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Sample records for premises combustion du

  1. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  2. Application de l'A.D.L, pour la mesure du champ de vitesses instationnaires de llecoulement a Ilechappement d'un moteur a combustion interne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutrif, M. S.; Thelliez, M.

    1993-01-01

    We present experimental results of instantaneous velocity measurement, which were obtained by application of the laser Doppler anemometry (L.D.A.) at the exhaust pipe of a reciprocating engine under real working conditions. First of all, we show that the instantaneous velocity is monodimensional along a straight exhaust pipe, and that the boundary layer develops within a 2mm thickness. We also show that the cylinder discharges in two phases : the blow down period and the final part of exhaust stroke. We also make obvious, that the flow escapes very quickly : its velocity varies between - 100m/s and 200m/s within a period shorter than 1ms ; thereby, we do record the acoustic resonance phenomenon, when the engine speed is greater than 3 000rpm. Finally, we show that in the exhaust pipe the apparent fluctuation - i.e. the cyclic dispersion and the actual turbulence - may reach 15%. Nous présentons des résultats expérimentaux du champ de vitesses instationnaires, obtenus par adaptation et application de la vélocimétrie laser interférentielle communément appelée à effet Doppler (L.D.A.), à l'échappement d'un moteur altematif à combustion inteme en fonctionnement nominal. Tout d'abord, nous montrons que dans un tube d'échappement long et droit, la vitesse instantanée est bien monodimensionnelle et que l'écoulement occupe la quasitotalité de la section droite géométrique du tube (une couche limite d'épaisseur inférieure à 2mm se développe très près de la paroi du tube). Nous pouvons également décrire la vidange du cylindre du moteur étudié en deux phases principales : bouffée d'échappement et refoulement des gaz brûlés par le piston. Nous mettons de même en évidence l'état très pulsé de l'écoulement, puisqu'en un intervalle de temps inférieur à 1ms, la vitesse de l'écoulement varie de - 100m/s à 200m/s ; nous enregistrons ainsi l'apparition du phénomène de résonance acoustique à des vitesses de rotation supérieures à 3 500

  3. Spatial Premise Integration in Hindi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Spatial reasoning or locating objects in a spatial space has long been an important area of research in cognitive science because analyzing space categorically and finding objects is a fundamental act of mental perception and cognition. Premise integration in tasks of spatial reasoning has recently received considerable research attention. This is…

  4. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  5. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  6. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  7. 27 CFR 40.502 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.502... Tobacco § 40.502 Factory premises. (a) General. The premises used by a manufacturer of processed tobacco... the factory is in more than one building and each building is not identifiable by a separate...

  8. 27 CFR 40.502 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.502... Tobacco § 40.502 Factory premises. (a) General. The premises used by a manufacturer of processed tobacco... the factory is in more than one building and each building is not identifiable by a separate...

  9. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  10. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  11. 7 CFR 51.55 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Premises. 51.55 Section 51.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Contract Basis § 51.55 Premises. The premises shall be free from conditions objectionable to...

  12. 27 CFR 44.112 - Emergency premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Emergency premises. 44.112 Section 44.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.112 Emergency premises. In cases of...

  13. 27 CFR 44.112 - Emergency premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency premises. 44.112 Section 44.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.112 Emergency premises. In cases of...

  14. 27 CFR 19.1001 - Consignee premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignee premises. 19.1001 Section 19.1001 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.1001 Consignee premises. (a) General. When spirits are received by transfer in...

  15. 7 CFR 51.55 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premises. 51.55 Section 51.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A Contract Basis § 51.55 Premises....

  16. 7 CFR 8.4 - Basic premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic premises. 8.4 Section 8.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.4 Basic premises. (a) The 4-H Club Name and Emblem are held in trust by the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States Department of...

  17. Reasoning from transitive premises: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Bonnefond, Mathilde; Castelain, Thomas; Cheylus, Anne; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies have contributed to a major advance in understanding the neural and cognitive mechanisms underpinning deductive reasoning. However, the dynamics of cognitive events associated with inference making have been largely neglected. Using electroencephalography, the present study aims at describing the rapid sequence of processes involved in performing transitive inference (A B; B C therefore "A C"; with AB meaning "A is to the left of B"). The results indicate that when the second premise can be integrated into the first one (e.g. A B; B C) its processing elicits a P3b component. In contrast, when the second premise cannot be integrated into the first premise (e.g. A B; D C), a P600-like components is elicited. These ERP components are discussed with respect to cognitive expectations. PMID:25014410

  18. 36 CFR 702.2 - Conduct on Library premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conduct on Library premises. 702.2 Section 702.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.2 Conduct on Library premises. (a) All persons using the premises shall conduct themselves in such manner as not to affect detrimentally...

  19. 36 CFR 702.2 - Conduct on Library premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conduct on Library premises. 702.2 Section 702.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.2 Conduct on Library premises. (a) All persons using the premises shall conduct themselves in such manner as not to affect detrimentally...

  20. 36 CFR 702.2 - Conduct on Library premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Conduct on Library premises. 702.2 Section 702.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.2 Conduct on Library premises. (a) All persons using the premises shall conduct themselves in such manner as not to affect detrimentally...

  1. 36 CFR 702.2 - Conduct on Library premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct on Library premises. 702.2 Section 702.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.2 Conduct on Library premises. (a) All persons using the premises shall conduct themselves in such manner as not to affect detrimentally...

  2. 7 CFR 58.125 - Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Premises. 58.125 Section 58.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE...

  3. 27 CFR 19.508 - Consignor premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fuel plant, or (C) to cover the transfer of wine in bond to the bonded premises of a distilled spirits plant or bonded wine cellar; or (ii) the consignor proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant to cover the... conveyances and pipelines. When spirits, denatured spirits, or wines are to be transferred in bond in...

  4. The common premise for uncommon conclusions.

    PubMed

    Coady, C A J

    2013-05-01

    Recent controversy over philosophical advocacy of infanticide (or the comically-styled euphemism 'postnatal abortion') reveals a surprisingly common premise uniting many of the opponents and supporters of the practice. This is the belief that the moral status of the early fetus or embryo with respect to a right to life is identical to that of a newly born or even very young baby. From this premise, infanticidists and strong anti-abortionists draw opposite conclusions, the former that the healthy newly born have no inherent right to life and the latter that minute embryos and the very early fetus have the same right to life as young babies. (Indeed strong anti-abortionists tend to regard this right to life as identical to that possessed by adult humans.) This paper argues that these opposed conclusions are both deeply implausible and that the implausibility resides in the common premise. The argument requires some attention to the structure of the philosophical case underpinning the supposed vice of speciesism that has been given intellectual currency by many philosophers, most notably Peter Singer, and also to the reasoning behind the strong anti-abortionist adoption of the common premise. PMID:23637428

  5. 27 CFR 19.407 - Consignee premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identify separately any spirits that were produced at an alcohol fuel plant. Those spirits may not be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consignee premises. 19.407 Section 19.407 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  6. 27 CFR 19.407 - Consignee premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identify separately any spirits that were produced at an alcohol fuel plant. Those spirits may not be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consignee premises. 19.407 Section 19.407 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  7. 27 CFR 19.407 - Consignee premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identify separately any spirits that were produced at an alcohol fuel plant. Those spirits may not be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consignee premises. 19.407 Section 19.407 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  8. 27 CFR 19.510 - Consignee premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... at alcohol fuel plants shall be separately identified and accounted for as for fuel use, and may not... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignee premises. 19.510 Section 19.510 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  9. 27 CFR 19.407 - Consignee premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identify separately any spirits that were produced at an alcohol fuel plant. Those spirits may not be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consignee premises. 19.407 Section 19.407 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  10. 27 CFR 19.995 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Uses, Withdrawals and Transfers § 19.995 Use on premises. Spirits may be used as a fuel on the premises of the alcohol fuel plant... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use on premises....

  11. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  12. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  13. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  14. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  15. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Use of factory premises. 40... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  16. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  17. 27 CFR 24.101 - Bonded wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonded wine premises. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.101 Bonded wine premises. (a) General. A person desiring to conduct operations involving untaxpaid wine,...

  18. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  19. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  20. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  1. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  2. 27 CFR 44.89 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Separation of premises. 44... Proprietors § 44.89 Separation of premises. Where the export warehouse premises consist of less than an entire... separation shall be constructed of materials generally used in the construction of buildings and may...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is...

  4. 47 CFR 64.607 - Furnishing related customer premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing related customer premises equipment... Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.607 Furnishing related customer premises equipment. (a) Any communications common carrier may provide, under tariff, customer...

  5. 25 CFR 141.21 - Trade confined to premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Trade confined to premises. 141.21 Section 141.21 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.21 Trade confined to premises. The licensee shall confine all trade on the reservation to the premises specified in the license, except,...

  6. 25 CFR 141.21 - Trade confined to premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade confined to premises. 141.21 Section 141.21 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.21 Trade confined to premises. The licensee shall confine all trade on the reservation to the premises specified in the license, except,...

  7. 25 CFR 141.21 - Trade confined to premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trade confined to premises. 141.21 Section 141.21 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.21 Trade confined to premises. The licensee shall confine all trade on the reservation to the premises specified in the license, except,...

  8. 25 CFR 141.21 - Trade confined to premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade confined to premises. 141.21 Section 141.21 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.21 Trade confined to premises. The licensee shall confine all trade on the reservation to the premises specified in the license, except,...

  9. 25 CFR 141.21 - Trade confined to premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade confined to premises. 141.21 Section 141.21 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.21 Trade confined to premises. The licensee shall confine all trade on the reservation to the premises specified in the license, except,...

  10. Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001–2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water—not contaminants—that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control. PMID:25918909

  11. Common features of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-05-01

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001-2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water--not contaminants--that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control. PMID:25918909

  12. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized...

  13. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized...

  14. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized...

  15. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized...

  16. 50 CFR 20.83 - Inspection of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities § 20.83 Inspection of premises. No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized...

  17. 27 CFR 19.727 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use on premises. 19.727... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use, Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.727 Use on premises. A proprietor may use spirits as a fuel on...

  18. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  19. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  20. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  1. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  2. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  3. 27 CFR 18.41 - Separation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Separation of premises. 18.41 Section 18.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Establishment § 18.41 Separation of premises. The appropriate TTB officer may...

  4. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified...

  5. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified...

  6. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified...

  7. 27 CFR 44.111 - Change in export warehouse premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Change in export warehouse premises. 44.111 Section 44.111 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Qualification of Export Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.111 Change in...

  8. 27 CFR 19.53 - Continuity of plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Continuity of plant..., and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.53 Continuity of plant premises. As a general rule, the premises of a distilled spirits plant must be continuous except for separations...

  9. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified...

  10. 27 CFR 1.29 - Individual plant or premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individual plant or... Applications for Permits § 1.29 Individual plant or premises. An application for a basic permit must be filed, and permit issued, to cover each individual plant or premises where any of the businesses specified...

  11. 27 CFR 19.53 - Continuity of plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continuity of plant..., and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.53 Continuity of plant premises. As a general rule, the premises of a distilled spirits plant must be continuous except for separations...

  12. 27 CFR 19.828 - Removals from the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Plant Operations § 19.828 Removals from the premises. No person shall remove from the vinegar plant premises vinegar or other fluid or material containing more than 2% alcohol by volume. Records...

  13. 27 CFR 19.727 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use... premises of the alcohol fuel plant where they were produced without having to make them unfit for beverage... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use on premises....

  14. 27 CFR 19.727 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... premises of the alcohol fuel plant where they were produced without having to make them unfit for beverage... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use on premises. 19.727 Section 19.727 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  15. 27 CFR 19.727 - Use on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use... premises of the alcohol fuel plant where they were produced without having to make them unfit for beverage... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use on premises....

  16. 7 CFR 930.56 - Off-premise inventory reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-premise inventory reserve. 930.56 Section 930.56... Handling Regulations § 930.56 Off-premise inventory reserve. Any handler may, upon notification to the Board, arrange to hold inventory reserve, of his or her own production or which was purchased, on...

  17. 9 CFR 11.5 - Access to premises and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.5 Access to premises and records. Requirements regarding access to premises for inspection of horses and records are as follows: (a) Management. (1) The management of any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction shall, without fee,...

  18. 9 CFR 11.5 - Access to premises and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.5 Access to premises and records. Requirements regarding access to premises for inspection of horses and records are as follows: (a) Management. (1) The management of any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction shall, without fee,...

  19. 9 CFR 11.5 - Access to premises and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.5 Access to premises and records. Requirements regarding access to premises for inspection of horses and records are as follows: (a) Management. (1) The management of any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction shall, without fee,...

  20. 9 CFR 11.5 - Access to premises and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.5 Access to premises and records. Requirements regarding access to premises for inspection of horses and records are as follows: (a) Management. (1) The management of any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction shall, without fee,...

  1. 9 CFR 11.5 - Access to premises and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.5 Access to premises and records. Requirements regarding access to premises for inspection of horses and records are as follows: (a) Management. (1) The management of any horse show, horse exhibition, or horse sale or auction shall, without fee,...

  2. 25 CFR 140.14 - Trade limited to specified premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trade limited to specified premises. 140.14 Section 140.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.14 Trade limited to specified premises. No trade with Indians is permitted at any...

  3. 25 CFR 140.14 - Trade limited to specified premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Trade limited to specified premises. 140.14 Section 140.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.14 Trade limited to specified premises. No trade with Indians is permitted at any other place...

  4. 25 CFR 140.14 - Trade limited to specified premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trade limited to specified premises. 140.14 Section 140.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.14 Trade limited to specified premises. No trade with Indians is permitted at any...

  5. 25 CFR 140.14 - Trade limited to specified premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade limited to specified premises. 140.14 Section 140.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.14 Trade limited to specified premises. No trade with Indians is permitted at any...

  6. 27 CFR 44.111 - Change in export warehouse premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in export warehouse... Qualification of Export Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.111 Change in export warehouse premises. Where an export warehouse is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate...

  7. 27 CFR 19.702 - Samples used on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used on bonded premises. The proprietor may take samples of spirits for research, development, testing... spirits plant. The applicable purposes, conditions and limitations for samples taken pursuant to §...

  8. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000: Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Potential customer premises service (CPS), telecommunication services, potential CPS user classes, a primary research survey, comparative economics, market demand forcasts, distance distribution of traffic, segmentation of market demand, and a nationwide traffic distribution model are discussed.

  9. 27 CFR 25.78 - Change in premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Qualification of a Brewery Changes After Original Qualification § 25.78 Change in premises. Except as authorized in § 25.81, when the brewery is to be extended or curtailed,...

  10. 27 CFR 25.78 - Change in premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Qualification of a Brewery Changes After Original Qualification § 25.78 Change in premises. Except as authorized in § 25.81, when the brewery is to be extended or curtailed,...

  11. 27 CFR 25.78 - Change in premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Qualification of a Brewery Changes After Original Qualification § 25.78 Change in premises. Except as authorized in § 25.81, when the brewery is to be extended or curtailed,...

  12. 27 CFR 25.78 - Change in premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Qualification of a Brewery Changes After Original Qualification § 25.78 Change in premises. Except as authorized in § 25.81, when the brewery is to be extended or curtailed,...

  13. 27 CFR 25.78 - Change in premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Qualification of a Brewery Changes After Original Qualification § 25.78 Change in premises. Except as authorized in § 25.81, when the brewery is to be extended or curtailed,...

  14. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  15. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  16. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  17. 9 CFR 82.22 - Cleaning and disinfecting premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting premises. 82.22 Section 82.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  18. 9 CFR 82.22 - Cleaning and disinfecting premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cleaning and disinfecting premises. 82.22 Section 82.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  19. 27 CFR 26.164 - Proprietors of taxpaid premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Records and Reports of Liquors From Puerto Rico § 26.164 Proprietors of taxpaid premises. Transactions involving the bringing of liquors into the United States from Puerto Rico by proprietors of...

  20. Premises, Principles, and Processes for Integrating TECHnology Into Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King-Sears, Margaret E.; Evmenova, Anna S.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the premises, principles, and processes for integrating TECH into instruction. TECH is an acronym designed for educators to more smoothly integrate technology into instructional activities. It includes four steps: (1) Target the students' needs and the learning outcome; (2) Examine the technology choices, then decide what to…

  1. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY REQUIREMENTS...

  2. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Essences produced on wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine premises. Wine, taxpaid spirits, or spirits withdrawn tax-free may...

  3. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS...

  4. 9 CFR 51.31 - Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfecting premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.31 Section 51.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS...

  5. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... as defined in 12 CFR part 6 and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan is... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES,...

  6. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... as defined in 12 CFR part 6 and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan is... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES,...

  7. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... as defined in 12 CFR part 6 and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan is... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES,...

  8. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... as defined in 12 CFR part 6 and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan is... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES,...

  9. 12 CFR 5.37 - Investment in bank premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... as defined in 12 CFR part 6 and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan is... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment in bank premises. 5.37 Section 5.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES,...

  10. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... method or manner which will clearly and readily distinguish untaxpaid wine or spirits from taxpaid wine... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine...

  11. 27 CFR 19.53 - Continuity of plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuity of plant... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.53 Continuity of plant premises. As...

  12. 27 CFR 19.53 - Continuity of plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continuity of plant... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.53 Continuity of plant premises. As...

  13. 27 CFR 26.273 - Proprietors of taxpaid premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Records and Reports of Liquors From the Virgin Islands Record and Report of Liquors Brought into the United States § 26.273 Proprietors of taxpaid premises. Transactions involving the bringing of...

  14. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447 Joint survey...

  15. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447 Joint survey...

  16. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447...

  17. 32 CFR 644.447 - Joint survey of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Joint survey of premises. 644.447 Section 644.447 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Leaseholds and Leasehold Improvements § 644.447...

  18. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY REQUIREMENTS...

  19. Increasing the practice of health promotion initiatives by licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Wiggers, J; Considine, R; Hazell, T; Haile, M; Rees, M; Daly, J

    2001-06-01

    Licensees of all licensed premises in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, were offered free services to encourage adoption of health promotion initiatives relating to responsible service of alcohol, environmental tobacco smoke, healthy food choices, breast and cervical cancer prevention, and the prevention of HIV/AIDS. A total of 239 premises participated in the follow-up survey. Increases in prevalence ranged between 11% and 59% for alcohol-related initiatives. The prevalence of smoke-free areas and healthy food choices increased from 32% to 65% and 42% to 96%, respectively, and the provision of cancer prevention information increased from 3% to 59%. Licensed premises represent a particularly challenging sector for health promotion practitioners to work in. The results of this study suggest that the adoption of health promotion initiatives by licensed premises can be increased. A considerable opportunity therefore exists for health promotion practitioners to become more actively involved in facilitating the adoption of such initiatives in this setting. PMID:11380053

  20. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.10...

  1. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.10...

  2. 9 CFR 108.10 - Outer premises and stables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Outer premises and stables. 108.10 Section 108.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS FACILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.10...

  3. RESEARCH NEEDS FOR OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS IN PREMISE PLUMBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OBJECTIVES. The objectives of this project were to: 1.) Host an expert workshop to identify research needs for opportunistic premise (i.e., building) plumbing pathogens (OPPPs); 2.) With the assistance of the workshop participants, prepare this research repor...

  4. 27 CFR 24.86 - Essences produced on wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Essences produced on wine premises. 24.86 Section 24.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Essences § 24.86 Essences produced on wine...

  5. 27 CFR 22.123 - Losses on premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Losses on premises. 22.123 Section 22.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Losses § 22.123 Losses on...

  6. Assessment of physical premises of selected pharmacies of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Bhupendra Kumar; Ishii, Itsuko

    2016-01-01

    Background: This work attempts to investigate the standards of physical premises of pharmacies in terms of cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities of two selected districts of Nepal: Kathmandu and Kaski. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study of 100 randomly selected retail and wholesale pharmacies (55 from Kathmandu and 45 from Kaski) was conducted for their compliance to provisions of physical premises: cleanliness, ventilation, protection from physical environment, spaciousness and storage facilities. Preliminarily, scoring was done by converting 5-point Likert scale to a 100-point scale as follows: 1 = 0–20, 2 = 21–40, 3 = 41–60, 4 = 61–80 and 5 = 81–100. These scores were then reported as poor (score ⩽ 40), below average (score of 41–49), average (score of 50), above average (score of 51–60) and good (score ⩾ 61). Cronbach’s alpha for retails and wholesales obtained was .720 and .757, respectively. Results: In wholesales, protection from physical environment was least scored among other components, with the mean score 34.7 ± 8.3 for Kathmandu and 37.3 ± 13.3 for Kaski. Ventilation was scored 35.3 ± 6.3 for Kathmandu and 39.3 ± 11.6 for Kaski. All other components were obtained below average. However, in retails, the storage facilities were rated ‘poor’ with mean score 36.3 ± 13.9 for Kathmandu and 36.0 ± 11.9 for Kaski. Most other components were scored above average except for ventilation which was scored ‘good’. It was found that there was no significant difference between physical premises of the pharmacies of Kathmandu and Kaski in terms of all the indicators. The findings suggest that physical premise of many pharmacies was not found appropriate as provisioned in the good pharmacy practice requirements of Codes on Sales and Distribution of Drugs. Conclusion: Most pharmacies were found non-compliant to

  7. Combustion detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimpi, R. L.; Nealy, J. E.; Grose, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A device has been developed for generating a rapid response signal upon the radiation-emitting combustion reaction of certain gases in order to provide a means for the detection and identification of such reaction and concurrently discriminate against spurious signals. This combustion might be the first stage of a coal mine explosion process, and thereby this device could provide a warning of the impending explosion in time to initiate quenching action. This device has the capability of distinguishing between the light emitted from a combustion reaction and the light emitted by miners' lamps, electric lamps, welding sparks or other spurious events so that the quenching mechanism is triggered only when an explosion-initiating combustion occurs.

  8. Combustion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  9. 29 CFR 779.305 - Separate establishments on the same premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separate establishments on the same premises. 779.305... Establishments âestablishmentâ Basis of Exemptions § 779.305 Separate establishments on the same premises... establishment, two or more physically separated portions of a business though located on the same premises,...

  10. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job...

  11. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job...

  12. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12 Section 785.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job...

  13. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension...

  14. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. (a) Scope. This paragraph governs requests for pricing flexibility with respect to channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises....

  15. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  16. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  17. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  18. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  19. 9 CFR 73.11 - Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premises having contained scabby cattle. 73.11 Section 73.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.11 Treatment of means of conveyance and premises having contained scabby cattle. Means of conveyance, yards, pens, sheds, chutes, or other premises...

  20. 47 CFR 64.609 - Enforcement of related customer premises equipment rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enforcement of related customer premises... Relay Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.609 Enforcement of related customer premises equipment rules. Enforcement of §§ 64.607 and 64.608 is delegated...

  1. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises...

  2. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  3. Biofuels Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  4. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  5. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  6. Distribution system water age can create premise plumbing corrosion hotspots.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-09-01

    Cumulative changes in chemical and biological properties associated with higher "water age" in distribution systems may impact water corrosivity and regulatory compliance with lead and copper action levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of water age and chemistry on corrosivity of various downstream premise plumbing pipe materials and configurations using a combination of controlled laboratory studies and a field survey. Examination of lead pipe, copper pipe with lead solder, and leaded brass materials in a replicated lab rig simulating premise plumbing stagnation events indicated that lead or copper release could increase as much as ∼440 % or decrease as much as 98 % relative to water treatment plant effluent. In field studies at five utilities, trends in lead and copper release were highly dependent on circumstance; for example, lead release increased with water age in 13 % of cases and decreased with water age in 33 % of conditions tested. Levels of copper in the distribution system were up to 50 % lower and as much as 30 % higher relative to levels at the treatment plant. In many cases, high-risks of elevated lead and copper did not co-occur, demonstrating that these contaminants will have to be sampled separately to identify "worst case" conditions for human exposure and monitoring. PMID:26251058

  7. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  8. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  9. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  10. Prevalence of Legionella in premise plumbing in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Barna, Zsófia; Kádár, Mihály; Kálmán, Emese; Scheirich Szax, Anita; Vargha, Márta

    2016-03-01

    Legionella is one of the emerging concerns of water quality in built water environments. Premise plumbing systems are among the recognised sources of infection. In the present study, colonisation of hot water networks in health care facilities, schools, hotels, private residences, office and industrial buildings was investigated. Data was analysed in connection with building and premise plumbing characteristics. Over 60% of all buildings were colonised by Legionella; counts were over 1000 CFU/L in 49%. The most prevalent type was Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2-14, isolated from 75% of the positive samples. Centrally produced hot water was found to be a key risk factor (46% of the samples were positive vs. 16% in individual systems); within this group the type of the building was less relevant. Colonisation levels in schools were similar to hotels or hospitals, representing a previously underestimated risk setting. Systems supplied by water from deep groundwater sources were significantly less likely to be colonised than more vulnerable sources (bank-wall filtration, surface water abstraction or karstic water; 28% vs. 51% positive), regardless of the type of treatment applied, including the presence of disinfection. The aggravating effect of larger, more complex and older buildings on colonisation was also confirmed. The present study represents the first baseline analysis, pre-empting regulation or monitoring requirements for Legionella. The prevalence of legionellae and the identified risk factors are indicative for other settings lacking targeted interventions. The statistically confirmed risk factors can serve as indicators for preliminary risk assessment and the prioritisation of interventions. PMID:26724441

  11. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and child readers. (SG)

  12. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  13. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  14. 23 CFR 750.709 - On-property or on-premise advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... signs are subject to regulation (subpart A, part 750, chapter I, 23 CFR) in those States which have... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false On-property or on-premise advertising. 750.709 Section... ENVIRONMENT HIGHWAY BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.709 On-property or on-premise...

  15. 23 CFR 750.709 - On-property or on-premise advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... signs are subject to regulation (subpart A, part 750, chapter I, 23 CFR) in those States which have... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false On-property or on-premise advertising. 750.709 Section... ENVIRONMENT HIGHWAY BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.709 On-property or on-premise...

  16. 23 CFR 750.709 - On-property or on-premise advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... signs are subject to regulation (subpart A, part 750, chapter I, 23 CFR) in those States which have... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false On-property or on-premise advertising. 750.709 Section... ENVIRONMENT HIGHWAY BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.709 On-property or on-premise...

  17. 25 CFR 226.23 - Easements for wells off leased premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Easements for wells off leased premises. 226.23 Section 226.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.23 Easements for wells off leased premises. The Superintendent, with the consent of...

  18. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  19. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  20. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  1. 9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium orthophenylphenate in a proportion of at least one pound to 12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work...

  2. 25 CFR 226.23 - Easements for wells off leased premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Easements for wells off leased premises. 226.23 Section 226.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.23 Easements for wells off leased premises. The Superintendent, with the consent of...

  3. 23 CFR 750.709 - On-property or on-premise advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT HIGHWAY BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.709 On-property or on-premise advertising... signs are subject to regulation (subpart A, part 750, chapter I, 23 CFR) in those States which have... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false On-property or on-premise advertising. 750.709...

  4. 23 CFR 750.709 - On-property or on-premise advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT HIGHWAY BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.709 On-property or on-premise advertising... signs are subject to regulation (subpart A, part 750, chapter I, 23 CFR) in those States which have... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false On-property or on-premise advertising. 750.709...

  5. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect...

  6. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect...

  7. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect...

  8. 27 CFR 646.153 - Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO CONTRABAND CIGARETTES Other Provisions Relating to the Distribution of Cigarettes § 646.153 Authority of appropriate ATF officers to enter business premises. Any appropriate ATF officer may enter the business premises of any distributor of cigarettes to inspect...

  9. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  10. 27 CFR 19.97 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.97 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. Spirits or wines on which the tax has been paid or determined may be conveyed within...

  11. 25 CFR 226.23 - Easements for wells off leased premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Easements for wells off leased premises. 226.23 Section 226.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.23 Easements for wells off leased premises. The Superintendent, with the consent of...

  12. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases...

  13. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases...

  14. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and...

  15. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and...

  16. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases...

  17. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46 Section... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and...

  18. 25 CFR 211.46 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 211.46... premises, books and accounts. Lessees shall allow the Indian mineral owner, the Indian mineral owner's... and submit all related reports required by the lease and applicable regulations. Books and...

  19. 25 CFR 212.46 - Inspection of premises, books, and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books, and accounts. 212.46 Section 212.46 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... premises, books, and accounts. The provisions of § 211.46 of this subchapter are applicable to leases...

  20. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34... premises; books and accounts. Lessees shall agree to allow the lessors and their agents or any authorized... books and records, showing manner of operations and persons interested, shall be open at all times...

  1. 27 CFR 19.58 - Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxpaid spirits or wines... Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.58 Taxpaid spirits or wines on bonded premises. The proprietor may move tax paid or tax determined spirits or...

  2. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  3. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  4. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  5. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  6. 25 CFR 226.23 - Easements for wells off leased premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Easements for wells off leased premises. 226.23 Section 226.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.23 Easements for wells off leased premises. The Superintendent, with the consent of...

  7. Conditional Reasoning with False Premises Facilitates the Transition between Familiar and Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Henry; Lortie-Forgues, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Abstract reasoning is critical for science and mathematics, but is very difficult. In 3 studies, the hypothesis that alternatives generation required for conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates abstract reasoning is examined. Study 1 (n = 372) found that reasoning with false premises improved abstract reasoning in 12- to…

  8. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  9. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  10. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is sold... tavern operated on brewery premises. Taxpaid beer produced by other brewers may be received, stored...

  11. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  12. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a... by § 25.23. As used in this section, “tavern” means a portion of brewery premises where beer is sold... tavern operated on brewery premises. Taxpaid beer produced by other brewers may be received, stored...

  13. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  14. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  15. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... brewery premises. 25.25 Section 25.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a tavern on brewery premises. (a) General. A brewer desiring to operate a tavern as an alternate use...

  16. 27 CFR 25.25 - Operation of a tavern on brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... brewery premises. 25.25 Section 25.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.25 Operation of a tavern on brewery premises. (a) General. A brewer desiring to operate a tavern as an alternate use...

  17. 27 CFR 19.990 - Redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises. 19.990 Section 19.990 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Redistillation § 19.990 Redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises. (a) Receipts for redistillation. Proprietors of alcohol fuel plants...

  18. 25 CFR 226.23 - Easements for wells off leased premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Easements for wells off leased premises. 226.23 Section 226.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.23 Easements for wells off leased premises. The Superintendent, with the consent of...

  19. 27 CFR 19.134 - Bonded warehouses not on premises qualified for production of spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant qualified for production of spirits, or contiguous to a distillery operated by the... premises qualified for production of spirits. 19.134 Section 19.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Location and Use § 19.134 Bonded warehouses not on premises qualified for production of spirits....

  20. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  1. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  2. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  3. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  4. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  5. The du Bois sign.

    PubMed

    Voelpel, James H; Muehlberger, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    According to the current literature, the term "du Bois sign" characterizes the condition of a shortened fifth finger as a symptom of congenital syphilis, Down syndrome, dyscrania, and encephalic malformation. Modern medical dictionaries and text books attribute the eponym to the French gynecologist Paul Dubois (1795-1871). Yet, a literature analysis revealed incorrect references to the person and unclear definitions of the term. Our findings showed that the origin of the term is based on observations made by the Swiss dermatologist Charles du Bois (1874-1947) in connection with congenital syphilis. In addition, a further eponymical fifth finger sign is closely associated with the du Bois sign. In conclusion, the du Bois sign has only limited diagnostic value and is frequently occurring in the normal healthy population. PMID:21263293

  6. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  7. Acute alcohol use among suicide decedents in 14 U.S. States: Impacts of off-premise and on-premise alcohol outlet density

    PubMed Central

    Giesbrecht, Norman; Huguet, Nathalie; Ogden, Lauren; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.; Caetano, Raul; Conner, Kenneth R.; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims This study estimates the association between per capita alcohol retail outlet density and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from 51,547 suicide decedents. It also analyzes the relationship between alcohol outlet density and socio-demographic characteristics among alcohol positive suicide decedents in the United States by racial/ethnic groups and method of suicide. Design Analysis of U.S. data, 2003–11, National Violent Death Reporting System Setting Suicide decedents from 14 U.S. States Cases A total of 51,547 suicide decedents tested for blood alcohol content. Measurements Blood alcohol content and levels were derived from coroner/medical examiner reports. Densities of county level on-premise and off-premise alcohol retail outlets were calculated using the 2010 Census. Findings Multilevel logistic regression models suggested that higher off-premise alcohol outlet densities were associated with greater proportions of alcohol-related suicides among men -- for suicides with alcohol present (BAC>0; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.03–1.13). Interactions between outlet density and decedents’ characteristics were also tested. There was an interaction between off-premise alcohol availability and American Indian/Alaska Native race (AOR=1.36; 95% CI=1.10–1,69) such that this sub-group had highest BAC positivity. On-premise density was also associated with BAC > 0 (AOR=1.05; 95% CI=1.03–1.11) and BAC≥ 0.08 (AOR=1.05; 95% CI=1.02–1.09) among male decedents. Conclusions County-level on- and off-premise density are associated with alcohol-related suicide, especially among American Indians/Alaska Natives. PMID:25310999

  8. Use of Fourier transform spectroscopy in combustion effluent monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Gordon S.; McIntosh, Bruce C.

    1991-04-01

    FTIR spectroscopy is a well demonstrated technique for laboratory analysis. However, its application in stationary source monitoring for waste incinerators and other sources of combustion is viewed with considerable caution. The E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. has committed significant resources to pioneer the use of FTIR analysis in continuous emission monitoring applications. Applications criteria derived from their experience will enhance the success of many future applications. The success of Du Pont's current efforts in this field will aid in opening the door to the widespread acceptance and use of this significant environmental technology.

  9. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  10. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The presentation will cover the highlights of sludge, providing information as to where it comes from, projection of how much more is expected, what is sludge, what can be done with them, and finally focus in one combustion technology that can be utilized and applied to recycle sludge. The author is with Gotaverken Energy Systems Inc. where for the past 100 years they have been involved in the recovery of chemicals in chemical pulp mills. One week ago, our name was changed to Kvaerner Pulping Inc. to better reflect our present make-up which is a combination of Kamyr AB (suppliers of proprietary highly engineered totally chlorine free chemical pulp manufacturing systems, including digesters, O{sub 2} delignification systems, and bleach plant systems) and Goetaverken. Sludges that we are concerned with derive from several sources within chemical pulp mills such as: such as primary clarifier sludges, secondary clarifier sludges, and most recently those sludges derived from post consumer paper and board recycle efforts including de-inking and those from the thermal mechanical pulping processes. These sludges have been classified as non-hazardous therefore, residue can be landfilled, but the volumes involved are growing at an alarming rate.

  12. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section....15 Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  13. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section....15 Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  14. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  15. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  16. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  17. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  18. 27 CFR 19.206 - Curtailment and extension of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors. 19.206 Section 19.206 Alcohol, Tobacco... and extension of plant premises for the manufacture of eligible flavors. (a) General. The premises of... permit the use of the facilities for the manufacture of eligible flavors. (b) Qualifying documents....

  19. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  20. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  1. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  2. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  3. 9 CFR 77.19 - Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Cattle and Bison § 77.19 Cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and..., holding, shipping, loading, unloading, and delivering cattle or bison in connection with their...

  4. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  5. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  6. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  7. Fate of free chlorine in drinking water during distribution in premise plumbing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Muzi; He, Chunguang; He, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Free chlorine is a potent oxidizing agent and has been used extensively as a disinfectant in processes including water treatment. The presence of free chlorine residual is essential for the prevention of microbial regrowth in water distribution systems. However, excessive levels of free chlorine can cause adverse health effects. It is a major challenge to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual in premise plumbing. As the first effort to assessing the fate of chlorine in premise plumbing using actual premise plumbing pipe sections, three piping materials frequently used in premise plumbing, i.e. copper, galvanized iron, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), were investigated for their performance in maintaining free chlorine residual. Free chlorine decay was shown to follow first-order kinetics for all three pipe materials tested. The most rapid chlorine decay was observed in copper pipes, suggesting the need for higher chlorine dosage to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual if copper piping is used. PVC pipes exhibited the least reactivity with free chlorine, indicative of the advantage of PVC as a premise plumbing material for maintaining free chlorine residual. The reactivity of copper piping with free chlorine was significantly hindered by the accumulation of pipe deposits. In contrast, the impact on chlorine decay by pipe deposits was not significant in galvanized iron and PVC pipes. Findings in this study are of great importance for the development of effective strategies for the control of free chlorine residual and prevention of microbiological contamination in premise plumbing. PMID:26407709

  8. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  9. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  10. Properties of Combustion Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    New series of reports: First report lists data from combustion of ASTM Jet A fuel and dry air; second report presents tables and figures for combustion-gas properties of natural-gas fuel and dry air, and equivalent ratios.

  11. Internal combustion engine with multiple combustion chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenwald, D.J.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes a two-cycle compression ignition engine. It comprises one cylinder, a reciprocable piston moveable in the cylinder, a piston connecting rod, a crankshaft for operation of the piston connecting rod, a cylinder head enclosing the cylinder, the upper surface of the piston and the enclosing surface of the cylinder head defining a cylinder clearance volume, a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber located in the cylinder head. This patent describes improvement in means for isolating the combustion process for one full 360{degrees} rotation of the crankshaft; wherein the combustion chambers alternatively provide for expansion of combustion products in the respective chambers into the cylinder volume near top dead center upon each revolution of the crankshaft.

  12. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golodova, E.; Shchepakina, E.

    2006-12-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models.

  13. Mechanisms of droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms governing droplet vaporization and combustion are discussed. Specific topics include governing equations and simplifications, the classical d(2)-Law solution and its subsequent modification, finite-rate kinetics and the flame structure, droplet dynamics, near- and super-critical combustion, combustion of multicomponent fuel blends/emulsions/suspensions, and droplet interaction. Potential research topics are suggested.

  14. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 18th, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Anon

    1980-08-01

    This conference proceedings contains 196 papers. 181 papers are indexed separately. Topics covered include: combustion generated pollution; propellant combustion; fluidized bed combustion; combustion of droplets and spray; premixed flame studies; fire studies; flame stabilization; coal flammability; chemical kinetics; turbulent combustion; soot; coal combustion; modeling of combustion processes; combustion diagnostics; detonations and explosions; ignition; internal combustion engines; combustion studies; and furnaces.

  15. Combustion and core noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, J. Robert; Karchmer, Allen

    1991-08-01

    Two types of aircraft power plant are considered: the gas turbine and the reciprocating engine. The engine types considered are: the reciprocating engine, the turbojet engine, the turboprop engine, and the turbofan engine. Combustion noise in gas turbine engines is discussed, and reciprocating-engine combustion noise is also briefly described. The following subject areas are covered: configuration variables, operational variables, characteristics of combustion and core noise, sources of combustion noise, combustion noise theory and comparison with experiment, available prediction methods, diagnostic techniques, measurement techniques, data interpretation, and example applications.

  16. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Bomelburg, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  17. Developpement d'une methode hybride pour le suivi du coeur et la gestion du combustible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenette, Eric

    The nuclear industry of CANDU reactors uses neutron physics methodologies (core follow-up, fuel management) that are considered out of date and do not reflect the latest developments in the field of neutronics. For instance, the software used by the reactor physics team in Gentilly-2, HQSIMEX 3, uses macroscopic cross sections ("grid-based" approach) calculated by two methods: (1) The "four factors" formula, an obsolete technique used in 1950; (2) The WIMS software, based on a microscopic cross section library. Among other method, the history-based approach is considered more precise but requires greater computing time. Processing a whole CANDU core follow-up through the history-based approach is not possible as of today with the actual computers, due to computing cost issues. The main goal of this research is to come up with a new strategy that will combine the interpolation technique of the "grid-based approach" with the isotopic depletion follow-up of the "history-based" approach.

  18. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of market demand for domestic civilian telecommunications services for the years 1980 to 2000 are provided. Overall demand, demand or satellite services, demand for satellite delivered Customer Premises Service (CPS), and demand for 30/20 GHz Customer Premises Services are covered. Emphasis is placed on the CPS market and demand is segmented by market, by service, by user class and by geographic region. Prices for competing services are discussed and the distribution of traffic with respect to distance is estimated. A nationwide traffic distribution model for CPS in terms of demand for CPS traffic and earth stations for each of the major SMSAs in the United States are provided.

  19. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  20. EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

  1. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  2. Combustion of Micropowdered Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geil, Ethan; Thorne, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Combustion of finely powdered biomass has the potential to replace heating oil, which accounts for a significant fraction of US oil consumption, in heating, cooling and local power generation applications. When ground to 30-150 micron powders and dispersed in air, wood and other biomass can undergo deflagrating combustion, as occurs with gaseous and dispersed liquid fuels. Combustion is very nearly complete, and in contrast to sugar/starch or cellulose-derived ethanol, nearly all of the available plant mass is converted to usable energy so the economics are much more promising. We are exploring the fundamental combustion science of biomass powders in this size range. In particular, we are examining how powder size, powder composition (including the fraction of volatile organics) and other parameters affect the combustion regime and the combustion products.

  3. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  4. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  5. Numerical simulations in combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews numerical simulations in reacting flows in general and combustion phenomena in particular. It is shown that use of implicit schemes and/or adaptive mesh strategies can improve convergence, stability, and accuracy of the solution. Difficulties increase as turbulence and multidimensions are considered, particularly when finite-rate chemistry governs the given combustion problem. Particular attention is given to the areas of solid-propellant combustion dynamics, turbulent diffusion flames, and spray droplet vaporization.

  6. 16 CFR 320.4 - Disclosures in advertising and on the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosures in advertising and on the premises. 320.4 Section 320.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS LACKING FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE § 320.4 Disclosures in advertising and on...

  7. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36 Section 213.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.36 Surrender...

  8. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34 Section 213.34 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.34 Inspection...

  9. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36 Section 213.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.36 Surrender...

  10. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34 Section 213.34 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.34 Inspection...

  11. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36 Section 213.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.36 Surrender...

  12. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36 Section 213.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.36 Surrender...

  13. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34 Section 213.34 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.34 Inspection...

  14. 25 CFR 213.36 - Surrender of leased premises in good condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surrender of leased premises in good condition. 213.36 Section 213.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.36 Surrender...

  15. 25 CFR 213.34 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of premises; books and accounts. 213.34 Section 213.34 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.34 Inspection...

  16. 27 CFR 19.133 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.133 Section 19.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Location and Use § 19.133...

  17. 27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.54 Use of distilled spirits plant... person may not use the general premises of a distilled spirits plant for any operation required under the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of distilled...

  18. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  19. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  20. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  1. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  2. 9 CFR 50.13 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.13 Disinfection of premises, conveyances... or animals because of tuberculosis shall be properly cleaned and disinfected, in accordance with procedures approved by the Department, within 15 days after the removal of tuberculosis infected or...

  3. 27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.54 Use of distilled spirits plant... plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... spirits plant unless the business or operation is authorized by the notice of registration on file...

  4. 27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.54 Use of distilled spirits plant... plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... spirits plant unless the business or operation is authorized by the notice of registration on file...

  5. 27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp § 19.54 Use of distilled spirits plant... plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... spirits plant unless the business or operation is authorized by the notice of registration on file...

  6. 27 CFR 70.31 - Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... examination of taxable objects. 70.31 Section 70.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... premises for examination of taxable objects. (a) General. An appropriate TTB officer may, in the performance of his or her duty, enter in the daytime any building or place where any articles or...

  7. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations...

  8. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations...

  9. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations...

  10. 27 CFR 24.102 - Premises established for taxpaid wine operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations...

  11. 25 CFR 162.599 - What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises? 162.599 Section 162.599 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Effectiveness, Compliance, and...

  12. 25 CFR 162.599 - What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What happens if the lessee abandons the leased premises? 162.599 Section 162.599 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Lease Effectiveness, Compliance, and...

  13. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine...

  14. 11 CFR 110.12 - Candidate appearances on public educational institution premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate appearances on public educational... AND EXPENDITURE LIMITATIONS AND PROHIBITIONS § 110.12 Candidate appearances on public educational institution premises. (a) Rental of facilities at usual and normal charge. Any unincorporated...

  15. The assessment and measurement of adult life stress: Basic premises, operational principles, and design requirements.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Kate L; Monroe, Scott M

    2016-07-01

    Life stress is a central factor in the onset and course of a wide range of medical and psychiatric conditions. Determining the precise etiological and pathological consequences of stress, though, has been hindered by weaknesses in prevailing definitional and measurement practices. The purpose of the current paper is to evaluate the primary strategies for defining and measuring major and minor acute life events, chronic stressors, and daily hassles as informed by 3 basic scientific premises. The first premise concerns the manner in which stress is conceptualized and operationally defined, and specifically we assert that stress measures must not conflate the stress exposure with the stress response. The second premise concerns how stress exposures are measured, and we provide guidelines for optimizing standardized and sensitive indicators of life stress. The third premise addresses the consequences of variations in the procedures for life event measurement with regard to the validity of the research designs employed. We show that life stress measures are susceptible to several sources of bias, and if these potential sources of bias are not controlled in the design of the research, spurious findings may result. Our goal is to provide a useful guide for researchers who consider life stress to be an important factor in their theoretical models of disease, wish to incorporate measures of life stress in their research, and seek to avoid the common pitfalls of past measurement practices. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27254487

  16. 27 CFR 24.137 - Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternate use of the wine... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.137 Alternate use of the wine premises for customs purposes. (a) General. The wine...

  17. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 52.7 Section 52.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY...

  18. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 52.7 Section 52.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY...

  19. 9 CFR 55.4 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 55.4 Section 55.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY...

  20. 25 CFR 225.35 - Inspection of premises; books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... minerals agreement shall be maintained by an operator in accordance with 30 CFR part 212. (c) Operators... 225.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.35 Inspection of premises; books...

  1. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.8 Section 51.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  2. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.8 Section 51.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  3. 9 CFR 51.8 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 51.8 Section 51.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.8 Disinfection...

  4. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  5. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  6. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  7. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  8. 25 CFR 227.25 - Inspection of premises, books and accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of premises, books and accounts. 227.25 Section 227.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations §...

  9. 12 CFR 550.240 - May I hold investments of a fiduciary account off-premises?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I hold investments of a fiduciary account off-premises? 550.240 Section 550.240 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Custody and...

  10. 12 CFR 550.240 - May I hold investments of a fiduciary account off-premises?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May I hold investments of a fiduciary account off-premises? 550.240 Section 550.240 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Exercising Fiduciary Powers Custody and...

  11. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 52.7 Section 52.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES §...

  12. 9 CFR 53.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 53.7 Section 53.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE,...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-35 - F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. Destination, Within... Clauses 52.247-35 F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises. As prescribed in 47.303-7(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when the delivery term is f.o.b....

  14. 48 CFR 52.247-35 - F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. Destination, Within... Clauses 52.247-35 F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises. As prescribed in 47.303-7(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when the delivery term is f.o.b....

  15. 48 CFR 47.303-7 - F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. destination, within... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-7 F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination, within...

  16. 48 CFR 47.303-7 - F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. destination, within... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-7 F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination, within...

  17. 27 CFR 478.100 - Conduct of business away from licensed premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...)(1) A licensee may conduct business temporarily at a gun show or event as defined in paragraph (b) if the gun show or event is located in the same State specified on the license: Provided, That such business shall not be conducted from any motorized or towed vehicle. The premises of the gun show or...

  18. 27 CFR 478.100 - Conduct of business away from licensed premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...)(1) A licensee may conduct business temporarily at a gun show or event as defined in paragraph (b) if the gun show or event is located in the same State specified on the license: Provided, That such business shall not be conducted from any motorized or towed vehicle. The premises of the gun show or...

  19. 27 CFR 478.100 - Conduct of business away from licensed premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...)(1) A licensee may conduct business temporarily at a gun show or event as defined in paragraph (b) if the gun show or event is located in the same State specified on the license: Provided, That such business shall not be conducted from any motorized or towed vehicle. The premises of the gun show or...

  20. 27 CFR 478.100 - Conduct of business away from licensed premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...)(1) A licensee may conduct business temporarily at a gun show or event as defined in paragraph (b) if the gun show or event is located in the same State specified on the license: Provided, That such business shall not be conducted from any motorized or towed vehicle. The premises of the gun show or...

  1. 27 CFR 478.100 - Conduct of business away from licensed premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(1) A licensee may conduct business temporarily at a gun show or event as defined in paragraph (b) if the gun show or event is located in the same State specified on the license: Provided, That such business shall not be conducted from any motorized or towed vehicle. The premises of the gun show or...

  2. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  3. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  4. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  5. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  6. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  7. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  8. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  9. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  10. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  11. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  12. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternation of brewery and... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Qualification of a Brewery Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General....

  13. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternation of brewery and... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Qualification of a Brewery Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General....

  14. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternation of brewery and... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Qualification of a Brewery Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General....

  15. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternation of brewery and... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Qualification of a Brewery Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General....

  16. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alternation of brewery and... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Qualification of a Brewery Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General....

  17. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 52.7 Section 52.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES §...

  18. 9 CFR 52.7 - Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 52.7 Section 52.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES §...

  19. 12 CFR 1009.4 - Disclosures in advertising and on the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosures in advertising and on the premises. 1009.4 Section 1009.4 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS LACKING FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE (REGULATION I) § 1009.4 Disclosures...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7606-1 - Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects. 301.7606-1 Section 301.7606-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Discovery of Liability and Enforcement of Title Examination...

  1. 27 CFR 70.31 - Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects. 70.31 Section 70.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Discovery of Liability...

  2. 48 CFR 47.303-7 - F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. destination, within... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-7 F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination, within...

  3. 48 CFR 52.247-35 - F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. Destination, Within... Clauses 52.247-35 F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises. As prescribed in 47.303-7(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when the delivery term is f.o.b....

  4. 48 CFR 47.303-7 - F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. destination, within... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-7 F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination, within...

  5. 48 CFR 47.303-7 - F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. destination, within... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-7 F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination, within...

  6. 48 CFR 52.247-35 - F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. Destination, Within... Clauses 52.247-35 F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises. As prescribed in 47.303-7(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when the delivery term is f.o.b....

  7. 48 CFR 52.247-35 - F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. Destination, Within... Clauses 52.247-35 F.o.b. Destination, Within Consignee's Premises. As prescribed in 47.303-7(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when the delivery term is f.o.b....

  8. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  9. Diesel engine combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Diesel Engine Combustion Processes guides the engineer and research technician toward engine designs which will give the ``best payoff`` in terms of emissions and fuel economy. Contents include: Three-dimensional modeling of soot and NO in a direct-injection diesel engine; Prechamber for lean burn for low NOx; Modeling and identification of a diesel combustion process with the downhill gradient search method; The droplet group micro-explosions in W/O diesel fuel emulsion sprays; Combustion process of diesel spray in high temperature air; Combustion process of diesel engines at regions with different altitude; and more.

  10. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  11. 9 CFR 71.7 - Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. 71.7 Section 71.7 Animals..., facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. (a) Railroad cars..., chutes, alleys, cages, and other equipment required by the regulations in this subchapter to...

  12. 9 CFR 71.7 - Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. 71.7 Section 71.7 Animals..., facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. (a) Railroad cars..., chutes, alleys, cages, and other equipment required by the regulations in this subchapter to...

  13. 9 CFR 71.7 - Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. 71.7 Section 71.7 Animals..., facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. (a) Railroad cars..., chutes, alleys, cages, and other equipment required by the regulations in this subchapter to...

  14. 9 CFR 71.7 - Means of conveyance, facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. 71.7 Section 71.7 Animals..., facilities, premises, and cages and other equipment; methods of cleaning and disinfecting. (a) Railroad cars..., chutes, alleys, cages, and other equipment required by the regulations in this subchapter to...

  15. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector. 72.8 Section 72.8 Animals and... cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector. Cattle located in...

  16. 12 CFR 208.100 - Sale of bank's money orders off premises as establishment of branch office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of bank's money orders off premises as... SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Interpretations § 208.100 Sale of bank's money orders off premises as establishment... deposits are received, or checks paid, or money lent.” The basic question is whether the sale of a...

  17. 47 CFR 68.213 - Installation of other than “fully protected” non-system simple customer premises wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... non-system simple customer premises wiring. 68.213 Section 68.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL... protected” non-system simple customer premises wiring. (a) Scope of this rule. Provisions of this rule apply... to agreement between it and the customer or undertakings by it, otherwise consistent with...

  18. 27 CFR 19.207 - Alternate use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. 19.207 Section 19.207 Alcohol, Tobacco... use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. If a proprietor of...-flavor concentrate plant or vice-a-versa, the proprietor must comply with the requirements of §§...

  19. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.4 Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required... clean and sanitary condition, in accordance with good animal husbandry practices, and shall be...

  20. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  1. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  2. 9 CFR 355.15 - Inedible material operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for... any material in which flies may breed, or the maintenance of any nuisance on the premises shall not...

  3. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  4. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  5. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  6. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  7. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  8. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  9. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  10. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and...

  11. 17 CFR 1.44 - Records and reports of warehouses, depositories, and other similar entities; visitation of premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouses, depositories, and other similar entities; visitation of premises. 1.44 Section 1.44 Commodity and... ACT Miscellaneous § 1.44 Records and reports of warehouses, depositories, and other similar entities; visitation of premises. Each contract market shall require the operators of warehouses, depositories...

  12. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  13. ASRM combustion instability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this task were to measure and compare the combustion response characteristics of the selected propellant formulation for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) with those of the current Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) formulation. Tests were also carried out to characterize the combustion response of the selected propellant formulation for the ASRM igniter motor.

  14. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  15. Kyste hydatique primitif du sein

    PubMed Central

    Mouslik, Rabii; Settaf, Abdellatif; Elalami, Yacir; Lahnini, Hicham; Lahlou, Khalid; Chad, Bouziane

    2012-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique du sein est une parasitose rare même dans les pays endémiques. Nous rapportons une nouvelle observation d'une patiente de 30 ans qui présentait une masse du sein gauche. Le diagnostic de kyste hydatique du sein a été évoqué devant les données de l'examen clinique et de la mammographie couplée à l’échographie. Le geste chirurgical a consisté en une kystectomie. L'examen anatomopathologique de la pièce opératoire a confirmé le diagnostic. PMID:23133704

  16. Japan's microgravity combustion science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Junichi

    1993-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of fuels. On the other hand, combustion is responsible for contamination of our living earth. Combustion, also, gives us damage to our life as fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, clean and safe combustion is now eagerly required. Knowledge of the combustion process in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding on combustion is far from complete. Especially, there is few useful information on practical liquid and solid particle cloud combustion. Studies on combustion process under microgravity condition will provide many informations for basic questions related to combustors.

  17. All-Wales licensed premises intervention (AWLPI): a randomised controlled trial to reduce alcohol-related violence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related violence in and in the vicinity of licensed premises continues to place a considerable burden on the United Kingdom’s (UK) health services. Robust interventions targeted at licensed premises are therefore required to reduce the costs of alcohol-related harm. Previous evaluations of interventions in licensed premises have a number of methodological limitations and none have been conducted in the UK. The aim of the trial was to determine the effectiveness of the Safety Management in Licensed Environments intervention designed to reduce alcohol-related violence in licensed premises, delivered by Environmental Health Officers, under their statutory authority to intervene in cases of violence in the workplace. Methods/Design A national randomised controlled trial, with licensed premises as the unit of allocation. Premises were identified from all 22 Local Authorities in Wales. Eligible premises were those with identifiable violent incidents on premises, using police recorded violence data. Premises were allocated to intervention or control by optimally balancing by Environmental Health Officer capacity in each Local Authority, number of violent incidents in the 12 months leading up to the start of the project and opening hours. The primary outcome measure is the difference in frequency of violence between intervention and control premises over a 12 month follow-up period, based on a recurrent event model. The trial incorporates an embedded process evaluation to assess intervention implementation, fidelity, reach and reception, and to interpret outcome effects, as well as investigate its economic impact. Discussion The results of the trial will be applicable to all statutory authorities directly involved with managing violence in the night time economy and will provide the first formal test of Health and Safety policy in this environment. If successful, opportunities for replication and generalisation will be considered. Trial registration

  18. A large-scale survey of thermal comfort in office premises in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, D.W.T.; Burnett, J.; Ng, S.C.H.; Dear, R.J. de

    1998-10-01

    Hong Kong is a densely populated city in which the service sector dominates. The significant outdoor noise pollution and subtropical climate severely restrict the opportunity for office premises to be naturally ventilated. The high energy consumption for space cooling and the demand for improved indoor thermal comfort conditions simulated a large-scale survey of thermal comfort conditions in Hong Kong office premises. The neutral temperatures and preferred temperatures are found to be lower than those found in other studies in the tropics, with 60% of the surveyed subjects preferring a change of the thermal conditions in summer. The outcome provides for a better notion of thermal comfort, which can be imposed on design criteria. The results also add weight to the concern about the validity in the field of the traditional chamber test data presented by ASHRAE Standard 55-1992. It further suggests the potential for adopting an adaptive control algorithm for thermal comfort.

  19. Premises of plasticity - And the loneliness of the medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Walhovd, Kristine B; Westerhausen, René; de Lange, Ann-Marie Glasø; Bråthen, Anne Cecilie Sjøli; Grydeland, Håkon; Engvig, Andreas; Fjell, Anders M

    2016-05-01

    In this perspective paper, we examine possible premises of plasticity in the neural substrates underlying cognitive change. We take the special role of the medial temporal lobe as an anchoring point, but also investigate characteristics throughout the cortex. Specifically, we examine the dimensions of evolutionary expansion, heritability, variability of morphometric change, and inter-individual variance in myelination with respect to the plastic potential of different brain regions. We argue that areas showing less evolutionary expansion, lower heritability, greater variability of cortical thickness change through the lifespan, and greater inter-individual differences in intracortical myelin content have a great extent of plasticity. While different regions of the brain show these features to varying extent, analyses converge on the medial temporal lobe including the hippocampi as the target of all these premises. We discuss implications for effects of training on brain structures, and conditions under which plasticity may be evoked. PMID:26505299

  20. On-premises digital communications upgrades with emphasis on fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. A.; Hanson, A. G.

    1986-11-01

    The Federal Telecommunications Standards Committee has established a Fiber Optics Task Group, one purpose of which is to develop guidelines for Federal agencies planning to use fiber optics in on-premises communications upgrades. The report describes the key technical elements under consideration in the Task Group. These technical elements include local area networks (LANs), digital private automatic branch exchanges (PABXs), building-wiring distribution architecture, and the application of optical fiber waveguides in the implementation of these on-premises systems. The report develops some fundamental principles necessary to do tradeoff analyses required to make decisions regarding cost versus early technological obsolescence. Some examples of commercially available technology representing the present state of the art are included. Brief summaries of technology readiness, as presented by several key industry representatives to the Fiber Optics Task Group, are provided.

  1. An in-premise model for Legionella exposure during showering events.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Mary E; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2011-11-15

    An exposure model was constructed to predict the critical Legionella densities in an engineered water system that result in infection from inhalation of aerosols containing the pathogen while showering. The model predicted the Legionella densities in the shower air, water and in-premise plumbing biofilm that might result in a deposited dose of Legionella in the alveolar region of the lungs associated with infection for a routine showering event. Processes modeled included the detachment of biofilm-associated Legionella from the in-premise plumbing biofilm during a showering event, the partitioning of the pathogen from the shower water to the air, and the inhalation and deposition of particles in the lungs. The range of predicted critical Legionella densities in the air and water was compared to the available literature. The predictions were generally within the limited set of observations for air and water, with the exception of Legionella density within in-premise plumbing biofilms, for which there remains a lack of observations for comparison. Sensitivity analysis of the predicted results to possible changes in the uncertain input parameters identified the target deposited dose associated with infections, the pathogen air-water partitioning coefficient, and the quantity of detached biofilm from in-premise pluming surfaces as important parameters for additional data collection. In addition, the critical density of free-living protozoan hosts in the biofilm required to propagate the infectious Legionella was estimated. Together, this evidence can help to identify critical conditions that might lead to infection derived from pathogens within the biofilms of any plumbing system from which humans may be exposed to aerosols. PMID:21924754

  2. Universal Information Multiplexer: A Solution For On-Premises Information Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Dave

    1988-12-01

    A universal information multiplexer (UNIMUX) is capable of simultanously supporting a multitude of heterogenous interfaces such as RS-232, V.35, IBM 3270 coaxial links, T-1, 802.5 token-ring LANs, telephones and other devices over one fiberoptic backbone within a campus environment. As such, the UNIMUX is capable of providing economical alternatives for on-premises data distribution without sacrificing performance.

  3. Review--Persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food industry equipment and premises.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Brigitte; Cerf, Olivier

    2011-01-31

    To understand why Listeria monocytogenes may persist in food industry equipment and premises, notably at low temperature, scientific studies have so far focused on adhesion potential, biofilm forming ability, resistance to desiccation, acid and heat, tolerance to increased sublethal concentration of disinfectants or resistance to lethal concentrations. Evidence from studies in processing plants shows that the factors associated with the presence of L. monocytogenes are those that favor growth. Interestingly, most conditions promoting bacterial growth were shown, in laboratory assays, to decrease adhesion of L. monocytogenes cells. Good growth conditions can be found in so-called harborage sites, i.e. shelters due to unhygienic design of equipment and premises or unhygienic or damaged materials. These sites are hard to eliminate. A conceptual model of persistence/no persistence based on the relative weight of growth vs. outcome of cleaning and disinfection is suggested. It shows that a minimum initial bacterial load is necessary for bacteria to persist in a harborage site and that when a low initial bacterial charge is applied, early cleaning and disinfection is the only way to avoid persistence. We conclude by proposing that there are no strains of L. monocytogenes with unique properties that lead to persistence, but harborage sites in food industry premises and equipment where L. monocytogenes can persist. PMID:21276634

  4. Gas turbine combustion instability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Lee, G.T.

    1996-09-01

    Combustion oscillations are a common problem in development of LPM (lean premix) combustors. Unlike earlier, diffusion style combustors, LPM combustors are especially susceptible to oscillations because acoustic losses are smaller and operation near lean blowoff produces a greater combustion response to disturbances in reactant supply, mixing, etc. In ongoing tests at METC, five instability mechanisms have been identified in subscale and commercial scale nozzle tests. Changes to fuel nozzle geometry showed that it is possible to stabilize combustion by altering the timing of the feedback between acoustic waves and the variation in heat release.

  5. Combustion in supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    A workshop on combustion in supersonic flow was held in conjunction with the 21st JANNAF Combustion Meeting at Laurel, Maryland on October 3 to 4 1984. The objective of the workshop was to establish the level of current understanding of supersonic combustion. The workshop was attended by approximately fifty representatives from government laboratories, engine companies, and universities. Twenty different speakers made presentations in their area of expertise during the first day of the workshop. On the second day, the presentations were discussed, deficiencies in the current understanding defined, and a list of recommended programs generated to address these deficiencies. The agenda for the workshop is given.

  6. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOEpatents

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  7. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  8. COMBUSTION - RISK MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research involves the characterization of waste combustion systems and their emissions along with the development and evaluation of techniques to prevent emissions formation and/or control their release. This area addresses incinerators and industrial systems burning wastes...

  9. Dynamic effects of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic effects of combustion are due to the evolution of exothermic energy and its deposition in the compressible medium where the process takes place. The paper examines the dynamics of combustion phenomena, including ignition, turbulent flame propagation (inflammation), explosion, and detonation, with emphasis on their exothermic characteristics. Ignition and explosion are treated as problems of nonlinear mechanics, and their dynamic behavior is described in terms of phase space models and cinematographic laser shear interferograms. The results of a numerical random vortex model of turbulent flame propagation are confirmed in a combustion tunnel experiment, where it was observed that a fresh mixture of burnt and unburnt gases can sustain combustion with a relatively small expenditure of overall mass flow, due to the increasing specific volume of burnt gases inside the flame front. An isentropic pressure wave is found to precede the accelerating flame in the process of detonation, and components of this presssure wave are shown to propagate at local sonic velocities.

  10. Combustion Technology Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  11. Studies in premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.I.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on premixed combustion: theory of turbulent flame propagation; pattern formation in premixed flames and related problems; and pattern formation in extended systems. (LSP)

  12. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  13. Combustion furnace and burner

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, J. G.

    1985-12-03

    The combustion system includes a hearth lined with refractory, a combustion chamber formed in the refractory, an air manifold mounted on the hearth, a plurality of gas manifold extending through the air manifold and into the combustion chamber, and a diffuser mounted on the manifolds to cause turbulence in the air/gas mixture. The gas manifolds include aspirating means for combining the air and gas. The combustion chamber is elongated and has an elongated neck with a flue gas exit slot over which the work piece passes. The flue gas from the combustion of the air/gas mixture in the combustion chamber increases in velocity as the flue gas passes through the elongated neck and exits the flue gas exit slot. The slot has a length sufficient to permit the work piece to rotate 360/sup 0/ as the work piece rotates and travels through the hearth. This causes the work piece to be uniformly heated over every square inch of its surface.

  14. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  15. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as “exposed.” (a) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys...) Yards, pens, chutes, alleys, and other facilities and premises which have contained interstate...

  16. Standardized inspections of food premises during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: descriptive analysis and risk factors for unsatisfactory results.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Varzakas, Theodoros; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    Standardized inspections of food premises are part of environmental health systems implemented worldwide. The food safety strategy for the 2004 Olympic Games included standardized inspections to ensure uniformity and consistency of procedures and effective electronic management of data. Inspections were carried out by 196 inspectors in the five Olympic cities: Athens, Thessalonica, Volos, Iraklio, and Patra. From January 2003 to September 2004, a total of 1,249 food premises were inspected. An unsatisfactory inspection result (C grade) was received by 347 (27.8%) food premises, a relatively satisfactory result (B grade) was received by 332 (26.6%), and a satisfactory result (A grade) was received by 570 (45.6%). About 16% of inspected premises did not hold a valid permit. Unsatisfactory inspection results were more frequent for premises located in the two largest Greek cities in comparison with the other smaller cities (relative risk = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.80). Based on logistic regression analysis, unsatisfactory inspection results were positively associated with food premises that were not located on a ground floor (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.73) and negatively associated with application of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.71). Food hygiene education through formal training programs should be encouraged to improve compliance of food premises. Food premises located on hotel floors and serving buffet meals are at higher risk for unsatisfactory conditions. Businesses that implemented a HACCP system within their operations to ensure food safety operated under more hygienic conditions. Future inspections by Public Health Authorities should involve elements of audit after the legislation for the application of HACCP principles. PMID:18724758

  17. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ray, Joel G; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls.We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude-latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA.There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15-9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26-5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41-11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs.On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed. PMID:27175699

  18. On-Premise Alcohol Establishments and Ambulance Calls for Trauma, Assault, and Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G.; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I.; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls. We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude–latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA. There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15–9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26–5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41–11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs. On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed. PMID:27175699

  19. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  20. Dynamics of nanoparticle combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, David James

    A heterogeneous shock tube was used to ignite and measure the combustion behavior of the nano-aluminum suspension behind reflected shock waves. The burning time and particle temperatures were measured using optical diagnostics. In order to use pyrometry measurements for nano-aluminum particles, the emissivity of nano-alumina particles was also measured using the shock tube to heat the particles to known temperatures. The burning time and peak particle temperature results suggested that heat transfer models currently used for burning nanoparticles may significantly overestimate heat losses during combustion. By applying conventional non-continuum heat transfer correlations to burning nano-aluminum particles, the observed peak temperatures, which greatly exceed the ambient temperature, should only be observable if the burning time were very short, of the order of 1 mus, whereas the observed burning time is two orders of magnitude larger. These observations can be reconciled if the energy accommodation coefficient for these conditions is of the order of 0.005, which is the value suggested by Altman, instead of approximately unity, which is the common assumption. A simple model was developed for nano-aluminum particle combustion focusing on a surface controlled reaction as evidenced by experimental data and heat transfer to the surroundings. The simple model supports a low energy accommodation coefficient as suggested by Altman. This result has significant implications on the heat transfer and performance of the nanoparticles in combustion environments. Direct measurement is needed in order to decouple the accommodation coefficient from the assumed combustion mechanism in the simple model. Time-resolved laser induced incandescence measurements were performed to measure the accommodation coefficient of nano-alumina particles in various gaseous environments. The accommodation coefficient was found to be 0.03, 0.07, and 0.15 in helium, nitrogen, and argon respectively at

  1. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Arduino, Matthew J.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexisting risk factors and frequently require hospitalization. Objectives The objectives of this report are to alert professionals of the impact of OPPPs, the fact that 30% of the population may be exposed to OPPPs, and the need to develop means to reduce OPPP exposure. We herein present a review of the epidemiology and ecology of these three bacterial OPPPs, specifically to identify common and unique features. Methods A Water Research Foundation–sponsored workshop gathered experts from across the United States to review the characteristics of OPPPs, identify problems, and develop a list of research priorities to address critical knowledge gaps with respect to increasing OPPP-associated disease. Discussion OPPPs share the common characteristics of disinfectant resistance and growth in biofilms in water distribution systems or premise plumbing. Thus, they share a number of habitats with humans (e.g., showers) that can lead to exposure and infection. The frequency of OPPP-infected individuals is rising and will likely continue to rise as the number of at-risk individuals is increasing. Improved reporting of OPPP disease and increased understanding of the genetic, physiologic, and structural characteristics governing the persistence and growth of OPPPs in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing is needed. Conclusions Because broadly effective community-level engineering interventions for the control of OPPPs have yet to be identified, and because the number of at-risk individuals will continue to rise, it is likely that OPPP-related infections will continue to increase. However, it is possible that individuals can take measures (e.g., raise hot water heater temperatures and filter

  2. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  3. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  4. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  5. High efficiency RCCI combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splitter, Derek A.

    An experimental investigation of the pragmatic limits of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine efficiency was performed. The study utilized engine experiments combined with zero-dimensional modeling. Initially, simulations were used to suggest conditions of high engine efficiency with RCCI. Preliminary simulations suggested that high efficiency could be obtained by using a very dilute charge with a high compression ratio. Moreover, the preliminary simulations further suggested that with simultaneous 50% reductions in heat transfer and incomplete combustion, 60% gross thermal efficiency may be achievable with RCCI. Following the initial simulations, experiments to investigate the combustion process, fuel effects, and methods to reduce heat transfer and incomplete combustion reduction were conducted. The results demonstrated that the engine cycle and combustion process are linked, and if high efficiency is to be had, then the combustion event must be tailored to the initial cycle conditions. It was found that reductions to engine heat transfer are a key enabler to increasing engine efficiency. In addition, it was found that the piston oil jet gallery cooling in RCCI may be unnecessary, as it had a negative impact on efficiency. Without piston oil gallery cooling, it was found that RCCI was nearly adiabatic, achieving 95% of the theoretical maximum cycle efficiency (air standard Otto cycle efficiency).

  6. Combustion in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, F.J.; La Nauze, R.D. )

    1990-07-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion systems have become popular since the late 1970s, and, given the current level of activity in the area,it is clear that this technology has a stable future in the boiler market. For standard coal combustion applications, competition is fierce with mature pulverized-fuel-based (PF) technology set to maintain a strong profile. CFB systems, however, can be more cost effective than PF systems when emission control is considered, and, as CFB technology matures, it is expected that an ever-increasing proportion of boiler installations will utilize the CFB concept. CFB systems have advantages in the combustion of low-grade fuels such as coal waste and biomass. In competition with conventional bubbling beds, the CFB boiler often demonstrates superior carbon burn-out efficiency. The key to this combustion technique is the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluidized bed. This article begins with a description of the fundamental fluid dynamic behavior of the CFB system. This is followed by an examination of the combustion process in such an environment and a discussion of the current status of the major CFB technologies.

  7. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Cette présentation s?adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l?engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  8. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  9. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  10. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  11. Hybrid rocket combustion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Cohen, N. S.

    1993-06-01

    The objectives of this study of 'pure' or 'classic' hybrids are to (1) extend our understanding of the boundary layer combustion process and the critical engineering parameters that define this process, (2) develop an up-to-date hybrid fuel combustion model, and (3) apply the model to correlate the regression rate and scaling properties of potential fuel candidates. Tests were carried out with a hybrid slab window motor, using several diagnostic techniques, over a range of motor pressure and oxidizer mass flux conditions. The results basically confirmed turbulent boundary layer heat and mass transfer as the rate limiting process for hybrid fuel decomposition and combustion. The measured fuel regression rates showed good agreement with the analytical model predictions. The results of model scaling calculations to Shuttle SRM size conditions are presented.

  12. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Hybrid rocket combustion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Cohen, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study of 'pure' or 'classic' hybrids are to (1) extend our understanding of the boundary layer combustion process and the critical engineering parameters that define this process, (2) develop an up-to-date hybrid fuel combustion model, and (3) apply the model to correlate the regression rate and scaling properties of potential fuel candidates. Tests were carried out with a hybrid slab window motor, using several diagnostic techniques, over a range of motor pressure and oxidizer mass flux conditions. The results basically confirmed turbulent boundary layer heat and mass transfer as the rate limiting process for hybrid fuel decomposition and combustion. The measured fuel regression rates showed good agreement with the analytical model predictions. The results of model scaling calculations to Shuttle SRM size conditions are presented.

  14. Thermodynamics and combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling fluid phase phenomena blends the conservation equations of continuum mechanics with the property equations of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic contribution becomes especially important when the phenomena involve chemical reactions as they do in combustion systems. The successful study of combustion processes requires (1) the availability of accurate thermodynamic properties for both the reactants and the products of reaction and (2) the computational capabilities to use the properties. A discussion is given of some aspects of the problem of estimating accurate thermodynamic properties both for reactants and products of reaction. Also, some examples of the use of thermodynamic properties for modeling chemically reacting systems are presented. These examples include one-dimensional flow systems and the internal combustion engine.

  15. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  16. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  17. Internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.

    1991-01-01

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  18. Combustion synthesis of fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Mckinnon, J.T.; Bell, W.L. ); Barkley, R.M. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the isolation of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} from combustion soot that is produced in high-temperature, low-pressure premixed flat flames. A critical parameter for high fullerene yields in combustion appears to be a very high flame temperature. Equilibrium calculations indicate that low pressures are important, but the experimental evidence is not clear at this time. Combustion synthesis yields fullerenes with a C{sub 70}/C{sub 60} ratio of about 40%, as compared with the 12% reported for electric-arc-generated fullerenes. The overall yields from carbon are very low (ca. 0.03%) but the soot studied had been produced in flames that were in no way optimized for fullerene production.

  19. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-05-03

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system.

  20. Combustion pressure sensor arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Sawamoto, K.; Nagaishi, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    1986-07-29

    A combustion pressure sensor arrangement in an internal combustion engine having a cylinder head, comprising: a plug seating formed in the cylinder head; an annular pressure sensor; an ignition plug screwed into the cylinder head in such a manner that the pressure sensor is clamped between the ignition plug and the plug seating; an ignition plug accommodation hole formed in the cylinder head for accommodating therein the ignition plug; and a guide sleeve joined at one end thereof to the outer periphery of the pressure sensor and fitted in the ignition plug accommodation hole, wherein the one end of the guide sleeve is fitted on the outer periphery of the pressure sensor.

  1. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  2. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  3. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  4. Social Disadvantage and Exposure to Lower Priced Alcohol in Off-Premise Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Ponicki, William R; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Greater concentrations of off-premise alcohol outlets are found in areas of social disadvantage, exposing disadvantaged populations to excess risk for problems such as assault, child abuse and intimate partner violence. This study examines whether the outlets to which they are exposed also sell cheaper alcohol, potentially further contributing to income-related health disparities. Design and Methods We conducted unobtrusive observations in 295 off-premise outlets in Melbourne, Australia, randomly selected using a spatial sample frame. In semi-logged linear regression models we related the minimum purchase price for a 750ml bottle of wine to a national index of socio-economic advantage for the Census areas in which the outlets were located. Other independent variables characterised outlet features (e.g., volume, chain management) and conditions of the local alcohol market (adjacent outlet characteristics, neighbourhood characteristics). Results A one decile increase in socio-economic advantage was related to a 1.3% increase in logged price. Larger outlets, chains, outlets adjacent to chains, outlets in greater proximity to the nearest neighbouring outlet, those located in areas with more students also had cheaper alcohol. Discussion and Conclusions Not only are disadvantaged populations exposed to more outlets, the outlets to which they are exposed sell cheaper alcohol. This finding appears to be consistent with the spatial dynamics of typical retail markets. PMID:25808717

  5. Reduced cost alternatives to premise wiring using ATM and microcellular technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gejji, Raghvendra R.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of premises wiring keeps increasing due to personnel moves, new equipment, capacity upgrades etc. It would be desirable to have a wireless interface from the workstations to the fixed network, so as to minimize the wiring changes needed. New technologies such as microcellular personal communication systems are promising to bring down the cost of wireless communication. Another promising technology is Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), which could dramatically increase the bandwidth available for wireless connections. In addition, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is emerging as a technique for integrated management of voice, data, and video traffic on a single network. The focus of this investigation will be to assess the future utility of these new technologies for reducing the premise wiring cost at KSC. One of the issues to be studied is the cost comparison of 'old' versus 'new,' especially as time and technology progress. An additional issue for closer study is a feasible time-line for progress in technological capability.

  6. A Combustion Laboratory for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a combustion laboratory facility and experiments for a senior-level (undergraduate) course in mechanical engineering. The experiment reinforces basic thermodynamic concepts and provides many students with their first opportunity to work with a combustion system. (DH)

  7. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  8. Combuster. [low nitrogen oxide formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A combuster is provided for utilizing a combustible mixture containing fuel and air, to heat a load fluid such as water or air, in a manner that minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxide. The combustible mixture passes through a small diameter tube where the mixture is heated to its combustion temperature, while the load fluid flows past the outside of the tube to receive heat. The tube is of a diameter small enough that the combustible mixture cannot form a flame, and yet is not subject to wall quench, so that combustion occurs, but at a temperature less than under free flame conditions. Most of the heat required for heating the combustible mixture to its combustion temperature, is obtained from heat flow through the walls of the pipe to the mixture.

  9. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The publication describes and evaluates the various municipal sludge combustion systems. It also emphasizes the necessity for considering and evaluating the costs involved in the total sludge management train, including dewatering, combustion, air pollution control, and ash dispo...

  10. Fuels research: Combustion effects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, J. B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of broadened property fuels on gas turbine combustors were assessed. Those physical and chemical properties of fuels that affect aviation gas turbine combustion were isolated and identified. Combustion sensitivity to variations in particular fuel properties were determined. Advanced combustion concepts and subcomponents that could lessen the effect of using broadened property fuels were also identified.

  11. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort to date so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology.

  12. Nonlinear Combustion Instability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flandro, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The liquid rocket engine stability prediction software (LCI) predicts combustion stability of systems using LOX-LH2 propellants. Both longitudinal and transverse mode stability characteristics are calculated. This software has the unique feature of being able to predict system limit amplitude.

  13. Combustible dust tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  14. Droplet Combustion Experiment Operates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 12, 1997, MET:11/07:00 (approximate). DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (119KB JPEG, 658 x 982 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300171.html.

  15. Coal combustion research

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  16. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudsin, N.

    1984-05-22

    An internal combustion engine wherein the rod connecting the piston to the crankshaft has an enlarged portion defining a track which a crankshaft element cooperatingly engages; the track is topologically shaped so that the effect exerted by the crankshaft element on the connecting rod is reduced and/or cancelled for a given travel distance of the crankshaft element in the track.

  17. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  18. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The various physical processes that occur in the gas turbine combustor and the development of analytical models that accurately describe these processes are discussed. Aspects covered include fuel sprays; fluid mixing; combustion dynamics; radiation and chemistry and numeric techniques which can be applied to highly turbulent, recirculating, reacting flow fields.

  19. Supersonic-combustion rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. J.; Franciscus, L. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A supersonic combustion rocket is provided in which a small rocket motor is substituted for heavy turbo pumps in a conventional rocket engine. The substitution results in a substantial reduction in rocket engine weight. The flame emanating from the small rocket motor can act to ignite non-hypergolic fuels.

  20. Monopropellant combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Gerald R. (Inventor); Mueller, Donn C. (Inventor); Parish, Mark W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for decomposition of a propellant. The propellant includes an ionic salt and an additional fuel. Means are provided for decomposing a major portion of the ionic salt. Means are provided for combusting the additional fuel and decomposition products of the ionic salt.

  1. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  2. Heat regenerative external combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duva, Anthony W.

    1993-10-01

    A heat regenerative external combustion engine is disclosed. The engine includes fuel inlet means which extends along the exhaust passage and/or combustion chamber in order to preheat the fuel, To provide for preheating by gases in both the combustion chamber and the exhaust passage, the combustion chamber is arranged annularly around the drive shaft and between the cylinders. This configuration also is advantageous in that it reduces the noise of combustion. The engine of the invention is particularly well-suited for use in a torpedo.

  3. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  4. Thermoelectricity in Disordered Organic Semiconductors under the Premise of the Gaussian Disorder Model and Its Variants.

    PubMed

    Mendels, Dan; Tessler, Nir

    2014-09-18

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the thermoelectric properties of disordered organic semiconductors under the premise of the Gaussian disorder model and its variants. In doing so, we provide much needed additional dimensions for comparison between these theoretical frameworks and real systems beyond those based on extensively studied charge-transport properties and aim to provide a frame-of-reference for rising interest in these systems for thermoelectric-based applications. To illustrate the potential existing in the implementation of combined transport and thermoelectric investigation, we discuss strategies to experimentally deduce a system's DOS shape and the temperature dependence of its transport energy (which can discern hopping transport from multiple trapping transport), infer whether a system's activation energy originates from inherent energetic disorder or a polaron activation energy (while deducing the given polaron activation energy), and discerning whether a system's energetic disorder is spatially correlated or accompanied by off-diagonal disorder. PMID:26276340

  5. Health promotion within a sex on premises venue: notes from the field.

    PubMed

    Debattista, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Despite their historical controversy as perceived public health risks, sex on premises venues (SOPV) such as saunas and sex clubs can afford structured opportunities for on-site sexual health interventions within a supportive, regulated and confidential environment. Building upon previous interventions to deliver on-site clinical and health promotion programmes, an education and referral outreach service was established at one particular SOPV within the inner Brisbane city area. This report outlines the experiences of that on-site education/referral outreach over a five-year period. The service did afford opportunities for a minority of patrons to discuss concerns, resolve misunderstandings, obtain advice and referral, and would suggest that a health promotion presence within such a venue is a useful mechanism for engaging with highly sexually active men. PMID:25630533

  6. Radiation survey on Fukushima Medical University premises about four years after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Wakamatsu, Hiroaki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted on the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) premises (in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture) about four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Its objectives were (1) to create a map of the ambient gamma dose rate (air-kerma rate) distribution, (2) to evaluate the air-kerma rate originating from natural radionuclides, and (3) to investigate the effects of snow cover on changes in the air-kerma rate. This man-borne survey revealed that the air-kerma rate varies widely, ranging from 0.038 μGy h(-1) to 0.520 μGy h(-1), and is higher on grass than on the other investigated surface types, such as soil, asphalt, and bricks. In this area, the mean air-kerma rate from natural radiation was evaluated to be 0.03 ± 0.01 μGy h(-1), which is close to 0.04 μGy h(-1), which was measured in central Fukushima City by a local authority.Furthermore, snowfall was found to reduce the air-kerma rate by 5%-30%. This reduction was attributed to attenuation of the primary radiation while passing through the snow cover, and the measured contribution of scattered radiation to the air-kerma rate reduction was small. The reduction rate was found to depend on the initial snow depth but to maintain a similar value for a couple of days, after the snow had partially melted and its depth had decreased. Finally, analysis of the daily dose due to external exposure received on the FMU premises revealed that no further health effects due to chronic radiation exposure at this site are to be expected. PMID:26911302

  7. Combustion of Gaseous Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchene, R

    1932-01-01

    This report not only presents matters of practical importance in the classification of engine fuels, for which other means have proved inadequate, but also makes a few suggestions. It confirms the results of Withrow and Boyd which localize the explosive wave in the last portions of the mixture burned. This being the case, it may be assumed that the greater the normal combustion, the less the energy developed in the explosive form. In order to combat the detonation, it is therefore necessary to try to render the normal combustion swift and complete, as produced in carbureted mixtures containing benzene (benzol), in which the flame propagation, beginning at the spark, yields a progressive and pronounced darkening on the photographic film.

  8. Dynamic features of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic features of combustion are discussed for four important cases: ignition, inflammation, explosion, and detonation. Ignition, the initiation of a self-sustained exothermic process, is considered in the simplest case of a closed thermodynamic system and its stochastic distribution. Inflammation, the initiation and propagation of self-sustained flames, is presented for turbulent flow. Explosion, the dynamic effects caused by the deposition of exothermic energy in a compressible medium, is illustrated by self-similar blast waves with energy deposition at the front and the adiabatic non-self-similar wave. Detonation, the most comprehensive illustration of all the dynamic effects of combustion, is discussed with a phenomenological account of the development and structure of the wave.

  9. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  10. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method of incinerating a fuel containing difficult to remove tramp comprising wire. It comprises placing of a fluid bed within a downwardly and inwardly tapered centrally hollow air distributor disposed within a lower portion of a vessel; introducing fuel comprising combustible material and tramp comprising wire into the fluid bed; incinerating the combustible material in the fluid bed accommodating downward migration within the fluid bed of the wire without a central obstruction to such migration; in the course of performing the incinerating step, fluidizing the bed solely by introducing inwardly at several tiered locations directed air into the bed only around the tapered periphery along the lower portion of the vessel from a plurality of inwardly and downwardly parallel sites as causing the bed material and tramp to migrate downwardly and inwardly without central bed obstruction toward a discharge site.

  11. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology. Therefore, this report does not elaborate on many of the detailed technical aspects of the research program.

  12. Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm; Pothmann, PH

    1923-01-01

    It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.

  13. Catalytic combustion nears application

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This article is a brief review of efforts to develope a catalytic combustion system with emissions levels less than 10 ppm. Two efforts are discussed: (1) tests by General Electric using a GE Frame 7E/9E and 7F/9F gas turbine, and (2) tests by AES using a Kawasaki M1A-13A industrial gas turbine. The latter also employs a heat recovery steam generator and produces 3 MWe and 28,000 lbm/hr of steam.

  14. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  15. Spray combustion stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, S. M.; Litchford, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort in the project is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results garnered from this work will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines. The specific objectives of the research effort include identifying and evaluating physical submodels which pertain to spray combustion stability with the idea of enhancing or refining existing submodels with a more comprehensive approach. In particular, any refinements to the spray combustion physical submodels which are achieved during the project will be channeled back to Rocketdyne for incorporation in their ARICC liquid rocket combustor code as second generation improvements. Also, as the ARICC code forms the basis or future CFD development, some effort is devoted to an evaluation of the code's capability for modeling oscillating pressure waves within the combustor.

  16. Device for improved combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Polomchak, R.W.; Yacko, M.

    1988-03-08

    A device for improved combustion is described comprising: a tubular housing member having a first end and a second end, the first and second ends each having a circular opening therethrough; a combustion chamber disposed about the second end of the-tubular-housing member; a first conduit member extending from the first end of the tubular housing member and in fluid communication with the circular opening in the first end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of air therethrough; a second conduit member axially disposed within the first conduit member and extending through the first conduit member and through the tubular housing member to the circular opening the second end of the tubular housing member so as to allow the passage of fuel therethrough; means for effecting turbulence in the air passing through the tubular housing member; means for effecting turbulence in the fuel passing through the second conduit member; means for intermixing and emitting the turbulent air and the fuel in a mushroom shaped configuration with the turbulent air surrounding the mushroom shaped configuration so as to substantially eliminate noxious waste gases as by-product of combustion of the air and fuel mixture.

  17. Spray combustion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.

    1997-01-01

    Concern over the future availability of high quality liquid fuels or use in furnaces and boilers prompted the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consider alternate fuels as replacements for the high grade liquid fuels used in the 1970's and 1980's. Alternate fuels were defined to be combinations of a large percentage of viscous, low volatility fuels resulting from the low end of distillation mixed with a small percentage of relatively low viscosity, high volatility fuels yielded by the high end of distillation. The addition of high volatility fuels was meant to promote desirable characteristics to a fuel that would otherwise be difficult to atomize and burn and whose combustion would yield a high amount of pollutants. Several questions thus needed to be answered before alternate fuels became commercially viable. These questions were related to fuel atomization, evaporation, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation. This final report describes the results of the most significant studies on ignition and combustion of alternative fuels.

  18. Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    The first space-based experiments were performed on the combustion of free, individual liquid fuel droplets in oxidizing atmospheres. The fuel was heptane, with initial droplet diameters ranging about from 1 mm to 4 mm. The atmospheres were mixtures of helium and oxygen, at pressures of 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 bar, with oxygen mole fractions between 20% and 40%, as well as normal Spacelab cabin air. The temperatures of the atmospheres and of the initial liquid fuel were nominally 300 K. A total of 44 droplets were burned successfully on the two flights, 8 on the shortened STS-83 mission and 36 on STS-94. The results spanned the full range of heptane droplet combustion behavior, from radiative flame extinction at larger droplet diameters in the more dilute atmospheres to diffusive extinction in the less dilute atmospheres, with the droplet disappearing prior to flame extinction at the highest oxygen concentrations. Quasisteady histories of droplet diameters were observed along with unsteady histories of flame diameters. New and detailed information was obtained on burning rates, flame characteristics and soot behavior. The results have motivated new computational and theoretical investigations of droplet combustion, improving knowledge of the chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer processes involved in burning liquid fuels.

  19. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  20. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  1. An overview of fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) product requirements and qualification programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebizlioglu, Osman S.; Gallo, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    downstream (from the CO to the customer) voice and data transmission is offered over 1490 nm, the video (analog, digital and HDTV) transmission will be offered over 1550-nm wavelength, and the 1625-nm will be reserved for overhead, surveillance, and management functions. This paper will cover some of the new products that will be needed and the requirements that would apply. The FTTP deployments require the placement of a number of new products in the FTTP network from the CO to the customer premises. These new products are designed to be installed in an efficient manner with acceptable cost to the service provider in the outside plant and to perform the required functions. One such new product is an HFOC (Hardened Fiber Optic Connector). The HFOC products provide drop connections to customers from fiber distribution networks. They may be placed in pedestal closures, aerial and buried closures, or equipment located at a Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH) enclosure or optical network termination (ONT) unit near customer premises. Current versions of this HFOC product have been based on a well-known and widely used SC fiber optic connector. Simply described, it consists of an SC connector in a protective shell made of a polymeric (plastic) material, and it allows highly efficient connections between the distribution cables from the FDH (Fiber Distribution Hub) where optical signal on a feeder cable from the CO is split for transmission over distribution cables and drop cables in locations near customer premises. In addition to the description of new products, the paper will review the environmental, mechanical and optical test criteria. Attendees would benefit from the knowledge of products and requirements needed to support FTTP deployment.

  2. Measurement of spray combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. E.; Arman, E. F.; Hornkohl, J. O.; Farmer, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    A free jet configuration was chosen for measuring noncombusting spray fields and hydrocarbon-air spray flames in an effort to develop computational models of the dynamic interaction between droplets and the gas phase and to verify and refine numerical models of the entire spray combustion process. The development of a spray combustion facility is described including techniques for laser measurements in spray combustion environments and methods for data acquisition, processing, displaying, and interpretation.

  3. Fourth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 84 papers presented at the Fourth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from May 19 to 21, 1997. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  4. Satellite provided customer premise services: A forecast of potential domestic demand through the year 2000. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Bowyer, J.; Bhushan, C.; Steinnagel, K.; Kaushal, D.; Al-Kinani, G.

    1983-01-01

    Voice applications, data applications, video applications, impacted baseline forecasts, market distribution, potential CPS (customers premises services) user classes, net long haul forecasts, CPS cost analysis, overall satellite forecast, CPS satellite market, Ka-band CPS satellite forecast, nationwide traffic distribution model, and intra-urban topology are discussed.

  5. Differential growth of Legionella pneumophila strains within a range of amoebae at various temperatures associated with in-premise plumbing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of in-premise plumbing temperatures (24, 32, 37 and 41 °C) on the growth of five different L. pneumophila strains within free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Hartmannella vermiformis and Naegleria fowleri) was examined. Compared to controls only fed E...

  6. Satellite provided customer premise services: A forecast of potential domestic demand through the year 2000. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Bowyer, J.; Bhushan, C.; Steinnagel, K.; Kaushal, D.; Al-Kinani, G.

    1983-08-01

    Voice applications, data applications, video applications, impacted baseline forecasts, market distribution, potential CPS (customers premises services) user classes, net long haul forecasts, CPS cost analysis, overall satellite forecast, CPS satellite market, Ka-band CPS satellite forecast, nationwide traffic distribution model, and intra-urban topology are discussed.

  7. 25 CFR 162.622 - Can BIA take emergency action if the leased premises are threatened with immediate and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... threatened with immediate and significant harm? 162.622 Section 162.622 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... emergency action if the leased premises are threatened with immediate and significant harm? If a tenant or any other party causes or threatens to cause immediate and significant harm to the leased...

  8. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  9. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION...

  10. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8 Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS inspector....

  11. 9 CFR 72.22 - Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cars, vehicles, and premises; cleaning and treatment after containing infested or exposed animals. 72.22 Section 72.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  12. Eukaryotic diversity in premise drinking water using 18S rDNA sequencing: implications for health risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to characterize microbial eukaryotes over a 12 month period, so as to provide insight into the occurrence of potentially important predators and bacterial hosts in hot and cold premise plumbing. Nearly 6,300 partial (600 bp) 18S rRNA gene sequences from...

  13. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, including 25 CFR part 169. Roads or other infrastructure within the leased premises do not require compliance with 25 CFR part 169 during the term of the lease... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 25 CFR 162.019 - May a lease address access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, including 25 CFR part 169. Roads or other infrastructure within the leased premises do not require compliance with 25 CFR part 169 during the term of the lease... roads or other infrastructure? 162.019 Section 162.019 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 9 CFR 56.5 - Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction and disposal of poultry and cleaning and disinfection of premises, conveyances, and materials. 56.5 Section 56.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR...

  16. Binge or Bout? Quantity and Rate of Drinking by Young People in the Evening in Licensed Premises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammersley, Richard; Ditton, Jason

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 291 people aged 16-25 responded to an interviewer-completed questionnaire seeking information on their quantity and rate of alcohol consumption. The survey was conducted in licensed premises in the centre of a large English city. Analysis revealed that men drank more than women, but adjusting for body size and recommended alcohol…

  17. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8... located in areas where tick eradication is being conducted in co- operation with the State authorities, and which are on premises shown by the official records of tick eradication to be free from ticks,...

  18. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8... located in areas where tick eradication is being conducted in co- operation with the State authorities, and which are on premises shown by the official records of tick eradication to be free from ticks,...

  19. 9 CFR 72.8 - Interstate movement of cattle from free premises upon inspection and certification by APHIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.8... located in areas where tick eradication is being conducted in co- operation with the State authorities, and which are on premises shown by the official records of tick eradication to be free from ticks,...

  20. 30 CFR 43.7 - Informal review upon written notice given to an inspector on the mine premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal review upon written notice given to an inspector on the mine premises. 43.7 Section 43.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS PROCEDURES FOR PROCESSING HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS COMPLAINTS Informal Review...

  1. 9 CFR 71.4 - Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance of certain facilities and premises in a sanitary condition required; cleaning and disinfection, when required; animals classed as âexposed.â 71.4 Section 71.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. Flammability of Heterogeneously Combusting Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Most engineering materials, including some metals, most notably aluminum, burn in homogeneous combustion. 'Homogeneous' refers to both the fuel and the oxidizer being in the same phase, which is usually gaseous. The fuel and oxidizer are well mixed in the combustion reaction zone, and heat is released according to some relation like q(sub c) = delta H(sub c)c[((rho/rho(sub 0))]exp a)(exp -E(sub c)/RT), Eq. (1) where the pressure exponent a is usually close to unity. As long as there is enough heat released, combustion is sustained. It is useful to conceive of a threshold pressure beyond which there is sufficient heat to keep the temperature high enough to sustain combustion, and beneath which the heat is so low that temperature drains away and the combustion is extinguished. Some materials burn in heterogeneous combustion, in which the fuel and oxidizer are in different phases. These include iron and nickel based alloys, which burn in the liquid phase with gaseous oxygen. Heterogeneous combustion takes place on the surface of the material (fuel). Products of combustion may appear as a solid slag (oxide) which progressively covers the fuel. Propagation of the combustion melts and exposes fresh fuel. Heterogeneous combustion heat release also follows the general form of Eq.(1), except that the pressure exponent a tends to be much less than 1. Therefore, the increase in heat release with increasing pressure is not as dramatic as it is in homogeneous combustion. Although the concept of a threshold pressure still holds in heterogeneous combustion, the threshold is more difficult to identify experimentally, and pressure itself becomes less important relative to the heat transfer paths extant in any specific application. However, the constants C, a, and E(sub c) may still be identified by suitable data reduction from heterogeneous combustion experiments, and may be applied in a heat transfer model to judge the flammability of a material in any particular actual

  3. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  4. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Donald W.

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  5. Composite propellant combustion modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1977-01-01

    A review is presented of theoretical and experimental studies of composite propellant combustion. The theoretical investigations include a model of the combustion of a nonmetallized ammonium perchlorate (AP) propellant (noting time scales for vapor-phase combustion and the condensed phase) and response functions in pressure-coupled oscillations. The experimental studies are discussed with reference to scale-modeling apparatus, flame standoff distance versus velocity as a function of pressure, and results from T-burner firings of a nonmetallized AP/polysulfide propellant. Research applications including problems with nitramine propellants, the feasibility of stop-restart rockets with salt quench, and combustion problems in large boosters are outlined.

  6. Smoldering combustion analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Dosanjh, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Smoldering combustion propagation through very porous solid materials is examined. Due to the microgravity environment, smolder propagation is assumed to be one-dimensional. Two configurations are considered: (1) cocurrent, premixed-flame-like or reverse; (2) countercurrent, diffusion-flame-like or forward. In cocurrent smoldering combustion, both forced and free flow are analytically represented. It is assumed that the propagation of the smolder wave is steady in a frame of reference moving with the wave. Smoldering is described by a finite-rate, one-step, oxidation reaction, and radiation heat transfer is incorporated using a diffusion approximation. A straightforward extension of the activation energy asymptotics analysis presented by Williams yields an expression for a dimensionless eigenvalue, ..lambda.., thus determining the final temperature, T/sub f/ A global energy balance then determines the smolder velocity, v. Explicit expressions are derived for the smolder velocity, v, and the final temperature, T/sub f/. An approximate extinction criterion is identified. A model of unsteady, forced, countercurrent smoldering combustion is also presented. Smoldering is represented utilizing a two step mechanism consisting of a pyrolysis reaction followed by a char oxidation reaction. A flame sheet approximation is used to model the oxidation reaction. It is assumed that pyrolysis occurs at a known temperature, T/sub p/. Two cases are considered: (1) no residual as, nu/sub a/M/sub a/ = 0, and (2) an ash layer forming beneath the oxidation zone, nu/sub a/M/sub a/ not equal to 0. The residual ash serves as insulation, and its presence leads to higher peak temperatures. Explicit expressions are derived for the oxidation velocity, v, the maximum temperature, T/sub m/, and the pyrolysis front velocity, v/sub p/.

  7. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  8. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  9. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  10. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  11. Spray combustion stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results concerning high pressure droplet gasification model, droplet turbulent dispersion model, and spray atomization model will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines.

  12. Lagrangian Simulation of Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed F. Ghoniem

    2008-05-01

    A Lagrangian approach for the simulation of reactive flows has been developed during the course of this project, and has been applied to a number of significant and challenging problems including the transverse jet simulations. An efficient strategy for parallel domain decomposition has also been developed to enable the implementation of the approach on massively parallel architecture. Since 2005, we focused our efforts on the development of a semi-Lagrangian treatment of diffusion, and fast and accurate Lagrangian simulation tools for multiphysics problems including combustion.

  13. Examining the premises supporting the empirically supported intervention approach to social work practice.

    PubMed

    McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E; Aisenberg, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance. This article examines the validity of four premises undergirding the ESI approach: ESIs are effective, relevant to common client problems and needs, culturally appropriate, and replicable and sustainable in community-based settings. In reviewing available literature, the authors found insufficient support for the uniform application of an ESI approach to social work practice in the human service sector, particularly as applied within agency contexts serving ethnic minority clients. The authors recommend that greater attention be devoted to the development and dissemination of social work interventions that respond to needs that are broadly understood and shared across diverse cultural groups, have proven clinical efficacy, and can be translated successfully for use across different agency and cultural environments. Such attention to the research and development function of the social work profession is increasingly necessary as policymakers and human service system architects require reduced costs and improved performance for programs serving historically oppressed client populations. PMID:20977058

  14. Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: Evidence for developmental change

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Brickman, Daniel; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N = 133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition. PMID:18436200

  15. Thermoelectricity in Disordered Organic Semiconductors under the Premise of the Gaussian Disorder Model and its Variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendels, Dan; Tessler, Nir; Organic Materials; Devices Team

    2015-03-01

    Charge transport in disordered organic systems has been in recent decades mainly discerned from the perspective of a variety of phenomenological models prominent of which those stemming from the Gaussian Disorder Model. But while the use of these models has been prevalent, uncertainty regarding the extent of their validity remains due to the large number of free parameters they consist and their frequent deficiency to consistently account for large sets of experiments while keeping model input parameters and distributions unchanged. In the presented study, we have investigated using Monte Carlo simulations the thermoelectric properties of disordered organic semiconductors under the premise of the Gaussian Disorder Model and its variants. Doing so enabled the provision of additional dimensions for comparison between the aforementioned theoretical frameworks and real systems, beyond those based on extensively studied charge transport properties, and the provision of a frame-of-reference for rising interest in these systems for thermoelectric applications. To illustrate the potential existing in the implementation of combined transport and thermoelectric investigation, strategies will be discussed to experimentally deduce the DOS shape, infer whether a system's activation energy originates from its energetic disorder or a polaron activation energy (while deducing the given polaron activation energy), and discerning whether a system's energetic disorder is spatially correlated or accompanied by off-diagonal disorder.

  16. Customer premise service study for 30/20 GHz satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, R. T.; Ross, D. P.; Harcar, A. R.; Freedenberg, P.; Schoen, D.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite systems in which the space segment operates in the 30/20 GHz frequency band are defined and compared as to their potential for providing various types of communications services to customer premises and the economic and technical feasibility of doing so. Technical tasks performed include: market postulation, definition of the ground segment, definition of the space segment, definition of the integrated satellite system, service costs for satellite systems, sensitivity analysis, and critical technology. Based on an analysis of market data, a sufficiently large market for services is projected so as to make the system economically viable. A large market, and hence a high capacity satellite system, is found to be necessary to minimize service costs, i.e., economy of scale is found to hold. The wide bandwidth expected to be available in the 30/20 GHz band, along with frequency reuse which further increases the effective system bandwidth, makes possible the high capacity system. Extensive ground networking is required in most systems to both connect users into the system and to interconnect Earth stations to provide spatial diversity. Earth station spatial diversity is found to be a cost effective means of compensating the large fading encountered in the 30/20 GHz operating band.

  17. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  18. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  19. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  20. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  1. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  2. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshandell, Melika

    A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding

  3. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B.

    1995-10-01

    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  4. Method for in situ combustion

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Shuck, Lowell Z.; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved in situ combustion method for the recovery of hydrocarbons from subterranean earth formations containing carbonaceous material. The method is practiced by penetrating the subterranean earth formation with a borehole projecting into the coal bed along a horizontal plane and extending along a plane disposed perpendicular to the plane of maximum permeability. The subterranean earth formation is also penetrated with a plurality of spaced-apart vertical boreholes disposed along a plane spaced from and generally parallel to that of the horizontal borehole. Fractures are then induced at each of the vertical boreholes which project from the vertical boreholes along the plane of maximum permeability and intersect the horizontal borehole. The combustion is initiated at the horizontal borehole and the products of combustion and fluids displaced from the earth formation by the combustion are removed from the subterranean earth formation via the vertical boreholes. Each of the vertical boreholes are, in turn, provided with suitable flow controls for regulating the flow of fluid from the combustion zone and the earth formation so as to control the configuration and rate of propagation of the combustion zone. The fractures provide a positive communication with the combustion zone so as to facilitate the removal of the products resulting from the combustion of the carbonaceous material.

  5. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  6. Fluidized bed combustion of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatebayashi, J.; Okada, Y.; Yano, K.; Takada, T.; Handa, K.

    The effect of various parameters on combustion efficiency, desulfurization efficiency and NO emission in fluidized bed combustion of coal were investigated by using two test combustors whose sectional areas were 200 mm and 500 mm square. It has been revealed that by employing two-stage combustion and setting the primary air ratio, secondary air injection height and other parameters to optimum levels, NO emission can be greatly reduced while barely impairing combustion efficiency or desulfurization efficiency. Also, NO emission of less than 50 ppm and desulfurization efficiency of as high as 93% were achieved. These results have ensured good prospects for the development of a coal combustion boiler system which can satisfy the strictest environmental protection regulations, without installing special desulfurization and de-NO(X) facilities.

  7. Mission Success for Combustion Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes how mission success for combustion experiments has been obtained in previous spaceflight experiments and how it will be obtained for future International Space Station (ISS) experiments. The fluids and combustion facility is a payload planned for the ISS. It is composed of two racks: the fluids Integrated rack and the Combustion INtegrated Rack (CIR). Requirements for the CIR were obtained from a set of combustion basis experiments that served as surrogates for later experiments. The process for experiments that fly on the ISS includes proposal selection, requirements and success criteria definition, science and engineering reviews, mission operations, and postflight operations. By following this process, the microgravity combustion science program has attained success in 41 out of 42 experiments.

  8. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1997-01-01

    Combustion is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. For example, electric power production, home heating, surface and air transportation, space propulsion, and materials synthesis all utilize combustion as a source of energy. Yet, although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. For example, pollutants, atmospheric change and global warming, unwanted fires and explosions, and the incineration of hazardous wastes are major problem areas which would benefit from improved understanding of combustion. Effects of gravitational forces impede combustion studies more than most other areas of science since combustion involves production of high-temperature gases whose low density results in buoyant motion, vastly complicating the execution and interpretation of experiments. Effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that their enormous negative impact on the rational development of combustion science is generally not recognized. Buoyant motion also triggers the onset of turbulence, yielding complicating unsteady effects. Finally, gravity forces cause particles and drops to settle, inhibiting deconvoluted studies of heterogeneous flames important to furnace, incineration and power generation technologies. Thus, effects of buoyancy have seriously limited our capabilities to carry out 'clean' experiments needed for fundamental understanding of flame phenomena. Combustion scientists can use microgravity to simplify the study of many combustion processes, allowing fresh insights into important problems via a deeper understanding of elemental phenomena also found in Earth-based combustion processes and to additionally provide valuable information concerning how fires behave in microgravity and how fire safety on spacecraft can be enhanced.

  9. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from free-ranging birds and mammals on livestock premises.

    PubMed

    Corn, Joseph L; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Fischer, John R

    2005-11-01

    Surveys for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in free-ranging mammals and birds were conducted on nine dairy and beef cattle farms in Wisconsin and Georgia. Specimens were collected from 774 animals representing 25 mammalian and 22 avian species. Specimens of ileum, liver, intestinal lymph nodes, and feces were harvested from the larger mammals; a liver specimen and the gastrointestinal tract were harvested from birds and small mammals. Cultures were performed by using radiometric culture and acid-fast isolates were identified by 16S/IS900/IS1311 PCR and mycobactin dependency characteristics. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from tissues and feces from 39 samples from 30 animals representing nine mammalian and three avian species. The prevalence of infected wild animals by premises ranged from 2.7 to 8.3% in Wisconsin and from 0 to 6.0% in Georgia. Shedding was documented in seven (0.9%) animals: three raccoons, two armadillos, one opossum, and one feral cat. The use of two highly polymorphic short sequence repeat loci for analysis of 29 of the 39 strains identified 10 alleles. One allelic pattern broadly shared in domestic ruminants ("7,5") appeared in approximately one-third of the wildlife M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates studied. Given the few cases of shedding by free-ranging animals compared to the volume of contaminated manure produced by infected domestic ruminant livestock, contamination of the farm environment by infected wildlife was negligible. Wildlife may, however, have epidemiological significance for farms where M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis recently has been eliminated or on farms free of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis but located in the geographic vicinity of farms with infected livestock. PMID:16269731

  10. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Free-Ranging Birds and Mammals on Livestock Premises

    PubMed Central

    Corn, Joseph L.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Fischer, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in free-ranging mammals and birds were conducted on nine dairy and beef cattle farms in Wisconsin and Georgia. Specimens were collected from 774 animals representing 25 mammalian and 22 avian species. Specimens of ileum, liver, intestinal lymph nodes, and feces were harvested from the larger mammals; a liver specimen and the gastrointestinal tract were harvested from birds and small mammals. Cultures were performed by using radiometric culture and acid-fast isolates were identified by 16S/IS900/IS1311 PCR and mycobactin dependency characteristics. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from tissues and feces from 39 samples from 30 animals representing nine mammalian and three avian species. The prevalence of infected wild animals by premises ranged from 2.7 to 8.3% in Wisconsin and from 0 to 6.0% in Georgia. Shedding was documented in seven (0.9%) animals: three raccoons, two armadillos, one opossum, and one feral cat. The use of two highly polymorphic short sequence repeat loci for analysis of 29 of the 39 strains identified 10 alleles. One allelic pattern broadly shared in domestic ruminants (“7,5”) appeared in approximately one-third of the wildlife M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates studied. Given the few cases of shedding by free-ranging animals compared to the volume of contaminated manure produced by infected domestic ruminant livestock, contamination of the farm environment by infected wildlife was negligible. Wildlife may, however, have epidemiological significance for farms where M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis recently has been eliminated or on farms free of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis but located in the geographic vicinity of farms with infected livestock. PMID:16269731

  11. Kawasaki Disease: Laboratory Findings and an Immunopathogenesis on the Premise of a "Protein Homeostasis System"

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Jung-Woo; Kang, Jin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limited systemic inflammatory illness, and coronary artery lesions (CALs) are a major complication determining the prognosis of the disease. Epidemiologic studies in Asian children suggest that the etiologic agent(s) of KD may be associated with environmental changes. Laboratory findings are useful for the diagnosis of incomplete KD, and they can guide the next-step in treatment of initial intravenous immunoglobulin non-responders. CALs seem to develop in the early stages of the disease before a peak in inflammation. Therefore early treatment, before the peak in inflammation, is mandatory to reduce the risk of CAL progression and severity of CALs. The immunopathogenesis of KD is more likely that of acute rheumatic fever than scarlet fever. A hypothetical pathogenesis of KD is proposed under the premise of a "protein homeostasis system"; where innate and adaptive immune cells control pathogenic proteins that are toxic to host cells at a molecular level. After an infection of unknown KD pathogen(s), the pathogenic proteins produced from an unknown focus, spread and bind to endothelial cells of coronary arteries as main target cells. To control the action of pathogenic proteins and/or substances from the injured cells, immune cells are activated. Initially, non-specific T cells and non-specific antibodies are involved in this reaction, while hyperactivated immune cells produce various cytokines, leading to a cytokine imbalance associated with further endothelial cell injury. After the emergence of specific T cells and specific antibodies against the pathogenic proteins, tissue injury ceases and a repair reaction begins with the immune cells. PMID:22318812

  12. Learning and recognition of on-premise signs from weakly labeled street view images.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Hung; Cheng, Wen-Huang; You, Chuang-Wen; Hu, Min-Chun; Tsui, Arvin Wen; Chi, Heng-Yu

    2014-03-01

    Camera-enabled mobile devices are commonly used as interaction platforms for linking the user's virtual and physical worlds in numerous research and commercial applications, such as serving an augmented reality interface for mobile information retrieval. The various application scenarios give rise to a key technique of daily life visual object recognition. On-premise signs (OPSs), a popular form of commercial advertising, are widely used in our living life. The OPSs often exhibit great visual diversity (e.g., appearing in arbitrary size), accompanied with complex environmental conditions (e.g., foreground and background clutter). Observing that such real-world characteristics are lacking in most of the existing image data sets, in this paper, we first proposed an OPS data set, namely OPS-62, in which totally 4649 OPS images of 62 different businesses are collected from Google's Street View. Further, for addressing the problem of real-world OPS learning and recognition, we developed a probabilistic framework based on the distributional clustering, in which we proposed to exploit the distributional information of each visual feature (the distribution of its associated OPS labels) as a reliable selection criterion for building discriminative OPS models. Experiments on the OPS-62 data set demonstrated the outperformance of our approach over the state-of-the-art probabilistic latent semantic analysis models for more accurate recognitions and less false alarms, with a significant 151.28% relative improvement in the average recognition rate. Meanwhile, our approach is simple, linear, and can be executed in a parallel fashion, making it practical and scalable for large-scale multimedia applications. PMID:24474374

  13. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  14. Combustion in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, J.

    1999-09-01

    A 2.8-liter tube-shaped combustion vessel was constructed to study flame propagation and quenching in porous media. For this experiment, hydrogen-air flames propagating horizontally into abed of 6 mm diameter glass beads were studied. Measurements of pressure and temperature along the length of the tube were used to observe flame propagation of quenching. The critical hydrogen concentration for Hz-air mixtures was found to be 11.5%, corresponding to a critical Peclet number of Pe* = 37. This value is substantially less than the value of Pe* = 65 quoted in the literature, for example Babkin et al. (1991). It is hypothesized that buoyancy and a dependence of Pe on the Lewis number account for the discrepancy between these two results.

  15. Combustion of viscous hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.E.; Hrebenar, K.R.; Murphy, P.L.; Futch, L.E. Jr.; Deal, J.F. III; Bolden, P.L. Jr.

    1987-08-04

    A method is described for utilizing viscous hydrocarbons as combustible pre-atomized fuels, comprising: (A) forming a hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion using an effective amount of a surfactant package comprising at least one water-soluble surfactant, the hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion (1) comprising a hydrocarbon characterized by API gravity of about 20/sup 0/ API or less, viscosity of about 1000 centipoise or greater at 212/sup 0/F., a paraffin content of about 50% by weight or less and, an aromatic content of about 15% by weight or greater, and (2) having a hydrocarbon water ratio from about 60:40 to about 90:10 by volume; and (B) burning the resultant hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion.

  16. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  17. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  18. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  19. Combustion A Study in theory, fact and application

    SciTech Connect

    Chomiak, J. )

    1990-01-01

    This book provides a view of combustion science. It presents an account of combustion theory, with an emphasis on turbulent flame phenomena and coal combustion and fire problems. It discusses combustion design, research fundamentals and combustion technology.

  20. Satellite provided customer premise services: A forecast of potential domestic demand through the year 2000. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Bowyer, J.; Bhushan, C.; Steinnagel, K.; Al-Kinani, G.

    1983-08-01

    The potential United States domestic telecommunications demand for satellite provided customer premises voice, data and video services through the year 2000 were forecast, so that this information on service demand would be available to aid in NASA program planning. To accomplish this overall purpose the following objectives were achieved: development of a forecast of the total domestic telecommunications demand, identification of that portion of the telecommunications demand suitable for transmission by satellite systems, identification of that portion of the satellite market addressable by Computer premises services systems, identification of that portion of the satellite market addressabble by Ka-band CPS system, and postulation of a Ka-band CPS network on a nationwide and local level. The approach employed included the use of a variety of forecasting models, a market distribution model and a network optimization model. Forecasts were developed for; 1980, 1990, and 2000; voice, data and video services; terrestrial and satellite delivery modes; and C, Ku and Ka-bands.