exacerbated by neonatal disease. These include altered ventilatory responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and altered sleep states, while the roles of gastroesophageal reflux and anemia remain controversial. Standard clinical management of the obstructive subtype of AOP includes prone positioning and continuous positive or nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation to prevent pharyngeal collapse and alveolar atelectasis, while methylxanthine therapy is a mainstay of treatment of central apnea by stimulating the central nervous system and respiratory muscle function. Other therapies, including kangaroo care, red blood cell transfusions, and CO(2) inhalation, require further study. The physiology and pathophysiology behind AOP are discussed, including the laryngeal chemoreflex and sensitivity to inhibitory neurotransmitters, as are the mechanisms by which different therapies may work and the potential long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of AOP and its treatment. PMID:21301866

  18. The Effect of Peribulbar Block with General Anesthesia for Vitreoretinal Surgery in Premature and Ex-Premature Infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Renu; Maitra, Souvik

    2016-01-15

    Safe anesthesia in premature and ex-premature infants remains a challenge for the anesthesiologist. These infants are at risk of postoperative apnea, desaturation, and bradycardia after general anesthesia. We describe our experience of peribulbar block in 24 infants who underwent vitreoretinal surgery for retinopathy of prematurity. None of our patients had postoperative apnea or required neonatal intensive care admission. A possible opioid and muscle relaxant-sparing effect of peribulbar block might have reduced the incidence of postoperative complications. PMID:26556110

  19. A physiologic method for monitoring premature infants.

    PubMed

    Ludington-Hoe, S; Kasper, C E

    1995-01-01

    Instrumentation capable of handling 12 continuous hours of nine-channel real-time physiologic data sampled at 10Hz was needed to test within and between subject variability and preterm infant responses to skin-to-skin contact with the mother. A review of basic electrical components, electrical principles related to physiologic monitoring, and electrophysiology concepts generic to physiologic monitoring is presented. The development, specifications and applications of a new instrument to monitor premature infant cardiorespiratory adaptations are discussed. PMID:7493185

  20. Premature ovarian failure: clinical presentation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kovanci, Ertug; Schutt, Amy K

    2015-03-01

    Premature ovarian failure is a devastating diagnosis for reproductive-aged women. The diagnosis is relatively easy. However, it has serious health consequences, including psychological distress, infertility, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, ischemic heart disease, and increased risk for mortality. Management should be initiated immediately to prevent long-term consequences. Estrogen therapy is the mainstay of management. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy studies should not be used to determine the risks of treatment in these young women. PMID:25681846

  1. [Premature ejaculation in urological routine practice].

    PubMed

    Mathers, M J; Sommer, F; Degener, S; Brandt, A S; Roth, S

    2013-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is a frequent male sexual complaint or sexual disturbance found in urological practices and outpatient units. The frequency in the individual practices varies considerably. In large studies the prevalence is strongly dependent on the definition and ranges between 3% and 25%. Subjectively, the inability to delay ejaculation and the distress resulting from it, is relevant for the patient and his partner. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) is used as an objective parameter. Nevertheless, in the everyday routine practice this objective parameter is not practical. Clinically 2 questionnaires have asserted themselves (Premature Ejaculation Profile and Index of Premature Ejaculation). Studies have shown that the self-assessment of patients correlates relatively well with the objective IELT measured by means of a stopwatch. Beside topical anaesthetics and elective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), especially Dapexetine which has been approved in Germany since 2009, are treatment options. These drugs differ particularly in their use (daily or on-demand) and their effectiveness (measured by x-fold increase of IELT). This article deals with the clinical approach to EP. Beside the definition, prevalence, aetiology and neurophysiology of EP, the different pharmacological therapies as well as the guidelines of the International Society for Sexual Medicine are discussed. PMID:23381878

  2. Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mezu-Ndubuisi, Olachi J.; Agarwal, Ghanshyam; Raghavan, Aarti; Pham, Jennifer T.; Ohler, Kirsten H.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-01-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. In infants born prior to 28 weeks of gestation, a hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause cardiovascular instability, exacerbate respiratory distress syndrome, prolong the need for assisted ventilation, and increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal dysfunction, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, and mortality. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and assessment of hemodynamic significance, and provide a rigorous appraisal of the quality of evidence to support current medical and surgical management of PDA of prematurity. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin and ibuprofen remain the mainstay of medical therapy for PDA, and can be used both for prophylaxis as well as rescue therapy to achieve PDA closure. Surgical ligation is also effective and is used in infants who do not respond to medical management. Although both medical and surgical treatment have proven efficacy in closing the ductus, both modalities are associated with significant adverse effects. Because the ductus does undergo spontaneous closure in some premature infants, improved and early identification of infants most likely to develop a symptomatic PDA could help in directing treatment to the at-risk infants and allow others to receive expectant management. PMID:22564132

  3. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  4. The lateral clavicular epiphysis: fusion timing and age estimation.

    PubMed

    Langley, Natalie R

    2016-03-01

    This study utilizes a forensic autopsy sample of twentieth century American Whites (the McCormick Clavicle Collection) to describe the morphology, variation, and fusion timing of the lateral clavicle epiphysis. Clavicles from individuals between 11 and 25 years at the time of death were used to document fusion of the lateral epiphysis (n= 133, 38 females and 95 males). The lateral epiphysis was scored as unfused, fusing, or fused. A linear weighted kappa indicates that this scoring method is highly replicable with almost perfect inter-rater agreement (kappa = 0.849), according to a widely used standard for assessing kappa values. Transition analysis, or probit regression, was employed to quantify fusion timing of the lateral epiphysis. The transition from "unfused" to "fusing" is most likely to occur at 16.5 years in females and 17.5 years in males. The transition from "fusing" to "fused" occurs at age 21 in females and age 20 in males. The earliest age at which fusion began was 15 years (n = 1), but the majority began fusing between 17 and 20 years. Most individuals (98.5 % of the sample) aged >24 years had fused lateral epiphyses. The epiphysis assumes one of two forms: (1) a separate bony flake fusing to the diaphysis or (2) a mound of bone glazing/smoothing over the diaphyseal surface. As socioeconomic status has been cited as the most influential variable on skeletal maturation rates, the fusion ages offered here should not be applied to populations with a socioeconomic status different from the greater US population. PMID:26253853

  5. Cellular localization and expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins within the epiphyseal growth plate of the ovine fetus: possible functional implications.

    PubMed

    de los Rios, P; Hill, D J

    1999-04-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are important in the regulation of normal fetal musculoskeletal growth and development, and their actions have been shown to be modulated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Because the anatomical distribution of IGFBPs is likely to dictate IGF bioavailability, we determined the cellular distribution and expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6 in epiphyseal growth plates of the fetal sheep, using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Little mRNA for IGF-I was detectable within the growth plates, but mRNA for IGF-II was abundant in germinal and proliferative chondrocytes, although absent from some differentiating chondrocytes and hypertrophic cells. Immunohistochemistry for IGF-I and IGF-II showed a presence of both peptides in all chondrocyte zones, including hypertrophic cells. Immunoreactive IGFBP-2 to -5 were localized within the germinal and proliferative zones of chondrocytes, but little immunoreactivity was present within the columns of differentiating cells. IGFBP immunoreactivity again appeared in hypertrophic chondrocytes. IGFBP mRNA in chondrocytes of the epiphyseal growth plate was below the detectable limit of in situ hybridization. However, low levels of mRNAs for IGFBP-2 to -6 were detected by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A co-localization of IGFBPs with IGF peptides in intact cartilage suggests that they may regulate IGF bioavailability and action locally. To test this hypothesis, monolayer cultures of chondrocytes were established from the proliferative zone of the growth plate, and were found to release immunoreactive IGF-II and to express mRNAs encoding IGFBP-2 to -6. Exogenous IGFBP-3, -4, and -5 had an inhibitory action on IGF-II-dependent DNA synthesis. IGFBP-2 had a biphasic effect, potentiating IGF-II action at low concentrations but inhibiting DNA synthesis at equimolar or greater concentrations relative to IGF-II. Long R3 IGF-I, which has a reduced binding

  6. Effects of Melatonin and Epiphyseal Proteins on Fluoride-Induced Adverse Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart, Liver, and Kidney of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Vijay K.; Srivastava, R. S.; Kumar, H.; Bag, S.; Majumdar, A. C.; Singh, G.; Pandi-Perumal, S. R.; Brown, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Several experimental and clinical reports indicated the oxidative stress-mediated adverse changes in vital organs of human and animal in fluoride (F) toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal (pineal) proteins (BEP) and melatonin (MEL) against F-induced oxidative stress in heart, liver, and kidney of experimental adult female rats. To accomplish this experimental objective, twenty-four adult female Wistar rats (123–143 g body weights) were divided into four groups, namely, control, F, F + BEP, and F + MEL and were administered sodium fluoride (NaF, 150 ppm elemental F in drinking water), MEL (10 mg/kg BW, i.p.), and BEP (100 µg/kg BW, i.p.) for 28 days. There were significantly (P < 0.05) high levels of lipid peroxidation and catalase and low levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues of F-treated rats. Administration of BEP and MEL in F-treated rats, however, significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated these adverse changes in all the target components of antioxidant defense system of cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues. The present data suggest that F can induce oxidative stress in liver, heart, and kidney of female rats which may be a mechanism in F toxicity and these adverse effects can be ameliorated by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) epiphyseal proteins and melatonin by upregulation of antioxidant defense system of heart, liver, and kidney of rats. PMID:24790596

  7. Premature Sperm Activation and Defective Spermatogenesis Caused by Loss of spe-46 Function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Liau, Wei-Siang; Nasri, Ubaydah; Elmatari, Daniel; Rothman, Jason; LaMunyon, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    Given limited resources for motility, sperm cell activation must be precisely timed to ensure the greatest likelihood of fertilization. Like those of most species, the sperm of C. elegans become active only after encountering an external signaling molecule. Activation coincides with spermiogenesis, the final step in spermatogenesis, when the spherical spermatid undergoes wholesale reorganization to produce a pseudopod. Here, we describe a gene involved in sperm activation, spe-46. This gene was identified in a suppressor screen of spe-27(it132ts), a sperm-expressed gene whose product functions in the transduction of the spermatid activation signal. While spe-27(it132ts) worms are sterile at 25°C, the spe-46(hc197)I; spe-27(it132ts)IV double mutants regain partial fertility. Single nucleotide polymorphism mapping, whole genome sequencing, and transformation rescue were employed to identify the spe-46 coding sequence. It encodes a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains but with no other predicted functional domains or homology outside of nematodes. Expression is limited to spermatogenic tissue, and a transcriptional GFP fusion shows expression corresponds with the onset of the pachytene stage of meiosis. The spe-46(hc197) mutation bypasses the need for the activation signal; mutant sperm activate prematurely without an activation signal in males, and mutant males are sterile. In an otherwise wild-type genome, the spe-46(hc197) mutation induces a sperm defective phenotype. In addition to premature activation, spe-46(hc197) sperm exhibit numerous defects including aneuploidy, vacuolization, protruding spikes, and precocious fusion of membranous organelles. Hemizygous worms [spe-46(hc197)/mnDf111] are effectively sterile. Thus, spe-46 appears to be involved in the regulation of spermatid activation during spermiogenesis, with the null phenotype being an absence of functional sperm and hypomorphic phenotypes being premature spermatid activation and numerous

  8. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD. PMID:20408329

  9. Treatment options for apnoea of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Morton, Sarah U; Smith, Vincent C

    2016-07-01

    Apnoea of prematurity (AOP) affects almost all infants born at <28 weeks gestation or with birth weight <1000 g. When untreated, AOP may be associated with negative outcomes. Because of these negative outcomes, effective treatment for AOP is an important part of optimising care of preterm infants. Standard treatment usually involves xanthine therapy and respiratory support. Cutting-edge work with stochastic vibrotactile stimulation and new pharmaceutical agents continues to expand therapeutic options. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of AOP, associated conditions and treatment options. PMID:27010019

  10. Premature ovarian failure: morphological and ultrastructural aspects.

    PubMed

    Haidar, M A; Baracat, E C; Simões, M J; Focchi, G R; Evêncio Neto, J; de Lima, G R

    1994-01-01

    The authors documented by means of light and transmission electron microscopy that the ovaries of women with premature ovarian failure (POF) displayed dense connective tissue and rare corpora albicantia. Eight of the ten studied cases did not present ovarian follicles; in two cases, it was verified the presence of ovarian follicles, atypical primordial follicles and in one case, a corpus luteum was identified (after stimulation with exogenous gonadotrophin). Regarding the ultrastructural analysis, it was noted that the fibroblasts were united one to each other by cellular prolongations that formed a woof, constituting a cellular syncicius. PMID:7610321

  11. Premature Ventricular Complexes in Apparently Normal Hearts.

    PubMed

    Luebbert, Jeffrey; Auberson, Denise; Marchlinski, Francis

    2016-09-01

    Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) are consistently associated with worse prognosis and higher morbidity and mortality. This article reviews PVCs and their presentation in patients with an apparently normal heart. Patients with PVCs may be completely asymptomatic, whereas others may note severely disabling symptoms. Cardiomyopathy may occur with frequent PVCs. Diagnostic work-up is directed at obtaining 12-lead ECG to characterize QRS morphology, Holter monitor to assess frequency, and echo and advanced imaging to assess for early cardiomyopathy and exclude structural heart disease. Options for management include watchful waiting, medical therapy, or catheter ablation. Malignant variants of PVCs may induce ventricular fibrillation even in a normal heart. PMID:27521085

  12. Premature ejaculation: the scope of the problem.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Tricia; Eardley, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions. Successful treatment of PE has been hampered by the existence of a variety of definitions and diagnostic criteria and the lack of large, long-term studies of treatment efficacy. Numerous, diverse treatment approaches with varying degrees of efficacy have been used; these include behavioral, cognitive, and sex therapy techniques, and pharmacologic management with anti-depressants, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, and topical anesthetics. The approach most likely to provide success is a combination of cognitive and sex therapy with a pharmacologic agent of proven efficacy that has an easy-to-follow dosing regimen. PMID:17365515

  13. Premature ejaculation: old story, new insights.

    PubMed

    Jannini, Emmanuele A; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Mollaioli, Daniele; Di Sante, Stefania; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Conventional theories and therapies for premature ejaculation (PE) are based on assumptions not always supported by evidence. This review of the current literature on the physiology of the ejaculatory control, pathogenesis of PE, and available therapies shows that PE is still far from being fully understood. However, several interesting hypotheses have been formulated, and solid, evidence-based clinical data are currently available for dapoxetine, the unique, first-line, officially approved pharmacotherapy for PE. Further growth in the field of PE will occur only when we shift from opinion-based classifications, definitions, and hypotheses to robust, noncontroversial data grounded on evidence. PMID:26409323

  14. Pattern Organization of Premature Ventricular Heartbeats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Ivanov, Plamen; Stanley, H. Eugene; Stanley, Gene; Goldberger, Ary L.

    2000-03-01

    Increased number of premature (abnormal) ventricular beats in a record of heartbeat intervals are known to be associated with an advanced stage of pathology (e.g. congestive heart failure). These abnormal beats usually occur in repeated bursts for relatively short periods of time. Here we ask the question if particular abnormal patterns appear throughout records of heartbeat intervals. We study the temporal organization of specific patterns of ventricular beats in long 24 hour records and their relation to different stages of disease. We analyze the statistical properties of such patterns and combination of patterns by means of crosscorrelation matrices.

  15. Current concepts in premature ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Maclaran, Kate; Panay, Nick

    2015-03-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a life-changing diagnosis, with profound physical and psychological consequences. Unfortunately, there are many deficiencies in our understanding of the condition as the underlying etiology and optimum management strategies are poorly understood. Improved awareness of POI and its long-term implications has led to increased research interest in recent years. Current research has allowed a greater understanding of the changing epidemiology in POI, genetic factors in its etiology and randomized controlled trials of hormone therapy are underway to provide evidence for treatment. This article reviews the latest literature on POI to summarize current understanding and future directions. PMID:25776291

  16. [Ophthalmological screening for retinopathy of prematurity].

    PubMed

    Oberacher-Velten, I; Segerer, H; Helbig, H

    2012-12-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the three leading causes of legal blindness in childhood in developed countries. Adequate screening is one of the most important steps towards successful treatment. During the last decades, international and national guidelines for ROP screening have been continually updated. These guidelines correspond to progress in neonatal care and to a better understanding of the relationship between different neonatal parameters and the risk of developing ROP. The present article surveys ROP classification, the current national and international guidelines and new aspects of ROP screening. PMID:23212355

  17. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  18. Premature discontinuation of contraception in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bracher, M; Santow, G

    1992-01-01

    Life-history data from a nationally representative survey of Australian women were used to examine discontinuation of contraceptive methods because of accidental pregnancy, side effects or dissatisfaction. The pill was the most successfully used method, with a first-year discontinuation rate of 10% for all three reasons. Side effects dominated the reasons for the premature discontinuation of both the pill and the IUD, while the reasons for discontinuing the condom stemmed equally from pregnancy and dissatisfaction with the method. Discontinuation of the diaphragm resulted largely from accidental pregnancy. Hazards models were used to identify the correlates of discontinuation of each method. Predictors of premature discontinuation reflect the availability of methods, physiological reactions to them and the social characteristics of their users. Discontinuation of the pill because of side effects or dissatisfaction was more likely among poorly educated women, non-Protestants and recent users, and less likely among teenagers. Discontinuation of the IUD was related entirely to physiological factors: Nulliparous women and users of unmedicated devices were at a greater risk than other women of accidental pregnancy, and nulliparous women were at greater risk of discontinuation associated with side effects. Nulliparous women were also more likely to discontinue the condom because of pregnancy, as were non-Protestants and the Australian-born. PMID:1612144

  19. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants born prematurely.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Glen P

    2014-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of infants born prematurely is necessary to determine neurodevelopmental outcomes, particularly with the expansion of interest from major disabilities to high prevalence/low severity dysfunctions. Models of pathogenesis include changes due to developmental disruptions and to injury, the magnitude and type of change influenced by the infant's age, and central nervous system recovery and reorganization. Alterations in neurogenesis, migration, myelination, cell death, and synaptogenesis occur even in the absence of insult. Despite increased knowledge regarding these processes, the functional significance of brain abnormalities is unclear. Because of methodologic problems in follow-up studies, it is difficult to characterize outcome definitively. Nonetheless, an acceptable degree of agreement across studies is found with regard to specific neurodevelopmental outcomes: motor/neurologic function, visuomotor integrative skills, IQ, academic achievement, language, executive function, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder/behavioral issues. In general, children born prematurely have more problems in these areas than do their normal birth weight counterparts. Suggestions for improved analyses and clarification of outcomes include use of cluster analysis, structural equation modeling, growth curve analysis, developmental epidemiologic approaches, and better control of background variables using risk indexes and factor scores. Better assessment techniques measuring functions documented to be at higher risk of problems are discussed. PMID:25007063

  20. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used “premature ovarian failure” which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI. PMID:26903753

  1. The Neurovascular Retina in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Anne B.; Hansen, Ronald M.; Moskowitz, Anne; Akula, James D.

    2009-01-01

    The continuing worldwide epidemic of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a leading cause of childhood visual impairment, strongly motivates further research into mechanisms of the disease. Although the hallmark of ROP is abnormal retinal vasculature, a growing body of evidence supports a critical role for the neural retina in the ROP disease process. The age of onset of ROP coincides with the rapid developmental increase in rod photoreceptor outer segment length and rhodopsin content of the retina with escalation of energy demands. Using a combination of non-invasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and image analysis procedures, the neural retina and its vasculature have been studied in prematurely born human subjects, both with and without ROP, and in rats that model the key vascular and neural parameters found in human ROP subjects. These data are compared to comprehensive numeric summaries of the neural and vascular features in normally developing human and rat retina. In rats, biochemical, anatomical, and molecular biological investigations are paired with the non-invasive assessments. ROP, even if mild, primarily and persistently alters the structure and function of photoreceptors. Post-receptor neurons and retinal vasculature, which are intimately related, are also affected by ROP; conspicuous neurovascular abnormalities disappear, but subtle structural anomalies and functional deficits may persist years after clinical ROP resolves. The data from human subjects and rat models identify photoreceptor and post-receptor targets for interventions that promise improved outcomes for children at risk for ROP. PMID:19563909

  2. Premature centromere division and other centromeric misbehavior

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, P.H.

    1993-12-31

    Premature centromere division was initially described for the X chromosome. In an otherwise typical metaphase cell, one chromosome showed no primary constriction and appeared to have no centromere. G-banding analysis indicated that this apparent acentric fragment was an entire X chromosome. Because its centromere was divided when the centromeres of all other chromosomes of the metaphase cell were entire, the condition was described as premature centromere division (PCD). The importance of PCD lies in its being a mechanism on non-disjunction, as was indicated by the strong association of X chromosome aneuploidy with PCD,X. We can infer that the affected chromosome failed to take part in the normal distribution of chromosomes at mitoses. The centromere, it its widest sense, is generally believed to have a role in the correct orientation of chromosomes at the metaphase plate and the distribution of chromatids to the spindle poles. The failure of these functions implies a major centromeric dysfunction. What do we know of this complex region of the chromosome that might help us understand its dysfunction?

  3. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI. PMID:26903753

  4. Available and future therapies for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Hellstrom, W J G

    2010-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE), the most common male sexual dysfunction, impacts the quality of life of not only the affected male but also his partner. Despite its prevalence, there are currently no United States Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies for PE. In 2004, the American Urological Association published treatment guidelines for PE that recommended the serotonergic antidepressants paroxetine, sertraline, clomipramine and fluoxetine, as well as topical lidocaine-prilocaine cream. None of these treatments were developed for PE, and all have limitations associated with their use. Therapies in development may have advantages over the currently available treatments. These include PSD-502, a metered-dose aerosol of lidocaine and prilocaine used as an on-demand local treatment, and dapoxetine, an on-demand short-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Together with a recent, evidence-based definition of PE, these novel therapies should improve sexual function and quality of life in men suffering from PE. PMID:20683504

  5. Premature and accelerated aging: HIV or HAART?

    PubMed

    Smith, Reuben L; de Boer, Richard; Brul, Stanley; Budovskaya, Yelena; van Spek, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly increased life expectancy of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV-patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for this difference invokes heavily on viral stimulus despite HAART efficiency in viral suppression. We propose here that the premature and accelerated aging of HIV-patients can also be caused by adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs, specifically those that affect the mitochondria. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) antiretroviral drug class for instance, is known to cause depletion of mitochondrial DNA via inhibition of the mitochondrial specific DNA polymerase-γ. Besides NRTIs, other antiretroviral drug classes such as protease inhibitors also cause severe mitochondrial damage by increasing oxidative stress and diminishing mitochondrial function. We also discuss important areas for future research and argue in favor of the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a novel model system for studying these effects. PMID:23372574

  6. [Pharmacological treatment of the premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Jurado López, A R

    2014-07-01

    Biomedical approach to premature ejaculation (PE) has permited a better phisiopatologycal knowledge and so the use of pharmacological agents for the treatment of this sexual dysfuncion. Most of the studies to evaluate the eficacy of these drugs were not carried at all the parameters which actually define PE: intravaginal ejaculatory latencie time (IELT) tested with watch, ejaculation control self perception cuantification (questionaries) and cuantification of generated consequences in patient and partner, if it existes. For this reason, it is difficult to analyse the scientific evidence and we use medicines with no approved indication for PE ("off label"). This text is a review of pharmacologycal agents with no approved indication (PDE type 5 inhibitors, α-blockers, tramadol, SSRI, clomipramine), and pharmacologycal agents developed to be used in the treatment of PE and having got indication in this sexual dysfunction or "on label" drugs (topic anesthesics, dapoxetine). PMID:25953037

  7. Premature and accelerated aging: HIV or HAART?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Reuben L.; de Boer, Richard; Brul, Stanley; Budovskaya, Yelena; van Spek, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly increased life expectancy of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV-patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for this difference invokes heavily on viral stimulus despite HAART efficiency in viral suppression. We propose here that the premature and accelerated aging of HIV-patients can also be caused by adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs, specifically those that affect the mitochondria. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) antiretroviral drug class for instance, is known to cause depletion of mitochondrial DNA via inhibition of the mitochondrial specific DNA polymerase-γ. Besides NRTIs, other antiretroviral drug classes such as protease inhibitors also cause severe mitochondrial damage by increasing oxidative stress and diminishing mitochondrial function. We also discuss important areas for future research and argue in favor of the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a novel model system for studying these effects. PMID:23372574

  8. Premature adrenarche: etiology, clinical findings, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Raimo; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Adrenarche means the morphological and functional change of the adrenal cortex leading to increasing production of adrenal androgen precursors (AAPs) in mid childhood, typically at around 5-8 years of age in humans. The AAPs dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate conjugate (DHEAS) are the best serum markers of adrenal androgen (AA) secretion and adrenarche. Normal ACTH secretion and action are needed for adrenarche, but additional inherent and exogenous factors regulate AA secretion. Inter-individual variation in the timing of adrenarche and serum concentrations of DHEA(S) in adolescence and adulthood are remarkable. Premature adrenarche (PA) is defined as the appearance of clinical signs of androgen action (pubic/axillary hair, adult type body odor, oily skin or hair, comedones, acne, accelerated statural growth) before the age of 8 years in girls or 9 years in boys associated with AAP concentrations high for the prepubertal chronological age. To accept the diagnosis of PA, central puberty, adrenocortical and gonadal sex hormone secreting tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and exogenous source of androgens need to be excluded. The individually variable peripheral conversion of circulating AAPs to biologically more active androgens (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone) and the androgen receptor activity in the target tissues are as important as the circulating AAP concentrations as determinants of androgen action. PA has gained much attention during the last decades, as it has been associated with small birth size, the metabolic and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and thus with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the known hormonal changes and their possible regulators in on-time and premature adrenarche, and the clinical features and possible later health problems associating with PA. PMID:24923732

  9. Extra tactile stimulation of the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Chamorro, I; Green, D; Knudtson, F

    1975-01-01

    To ascertain whether touch, in the form of extra tactile stimulation, would result in more rapid physical and social development and a greater degree of social development of the premature infant, 48 minutes of extra tactile stimulation, defines as a gentle, nonrhythmic stroking of the greatest possible area of skin surface of the infant's body by the nurse's hand, was given to eight experimental group premature infants daily for a minimum of two weeks while they were confined to an isolette. Six infants formed a control group. Regain of birth weight was used to assess physical development. Scores on the applicable portions of the Gesell Development Schedule and Bayley Scales of Infant Development and plasma cortisol levels were used to measure rate and degree of social development. Data were analyzed in terms of the total group and for pairs of infants matched for gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score. No significant difference was found between control and experimental groups in rate of physical development as measured by regain of birth weight. Analysis of the relationship between weight gain and gestational age, sex, and Apgar scores indicated that none was a substantial indicator of the rate at which infants gained weight while in the hospital. There was no significant difference in the degree of social development between experimental and control infants, but, as hypothesized, there was significant difference in rate of social development. Plasma cortisol levels as an indication of the infant's adrenocorticol development as evidenced by his ability to respond to stressful situations, and hence indirectly his social development, revealed no significant difference between the two groups. PMID:1041616

  10. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    PubMed

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p < 0.01) and also had lower fat loss during tube feeding (p < 0.01). Ultrasonic homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants. PMID:8229535

  11. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  12. Retinopathy of prematurity: An update on screening and management.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Ann L

    2016-03-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative disorder of the developing retinal blood vessels in preterm infants. The present practice point reviews new information regarding screening and management for retinopathy of prematurity, including the role of risk factors in screening, optimal scheduling for screening examinations, pain management, digital retinal photography and antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. PMID:27095887

  13. New Perspectives on Premature Infants and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joy V.

    2003-01-01

    More than 485,000 low-birth-weight, premature babies are born in the U.S. each year. The increase in preterm births since 1990 may be due to assisted pregnancies and births to older mothers. Although their survival rates are improving, many premature infants experience long-lasting developmental and behavioral problems. The author describes recent…

  14. Psychological and Educational Sequelae of Prematurity. Interim Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rosalyn; And Others

    The longitudinal study assessed the psychological and educational sequelae of premature birth through the early elementary school years, to determine whether children born prematurely constitute a high risk population in terms of regular school progress. Subjects included 78 children with birth weights of 2500 grams or less, 78 children of normal…

  15. Tetra-amelia and splenogonadal fusion in Roberts syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ravel, T.J.L. de; Seftel, M.D.; Wright, C.A.

    1997-01-20

    Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome comprises limb deficiencies of variable severity, facial clefts, and other anomalies. Tetra-amelia may also be associated with facial clefts and similar anomalies. We report on a female infant with severe tetra-amelia, micrognathia, cleft palate, splenogonadal fusion, and premature centromere separation. We propose that this represents the severe expression of the Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Effects of tiludronate on bone mass, structure, and turnover at the epiphyseal, primary, and secondary spongiosa in the proximal tibia of growing rats after sciatic neurectomy.

    PubMed

    Murakami, H; Nakamura, T; Tsurukami, H; Abe, M; Barbier, A; Suzuki, K

    1994-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of tiludronate on the mass, structure, and turnover of cancellous bone regions in immobilized rat tibiae, we performed a 4 week dosing experiment. The right hindlimbs of 84 Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old) wee neurectomized or sham operated. Animals were assigned to seven groups (n = 12 each); group 1 was sham operated, and groups 2-7 were neurectomized. Groups 1 and 2 were given vehicle only (distilled water), and groups 3, 4, and 5 were given tiludronate orally at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day, respectively, throughout the experimental period. Group 6 was given 100 mg/kg BW/day of the agent for the first 2 weeks only, and group 7 received vehicle only for the first 2 weeks and then 100 mg/kg BW/day of the agent for the last 2 weeks. After tetracycline labeling was performed, the right tibiae were removed from the animals and processed to yield undecalcified sections. Histomorphometry was performed in the epiphyseal, primary, and secondary spongiosa of the proximal tibia. In group 2, trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and trabecular number (Tb.N) were significantly decreased in the primary and secondary spongiosae, but this did not occur in the epiphyseal spongiosa. Osteoid surface (OS/BS) was decreased and osteoclast surface (Oc.S/BS) was increased in the secondary spongiosa. Tiludronate increased BV/TV and Tb.N in the primary spongiosa by reducing the values for the parameters of osteoclast surface (Oc.S/BS) and osteoclast number (Oc.N/BS). Osteoid surface in this region was not decreased by the agent. In groups 4 and 5, tiludronate prevented bone loss in the secondary spongiosa by reducing both OS/BS and Oc.S/BS. In group 6, BV/TV in the primary spongiosa was maintained at the level of group 1, but Oc.S/BS and Oc.N/BS were elevated. In the secondary spongiosa, bone mass was preserved and the reduction in these parameters was maintained. In group 7, however, BV/TV was increased in the primary spongiosa as a result of a

  17. Association of maternal lithium exposure and premature delivery.

    PubMed

    Troyer, W A; Pereira, G R; Lannon, R A; Belik, J; Yoder, M C

    1993-01-01

    Lithium is widely used and the treatment of choice for patients with manic-depressive illness. For pregnant patients with manic-depressive illness, however, the use of lithium during the first trimester of pregnancy may present an increased risk for fetal maldevelopment. We have recently cared for several large-for-gestational-age, prematurely born infants whose mothers were treated with lithium throughout pregnancy. To determine whether maternal lithium use during pregnancy may predispose to the onset of premature labor and fetal macrosomia, we reviewed records from the International Register of Lithium Babies and from a cohort of manic-depressive pregnant women. More than one third (36%) of infants reported to the International Register were born prematurely, and 37% of the premature infants were large for gestational age; 15% of the term infants were born large for gestational age. In the cohort group, manic-depressive mothers who received lithium during pregnancy had a 2.5-fold higher incidence of premature births than manic-depressive pregnant patients who did not receive lithium treatment. The incidence of large-for-gestational-age births in lithium-treated women in the cohort was not different from that of the general population or from manic-depressive women not treated with lithium. In summary, an association between maternal lithium therapy and premature delivery is reported. We recommend that women receiving lithium therapy during pregnancy be closely monitored for the onset of premature labor. PMID:8515304

  18. A compound heterozygote of novel and recurrent DTDST mutations results in a novel intermediate phenotype of Desbuquois dysplasia, diastrophic dysplasia, and recessive form of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Atsushi; Nishimura, Gen; Futami, Toru; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Furuichi, Tatsuya; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2008-01-01

    Diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST) is required for synthesis of sulfated proteoglycans in cartilage, and its loss-of-function mutations result in recessively inherited chondrodysplasias. The 40 or so DTDST mutations reported to date cause a group of disorders termed the diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) group. The group ranges from the mildest recessive form of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (r-MED) through the most common DTD to perinatally lethal atelosteogenesis type II and achondrogenesis 1B. Furthermore, the relationship between DTDST mutations, their sulfate transport function, and disease phenotypes has been described. Here we report a girl with DTDST mutations: a compound heterozygote of a novel p.T266I mutation and a recurrent p.DeltaV340 mutation commonly found in severe phenotypes of the DTD group. In infancy, the girl presented with skeletal manifestations reminiscent of Desbuquois dysplasia, another recessively inherited chondrodysplasia, the mutations of which have never been identified. Her phenotype evolved with age into an intermediate phenotype between r-MED and DTD. Considering her clinical phenotypes and known phenotypes of p.DeltaV340, p.T266I was predicted to be responsible for mild phenotypes of the DTD group. Our results further extend the phenotypic spectrum of DTDST mutations, adding Desbuquois dysplasia to the list of differential diagnosis of the DTD group. PMID:18553123

  19. Influence of metopic suture fusion associated with sagittal synostosis.

    PubMed

    Domeshek, Leahthan F; Das, Rajesh R; Van Aalst, John A; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Marcus, Jeffrey R

    2011-01-01

    Some patients with sagittal synostosis present with a fused metopic suture. We hypothesize that premature metopic suture fusion consistently and identifiably alters form associated with sagittal synostosis. We previously validated three-dimensional vector analysis as a tool for the study of cranial morphology and used it herein to distinguish between dysmorphologies of isolated sagittal synostosis (ISS) and combined sagittal-metopic synostosis (CSM). Preoperative computed tomographic scans for patients with ISS and CSM were compared with matched normative counterparts. Premature metopic suture fusion was defined by established radiographic criteria. Color-coded point clouds were created for each scan, with color gradient based on patient deviation from normal across the dysmorphic skull. Standard deviation data were evaluated in 7 cranial regions and compared between ISS and CSM. Mean ISS and CSM point clouds were evaluated. Using three-dimensional vector analysis, standard anthropometric data/indices were determined and compared between the 2 groups. Differences in ISS and CSM regional deviations and index measurements were not statistically significant. Mean ISS and CSM representations depicted similar overall morphology. Using accepted criteria for identification of metopic synostosis in CSM, only subtle differences appear between the 2 populations on average. Expected morphologic changes associated with metopic synostosis are present in only a small number of patients with CSM, arguing against our hypothesis, and calling into question the criteria used to identify premature metopic suture fusion. Normal metopic suture fusion occurs for a continuum of time. Our findings suggest that the normal continuum may begin earlier than the literature suggests. In the setting of sagittal synostosis, the influence of metopic suture fusion and treatment is best determined by individual morphologic analysis. PMID:21187774

  20. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Yu, Zheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals. Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction. Among them, normal signal coupling is the strongest, followed by that of premature ventricular contractions, and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest. The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct. Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data, can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency.

  1. Premature Saturation in Backpropagation Networks: Mechanism and Necessary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Reifman, Jaques; Vitela, Javier E.

    1997-06-01

    The mechanism that gives rise to the phenomenon of premature saturation of the output units of feedforward multilayer neural networks during training with the standard backpropagation algorithm is described. The entire process of premature saturation is characterized by three distinct stages, and it is concluded that the momentum term plays the leading role in the occurrence of the phenomenon. The necessary conditions for the occurrence of premature saturation are presented, and a method is proposed, based on these conditions, that eliminates the occurrence of the phenomenon. The validity of the conditions and the proposed method are illustrated through simulation results. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. PMID:12662866

  2. Preventing the premature death of relationship marketing.

    PubMed

    Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G

    1998-01-01

    Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track. PMID:10176918

  3. Telemedicine for Retinopathy of Prematurity Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Grace M.; Williams, Steven L.; Starren, Justin; Flynn, John T.; Chiang, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder affecting low birth weight infants. Although timely diagnosis and treatment can significantly reduce the risk of severe complications, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Limitations of current disease management strategies include extensive travel and logistical coordination requirements for ophthalmologists and neonatologists, decreasing availability of adequately-trained ophthalmologists at the point of care, variability in how retinal findings are diagnosed and documented, and a growing need for ROP care worldwide. Store-and-forward telemedicine is an emerging technology by which medical data are captured for subsequent interpretation by a remote expert. This has potential to improve accessibility, quality, and cost of ROP management. In this paper, we summarize the current evaluation data on applications of telemedicine for ROP, particularly involving the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of remote image interpretation by experts. We also address challenges such as the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine, and highlight potential barriers to implementation of these systems. Understanding these principles is essential to determine future directions in research and development of telemedicine systems for ROP, as well as for other ophthalmic diseases. PMID:19665742

  4. Update on treatments for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Hellstrom, W J G

    2011-01-01

    Current and upcoming treatment options for premature ejaculation (PE) are of global clinical interest. In 2008, the International Society for Sexual Medicine published an evidence-based definition for PE. While there are no US Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies for PE, the American Urological Association 2004 guidelines state the serotonergic antidepressants paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine and clomipramine and the topical lidocaine-prilocaine cream are effective treatment options. However, there are limitations associated with their use, which may be overcome by PE-specific therapies currently in development. Two agents that are in advanced stages of clinical development include: (i) dapoxetine, an on-demand short-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and (ii) PSD502, a metered-dose aerosol containing lidocaine and prilocaine, also for on-demand treatment. Another on-demand agent in development is tramadol, a weak opioid that is currently approved for treating pain. Coupled with efficient diagnosis, it is hoped that these newer agents will improve the quality of life for patients who suffer from PE. PMID:21155940

  5. Features of premature ejaculation in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, K; Yavari-kia, P; Ahmadi-Asrbadr, Y; Nematzadeh-Pakdel, A; Alikhah, H

    2010-09-15

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common form of sexual dysfunction and is one of the causes of male factor infertility. The aim of this study was assay of frequency and features of PE in a group of infertile men. This cross-sectional study was carried out since December 2006 to January 2008 on a sequential sample of 300 male patients complaining of infertility referring to the only infertility research center of Tabriz al-Zahra hospital. Data were collected by a designed questionnaire in which there were questions about age, age of marriage, history of sexual transmitted disease, drug use, previous sexual contacts, systemic diseases, masturbation, erectile dysfunction and frequency of intercourse. The mean age of studied patients was 30.39 +/- 5.76 and 43% of patients had PE, that in 74.4% primary PE and in 25.6% secondary PE seen. The most common form of ejaculation latency time was about less than 1 min that was seen in 51.2% of patients with PE. Mean of masturbation times was 5.13 +/- 3.19 times per month, and there is significant relation between the age of patients and type of PE, (p = 0.001) and ejaculation latency time and type of PE (p = 0.035). The high frequency rate of PE in Iranian men with complaint of infertility and also relatively lower age of these patients reflects the necessity of attention and management of this imperative psycho-organic disorder. PMID:23350165

  6. Clomiphene Effects on Idiopathic Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Ketabchi, Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Premature ejaculation (PE) is the inability to delay ejaculation, occurring sooner than they or their partner would like during sexual activities. PE is a challenging problem that can affect sexual enjoyment and may harm relationships of couples and affect their quality of life. In idiopathic PE, several helpful techniques and medicines are recommended, but none of them has yielded satisfactory results. Objectives: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clomiphene as a selective estrogen receptor modulator on the treatment of idiopathic PE. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 178 married men with idiopathic PE defined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Third Revised Version (DSM-III-R) who referred to urology clinics over a 10-month period in 2012 were randomized into two groups, namely the study (clomiphene) and control (placebo) groups. They completed self-administered questionnaires that included intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), erectile dysfunction indexes, quality of life (QOL), sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, and medical illness. After 6 months of intervention, all data were compared with the baseline data and between the groups. Results: Within the 10-month study course, 126 patients (70.8%) completed this study. After intervention and comparison of the results between the two groups, IELT, sexual indexes, and QOL improved in the study group, but significant differences were observed only in the IELT and QOL findings. Conclusions: Clomiphene seems to be useful in the pharmacological treatment of PE compared to the placebo. PMID:26543830

  7. Dapoxetine. Premature ejaculation: not worth the risk.

    PubMed

    2010-02-01

    Time until ejaculation during sexual intercourse is highly variable. Some men and their partners find sex unsatisfactory because they feel ejaculation occurs too quickly. Psychobehavioural therapy is the first option. Dapoxetine, a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is the first drug to be authorised for use in premature ejaculation in some EU member states. Four double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trials in a total of 4414 men are available. At best, only one in three men and one in five women perceived at least a moderate improvement in sexual satisfaction through a specific effect of dapoxetine. A substantial placebo effect was observed in one-third of participants of both sexes. Dapoxetine exposes men to the numerous adverse effects of all serotonin reuptake inhibitors, some of which can be severe, such as self-harm, aggressive behaviour, and serotonin syndrome. Postural hypotension and syncope can also occur. Dapoxetine is strongly metabolised by the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP 3A4 and CYP 2D6, and thus carries a risk of numerous pharmacokinetic interactions. In practice, there is no justification for exposing men to potentially serious adverse effects for only a moderate symptomatic improvement in a poorly defined disorder. Behavioural approaches should remain the cornerstone of therapy. PMID:20455331

  8. Premature termination codons in modern human genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    The considerable range of genetic variation in human populations may partly reflect distinctive processes of adaptation to variable environmental conditions. However, the adaptive genomic signatures remain to be completely elucidated. This research explores candidate loci under selection at the population level by characterizing recently arisen premature termination codons (PTCs), some of which indicate a human knockout. From a total of 7595 participants from two population exome projects, 246 PTCs were found where natural selection has resulted in new alleles with a high frequency (from 1% to 96%) of derived alleles and various levels of population differentiation (FST = 0.00139–0.626). The PTC genes formed protein and regulatory networks limited to 15 biological processes or gene families, of which seven categories were previously unreported. PTC mutations have a strong tendency to be introduced into members of the same gene family, even during modern human evolution, although the exact nature of the selection is not fully known. The findings here suggest the ongoing evolutionary plasticity of modern humans at the genetic level and also partly provide insights into common human knockouts. PMID:26932450

  9. Premature termination codons in modern human genomes.

    PubMed

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    The considerable range of genetic variation in human populations may partly reflect distinctive processes of adaptation to variable environmental conditions. However, the adaptive genomic signatures remain to be completely elucidated. This research explores candidate loci under selection at the population level by characterizing recently arisen premature termination codons (PTCs), some of which indicate a human knockout. From a total of 7595 participants from two population exome projects, 246 PTCs were found where natural selection has resulted in new alleles with a high frequency (from 1% to 96%) of derived alleles and various levels of population differentiation (FST = 0.00139-0.626). The PTC genes formed protein and regulatory networks limited to 15 biological processes or gene families, of which seven categories were previously unreported. PTC mutations have a strong tendency to be introduced into members of the same gene family, even during modern human evolution, although the exact nature of the selection is not fully known. The findings here suggest the ongoing evolutionary plasticity of modern humans at the genetic level and also partly provide insights into common human knockouts. PMID:26932450

  10. Lung consequences in adults born prematurely.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Charlotte E; Bush, Andrew; Hurst, John R; Kotecha, Sailesh; McGarvey, Lorcan

    2015-12-01

    Although survival has improved significantly in recent years, prematurity remains a major cause of infant and childhood mortality and morbidity. Preterm births (<37 weeks of gestation) account for 8% of live births representing >50,000 live births each year in the UK. Preterm birth, irrespective of whether babies require neonatal intensive care, is associated with increased respiratory symptoms, partially reversible airflow obstruction and abnormal thoracic imaging in childhood and in young adulthood compared with those born at term. Having failed to reach their optimal peak lung function in early adulthood, there are as yet unsubstantiated concerns of accelerated lung function decline especially if exposed to noxious substances leading to chronic respiratory illness; even if the rate of decline in lung function is normal, the threshold for respiratory symptoms will be crossed early. Few adult respiratory physicians enquire about the neonatal period in their clinical practice. The management of these subjects in adulthood is largely evidence free. They are often labelled as asthmatic although the underlying mechanisms are likely to be very different. Smoking cessation, maintaining physical fitness, annual influenza immunisation and a general healthy lifestyle should be endorsed irrespective of any symptoms. There are a number of clinical and research priorities to maximise the quality of life and lung health in the longer term not least understanding the underlying mechanisms and optimising treatment, rather than extrapolating from other airway diseases. PMID:26607737

  11. Lung consequences in adults born prematurely.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Charlotte E; Bush, Andrew; Hurst, John R; Kotecha, Sailesh; McGarvey, Lorcan

    2015-06-01

    Although survival has improved significantly in recent years, prematurity remains a major cause of infant and childhood mortality and morbidity. Preterm births (<37 weeks of gestation) account for 8% of live births representing >50 000 live births each year in the UK. Preterm birth, irrespective of whether babies require neonatal intensive care, is associated with increased respiratory symptoms, partially reversible airflow obstruction and abnormal thoracic imaging in childhood and in young adulthood compared with those born at term. Having failed to reach their optimal peak lung function in early adulthood, there are as yet unsubstantiated concerns of accelerated lung function decline especially if exposed to noxious substances leading to chronic respiratory illness; even if the rate of decline in lung function is normal, the threshold for respiratory symptoms will be crossed early. Few adult respiratory physicians enquire about the neonatal period in their clinical practice. The management of these subjects in adulthood is largely evidence free. They are often labelled as asthmatic although the underlying mechanisms are likely to be very different. Smoking cessation, maintaining physical fitness, annual influenza immunisation and a general healthy lifestyle should be endorsed irrespective of any symptoms. There are a number of clinical and research priorities to maximise the quality of life and lung health in the longer term not least understanding the underlying mechanisms and optimising treatment, rather than extrapolating from other airway diseases. PMID:25825005

  12. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry. PMID:21628425

  13. Characterization of pre-mature nanocomposite crazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toepperwein, Gregory N.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2011-03-01

    Crazing is a unique mode of failure by which polymer strands are stretched into a periodic array of columns. It has been shown that these crazes follow cavitation under deformation. Inclusion of nanoparticles drastically alters the glass transition temperature and the globally measurable mechanical properties of these polymer glasses. However, limited literature exists to explain the behavior on the lengths scales of the heterogeneous domains within the glass in the context of nanocomposites. In this work, we investigate the nucleation and growth of voids that precede craze formation to elucidate the role these inclusions play in failure and further characterize the pre-mature craze itself. Extensive Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of highly entangled polymer nanocomposites allow for calculation of local densities, local elastic moduli, and local orientation of additives. We find that the site of void formation is inexorably linked to the local mechanical properties of polymer. This relationship is more evident upon the inclusion of reinforcing additives which induce a broader distribution of local moduli leading to the nucleation of more, smaller voids. Within the developing craze, larger additives resist incorporation, but those that do are subject to ordering.

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Karandikar, Smita S; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina occurring principally in new born preterm infants. It is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. With the increase in the survival of preterm babies, ROP has become the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness throughout the world. A simple screening test done within a few weeks after birth by an ophthalmologist can avoid this preventable blindness. Although screening guidelines and protocols are strictly followed in the developed nations, it lacks in developing economies like India and China, which have the highest number of preterm deliveries in the world. The burden of this blindness in these countries is set to increase tremendously in the future, if corrective steps are not taken immediately. ROP first emerged in 1940s and 1950s, when it was called retrolental fibroplasia. Several epidemics of this disease were and are still occurring in different regions of the world and since then a lot of research has been done on this disease. However, till date very few comprehensive review articles covering all the aspects of ROP are published. This review highlights the past, present and future strategies in managing this disease. It would help the pediatricians to update their current knowledge on ROP. PMID:26862500

  15. Dapoxetine and the treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Sangkum, Premsant; Badr, Rhamee; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2013-01-01

    Background Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual complaint. Off-label oral selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed for the treatment of PE. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI specifically designed for on-demand use. The objective of this communication is to summarize the clinical and physiological evidence regarding the role of the serotonergic pathway and specifically dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods A PubMed search was conducted on articles reporting data on dapoxetine for the treatment of PE. Articles describing the pathophysiology and treatment options for PE were additionally included for review. Results The etiology of PE is multi-factorial in nature. There are many treatment options for PE such as psychological/behavioral therapy, topical anesthetic agents, phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, and tramadol hydrochloride. SSRIs play a major role in PE treatment. Animal and clinical studies in addition to its pharmacokinetic document dapoxetine’s clinical efficacy and safety for on-demand treatment of PE. Conclusions Dapoxetine demonstrates clinical efficacy and a favorable side effect profile. Dapoxetine is currently the oral drug of choice for on-demand treatment of PE. PMID:26816743

  16. Effect of Interventions for Premature Ejaculation in the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Secondary Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Yi, Qing-Tong; Chen, Chu-Hong; Gong, Min

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of interventions for premature ejaculation (PE) in the management of patients with chronic prostatitis and secondary premature ejaculation. Methods Totally 90 patients diagnosed as chronic prostatitis with PE were randomly divided into control group (n=45) and interventional group (n=45). Control group received a conventional therapy consisted of oral administration of antibiotics,α-receptor blocker,and proprietary Chinese medicine for clearing away heat and promoting diuresis. Interventional group received a conventional therapy combined with treatment for ameliorating the PE symptom (oral dapoxetine on-demand and ejaculation control exercise).National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation (CIPE)-5 questionnaires,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were applied for evaluating the treatment outcomes. Results Follow-up was accomplished in 35 and 38 patients in the control and interventional group.The CIPE-5 score,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were significantly improved in both two groups but more significantly in interventional group (all P<0.05). The NIH-CPSI pain,urination,and quality of life subscores and total score were improved significantly in both two groups after treatment,but the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores had been improved more significantly in the interventional group (all P<0.05). The variation of NIH-CPSI was negatively correlated with that of CIPE-5 in both two groups (r=-0.362,P=0.016;r=-0.330,P=0.021). Conclusions For CP with secondary PE patients,the interventions for PE can not only improve the quality of sexual life but also help improve the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores. PE should be routinely screened and treated during the management of CP.p. PMID:27594150

  17. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  18. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  19. Premature Craniosynostosis: A Complication of Thyroid Replacement Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfold, James L.; Simpson, Donald A.

    1975-01-01

    Presented are case studies of 3 children, infancy to 9-years-old, whose premature skull ossification (craniosynostosis) is traced to iatrogenic hyperthyroidism from the administration of excessive amounts of thyroid hormone. (CL)

  20. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  1. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia in a Premature Neonate Mimicking Neonatal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Luen; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Shu-Jen; Hung, Giun-Yi; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Soong, Wen-Jue

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare hematologic malignancy in children. Its presentations include anemia, thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, skin rash, marked hepatomegaly, and/or splenomegaly. Fever and respiratory involvement are common. Here, we report a case of a premature neonate with initial symptoms of respiratory distress. She gradually developed clinical manifestations of JMML that mimicked neonatal sepsis. Three weeks after birth, JMML was diagnosed. This is the first reported case of JMML presenting in a premature infant in Taiwan. PMID:24269860

  2. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yue; Li, Juanjuan; Shan, Guang; Qian, Huijun; Wang, Tao; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jun; Liu, Luhao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male sexual dysfunction. Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent concerning the risk for depression associated with PE. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between between depression and risk of PE. Data sources: We conducted a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from these databases’ inception through June 2014 for observational epidemiological studies examining the association between depression on risk of PE. Study eligibility criteria: Studies were selected if they reported the risk estimates for PE associated with depression. Participants: patients>18 years of age suffering from PE. Interventions: a history of depressive disorder. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: These odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random or fixed effects model and were tested for heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was employed to explore heterogeneity. Results: Eight trials involving 18,035 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Depression were statistically significantly associated with the risk of PE (OR = 1.63, 95% CI:1.42–1.87). There was no evidence of between-study heterogeneity (P = 0.623, I2 = 0.0%). The association was similar when stratified by mean age, geographical area, study design, sample size, publication year, and controlling key confounders. Limitations: The severity of depression and PE could not be identified due to unavailable data of trials. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that depression is associated with a significantly increased risk of PE. In addition, more prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the association and identify the ideal treatment. Systematic review registration number: CRD42016041272 PMID:27583879

  3. Premature ejaculation: do we have effective therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R.; Trost, Landon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Methods A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. Results PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. Conclusions PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal

  4. Pharmacology for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, François; Clèment, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Male sexual response comprises four phases: excitement, including erection; plateau; ejaculation, usually accompanied by orgasm; and resolution. Ejaculation is a complex sexual response involving a sequential process consisting of two phases: emission and expulsion. Ejaculation, which is basically a spinal reflex, requires a tight coordination between sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic efferent pathways originating from different segments and area in the spinal cord and innervating pelvi-perineal anatomical structures. A major relaying and synchronizing role is played by a group of lumbar neurons described as the spinal generator of ejaculation. Excitatory and inhibitory influences from sensory genital and cerebral stimuli are integrated and processed in the spinal cord. Premature ejaculation (PE) can be defined by ≤1-min ejaculatory latency, an inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences. Because there is no physiological impairment in PE, any pharmacological agent with central or peripheral mechanism of action that is delaying the ejaculation is a drug candidate for the treatment of PE. Ejaculation is centrally mediated by a variety of neurotransmitter systems, involving especially serotonin and serotonergic pathways but also dopaminergic and oxytocinergic systems. Pharmacological delay of ejaculation can be achieved either by inhibiting excitatory or reinforcing inhibitory pathways from the brain or the periphery to the spinal cord. PE can be treated with long-term use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants. Dapoxetine, a short-acting SSRI, is the first treatment registered for the on-demand treatment of PE. Anesthetics applied on the glans penis have the ability to lengthen the time to ejaculation. Targeting oxytocinergic, neurokinin-1, dopaminergic, and opioid receptors represent future avenues to delaying ejaculation. PMID:22679220

  5. Serum prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases.

    PubMed

    Çelik, H Tolga; Yurdakök, Murat; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yiğit, Şule

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis and to compare these levels with those of healthy premature newborns. Eighty premature infants (25-34 weeks gestational age) were enrolled. The patient group was composed of 38 premature babies with oxygen radical diseases, and the control group consisted of 42 healthy premature newborns. Complete blood count, serum iron and ferritin concentrations, iron-binding capacity (IBC), transferrin and prohepcidin levels were measured. The mean ferritin and prohepcidin levels were higher in the patient group than in the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.022, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum prohepcidin levels and iron parameters. We believe that this finding will contribute to a greater understanding of the etiopathogenesis of oxygen radical diseases. There is a need for future studies to explore the link between underlying inflammatory mechanisms and hepcidin in oxygen radical diseases. PMID:25363011

  6. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    PubMed Central

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks) and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR) and Confidence Intervals (CI) of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02), inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls) (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001), absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001), history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005). Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  7. A new formula for assessing skeletal age in growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Mangiulli, Tatiana; Merelli, Vera; Conforti, Federica; Velandia Palacio, Luz Andrea; Agostini, Susanna; Spinas, Enrico; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a specific formula for the purpose of assessing skeletal age in a sample of Italian growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna. A sample of 332 X-rays of left hand-wrist bones (130 boys and 202 girls), aged between 1 and 16 years, was analyzed retrospectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to study how sex affects the growth of the ratio Bo/Ca in the boys and girls groups. The regression model, describing age as a linear function of sex and the Bo/Ca ratio for the new Italian sample, yielded the following formula: Age = -1.7702 + 1.0088 g + 14.8166 (Bo/Ca). This model explained 83.5% of total variance (R(2) = 0.835). The median of the absolute values of residuals (observed age minus predicted age) was -0.38, with a quartile deviation of 2.01 and a standard error of estimate of 1.54. A second sample test of 204 Italian children (108 girls and 96 boys), aged between 1 and 16 years, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the specific regression model. A sample paired t-test was used to analyze the mean differences between the skeletal and chronological age. The mean error for girls is 0.00 and the estimated age is slightly underestimated in boys with a mean error of -0.30 years. The standard deviations are 0.70 years for girls and 0.78 years for boys. The obtained results indicate that there is a high relationship between estimated and chronological ages. PMID:26874435

  8. Retinopathy of prematurity in port harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adio, Adedayo O; Ugwu, Rosemary O; Nwokocha, Chidi G; Eneh, Augusta U

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. With many preterm babies now surviving as a result of improvement in neonatal care in Nigeria, the incidence of visual impairment/blindness as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may rise. We describe our findings after screening starts for the first time in a 15-year-old special care baby unit so as to establish the incidence and risk factors for developing ROP. Methods. A prospective study carried out at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) and Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1 and October 31, 2012. Fifty-three preterm babies (of 550 neonates admitted within the study period) delivered before 32 completed weeks and weighing less than 1500 g were included in the study following informed consent and the main outcome measure was the development of any stage of ROP. Results. Mean gestational age at birth was 28.98 ± 1.38 weeks. Mean birth weight was 1411 ± 128 g. Out of 550 babies admitted at SCBU, 87 of 100 preterms survived with 53 included in study. Twenty-five (47.2%) had different degrees of ROP with prevalence found to be 47.2%. Prevalence was higher (75%) in babies weighing <1300 g and those delivered before 30-week gestation (58%). Twenty-one (84%) had stage 1 no plus disease and 3 (12%) had stage 2 no plus disease. Only 1 (4%) had threshold disease in Zone 1. None had disease at stage 4 or 5 or AP-ROP. Receiving supplemental oxygen (χ (2) = 6.17; P = 0.01), presence of sepsis (χ (2) = 7.47; P = 0.006), multiple blood transfusions (χ (2) = 5.11; P = 0.02), and delivery by caesarian section (χ (2) = 4.22; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with development of ROP. There were no significant differences with gender, apneic spells, jaundice, or phototherapy. Conclusions and Relevance. All live infants with ROP were noted to regress spontaneously in this study. Though it may not be cost effective to acquire treatment facilities at the moment (the only child with

  9. Preclinical Models of Encephalopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Jantzie, Lauren L.; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2015-01-01

    Encephalopathy of prematurity (EoP) encompasses the central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities associated with injury from preterm birth. Although rapid progress is being made, limited understanding exists of how the cellular and molecular CNS injury from early birth manifests as the myriad of neurological deficits in children who are born preterm. More importantly, this lack of direct insight into the pathogenesis of these deficits hinders both our ability to diagnose those infants who are at risk in real-time and could potentially benefit from treatment, and our ability to develop more effective interventions. Current barriers to clarifying the pathophysiology, developmental trajectory, injury timing and evolution include preclinical animal models that only partially recapitulate the molecular, cellular, histological and functional abnormalities observed in the mature CNS following EoP. Inflammation from hypoxic-ischemic and/or infectious injury induced in utero in lower mammals, or actual prenatal delivery of more phylogenetically-advanced mammals, are likely to be the most clinically relevant EOP models, facilitating translation to benefit infants. Injury timing, type, severity and pathophysiology need to be optimized to address the specific hypothesis being tested. Functional assays of the mature animal following perinatal injury to mimic EoP should ideally test for the array of neurological deficits commonly observed in preterm infants including gait, seizure threshold, cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. Here, we review the merits of various preclinical models, identify gaps in knowledge that warrant further study and consider challenges that animal researchers may face in embarking on these studies. While no one model system is perfect, insights relevant to the clinical problem can be gained with interpretation of experimental results within the context of inherent limitations of the chosen model system. Collectively, optimal use of multiple models will

  10. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adio, Adedayo O.; Ugwu, Rosemary O.; Nwokocha, Chidi G.; Eneh, Augusta U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. With many preterm babies now surviving as a result of improvement in neonatal care in Nigeria, the incidence of visual impairment/blindness as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may rise. We describe our findings after screening starts for the first time in a 15-year-old special care baby unit so as to establish the incidence and risk factors for developing ROP. Methods. A prospective study carried out at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) and Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1 and October 31, 2012. Fifty-three preterm babies (of 550 neonates admitted within the study period) delivered before 32 completed weeks and weighing less than 1500 g were included in the study following informed consent and the main outcome measure was the development of any stage of ROP. Results. Mean gestational age at birth was 28.98 ± 1.38 weeks. Mean birth weight was 1411 ± 128 g. Out of 550 babies admitted at SCBU, 87 of 100 preterms survived with 53 included in study. Twenty-five (47.2%) had different degrees of ROP with prevalence found to be 47.2%. Prevalence was higher (75%) in babies weighing <1300 g and those delivered before 30-week gestation (58%). Twenty-one (84%) had stage 1 no plus disease and 3 (12%) had stage 2 no plus disease. Only 1 (4%) had threshold disease in Zone 1. None had disease at stage 4 or 5 or AP-ROP. Receiving supplemental oxygen (χ2 = 6.17; P = 0.01), presence of sepsis (χ2 = 7.47; P = 0.006), multiple blood transfusions (χ2 = 5.11; P = 0.02), and delivery by caesarian section (χ2 = 4.22; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with development of ROP. There were no significant differences with gender, apneic spells, jaundice, or phototherapy. Conclusions and Relevance. All live infants with ROP were noted to regress spontaneously in this study. Though it may not be cost effective to acquire treatment facilities at the moment (the only child with treatable disease

  11. Early repolarization as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

    PubMed

    Matoshvili, Z T; Petriashvili, Sh G; Archadze, A T; Azaladze, I G

    2015-02-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. Aim of this observational study was to compare number of premature ventricular beats in the different groups of patients with early repolarization. The result of this observational study shows that there are: 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in 41-74 year subgroup VS 19-40 year subgroup; 1,31 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in male subgroup VS female subgroup (But this difference is not statistically significant, because t=1,49, p=0,141); 2,85 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS ERP without CAD subgroup; 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS ERP without HF subgroup; 1,81 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS CAD without ERP subgroup; 1,58 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS HF without ERP subgroup; So, CAD+ERP is very arrhythmogenic condition, after this is HF+ERP, Then Age. This study shows that ERP independently increase number of PVB in different groups (CAD, HF). This is principally new and very important result. Also the number of patients is enough to make this conclusion. PMID:25802448

  12. Local Morphological Response of the Distal Femoral Articular–Epiphyseal Cartilage Complex of Young Foals to Surgical Stab Incision and Potential Relevance to Cartilage Injury and Repair in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Eli H.S.; Ekman, Stina; Carlson, Cathy S.; Dolvik, Nils I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Describe the local morphological response of the articular–epiphyseal cartilage complex to surgical stab incision in the distal femur of foals, with emphasis on the relationship between growth cartilage injury, enchondral ossification, and repair. Design: Nine foals were induced into general anesthesia at the age of 13 to 15 days. Four full-thickness stab incision defects were created in the cartilage on the lateral aspect of the lateral trochlear ridge of the left distal femur. Follow-up examination was carried out from 1 to 49 days postoperatively, including examination of intact bones, sawed slabs, and histological sections. Results: Incision defects filled with cells displaying fibroblast-, chondrocyte-, and osteoblast-like characteristics, potentially validating the rationale behind the drilling of stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans lesions in children. Incisions induced necrosis within the cartilage on the margins at all depths of the defects. Sharp dissection may therefore be contraindicated in cartilage repair in young individuals. Incisions caused a focal delay in enchondral ossification in 2 foals, apparently related to the orientation of the incision defect relative to the direction of ossification. Defects became progressively surrounded by subchondral bone, in which granulation tissue containing clasts and foci of osteoblast-like cells was observed. Continued enchondral ossification was therefore likely to result in healing of uncomplicated defects to morphologically normal bone. Conclusions: Epiphyseal growth cartilage injury had the potential to exert a negative effect on enchondral ossification. Enchondral ossification exerted a beneficial effect on repair. This relationship warrants consideration in future studies of cartilage injury and repair within the articular–epiphyseal cartilage complex of all species. PMID:26069670

  13. Forensic age estimation via 3-T magnetic resonance imaging of ossification of the proximal tibial and distal femoral epiphyses: Use of a T2-weighted fast spin-echo technique.

    PubMed

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Can, Ismail Ozgur; Aksoy, Sema; Kazimoglu, Cemal

    2016-03-01

    Radiation exposure during forensic age estimation is associated with ethical implications. It is important to prevent repetitive radiation exposure when conducting advanced ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of 3.0-T MRI in determining the degree of ossification of the distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses in a group of Turkish population. We retrospectively evaluated coronal T2-weighted and turbo spin-echo sequences taken upon MRI of 503 patients (305 males, 198 females; age 10-30 years) using a five-stage method. Intra- and interobserver variations were very low. (Intraobserver reliability was κ=0.919 for the distal femoral epiphysis and κ=0.961 for the proximal tibial epiphysis, and interobserver reliability was κ=0.836 for the distal femoral epiphysis and κ=0.885 for the proximal tibial epiphysis.) Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive relationship between age and the extent of ossification of the distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses (p<0.001). Comparison of male and female data revealed significant between-gender differences in the ages at first attainment of stages 2, 3, and 4 ossifications of the distal femoral epiphysis and stage 1 and 4 ossifications of the proximal tibial epiphysis (p<0.05). The earliest ages at which ossification of stages 3, 4, and 5 was evident in the distal femoral epiphysis were 14, 17, and 22 years in males and 13, 16, and 21 years in females, respectively. Proximal tibial epiphysis of stages 3, 4, and 5 ossification was first noted at ages 14, 17, and 18 years in males and 13, 15, and 16 years in females, respectively. MRI of the distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses is an alternative, noninvasive, and reliable technique to estimate age. PMID:26797254

  14. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  15. [Vitamin A level and diseases of premature infants].

    PubMed

    Tao, En-Fu; Yuan, Tian-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, and it is not only necessary for the normal growth and development of epithelial cells, but also plays a very important role in the normal growth and development of the retina, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and immune system. Studies have confirmed that the low level of vitamin A in premature infants at birth can last through the entire infancy. Recently, there have been particular concerns about the level of vitamin A and development of diseases in premature infants, with major focuses on the related mechanisms of action of vitamin A in respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and infections in premature infants, which still awaits further investigation.This paper summarizes and analyzes the current status of research on vitamin A level and diseases of premature infants at home and abroad. In addition, although enough evidence suggests that vitamin A supplementation is beneficial to preterm infants, evidence is still lacking for recommended methods for supplementation and dose of vitamin A, and further studies are needed. PMID:26903067

  16. Clinical assessment of bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sanjiv B

    2004-10-01

    The clinical assessment of bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in premature infants remains difficult in the absence of a gestational age-specific total or free (unbound) bilirubin level that predicts bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. Because the total serum bilirubin concentration is an unreliable predictor of bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in premature infants, alternative mean for predicting bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in jaundiced preterm newborns is needed. Over the last few years, we have witnessed substantial gain in our knowledge involving usefulness of bilirubin-binding variables (total bilirubin, free bilirubin, bilirubin:albumin molar ratio) for clinical assessment of bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in preterm infants. The knowledge gained has provided impetus for more clinical studies that are geared toward confirming the usefulness of free bilirubin as a predictor of bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity and identifying the gestational age-specific free bilirubin level that may increase the risk of bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in premature infants. The paper has attempted to provide an overview of bilirubin-induced auditory toxicity along with the existing clinical evidence in favor of free bilirubin assay and usefulness of auditory brainstem evoked response for evaluation of bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in premature infants. In addition, the author has described findings that suggest an association of apnea, a clinical manifestation, with acute bilirubin encephalopathy in premature infants. PMID:15686265

  17. Absence of premature senescence in Werner's syndrome keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Badr; Sheerin, Angela N; Jennert-Burston, Katrin; Bird, Joe L E; Massala, M V; Illsley, Matthew; James, S Elizabeth; Faragher, Richard G A

    2016-10-01

    Werner's syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by loss of function mutation in wrn and is a useful model of premature in vivo ageing. Cellular senescence is a plausible causal mechanism of mammalian ageing and, at the cellular level, WS fibroblasts show premature senescence resulting from a combination of telomeric attrition and replication fork stalling. Over 90% of WS fibroblast cultures achieve <20 population doublings (PD) in vitro compared to wild type human fibroblast cultures. It has been proposed that some cell types, capable of proliferation, will fail to show a premature senescence phenotype in response to wrn mutations. To test this hypothesis, human dermal keratinocytes (derived from both WS and wild type patients) were cultured long term. WS Keratinocytes showed a replicative lifespan in excess of 100 population doublings but maintained functional growth arrest mechanisms based on p16 and p53. The karyotype of the cells was superficially normal and the cultures retained markers characteristic of keratinocyte holoclones (stem cells) including p63 expression and telomerase activity. Accordingly we conclude that, in contrast to WS fibroblasts, WS keratinocytes do not demonstrate slow growth rates or features of premature senescence. These findings suggest that the epidermis is among the tissue types that do not display symptoms of premature ageing caused by loss of function of wrn. This is in support that Werner's syndrome is a segmental progeroid syndrome. PMID:27492502

  18. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; et al

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  19. Slow liner fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    {open_quotes}Slow{close_quotes} liner fusion ({approximately}10 ms compression time) implosions are nondestructive and make repetitive ({approximately} 1 Hz) pulsed liner fusion reactors possible. This paper summarizes a General Atomics physics-based fusion reactor study that showed slow liner feasibility, even with conservative open-line axial magnetic field confinement and Bohm radial transport.

  20. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  1. Cluster-impact fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Echenique, P.M.; Manson, J.R.; Ritchie, R.H. )

    1990-03-19

    We present a model for the cluster-impact-fusion experiments of Buehler, Friedlander, and Friedman, Calculated fusion rates as a function of bombarding energy for constant cluster size agree well with experiment. The dependence of the fusion rate on cluster size at fixed bombarding energy is explained qualitatively. The role of correlated, coherent collisions in enhanced energy loss by clusters is emphasized.

  2. Premature saturation in backpropagation networks: Mechanism and necessary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vitela, J.E.; Reifman, J.

    1997-08-01

    The mechanism that gives rise to the phenomenon of premature saturation of the output units of feedforward multilayer neural networks during training with the standard backpropagation algorithm is described. The entire process of premature saturation is characterized by three distinct stages and it is concluded that the momentum term plays the leading role in the occurrence of the phenomenon. The necessary conditions for the occurrence of premature saturation are presented and a new method is proposed, based on these conditions, that eliminates the occurrence of the phenomenon. Validity of the conditions and the proposed method are illustrated through simulation results. Three case studies are presented. The first two came from a training session for classification of three component failures in a nuclear power plant. The last case, comes from a training session for classification of welded fuel elements.

  3. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    PubMed

    Khalessi, Nasrin; Farahani, Zahra; Shariat, Mamak; Rezaeizadeh, Golnaz

    2014-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34) weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH. PMID:25421841

  4. Detection and Automated Scoring of Dicentric Chromosomes in Nonstimulated Lymphocyte Prematurely Condensed Chromosomes After Telomere and Centromere Staining

    SciTech Connect

    M'kacher, Radhia; El Maalouf, Elie; Terzoudi, Georgia; Ricoul, Michelle; Heidingsfelder, Leonhard; Karachristou, Ionna; Laplagne, Eric; Hempel, William M.; Colicchio, Bruno; Dieterlen, Alain; Pantelias, Gabriel; Sabatier, Laure

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To combine telomere and centromere (TC) staining of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) fusions to identify dicentrics, centric rings, and acentric chromosomes, making possible the realization of a dose–response curve and automation of the process. Methods and Materials: Blood samples from healthy donors were exposed to {sup 60}Co irradiation at varying doses up to 8 Gy, followed by a repair period of 8 hours. Premature chromosome condensation fusions were carried out, and TC staining using peptide nucleic acid probes was performed. Chromosomal aberration (CA) scoring was carried out manually and automatically using PCC-TCScore software, developed in our laboratory. Results: We successfully optimized the hybridization conditions and image capture parameters, to increase the sensitivity and effectiveness of CA scoring. Dicentrics, centric rings, and acentric chromosomes were rapidly and accurately detected, leading to a linear-quadratic dose–response curve by manual scoring at up to 8 Gy. Using PCC-TCScore software for automatic scoring, we were able to detect 95% of dicentrics and centric rings. Conclusion: The introduction of TC staining to the PCC fusion technique has made possible the rapid scoring of unstable CAs, including dicentrics, with a level of accuracy and ease not previously possible. This new approach can be used for biological dosimetry in radiation emergency medicine, where the rapid and accurate detection of dicentrics is a high priority using automated scoring. Because there is no culture time, this new approach can also be used for the follow-up of patients treated by genotoxic therapy, creating the possibility to perform the estimation of induced chromosomal aberrations immediately after the blood draw.

  5. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  6. The clinical and microbiological correlates of premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Karat, C; Madhivanan, P; Krupp, K; Poornima, S; Jayanthi, N V; Suguna, J S; Mathai, E

    2006-10-01

    Prematurity is the cause of 85% of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) is associated with 30-40% of preterm deliveries. A case-control study conducted between July 2002 and 2003 examined the correlates and risk factors for PROM in Mysore, India. WBCs in vaginal fluid, leucocytes in urine, UTI and infection with E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans and BV were significantly associated with PROM. BV, E. coli and WBCs in vaginal fluid were independent risk factors. Screening and treatment of BV and E. coli infection in pregnancy may reduce the risk of PROM. PMID:17185848

  7. Ethical dilemmas in extreme prematurity: recent answers; more questions.

    PubMed

    Simeoni, Umberto; Vendemmia, Mariella; Rizzotti, Alina; Gamerre, Marc

    2004-11-15

    Advances in perinatal care allow survival of more extremely premature infants, but the implementation and continuation of intensive care may itself constitute an ethical dilemma, given the limited chances of intact survival among the patients most at risk. This paper discusses several key issues raised by the options that are under general consideration with reference to births of infants at the threshold of viability, in particular: the implications of making a distinction between extreme prematurity and other general medical situations that may involve decisions on ending support; the concrete nature of the restrictions on therapy in such patients interactions and the need for feedback between parents, medical staff and society. PMID:15530714

  8. The Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis Among Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Matthew S.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2015-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Improved recognition of modifiable risk factors and antifungal prophylaxis have contributed to the recent decline in the incidence of this infection among infants. Invasive candidiasis typically occurs in the first six weeks of life and presents with non-specific signs of sepsis. Definitive diagnosis relies on growth of Candida in blood culture or cultures from other normally sterile sites, but this may identify fewer than half of cases. Improved diagnostics are needed to guide initiation of antifungal therapy in premature infants. PMID:25677999

  9. The fusion breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1982-10-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the U.S. fusion program and the U.S. nuclear energy program. There is wide agreement that many approaches will work and will produce fuel for five equal-sized LWRs, and some approach as many as 20 LWRs at electricity costs within 20% of those at today's price of uranium (30/lb of U3O8). The blankets designed to suppress fissioning, called symbiotes, fusion fuel factories, or just fusion breeders, will have safety characteristics more like pure fusion reactors and will support as many as 15 equal power LWRs. The blankets designed to maximize fast fission of fertile material will have safety characteristics more like fission reactors and will support 5 LWRs. This author strongly recommends development of the fission suppressed blanket type, a point of view not agreed upon by everyone. There is, however, wide agreement that, to meet the market price for uranium which would result in LWR electricity within 20% of today's cost with either blanket type, fusion components can cost severalfold more than would be allowed for pure fusion to meet the goal of making electricity alone at 20% over today's fission costs. Also widely agreed is that the critical-path-item for the fusion breeder is fusion development itself; however, development of fusion breeder specific items (blankets, fuel cycle) should be started now in order to have the fusion breeder by the time the rise in uranium prices forces other more costly choices.

  10. An unfolded protein response is the initial cellular response to the expression of mutant matrilin-3 in a mouse model of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Nundlall, Seema; Rajpar, M. Helen; Bell, Peter A.; Clowes, Christopher; Zeeff, Leo A. H.; Gardner, Benjamin; Thornton, David J.; Boot-Handford, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) can result from mutations in matrilin-3, a structural protein of the cartilage extracellular matrix. We have previously shown that in a mouse model of MED the tibia growth plates were normal at birth but developed a progressive dysplasia characterised by the intracellular retention of mutant matrilin-3 and abnormal chondrocyte morphology. By 3 weeks of age, mutant mice displayed a significant decrease in chondrocyte proliferation and dysregulated apoptosis. The aim of this current study was to identify the initial post-natal stages of the disease. We confirmed that the disease phenotype is seen in rib and xiphoid cartilage and, like tibia growth plate cartilage is characterised by the intracellular retention of mutant matrilin-3. Gene expression profiling showed a significant activation of classical unfolded protein response (UPR) genes in mutant chondrocytes at 5 days of age, which was still maintained by 21 days of age. Interestingly, we also noted the upregulation of arginine-rich, mutated in early stage of tumours (ARMET) and cysteine-rich with EGF-like domain protein 2 (CRELD2) are two genes that have only recently been implicated in the UPR. This endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and UPR did not lead to increased chondrocyte apoptosis in mutant cartilage by 5 days of age. In an attempt to alleviate ER stress, mutant mice were fed with a chemical chaperone, 4-sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB). SPB at the dosage used had no effect on chaperone expression at 5 days of age but modestly decreased levels of chaperone proteins at 3 weeks. However, this did not lead to increased secretion of mutant matrilin-3 and in the long term did not improve the disease phenotype. We performed similar studies with a mouse model of Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, but again this treatment did not improve the phenotype. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-010-0193-y) contains supplementary

  11. Dysregulation of mitochondrial quality control processes contribute to sarcopenia in a mouse model of premature aging.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anna-Maria; Adhihetty, Peter J; Wawrzyniak, Nicholas R; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Picca, Anna; Kujoth, Gregory C; Prolla, Tomas A; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations lead to decrements in mitochondrial function and accelerated rates of these mutations has been linked to skeletal muscle loss (sarcopenia). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mtDNA mutations on mitochondrial quality control processes in skeletal muscle from animals (young; 3-6 months and older; 8-15 months) expressing a proofreading-deficient version of mtDNA polymerase gamma (PolG). This progeroid aging model exhibits elevated mtDNA mutation rates, mitochondrial dysfunction, and a premature aging phenotype that includes sarcopenia. We found increased expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and its target proteins, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in PolG animals compared to wild-type (WT) (P<0.05). Muscle from older PolG animals displayed higher mitochondrial fission protein 1 (Fis1) concurrent with greater induction of autophagy, as indicated by changes in Atg5 and p62 protein content (P<0.05). Additionally, levels of the Tom22 import protein were higher in PolG animals when compared to WT (P<0.05). In contrast, muscle from normally-aged animals exhibited a distinctly different expression profile compared to PolG animals. Older WT animals appeared to have higher fusion (greater Mfn1/Mfn2, and lower Fis1) and lower autophagy (Beclin-1 and p62) compared to young WT suggesting that autophagy is impaired in aging muscle. In conclusion, muscle from mtDNA mutator mice display higher mitochondrial fission and autophagy levels that likely contribute to the sarcopenic phenotype observed in premature aging and this differs from the response observed in normally-aged muscle. PMID:23935986

  12. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  13. A Program of Stimulation for Infants Born Prematurely.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Kathryn

    Examined was the effect of low frequency auditory and kinesthetic stimulation on the sleep behavior of seven premature normal infants. Stimulation consisted of positioning in a rockerbed and exposure to a recorded heartbeat for 15 minutes an hour. Measured were Ss's sleep wakefulness, weight change, and gestational development. Analysis of the…

  14. Ablating Premature Ventricular Complexes: Justification, Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Noheria, Amit; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the underlying principles that allow for safe and effective ablation for premature ventricular complexes. Clinical scenarios that necessitate consideration for ablation, the underlying anatomy, and the unique consideration to maximize energy delivery without compromising safety are sequentially examined. PMID:26306129

  15. Digestion of Protein in Premature and Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; Underwood, Mark A; Zivkovic, Angela M; German, J Bruce

    2012-04-23

    Premature birth rates and premature infant morbidity remain discouragingly high. Improving nourishment for these infants is the key for accelerating their development and decreasing disease risk. Dietary protein is essential for growth and development of infants. Studies on protein nourishment for premature infants have focused on protein requirements for catch-up growth, nitrogen balance, and digestive protease concentrations and activities. However, little is known about the processes and products of protein digestion in the premature infant. This review briefly summarizes the protein requirements of term and preterm infants, and the protein content of milk from women delivering preterm and at term. An in-depth review is presented of the current knowledge of term and preterm infant dietary protein digestion, including human milk protease and anti-protease concentrations; neonatal intestinal pH, and enzyme activities and concentrations; and protein fermentation by intestinal bacteria. The advantages and disadvantages of incomplete protein digestion as well as factors that increase resistance to proteolysis of particular proteins are discussed. In order to better understand protein digestion in preterm and term infants, future studies should examine protein and peptide fragment products of digestion in saliva, gastric, intestinal and fecal samples, as well as the effects of the gut micro biome on protein degradation. The confluence of new mass spectrometry technology and new bioinformatics programs will now allow thorough identification of the array of peptides produced in the infant as they are digested. PMID:24744976

  16. SIGIRR Genetic Variants in Premature Infants With Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Menden, Heather; Helbling, Daniel; Li, Keguo; Gastonguay, Adam; Ramchandran, Ramani; Dimmock, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe form of bowel disease that develops in premature infants. Although animal data and human studies suggest that aberrant activation of the intestinal immune system contributes to NEC, the pathogenesis remains unclear. We hypothesized that inherited defects in the regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling can contribute to NEC susceptibility in premature infants. A forward genetic screen done in an infant with lethal NEC using exome sequencing identified a novel stop mutation (p.Y168X) and a rare missense variant (p.S80Y) in SIGIRR, a gene that inhibits intestinal Toll-like receptor signaling. Functional studies carried out in human embryonic kidney cells and intestinal epithelial cells demonstrated that SIGIRR inhibited inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide, a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria implicated in NEC. The genetic variants identified in the infant with NEC resulted in loss of SIGIRR function and exaggerated inflammation in response to lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, Sanger sequencing identified missense, stop, or splice region SIGIRR variants in 10 of 17 premature infants with stage II+ NEC. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first reports of a phenotype associated with SIGIRR in humans. Our data provide novel mechanistic insight into the probable causation of NEC and support additional investigation of the hypothesis that inherited defects in the regulation of innate immune signaling can contribute to NEC susceptibility in premature infants. PMID:25963006

  17. Caretaker Psychological Factors Predicting Premature Termination of Children's Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, William Mark; Thompson, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Caretakers' psychological factors are related to premature termination of counseling for their children (N=85). General hostility, anxiety, depression, and paranoia were studied. Descriptive statistics, correlations of variables, and a predictive discriminant analysis are reported. Effects of caretaker variables on early termination of treatment…

  18. Effect of Prematurity Labeling on Caregiver Perceptions of Newborns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia A.

    This study examined adult attitudes toward infants labeled premature. Fifty-two subjects, including infant specialists, experienced special educators, and preservice special educators, viewed a videotape of 9-month-old infants, each labeled full-term or preterm and male or female. A questionnaire administered after viewing the videotape rated each…

  19. Vestibular Stimulation and Development of the Small Premature Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mary V.

    This study was designed to explore the effects of vestibular stimulation on the developmental behavior, respiratory functioning, weight and length gains, and morbidity and mortality rates of premature infants. A total of 20 infants participated in this study in 4 groups of 5 infants each. Group A infants were placed in a motorized hammock within…

  20. Brain Maturity and Variation of Oxygen Extraction in Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    El-Dib, Mohamed; Aly, Safwat; Govindan, Rathinaswamy; Mohamed, Mohamed; du Plessis, Adre; Aly, Hany

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The ability of the premature brain to extract and use oxygen has not been studied adequately. This study aimed to determine factors that influence fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) of the brain in premature infants using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and pulse oximetry. Study Design We prospectively studied FTOE in very low birth weight (BW) infants (< 1,500 g and ≤ 34 weeks' gestation). Factors affecting FTOE and its variability were examined using bivariate and linear regression models. FTOE variability was measured on two scales: short scales (3-20 seconds) and long scales (20-150 seconds). Results We examined 147 simultaneous NIRS and pulse oximetry recordings that were collected from 72 premature infants (gestational age [GA] = 28 weeks and BW = 1,036 g). In regression models, average FTOE correlated negatively with hemoglobin (Hb) and increased significantly in patients with severe intraventricular hemorrhage/periventricular leukomalacia. Both FTOE short- and long-scale variabilities correlated negatively with GA and positively with postnatal age (PNA). Moreover, FTOE long-scale variability was significantly reduced in infants supported with invasive ventilation. Conclusions In premature infants, cerebral oxygen extraction increased with reduced Hb and severe brain injury. Variability in oxygen extraction showed differential changes with GA and PNAs and was affected by invasive ventilation. PMID:26906179

  1. [A premature neonate with a right pre-auricular swelling].

    PubMed

    Schene, Kiry M; Schiering, Irene A M; Mallant, Maarten P J H

    2015-01-01

    We present a 14-day-old premature born girl with a temperature of 37.8°C and a swelling and redness of the right parotid gland. Laboratory tests revealed a CRP of 79 mg/l and ultrasound examination confirmed a parotitis. Treatment with augmentin i.v. resolved the condition. PMID:26043253

  2. Premature Discontinuation in Adult Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Joshua K.; Greenberg, Roger P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Premature discontinuation from therapy is a widespread problem that impedes the delivery of otherwise effective psychological interventions. The most recent comprehensive review found an average dropout rate of 47% across 125 studies (Wierzbicki & Pekarik, 1993); however, given a number of changes in the field over the past 2 decades,…

  3. To Correct or Not to Correct: Age Adjustment for Prematurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Glen P.; And Others

    To evaluate whether conceptional or chronologic age should be used to determine scores in developmental follow-up studies, a study was made of 236 normal and 66 neurologically abnormal infants who were similar with respect to conceptional age but different with respect to degree of prematurity. Assessments of possible differences in cognitive and…

  4. Prematurity: A Major Health Problem. Matrix No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Gordon B.

    Premature birth (defined as delivery before 37 weeks gestation) and low birthweight (below 2,500 grams) are major health problems in the United States. Infants in these categories account for 75 per cent of neonatal deaths and 50 per cent of deaths in the first year of life. Survivors contribute disproportionately to the pool of handicapped…

  5. Evaluation of internet websites about retinopathy of prematurity patient education

    PubMed Central

    Martins, E N; Morse, L S

    2005-01-01

    Background/aims: The success of the treatment in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is mainly associated with timely diagnosis and appropriate management. Information dissemination is crucial for the outcome of ROP. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the information about ROP available for patients on the internet. Methods: Cross sectional study. In March 2004 the ROP information available on the internet was evaluated using two search engines (MetaCrawler and MSN) and four key terms (“retinopathy of prematurity,” “premature eye,” “premature retina,” and “ROP”). The quality of each website was evaluated using a score system. The sites were classified as academic, organisational, or commercial. Readability, general quality of the website (based on ownership, purpose, authorship, author qualification, attribution, interactivity, and currency), and quality of the content specific to ROP (definition, causes, epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, classification, treatment, and prognosis) were analysed. Results: Of 114 websites evaluated, 40 were included. 10 sites (25.0%) were academic, eight (20.0%) organisational, and 22 (55.0%) commercial. In the majority of the sites (62.5%) the ROP information was fair or poor. Conclusions: A large amount of information about ROP is available on the internet. However, most websites were considered incomplete. PMID:15834086

  6. Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

    1978-01-01

    Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)

  7. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  8. Clostridium septicum brain abscesses in a premature neonate.

    PubMed

    Sadarangani, Sapna P; Batdorf, Rachel; Buchhalter, Lillian C; Mrelashvili, Anna; Banerjee, Ritu; Henry, Nancy K; Huskins, W Charles; Boyce, Thomas G

    2014-05-01

    Brain abscesses in neonates are typically caused by Gram-negative organisms. There are no previously described cases caused by Clostridium septicum. We present a case of a premature male infant who developed recurrent episodes of suspected necrotizing enterocolitis followed by brain abscesses, cerebritis and ventriculitis caused by C. septicum. PMID:24220230

  9. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  10. Understanding Vascular Diseases: Lessons From Premature Aging Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yuichi; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Motozawa, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2016-05-01

    Early human mummies examined recently by computed tomography demonstrated a high prevalence of vascular calcification, a pathognomonic sign of atherosclerosis, which was correlated with estimated age at death. Early populations had little exposure to modern-day metabolic risk factors: these observations thus suggest that humans have an inherent age-dependent predisposition to atherosclerosis. Premature aging syndromes are extremely rare genetic disorders that exhibit clinical phenotypes resembling accelerated aging, including severe atherosclerosis, but those phenotypes are usually segmental. Controversy persists, therefore, regarding the extent to which the molecular mechanisms underlying premature aging syndromes overlap with those of physiological aging. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and Werner syndrome are well-characterized premature aging syndromes. HGPS is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the LMNA gene, which result in the accumulation of a mutant nuclear protein, called "progerin," at the nuclear rim. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase (WRN) lead to Werner syndrome. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into vascular cells to maintain vascular homeostasis in response to injury, are severely affected in these syndromes. Mechanistically, either aberrant expression of progerin or loss of WRN protein in MSCs alters heterochromatin structure, resulting in premature senescence and exhaustion of functional MSCs in premature aging syndromes. Surprisingly, vascular cells and MSCs in elderly healthy individuals have shown progerin expression and decreased expression levels of WRN, respectively. Studying these rare genetic disorders could thus provide valuable insights into age-related vascular diseases that occur in the general population. PMID:26948039

  11. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  12. Comparative Study of Nutritive Sucking in the Newborn (Premature and Full-Term)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortial, Christiane; Lezine, Irene

    1974-01-01

    Describes a graphic analysis of the disorganized sucking patterns in premature infants, and points out the psychoprophylactic importance of individually appropriate feeding procedures which should be used in the care of premature infants. (Author/CS)

  13. Acute epiphyseal osteomyelitis in children

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, D.M.; Blumhagen, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    Nine children over 20 months of age had acute osteomyelitis of the epiphysis of a long bone. The clinical features varied, but all of the patients had pain at the infected site and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The distal femur was involved in seven cases, the proximal tibian in two, and the proximal humerus in one. In two patients there was a contiguous metaphyseal lesion, while the other seven patients (eight sites) had lesions limited to the epiphysis. Bone scintigraphy clearly identified the infected sites in all seven patients in whom it was performed, and allowed an early diagnosis in four cases. Radiographs showed a lytic lesion of the epiphysis that corresponded to the scintigraphic findings in all cases. The epiphysis of the child should be recognized as another site of hematogenous osteomyelitis.

  14. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  15. Is retinopathy of prematurity decreasing?--comparison of two different periods in the same NICU.

    PubMed

    Satar, Mehmet; Ozlü, Ferda; Cekinmez, Eren K; Yapıcıoğlu-Yıldıztaş, Hacer; Narlı, Nejat; Erdem, Elif; Soylu, Merih

    2014-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a retinal vascular disorder seen frequently in very premature infants, and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity and mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, gestational age, and antenatal steroids in extremely low birth weight infants as well as to retrospectively analyze changes in the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity over two study periods. PMID:24911851

  16. Altered Amygdala Development and Fear Processing in Prematurely Born Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cismaru, Anca Liliana; Gui, Laura; Vasung, Lana; Lejeune, Fleur; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Truttmann, Anita; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Prematurely born children have a high risk of developmental and behavioral disabilities. Cerebral abnormalities at term age have been clearly linked with later behavior alterations, but existing studies did not focus on the amygdala. Moreover, studies of early amygdala development after premature birth in humans are scarce. Objective: To compare amygdala volumes in very preterm infants at term equivalent age (TEA) and term born infants, and to relate premature infants’ amygdala volumes with their performance on the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB) fear episode at 12 months. Participants: Eighty one infants born between 2008 and 2014 at the University Hospitals of Geneva and Lausanne, taking part in longitudinal and functional imaging studies, who had undergone a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at TEA enabling manual amygdala delineation. Outcomes: Amygdala volumes assessed by manual segmentation of MRI scans; volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) automatically segmented in 66 infants; scores for the Lab-TAB fear episode for 42 premature infants at 12 months. Results: Amygdala volumes were smaller in preterm infants at TEA than term infants (mean difference 138.03 mm3, p < 0.001), and overall right amygdala volumes were larger than left amygdala volumes (mean difference 36.88 mm3, p < 0.001). White matter volumes were significantly smaller (p < 0.001) and CSF volumes significantly larger (p < 0.001) in preterm than in term born infants, while cortical and subcortical gray matter volumes were not significantly different between groups. Amygdala volumes showed significant correlation with the intensity of the escape response to a fearsome toy (rs = 0.38, p = 0.013), and were larger in infants showing an escape response compared to the infants showing no escape response (mean difference 120.97 mm3, p = 0.005). Amygdala volumes were not significantly correlated with the intensity

  17. Contact Stress and Kinematic Analysis of All-Epiphyseal and Over-the-Top Pediatric Reconstruction Techniques for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Moira M.; Tucker, Scott; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Green, Daniel W.; Imhauser, Carl W.; Cordasco, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are an increasingly recognized problem in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, outcomes with conservative treatment are extremely poor. Furthermore, adult reconstruction techniques may be inappropriate to treat skeletally immature patients due to the risk of physeal complications. “Physeal-sparing” reconstruction techniques exist but their ability to restore knee stability and contact mechanics is not well understood. Purpose (1) To assess the ability of the all-epiphyseal (AE) and over-the-top (OT) reconstructions to restore knee kinematics; (2) to assess whether these reconstructions decrease the high posterior contact stresses seen with ACL deficiency; (3) to determine whether the AE or OT produce abnormal tibiofemoral contact stresses. Hypothesis The AE reconstruction will restore contact mechanics and kinematics similarly to that of the ACL intact knee. Methods Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were tested using a robotic manipulator. Tibiofemoral motions were recorded with the ACL intact, after sectioning the ACL, and after both reconstructions in each of the 10 specimens. The AE utilized an all-inside technique with tunnels exclusively within the epiphysis and fixed with suspensory cortical fixation devices. The OT had a central and vertical tibial tunnel with an over-the-top femur position and was fixed with staples and posts on both ends. Anterior stability was assessed with 134N anterior force at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90° of knee flexion. Rotational stability was assessed with combined 8 Nm and 4 Nm of abduction and internal rotation, respectively, at 5, 15, and 30° of knee flexion. Results Both reconstruction techniques offloaded the posterior aspect of the tibial plateau compared to the ACL deficient knee in response to both anterior loads and combined moments as demonstrated by reduced contact stresses in this region at all flexion angles. Compared to the ACL intact condition, both the AE

  18. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  19. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  20. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  1. Decomposition of incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sobotka, L.B.; Sarantities, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z.; Abenante, V.; Semkow, T.M.; Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction 701 MeV /sup 28/Si+/sup 100/Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. The momentum deficit of the residue per nonevaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per nucleon. The yields of the incomplete fusion channels correlate with the Q-value for projectile fragmentation rather than that for incomplete fusion. The backward angle multiplicities of light particles and heavy ions increase with momentum transfer, however, the heavy ion multiplicities also depend on the extent of the fragmentation of the incomplete fusion channel. These data indicate that at fixed linear momentum transfer, increased fragmentation of the unfused component is related to a reduced transferred angular momentum. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Interactions of mothers and nurses with premature infants.

    PubMed Central

    Minde, K.; Ford, L.; Celhoffer, L.; Boukydis, C.

    1975-01-01

    The initial attachment of three mothers to three premature infants weighing less than 1500 g was assessed by observation of the mother's behaviour during visits to her child in the hospital nursery. Interactions of mothers and infants were compared with those of nurses and infants. Premature infants, during a stay in hospital of approximately 7 weeks, have to adapt to up to 70 different nurses and receive generally little contact stimulation from them. Mothers change in their interactional behaviour over time but show persistent individual differences in amount of touching, smiling and talking to their infants. Follow-up investigation will determine if the maternal behaviour as demonstrated in the nursery is predictive of later parenting disorders. PMID:803124

  3. Scale invariance analysis of the premature ECG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Cheng, Keqiang

    2012-06-01

    The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and detrending moving average algorithm were introduced in detail and applied to the study of the multifractal characteristics of the normal signals, the atrial premature beat (APB) signals and the premature ventricular contraction (PVC) signals. By analyzing the generalized Hurst exponents, Renyi exponents and multifractal spectrum and comparing the relation of h∼h(q) for original signals and their shuffled time series, the result indicated that the three signals have multifractality and present long-range correlation in a certain range. According to the mean value of Δα, we found that the strength of the multifractality is varying. The PVC signals is the strongest, and the Normal signals is the weakest. It is useful for clinical practice of medicine to distinguish APB signals with PVC signals.

  4. Non-invasive Respiratory Support and Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Raghu, Rahul; Fisher, Marilyn; Cerone, Jennifer; Barry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe two premature infants who developed stage 3, zone I retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with plus disease in both eyes, despite limited exposure to supra-ambient oxygen. Both infants received noninvasive respiratory support for several weeks. Both cases are notable because the ROP was more posterior and aggressive than is typical for the gestational ages or birth weights. These cases are insufficient to make definitive conclusions regarding the factors that cause ROP. Further investigation is required to determine if there is an association between the use of non-invasive respiratory support, even in the absence of supra-ambient oxygen, and severe ROP development. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e47-e50.]. PMID:27537495

  5. [Touching the premature: the meaning for nurse's aides and technicians].

    PubMed

    Perencin, Carla Caniatto; Ribeiro, Circéa Amália

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the meaning of touching the premature, in the nursing care, for nursing aides and technicians. The Symbolic Interaction was used as theoretical reference and the Grounded Theory as methodological reference. Data were collected through observation and semi-structured interviews, carried out with three nursing aides and two technicians. Data analysis was carried out until leading to the identification of the conceptual category Enhancing the baby's welfare and care through touch, representing the meaning of touching the premature for the nursing aides and technicians, who consider touch as the basis of caring, recognising it as part of the daily care and performing the action of touching as a way to enhance the baby's welfare. PMID:22460480

  6. Interpretation of prematurely terminated air-pressurized slug tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Allen M.; Greene, Earl A.

    1995-01-01

    An air-pressurized slug test consists of applying a constant pressure to the column of air in a well, monitoring the declining water level, and then releasing the air pressure and monitoring the recovering water level. Such tests offer a means of estimating formation transmissivity and storativity without extensive downhole equipment and the associated safety risks. This paper analyzes data from prematurely terminated tests. A solution to the boundary-value problem for the declining and recovering water level during an air-pressurized slug test is developed for an arbitrary time-dependent air pressure applied to the well. Type curves are generated to estimate formation transmissivity and storativity from the recovering water level associated with prematurely, terminated tests. The application of the type curves is illustrated in a series of actual tests.

  7. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. PMID:25433561

  8. Tick-borne relapsing fever in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Brasseur, D

    1985-09-01

    Relapsing fever is caused by the Borrelia species of spirochetes. Louse-born epidemics of the disease may occur but the endemic disease is usually transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick (Ornithodorus). Transplacental infection was suggested more than 75 years ago (1) but has been rarely documented (2). We describe a case of neonatal relapsing fever where maternal infection was the probable cause of the premature delivery and infection in the infant. PMID:2415056

  9. Long latency auditory evoked potential in term and premature infants.

    PubMed

    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Garcia, Michele Vargas; da Silveira, Aron Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The research in long latency auditory evokes potentials (LLAEP) in newborns is recent because of the cortical structure maturation, but studies note that these potentials may be evidenced at this age and could be considered as indicators of cognitive development. Purpose To research the exogenous potentials in term and premature infants during their first month of life. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 25 newborns, 15 term and 10 premature infants. The infants with gestational age under 37 weeks were considered premature. To evaluate the cortical potentials, the infants remained in natural sleep. The LLAEPs were researched binaurally, through insertion earphones, with frequent /ba/ and rare /ga/ speech stimuli in the intensity of 80 dB HL (decibel hearing level). The frequent stimuli presented a total of 80% of the presentations, and the rare, 20%. The data were statistically analyzed. Results The average gestational age of the term infants was 38.9 weeks (± 1.3) and for the premature group, 33.9 weeks (± 1.6). It was possible to observe only the potentials P1 and N1 in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference for the latencies of the components P1 and N1 (p > 0.05) between the groups. Conclusion It was possible to observe the exogenous components P1 and N1 of the cortical potentials in both term and preterm newborns of no more than 1 month of age. However, there was no difference between the groups. PMID:25992057

  10. Reverse iontophoretic monitoring in premature neonates: feasibility and potential.

    PubMed

    Sekkat, N; Naik, A; Kalia, Y N; Glikfeld, P; Guy, R H

    2002-05-17

    Premature neonates represent a fragile patient population, often subjected to intensive clinical care and multiple drug therapy, which must be monitored carefully and continuously. The difficult and painful nature of repetitive blood sampling, particularly in this population, has provided considerable impetus for the development of noninvasive methods for monitoring blood analytes. Reverse iontophoresis, a relatively new technology already used for the transdermal monitoring of blood glucose levels in adults, may be particularly well-suited to exploit the unique properties of preterm neonatal skin. The underdevelopment of the premature infant's epidermis, and more specifically the stratum corneum (SC), results in an increased permeability to molecular transport. In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of reverse iontophoretic monitoring of two model drugs, caffeine and theophylline, which are often administered to premature neonates. To this purpose, tape-stripped porcine skin in vitro, which has been previously demonstrated to be an excellent model for premature neonatal skin, was employed. Reverse iontophoresis across intact membranes enabled a quantifiable extraction of both drugs predominantly at the cathode compartment. The mechanism of extraction of these essentially neutral drugs (caffeine and theophylline being uncharged at pH 7.4) was electroosmosis. However, when the SC was removed by progressive tape-stripping, the amounts of drugs extracted by reverse iontophoresis were equivalent to those obtained by passive diffusion. In these circumstances, therefore, the benefit and usefulness of the applied electric field had been lost. In summary, the absence of an at least partially functional skin barrier obviates, in the case of neutral molecules, the control (and directional transport) offered by iontophoresis; in contrast, for ionized species, where the principal iontophoretic transport mechanism is electromigration, the approach should be valid

  11. Duration of continuous positive airway pressure in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Bamat, Nicolas; Jensen, Erik A; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2016-06-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used for respiratory support in premature infants for more than 40 years and is now a cornerstone of modern neonatal care. Clinical research on CPAP has primarily focused on understanding which devices and pressure sources best implement this therapy. In contrast, less research has examined the optimal duration over which CPAP is administered. We review this aspect of CPAP therapy. PMID:26948885

  12. Measurements of developing teeth, and carpals and epiphyses of the ulna and radius for assessing new cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

    2015-08-01

    The minimum age of criminal responsibility is the youngest age at which children may be held liable for infringements of penal laws. New cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were determined by applying three different methods: measurement of open apices in tooth roots (T); the ratio between the total area of carpal bones and epiphyses of the ulna and radius (HW); and the combined method (THW). The sample consisted of 291 Italian children (152 boys, 139 girls), aged between 5 and 15 years. The sensitivity and specificity were established. As regards THW, specificity reached the maximum of 95% in boys aged 10, and the minimum of 87% in boys aged 11. The best score of the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was obtained in boys at 10 years with the THW method and the worst in girls of 12 with the HW method. PMID:26165659

  13. Prematurity and Programming Contribution of neonatal (NICU) interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kalhan, Satish C; Wilson-Costello, Dee

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary clinical practice for the care of the prematurely born babies has markedly improved their rates of survival so that most of these babies are expected to grow up to live a healthy functional life. Since the clinical follow up is of short duration (years), only limited data are available to relate non-communicable diseases in adult life to events and interventions in the neonatal period. The major events that could have a programming effect include (1) Intrauterine growth restriction (2) Interruption of pregnancy with change in redox and reactive oxygen species injury (3) Nutritional and pharmacological protocols for Clinical care (4) Nutritional care in the first two years resulting in accelerated weight gain. The available data are discussed in the context of perturbations in one carbon (methyl transfer) metabolism and its possible programming effects. Although direct evidence for genomic methylation is not available, clinical and experimental data on impact of redox and ROS, of low protein intake, excess methionine load and vitamin A, on methyl transfers are reviewed. The consequences of antenatal and postnatal administration of glucocorticoids are presented. Analysis of the correlates of insulin sensitivity at older age, suggests that premature birth is the major contributor, and is compounded by gain in weight during infancy. We speculate that premature interruption of pregnancy and neonatal interventions by effecting one carbon metabolism may cause programming effects on the immature baby. These can be additive to the effects of intrauterine environment (growth restriction) and are compounded by accelerated growth in early infancy. PMID:25054678

  14. Pathophysiology and mechanisms of severe retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) affects only premature infants, but as premature births increase in many areas of the world, ROP has become a leading cause of childhood blindness. Blindness can occur from aberrant developmental angiogenesis that leads to fibrovascular retinal detachment. To treat severe ROP, it is important to study normal developmental angiogenesis and the stresses that activate pathologic signaling events and aberrant angiogenesis in ROP. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling is important in both physiologic and pathologic developmental angiogenesis. Based on studies in animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), exogenous factors such as oxygen levels, oxidative stress, inflammation, and nutritional capacity have been linked to severe ROP through dysregulated signaling pathways involving hypoxia-inducible factors and angiogenic factors like VEGF, oxidative species, and neuroprotective growth factors to cause phases of ROP. This translational science review focuses on studies performed in animal models of OIR representative of human ROP and highlights several areas: mechanisms for aberrant growth of blood vessels into the vitreous rather than into the retina through over-activation of VEGF receptor 2 signaling, the importance of targeting different cells in the retina to inhibit aberrant angiogenesis and promote physiologic retinal vascular development, toxicity from broad and targeted inhibition of VEGF bioactivity, and the role of VEGF in neuroprotection in retinal development. Several future translational treatments are discussed, including considerations for targeted inhibition of VEGF signaling instead of broad intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment. PMID:25444347

  15. Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rhomberg, Walter; Schuster, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    Background. Calcifications of the costal cartilages occur, as a rule, not until the age of 30 years. The knowledge of the clinical significance of early and extensive calcifications is still incomplete. Materials and Methods. A search was made to find patients below the age of 30 years who showed distinct calcifications of their lower costal cartilages by viewing 360 random samples of intravenous pyelograms and abdominal plain films. The histories, and clinical and laboratory findings of these patients were analyzed. Results. Nineteen patients fulfilled the criteria of premature calcifications of costal cartilages (CCCs). The patients had in common that they were frequently referred to a hospital and were treated by several medical disciplines. Nevertheless many complaints of the patients remained unsolved. Premature CCCs were often associated with rare endocrine disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, and abnormal hematologic findings. Among the metabolic disorders there were 2 proven porphyrias and 7 patients with a suspected porphyria but with inconclusive laboratory findings. Conclusion. Premature CCCs are unlikely to be a normal variant in skeletal radiology. The findings in this small group of patients call for more intensive studies, especially in regard to the putative role of a porphyria. PMID:25587444

  16. Autosomal Translocation Patient Who Experienced Premature Menopause: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Yesol; Jeong, Do-Won; Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Jeon, Dong-Su; Kim, Jun-Mo

    2015-08-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a condition in which the ovarian functions of hormone production and oocyte development become impaired before the typical age for menopause. POF and early menopause are present in a broad spectrum of gonad dysgenesis, from a complete cessation of ovarian function to an intermittent follicle maturation failure. Actually POF has been identified as a genetic entity (especially chromosome X), but data on genetic factors of premature menopause are limited. Until now, several cases revealed that inactivation of X chromosomes has an effect on ages of premature menopause and females with balanced or unbalanced X-autosome translocations can have several reproductive problems. On the other hand, there have been a few data that was caused by autosome-autosome translocation can lead. Therefore we report a relevant case of POF with translocation between chromosomes 1 and 4. She had her first menstrual period at the age of 12, and after 7 years she stopped menstruation. Chromosomal analysis showed 46, XX, t (1;4) (p22.3;q31.3). While evaluating this rare case, we could review various causes (especially genetic factors) of POF. To remind clinicians about this disease, we report a case of POF caused by autosome-autosome translocation with a literature review. PMID:26356509

  17. Risks associated with premature ovarian failure in Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huidan; Chen, Haitao; Qin, Yingying; Shi, Zhuqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Bowen; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-04-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between demographic characteristics, past medical history, general lifestyle habits and susceptibility of premature ovarian failure (POF) in Han Chinese population was investigated. Five hundred and fifty-three patients with POF and 400 women with normal ovarian function were recruited. A questionnaire was designed to gather information from responders. Logistic regression was carried out to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and P-values. History of pelvic surgery, mumps, having relatives with menstrual abnormalities and exposure to chemical agents were significantly associated with increased risk of POF (OR 5.53 [2.15 to 14.23]; 3.26 [2.38 to 4.47]; 28.12 [8.84 to 89.46]; 4.47 [2.09 to 9.58]). Vegetarian diet, tea and mineral water consumption reduced the risk of POF (OR 0.27 [0.19 to 0.37]; 0.04 [0.03 to 0.07]; 0.63 [0.47 to 0.85], respectively). Heredity, pelvic surgery, mumps and exposure to chemical agents were identified as risk factors for POF, whereas vegetarian diet, tea consumption and mineral water drinking were protective. Therefore, genetic consultation could help those women whose relatives manifested an early or premature menopause to avoid the consequences of possible premature ovarian function cessation. Avoidance of exposure to endocrine disrupters and flavonoids intake should be considered. PMID:25682306

  18. Can we prevent premature luteinization in IVF cycles?

    PubMed

    Manno, Massimo; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    From 1991 there is a long-lasting discussion on a possible detrimental effect of premature increase of progesterone levels during ovarian stimulation in IVF. A recent meta-analysis of more than 60,000 cycles states that premature progesterone increase reduces pregnancy rates starting from P4 values of 0.8 ng/ml. The detrimental effect seems to be related to endometrial receptivity impairment according to lack of detrimental effect on oocytes competence in ovodonation. Embryo freezing and deferred embryo transfer on artificial endometrium permits to avoid this detrimental effect but the cycle has to be segmented in two phases. Moreover embryo freezing is an extra burden for IVF lab and could induce embryo damage. So the implementation of an effective pharmacological treatment to prevent premature luteinization could be very interesting for our daily ART practice. On the basis of so far available literature data and our preliminary proof of concept experience we suggest that metformin (1000-1500 mg daily) from first monitoring until ovulation triggering could be suitable for this purpose irrespective of ovarian reserve of the patient. PMID:24290658

  19. Interactive Behaviors of Ethnic Minority Mothers and their Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Landerman, Lawrence R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the interactive behaviors of American Indian mothers and their premature infants with those of African American mothers and their premature infants. Design Descriptive, comparative study. Setting Three neonatal intensive care units and two pediatric clinics in the southeast. Participants Seventy-seven mother-infant dyads: 17 American Indian mother-infant dyads and 60 African American mother-infant dyads. Methods Videotapes of mother-infant interactions and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were used to assess the interactions of the mothers and their premature infants at six months corrected age. Results American Indian mothers looked more, gestured more, and were more often the primary caregivers to their infants than the African American mothers. American Indian infants expressed more positive affect and gestured more to their mothers, whereas African American infants engaged in more non-negative vocalization toward their mothers. African American mothers scored higher on the HOME subscales of provision of appropriate play materials and parental involvement with the infant. American Indian mothers scored higher on the opportunities for variety in daily living subscale. Conclusion Although many of the interactive behaviors of American Indian and African American mother-infant dyads were similar, some differences did occur. Clinicians need to be aware of the cultural differences in mother-infant interactions. To optimize child developmental outcomes, nurses need to support mothers in their continuation or adoption of positive interactive behaviors. PMID:23682698

  20. Endovascular retrieval of a prematurely deployed covered stent

    PubMed Central

    Miley, Jefferson T; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques have been reported to address different endovascular device failures. We report the case of a premature deployment of a covered balloon mounted stent during endovascular repair of a post-traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). A 50-year-old male suffered a fall resulting in loss of consciousness and multiple facial fractures. Five weeks later, he developed decreased left visual acuity, proptosis, chemosis, limited eye movements and cranial/orbit bruit. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a direct left CCF and endovascular repair with a 5.0 mm × 19 mm covered stent was planned. Once in the lacerum segment, increased resistance was encountered and the stent was withdrawn resulting in premature deployment. A 3 mm × 9 mm balloon was advanced over an exchange length microwire and through the stent lumen. Once distal to the stent, the balloon was inflated and slowly pulled back in contact with the stent. All devices were successfully withdrawn as a unit. The use of a balloon to retrieve a prematurely deployed balloon mounted stent is a potential rescue option if leaving the stent in situ carries risks. PMID:26120384

  1. Science beyond boundary: are premature discoveries things of the past?

    PubMed

    Singh, Rama S

    2016-06-01

    Mendel's name more than of any other draws our attention to the personal side in terms of success and failure in science. Mendel lived 19 years after presenting his research findings and died without receiving any recognition for his work. Are premature discoveries things of the past, you may ask? I review the material basis of science in terms of science boundary and field accessibility and analyze the possibility of premature discoveries in different fields of science such as, for example, physics and biology. I conclude that science has reached a stage where progress is being made mostly by pushing the boundary of the known from inside than by leaping across boundaries. As more researchers become engaged in science, and as more publications become open access, on-line, and interactive, the probability of an important discovery remaining buried and going unrecognized would become exceedingly small. Of course, as examples from physics show, a new theory or an important idea can always lie low, unrecognized until it becomes re-discovered and popularized by other researchers. Thus, premature discoveries will become less likely but not forbidden. PMID:27228359

  2. Endocrinology and metabolism after premature pubarche in girls.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, L; Potau, N; De Zegher, F

    1999-12-01

    The prevalence of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinism and dyslipidaemia is increased in adolescent girls with a history of premature pubarche, defined as the appearance of pubic hair before the age of 8 years. The ovarian hyperandrogenism is characterized by clinical signs of androgen excess and an exaggerated ovarian 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist stimulation. The hyperinsulinism and dyslipidaemia are detectable before and during pubertal development, and they are commonly accompanied by low serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and sex hormone binding globulin, and by an increased prevalence of anovulation from late adolescence onwards. In girls, premature pubarche, hyperinsulinism, low serum levels of IGFBP-1, dyslipidaemia, anovulation and hyperandrogenism (or various combinations of these conditions) have been related to reduced fetal growth, indicating that these constellations or sequences may have a prenatal origin. These findings suggest that premature pubarche in girls should no longer be regarded as merely a normal variant of development, but rather as a childhood marker pointing to an increased risk of a polyendocrine-metabolic disorder of prenatal origin. PMID:10626549

  3. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Hekimoglu, Emre; Petricli, İkbal Seza; Karakaya, Jale; Ozcan, Beyza; Yucel, Husniye; Kavurt, Aysen Sumru; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) of premature infants and to document correlation of them with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight of infants. Using a hand-held applanation tonometer and a portable pachymeter, IOP and CCT of 170 premature infants were measured just before initial retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and re-measured 4 weeks after the first visit. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated during the first (r = 0.616, p < 0.001) and second (r = 0.564, p < 0.001) visits. The mean CCT at first and second visits were 568.1 ± 22.1 (527-628) and 561.6 ± 21.4 (520-619) µm, consecutively (p < 0.001). Gestational age, chronological age and birth weight of infants were found to be negatively correlated with CCT at first (r = -0.751, p < 0.001; r = -0.745, p < 0.001; r = -0.581, p < 0.001, consecutively) and second (r = -0.729, p < 0.001; r = -0.729, p < 0.001; r = -0.555, p < 0.001, consecutively) visits. The mean IOP at first and second visits were 14.1 ± 1.9 (11-19) and 13.7 ± 1.7 (11-18) mmHg, consecutively (p < 0.001). Gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight of infants were found to be negatively correlated with IOP at first (r = -0.724, p < 0.001; r = -0.715, p < 0.001; r = -0.558, p < 0.001, consecutively) and second (r = -0.704, p < 0.001; r = -0.703, p < 0.001; r = -0.518, p < 0.001, consecutively) visits. CCT and IOP of the premature infants with a smaller gestational age were found to be higher (p < 0.001 for both). Premature infants with smaller gestational age have higher CCT and IOP values when compared to older infants. These values tend to become lower 4 weeks after the first examination as infants become older. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated with each other and both were negatively correlated with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight during first and second visits. PMID:26286757

  4. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality

    PubMed Central

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ≤ 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The results

  5. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  6. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  7. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  8. Label fusion strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Nicolas; Duchesne, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Label fusion is used in medical image segmentation to combine several different labels of the same entity into a single discrete label, potentially more accurate, with respect to the exact, sought segmentation, than the best input element. Using simulated data, we compared three existing label fusion techniques-STAPLE, Voting, and Shape-Based Averaging (SBA)-and observed that none could be considered superior depending on the dissimilarity between the input elements. We thus developed an empirical, hybrid technique called SVS, which selects the most appropriate technique to apply based on this dissimilarity. We evaluated the label fusion strategies on two- and three-dimensional simulated data and showed that SVS is superior to any of the three existing methods examined. On real data, we used SVS to perform fusions of 10 segmentations of the hippocampus and amygdala in 78 subjects from the ICBM dataset. SVS selected SBA in almost all cases, which was the most appropriate method overall. PMID:22518113

  9. HIV-1 Fusion Assay

    PubMed Central

    Cavrois, Marielle; Neidleman, Jason; Greene, Warner C.

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 fusion assay measures all steps in the HIV-1 life cycle up to and including viral fusion. It relies on the incorporation of a β-lactamase Vpr (BlaM-Vpr) protein chimera into the virion and the subsequent transfer of this chimera into the target cell by fusion (Figure 1). The transfer is monitored by the enzymatic cleavage of CCF2, a fluorescent dye substrate of β-lactamase, loaded into the target cells. Cleavage of the β-lactam ring in CCF2 by β-lactamase changes the fluorescence emission spectrum of the dye from green (520 nm) to blue (447 nm). This change reflects virion fusion and can be detected by flow cytometry (Figure 2).

  10. Fusion power demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-09-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment.

  11. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  12. Progress toward fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1981-03-11

    This paper summarizes the basis for the present optimism in the magnetic fusion program, and describes some of the remaining tasks leading to a demonstration power reactor and the primary technologies necessary for that endeavor.

  13. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  14. Glossary of fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, M.O.

    1985-02-01

    The Glossary of Fusion Energy is an attempt to present a concise, yet comprehensive collection of terms that may be beneficial to scientists and laymen who are directly or tangentially concerned with this burgeoning energy enterprise. Included are definitions of terms in theoretical plasma physics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, and some related physics concepts. Also, short descriptions of some of the major thermonuclear experiments currently under way in the world today are included.

  15. Advances in fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    2000-12-01

    The US fusion technology program is an essential element in the development of the knowledge base for an attractive fusion power source. The technology program incorporates both near and long term R&D, contributes to material and engineering sciences as well as technology development, ranges from hardware production to theory and modeling, contributes significantly to spin-off applications, and performs global systems assessments and focused design studies.

  16. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  17. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2010-01-08

    ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  18. Dysbiosis Anticipating Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kathleen; Shaw, Alexander G.; Randell, Paul; Cox, Michael J.; McClure, Zoë E.; Li, Ming-Shi; Haddad, Munther; Langford, Paul R.; Cookson, William O. C. M.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Kroll, J. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating inflammatory bowel disease of premature infants speculatively associated with infection. Suspected NEC can be indistinguishable from sepsis, and in established cases an infant may die within hours of diagnosis. Present treatment is supportive. A means of presymptomatic diagnosis is urgently needed. We aimed to identify microbial signatures in the gastrointestinal microbiota preceding NEC diagnosis in premature infants. Methods. Fecal samples and clinical data were collected from a 2-year cohort of 369 premature neonates. Next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene regions was used to characterize the microbiota of prediagnosis fecal samples from 12 neonates with NEC, 8 with suspected NEC, and 44 controls. Logistic regression was used to determine clinical characteristics and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) discriminating cases from controls. Samples were cultured and isolates identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight. Clostridial isolates were typed and toxin genes detected. Results. A clostridial OTU was overabundant in prediagnosis samples from infants with established NEC (P = .006). Culture confirmed the presence of Clostridium perfringens type A. Fluorescent amplified fragment-length polymorphism typing established that no isolates were identical. Prediagnosis samples from NEC infants not carrying profuse C. perfringens revealed an overabundance of a Klebsiella OTU (P = .049). Prolonged continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy with supplemental oxygen was also associated with increased NEC risk. Conclusions. Two fecal microbiota signatures (Clostridium and Klebsiella OTUs) and need for prolonged CPAP oxygen signal increased risk of NEC in presymptomatic infants. These biomarkers will assist development of a screening tool to allow very early diagnosis of NEC. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01102738. PMID:25344536

  19. Stress induced premature senescence : a new culprit in ovarian tumorigenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Raghuram, Gorantla Venkata; Mishra, Pradyumna Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Stress induced premature senescence (SIPS) is a relative extension to the concept of exogenous cellular insult. Besides persistent double strand (ds) DNA breaks and increased β-galactosidase activity, biological significance of telomeric attrition in conjunction with senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has been highlighted in SIPS. To gain insight on the potential role of this unique phenomenon invoked upon environmental stress, we sequentially validated the molecular repercussions of this event in ovarian epithelial cells after exposure to methyl isocyanate, an elegant regulator of cellular biotransformation. Persistent accumulation of DNA damage response factors phospho-ATM/γ-H2AX, morphological changes with increased cell size and early yet incremental β-gal staining, imply the inception of premature senescence. Advent of SASP is attributed by prolonged secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines along with untimely but significant G1/S cell cycle arrest. Telomeric dysfunction associated with premature senescence is indicative of early loss of TRF2 (telomeric repeat binding factor 2) protein and resultant multiple translocations. Induction of senescence-associated heterochromatic foci formation showcases the chromatin alterations in form of trimethylated H3K9me3 in conjunction with H4 hypoacetylation and altered miRNA expression. Anchorage-independent neoplastic growth observed in treated cells reaffirms the oncogenic transformation following the exposure. Collectively, we infer the possible role of SIPS, as a central phenomenon, to perturbed genomic integrity in ovarian surface epithelium, orchestrated through SASP and chromatin level alterations, a hitherto unknown molecular paradigm. Although translational utility of SIPS as a biomarker for estimating ovarian cancer risk seems evident, further investigations will be imperative to provide a tangible way for its precise validation in clinical settings. PMID:25673532

  20. Accuracy of Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Janaillac, Marie; Labarinas, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background. In premature infants, maintaining blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) value within a narrow range is important to avoid cerebral lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a noninvasive transcutaneous method (TcpCO2), compared to blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Methods. Retrospective observational study in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed the correlation between blood pCO2 and transcutaneous values and the accuracy between the trends of blood pCO2 and TcpCO2 in all consecutive premature infants born at <33 weeks' gestational age. Results. 248 infants were included (median gestational age: 29 + 5 weeks and median birth weight: 1250 g), providing 1365 pairs of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values. Pearson's R correlation between these values was 0.58. The mean bias was −0.93 kPa with a 95% confidence limit of agreement of −4.05 to +2.16 kPa. Correlation between the trends of TcpCO2 and blood pCO2 values was good in only 39.6%. Conclusions. In premature infants, TcpCO2 was poorly correlated to blood pCO2, with a wide limit of agreement. Furthermore, concordance between trends was equally low. We warn about clinical decision-making on TcpCO2 alone when used as continuous monitoring. PMID:27375901

  1. Caffeine for apnea of prematurity: a neonatal success story.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, K; Bassler, D

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine, a methylxanthine and nonspecific inhibitor of adenosine receptors, is an example of a drug that has been in use for more than 40 years. It is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in neonatal medicine. However, until 2006, it had only a few relatively small and short-term studies supporting its use. It is thanks to the efforts of Barbara Schmidt and the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial Group that we now have high-quality and reliable data not only on short-term but also long-term outcomes of caffeine use for apnea of prematurity. CAP was an international, multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial designed to determine whether survival without neurodevelopmental disability at a corrected age of 18 months is improved if apnea of prematurity is managed without methylxanthines in infants at a high risk of apneic attacks. CAP was kept simple and pragmatic in order to allow for maximum generalizability and applicability. Infants with birth weights of 500-1,250 g were enrolled during the first 10 days of life if their clinicians considered them to be candidates for methylxanthine therapy. The most frequent indication for therapy reported in CAP was treatment of documented apnea, followed by the facilitation of the removal of an endotracheal tube. Only about 20% of the neonatologists in the trial started caffeine for the prevention of apnea and the findings of CAP cannot automatically be extrapolated to an exclusive prophylactic indication. However, recent data suggest that the administration of prophylactic methylxanthine by neonatologists is now common practice. PMID:24931325

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Three Surfactant Preparations in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Trembath, Andrea; Hornik, Christoph P.; Clark, Reese; Smith, P. Brian; Daniels, Julie; Laughon, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare effectiveness of three surfactant preparations (beractant, calfactant, and poractant alpha) in premature infants for preventing three outcomes: (1) air leak syndromes; (2) death; and (3) bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death (composite outcomes). Study design We conducted a comparative effectiveness study of premature infants admitted to 322 neonatal intensive care units in the U.S. from 2005–2010 who were treated with beractant, calfactant, or poractant alfa. We compared the incidence of air leak syndromes, death, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death, adjusting for gestational age, antenatal steroids, discharge year, and small-for-gestational-age status. Results 51,282 infants received surfactant; 40% received beractant, 30% calfactant, and 30% poractant alfa. Median birth weight was 1435 g (interquartile range 966–2065); median gestational age was 30 weeks (27–33). On adjusted analysis, we observed a similar risk of air leak syndromes (calfactant vs. beractant odds ratio [OR]=1.17 [95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.43]; calfactant vs. poractant OR=1.23 [0.98, 1.56]; beractant vs. poractant OR=1.06 [0.87, 1.29]), death (calfactant vs. beractant OR=1.14 [0.93, 1.39]; calfactant vs. poractant OR=0.98 [0.78, 1.23]; beractant vs. poractant OR=0.86 [0.72, 1.04]), and BPD or death (calfactant vs. beractant OR=1.08 [0.93, 1.26]; calfactant vs. poractant OR=1.19 [1.00, 1.41]; beractant vs. poractant OR=1.10 [0.96, 1.27]). Conclusions Beractant, calfactant, and poractant alfa demonstrated similar effectiveness in prevention of air leak syndromes, death, and BPD or death in premature infants when adjusted for site. Previously described differences in mortality between surfactants likely do not represent true differences in effectiveness but may relate to site variation in outcomes. PMID:23769501

  3. Premature Cardiac Contractions and Risk of Incident Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ofoma, Uchenna; He, Fan; Shaffer, Michele L.; Naccarelli, Gerard V.; Liao, Duanping

    2012-01-01

    Background The etiologies of ischemic stroke remain undetermined in 15% to 40% of patients. Apart from atrial fibrillation, other arrhythmias are less well-characterized as risk factors. Premature cardiac contractions are known to confer long-term cardiovascular risks, like myocardial infarction. Ischemic stroke as cardiovascular risk outcome remains a topic of interest. We examined the prospective relationships in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, to determine whether premature atrial (PAC) or ventricular (PVC) contractions are associated with increased risk for incident ischemic stroke. Methods and Results We analyzed 14 493 baseline stroke-free middle-aged individuals in the ARIC public-use data. The presence of PAC or PVC at baseline was assessed from 2-minute electrocardiogram. A physician-panel confirmed and classified all stroke cases. Average follow-up time was 13 years. Proportional hazards models assessed associations between premature contractions and incident stroke. PACs and PVCs were identified in 717 (4.9%) and 793 (5.5%) participants, respectively. In all, 509(3.5%) participants developed ischemic stroke. The hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) associated with PVC was 1.77 (1.30, 2.41), attenuated to 1.25 (0.91, 1.71) after adjusting for baseline stroke risk factors. The interaction between PVC and baseline hypertension was marginally significant (P=0.08). Among normotensives, having PVCs was associated with nearly 2-fold increase in the rate of incident ischemic stroke (HR 1.69; 95% CI 1.02, 2.78), adjusting for stroke risk factors. The adjusted risk of ischemic stroke associated with PACs was 1.30 (95% CI 0.92, 1.83). Conclusions Presence of PVCs may indicate an increased risk of ischemic stroke, especially in normotensives. This risk approximates risk of stroke from being black, male, or obese in normotensives from this cohort. PMID:23316293

  4. Outdoor air pollution, low birth weight, and prematurity.

    PubMed

    Bobak, M

    2000-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was monitored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), total suspended particles (TSP), and nitrous oxides (NO(x)) in each trimester of pregnancy were estimated as the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by all monitors in the district of birth of each infant. Odds ratios of low birth weight (< 2,500 g), prematurity (< 37 weeks of gestation), and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; < 10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age and sex) were estimated by robust logistic regression. The median (and 25th and 75th percentile) trimester exposures were 32 (18, 56) microg/m(3) for SO(2); 72 (55, 87) microg/m(3) for TSP; and 38 (23, 59) microg/m(3) for NO(x). Low birth weight (prevalence 5.2%) and prematurity (prevalence 4.8%) were associated with SO(2) and somewhat less strongly with TSP. IUGR was not associated with any pollutant. The effects on low birth weight and prematurity were marginally stronger for exposures in the first trimester, and were not attenuated at all by adjustment for socioeconomic factors or the month of birth. Adjusted odds ratios of low birth weight were 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.30] and 1.15 (CI, 1.07-1.24) for a 50 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2) and TSP, respectively, in the first trimester; adjusted odds ratios of prematurity were 1.27 (CI, 1.16-1.39) and 1.18 (CI, 1.05-1.31) for a 50 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2) and TSP, respectively, in the first trimester. Low gestational age accounted for the association between SO(2) and low birth weight. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:10656859

  5. Equine abortion and premature birth associated with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans infection.

    PubMed

    Bolin, David C; Donahue, James M; Vickers, Mary L; Giles, Ralph C; Harrison, Lenn; Jackson, Carney; Poonacha, K B; Roberts, John E; Sebastian, Manu M; Sells, Steve E; Tramontin, Robert; Williams, Neil M

    2004-07-01

    During the 2002 and 2003 foaling seasons, Cellulosimicrobium (Cellumonas) cellulans (formerly Oerskovia xanthineolytica) was the principal microorganism isolated from fetal tissues or placentas from cases of equine abortion, premature birth, and term pregnancies. Significant pathologic findings included chronic placentitis and pyogranulomatous pneumonia. In addition, microscopic and macroscopic alterations in the allantochorion from 4 of 7 cases of placentitis were similar to those caused by Crossiella equi and other nocardioform bacteria. This report confirms a causative role of C. cellulans infection in equine abortion. PMID:15305747

  6. Skin Disease in Laminopathy-Associated Premature Aging.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Tomás; Sola Carvajal, Agustín; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-11-01

    The nuclear lamina, a protein network located under the nuclear membrane, has during the past decade found increasing interest due to its significant involvement in a range of genetic diseases, including the segmental premature aging syndromes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, restrictive dermopathy, and atypical Werner syndrome. In this review we examine these diseases, some caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, and their skin disease features. Advances within this area might also provide novel insights into the biology of skin aging, as recent data suggest that low levels of progerin are expressed in unaffected individuals and these levels increase with aging. PMID:26290387

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor antagonist therapy for retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the growing problem of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) worldwide, treatments for severe ROP including standard-of-care laser treatment, and the need for new treatments are discussed. Also discussed are the reasons to consider inhibiting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway in severe ROP and the concerns about broad VEGF inhibition. Finally, the potential role of VEGF in ROP based on studies in animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy, the effects of anti-VEGF based on basic research data, and the clinical relevance of these data are covered. PMID:25459781

  8. [Enteral nutrition in premature newborn infants with sepsis].

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Dorota; Lauterbach, Ryszard

    2008-01-01

    The authors present beneficial effects and possible disadvantages of early enteral feeding of prematurely born infants. Also, the indications for maintaining enteral feeding in patients with sepsis are discussed. Breast milk is known to accelerate the process of maturation of alimentary tract as well as to improve the digestion of food compounds. Additionally, it protects the infant against bacterial translocations from gut to the blood stream and reduces the risk of sepsis in newborns, especially in very low birth weight infants. Finally, the authors formulate preliminary recommendations for enteral feeding of septic newborn infants. PMID:19471066

  9. Pregnancy massage reduces prematurity, low birthweight and postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Pregnant women diagnosed with major depression were given 12 weeks of twice per week massage therapy by their significant other or only standard treatment as a control group. The massage therapy group women versus the control group women not only had reduced depression by the end of the therapy period, but they also had reduced depression and cortisol levels during the postpartum period. Their newborns were also less likely to be born prematurely and low birthweight, and they had lower cortisol levels and performed better on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment habituation, orientation and motor scales. PMID:19646762

  10. Children born prematurely: risk of parental chronic sorrow.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Susan Ann; Falco, Carina

    2014-01-01

    The middle range nursing theory of chronic sorrow offers guidance in the care of families dealing with an ongoing disparity. One such example is the reality of having an infant born prematurely with serious medical conditions. Nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit, and other pediatric settings need to assess families for symptoms of fear, helplessness or sadness and signs of chronic sorrow. A case scenario provides an example of chronic sorrow. Nurses need to assist families in developing healthy coping strategies so as to alleviate any effects of chronic sorrow that they may experience. PMID:24269307

  11. Metabolic studies of transient tyrosinemia in premature infants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernbach, S. A.; Summons, R. E.; Pereira, W. E.; Duffield, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    The recently developed technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry supported by computer has considerably improved the analysis of physiologic fluids. This study attempted to demonstrate the value of this system in the investigation of metabolite patterns in urine in two metabolic problems of prematurity, transient tyrosinemia and late metabolic acidosis. Serial 24-hr urine specimens were analyzed in 9 infants. Transient tyrosinemia, characterized by 5- 10-fold increases over basal excretion of tyrosine, p-hydroxyphenyllactate, and p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in urine, was noted in five of the infants. Late metabolic acidosis was seen in four infants, but bore no relation to transient tyrosinemia.

  12. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  13. Repression of the Antioxidant NRF2 Pathway in Premature Aging.

    PubMed

    Kubben, Nard; Zhang, Weiqi; Wang, Lixia; Voss, Ty C; Yang, Jiping; Qu, Jing; Liu, Guang-Hui; Misteli, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, invariably fatal premature aging disorder. The disease is caused by constitutive production of progerin, a mutant form of the nuclear architectural protein lamin A, leading, through unknown mechanisms, to diverse morphological, epigenetic, and genomic damage and to mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attrition in vivo. Using a high-throughput siRNA screen, we identify the NRF2 antioxidant pathway as a driver mechanism in HGPS. Progerin sequesters NRF2 and thereby causes its subnuclear mislocalization, resulting in impaired NRF2 transcriptional activity and consequently increased chronic oxidative stress. Suppressed NRF2 activity or increased oxidative stress is sufficient to recapitulate HGPS aging defects, whereas reactivation of NRF2 activity in HGPS patient cells reverses progerin-associated nuclear aging defects and restores in vivo viability of MSCs in an animal model. These findings identify repression of the NRF2-mediated antioxidative response as a key contributor to the premature aging phenotype. PMID:27259148

  14. Premature aging and cancer in nucleotide excision repair-disorders

    PubMed Central

    Diderich, K.; Alanazi, M.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    During past decades the major impact of DNA damage on cancer as ‘disease of the genes’ has become abundantly apparent. In addition to cancer recent years have also uncovered a very strong association of DNA damage with many features of (premature) aging. The notion that DNA repair systems not only protect against cancer but equally against too fast aging has become evident from a systematic, integral analysis of a variety of mouse mutants carrying defects in e.g. transcription-coupled repair with or without an additional impairment of global genome nucleotide excision repair and the corresponding segmental premature aging syndromes in man. A striking correlation between the degree of the DNA repair deficiency and the acceleration of specific progeroid symptoms has been discovered for those repair systems that primarily protect from the cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of DNA damage. These observations are explained from the perspective of nucleotide excision repair mouse mutant and human syndromes. However, similar principles likely apply to other DNA repair pathways including interstrand crosslink repair and double strand break repair and genome maintenance systems in general, supporting the notion that DNA damage constitutes an important intermediate in the process of aging. PMID:21680258

  15. Molecular insights into the premature aging disease progeria.

    PubMed

    Vidak, Sandra; Foisner, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an extremely rare premature aging disease presenting many features resembling the normal aging process. HGPS patients die before the age of 20 years due to cardiovascular problems and heart failure. HGPS is linked to mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the intermediate filament protein lamin A. Lamin A is a major component of the nuclear lamina, a scaffold structure at the nuclear envelope that defines mechanochemical properties of the nucleus and is involved in chromatin organization and epigenetic regulation. Lamin A is also present in the nuclear interior where it fulfills lamina-independent functions in cell signaling and gene regulation. The most common LMNA mutation linked to HGPS leads to mis-splicing of the LMNA mRNA and produces a mutant lamin A protein called progerin that tightly associates with the inner nuclear membrane and affects the dynamic properties of lamins. Progerin expression impairs many important cellular processes providing insight into potential disease mechanisms. These include changes in mechanosignaling, altered chromatin organization and impaired genome stability, and changes in signaling pathways, leading to impaired regulation of adult stem cells, defective extracellular matrix production and premature cell senescence. In this review, we discuss these pathways and their potential contribution to the disease pathologies as well as therapeutic approaches used in preclinical and clinical tests. PMID:26847180

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lepage, Benoit; Dedieu, Dominique; Bartley, Mel; Blane, David; Grosclaude, Pascale; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2013-09-01

    Events causing stress responses during sensitive periods of rapid neurological development in childhood may be early determinants of all-cause premature mortality. Using a British birth cohort study of individuals born in 1958, the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and mortality≤50 year was examined for men (n=7,816) and women (n=7,405) separately. ACE were measured using prospectively collected reports from parents and the school: no adversities (70%); one adversity (22%), two or more adversities (8%). A Cox regression model was carried out controlling for early life variables and for characteristics at 23 years. In men the risk of death was 57% higher among those who had experienced 2+ ACE compared to those with none (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13, 2.18, p=0.007). In women, a graded relationship was observed between ACE and mortality, the risk increasing as ACE accumulated. Women with one ACE had a 66% increased risk of death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19, 2.33, p=0.003) and those with ≥2 ACE had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10, 2.95, p=0.020) versus those with no ACE. Given the small impact of adult life style factors on the association between ACE and premature mortality, biological embedding during sensitive periods in early development is a plausible explanatory mechanism. PMID:23887883

  17. Current concepts of oxygen management in retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Owen, Leah A; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disorder in premature infants. The underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood, limiting the prevention and treatment of this devastating condition. Current therapies are directed toward management of aberrant neovascularization thought to result from retinal ischemia in the developing preterm retina. The molecular mediators important for development of retinal ischemia and subsequent neovascular pathology are not fully understood. However, oxygen has been shown to be a key mediator of disease and the oxygen environment for preterm infants has been extensively studied. Despite this, the optimal oxygen environment for preterm infants remains unclear and recent works seeking to clarify this relationship demonstrate somewhat disparate findings. These data further substantiate that ROP is a complex disease with multifactorial etiology including genetic and environmental factors. Therefore, while environmental factors such as oxygen are important to our understanding of the disease process and care of preterm infants, identification of the molecular mediators downstream of oxygen which are necessary for development of ROP pathology will be critical to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:24982738

  18. Vessel maturation schedule determines vulnerability to neuronal injuries of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Tamar; Dor-Wollman, Talia; Ben-Zvi, Ayal; Rothe, Gadiel; Keshet, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a major risk factor for multiple brain pathologies, notably periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), which is distinguished by bilateral necrosis of neural tissue around the ventricles and a sequela of neurological disturbances. The 2 hallmarks of brain pathologies of prematurity are a restricted gestational window of vulnerability and confinement of injury to a specific cerebral region. Here, we examined the proposition that both of these features are determined by the state of blood vessel immaturity. We developed a murine genetic model that allows for inducible and reversible VEGF blockade during brain development. Using this system, we determined that cerebral vessels mature in a centrifugal, wave-like fashion that results in sequential acquisition of a functional blood-brain barrier and exit from a VEGF-dependent phase, with periventricular vessels being the last to mature. This developmental program permitted selective ablation of periventricular vessels via episodic VEGF blockade within a specific, vulnerable gestational window. Enforced collapse of ganglionic eminence vessels and resultant periventricular neural apoptosis resulted in a PVL-like phenotype that recapitulates the primary periventricular lesion, ventricular enlargement, and the secondary cortical deficit in out-migrating GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. These findings provide an animal model that reproduces the temporal and spatial specificities of PVL and indicate that damage to VEGF-dependent, immature periventricular vessels contributes to PVL development. PMID:25689256

  19. Isolation of Live Premature Senescent Cells Using FUCCI Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danli; Lu, Ping; Liu, Yang; Chen, Li; Zhang, Rui; Sui, Weihao; Dumitru, Alexandru George; Chen, Xiaowen; Wen, Feiqiu; Ouyang, Hong-Wei; Ji, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence plays an important role in diverse biological processes such as tumorigenesis and organismal aging. However, lack of methods to specifically identify and isolate live senescent cells hampers the precise understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular senescence. Here, we report that utilization of fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) technology allows isolation of live premature senescent cells induced by doxorubicin treatment. Exposure of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) to a low dose of doxorubicin led to cellular senescent phenotypes including formation of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci indicative of DNA damage, decreased cell proliferation and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity. Importantly, doxorubicin-induced senescent cells were arrested at S/G2/M phases of cell cycle which can be reported by a construct encoding a fragment of hGeminin fused with monomeric Azami-Green (mAG-hGeminin). Flow cytometric sorting of GFP(+) cells from doxorubicin-treated HFFs carrying mAG-hGeminin reporter enabled isolation and enrichment of live senescent cells in the culture. Our study develops a novel method to identify and isolate live premature senescent cells, thereby providing a new tool to study cellular senescence. PMID:27503759

  20. Bilateral Coats' Disease Combined with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Gursoy, Huseyin; Erol, Nazmiye; Bilgec, Mustafa Deger; Basmak, Hikmet; Kutlay, Ozden; Aslan, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of bilateral Coats' disease combined with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Case. Retinal vascularization was complete in the right eye, whereas zone III, stage 3 ROP and preplus disease were observed in the left eye at 43 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) in a 31-week premature, 1200-g neonate. Intraretinal exudates developed and retinal hemorrhages increased in the left eye at 51 weeks of PMA. Diode laser photocoagulation (LP) was applied to the left eye. Exudates involved the macula, and telangiectatic changes developed one month following LP. Additional LP was applied to the left eye combined with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection at 55 weeks of PMA. Disease regressed one month after the additional therapy. At the 14-month examination of the baby, telangiectatic changes and intraretinal exudates were observed in the right eye. Diode LP was applied to the right eye combined with IVB injection. Exudates did not resolve completely, and cryotherapy was applied one month following LP. Retinal findings regressed three months following the cryotherapy. Conclusion. This is the first report of presumed bilateral Coats' disease combined with ROP. If Coats' disease could be diagnosed at early stages, it would be a disease associated with better prognosis. PMID:26413362

  1. Novel small molecules potentiate premature termination codon readthrough by aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Baradaran-Heravi, Alireza; Balgi, Aruna D; Zimmerman, Carla; Choi, Kunho; Shidmoossavee, Fahimeh S; Tan, Jason S; Bergeaud, Célia; Krause, Alexandra; Flibotte, Stéphane; Shimizu, Yoko; Anderson, Hilary J; Mouly, Vincent; Jan, Eric; Pfeifer, Tom; Jaquith, James B; Roberge, Michel

    2016-08-19

    Nonsense mutations introduce premature termination codons and underlie 11% of genetic disease cases. High concentrations of aminoglycosides can restore gene function by eliciting premature termination codon readthrough but with low efficiency. Using a high-throughput screen, we identified compounds that potentiate readthrough by aminoglycosides at multiple nonsense alleles in yeast. Chemical optimization generated phthalimide derivative CDX5-1 with activity in human cells. Alone, CDX5-1 did not induce readthrough or increase TP53 mRNA levels in HDQ-P1 cancer cells with a homozygous TP53 nonsense mutation. However, in combination with aminoglycoside G418, it enhanced readthrough up to 180-fold over G418 alone. The combination also increased readthrough at all three nonsense codons in cancer cells with other TP53 nonsense mutations, as well as in cells from rare genetic disease patients with nonsense mutations in the CLN2, SMARCAL1 and DMD genes. These findings open up the possibility of treating patients across a spectrum of genetic diseases caused by nonsense mutations. PMID:27407112

  2. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Molina, J. M.; Anaya-Alaminos, R.; Uberos-Fernández, J.; Solans-Pérez de Larraya, A.; Chaves-Samaniego, M. J.; Salgado-Miranda, A.; Piñar-Molina, R.; Jerez-Calero, A.; García-Serrano, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The goals were to isolate and study the genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), as well as the gene-environment interaction established in this disease. Methods. A retrospective study (2000–2014) was performed about the heritability of retinopathy of prematurity in 257 infants who were born at a gestational age of ≤32 weeks. The ROP was studied and treated by a single pediatric ophthalmologist. A binary logistic regression analysis was completed between the presence or absence of ROP and the predictor variables. Results. Data obtained from 38 monozygotic twins, 66 dizygotic twins, and 153 of simple birth were analyzed. The clinical features of the cohorts of monozygotic and dizygotic twins were not significantly different. Genetic factors represented 72.8% of the variability in the stage of ROP, environmental factors 23.08%, and random factors 4.12%. The environmental variables representing the highest risk of ROP were the number of days of tracheal intubation (p < 0.001), postnatal weight gain (p = 0.001), and development of sepsis (p = 0.0014). Conclusion. The heritability of ROP was found to be 0.73. The environmental factors regulate and modify the expression of the genetic code. PMID:26089603

  3. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Harvey Rodrick Grenville

    2014-01-01

    Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been prescribed the oral contraceptive pill to treat menstrual cycle abnormalities prior to investigation and diagnosis. Vaccine research does not present an ovary histology report of tested rats but does present a testicular histology report. Enduring ovarian capacity and duration of function following vaccination is unresearched in preclinical studies, clinical and postlicensure studies. Postmarketing surveillance does not accurately represent diagnoses in adverse event notifications and can neither represent unnotified cases nor compare incident statistics with vaccine course administration rates. The potential significance of a case series of adolescents with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination presenting to a general practice warrants further research. Preservation of reproductive health is a primary concern in the recipient target group. Since this group includes all prepubertal and pubertal young women, demonstration of ongoing, uncompromised safety for the ovary is urgently required. This matter needs to be resolved for the purposes of population health and public vaccine confidence. PMID:26425627

  4. Genetic Contributions to the Development of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMED, SHAKIR; SCHAA, KENDRA; COOPER, MARGARET E.; AHRENS, ELISE; ALVARADO, ANA; COLAIZY, TARAH; MARAZITA, MARY L.; MURRAY, JEFFREY C.; DAGLE, JOHN M.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing support for the role of genetic factors in the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a serious visual morbidity resulting from preterm birth. We used both candidate gene and data-mining approaches to investigate the role of genetic polymorphisms in the development of ROP. Our study population consisted of 330 infants, less than 32 wk gestation, and their parents. We initially studied 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 candidate genes. Using a family-based analysis strategy, we found an association between SNPs in the EPAS1 gene and the development of ROP (p = 0.007). Logistic regression analysis showed three SNPs associated with development of ROP, two in the CFH gene (p = 0.01) and one in the EPAS1 gene (p = 0.001). Extending this analysis to include genotyping data from a larger genetic study of prematurity (455 SNPs in 153 genes), we found SNPs in five genes associated with the development of ROP: IHH (p = 0.003), AGTR1 (p = 0.005), TBX5 (p = 0.003), CETP (p = 0.004), and GP1BA (p = 0.005). Our data suggest that genetic risk factors contribute to the development of ROP. PMID:18787502

  5. Isolation of Live Premature Senescent Cells Using FUCCI Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danli; Lu, Ping; Liu, Yang; Chen, Li; Zhang, Rui; Sui, Weihao; Dumitru, Alexandru George; Chen, Xiaowen; Wen, Feiqiu; Ouyang, Hong-Wei; Ji, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence plays an important role in diverse biological processes such as tumorigenesis and organismal aging. However, lack of methods to specifically identify and isolate live senescent cells hampers the precise understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular senescence. Here, we report that utilization of fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) technology allows isolation of live premature senescent cells induced by doxorubicin treatment. Exposure of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) to a low dose of doxorubicin led to cellular senescent phenotypes including formation of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci indicative of DNA damage, decreased cell proliferation and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity. Importantly, doxorubicin-induced senescent cells were arrested at S/G2/M phases of cell cycle which can be reported by a construct encoding a fragment of hGeminin fused with monomeric Azami-Green (mAG-hGeminin). Flow cytometric sorting of GFP+ cells from doxorubicin-treated HFFs carrying mAG-hGeminin reporter enabled isolation and enrichment of live senescent cells in the culture. Our study develops a novel method to identify and isolate live premature senescent cells, thereby providing a new tool to study cellular senescence. PMID:27503759

  6. Premature ovarian failure in a woman with a balanced 15;21 translocation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction A case of premature ovarian failure with concomitant findings of Robertsonian translocation between 15 and 21 chromosomes is reported here. The aforementioned karyotypic aberration has not been reported in the context of premature ovarian failure to date. Case presentation We present a case of premature ovarian failure in a 27-year-old infertile Kurdish Iranian woman with a Robertsonian 15;21 translocation. Conclusions The diagnosis of premature ovarian failure of unknown etiology, but with karyotypic evidence of a balanced autosomal translocation, suggests the possible role of autosomal genes in the pathogenesis of ovarian follicular attrition. PMID:21714880

  7. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  8. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  9. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  10. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  11. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  12. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2010-01-08

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  13. Ceramics for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

  14. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostoker, Norman; Qerushi, Artan; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-06-01

    The recirculating power for virtually all types of fusion reactors has previously been calculated [1] with the Fokker-Planck equation. The reactors involve non-Maxwellian plasmas. The calculations are generic in that they do not relate to specific confinement devices. In all cases except for a Tokamak with D-T fuel the recirculating power was found to exceed the fusion power by a large factor. In this paper we criticize the generality claimed for this calculation. The ratio of circulating power to fusion power is calculated for the Colliding Beam Reactor with fuels D-T, D-He3 and p-B11. The results are respectively, 0.070, 0.141 and 0.493.

  15. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  16. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  17. Sensor fusion for intelligent process control.

    SciTech Connect

    Connors, John J.; Hill, Kevin; Hanekamp, David; Haley, William F.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Gowin, Craig; Farrar, Arthur R.; Sheaffer, Donald A.; DeYoung, Mark A.; Bertram, Lee A.; Dodge, Craig; Binion, Bruce; Walsh, Peter M.; Houf, William G.; Desam, Padmabhushana R.; Tiwary, Rajiv; Stokes, Michael R.; Miller, Alan J.; Michael, Richard W.; Mayer, Raymond M.; Jiao, Yu; Smith, Philip J.; Arbab, Mehran; Hillaire, Robert G.

    2004-08-01

    An integrated system for the fusion of product and process sensors and controls for production of flat glass was envisioned, having as its objective the maximization of throughput and product quality subject to emission limits, furnace refractory wear, and other constraints. Although the project was prematurely terminated, stopping the work short of its goal, the tasks that were completed show the value of the approach and objectives. Though the demonstration was to have been done on a flat glass production line, the approach is applicable to control of production in the other sectors of the glass industry. Furthermore, the system architecture is also applicable in other industries utilizing processes in which product uniformity is determined by ability to control feed composition, mixing, heating and cooling, chemical reactions, and physical processes such as distillation, crystallization, drying, etc. The first phase of the project, with Visteon Automotive Systems as industrial partner, was focused on simulation and control of the glass annealing lehr. That work produced the analysis and computer code that provide the foundation for model-based control of annealing lehrs during steady state operation and through color and thickness changes. In the second phase of the work, with PPG Industries as the industrial partner, the emphasis was on control of temperature and combustion stoichiometry in the melting furnace, to provide a wider operating window, improve product yield, and increase energy efficiency. A program of experiments with the furnace, CFD modeling and simulation, flow measurements, and sensor fusion was undertaken to provide the experimental and theoretical basis for an integrated, model-based control system utilizing the new infrastructure installed at the demonstration site for the purpose. In spite of the fact that the project was terminated during the first year of the second phase of the work, the results of these first steps toward implementation

  18. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  19. DD fusion in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2010-12-15

    The article discusses the mechanism of DD {sup {yields} 4}He fusion and so-called nonradiative thermalization of the reaction in crystals. The dynamics of this process is considered. The assumption that the decay time of the compound nucleus depends on its excitation energy makes experiments in crystals compatible with the acceleration data.We consider the processes in the crystals that increase the intensity ofDD fusion in comparison to the amorphous media, and the yield of the reaction is estimated.

  20. Fusion welding process

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  1. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  2. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  3. Fusion technology status and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-26

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined.

  4. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  5. Comparative analysis of Drosophila and mammalian complexins as fusion clamps and facilitators of neurotransmitter release

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Richard W.; Song, Yun; Littleton, J. Troy

    2010-01-01

    The SNARE-binding protein complexin (Cpx) has been demonstrated to regulate synaptic vesicle fusion. Previous studies are consistent with Cpx functioning either as a synaptic vesicle fusion clamp to prevent premature exocytosis, or as a facilitator to directly stimulate release. Here we examined conserved roles of invertebrate and mammalian Cpx isoforms in the regulation of neurotransmitter release using the Drosophila neuromuscular junction as a model synapse. We find that SNARE binding by Cpx is required for its role as a fusion clamp. All four mammalian Cpx proteins (mCpx), which have been demonstrated to facilitate release, also function as fusion clamps when expressed in Drosophilacpx null mutants, though their clamping abilities varies between isoforms. Moreover, expression of mCpx I, II or III isoforms dramatically enhance evoked release compared to mCpx IV or Drosophila Cpx. Differences in the clamping and facilitating properties of complexin isoforms can be partially attributed to differences in the C-terminal membrane tethering domain. Our findings indicate that the function of complexins as fusion clamps and facilitators of fusion are conserved across evolution, and that these roles are genetically separable within an isoform and across different isoforms. PMID:20678575

  6. Patch-based augmentation of Expectation-Maximization for brain MRI tissue segmentation at arbitrary age after premature birth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengyuan; Kitsch, Averi; Miller, Steven; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth; Rousseau, Francois; Shaw, Dennis; Studholme, Colin

    2016-02-15

    Accurate automated tissue segmentation of premature neonatal magnetic resonance images is a crucial task for quantification of brain injury and its impact on early postnatal growth and later cognitive development. In such studies it is common for scans to be acquired shortly after birth or later during the hospital stay and therefore occur at arbitrary gestational ages during a period of rapid developmental change. It is important to be able to segment any of these scans with comparable accuracy. Previous work on brain tissue segmentation in premature neonates has focused on segmentation at specific ages. Here we look at solving the more general problem using adaptations of age specific atlas based methods and evaluate this using a unique manually traced database of high resolution images spanning 20 gestational weeks of development. We examine the complimentary strengths of age specific atlas-based Expectation-Maximization approaches and patch-based methods for this problem and explore the development of two new hybrid techniques, patch-based augmentation of Expectation-Maximization with weighted fusion and a spatial variability constrained patch search. The former approach seeks to combine the advantages of both atlas- and patch-based methods by learning from the performance of the two techniques across the brain anatomy at different developmental ages, while the latter technique aims to use anatomical variability maps learnt from atlas training data to locally constrain the patch-based search range. The proposed approaches were evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Compared with the conventional age specific atlas-based segmentation and direct patch based segmentation, both new approaches demonstrate improved accuracy in the automated labeling of cortical gray matter, white matter, ventricles and sulcal cortical-spinal fluid regions, while maintaining comparable results in deep gray matter. PMID:26702777

  7. Sustained Neuromuscular Blockade after Vecuronium Use in a Premature Infant

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Mitali; Richardson, C. Joan; Jain, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) is very common in critically ill children both in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units. There are no guidelines available for use of NMBAs in children or neonates in the US, and the data for their safety in this age group is limited. Case Description Our case describes prolonged neuromuscular blockade following concurrent use of a NMBA along with aminoglycosides and steroids in the setting of renal failure in a premature infant. Conclusion Prolonged use of NMBAs in preterm infants should be avoided if possible or should be restricted to the shortest possible duration and the smallest possible physiologically effective dose. Concurrent use of NMBAs with aminoglycoside and steroids should be avoided, especially in the setting of renal failure. PMID:26495168

  8. RecQ helicases: suppressors of tumorigenesis and premature aging.

    PubMed Central

    Bachrati, Csanád Z; Hickson, Ian D

    2003-01-01

    The RecQ helicases represent a subfamily of DNA helicases that are highly conserved in evolution. Loss of RecQ helicase function leads to a breakdown in the maintenance of genome integrity, in particular hyper-recombination. Germ-line defects in three of the five known human RecQ helicases give rise to defined genetic disorders associated with cancer predisposition and/or premature aging. These are Bloom's syndrome, Werner's syndrome and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, which are caused by defects in the genes BLM, WRN and RECQ4 respectively. Here we review the properties of RecQ helicases in organisms from bacteria to humans, with an emphasis on the biochemical functions of these enzymes and the range of protein partners that they operate with. We will discuss models in which RecQ helicases are required to protect against replication fork demise, either through prevention of fork breakdown or restoration of productive DNA synthesis. PMID:12803543

  9. Hypotension Associated With Intravitreal Bevacizumab Therapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lu-Hsuan; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Lin, Chyi-Her; Lin, Yuh-Jyh; Cheng, Ching-Lan

    2016-02-01

    Intravitreal bevacizumab therapy in preterm infants for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can be associated with hypotension. We report twin preterm infants who developed hypotension within 1 day after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for ROP. Before receiving the medication, their clinical statuses were stable and similar. The dose, procedure, and premedication were the same; however, twin B presented with hypotension for 3 days. Although bevacizumab-related hypotension has been described in product information (incidence rate 7%-15%), this is the first case report of intravitreal bevacizumab for ROP inducing hypotension. Physicians should be aware of intravitreal bevacizumab therapy-related hypotension when treating ROP. We suggest conducting a postmarketing active surveillance on the systemic adverse effects of this regimen in preterm infants. PMID:26743817

  10. Lamin A/C, laminopathies and premature ageing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baohua; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2008-06-01

    Lamin A/C belongs to type V intermediate filaments and constitutes the nuclear lamina and nuclear matrix, where a variety of nuclear activities occur. Lamin A/C protein is firstly synthesized as a precursor and is further proteolytically processed by the zinc metallo-proteinase Ste24 (Zmpste24). Lamin A/C mutations cause a series of human diseases, collectively called laminopathies, the most severe of which is Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and restrictive dermopathy (RD) which arises due to an unsuccessful maturation of prelamin A. Although the exact underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood, genomic instability, defective nuclear mechanics and mechanotransduction, have been hypothesized to be responsible for laminopathy-based premature ageing. Removal of unprocessed prelamin A (progerin) or rescue of defective DNA repair could be potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HGPS in future. PMID:18366013

  11. Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Gibson, Adam; Yusof, Rozarina Md; Everdell, Nick; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Delpy, David T.; Arridge, Simon R.; Austin, Topun; Meek, Judith H.; Wyatt, John S.

    2002-12-01

    For the first time, three-dimensional images of the newborn infant brain have been generated using measurements of transmitted light. A 32-channel time-resolved imaging system was employed, and data were acquired using custom-made helmets which couple source fibres and detector bundles to the infant head. Images have been reconstructed using measurements of mean flight time relative to those acquired on a homogeneous reference phantom, and using a head-shaped 3D finite-element-based forward model with an external boundary constrained to match the measured positions of the sources and detectors. Results are presented for a premature infant with a cerebral haemorrhage predominantly located within the left ventricle. Images representing the distribution of absorption at 780 nm and 815 nm reveal an asymmetry consistent with the haemorrhage, and corresponding maps of blood volume and fractional oxygen saturation are generally within expected physiological values.

  12. Current therapeutic strategies for premature ejaculation and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Zhu, Yi-Chen; Yuan, Yi-Ming; Cui, Wan-Shou; Jin, Zhe; Li, Wei-Ren; Liu, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder in men that is mediated by disturbances in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Although all pharmaceutical treatments for PE are currently used ‘off-label', some novel oral agents and some newer methods of drug administration now provide important relief to PE patients. However, the aetiology of this condition has still not been unified, primarily because of the lack of a standard animal model for basic research and the absence of a widely accepted definition and assessment tool for evidence-based clinical studies in patients with PE. In this review, we focus on the current therapeutic strategies and future treatment perspectives for PE. PMID:21532601

  13. [Dapoxetine for premature ejaculation: Advances in clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting-you; Li, Yan-feng

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a most common sexual dysfunction, for which dapoxetine, a novel selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), is the only licensed oral medicine at present. With the advantages of fast absorption, rapid action, on-demand medication, and short half-life time, dapoxetine has been proved by clinical trials to be effective in prolonging the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and improving the overall condition of PE patients in various areas and populations. Compared with the traditional SSRIs, dapoxetine has a better safety and tolerability. The most frequently reported dapoxetine-related adverse events include nausea, diarrhea, headache and dizziness, but with very few severe or serious cases. PMID:26665685

  14. Nonlinear pattern analysis of ventricular premature beats by mutual information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osaka, M.; Saitoh, H.; Yokoshima, T.; Kishida, H.; Hayakawa, H.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The frequency of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) has been related to the risk of mortality. However, little is known about the temporal pattern of occurrence of VPBs and its relationship to autonomic activity. Hence, we applied a general correlation measure, mutual information, to quantify how VPBs are generated over time. We also used mutual information to determine the correlation between VPB production and heart rate in order to evaluate effects of autonomic activity on VPB production. We examined twenty subjects with more than 3000 VPBs/day and simulated random time series of VPB occurrence. We found that mutual information values could be used to characterize quantitatively the temporal patterns of VPB generation. Our data suggest that VPB production is not random and VPBs generated with a higher value of mutual information may be more greatly affected by autonomic activity.

  15. Germ warfare: probiotics in defense of the premature gut.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, Cathy; Bin-Nun, Alona; Kaplan, Michael

    2004-09-01

    The potential benefits of a predominantly lactic acid bacterial flora include an improved balance of gut microbial ecology and decreased susceptibility of the gut mucosa to bacterial translocation via adherence to the intestinal mucosa, strengthening mucosal barrier function. These properties should be especially beneficial to the premature neonate with (1) delayed establishment of nor-mal flora, increasing the potential for proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and (2) immature development of the intestinal mucosa, rendering it more susceptible to the translocation of these pathogenic bacteria and leading to extra-intestinal spread and systemic disease. Early probiotic supplementation in preterm infants is theoretically sound and associated with minimal risk. Clinical data remain preliminary but are supportive of a reduction in feeding intolerance and NEC in this high-risk group. PMID:15325534

  16. Aneuploidy causes premature differentiation of neural and intestinal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gogendeau, Delphine; Siudeja, Katarzyna; Gambarotto, Davide; Pennetier, Carole; Bardin, Allison J.; Basto, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidy is associated with a variety of diseases such as cancer and microcephaly. Although many studies have addressed the consequences of a non-euploid genome in cells, little is known about their overall consequences in tissue and organism development. Here we use two different mutant conditions to address the consequences of aneuploidy during tissue development and homeostasis in Drosophila. We show that aneuploidy causes brain size reduction due to a decrease in the number of proliferative neural stem cells (NSCs), but not through apoptosis. Instead, aneuploid NSCs present an extended G1 phase, which leads to cell cycle exit and premature differentiation. Moreover, we show that this response to aneuploidy is also present in adult intestinal stem cells but not in the wing disc. Our work highlights a neural and intestine stem cell-specific response to aneuploidy, which prevents their proliferation and expansion. PMID:26573328

  17. Retinopathy of prematurity: an oxidative stress neonatal disease.

    PubMed

    Stone, William L; Shah, Darshan; Hollinger, Shawn M

    2016-01-01

    Proteomics is the global study of proteins in an organism or a tissue/fluid and is clinically relevant since most disease states are accompanied by specific alterations in an organism's proteome. This review focuses on the application of proteomics to neonatology with particular emphasis on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is a disease in which oxidative stress plays a key pathophysiological role. Oxidative stress is a physiologically relevant redox imbalance caused by an excess of reactive oxygen (ROS) or reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS). A major conclusion of this review is that proteomics may be the optimal technology for studying neonatal diseases such as ROP, particularly in the setting of a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Proteomics has already identified a number of ROP serum biomarkers. This review will also suggest novel therapeutic approaches to ROP and other neonatal oxidative stress diseases (NOSDs) based on a systems medicine approach. PMID:26709767

  18. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  19. Fighting for the next generation: US Prematurity in 2030.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Edward R B; Carrino, Gerard E; Russell, Rebecca B; Howse, Jennifer L

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a serious problem, with >450 000 neonates born prematurely in the United States every year. Beginning in 1980, the United States experienced a nearly 3-decade rise in the PTB rate, peaking in 2006 at 12.8%. PTB has declined for 7 consecutive years to 11.4% in 2013, but it still accounts for 1 in 9 neonates born every year. In addition to elevated neonatal and infant mortality among those born preterm, many who survive will have lifelong morbidities and disabilities. Because of the burden of morbidity, disability, and mortality for PTB, as well as its impact more broadly on society, including excess annual costs estimated to be at least $26.2 billion by a committee for the Institute of Medicine, the March of Dimes initiated the Prematurity Campaign in 2003. In 2008 the March of Dimes established a goal of reducing the US PTB rate to 9.6% by 2020. However, the United States ranks extremely poorly for PTB rates among Very High Human Development Index (VHHDI) countries, subjecting untold numbers of neonates to unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the March of Dimes proposes an aspirational goal of 5.5% for the 2030 US PTB rate, which would put the United States in the top 4 (10%) of 39 VHHDI countries. This 5.5% PTB rate is being achieved in VHHDI countries and by women from diverse settings receiving optimal care. This goal can be reached and will ensure a better start in life for many more neonates in the next generation. PMID:25367536

  20. Impact of prostate volume on erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Sung Won

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the impact of total prostate volume (TPV) on the international index of erectile function-5 (IIEF) and the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 8336 men who had participated in a health examination. PEDT, IIEF and transrectal ultrasonography were used. A full metabolic work-up and serum testosterone level checks were also performed. The median age of participants was 51.0 years. In total, 40.1% had IIEF scores ≤16. Additionally, 24.7% were classified as demonstrating premature ejaculation (PE) (PEDT > 10). The severity of erectile dysfunction (ED) significantly increased with the TPV (p trend < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) for IIEF scores ≤ 16 significantly increased in the group with TPVs of 30-39 cm(3) and the group with TPVs ≥ 40 cm(3) compared with the group with TPVs ≤ 19 cm(3) (TPV 30-39 cm(3), OR: 1.204, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.403; TPV ≥ 40 cm(3), OR: 1.326: 95% confidence interval: 1.051-1.733) and this relationship was maintained after adjusting for propensity score (TPV ≥ 30 cm(3), OR: 1.138: 95% confidence interval: 1.012-1.280). However, neither PEDT nor PE was correlated with TPV. In conclusion, TPV is significantly and independently correlated with IIEF but not with PEDT. Future investigations should explore the temporal relationship between TPV and ED. PMID:27145693

  1. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Marco; Somigliana, Edgardo; Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  2. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  3. Multilevel fusion exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Perry C.; Dasarathy, Belur V.; McCullough, Claire L.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a project that was sponsored by the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) to develop, test, and demonstrate sensor fusion algorithms for target recognition. The purpose of the project was to exploit the use of sensor fusion at all levels (signal, feature, and decision levels) and all combinations to improve target recognition capability against tactical ballistic missile (TBM) targets. These algorithms were trained with simulated radar signatures to accurately recognize selected TBM targets. The simulated signatures represent measurements made by two radars (S-band and X- band) with the targets at a variety of aspect and roll angles. Two tests were conducted: one with simulated signatures collected at angles different from those in the training database and one using actual test data. The test results demonstrate a high degree of recognition accuracy. This paper describes the training and testing techniques used; shows the fusion strategy employed; and illustrates the advantages of exploiting multi-level fusion.

  4. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  5. Status of inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, D.

    1987-04-01

    The technology advancement to high-power beams has also given birth to new technologies. That class of Free Electron Lasers that employs RF linacs, synchrotrons, and storage rings - although the use of the tools of High Energy Physics (HEP) - was developed well behind the kinetic energy frontier. The induction linac, however, is something of an exception; it was born directly from the needs of the magnetic fusion program, and was not motivated by a high-energy physics application. The heavy-ion approach to inertial fusion starts with picking from the rich menu of accelerator technologies those that have, ab initio, the essential ingredients needed for a power plant driver: multigap acceleration - which leads to reliability/lifetime; electrical efficiency; repetition rate; and beams that can be reliably focused over a suitably long distance. The report describes the programs underway in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research as well as listing expected advances in driver, target, and beam quality areas in the inertial fusion power program.

  6. Separating Fusion from Rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Dechent, Peter; Forster, Clemens; von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Strasburger, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Visual fusion is the process in which differing but compatible binocular information is transformed into a unified percept. Even though this is at the basis of binocular vision, the underlying neural processes are, as yet, poorly understood. In our study we therefore aimed to investigate neural correlates of visual fusion. To this end, we presented binocularly compatible, fusible (BF), and incompatible, rivaling (BR) stimuli, as well as an intermediate stimulus type containing both binocularly fusible and monocular, incompatible elements (BFR). Comparing BFR stimuli with BF and BR stimuli, respectively, we were able to disentangle brain responses associated with either visual fusion or rivalry. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain responses to these stimulus classes in the visual cortex, and investigated them in detail at various retinal eccentricities. Compared with BF stimuli, the response to BFR stimuli was elevated in visual cortical areas V1 and V2, but not in V3 and V4 – implying that the response to monocular stimulus features decreased from V1 to V4. Compared to BR stimuli, the response to BFR stimuli decreased with increasing eccentricity, specifically within V3 and V4. Taken together, it seems that although the processing of exclusively monocular information decreases from V1 to V4, the processing of binocularly fused information increases from earlier to later visual areas. Our findings suggest the presence of an inhibitory neural mechanism which, depending on the presence of fusion, acts differently on the processing of monocular information. PMID:25054904

  7. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  8. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  9. A fusion of minds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfield, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Mystery still surrounds the visit of the astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell to the Soviet Union in 1963. But his collaboration - and that of other British scientists - eased geopolitical tensions at the height of the Cold War and paved the way for today's global ITER fusion project, as Richard Corfield explains.

  10. The Effects of Counselor Response Upon the Premature Termination of Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupre, Robert W.

    The response made by the counselor and the degree of interpersonal relationship, which he involves himself, is important in determining whether the client returns to counseling or whether he terminates prematurely. An analysis of 44 interviews, 22 of which led to premature termination on the part of the client, revealed an astoundingly different…

  11. Premature thelarche: a follow up study of 40 girls. Natural history and endocrine findings.

    PubMed Central

    Pasquino, A M; Tebaldi, L; Cioschi, L; Cives, C; Finocchi, G; Maciocci, M; Mancuso, G; Boscherini, B

    1985-01-01

    Follow up of 40 girls with premature thelarche showed that where this disorder occurred before age 2 years it usually regressed completely, thus representing a transient and isolated phenomenon. Premature thelarche after age 2 years persisted more frequently, however, and represented the first sign of sexual development, generally leading to simple early puberty. PMID:4091585

  12. Symptomatic bradycardia caused by premature atrial contractions originating from right atrial appendage.

    PubMed

    Alper, At; Gungor, B; Turkkan, C; Tekkesin, Ai

    2013-05-01

    Premature atrial contraction is a common form of supraventricular arrhythmias. In rare cases, severe symptoms other than palpitation may occur. In this report, we present a patient with symptomatic bradycardia which developed secondary to blocked premature atrial contractions and was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation. PMID:23840105

  13. Experiences of Rural Vocational Rehabilitation Clients Who Leave the System Prematurely: A Qualitative Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigles, Bethany; Ipsen, Catherine; Arnold, Nancy; Seekins, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Vocational rehabilitation (VR) clients who leave the system prematurely experience worse employment outcomes than clients who stay in services. The authors conducted this study to learn about factors leading to premature exit by rural VR clients. Results will inform survey development for a large longitudinal study on this topic. The authors…

  14. 14 CFR 249.8 - Premature loss or destruction of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature loss or destruction of records. 249.8 Section 249.8 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Premature loss or destruction of records. If records are destroyed or lost before the expiration of...

  15. Antecedents of Emotional Involvement in Mothers of Premature and Fullterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger

    This study examined differences between premature and fullterm infants and their mothers in three areas: infant characteristics, early mother-infant interaction and mothers' emotional involvement when the child was 9 months old. Forty-nine low-income black mothers and their infants (26 prematures, 23 fullterms) participated in the study. In…

  16. Impact of Premature Birth on the Development of the Infant in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macey, Terri J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of birth of premature infant on the family system , focusing on how problems associated with premature birth place family at risk. Mothers of preterm infants felt overprotective, were unwilling to leave infants with babysitters, and perceived initial negative effect on the family. Preterm infants showed less exploratory play and…

  17. Why Principals Leave: Risk Factors for Premature Departure in the Netherlands Compared for Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, M. L.; van Eck, E.; Vermeulen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The shortage of school leaders, mainly caused by the growing complexity of the job is steadily growing in recent years. This study reports on the results of a comparative empirical study into the causes of premature departure for male and female principals in primary and secondary education. Principals who have experienced premature departure…

  18. Pseudoachondroplasia and Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia: A 7-Year Comprehensive Analysis of the Known Disease Genes Identify Novel and Recurrent Mutations and Provides an Accurate Assessment of Their Relative Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Gail C; Mittaz-Crettol, Laureane; Taylor, Jacqueline A; Mortier, Geert R; Spranger, Juergen; Zabel, Bernhard; Le Merrer, Martine; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Hall, Christine M; Offiah, Amaka; Wright, Michael J; Savarirayan, Ravi; Nishimura, Gen; Ramsden, Simon C; Elles, Rob; Bonafe, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Unger, Sheila; Zankl, Andreas; Briggs, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) are relatively common skeletal dysplasias resulting in short-limbed dwarfism, joint pain, and stiffness. PSACH and the largest proportion of autosomal dominant MED (AD-MED) results from mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP); however, AD-MED is genetically heterogenous and can also result from mutations in matrilin-3 (MATN3) and type IX collagen (COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL9A3). In contrast, autosomal recessive MED (rMED) appears to result exclusively from mutations in sulphate transporter solute carrier family 26 (SLC26A2). The diagnosis of PSACH and MED can be difficult for the nonexpert due to various complications and similarities with other related diseases and often mutation analysis is requested to either confirm or exclude the diagnosis. Since 2003, the European Skeletal Dysplasia Network (ESDN) has used an on-line review system to efficiently diagnose cases referred to the network prior to mutation analysis. In this study, we present the molecular findings in 130 patients referred to ESDN, which includes the identification of novel and recurrent mutations in over 100 patients. Furthermore, this study provides the first indication of the relative contribution of each gene and confirms that they account for the majority of PSACH and MED. Hum Mutat 33:144–157, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21922596

  19. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    PubMed

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range. PMID:25557201

  20. [DOHaD: long-term impact of perinatal diseases (IUGR and prematurity)].

    PubMed

    Storme, Laurent; Luton, Dominique; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The first epidemiological studies showing a link between low birth weight and chronic diseases in adults did not distinguish the origins of low birth weight. A low birth weight may be the result of a premature birth. It can also be caused by an intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A child can be both preterm and IUGR. It is clear now that prematurity is an independent risk factor for programming chronic adult diseases. However, unlike adults born IUGR, adults born prematurely do not have an increased risk to develop metabolic syndrome (dyslipidemia or obesity). An increased risk of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity and hypertension is found after a premature birth. Mechanisms of chronic diseases programming are multiple: they involve both the cause of prematurity and IUGR such as infection / inflammation or placental insufficiency, but also consequences for therapeutic or nutritional strategies needed to support these children. This chapter describes the possible prevention of perinatal programming of noncommunicable diseases. PMID:26850610

  1. Enhanced image capture through fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Peter J.; Hanna, Keith; Kolczynski, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Image fusion may be used to combine images from different sensors, such as IR and visible cameras, to obtain a single composite with extended information content. Fusion may also be used to combine multiple images from a given sensor to form a composite image in which information of interest is enhanced. We present a general method for performing image fusion and show that this method is effective for diverse fusion applications. We suggest that fusion may provide a powerful tool for enhanced image capture with broad utility in image processing and computer vision.

  2. INFUSION RATE OF GLUCOSE IS THE MAJOR PREDICTOR OF HYEPRGLYCEMIA IN VERY PREMATURE INFANTS RECEIVING TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Hyperglycemia is frequently occurring in very premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. In adult intensive care patients, hyperglycemia has been associated with increased mortality. Although no such data are available in premature infants, it is conceivable that nutritional...

  3. Research on fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2012-06-01

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  4. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  5. Acquired spondylolysis after spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Brunet, J A; Wiley, J J

    1984-11-01

    Spondylolysis occurring after a spinal fusion is considered to result from operative damage to the pars interarticularis on both sides. Fourteen cases are reported, and compared with the 23 cases which have previously been published. The defects are usually recognised within five years of fusion, and usually occur immediately above the fusion mass. Other contributory causes may be: fatigue fracture from concentration of stress; damage and altered function of the posterior ligament complex; and degenerative disc disease immediately above or below the fusion. Fusion technique is critical, since virtually all cases occurred after posterior interlaminar fusions. This complication is easily overlooked in patients with recurrent back pain after an originally successful posterior spinal fusion. PMID:6501368

  6. 50 years of fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Fusion energy research began in the early 1950s as scientists worked to harness the awesome power of the atom for peaceful purposes. There was early optimism for a quick solution for fusion energy as there had been for fission. However, this was soon tempered by reality as the difficulty of producing and confining fusion fuel at temperatures of 100 million °C in the laboratory was appreciated. Fusion research has followed two main paths—inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion. Over the past 50 years, there has been remarkable progress with both approaches, and now each has a solid technical foundation that has led to the construction of major facilities that are aimed at demonstrating fusion energy producing plasmas.

  7. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Synaptic vesicle fusion

    PubMed Central

    Rizo, Josep; Rosenmund, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The core of the neurotransmitter release machinery is formed by SNARE complexes, which bring the vesicle and plasma membranes together and are key for fusion, and by Munc18-1, which controls SNARE-complex formation and may also have a direct role in fusion. In addition, SNARE complex assembly is likely orchestrated by Munc13s and RIMs, active-zone proteins that function in vesicle priming and diverse forms of presynaptic plasticity. Synaptotagmin-1 mediates triggering of release by Ca2+, probably through interactions with SNAREs and both membranes, as well as through a tight interplay with complexins. Elucidation of the release mechanism will require a full understanding of the network of interactions among all these proteins and the membranes. PMID:18618940

  9. Spectral Label Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina

    2012-01-01

    We present a new segmentation approach that combines the strengths of label fusion and spectral clustering. The result is an atlas-based segmentation method guided by contour and texture cues in the test image. This offers advantages for datasets with high variability, making the segmentation less prone to registration errors. We achieve the integration by letting the weights of the graph Laplacian depend on image data, as well as atlas-based label priors. The extracted contours are converted to regions, arranged in a hierarchy depending on the strength of the separating boundary. Finally, we construct the segmentation by a region-wise, instead of voxel-wise, voting, increasing the robustness. Our experiments on cardiac MRI show a clear improvement over majority voting and intensity-weighted label fusion. PMID:23286157

  10. Adaptive sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadar, Ivan

    1995-07-01

    A perceptual reasoning system adaptively extracting, associating, and fusing information from multiple sources, at various levels of abstraction, is considered as the building block for the next generation of surveillance systems. A system architecture is presented which makes use of both centralized and distributed predetection fusion combined with intelligent monitor and control coupling both on-platform and off-board track and decision level fusion results. The goal of this system is to create a `gestalt fused sensor system' whose information product is greater than the sum of the information products from the individual sensors and has performance superior to either individual or a sub-group of combined sensors. The application of this architectural concept to the law enforcement arena (e.g. drug interdiction) utilizing multiple spatially and temporally diverse surveillance platforms and/or information sources, is used to illustrate the benefits of the adaptive perceptual reasoning system concept.

  11. Fc-fusion mimetics.

    PubMed

    Khalili, H; Khaw, P T; Brocchini, S

    2016-06-24

    The Fc-fusion mimetic RpR 2[combining low line] was prepared by disulfide bridging conjugation using PEG in the place of the Fc. RpR 2[combining low line] displayed higher affinity for VEGF than aflibercept. This is caused primarily by a slower dissociation rate, which can prolong a drug at its site of action. RpRs have considerable potential for development as stable, organ specific therapeutics. PMID:27127811

  12. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  13. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  14. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  15. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  16. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aim To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994–2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1–3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged ≥18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all). The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg), dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg), and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg), and evaluation of validated rated scales demonstrated no SSRI

  17. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  18. Cold fusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hembree, D. M.; Burchfield, L. A.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Perey, F. G.; Mamantov, G.

    1990-06-01

    A series of experiments designed to detect the by-products expected from deuterium fusion occurring in the palladium and titanium cathodes of heavy water, D2O, electrolysis cells is reported. The primary purpose of this account is to outline the integrated experimental design developed to test the cold fusion hypothesis and to report preliminary results that support continuing the investigation. Apparent positive indicators of deuterium fusion were observed, but could not be repeated or proved to originate from the electrochemical cells. In one instance, two large increases in the neutron count rate, the largest of which exceeded the background by 27 standard deviations, were observed. In a separate experiment, one of the calorimetry cells appeared to be producing approximately 18 percent more power that the input value, but thermistor failure prevented an accurate recording of the event as a function of time. In general, the tritium levels in most cells followed the slow enrichment expected from the electrolysis of D2O containing a small amount of tritium. However, after 576 hours of electrolysis, one cell developed a tritium concentration approximately seven times greater than expected level.

  19. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  20. Premature termination by human RNA polymerase II occurs temporally in the adenovirus major late transcriptional unit.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, M; Maderious, A; Chen-Kiang, S

    1984-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated pausing and premature termination of transcription by eucaryotic RNA polymerase II at specific sites in the major late transcriptional unit of adenovirus type 2 in vivo and in vitro. In further developing this as a system for studying eucaryotic termination control, we found that prematurely terminated transcripts of 175 and 120 nucleotides also occur in adenovirus type 5-infected cells. In both cases, premature termination occurs temporally, being found only during late times of infection, not at early times before DNA replication or immediately after the onset of DNA replication when late gene expression has begun (intermediate times). To examine the phenomenon of premature termination further, a temperature-sensitive mutant virus, adenovirus type 5 ts107, was used to uncouple DNA replication and transcription. DNA replication is defective in this mutant at restrictive temperatures. We found that premature termination is inducible at intermediate times by shifting from a permissive temperature to a restrictive temperature, allowing continuous transcription in the absence of continuous DNA replication. No premature termination occurs when the temperature is shifted up at early times before DNA replication. Our data suggest that premature termination of transcription is dependent on both prior synthesis of new templates and cumulative late gene transcription but does not require continuous DNA replication. Images PMID:6209554

  1. Design of wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-07-01

    Premature infants often cannot successfully and coordinately complete their oral feeding. Mature sucking, swallowing, and respiration activities are crucial indicators for the survival of newborn infants. Due to the vulnerability and unobvious muscle activities of premature infants, current clinical care givers mainly depend on the subjective behavioral observation of infants during oral feeding. There is still lack of an integrated oral feeding monitoring system to objectively and quantifiably monitor the related physiological parameters of premature infants. In this study, a wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants was proposed to monitor the sucking-swallowing-respiratory activities and the heart rate variability to provide quantitative indices of oral feeding. Here, a novel sucking pressure sensing module was also developed to monitor the premature infant's sucking pressure under oral feeding to avoid the immersion influence of milk. The experimental results showed that the proposed system detected the related physiological parameters of premature infants during oral feeding effectively and may provide an objective clinical evaluation tool for oral feeding ability and safety of premature infants in the future. PMID:26429347

  2. Cost estimate of hospital stays for premature newborns in a public tertiary hospital in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Desgualdo, Claudia Maria; Riera, Rachel; Zucchi, Paola

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct costs of hospital stays for premature newborns in the Interlagos Hospital and Maternity Center in São Paulo, Brazil and to assess the difference between the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System and the real cost of care for each premature newborn. METHODS: A cost-estimate study in which hospital and professional costs were estimated for premature infants born at 22 to 36 weeks gestation during the calendar year of 2004 and surviving beyond one hour of age. Direct costs included hospital services, professional care, diagnoses and therapy, orthotics, prosthetics, special materials, and blood products. Costs were estimated using tables published by the Unified Health System and the Brasíndice as well as the list of medical procedures provided by the Brazilian Classification of Medical Procedures. RESULTS: The average direct cost of care for initial hospitalization of a premature newborn in 2004 was $2,386 USD. Total hospital expenses and professional services for all premature infants in this hospital were $227,000 and $69,500 USD, respectively. The costs for diagnostic testing and blood products for all premature infants totaled $22,440 and $1,833 USD. The daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing less than 1,000 g was $115 USD, and the daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing more than 2,500 g was $89 USD. Amounts reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System corresponded to only 27.42% of the real cost of care. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of hospital stays for premature newborns was much greater than the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System. The highest costs corresponded to newborns with lower birth weight. Hospital costs progressively and discretely decreased as the newborns' weight increased. PMID:22012050

  3. Stress induced by premature chromatin condensation triggers chromosome shattering and chromothripsis at DNA sites still replicating in micronuclei or multinucleate cells when primary nuclei enter mitosis.

    PubMed

    Terzoudi, Georgia I; Karakosta, Maria; Pantelias, Antonio; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Karachristou, Ioanna; Pantelias, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Combination of next-generation DNA sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses and bioinformatics has revealed the striking phenomenon of chromothripsis, described as complex genomic rearrangements acquired in a single catastrophic event affecting one or a few chromosomes. Via an unproven mechanism, it is postulated that mechanical stress causes chromosome shattering into small lengths of DNA, which are then randomly reassembled by DNA repair machinery. Chromothripsis is currently examined as an alternative mechanism of oncogenesis, in contrast to the present paradigm that considers a stepwise development of cancer. While evidence for the mechanism(s) underlying chromosome shattering during cancer development remains elusive, a number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain chromothripsis, including ionizing radiation, DNA replication stress, breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, micronuclei formation and premature chromosome compaction. In the present work, we provide experimental evidence on the mechanistic basis of chromothripsis and on how chromosomes can get locally shattered in a single catastrophic event. Considering the dynamic nature of chromatin nucleoprotein complex, capable of rapid unfolding, disassembling, assembling and refolding, we first show that chromatin condensation at repairing or replicating DNA sites induces the mechanical stress needed for chromosome shattering to ensue. Premature chromosome condensation is then used to visualize the dynamic nature of interphase chromatin and demonstrate that such mechanical stress and chromosome shattering can also occur in chromosomes within micronuclei or asynchronous multinucleate cells when primary nuclei enter mitosis. Following an aberrant mitosis, chromosomes could find themselves in the wrong place at the wrong time so that they may undergo massive DNA breakage and rearrangement in a single catastrophic event. Specifically, our results support the hypothesis that premature chromosome

  4. [Social representation of fathers regarding their premature child in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Jovanka Bittencourt Leite; Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Céu Clara; de Brito, Rosineide Santana; de Souza, Nilba Lima

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative study that aimed at understanding the social representation of a parent with a premature child. The data were collected between May and June 2008, in a semi-structured interview with 17 parents whose premature children were hospitalized in the NICU of two public institutions in Natal, Brazil. The reports were analyzed based on the Social Representations Theory (SRT). The results reveal that the hospitalization of their children causes parents to experience emotions of fear, anguish, anxiety, loneliness interspersed with those of faith, joy and hope. For a parent the NICU is a frightening environment, albeit necessary for the specialized care that the conditions of the premature newborn require. PMID:20552833

  5. Premature adrenarche--a common condition with variable presentation.

    PubMed

    Utriainen, Pauliina; Laakso, Saila; Liimatta, Jani; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Voutilainen, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    Adrenarche refers to a maturational increase in the secretion of adrenal androgen precursors, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). In premature adrenarche (PA), clinical signs of androgen action appear before the age of 8/9 years in girls/boys, concurrently with the circulating DHEA(S) concentrations above the usually low prepubertal level. The most pronounced sign of PA is the appearance of pubic/axillary hair, but also other signs of androgen effect (adult type body odor, acne/comedones, greasy hair, accelerated statural growth) are important to recognize. PA children are often overweight and taller than their peers, and the higher prevalence of PA in girls than in boys is probably explained by higher female adiposity and peripheral DHEA(S) conversion to active androgens. PA diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of androgen excess: congenital adrenal hyperplasia, androgen-producing tumors, precocious puberty, and exogenous source of androgens. PA has been linked with unfavorable metabolic features including hyperinsulinism, dyslipidemia, and later-appearing ovarian hyperandrogenism. Although this common condition is usually benign, PA children with additional risk factors including obesity should be followed up, with the focus on weight and lifestyle. Long-term follow-up studies are warranted to clarify if the metabolic changes detected in PA children persist until adulthood. PMID:25676474

  6. [Dapoxetine (Priligy): on demand treatment of premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Andrianne, R

    2013-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction, affecting approximately 20-24% of men. Managing PE has been a challenge for physicians and psycho-sexologists as well because no drug for PE has been approved by European (EMA) or U.S. (FDA) drug agencies. Over the past decade, clinical evidence has emerged indicating a beneficial effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tramadol, penile anesthesia and, in some cases, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 for the treatment of men with PE. A psycho-sexological care helps support. In spite of their efficacy, adverse effects represent the major concern for the chronic use of SSRIs in patients with PE and they may prompt discontinuation from therapy. Dapoxetine, marketed as Priligy, is the first compound developed specially for the treatment of PE, on demand before intercourse. Dapoxetine works by inhibiting the serotonin transporter, increasing serotonin's action at the postsynaptic cleft, and as a consequence promoting ejaculatory delay. Dapoxetine is quickly absorbed and eliminated rapidly from the body. Its fast acting property makes it suitable for the on demand treatment of PE. PMID:24564032

  7. The development of bacterial flora of premature neonates.

    PubMed Central

    Rotimi, V. O.; Olowe, S. A.; Ahmed, I.

    1985-01-01

    The sequential acquisition of bacterial flora by premature neonates was studied during a 10 month period. Mean gestational age of the babies was 29.01 weeks and the mean birth weight was 1.728 kg. Escherichia coli and group B streptococci (GBS) colonized the umbilicus of 7 and 6 babies respectively, out of 23 studied, on the first day of life. E. coli and staphylococci were the predominant flora on the 6th day and they colonized 12 and 13 respectively. The oral flora was predominantly Gram-positive cocci, mainly Streptococcus salivarius which was isolated from 17 out of 22 babies on the 6th day, viridans streptococci were isolated from 14 babies, Staphylococcus albus from 16 babies and group D streptococci from 11 babies. Candida spp. also colonized the oral cavities of 17 out of 22 babies on the 6th day. At the end of the first week of life, the faecal flora was predominantly anaerobic represented by Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium spp. The commonest facultative faecal flora were E. coli, which was isolated from all the babies, and Strept. faecalis isolated from 20 babies. Early gut colonization by GBS, Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium spp. was noticed in more babies delivered vaginally than by caesarean section where colonization by these bacteria was relatively delayed. The use of prophylactic penicillin plus gentamicin in the special neonatal unit probably prevented systemic spread of any of the potential opportunistic pathogens during the study. PMID:3891849

  8. Premature ovarian insufficiency: how to improve reproductive outcome?

    PubMed

    Ben-Nagi, J; Panay, N

    2014-06-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a life-changing condition that affects women in their reproductive age. The condition is not necessarily permanent but is associated with intermittent and unpredictable ovarian activity. Hence, spontaneous pregnancies have been reported to be 5-10%. However, pregnancy in patients with POI is still unlikely and rare. Although, there are reviews on POI in the literature, there is a lack of reports which focus on how to improve the reproductive outcome of these women who wish to conceive spontaneously or use assisted conception with their own oocytes. We found that there is no conclusive evidence of which treatment is optimal for women with POI who wish to conceive using their own gametes. However, one could surmise that it is important to lower gonadotropin levels into the physiological range before embarking on any treatment, even if natural conception is the only choice for the woman/couple. In the future, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials should be carried out, which may entail recruitment of patients from various centers nationally and internationally to increase the sample size and therefore achieve a powered study. This may standardize the treatment of women with POI who wish to conceive and ultimately have their biological child. PMID:24341612

  9. Stem cell therapies for treating osteoarthritis: prescient or premature?

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Deanne J; Banks, Tania A

    2014-12-01

    There has been unprecedented interest in recent years in the use of stem cells as therapy for an array of diseases in companion animals. Stem cells have already been deployed therapeutically in a number of clinical settings, in particular the use of mesenchymal stem cells to treat osteoarthritis in horses and dogs. However, an assessment of the scientific literature highlights a marked disparity between the purported benefits of stem cell therapies and their proven abilities as defined by rigorously controlled scientific studies. Although preliminary data generated from clinical trials in human patients are encouraging, therapies currently available to treat animals are supported by very limited clinical evidence, and the commercialisation of these treatments may be premature. This review introduces the three main types of stem cells relevant to veterinary applications, namely, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells, and draws together research findings from in vitro and in vivo studies to give an overview of current stem cell therapies for the treatment of osteoarthritis in animals. Recent advances in tissue engineering, which is proposed as the future direction of stem cell-based therapy for osteoarthritis, are also discussed. PMID:25457267

  10. Possible Role of Autoimmunity in Patients with Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Košir Pogačnik, Renata; Meden Vrtovec, Helena; Vizjak, Alenka; Uršula Levičnik, Alenka; Slabe, Nina; Ihan, Alojz

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the involvement of immune abnormality in patients with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). In addition to the known etiology, autoimmune disorders may be a pathologic mechanism for POI. Materials and Methods: Our study was a prospective controlled trial. Twenty women with POI, reasons other than autoimmune excluded, were enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of 17 healthy women. In both groups, family and personal history were taken and the levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, antithyroglobulin and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were determined. Antiovarian antibodies and subpopulations of peripheral blood T-lymhocytes were also determined. Results: Participants in the study group exhibited hypergonadotropichypogonadism, while high levels of follicle stimulating hormone and low levels of inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone were observed. In 16 (80%) patients, POI was associated in their personal and familial history with another autoimmune disease. Fifty percent of patients presented highly elevated antithyroid antibodies. The lymphocyte subset, especially B cells, was significantly higher (p=0.014), and peripheral regulatory lymphocytes CD25+ high were significantly lower (p=0.015) in the study group than in the control group. Anti- ovarian antibodies were detected in 20% of patients with POI. Conclusion: We presume that the presence of anti-ovarian antibodies together with abnormalities of cellular immunity may in some cases potentially represent the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism in idiopathic POI. PMID:24520498

  11. Obstructive respiratory events and premature atrial contractions after cardioversion.

    PubMed

    Linz, Dominik; Hohl, Mathias; Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix; Wirth, Klaus; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Böhm, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after electrical cardioversion (ECV) is increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). In patients with persistent AF, with (n=40) and without (n=32) obstructive respiratory events (OREs) during sedation for ECV, we determined the occurrence of premature atrial contractions (PACs) before and after insertion of a nasopharyngeal tube. The influence of acute obstructive respiratory events on atrial electrophysiology after termination of AF was studied in pigs. Incidence of PACs directly after ECV was higher in patients with OREs compared to those without OREs (7±2 versus 1±1 per 10 s, respectively; p<0.01). Occurrence of PACs could be reduced by 79% by insertion of a nasopharyngeal tube. In a subsequent sleeping study, patients with OREs had higher apnoea-hypopnoea indices and more PACs during night. 16 patient with and four patients without OREs had a relapse of AF during 1 week after ECV (p<0.01). In pigs, acute OREs after 30 min of AF increased occurrence of PACs and vulnerability for reinduction of AF, which could be attenuated by atropine, beta-blockers and renal denervation. OREs are associated with increased occurrence of PACs and more early relapse of AF. OREs increase occurrence of PACs and vulnerability for reinduction of AF by sympathovagal imbalance. PMID:25745047

  12. Lifelong premature ejaculation: definition, serotonergic neurotransmission and drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2005-06-01

    The ejaculation distribution theory (EDT) postulates a biological continuum of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) in men. Such an continuum has recently been found in two epidemiological stopwatch studies. In addition, a continuum of ejaculation latency time has also been demonstrated in laboratory rats. It is suggested that the invariable parts of ejaculation, i.e. premature and retarded ejaculation are highly influenced by genetic and neurobiological factors. In contrast, superimposed on biological roots, ejaculation of men, in the middle part of the continuum, is probably more easily influenced by environmental and psychological factors. A meta-analysis of 35 daily SSRI and clomipramine treatment studies demonstrated a similar efficacy for paroxetine, clomipramine, sertraline and fluoxetine, with paroxetine exerting the strongest effect on ejaculation. Based on fundamental insights into serotonergic neurotransmission, it is suggested that on-demand conventional SSRI treatment will not lead to similarly impressive ejaculation delay as that found after daily conventional SSRI treatment. Future studies with SSRIs with short half-lives, short T(max) and high C(max )should elucidate whether these pharmacokinetic properties are able to affect the pharmacodynamics of 5-HT neurons in such a way that immediate clinically relevant ejaculation delay occurs. PMID:15931533

  13. Retinopathy of prematurity: New developments bring concern and hope.

    PubMed

    Darlow, Brian A

    2015-08-01

    Blindness from retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Australian and New Zealand is an uncommon event although 3% of <31 weeks gestation infants receive treatment for the disease. New world-wide estimates of the incidence of blindness from ROP are much higher than previously at 20 000 children annually. The impact of severe ROP can be reduced through good evidence-based care of very preterm infants and careful organisation of eye examinations and follow-up services. Recent oxygen saturation targeting trial results might mean the adoption of higher targets than formerly in very preterm infants and will require vigilance to ensure all eligible infants are examined appropriately. A true screening examination for acute ROP might involve non-opthalmologists obtaining photographic retinal images and remote reading of these. Although treatment with laser gives good outcomes, there is interest in intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial factor agents, but issues concerning the systemic safety and retinal results of such treatment are unresolved. PMID:25757043

  14. The unfolded protein response affects readthrough of premature termination codons

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Yifat S; McClure, Michelle L; Rowe, Steven M; Sorscher, Eric J; Bester, Assaf C; Manor, Miriam; Kerem, Eitan; Rivlin, Joseph; Zahdeh, Fouad; Mann, Matthias; Geiger, Tamar; Kerem, Batsheva

    2014-01-01

    One-third of monogenic inherited diseases result from premature termination codons (PTCs). Readthrough of in-frame PTCs enables synthesis of full-length functional proteins. However, extended variability in the response to readthrough treatment is found among patients, which correlates with the level of nonsense transcripts. Here, we aimed to reveal cellular pathways affecting this inter-patient variability. We show that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) governs the response to readthrough treatment by regulating the levels of transcripts carrying PTCs. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed substantial differences in UPR activation between patients carrying PTCs, correlating with their response. We further found a significant inverse correlation between the UPR and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), suggesting a feedback loop between these homeostatic pathways. We uncovered and characterized the mechanism underlying this NMD-UPR feedback loop, which augments both UPR activation and NMD attenuation. Importantly, this feedback loop enhances the response to readthrough treatment, highlighting its clinical importance. Altogether, our study demonstrates the importance of the UPR and its regulatory network for genetic diseases caused by PTCs and for cell homeostasis under normal conditions. PMID:24705877

  15. Association of Amino Acids with Common Complications of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Dagle, John M; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Ehinger, Noah; Poole, Stanley D.; Berberich, Stanton L.; Reese, Jeff; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Background Tandem mass spectrometry has been proposed as a method of diagnosing or predicting the development of common complex neonatal diseases. Our objective was to identify metabolites associated with common complications of prematurity. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of medical data and metabolite measurements from routine neonatal screening on 689 preterm (<37 weeks of gestational age) neonates. Results We observed higher levels of phenylalanine in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS; P=1.7×10−5), the only association that was significant after correction for multiple testing. We found suggestive significance (P<0.001) of higher essential amino acids in infants with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Functionality of these findings was explored in the ductus arteriosus (DA) isolated from term and preterm mouse pups. None of the amino acids had a direct vasodilatory effect on the isolated DA. Conclusion We found newborns with RDS had higher levels of phenylalanine that may be due to impaired phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. We also detected marginally higher levels of all measured essential amino acids in infants with PDA. We did not find dilation of the mouse ductus for these metabolites indicating that instead of potentially causing PDA they are likely serving as markers of catabolism. PMID:23481552

  16. The genetics of premature ovarian failure: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Chevy; Cree, Lynsey; Shelling, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of infertility in women, characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotropin levels in women under the age of 40. Many genes have been identified over the past few years that contribute to the development of POF. However, few genes have been identified that can explain a substantial proportion of cases of POF. The unbiased approaches of genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing technologies have identified several novel genes implicated in POF. As only a small proportion of genes influencing idiopathic POF have been identified thus far, it remains to be determined how many genes and molecular pathways may influence idiopathic POF development. However, owing to POF’s diverse etiology and genetic heterogeneity, we expect to see the contribution of several new and novel molecular pathways that will greatly enhance our understanding of the regulation of ovarian function. Future genetic studies in large cohorts of well-defined, unrelated, idiopathic POF patients will provide a great opportunity to identify the missing heritability of idiopathic POF. The identification of several causative genes may allow for early detection and would provide better opportunity for early intervention, and furthermore, the identification of specific gene defects will help direct potential targets for future treatment. PMID:26445561

  17. The Encephalopathy of Prematurity: One Pediatric Neuropathologist’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Hannah C.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding brain injury in the premature brain is the establishment of the precise human neuropathology at the cellular and molecular levels, as such knowledge is the foundation upon which the elucidation of the cause(s), scientific experimentation, and therapies in the field is by necessity based. In this essay, I provide my perspective as a pediatric neuropathologist upon pathologic studies in the developing human brain itself, including a review of past, present, and future aspects. My focus is upon the path that has brought us to the current recognition that preterm brain injury is a complex of white and gray matter damage that results in the modification of key developmental pathways during a critical period, which in turn defines the adverse clinical outcomes as important as the primary insult itself. The evolution of this recognition, as well as the introduction of the term “encephalopathy of prematurity” for the complex of gray and white matter damage because of acquired and developmental mechanisms, is discussed. Our enhanced understanding of the fundamental neuropathology of the human preterm brain should bring us closer to more effective therapy as the need to prevent and treat injury to developing oligodendrocytes and neurons in combination is appreciated. PMID:19945652

  18. Emerging treatments for premature ejaculation: focus on dapoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Hellstrom, Wayne JG

    2009-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common problem in men worldwide. It has a significant impact on affected men and their partners in terms of self-esteem, dissatisfaction with their sexual relationships, personal distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Psychological therapies may achieve short-term improvements, but there are limited data on the long-term success of these methods. Oral therapy with long-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) improves intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), but these agents are designed to be administered daily and may be associated with unwanted sexual side effects and withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt discontinuation. Dapoxetine is a short-acting SSRI that can be taken as needed (prn) by men with PE. It has been studied in five separate multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving more than 6000 men with PE. In four studies that evaluated IELT as an endpoint (N = 4843), dapoxetine 30 and 60 mg prn achieved statistically significant increases in IELT versus placebo. Dapoxetine also showed statistically significant improvements in perceived control over ejaculation, PE-related personal distress, and other patient-reported outcomes in all five trials. Dapoxetine treatment is generally well-tolerated, with low incidences of discontinuation syndrome, sexual dysfunction, and treatment-emergent mood symptoms. The most common adverse events with dapoxetine included nausea, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, and somnolence. PMID:19557098

  19. Integrating psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Di Sante, Stefania; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the different approaches to the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE), with a final focus on integrated treatment, as conventional theories and therapies for PE are based on an organic or psychogenic dichotomy. Methods We list the principal hypotheses of the causes and therapy of PE on the basis of psychological and medical perspectives, after identifying all relevant studies available on Medline up to 2012. Results The cognitive feedback from PE can lead to a ‘performance anxiety’, which can combine with other conditions to further impair ejaculatory control. For these reasons, a psychological approach is always useful in treating PE, the most useful of which are sex therapy and behavioural therapy. For pharmacological treatment, reports suggest that dapoxetine (60 mg) significantly improves the control of the ejaculatory reflex, and it thus represents the first-line officially approved pharmacotherapy for PE. Conclusions A holistic approach which considers the biological, psychological and relational aspects is the advised treatment for PE. Integrated medical and psycho-sexological therapy requires a mutual understanding of and respect for the different disciplines involved in sexology. In this aspect two very important roles are those of the physician and the psychologist. PMID:26558097

  20. Common questions about outpatient care of premature infants.

    PubMed

    Gauer, Robert L; Burket, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Eric

    2014-08-15

    Preterm births (deliveries before 37 weeks' gestation) comprise 12% of all U.S. births and are responsible for onethird of all infant deaths. Neonatal medical advances have increased survival, and primary care physicians often care for infants who were in the neonatal intensive care unit after birth. Functions of the primary care physician include coordination of medical and social services, nutritional surveillance, and managing conditions associated with prematurity. Parental guidance and encouragement are often necessary to ensure appropriate feeding and infant weight gain. Enriched formula and nutrient fortifiers are used for infants with extrauterine growth restriction. Iron supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants, and iron-fortified formula for formula-fed infants. Screening for iron deficiency anemia in preterm infants should occur at four months of age and at nine to 12 months of age. Gastroesophageal reflux is best treated with nonpharmacologic options because medications provide no long-term benefits. Neurodevelopmental delay occurs in up to 50% of preterm infants. Developmental screening should be performed at every well-child visit. If developmental delay is suspected, more formalized testing may be required with appropriate referral. To prevent complications from respiratory syncytial virus infection, palivizumab is recommended in the first year of life during the respiratory syncytial virus season for all infants born before 29 weeks' gestation and for infants born between 29 and 32 weeks' gestation who have chronic lung disease. Most preterm infants have minimal longterm sequelae. PMID:25250998

  1. Suppression of Premature Termination Codons as a Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Kim M.; Wang, Dan; Conard, Sara E.; Bedwell, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we describe our current understanding of translation termination and pharmacological agents that influence the accuracy of this process. A number of drugs have been identified that induce suppression of translation termination at in-frame premature termination codons (PTCs; also known as nonsense mutations) in mammalian cells. We discuss efforts to utilize these drugs to suppress disease-causing PTCs that result in the loss of protein expression and function. In-frame PTCs represent a genotypic subset of mutations that make up ~11% of all known mutations that cause genetic diseases, and millions of patients have diseases attributable to PTCs. Current approaches aimed at reducing the efficiency of translation termination at PTCs (referred to as PTC suppression therapy) have the goal of alleviating the phenotypic consequences of a wide range of genetic diseases. Suppression therapy is currently in clinical trials for treatment of several genetic diseases caused by PTCs, and preliminary results suggest that some patients have shown clinical improvements. While current progress is promising, we discuss various approaches that may further enhance the efficiency of this novel therapeutic approach. PMID:22672057

  2. Recent advances in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Kate D; Wylie, Kevan R

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual problem affecting men. It can affect men at all ages and has a serious impact on the quality of life for men and their partners. Currently there are no pharmaceutical agents approved for use in the UK, and so all drugs used for this condition are off label. Behavioral therapy has been used to treat PE, but the results are not durable once therapy has been concluded. Several topical therapies have been used including severance-secret (SS) cream, lignocaine spray, lidocaine-prilocaine cream and lidocaine-prilocaine spray (TEMPE). There has been recent interest in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for the treatment of PE, due to the fact that one of their common side effects is delayed ejaculation. Currently used SSRIs have several non-sexual side effects and long half lives, therefore there has been interest in developing a short acting, efficacious SSRI that can be used on-demand for PE. Dapoxetine has been recently evaluated for the treatment of PE by several groups, and results so far appear promising. PMID:20368901

  3. Patterned progression of bacterial populations in the premature infant gut.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Patricio S; Warner, Barbara B; Zhou, Yanjiao; Weinstock, George M; Sodergren, Erica; Hall-Moore, Carla M; Stevens, Harold J; Bennett, William E; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Linneman, Laura A; Hoffmann, Julie A; Hamvas, Aaron; Deych, Elena; Shands, Berkley A; Shannon, William D; Tarr, Phillip I

    2014-08-26

    In the weeks after birth, the gut acquires a nascent microbiome, and starts its transition to bacterial population equilibrium. This early-in-life microbial population quite likely influences later-in-life host biology. However, we know little about the governance of community development: does the gut serve as a passive incubator where the first organisms randomly encountered gain entry and predominate, or is there an orderly progression of members joining the community of bacteria? We used fine interval enumeration of microbes in stools from multiple subjects to answer this question. We demonstrate via 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of 922 specimens from 58 subjects that the gut microbiota of premature infants residing in a tightly controlled microbial environment progresses through a choreographed succession of bacterial classes from Bacilli to Gammaproteobacteria to Clostridia, interrupted by abrupt population changes. As infants approach 33-36 wk postconceptional age (corresponding to the third to the twelfth weeks of life depending on gestational age at birth), the gut is well colonized by anaerobes. Antibiotics, vaginal vs. Caesarian birth, diet, and age of the infants when sampled influence the pace, but not the sequence, of progression. Our results suggest that in infants in a microbiologically constrained ecosphere of a neonatal intensive care unit, gut bacterial communities have an overall nonrandom assembly that is punctuated by microbial population abruptions. The possibility that the pace of this assembly depends more on host biology (chiefly gestational age at birth) than identifiable exogenous factors warrants further consideration. PMID:25114261

  4. [Model for simulation of heat loss by premature infants].

    PubMed

    Frankenberger, R T; Bussmann, O; Nahm, W; Konecny, E

    1998-05-01

    A prerequisite for the further improvement in the quality of warming therapy is an accurate knowledge of the interactions between the microclimate in warming therapy devices and the thermal balance of the infant. For generating this knowledge, thermal manikins can be helpful. Suitable models capable of also simulating evaporative heat loss in preterm infants have, however, not been available to date. A thermal manikin representing an infant weighing 530 g and capable of simulating convective, radiative and also evaporative heat loss has now been developed. It comprises an outer shell made of porous, anatomically shaped clay, and is divided into six compartments each of which can be heated individually. Water-filled Gore-Tex bags located immediately beneath the shell are provided to simulate evaporation. In a clinical study, temperature profiles of 8 very small preterm infants were measured thermographically. Measurements in the manikin showed that highly comparable temperature profiles with only minor differences could be obtained. Total heat and water losses by the manikin were in good agreement with clinical values. Using the model described here it is possible to simulate the heat exchange of premature infants under extreme and accurately reproducible environmental conditions. This manikin may thus serve as a tool for comparative studies, for the development of warming therapy equipment, or for training purposes. PMID:9616993

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone in women with premature ovarian failure and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ott, J; Pecnik, P; Promberger, R; Pils, S; Seemann, R; Hermann, M; Frigo, P

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in premature ovarian failure (POF) patients with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and the impact of DHEA supplementation on thyroid autoantibodies. In a retrospective case series, we included 67 women with spontaneous POF who received estrogen/gestagen replacement with or without DHEA (30 mg/day) for 3 months. Women who were seropositive for thyroglobulin antibodies and/or thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (n = 30) revealed lower pretherapeutic DHEAS levels (1.2 μg/ml, range 0.4-2.9 μg/ml vs. 1.9 μg/ml, range 0.2-3.9 μg/ml; p < 0.001). DHEAS showed an inverse correlation with both thyroglobulin antibodies (r = -0.426, p < 0.001) and thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (r = -0.362, p = 0.002). When treated with additional DHEA, significant decreases were found for thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (median 85.0 IU/ml, range 41-600 IU/ml vs. median 51.0 IU/ml, range 20-589 IU/ml; p = 0.005) but not for thyroglobulin antibodies. PMID:23647522

  6. New agents in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G; McMahon, Chelsea N; Leow, Liang Joo

    2006-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have “definite” PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have “probable” PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains and is well tolerated. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitors (ESSTIs) such as dapoxetine and UK-390,957 represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control, and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects. PMID:19412497

  7. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    PubMed

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation. PMID:9177368

  8. Mode of Delivery in Premature Neonates: Does It Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Racusin, Diana A.; Antony, Kathleen M.; Haase, Jennifer; Bondy, Melissa; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective  Despite the current prevalence of preterm births, no clear guidelines exist on the optimal mode of delivery. Our objective was to investigate the effects of mode of delivery on neonatal outcomes among premature infants in a large cohort. Study Design  We applied a retrospective cohort study design to a database of 6,408 births. Neonates were stratified by birth weight and a composite score was calculated to assess neonatal outcomes. The results were then further stratified by fetal exposure to antenatal steroids, birth weight, and mode of delivery. Results  No improvement in neonatal outcome with cesarean delivery (CD) was noted when subjects were stratified by mode of delivery, both in the presence or absence of antenatal corticosteroid administration. In the 1,500 to 1,999 g subgroup, there appears to be an increased risk of respiratory distress syndromes in neonates born by CD. Conclusion  In our all-comers cohort, replicative of everyday obstetric practice, CD did not improve neonatal outcomes in preterm infants. PMID:27468363

  9. Ecthyma gangrenosum in a premature low-birth-weight newborn.

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Kumar, A

    2011-12-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum is a well-recognised cutaneous infection in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. It is commonly associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia. Classic lesions of ecthyma gangrenosum comprise deep ulcers with ecchymotic, gangrenous centres, bright red areolae and typical raised, purplish, indurated, rolled-out edges. We report ecthyma gangrenosum in a premature low-birth-weight neonate, delivered at home to a third gravida mother with history of chorioamnionitis. He was admitted to a private hospital on third day of life, with a diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis and received multiple antibiotics over next 22 days. The infant was referred to the paediatrics emergency department of Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University in a condition of shock, pneumonitis and generalised sepsis. Two gangrenous ulcers with gray-black eschar were present, one over the neck and another over the back. He was diagnosed as a case of neonatal sepsis with ecthyma gangrenosum. Blood culture revealed growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, sensitive only to imipenem. The infant died the day following admission. PMID:22240885

  10. The macular findings on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in premature infants with or without retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Huseyin; Bilgec, Mustafa Deger; Erol, Nazmiye; Basmak, Hikmet; Colak, Ertugrul

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to present spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings in premature infants with or without mild-to-severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Seventy-two infants born <37 weeks of gestation were analyzed, prospectively. Group 1 (n = 18) included infants without ROP. Infants with stage 1, 2, or 3 ROP without indication for treatment formed the second group (n = 15). Group 3 (n = 21) included threshold cases, who would receive laser photocoagulation (LPC) after OCT examinations. Group 4 (n = 18) had already received LPC. The mean central foveal thickness (CFT) (μm) in right eyes was 194.27 ± 19.93, 207.67 ± 25.44, 224.29 ± 21.42, and 222.00 ± 37.80, for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (p = 0.01). The presence of a well-formed foveal pit was documented in 60 % of right and 67 % of left eyes in group 1, while a well-formed foveal pit was observed in 14 % of right and 16 % of left eyes in group 3 (p < 0.05). Cystoid macular edema (CME) was shown in 29 % of right and 21 % of left eyes in group 3 (p < 0.05 for right eyes). CME was observed in two of right and left eyes in group 4. Epiretinal membrane (ERM) was shown in one right eye in group 3, two right and four left eyes in group 4 (p < 0.05 for left eyes). Thicker CFT, CME, and failure of a well-formed foveal pit could be related to the severity of ROP. The development of ERM could be the consequence of LPC. PMID:26750097

  11. Sensor fusion for synthetic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.; Larimer, J.; Ahumada, A.

    1991-01-01

    Display methodologies are explored for fusing images gathered by millimeter wave sensors with images rendered from an on-board terrain data base to facilitate visually guided flight and ground operations in low visibility conditions. An approach to fusion based on multiresolution image representation and processing is described which facilitates fusion of images differing in resolution within and between images. To investigate possible fusion methods, a workstation-based simulation environment is being developed.

  12. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  13. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  14. Generic magnetic fusion rocket model

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, J.F.; Logan, B.G.

    1993-06-01

    A generic magnetic fusion rocket model is developed and used to explore the limits of fusion propulsion systems. Two fusion fuels are examined, D-T and D-(He-3), and the D-(He-3) fuel cycle is found to give a higher specific power in almost all parameter regimes. The key findings are that (1) magnetic fusion should ultimately be able to deliver specific powers of about 10 kW/kg and (2) specific powers of 15 kW/kg could be achieved with only modest extrapolations of present technology. 9 refs.

  15. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents.

  16. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  17. COLLABORATIVE: FUSION SIMULATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-05

    New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, participated in the “Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) Planning Activities” [http://www.pppl.gov/fsp], with C.S. Chang as the institutional PI. FSP’s mission was to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. Specific institutional goal of the New York University was to participate in the planning of the edge integrated simulation, with emphasis on the usage of large scale HPCs, in connection with the SciDAC CPES project which the PI was leading. New York University successfully completed its mission by participating in the various planning activities, including the edge physics integration, the edge science drivers, and the mathematical verification. The activity resulted in the combined report that can be found in http://www.pppl.gov/fsp/Overview.html. Participation and presentations as part of this project are listed in a separation file.

  18. Cold nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Bavizhev, M. D.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction's theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300-700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He∗.

  19. Suspected Central Anticholinergic Syndrome Related to Cycloplegic Eye Drop in a Premature Baby

    PubMed Central

    Bedirli, Nurdan; Akgün, Fatma; Hondur, Ahmet; Işık, Berrin

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic approach for the central anticholinergic syndrome after application of cycloplegic eye drops in a premature infant patient who was scheduled for laser photocoagulation under general anesthesia is reviewed in the light of the relevant literature. PMID:25207025

  20. Genomics In Premature Infants: A Non-Invasive Strategy To Obtain High-Quality DNA

    PubMed Central

    Said, Mariam; Cappiello, Clint; Devaney, Joseph M.; Podini, Daniele; Beres, Alana L.; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Rais-Bahrami, Khodayar; Luban, Naomi C.; Sandler, Anthony D.; Tatari-Calderone, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    We used a cost-effective, non-invasive method to obtain high-quality DNA from buccal epithelial-cells (BEC) of premature infants for genomic analysis. DNAs from BEC were obtained from premature infants with gestational age ≤ 36 weeks. Short terminal repeats (STRs) were performed simultaneously on DNA obtained from the buccal swabs and blood from the same patient. The STR profiles demonstrated that the samples originated from the same individual and exclude any contamination by external DNAs. Whole exome sequencing was performed on DNAs obtained from BEC on premature infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis, and successfully provided a total number of reads and variants corroborating with those obtained from healthy blood donors. We provide a proof of concept that BEC is a reliable and preferable source of DNA for high-throughput sequencing in premature infants. PMID:24598548

  1. 14 CFR § 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... orbit. If a complete-pallet or shared-element flight is prematurely terminated, NASA shall refund a pro rata share of the charges for planned, but unused, extra days on orbit to customers whose...

  2. Method of testing carbide inserts for premature fracture by face milling of cylindrical workpieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, R.; Akasawa, T.; Okusa, K.

    1984-12-01

    Methods are proposed for face milling solid cylindrical workpieces or half-cut and hollow cylindrical workpieces prepared from rectangular blocks by continuously changing both or either of the angles of engagement and disengagement. Carbide inserts are tested for premature fracture before the onset of steady wear using these face-milling methods. The premature fracture indicates the insufficient toughness of carbides to perform a given machining job. As carbides of higher wear resistance have lower shock resistance in general, they must be tested for premature fracture due to the lack of toughness to select suitable carbides for specific cutting applications. The test results obtained under the present study show that the premature fracture of carbides, whose toughness was classified by static toughness tests, can be evaluated dynamically and easily by the proposed face-milling methods.

  3. The Challenge of Understanding Cerebral White Matter Injury in the Premature Infant

    PubMed Central

    Elitt, Christopher M.; Rosenberg, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    White matter injury in the premature infant leads to motor and more commonly behavioral and cognitive problems that are a tremendous burden to society. While there has been much progress in understanding unique vulnerabilities of developing oligodendrocytes over the past 30 years, there remain no proven therapies for the premature infant beyond supportive care. The lack of translational progress may be partially explained by the challenge of developing relevant animal models when the etiology remains unclear, as is the case in this disorder. There has been an emphasis on hypoxia-ischemia and infection/inflammation as upstream etiologies, but less consideration of other contributory factors. This review highlights the evolution of white matter pathology in the premature infant, discusses the prevailing proposed etiologies, critically analyzes a sampling of common animal models and provides detailed support for our hypothesis that nutritional and hormonal deprivation may be additional factors playing critical and overlooked roles in white matter pathology in the premature infant. PMID:24838063

  4. Dr Mary Crosse, OBE, MD (1900–1972) and the premature baby

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, P M

    2007-01-01

    On behalf of Birmingham's Department of Public Health, Dr Crosse developed the Sorrento Premature Baby Unit in 1931 and pioneered the modern care of these small newborn infants in Britain. PMID:17337665

  5. [Factors family background of mothers involved in having a premature baby].

    PubMed

    Kamburova, M; Hristova, I

    2014-01-01

    Level of prematurity is an objective criterion for determining the health welfare of the population. Several family background factors of the mother increases the risk of preterm birth child - family status, unwanted pregnancy, etc. Pregnancy among unmarried women and unwanted pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of giving premature baby. Aim of this study is a survey and analysis of factors of family background of the mother (family status and unplanned pregnancy) and their influence on the birth of a premature baby. The survey found nearly three times higher risk OR = 2,83 95 % CI (1,7-4,7) for the birth of a premature baby among unmarried mothers compared to married women, and twice as high proportion of unplanned pregnancy mothers of preterm infants - 20.7% compared to terminfants-10.4%. PMID:25509643

  6. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  7. Physics of Fusion Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Applicabilities and limitations of three techniques analyzed. NASA technical memorandum discusses physics of electron-beam, gas/ tungsten-arc, and laser-beam welding. From comparison of capabilities and limitations of each technique with regard to various welding conditions and materials, possible to develop criteria for selecting best welding technique in specific application. All three techniques classified as fusion welding; small volume of workpiece melted by intense heat source. Heat source moved along seam, leaving in wake solid metal that joins seam edges together.

  8. Interventions to treat premature ejaculation: a systematic review short report.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Premature ejaculation (PE) is commonly defined as ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it. PE can be either lifelong and present since first sexual experiences (primary), or acquired (secondary), beginning later (Godpodinoff ML. Premature ejaculation: clinical subgroups and etiology. J Sex Marital Ther 1989;15:130-4). Treatments include behavioural and pharmacological interventions. OBJECTIVE To systematically review evidence for clinical effectiveness of behavioural, topical and systemic treatments for PE. DATA SOURCES The following databases were searched from inception to 6 August 2013 for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and the Health Technology Assessment database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) website were also searched. METHODS Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult men with PE were eligible (or non-RCTs in the absence of RCTs). RCT data were extrapolated from review articles when available. The primary outcome was intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Data were meta-analysed when possible. Other outcomes included sexual satisfaction, control over ejaculation, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, treatment acceptability and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS A total of 103 studies (102 RCTs, 65 from reviews) were included. RCTs were available for all interventions except yoga. The following interventions demonstrated significant improvements (p < 0.05) in arithmetic mean difference in IELT compared with placebo: topical anaesthetics - eutectic

  9. The premature formation of high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Melia, Fulvio

    2014-05-01

    Observations with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope and the use of gravitational lensing techniques have facilitated the discovery of galaxies as far back as z ∼ 10-12, a truly remarkable achievement. However, this rapid emergence of high-z galaxies, barely ∼200 Myr after the transition from Population III star formation to Population II, appears to be in conflict with the standard view of how the early universe evolved. This problem has much in common with the better known (and probably related) premature appearance of supermassive black holes at z ≳ 6. It is difficult to understand how ∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} black holes could have appeared so quickly after the big bang without invoking non-standard accretion physics and the formation of massive seeds, neither of which is seen in the local universe. In earlier work, we showed that the appearance of high-z quasars could instead be understood more reasonably in the context of the R {sub h} = ct universe, which does not suffer from the same time compression issues as ΛCDM does at early epochs. Here, we build on that work by demonstrating that the evolutionary growth of primordial galaxies was consistent with the current view of how the first stars formed, but only with the timeline afforded by the R {sub h} = ct cosmology. We also show that the growth of high-z quasars was mutually consistent with that of the earliest galaxies, though it is not yet clear whether the former grew from 5-20 M {sub ☉} seeds created in Population III or Population II supernova explosions.

  10. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity: a report from upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Mahmoud M.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To detect the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a tertiary referral neonatal intensive care unit in upper Egypt and to describe the obstacles faced during implementing the screening protocol for the first time. METHODS Consecutive infants were enrolled at birth and screened for ROP. We used the UK ROP guideline (May 2008) for infant selection, follow up and treatment. Repeat examinations were performed until retinal vascularisation was complete. RESULTS Fifty-two infants were enrolled: 24 males and 28 females. Mean gestational age was 31.3wk (±2.8 SD) and mean birth weight was 1234.6 g (±221.1 SD). Incidence of ROP was 36.5% (stages 1, 2, 3 and 4a were 9.6%, 9.6%, 15.4% and 1.9% respectively), no stages 4b or 5 were found in this series. Six infants (11.5%) died during screening without ROP, 25 infants (48.1%) were discharged from screening with retinal vascularisation reaching zone III, 5 infants (9.6%) were treated with indirect diode with or without additional cryotherapy and 16 infants (30.8%) were lost to follow up. In this series gestational age rather than birth weight was found significantly correlated and predictive (P<0.05) with ROP stages. CONCLUSION ROP in a single site in Upper Egypt appears to have comparable incidence to other areas worldwide. The main screening obstacle was missing cases due to the absence of a national ROP screening protocol. PMID:26949647

  11. Procedural Pain and Oxidative Stress in Premature Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Laurel; Asmerom, Yayesh; Boskovic, Danilo S.; Bahjri, Khaled; Plank, Megan S; Angeles, Katherine R.; Phillips, Raylene; Deming, Douglas; Ashwal, Stephen; Hougland, Kristen; Fayard, Elba; Angeles, Danilyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Preterm neonates exposed to painful NICU procedures exhibit increased pain scores and alterations in oxygenation and heart rate. It is unclear whether these physiologic responses increase the risk of oxidative stress. Using a prospective study design, we examined the relationship between a tissue-damaging procedure (TDP, tape removal during discontinuation of an indwelling central arterial or venous catheter) and oxidative stress in 80 preterm neonates. Oxidative stress was quantified by measuring uric acid (UA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma before and after neonates experienced a TDP (n=38) compared to those not experiencing any TDP (control group, n=42). Pain was measured before and during the TDP using the Premature Infant Pain Profile(PIPP). We found that pain scores were higher in the TDP group compared to the control group (median scores:11 and 5, respectively, P<0.001). UA significantly decreased over time in control neonates but remained stable in TDP neonates (132.76μM to 123.23μM vs.140.50μM to 138.9μM, P=0.002). MDA levels decreased over time in control neonates but increased in TDP neonates (2.07μM to 1.81μM vs. 2.07μM to 2.21μM, P=0.01). We found significant positive correlations between PIPP scores and MDA. Our data suggest a significant relationship between procedural pain and oxidative stress in preterm neonates. PMID:22543043

  12. Survey on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the incidence and the relative risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and posterior-ROP (P-ROP): ROP in Zone I and posterior Zone II, as well as to analyze the occurrence of surgical treatment of ROP and to evaluate the short term outcome of the disease in Italy. Methods It is a prospective multicenter observational study; all infants with a birth weight (BW) ≤ 750 g and/or a gestational age (GA) ≤27 weeks born between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2009 in 25 III level Italian neonatal intensive care units were eligible for the study. Results 421 infants were examined: 265 (62.9%) developed ROP and 102 (24.2%) P-ROP. Following the multivariate analysis erythropoietin-therapy (p < 0.0001) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with ROP while gestational age ≤24 weeks (p = 0.011) and sepsis (p = 0.002) were associated with the onset of P-ROP. Eighty nine infants (34%) required surgical treatment; following the multivariate analysis P-ROP was an independent factor associated with the need of surgical treatment (p < 0.0001). A favorable outcome was reported in 251 (94.7%) newborns affected by ROP. Adverse outcome occurred in 14 patients: all of them underwent surgery and showed P-ROP. Conclusions P-ROP is the most aggressive type of ROP. It associates with lower GA and sepsis. Obstetricians and Neonatologists must focus on the reduction of severe preterm births and on the prevention of neonatal early and late onset sepsis in order to reduce the incidence of P-ROP. PMID:23837411

  13. Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Maeve E; Grantz, Katherine L; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Kim, Sung Soo; Mendola, Pauline

    2016-06-15

    Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a major factor that predisposes women to preterm delivery. Results from previous studies have suggested that there are associations between exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, but evidence of a relationship with PROM is sparse. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models were used to estimate mean exposures to particulate matter less than 10 µm or less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone among 223,375 singleton deliveries in the Air Quality and Reproductive Health Study (2002-2008). We used log-linear models with generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for PROM per each interquartile-range increase in pollutants across the whole pregnancy, on the day of delivery, and 5 hours before delivery. Whole-pregnancy exposures to carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide were associated with an increased risk of PROM (for carbon monoxide, relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.14; for sulfur dioxide, RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.25) but not preterm PROM. Ozone exposure increased the risk of PROM on the day of delivery (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.09) and 1 day prior (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07). In the 5 hours preceding delivery, there were 3%-7% increases in risk associated with exposure to ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter and inverse associations with exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Acute and long-term air pollutant exposures merit further study in relation to PROM. PMID:27188941

  14. Skewed birth sex ratio and premature mortality in elephants.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2009-10-01

    Sex allocation theories predict equal offspring number of both sexes unless differential investment is required or some competition exists. Left undisturbed, elephants reproduce well and in approximately even numbers in the wild. We report an excess of males are born and substantial juvenile mortality occurs, perinatally, in captivity. Studbook data on captive births (CB, n=487) and premature deaths (PD, <5 years of age; n=164) in Asian and African elephants in Europe and North America were compared with data on Myanmar timber (Asian) elephants (CB, n=3070; PD, n=738). Growth in CB was found in three of the captive populations. A significant excess of male births occurred in European Asian elephants (ratio: 0.61, P=0.044) and in births following artificial insemination (0.83, P=0.003), and a numerical inclination in North American African elephants (0.6). While juvenile mortality in European African and Myanmar populations was 21-23%, it was almost double (40-45%) in all other captive populations. In zoo populations, 68-91% of PD were within 1 month of birth with stillbirth and infanticide being major causes. In Myanmar, 62% of juvenile deaths were at >6 months with maternal insufficient milk production, natural hazards and accidents being the main causes. European Asian and Myanmar elephants PD was biased towards males (0.71, P=0.024 and 0.56, P<0.001, respectively). The skewed birth sex ratio and high juvenile mortality hinder efforts to help captive populations become self-sustaining. Efforts should be invested to identify the mechanism behind these trends and seek solutions for them. PMID:19058933

  15. Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Retinopathy of Prematurity: Inject or Not?

    PubMed

    Hapsari, Dini; Sitorus, Rita S

    2014-01-01

    This article is aimed to review and summarize the indications, outcomes and safety profiles regarding the use of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) as reported in previous studies with no intention to compare the efficacy between intravitreal bevacizumab and laser photocoagulation.Literature search was conducted in databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, Ovid, and Ophthalmology Advance using the terms "ROP," "antiangiogenic," "antivascular endothelial growth factor," "intravitreal bevacizumab," and "Avastin."Eight prospective studies of 278 eyes of ROP infants and 15 retrospective studies involving 385 eyes of ROP infants treated with intravitreal bevacizumab were found. Bevacizumab was used as monotherapy, adjunctive therapy, and/or combined therapy.The varied use of intravitreal bevacizumab in treating ROP and he limited number of landmark studies contribute to the difficulties in drawing a strong conclusion in this review. Intravitreal bevacizumab was more commonly injected in: (1) type 1 ROP zone I and/or posterior zone II; (2) aggressive posterior ROP with poor retinal visualization in which laser photocoagulation would be difficult to perform; and (3) stage 4 ROP before vitrectomy. All cases demonstrated regression of neovascular activity during a varied follow-up period (from 1 week to 1 month) after injection. However, recurrence may occur. Follow-up until 80 weeks of postmenstrual age is thus recommended. Acceleration of fibrous traction is the most common ocular adverse effect after injection, whereas the systemic adverse effect remains uncertain. Landmark studies of the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab injection in treating ROP are warranted. PMID:26107980

  16. Cell cycle and centromere FISH studies in premature centromere division

    PubMed Central

    Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Salamanca-Gomez, Fabio; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Palomino-Cueva, Cesar; Garcia-Cobian, Teresa A; Corona-Rivera, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    Background Mitotic configurations consistent in split centromeres and splayed chromatids in all or most of the chromosomes or premature centromere division (PCD) have been described in three categories. (1) Low frequency of PCD observed in colchicines-treated lymphocyte cultures from normal individuals. (2) High frequency of PCD with mosaic variegated aneuploidy. (3) High frequency of PCD as a sole chromosome abnormality observed in individuals with no recognizable clinical pattern. We report four members of a family with the third category of PCD. Methods Cell cycle duration assessed by average generation time using differential sister chromatid stain analysis and FISH studies of DNA centromere sequences in PCD individuals, are included and compared with previously reported PCD individuals from 9 families. Results We observed PCD in colchicine-treated cultures from the propositus, his father, and two paternal aunts but not in his mother and four other paternal and maternal family members, as well as in untreated cultures from the propositus and his father. We observed cytological evidence of active centromeres by Cd stain. Significative cell cycle time reduction in anaphases of PCD individuals (average generation time of 21.8 h;SD 0.4) with respect to individuals without PCD (average generation time of 31.8 h;SD 3.9) was observed (P < 0.005, Student t-test for independent samples). Increased cell proliferation kinetics was observed in anaphasic cells of individuals with PCD, by differential sister chromatid stain analysis. FISH studies revealed the presence of alpha satellite DNA from chromosomes 1, 13, 21/18, X, all centromeres, and CENP-B box sequences in metaphasic and anaphasic cells from PCD individuals. Conclusion This report examines evidences of a functional relationship between PCD and cell cycle impairment. It seems that essential centromere integrity is present in these cases. PMID:16174301

  17. The Premature Formation of High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2014-05-01

    Observations with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope and the use of gravitational lensing techniques have facilitated the discovery of galaxies as far back as z ~ 10-12, a truly remarkable achievement. However, this rapid emergence of high-z galaxies, barely ~200 Myr after the transition from Population III star formation to Population II, appears to be in conflict with the standard view of how the early universe evolved. This problem has much in common with the better known (and probably related) premature appearance of supermassive black holes at z >~ 6. It is difficult to understand how ~109 M ⊙ black holes could have appeared so quickly after the big bang without invoking non-standard accretion physics and the formation of massive seeds, neither of which is seen in the local universe. In earlier work, we showed that the appearance of high-z quasars could instead be understood more reasonably in the context of the R h = ct universe, which does not suffer from the same time compression issues as ΛCDM does at early epochs. Here, we build on that work by demonstrating that the evolutionary growth of primordial galaxies was consistent with the current view of how the first stars formed, but only with the timeline afforded by the R h = ct cosmology. We also show that the growth of high-z quasars was mutually consistent with that of the earliest galaxies, though it is not yet clear whether the former grew from 5-20 M ⊙ seeds created in Population III or Population II supernova explosions.

  18. Recapitulation of premature ageing with iPSCs from Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Hui; Barkho, Basam Z; Ruiz, Sergio; Diep, Dinh; Qu, Jing; Yang, Sheng-Lian; Panopoulos, Athanasia D; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Kurian, Leo; Walsh, Christopher; Thompson, James; Boue, Stephanie; Fung, Ho Lim; Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio; Zhang, Kun; Yates, John; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-14

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal human premature ageing disease, characterized by premature arteriosclerosis and degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). HGPS is caused by a single point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene, resulting in the generation of progerin, a truncated splicing mutant of lamin A. Accumulation of progerin leads to various ageing-associated nuclear defects including disorganization of nuclear lamina and loss of heterochromatin. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts obtained from patients with HGPS. HGPS-iPSCs show absence of progerin, and more importantly, lack the nuclear envelope and epigenetic alterations normally associated with premature ageing. Upon differentiation of HGPS-iPSCs, progerin and its ageing-associated phenotypic consequences are restored. Specifically, directed differentiation of HGPS-iPSCs to SMCs leads to the appearance of premature senescence phenotypes associated with vascular ageing. Additionally, our studies identify DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNAPKcs, also known as PRKDC) as a downstream target of progerin. The absence of nuclear DNAPK holoenzyme correlates with premature as well as physiological ageing. Because progerin also accumulates during physiological ageing, our results provide an in vitro iPSC-based model to study the pathogenesis of human premature and physiological vascular ageing. PMID:21346760

  19. Music and 25% glucose pain relief for the premature infant: a randomized clinical trial 1

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Farias, Leiliane Martins; de Melo, Gleicia Martins

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the total Premature Infant Pain Profile scores of premature infants undergoing arterial puncture during music and 25% glucose interventions, and to assess their association with neonatal and therapeutic variables. METHOD: a randomized clinical trial with 80 premature infants; 24 in the Experimental Group 1 (music), 33 in the Experimental Group 2 (music and 25% glucose), 23 in the Positive Control Group (25% glucose). All premature infants were videotaped and a lullaby was played for ten minutes before puncture in Experimental Groups 1 and 2; 25% glucose administered in Experimental Group 2 and the Positive Control Group two minutes before puncture. RESULTS: 60.0% of premature infants had moderate or maximum pain; pain scores and intervention groups were not statistically significant. Statistically significant variables: Experimental Group 1: head and chest circumference, Apgar scores, corrected gestational age; Experimental Group 2: chest circumference, Apgar scores, oxygen therapy; Positive Control group: birth weight, head circumference. CONCLUSION: neonatal variables are associated with pain in premature infants. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: UTN: U1111-1123-4821. PMID:25493677

  20. Caffeine restriction has no role in the management of patients with symptomatic idiopathic ventricular premature beats.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, D. E.; Neilson, J. M.; Jarvie, D. R.; Boon, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of caffeine restriction in the management of patients with symptomatic idiopathic ventricular premature beats. DESIGN: A randomised, double blind, 6 week intervention trial incorporating dietary caffeine restriction, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. SETTING: Cardiac outpatient clinic. PATIENTS: 13 patients with symptomatic frequent idiopathic ventricular premature beats. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weekly measures of serum caffeine concentration, coffee consumption, visual analogue score of palpitations, and 24 hour ventricular premature beat frequency. RESULTS: The interventions achieved significant alterations in serum caffeine concentrations (P < 0.001) which correlated with coffee consumption (r = 0.70; P < 0.001). Visual analogue palpitation scores showed a small, but significant correlation with ventricular premature beat frequencies (r = 0.34; P = 0.003). However, there were no significant changes in palpitation scores or ventricular premature beat frequencies during the intervention weeks and no significant correlations were found between these variables and serum caffeine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine restriction has no role in the management of patients referred with symptomatic idiopathic ventricular premature beats. PMID:8983684

  1. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  2. Inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, L.; Condouris, R.; Kotowski, M.; Murphy, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains seven articles that describe recent progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's ICF program. The Department of Energy recently initiated an effort to design a 1--2 MJ glass laser, the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). These articles span various aspects of a program which is aimed at moving forward toward such a facility by continuing to use the Nova laser to gain understanding of NIF-relevant target physics, by developing concepts for an NIF laser driver, and by envisioning a variety of applications for larger ICF facilities. This report discusses research on the following topics: Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen; A Maxwell Equation Solver in LASNEX for the Simulation of Moderately Intense Ultrashort Pulse Experiments; Measurements of Radial Heat-Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Plasmas; Laser-Seeded Modulation Growth on Directly Driven Foils; Stimulated Raman Scattering in Large-Aperture, High-Fluence Frequency-Conversion Crystals; Fission Product Hazard Reduction Using Inertial Fusion Energy; Use of Inertial Confinement Fusion for Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulations.

  3. Statistics in fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, D. H.

    1997-11-01

    Since the reasons for the variability in data from plasma experiments are often unknown or uncontrollable, statistical methods must be applied. Reliable interpretation and public accountability require full data sets. Two examples of data misrepresentation at PPPL are analyzed: Te >100 eV on S-1 spheromak.(M. Yamada, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1327 (1985); reports to DoE; etc.) The reported high values (statistical artifacts of Thomson scattering measurements) were selected from a mass of data with an average of 40 eV or less. ``Correlated'' spectroscopic data were meaningless. (2) Extrapolation to Q >=0.5 for DT in TFTR.(D. Meade et al., IAEA Baltimore (1990), V. 1, p. 9; H. P. Furth, Statements to U. S. Congress (1989).) The DD yield used there was the highest through 1990 (>= 50% above average) and the DT to DD power ratio used was about twice any published value. Average DD yields and published yield ratios scale to Q<0.15 for DT, in accord with the observed performance over the last 3 1/2 years. Press reports of outlier data from TFTR have obscured the fact that the DT behavior follows from trivial scaling of the DD data. Good practice in future fusion research would have confidence intervals and other descriptive statistics accompanying reported numerical values (cf. JAMA).

  4. Fusion processor simulation (FPSim)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnell, Mark D.; Wynne, Douglas G.; Rahn, Brian J.

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Processor Simulation (FPSim) is being developed by Rome Laboratory to support the Discrimination Interceptor Technology (DITP) and Advanced Sensor Technology (ASTP) Programs of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. The purpose of the FPSim is to serve as a test bed and evaluation tool for establishing the feasibility of achieving threat engagement timelines. The FPSim supports the integration, evaluation, and demonstration of different strategies, system concepts, and Acquisition Tracking & Pointing (ATP) subsystems and components. The environment comprises a simulation capability within which users can integrate and test their application software models, algorithms and databases. The FPSim must evolve as algorithm developments mature to support independent evaluation of contractor designs and the integration of a number of fusion processor subsystem technologies. To accomplish this, the simulation contains validated modules, databases, and simulations. It possesses standardized engagement scenarios, architectures and subsystem interfaces, and provides a hardware and software framework which is flexible to support growth, reconfigurration, and simulation component modification and insertion. Key user interaction features include: (1) Visualization of platform status through displays of the surveillance scene as seen by imaging sensors. (2) User-selectable data analysis and graphics display during the simulation execution as well as during post-simulation analysis. (3) Automated, graphical tools to permit the user to reconfigure the FPSim, i.e., 'Plug and Play' various model/software modules. The FPSim is capable of hosting and executing user's software algorithms of image processing, signal processing, subsystems, and functions for evaluation purposes.

  5. The status of cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  6. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  7. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  8. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  9. Feature-level sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Tamar; Young, Mon; Knox, Robert; Ellis, Kenneth K.; Bennett, Frederick

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes two practical fusion techniques for automatic target cueing that combine features derived from each sensor data ta the object-level. In the hybrid fusion method each of the input sensor data is prescreened before the fusion stage. The cued fusion method assumes that one of the sensors is designated as a primary sensor, and thus ATC is only applied to its input data. If one of the sensors exhibits a higher Pd and/or a lower false alarm rate, it can be selected as the primary sensor. However, if the ground coverage can be segmented to regions in which one of the sensors is known to exhibit better performance, then the cued fusion can be applied locally/adaptively by switching the choice of a primary sensor. Otherwise, the cued fusion is applied both ways and the outputs of each cued mode are combined. Both fusion approaches use a back-end discrimination stage that is applied to a combined feature vector to reduce false alarms. The two fusion processes were applied to spectral and radar sensor data nd were shown to provide substantial false alarm reduction. The approaches are easily extendable to more than two sensors.

  10. The quest for fusion power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Steven C.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion power is one of a very few sustainable options to replace fossil fuels as the world's primary energy source. Although the conditions for fusion have been reached, much remains to be done to turn scientific success into commercial electrical power.

  11. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  12. Magnetic fusion energy and computers

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups.

  13. Pediatric Frostbite Treated by Negative Pressure Wound Therapy.

    PubMed

    Poulakidas, Stathis J; Kowal-Vern, Areta; Atty, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Frostbite injury in children can lead to abnormal growth and premature fusion of the epiphyseal cartilage with long-term sequela including, but not limited to, arthroses, deformity, and amputation of the phalanges. This was a retrospective chart review of pediatric frostbite identified in an in-house burn center registry from March 1999 to March 2014. Therapeutic management included negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Three patients (age 16-31 months) had frostbitten hands because they were outside in cold weather without gloves. They presented within 24 hours after injury, underwent 5-6 days of NPWT after excision of blisters, and did not lose the distal portion of their digits, or require amputations. On follow-up, all hands were healed well with only minimal or no effect on the growth plate of these pediatric patients. In the early period after frostbite, NPWT may be beneficial in preserving the epiphyseal cartilage in children and preventing long-term complications. PMID:26284629

  14. Information integration for data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  15. Tramadol Use in Premature Ejaculation: Daily Versus Sporadic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Amil H.; Rasaily, Deepa

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Premature ejaculation (PME) is defined as ejaculation with the minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and or before a person wishes it. It is a function of the time between intra-vaginal penetration and intra-vaginal ejaculation. Tramadol has shown efficacy in PME when used as sporadic basis. In this study, we compared the use of 100 mg of tramadol as sporadic treatment (administered 6-8 h before coitus) versus continued treatment with the objective of evaluating the therapeutic results of both modalities. We assumed our alternative hypothesis that they have similar effects. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 60 patients divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and coital frequency were measured both prior to and after the treatment. Group A received tramadol 100 mg daily for 4 weeks and on request (sporadically) for 4 weeks more. Group B was given placebo in the same manner. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student t-test. Results: Mean IELT prior to treatment was 59.2 s in Group A and 58.7 s in Group B. Mean pre-treatment coital frequency was 2.44 times/week for Group A and 2.13 times/week for Group B. Mean IELT was 202.5 s after continued tramadol treatment and 238.2 s after sporadic treatment in Group A. Mean IELT with daily placebo was 94.8 s and with sporadic placebo was 96.6 s. Coital frequency increased to 4.32 times/week with daily tramadol treatment and 4.86 times with sporadic treatment. Coital frequency increased to 2.88 times/week with daily placebo treatment and 3.23 times with sporadic treatment. Conclusions: The results of PME treatment with tramadol are similar with both continued and sporadic administration. The sex life of patients improved and they reported greater satisfaction with the sporadic treatment. PMID:24249927

  16. Genes involved in the pathogenesis of premature ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, C; Regini, C; Vellucci, F L; Petraglia, F; Luisi, S

    2015-10-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined by the presence of primary or secondary amenorrhea, for at least 4 months, before the age of 40 years associated with follicle stimulating homone levels in menopausal range, exciding 40 UI/L. The diagnosis is confirmed by two blood sample at least 1 month to measure the level of FSH (over 40 UI/L) and level of estradiol (below 50 pmol/L). Ovarian follicular dysfunction and/or depletion of functional primordial follicles characterized this pathology. Abnormal bleeding patterns also include oligomenrrhea and polimenorrhea; because of these irregular menstrual cycles during adolescence, diagnosis could be difficult in young women. Excluding the cases in which an etiopathogenetic agent could be identified, such as in case of chemio- and radiotherapy or extensive surgery, women with autoimmune diseases and/or infections, the etiology of POI remains idiopathic. An important genetic component exists, supported by both a frequent recurring familiar event (20-30%) and the association with other different genetic disorders in particular the X chromosome defects and the implication of some different genes with significant functions in ovarian development. For most of the women the diagnosis of POI is unexpected because of there are no obvious signs or symptoms that precede the cessation of periods with a normal menstrual history, age of menarche and fertility prior to the onset of menopause. The diagnosis of POI has a deleterious psychological impact on the emotional sphere of the women affected: anger, depression, anxiety and sadness are common and the fact that the diagnosis coincides with infertility needs a psychological support. Oral hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) administration is not recommended as first choice of treatment because of the higher hormones concentration with respect to the real hormones necessity of the patients and transdermal HRT may be preferred in women with coagulation disturbances to relief

  17. Maternal and fetal outcomes in term premature rupture of membrane

    PubMed Central

    Endale, Tigist; Fentahun, Netsanet; Gemada, Desta; Hussen, Mamusha Aman

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM) is linked to significant maternal prenatal mortalities and morbidity. In Ethiopia, where maternal mortality is still high, the maternal and fetal outcomes in PROM is very important to decrease maternal and child mortality and for better management and prevention of complications. Thus, this study aimed to detect the maternal and fetal outcomes and associated factors in term PROM at Mizan-Aman General Hospital, south-west Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted using data available at Mizan-Aman General Hospital during a period of 3 years (January 2011 to December 2013). We examined records of 4 525 women who gave birth in the hospital; out of these women, 185 were diagnosed with term PROM and all of them were included in the study. The data of these women were collected using a checklist based on registration books. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical package. The association between independent and dependent variables was assessed by bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. 95%CI and P value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 4 525 women who gave birth in the hospital, 202 were complicated by term PROM. About 22.2% of the women showed unfavorable maternal outcomes. The most common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality was puerperal sepsis. About 33.5% of neonates experienced unfavorable outcomes. The duration of PROM >12 hours (AOR=5.6, 95%CI 1.3–24.1) latency >24 hours (AOR=2.8, 95%CI 1.7–11.8), residing in rural areas (AOR=4.2, 95%CI 3.96–29.4) and birth weight less than 2 500 g were associated with unfavorable outcomes. CONCLUSION: Women residing in rural areas, long latency, and neonates with birth weight less 2 500 g may have unfavorable outcomes. Therefore, optimum obstetric and medical care is essential for the reduction of the devastating complications related to disorders. PMID:27313811

  18. Behavioral Therapies for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined by short ejaculatory latency and inability to delay ejaculation causing distress. Management may involve behavioral and/or pharmacological approaches. Aim To systematically review the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence for behavioral therapies in the management of PE. Methods Nine databases including MEDLINE were searched up to August 2014. Included RCTs compared behavioral therapy against waitlist control or another therapy, or behavioral plus drug therapy against drug treatment alone. [Correction added on 10 September 2015, after first online publication: Search period has been amended from August 2013 to August 2014.] Main Outcome Measure Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), sexual satisfaction, ejaculatory control, and anxiety and adverse effects. Results Ten RCTs (521 participants) were included. Overall risk of bias was unclear. All studies assessed physical techniques, including squeeze and stop-start, sensate focus, stimulation device, and pelvic floor rehabilitation. Only one RCT included a psychotherapeutic approach (combined with stop-start and drug treatment). Four trials compared behavioral therapies against waitlist control, of which two (involving squeeze, stop-start, and sensate focus) reported IELT differences of 7–9 minutes, whereas two (web-based sensate focus, stimulation device) reported no difference in ejaculatory latency posttreatment. For other outcomes (sexual satisfaction, desire, and self-confidence), some waitlist comparisons significantly favored behavioral therapy, whereas others were not significant. Three trials favored combined behavioral and drug treatment over drug treatment alone, with small but significant differences in IELT (0.5–1 minute) and significantly better results on other outcomes (sexual satisfaction, ejaculatory control, and anxiety). Direct comparisons of behavioral therapy vs. drug treatment gave mixed results, mostly either favoring drug

  19. Role of sequence and structure of the Hendra fusion protein fusion peptide in membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Everett Clinton; Gregory, Sonia M; Tamm, Lukas K; Creamer, Trevor P; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-08-24

    Viral fusion proteins are intriguing molecular machines that undergo drastic conformational changes to facilitate virus-cell membrane fusion. During fusion a hydrophobic region of the protein, termed the fusion peptide (FP), is inserted into the target host cell membrane, with subsequent conformational changes culminating in membrane merger. Class I fusion proteins contain FPs between 20 and 30 amino acids in length that are highly conserved within viral families but not between. To examine the sequence dependence of the Hendra virus (HeV) fusion (F) protein FP, the first eight amino acids were mutated first as double, then single, alanine mutants. Mutation of highly conserved glycine residues resulted in inefficient F protein expression and processing, whereas substitution of valine residues resulted in hypofusogenic F proteins despite wild-type surface expression levels. Synthetic peptides corresponding to a portion of the HeV F FP were shown to adopt an α-helical secondary structure in dodecylphosphocholine micelles and small unilamellar vesicles using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Interestingly, peptides containing point mutations that promote lower levels of cell-cell fusion within the context of the whole F protein were less α-helical and induced less membrane disorder in model membranes. These data represent the first extensive structure-function relationship of any paramyxovirus FP and demonstrate that the HeV F FP and potentially other paramyxovirus FPs likely require an α-helical structure for efficient membrane disordering and fusion. PMID:22761418

  20. Repair welding of fusion reactor components. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, B.A.; Wang, C.A.

    1997-09-30

    The exposure of metallic materials, such as structural components of the first wall and blanket of a fusion reactor, to neutron irradiation will induce changes in both the material composition and microstructure. Along with these changes can come a corresponding deterioration in mechanical properties resulting in premature failure. It is, therefore, essential to expect that the repair and replacement of the degraded components will be necessary. Such repairs may require the joining of irradiated materials through the use of fusion welding processes. The present ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conceptual design is anticipated to have about 5 km of longitudinal welds and ten thousand pipe butt welds in the blanket structure. A recent study by Buende et al. predict that a failure is most likely to occur in a weld. The study is based on data from other large structures, particularly nuclear reactors. The data used also appear to be consistent with the operating experience of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This reactor has a fuel pin area comparable with the area of the ITER first wall and has experienced one unanticipated fuel pin failure after two years of operation. The repair of irradiated structures using fusion welding will be difficult due to the entrapped helium. Due to its extremely low solubility in metals, helium will diffuse and agglomerate to form helium bubbles after being trapped at point defects, dislocations, and grain boundaries. Welding of neutron-irradiated type 304 stainless steels has been reported with varying degree of heat-affected zone cracking (HAZ). The objectives of this study were to determine the threshold helium concentrations required to cause HAZ cracking and to investigate techniques that might be used to eliminate the HAZ cracking in welding of helium-containing materials.

  1. Fusion pumped light source

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  2. Microwave superheaters for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.; Hoffman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-10-16

    The microwave superheater uses the synchrotron radiation from a thermonuclear plasma to heat gas seeded with an alkali metal to temperatures far above the temperature of material walls. It can improve the efficiency of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle described elsewhere in these proceedings. For a proof-of-principle experiment using helium, calculations show that a gas superheat ..delta..T of 2000/sup 0/K is possible when the wall temperature is maintained at 1000/sup 0/K. The concept can be scaled to reactor grade systems. Because of the need for synchrotron radiation, the microwave superheater is best suited for use with plasmas burning an advanced fuel such as D-/sup 3/He. 5 refs.

  3. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  4. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of laser radiation. A tokamak fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The tokamak design provides a temperature and a magnetic field which is effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10.sup.15 neutrons/cm.sup.2.s. A conversion medium receives neutrons from the tokamak and converts the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and an energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. The energy source typically comprises fission fragments, alpha particles, and radiation from a fission event. A lasing medium is provided which is responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion which is effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation.

  5. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  6. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  7. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  8. Systematic Review of Digital Imaging Screening Strategies for Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Alex R.; Wallace, David K.; Quinn, Graham E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Retinal imaging with remote interpretation could decrease the number of diagnostic eye examinations that premature infants need for the detection of retinopathy of prematurity and thus decrease the time demand on the relatively small pool of ophthalmologists who perform retinopathy of prematurity examinations. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to review systematically the evidence regarding the reliability, validity, safety, costs, and benefits of retinal imaging to screen infants who are at risk for retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS We searched Medline, the Cochrane library, CINAHL, and the bibliographies of all relevant articles. All English-language studies regardless of design with primary data about our study questions were included. We excluded (1) studies that only included subjects with retinopathy of prematurity, (2) hypothetical models other than cost-effectiveness studies, and (3) validity studies without sufficient data to determine prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity or that only evaluated subjects for 1 component of retinopathy of prematurity (eg, plus disease only). RESULTS Studies of only 1 retinal imaging device (RetCam [Clarity Medical Systems, Inc, Pleasanton, CA]) met the inclusion criteria. There was a wide range in reported sensitivity, but specificity was high. There were several important limitations noted, including the eye as the unit of analysis instead of the individual or variations in the criteria for determining a true-positive or true-negative screening result. The risk of retinal hemorrhage resulting from imaging is low, and systemic effects (eg, bradycardia, hypertension, decreased oxygen saturation) are mild. No generalizable cost-effectiveness data were found. CONCLUSIONS The evidence base is not sufficient to recommend that retinal imaging be routinely adopted by NICUs to identify infants who have serious retinopathy of prematurity. PMID:18829807

  9. Prospects for bubble fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, R.I.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  10. Analytical performance evaluation for autonomous sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. C.

    2008-04-01

    A distributed data fusion system consists of a network of sensors, each capable of local processing and fusion of sensor data. There has been a great deal of work in developing distributed fusion algorithms applicable to a network centric architecture. Currently there are at least a few approaches including naive fusion, cross-correlation fusion, information graph fusion, maximum a posteriori (MAP) fusion, channel filter fusion, and covariance intersection fusion. However, in general, in a distributed system such as the ad hoc sensor networks, the communication architecture is not fixed. Each node has knowledge of only its local connectivity but not the global network topology. In those cases, the distributed fusion algorithm based on information graph type of approach may not scale due to its requirements to carry long pedigree information for decorrelation. In this paper, we focus on scalable fusion algorithms and conduct analytical performance evaluation to compare their performance. The goal is to understand the performance of those algorithms under different operating conditions. Specifically, we evaluate the performance of channel filter fusion, Chernoff fusion, Shannon Fusion, and Battachayya fusion algorithms. We also compare their results to NaÃve fusion and "optimal" centralized fusion algorithms under a specific communication pattern.

  11. Future of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J H; Wood, L L

    2002-09-04

    In the past 50 years, fusion R&D programs have made enormous technical progress. Projected billion-dollar scale research facilities are designed to approach net energy production. In this century, scientific and engineering progress must continue until the economics of fusion power plants improves sufficiently to win large scale private funding in competition with fission and non-nuclear energy systems. This economic advantage must be sustained: trillion dollar investments will be required to build enough fusion power plants to generate ten percent of the world's energy. For Inertial Fusion Energy, multi-billion dollar driver costs must be reduced by up to an order of magnitude, to a small fraction of the total cost of the power plant. Major cost reductions could be achieved via substantial improvements in target performance-both higher gain and reduced ignition energy. Large target performance improvements may be feasible through a combination of design innovations, e.g., ''fast ignition,'' propagation down density gradients, and compression of fusion fuel with a combination of driver and chemical energy. The assumptions that limit projected performance of fusion targets should be carefully examined. The National Ignition Facility will enable development and testing of revolutionary targets designed to make possible economically competitive fusion power plants.

  12. Intermittent internal fixation with a locking plate to preserve epiphyseal growth function during limb-salvage surgery in a child with osteosarcoma of the distal femur: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jiong; Ni, Ming; Jia, Guang-Yao; Chen, Yan-Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Limb shortening is a problem associated with surgery for osteosarcoma of the lower extremity in adolescents, as the tumors frequently occur near the epiphysis. Herein we report the use of a less invasive stabilization system (LISS) and an intermittent fixation method to preserve the growth function of epiphysis in an 11-year-old patient with an osteosarcoma of the distal femur.The 11-year-old male presented with left knee enlargement and pain for 2 weeks, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy were consistent with osteosarcoma of the left distal femur. After preoperative chemotherapy, en bloc tumor resection was performed with margins based on MRI findings preserving the epiphyseal growth plate, the tumor cavity was filled with inactivated bone and bone cement, and a LISS was used to stabilize the femur. Aggressive postoperative chemotherapy was given. Approximately 105 weeks after surgery radiography showed that the distal end of the plate had moved superior to the epiphysis along with bone growth. Locking screws were placed in the distal part of the LISS plate to stabilize the re-implanted bone, and external fixation was not needed.The patient was able to walk with the crutches 1 week postoperatively, and bear weight on the extremity 6 weeks postoperatively. At 6 years after surgery, the patient's height had increased 52 cm, shortening of the affected limb was only 1 cm, and the circumference of the affected limb was 2 cm smaller than that of the contralateral limb. There was no significant discomfort in the affected limb, and there was no gait abnormality. The patient could jump and run, and could participate in sports including basketball and badminton to the same degree as his peers.In summary, the novel method of bone reconstruction and fixation provided good results in a child with an osteosarcoma of the distal femur. This fixation method preserves the osteogenic function of the epiphysis and restored bone integrity simultaneously, and

  13. Simulation Science for Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoric, M. M.; Sudo, S.

    2008-07-01

    The world fusion effort has recently entered a new age with the construction of ITER in Cadarache, France, which will be the first magnetic confinement fusion plasma experiment dominated by the self-heating of fusion reactions. In order to operate and control burning plasmas and future demo fusion reactors, an advanced ability for comprehensive computer simulations that are fully verified and validated against experimental data will be necessary. The ultimate goal is to develop the capability to predict reliably the behavior of plasmas in toroidal magnetic confinement devices on all relevant time and space scales. In addition to developing a sophisticated integrated simulation codes, directed advanced research in fusion physics, applied mathematics and computer science is envisaged. In this talk we review the basic strategy and main research efforts at the Department of Simulation Science of the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS)- which is the Inter University Institute and the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research in Japan. We overview a simulation research at NIFS, in particular relation to experiments in the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world's largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users' facility (see Motojima et al. 2003). Our main goal is understanding and systemizing the rich hierarchy of physical mechanisms in fusion plasmas, supported by exploring a basic science of complexity of plasma as a highly nonlinear, non-equilibrium, open system. The aim is to establish a simulation science as a new interdisciplinary field by fostering collaborative research in utilizing the large-scale supercomputer simulators. A concept of the hierarchy-renormalized simulation modelling will be invoked en route toward the LHD numerical test reactor. Finally, a perspective role is given on the ITER Broad Approach program at Rokkasho Center, as an integrated part of ITER and Development of Fusion Energy Agreement.

  14. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  15. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  16. The path to fusion power†

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris Llewellyn; Cowley, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The promise, status and challenges of developing fusion power are outlined. The key physics and engineering principles are described and recent progress quantified. As the successful demonstration of 16 MW of fusion in 1997 in the Joint European Torus showed, fusion works. The central issue is therefore to make it work reliably and economically on the scale of a power station. We argue that to meet this challenge in 30 years we must follow the aggressive programme known as the ‘Fast Track to Fusion’. This programme is described in some detail. PMID:20123748

  17. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  18. Effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, B E; Paul, D A; Hoffman, M; Locke, R

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Retrospective cohort study of maternal deliveries at a single regional center from 2009 to 2010 time period (n = 11,711). Generalized linear models were used for the analysis to estimate an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Analysis controlled for diabetes, chronic hypertension, previous preterm birth, smoking and insurance status. The demographics of the study population were as follows, race/ethnicity had predominance in the White/Non-Hispanic population with 60.1%, followed by the Black/Non-Hispanic population 24.2%, the Hispanic population with 10.3% and the Asian population with 5.4%. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight showed that the population with a normal body mass index (BMI) was 49.4%, followed by the population being overweight with 26.2%, and last, the population which was obese with 24.4%. Maternal obesity increased the odds of prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian population (aOR 1.40, CI 1.12-1.75; aOR 2.20, CI 1.23-3.95; aOR 3.07, CI 1.16-8.13, respectively). Although the Black/Non-Hispanic population prematurity rate remains higher than the other race/ethnicity populations, the Black/Non-Hispanic population did not have an increased odds of prematurity in obese mothers (OR 0.87; CI 0.68-1.19). Unlike White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic mothers, normal pre-pregnancy BMI in Black/Non-Hispanic mothers was not associated with lower odds for prematurity. The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese. Analysis controlled for chronic hypertension, diabetes, insurance status, prior preterm birth and smoking. Obesity is a risk factor for prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic population, but not for the

  19. The impact of pharmaceutical innovation on premature cancer mortality in Switzerland, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2016-09-01

    The premature cancer mortality rate has been declining in Switzerland, but there has been considerable variation in the rate of decline across cancer sites (e.g., breast or digestive organs). I analyze the effect that pharmaceutical innovation had on premature cancer mortality in Switzerland during the period 1995-2012 by investigating whether the cancer sites that experienced more pharmaceutical innovation had larger declines in premature mortality, controlling for the number of people diagnosed and mean age at diagnosis. Premature cancer mortality before ages 75 and 65 is significantly inversely related to the cumulative number of drugs registered 5, 10, and 15 years earlier. The number of drugs registered during 1980-1997 explains 63 % of the variation across cancer sites in the 1995-2012 log change in the premature (before age 75) mortality rate. Controlling for the cumulative number of drugs, the cumulative number of chemical subgroups does not have a statistically significant effect on premature mortality. This suggests that drugs (chemical substances) within the same class (chemical subgroup) are not "therapeutically equivalent". Over 17,000 life-years before age 75 were gained in 2012 due to drugs registered during 1990-2007. The number of life-years before age 75 gained in 2012 from drugs registered during two earlier periods (1985-2002 and 1980-1997) were more than twice as great. Since mean utilization of new drugs is much lower than mean utilization of older drugs, more recent drug registrations may have a smaller effect on premature mortality than earlier drug registrations even if the average quality of newer drugs is higher. Estimates of the cost per life-year gained before ages 75 and 65 in 2012 from drugs registered during 1990-2007 are $21,228 and $28,673, respectively. These figures are below even the lowest estimates from the value-of-life literature of the value of a quality-adjusted life-year. The estimates indicate that the cost per life

  20. Adjusting to being a father to an infant born prematurely: experiences from Swedish fathers.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Birgitta; Axelsson, Karin; Ohrling, Kerstin

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of being a father to a prematurely born infant. Eight fathers of prematurely born children were interviewed using a narrative approach, and a thematic content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. The fathers described that the preterm birth gave them the chance to get to know their infant as they had to spend time at the intensive care unit. They also felt better educated by professionals who helped them take care of their infant. Their feelings and attachment for their infant increased over time and the fathers felt that they had a stronger bond with their child compared with friends who had babies born at term. As time passed, they became more confident as a father. In spite of the strain, the experience made them change as a person and they expressed having different values. The relationship with their partner was strengthened as they handled this situation together as a couple. However, the fathers felt fortunate despite everything and described having managed a prematurely born infant rather well. Although there are similarities between being a father to a child born at term and to one born preterm, it is significant to gain further knowledge about the specific experiences of fathers of prematurely born infants. The results of this study have implications for nurses working with families who have children born prematurely. PMID:18269426