Science.gov

Sample records for prenatal record revision

  1. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  2. Relationship between Revised Graduated Index (R-GINDEX) of Prenatal Care Utilization & Preterm Labor and Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tayebi, Tahereh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Shirvani, Marjan Ahmad; Dayhimi, Marjaneh; Danesh, Mahmonir

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal care refers to accurate and consistent performance of the principles important to maintain healthy pregnancy outcomes and also for mother and child health. One of the new indices to assess the adequacy of care is Revised Graduated Index of Prenatal Care Utilization (R-GINDEX). The study aims to assess the relationship between quantitative prenatal care factors and preterm labor and low birth weight using R-GINDEX. This historical cohort study has been conducted on 420 mothers during the first two years after delivery in 2010. The adequacy of care was calculated by R-GINDEX. Based on this index, participants have been divided into three care groups including inadequate, adequate and intensive care groups. A significant relationship has been found between R-GINDEX and preterm birth and low birth weight (P<0.05). Thus the probability of premature labor in inadequate care group (RR=3.93) and low birth weight (RR= 2.53) was higher than that of the adequate and intensive care group. The results showed that the quantity of prenatal care is effective in reducing preterm birth and low birth weight. PMID:24762355

  3. The Best of "The Running Record." Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This revised edition of the first volume of the "Best of the Running Record Newsletter" contains 23 articles published between March 1989 and Spring 1998--some selections are from the now out-of-print first edition. Articles are arranged by subject matter to assist the reader in finding articles which address a particular point of interest.…

  4. 75 FR 43709 - Privacy Act of 1974; New and Revised Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Retirement Board Privacy Act of 1974; New and Revised Systems of Records; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol...; New and Revised Systems of Records AGENCY: Railroad Retirement Board. ACTION: Notice: Publication of New and Revised Systems of Records and Standard Disclosures. SUMMARY: The purpose of this document...

  5. Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Initially published by the Children's Bureau in 1913, this pamphlet has been revised frequently. Its purpose is to point out the importance of medical care during pregnancy. Comfortable pregnancies, easy labor, and better care for their new infants are the usual concerns of prospective mothers. Consequently, this 1962 edition of "Prenatal Care"…

  6. Maternal recall versus medical records of metabolic conditions from the prenatal period: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Krakowiak, Paula; Walker, Cheryl K.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess validity of maternally-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and reliability of BMI measurements during periconception and pregnancy compared with medical records when mothers are interviewed 2-5 years after delivery. To investigate whether reporting accuracy differed by child's case status (autism, delays, typical development). Methods Participants were mothers of 2-5 year old children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study who had both prenatal/delivery records and telephone interviews. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report in telephone interview was assessed by comparison with medical records; agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Deviations in reported BMI were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Results Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism or developmental delay) reported metabolic conditions slightly more accurately than control mothers. For diabetes, sensitivity ranged from 73% to 87% and specificity was ≥98% across groups. For hypertensive disorders, sensitivity ranged from 57% to 77% and specificity from 93% to 98%. Reliability of BMI was high (CCC=0.930); when grouped into BMI categories, a higher proportion of mothers of delayed children were correctly classified (κwt=0.93) compared with the autism group and controls (κwt=0.85 and κwt=0.84, respectively; P=0.05). Multiparity was associated with higher discrepancies in BMI and misreporting of hypertensive disorders. Conclusions For purposes of etiologic studies, self-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders during periconception and pregnancy show high validity among mothers irrespective of child's case status. Recall of pre-pregnancy BMI is reliable compared with self-reported values in medical records. PMID:25656730

  7. Maternal Recall Versus Medical Records of Metabolic Conditions from the Prenatal Period: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Paula; Walker, Cheryl K; Tancredi, Daniel J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-09-01

    To assess validity of maternally-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and reliability of BMI measurements during periconception and pregnancy compared with medical records when mothers are interviewed 2-5 years after delivery. To investigate whether reporting accuracy differed by child's case status (autism, delays, typical development). Participants were mothers of 2-5 year old children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study who had both prenatal/delivery records and telephone interviews. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report in telephone interview was assessed by comparison with medical records; agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Deviations in reported BMI were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism or developmental delay) reported metabolic conditions slightly more accurately than control mothers. For diabetes, sensitivity ranged from 73 to 87% and specificity was ≥98% across groups. For hypertensive disorders, sensitivity ranged from 57 to 77% and specificity from 93 to 98%. Reliability of BMI was high (CCC = 0.930); when grouped into BMI categories, a higher proportion of mothers of delayed children were correctly classified (κ(wt) = 0.93) compared with the autism group and controls (κ(wt) = 0.85 and κ(wt) = 0.84, respectively; P = 0.05). Multiparity was associated with higher discrepancies in BMI and misreporting of hypertensive disorders. For purposes of etiologic studies, self-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders during periconception and pregnancy show high validity among mothers irrespective of child's case status. Recall of pre-pregnancy BMI is reliable compared with self-reported values in medical records. PMID:25656730

  8. Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Prenatal tests Prenatal tests E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... if you’re feeling fine. What are prenatal tests? Prenatal tests are medical tests you get during ...

  9. Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our ePublications > Prenatal care fact sheet ePublications Prenatal care fact sheet Print this fact sheet Health Care ... More information on prenatal care What is prenatal care? Prenatal care is the health care you get ...

  10. 78 FR 65884 - 2014 Edition Electronic Health Record Certification Criteria: Revision to the Definition of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Record Certification Criteria: Revision to the Definition of ``Common Meaningful Use (MU) Data Set... with comment period revises one paragraph in the Common Meaningful Use (MU) Data Set definition at 45... Posnack, Director, Federal Policy Division, Office of Policy and Planning, Office of the...

  11. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility computer software release cover sheet and revision record

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, R.J.

    1994-11-28

    This supporting document contains the computer software release cover sheet and revision records for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The previous revision was controlled by CH2M Hill which developed the software. A 7-page listing of the contents of directory C:{backslash}TEDF is contained in this report.

  12. Manual for the Use of the Pupil Activities Record--Revised (PAR-R).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Glynn; And Others

    A comprehensive guide for observers using the Pupil Activities Record--Revised (PAR-R), this manual covers procedures followed in systematic observation of a student's classroom activities for the period of one instructional day. The manual provides general information about the purpose and design of the PAR and explains the revisions, which were…

  13. 77 FR 29596 - Privacy Act of 1974; Revision and Republication of Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ..., phone number. Authority for maintenance of the system: 5 U.S.C. Part III, is the authority for the... stored in file folders. Extracts of these records, including tax ID number, address, and phone number... COMMISSION Privacy Act of 1974; Revision and Republication of Systems of Records AGENCY: Consumer...

  14. A Manual for Recording Serial Publications in Kardex, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, S. K.

    Recording of serials is among the very important functions of a serials department. It helps in controlling the in-coming serials, claiming the not-received and missing issues, and answering inquiries regarding the current holdings of the library. This manual briefly describes the 3x5 file card system of recording serials, defines the various…

  15. The Early Cretaceous Sulfur Isotope Record: New Data, Revised Ages, and Updated Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristall, B.; Hurtgen, M.; Sageman, B. B.; Jacobson, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous is a time of significant transformation with the continued break-up of Pangea, the emplacement of several LIPs, and a climatic shift from a cool greenhouse to a warm greenhouse. The timing of these major events and their relationship to seawater geochemistry (as recorded in isotope records) is critical for understanding changes in global biogeochemical cycles during this time. Within this context, recent revisions to the Cretaceous portion of the geologic timescale necessitate a reevaluation of the Cretaceous S isotope record as recorded in marine barite (Paytan et al., 2004). We present a revised Early Cretaceous S isotope record and present new δ34Sbarite data that extend the record further back in time and provide more detail during two major S isotope shifts of the Early Cretaceous. The new data maintain the major ~5‰ negative shift but raise questions on the timing and structure of this perturbation. Furthermore, recently updated estimates for global rates of marine microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) (Bowles et al., 2014) and sulfate burial during the Phanerozoic (Halevy et al., 2012) require notable revisions in the fluxes and isotopic values used to model the global S cycle. We present a revised global S cycle box model and reconstruct the evolution of the Early Cretaceous S isotope record primarily through perturbations in volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes (e.g., submarine LIPs). Changes to the weathering and pyrite burial fluxes and the global integrated fractionation factor for MSR are also used to modulate, balance, and smooth the LIP-driven perturbation. The massive evaporite burial during the Late Aptian post dates the major -5‰ shift and has little affect on the modeled S isotope composition of seawater sulfate, despite causing a major drop in sulfate concentration. The S cycle box model is coupled to a Sr cycle box model to provide additional constraints on the magnitude and timing of perturbations within the S isotope record.

  16. The Impact of the Revised Sunspot Record on Solar Irradiance Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, G.; Krivova, N.; Wu, C. J.; Lean, J.

    2016-03-01

    Reliable historical records of the total solar irradiance (TSI) are needed to assess the extent to which long-term variations in the Sun's radiant energy that is incident upon Earth may exacerbate (or mitigate) the more dominant warming in recent centuries that is due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. We investigate the effects that the new Sunspot Index and Long-term Solar Observations (SILSO) sunspot-number time series may have on model reconstructions of the TSI. In contemporary TSI records, variations on timescales longer than about a day are dominated by the opposing effects of sunspot darkening and facular brightening. These two surface magnetic features, retrieved either from direct observations or from solar-activity proxies, are combined in TSI models to reproduce the current TSI observational record. Indices that manifest solar-surface magnetic activity, in particular the sunspot-number record, then enable reconstructing historical TSI. Revisions of the sunspot-number record therefore affect the magnitude and temporal structure of TSI variability on centennial timescales according to the model reconstruction methods that are employed. We estimate the effects of the new SILSO record on two widely used TSI reconstructions, namely the NRLTSI2 and the SATIRE models. We find that the SILSO record has little effect on either model after 1885, but leads to solar-cycle fluctuations with greater amplitude in the TSI reconstructions prior. This suggests that many eighteenth- and nineteenth-century cycles could be similar in amplitude to those of the current Modern Maximum. TSI records based on the revised sunspot data do not suggest a significant change in Maunder Minimum TSI values, and from comparing this era to the present, we find only very small potential differences in the estimated solar contributions to the climate with this new sunspot record.

  17. Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal care is the health care you get while you are pregnant. It includes your checkups and prenatal testing. Prenatal care can help keep you and your baby healthy. It lets your health care provider spot health problems early. Early treatment ...

  18. Prenatal hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Fefer, Sergio; Ellsworth, Pamela

    2006-06-01

    Hydronephrosis is the most common genitourinary tract anomaly identified on prenatal ultrasound studies. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction accounts for approximately 50% of the cases of prenatally detected hydronephrosis. Postnatal evaluation allows for the identification of the cause and further management. Rarely, in utero intervention may be performed for severe oligohydramnios associated with hydronephrosis. Prenatal consultation with a pediatric urologist is useful in decreasing parental anxiety and facilitating postnatal management. PMID:16716789

  19. 75 FR 34714 - Updated Record of Decision (ROD) for Revised Army Growth and Force; Structure Realignment Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Department of the Army Updated Record of Decision (ROD) for Revised Army Growth and Force; Structure... Department of the Army announces the availability of an updated ROD for Army Growth and Force Structure... Army growth and force structure realignment. The Army's decision at the time grew the Army by...

  20. Keeping the Business Records. PACE Revised. Level 3. Unit 15. Research & Development Series No. 240CB15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This individualized, competency-based unit on keeping business records, the 15th of 18 modules, is on the third level of the revised Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). Intended for the advanced secondary and postsecondary levels and for adults wanting training or retraining, this unit, together with the other materials at…

  1. Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests are considered routine — that is, almost all pregnant women receiving prenatal care get them. They include things like checking urine levels for protein, sugar, or signs of infection. Other non- routine tests are recommended only for ...

  2. Additional records of the laomediid mud-shrimp genus Naushonia Kingsley, 1897 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea), with a revised identification key.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Anker, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Six species of the peculiar mud-shrimp genus Naushonia Kingsley, 1897 (Laomediidae) from various localities in the world are treated in this study: N. carinata Dworschak, Marin & Anker, 2006 (newly recorded from Japan); N. japonica Komai, 2004 (second record since the original description); N. lactoalbida Berggren, 1992 (newly recorded from Papua New Guinea); N. portoricensis (Rathbun, 1901) (newly recorded from the French Antilles); N. serratipalma Komai & Anker, 2010 (newly recorded from Saudi Arabia); and N. draconis Anker, 2014 (newly recorded from Cuba). A detailed description and new illustrations are provided for N. portoricensis, a species for which a modern description was hitherto unavailable. Gill formula was re-examined in all six species. Colour photographs of living or fresh specimens are provided for most species. A revised key to all known species of Naushonia is presented, a eliminating misinterpretation of an important character in previous keys. PMID:26249909

  3. Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-10-21

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to amend its July 25, 2003, Record of Decision (ROD) regarding the proposed Summit/Westward Project (Project) to offer contract terms for an optional interconnection of this Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Under this optional interconnection plan, BPA would integrate electric power from the Project into the FCRTS at a point adjacent to Clatskanie People's Utility District (CPUD) existing Wauna Substation. In order to deliver power to this location, CPUD would develop a new substation (Bradbury Substation) at a site near the Project and a new 230-kV transmission line from there to CPUD's Wauna Substation, which is already connected to the FCRTS. As part of this revised decision, BPA will facilitate CPUD development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line by allowing joint use of BPA right-of-way. This will involve reconstructing a section of BPA's 115-kV Allston-Astoria No. 1 transmission line from single-circuit H-frame wood-pole design to double-circuit single metal pole design. Terms of BPA participation in CPUD's development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line will be documented in a Construction Agreement. This optional interconnection plan is in addition to BPA's previous offer for interconnection of the Project at BPA's Allston Substation, as documented in the July 25, 2003, ROD. As with the initial interconnection plan, the decision to offer terms to interconnect the Project through the optional interconnection plan is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 1995). This decision thus is similarly tiered to the Business Plan ROD.

  4. Revised estimates of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ variations based on the tree ring /sup 13/C record

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, T.H.; Freyer, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    The composite mean /sup 13/C record for the Northern Hemisphere was revised. The overall decrease of delta /sup 13/C from 1800 to 1980 was estimated to be about -1.5/sup 0///sub 00/, which is 0.5/sup 0///sub 00/ less than the previous estimate. Therefore, the contribution of /sup 13/C-depleted CO/sub 2/ to the atmosphere from the forest and soil source was reevaluated, using the modified box-diffusion ocean model and Freyer's revised /sup 13/C record. On the basis of the assumption that this revised tree ring /sup 13/C record represents changes in the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio induced in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ due to deforestation and soil manipulation and combustion of fossil fuels, the following results are obtained: (1) the magnitude of the integrated CO/sub 2/ release from the terrestrial biosphere since 1800 is about 90% of that from fossil fuel; (2) over the two-decade period covered by the Mauna Loa atmospheric CO/sub 2/ record, the input from the forest plus soil source is about 15% of that from fossil fuels; (3) the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C trend over the last two decades has been dominated by the input of fossil fuel CO/sub 2/; and (4) the pre-1850 atmospheric CO/sub 2/ content is estimated to be about 266 x 10/sup -6/ atm. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  5. 75 FR 80034 - Privacy Act of 1974: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records Revision and Proposed New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ...In accordance with the requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA), is giving notice that it is revising a system of records that is maintained for the purpose of enforcing the U.S. Grain Standards Act (USGSA) and certain provisions of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946......

  6. Prenatal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  7. A revised atmospheric δ13C-CO2 record covering the last 1000 years from Law Dome, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, M.; Etheridge, D. M.; Trudinger, C. M.; Allison, C.; Battle, M. O.; Bender, M. L.; Langenfelds, R.; Steele, P.; Curran, M.; Blunier, T.; Jenk, T. M.; Francey, R.

    2012-12-01

    We present a revised and expanded record of atmospheric δ13C-CO2 extracted from ice cores sampled at Law Dome (East Antarctica) and firn air sampled at Law Dome and at South Pole covering the last 1000 years. We have performed new measurements of 13C of CO2 extracted from ice, incorporated the results from new firn sampling campaigns in Antarctica and merged them with a revised version of the previous δ13C-CO2 measurements [Francey et al., 1999]. Our new measurements from Law Dome ice increase the temporal sampling density over the last 200 years and show good agreement with the results from South Pole firn, providing evidence that our new record reliably extend the Cape Grim δ13C-CO2 record back in time. We also show the preliminary measurements aimed at covering the preindustrial period with higher sample density, including the 10 ppm CO2 decrease observed in ice from Law Dome at the beginning of 1600 AD [Etheridge et al., 1996, MacFarling Meure et al., 2006]. Having higher sample density for both CO2 and δ13C-CO2 in that period allows us to infer sources and sinks of CO2 with higher confidence. Corresponding author: Mauro Rubino, mauro.rubino@csiro.au, +61(0)392394634 References Etheridge, D. et al. (1996), ISSN: 01480227. MacFarling Meure, C. et al. (2006), DOI: 10.1029/2006GL026152. Francey, R. J. et al. (1999), ISSN: 02806509.

  8. Effectiveness of Revised Pharmacology Record Books as a Teaching-Learning Method for Second Year Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Gangadhar, Reneega

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of teaching medical undergraduates Pharmacology is to form a sound foundation of therapeutics. The pharmacology record books are maintained as a part of the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback of the medical students about the new record adopted in the institution after major revision Materials and Methods This was a questionnaire based study done in a Government Medical College of Kerala in February 2013. The data was analysed using SPSS. The feedback on clinical pharmacology exercises was given positive and negative scores. Results Majority (64.5%) opined that the content in pharmacology record was good. A total of 78.1% completed the record during discussions in practical classes. Majority wrote the records for understanding pharmacology. For 79.8% General Pharmacology exercises were most relevant, 33.8% considered Clinical Pharmacology exercises to be the most thought provoking. Drug use in special groups received the maximum positive score. Conclusion The new improved pharmacology record is an effective teaching-learning method. Inclusion of more clinically oriented exercises has increased the interest of the students in the subject. PMID:26894083

  9. 77 FR 15835 - Privacy Act of 1974: Revision of Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... amending its Privacy Act System of Records Notice, which was previously published at 74 FR 14890 (April 1... System Location and Managers, and Categories of Individuals and Records, to provide a definition for loan... Counsel Division 409 Third Street SW., Washington, DC 20416. Office of Inspector General...

  10. 77 FR 62059 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Revisions to Existing Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Affairs Phone Log NTSB-21 Respiratory Protection Program Records NTSB-22 Occupational Health and Safety... between NTSB-5 and OGE/GOVT-2. OGE/GOVT-2 is available at 68 FR 3098 (Jan. 22, 2003), as updated at 68 FR... Existing Systems of Records; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 197 / Thursday, October 11,...

  11. 75 FR 81205 - Privacy Act: Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... biometric technology may be used; such a system will release information only to authorized individuals...Authentication services to ensure the valid identity of the user. (2) Physical Safeguards: Paper records...

  12. 77 FR 61467 - Privacy Act of 1974: Revision of Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... comments are related to SOR 21 or SOR 36. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ingrid Ripley, Program Analyst, (202) 205-7538. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: SBA is amending its Privacy Act System of Records, notice of which was previously published at 74 FR 14890 (April 1, 2009) and 77 FR 15835-01 (March 16, 2012),...

  13. 78 FR 20108 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of Revised System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...- to-date, covered by the appropriate legal or regulatory authority, and is in compliance with the Secure Flight Program and Office of Foreign Assets Control laws and regulations. Additional authorities... legal or regulatory authority. This notice is an updated Privacy Act system of records notice....

  14. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Forms for Ornamental Horticulture. (Revised) Master Set. 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, R. W.; And Others

    The worksheets have been developed for use with any production occupational or work experience record book for high school vocational agriculture programs. Separate units have been developed for each of 11 areas in ornamental horticulture, so the student and teacher can select the appropriate one, or several, for the experiences planned by the…

  15. The Technique of the Sound Studio: Radio, Record Production, Television, and Film. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Alec

    Detailed explanations of the studio techniques used in radio, record, television, and film sound production are presented in as non-technical language as possible. An introductory chapter discusses the physics and physiology of sound. Subsequent chapters detail standards for sound control in the studio; explain the planning and routine of a sound…

  16. 2014 Edition Electronic Health Record certification criteria: revision to the definition of "common Meaningful Use (MU) Data Set." Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    This interim final rule with comment period revises one paragraph in the Common Meaningful Use (MU) Data Set definition at 45 CFR 170.102 to allow more flexibility with respect to the representation of dental procedures data for electronic health record (EHR) technology testing and certification. PMID:24195145

  17. Project Records Information System (PRIS) user`s manual. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Cline, B.E.; Smith, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Project Records Information System (PRIS) is an interactive system developed for the Information Management Services (IMS) of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to perform indexing, maintenance, and retrieval of information about Engineering project record documents for which they are responsible. This PRIS User`s Manual provides instruction on the use of this system. Section 2.0 of this manual presents an overview of PRIS, describing the system`s purpose; the data that it handles; functions it performs; hardware, software, and access; and help and error functions. Section 3.0 describes the interactive menu-driven operation of PRIS. Appendixes A, B, and C contain help screens, report descriptions, and the data dictionary, respectively.

  18. Project Records Information System (PRIS) user`s manual. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Cline, B.E.; Smith, P.S.

    1993-10-01

    The Project Records Information System (PRIS) is an interactive system developed for the Information Services Division (ISD) of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to perform indexing, maintenance, and retrieval of information about Engineering project record documents for which they are responsible. This PRIS User`s Manual provides instruction on the use of this system. Section 2.0 of this manual presents an overview of PRIS, describing the system`s purpose; the data that it handles; functions it performs; hardware, software, and access; and help and error functions. Section 3.0 describes the interactive menu-driven operation of PRIS. Appendixes A, B, and C contain help screens, report descriptions, and the data dictionary, respectively.

  19. Revision of the Afrotropical Lycorininae (Ichneumonidae; Hymenoptera) II. Three new Lycorina species and additional distribution records.

    PubMed

    Rousse, P; Van Noort, S

    2014-01-01

    Three new Afrotropical Lycorina species are described: L. horstmanni sp. nov., L. jacksonfive sp. nov. and L. riftensis sp. nov. The description of L. globiceps is expanded to include the large variability of the colour pattern. New distribution records are provided for L. fici and L. globiceps. An illustrated dichotomous key, and an online interactive matrix key available on www.waspweb.org, are provided for the identification of the seven known Afrotropical Lycorininae species. PMID:25543781

  20. The 100-133 ka record of Italian explosive volcanism and revised tephrochronology of Lago Grande di Monticchio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, Sabine; Keller, Jörg; Paterne, Martine; Mingram, Jens; Lauterbach, Stefan; Opitz, Stephan; Sottili, Gianluca; Giaccio, Biagio; Albert, Paul G.; Satow, Chris; Tomlinson, Emma L.; Viccaro, Marco; Brauer, Achim

    2012-12-01

    Laminated sediments of the maar lake Lago Grande di Monticchio in southern Italy exhibit a unique sequence of numerous primary tephra events that provide both insights into the Late Quaternary eruptive history of Italian volcanoes and an archive of essential marker horizons for dating and linking palaeoclimate records throughout the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. The acquisition of new sediment cores from this lake now extends the existing 100 ka-tephra record back to 133 ka BP, the end of the penultimate Glacial. The additional ca 30 m of sediments host a total number of 52 single tephra layers forming 21 tephra clusters that have been characterised on the basis of detailed geochemical and petrographical examinations. Tephras can be assigned to hitherto poorly known Plinian to sub-Plinian eruptive events of the nearby Campanian (Ischia Island, Phlegrean Fields), Roman (Sabatini volcanic district) and Aeolian-Sicilian volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, Salina) and are dated according to the varve and sedimentation rate chronology of Monticchio sediments. The most prominent tephra layers within the interval of investigation - TM-25 and TM-27 - can be firmly correlated with Ionian Sea tephras X-5 (ca 105 ka BP) and X-6 (ca 108-110 ka BP). In addition, a further 26 tephra layers are correlated with radiometrically and radioisotopically dated volcanic events providing the basis for a robust revised tephrochronology of the entire Monticchio sediment sequence for the last 133 ka.

  1. Copyright Revision in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    The article discusses the history of copyright laws, the directions which copyright revision can take, and the rationale behind revision. Regulations for protecting various media such as sound recordings, performances, and cable television are discussed. (JAB)

  2. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series To use the sharing features on this ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  3. Optimal Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal prenatal care begins before conception, when health habits can be reviewed. The most important task of the initial prenatal assessment is establishing dates. Ongoing assessments should emphasize measurement of symphisis to fundus height, maternal nutrition and screening, especially for urinary tract infection and gestational diabetes. Prenatal care is an excellent opportunity for patient education and involvement of the family. Good prenatal care is today's best health investment. PMID:21286515

  4. Health information technology: revisions to the 2014 edition electronic health record certification criteria; and Medicare and Medicaid programs; revisions to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program. Interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is issuing this interim final rule with comment period to replace the Data Element Catalog (DEC) standard and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture (QRDA) Category III standard adopted in the final rule published on September 4, 2012 in the Federal Register with updated versions of those standards. This interim final rule with comment period also revises the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Programs by adding an alternative measure for the Stage 2 meaningful use (MU) objective for hospitals to provide structured electronic laboratory results to ambulatory providers, correcting the regulation text for the measures associated with the objective for hospitals to provide patients the ability to view online, download, and transmit information about a hospital admission, and making the case number threshold exemption for clinical quality measure (CQM) reporting applicable for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) beginning with FY 2013. This rule also provides notice of CMS's intention to issue technical corrections to the electronic specifications for CQMs released on October 25, 2012. PMID:23227573

  5. Revised estimates of Greenland ice sheet thinning histories based on ice-core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecavalier, Benoit S.; Milne, Glenn A.; Vinther, Bo M.; Fisher, David A.; Dyke, Arthur S.; Simpson, Matthew J. R.

    2013-03-01

    Ice core records were recently used to infer elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet throughout the Holocene. The inferred elevation changes show a significantly greater elevation reduction than those output from numerical models, bringing into question the accuracy of the model-based reconstructions and, to some extent, the estimated elevation histories. A key component of the ice core analysis involved removing the influence of vertical surface motion on the δ18O signal measured from the Agassiz and Renland ice caps. We re-visit the original analysis with the intent to determine if the use of more accurate land uplift curves can account for some of the above noted discrepancy. To improve on the original analysis, we apply a geophysical model of glacial isostatic adjustment calibrated to sea-level records from the Queen Elizabeth Islands and Greenland to calculate the influence of land height changes on the δ18O signal from the two ice cores. This procedure is complicated by the fact that δ18O contained in Agassiz ice is influenced by land height changes distant from the ice cap and so selecting a single location at which to compute the land height signal is not possible. Uncertainty in this selection is further complicated by the possible influence of Innuitian ice during the early Holocene (12-8 ka BP). Our results indicate that a more accurate treatment of the uplift correction leads to elevation histories that are, in general, shifted down relative to the original curves at GRIP, NGRIP, DYE-3 and Camp Century. In addition, compared to the original analysis, the 1-σ uncertainty is considerably larger at GRIP and NGRIP. These changes reduce the data-model discrepancy reported by Vinther et al. (2009) at GRIP, NGRIP, DYE-3 and Camp Century. A more accurate treatment of isostasy and surface loading also acts to improve the data-model fits such that the residuals at all four sites for the period 8 ka BP to present are significantly reduced compared to the

  6. Prenatal and postnatal prevalence of Turner's syndrome: a registry study.

    PubMed Central

    Gravholt, C. H.; Juul, S.; Naeraa, R. W.; Hansen, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study prevalence of Turner's syndrome in Denmark and to assess validity of prenatal diagnosis. DESIGN--Study of data on prenatal and postnatal Turner's syndrome in Danish Cytogenetic Central Register. SUBJECTS--All registered Turner's syndrome karyotypes (100 prenatal cases and 215 postnatal cases) during 1970-93. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence of Turner's syndrome karyotypes among prenatally tested fetuses and Turner's syndrome among liveborn infants. RESULTS--Among infant girls, prevalence of Turner's syndrome was 32/100,000. Among female fetuses tested by amniocentesis, prevalence of Turner's syndrome karyotypes was 176/100,000 (relative risk of syndrome, 6.74 compared with prevalence among untested pregnancies). Among female fetuses tested by chorion villus sampling, prevalence of syndrome karyotypes was 392/100,000 (relative risk, 16.8). We excluded prenatal tests referred because of results of ultrasound scanning: among fetuses tested by amniocentesis revised relative risk was 5.68, while revised relative risk among fetuses tested by chorion villus sampling was 13.3. For 29 fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of possible Turner's syndrome, pregnancy was allowed to continue and 24 children were live born. Thirteen of these children were karyotyped postnatally, and diagnosis of Turner's syndrome had to be revised for eight, seven being normal girls and one boy. This gives tentative predictive value of amniocentesis in diagnosing Turner's syndrome of between 21% and 67%. There was no significant relation between mother's age and risk of Turner's syndrome. CONCLUSIONS--Discrepancy between prenatal and postnatal prevalence of Turner's syndrome challenges specificity of prenatal examination in diagnosing Turner's syndrome. PMID:8555850

  7. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}2 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--532

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE Nevada Operations Office

    2000-03-16

    This Record of Technical Change updates the technical informatioin provided in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--532.

  8. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}2 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-08

    This Record of Technical Change updates the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--515.

  9. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 to ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--543

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-01

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--543

  10. Revision of New World Chaenusa Haliday sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae), with new species, synonymies, hosts, and distribution records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The New World species of Chaenusa Haliday sensu lato are revised. A diagnosis is provided for Chaenusa s.l. Four new species from North America, Chaenusa trumani, Chaenusa virgili, Chaenusa whartoni, and Chaenusa woolleyi, and two new species from South America, Chaenusa hirsutissima and Chaenusa ir...

  11. Women's experience of group prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cohen, Sally S; Groce, Nora E; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2011-01-01

    Group prenatal care (GPNC) is an innovative alternative to individual prenatal care. In this longitudinal study we used ethnographic methods to explore African American and Hispanic women's experiences of receiving GPNC in two urban clinics. Methods included individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews of women and group leaders in GPNC, participant observation of GPNC sessions, and medical record review. GPNC offered positive experiences and met many of women's expressed preferences regarding prenatal care. Six themes were identified, which represented separate aspects of women's experiences: investment, collaborative venture, a social gathering, relationships with boundaries, learning in the group, and changing self. Taken together, the themes conveyed the overall experience of GPNC. Women were especially enthusiastic about learning in groups, about their relationships with group leaders, and about having their pregnancy-related changes and fears normalized; however, there were also important boundaries on relationships between participants, and some women wished for greater privacy during physical examinations. PMID:20693516

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Golbus, M S; Hall, B D; Filly, R A; Poskanzer, L B

    1977-09-01

    Severe rhizomelic and mesomelic dwarfism was demonstrated in a 20-week gestation fetus by amniography. A systematic progressive approach to prenatal diagnosis in the absence of a definitive diagnosis and the use of contrast radiography is discussed. PMID:894421

  13. Understanding Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... several things, particularly the risk of Down Syndrome. Rh Incompatibility This test determines whether the mother and ... at the first prenatal visit. If there is Rh incompatibility, treatments can help prevent later complications. Ultrasound ...

  14. Errors in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Anumba, Dilly O C

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal screening and diagnosis are integral to antenatal care worldwide. Prospective parents are offered screening for common fetal chromosomal and structural congenital malformations. In most developed countries, prenatal screening is routinely offered in a package that includes ultrasound scan of the fetus and the assay in maternal blood of biochemical markers of aneuploidy. Mistakes can arise at any point of the care pathway for fetal screening and diagnosis, and may involve individual or corporate systemic or latent errors. Special clinical circumstances, such as maternal size, fetal position, and multiple pregnancy, contribute to the complexities of prenatal diagnosis and to the chance of error. Clinical interventions may lead to adverse outcomes not caused by operator error. In this review I discuss the scope of the errors in prenatal diagnosis, and highlight strategies for their prevention and diagnosis, as well as identify areas for further research and study to enhance patient safety. PMID:23725900

  15. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Meli, Giampiero; Ottl, Birgit; Paladini, Angela; Cataldi, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    Schizophrenia could be considered the most severe of all psychiatric disorders. It shows a heterogeneous clinical picture and presents an etiopathogenesis that is not cleared sufficiently. Even if the etiopathogenesis remains a puzzle, there is a scientific consensus that it is an expression of interaction between genotype and environmental factors. In the present article, following a study of literature and the accumulated evidence, the role of prenatal and perinatal factors in the development of schizophrenia will be revised and synthesized. We think that better knowledge of the risk factors could be helpful not only for better comprehension of the pathogenesis but especially to optimize interventions for prevention of the disorder. PMID:22646662

  16. Prenatal Music Exposure Induces Long-Term Neural Effects

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Eino; Kujala, Teija; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural correlates induced by prenatal exposure to melodies using brains' event-related potentials (ERPs). During the last trimester of pregnancy, the mothers in the learning group played the ‘Twinkle twinkle little star’ -melody 5 times per week. After birth and again at the age of 4 months, we played the infants a modified melody in which some of the notes were changed while ERPs to unchanged and changed notes were recorded. The ERPs were also recorded from a control group, who received no prenatal stimulation. Both at birth and at the age of 4 months, infants in the learning group had stronger ERPs to the unchanged notes than the control group. Furthermore, the ERP amplitudes to the changed and unchanged notes at birth were correlated with the amount of prenatal exposure. Our results show that extensive prenatal exposure to a melody induces neural representations that last for several months. PMID:24205353

  17. Prenatal music exposure induces long-term neural effects.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Eino; Kujala, Teija; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural correlates induced by prenatal exposure to melodies using brains' event-related potentials (ERPs). During the last trimester of pregnancy, the mothers in the learning group played the 'Twinkle twinkle little star'-melody 5 times per week. After birth and again at the age of 4 months, we played the infants a modified melody in which some of the notes were changed while ERPs to unchanged and changed notes were recorded. The ERPs were also recorded from a control group, who received no prenatal stimulation. Both at birth and at the age of 4 months, infants in the learning group had stronger ERPs to the unchanged notes than the control group. Furthermore, the ERP amplitudes to the changed and unchanged notes at birth were correlated with the amount of prenatal exposure. Our results show that extensive prenatal exposure to a melody induces neural representations that last for several months. PMID:24205353

  18. The Combined Use of Computers and Audio Tape Recorders in Storing, Managing, and Using Qualitative Verbal Ethnographic Data. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, James

    Ways in which computers and audio tape recorder techniques were used to record, index, and present data collected during two summers of field work in a rural area of Mexico are described. The research goal was to study the Otomi Indian shamans. Two computers were used: the Honeywell 6800 DPS-2 and the Osborne-1 microcomputer. The database system…

  19. The last 850 millennia recorded at the Stari Slankamen loess-paleosol sequence: revised chronostratigraphy and long-term environmental trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, S. B.; Hambach, U.; Machalett, B.; Stevens, T.; Kukla, G. J.; Heller, F.; Ouches, E. A.; McCoy, W. D.; Buggle, B.; Zoeller, L.; Basarin, B.; Milojkovic, N.; Lukic, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Stari Slankamen loess section is located on the northeastern part of the Srem Loess Plateau (Vojvodina region, North Serbia) on the west bank of the Danube River opposite the Tisa (Tisza) confluence. The ca. 40-m thick cliff is comprised of loess intercalated with 7 major paleo-pedocomplexes and can be considered to be one of the most significant, nearly continuous, Quaternary sections in the Carpathian (Panonnian) Basin area. Here we present magnetostratigraphic and aminostratigraphic evidence that further emphasizes the importance of the site in terms of its age and the long-term paleoclimatic record it preserves. Characteristic remnant magnetization, obtained through alternating field demagnetization, was obtained on 59 oriented samples and demonstrates the presence of the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary (MBB) at a profile depth of 36 m, within loess unit V-L7. This interpretation is confirmed by new high resolution paleomagnetic investigations (434 oriented samples) from the lower of the profile. Low frequency field magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ in the lower 20 m of the exposure and in the laboratory on samples taken from the upper 20 m of the loess-paleosol sequence. As a record of pedogenic alteration, the magnetic susceptibility (MS) record provides a mean of correlating the sequence with key loess sites in Central and Southeastern Europe, China, and with key climate archives such as the marine oxygen-isotope record. The MS records and evidence from amino acid geochronology measurements indicate a missing pedocomlex (V-S2), the result of an erosion event represented by distinct layer overlying an erosion unconformity. In addition, the magnetostratigraphic and aminostratigraphic based age model requires a significant revision of hitherto published chronostratigraphic subdivisions of the sequence. Our revised chronostratigraphic model suggests that previous age estimates, including results of previous thermoluminescence dating, need to be

  20. Your First Prenatal Care Checkup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Providers project include HRSA, March of Dimes Foundation, National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics, Genetic ... Prenatal Providers project include HRSA, March of Dimes Foundation, National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics, Genetic ...

  1. Prenatal Influences on the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of embryology and prenatal brain, sensory, and motor development. Includes discussion of maternal nutrition, chemical exposure, prenatal drug and alcohol hazards, cigarette smoking, and some causes of neural tube defects and premature birth. (Author/KB)

  2. Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Why take a prenatal supplement? You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms-to-Be / Dietary Supplements Why take a prenatal supplement? Print Share During pregnancy, your needs increase ...

  3. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Genetic Counseling Print ... how can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating ...

  4. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei-Lun; Hsiao, Ching-Hua; Tseng, Hua-Wei; Lee, Tai-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal examination plays an important role in present medical diagnosis. It provides information on fetal health status as well as the diagnosis of fetal treatment feasibility. The diagnosis can provide peace of mind for the perspective mother. Timely pregnancy termination diagnosis can also be determined if required. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling are two widely used invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures. To obtain complete fetal genetic information and avoid endangering the fetus, noninvasive prenatal diagnosis has become the vital goal of prenatal diagnosis. However, the development of a high-efficiency separation technology is required to obtain the scarce fetal cells from maternal circulation. In recent years, the rapid development of microfluidic systems has provided an effective method for fetal cell separation. Advantages such as rapid analysis of small samples, low cost, and various designs, greatly enhance the efficiency and convenience of using microfluidic systems for cell separation. In addition, microfluidic disks can be fully automated for high throughput of rare cell selection from blood samples. Therefore, the development of microfluidic applications in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis is unlimited. PMID:26384048

  5. Human prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Filkins, K.; Russo, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Advances in the field of prenatal diagnosis have been rapid during the past decade. Moreover, liberal use of birth control methods and restriction of family size have placed greater emphasis on optimum outcome of each pregnancy. There are many prenatal diagnostic techniques of proven value; the risks, including false negatives and false positives, are known. With the rapid proliferation of new and experimental techniques, many disorders are potential diagnosable or even treatable; however, risk factors are unknown and issues relating to quality control have not been resolved. These problems are readily appreciated in the dramatic new techniques involving recombinant DNA, chorion villus sampling, and fetal surgery. Unfortunately, clinicians may not appreciate the difficulties that may also be encountered in the more mundane prenatal diagnostic tests such as ultrasonography or enzymatic testing. The aim of this volume is to clarify and rationalize certain aspects of diagnosis, genetic counseling, and intervention. New and experimental techniques are presented in the light of current knowledge.

  6. Revision of the genus Acanthaspis Amyot & Serville (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Reduviinae) from China, with new records of species to adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liangming; Rédei, Dávid; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    The assassin bugs of the genus Acanthaspis Amyot & Serville (Reduviinae) from China are revised. Fourteen species are recognized, described or redescribed and illustrated. Three species, A. fulviconnexa, A. melanota, and A. octoguttata, are described as new to science. Acanthaspis subinermis Hsiao 1976 is synonymized with A. laoensis Distant 1919. A key for the identification of Chinese species of Acanthaspis is provided. The biology of A. cincticrus Stål is briefly noted. The following species are newly recorded from adjacent countries: A. collaris Hsiao from Laos and Thailand, A. geniculata Hsiao from Vietnam, A. picta Hsiao from Laos, Myanmar and Thailand, A. quinquespinosa (Fabricius) from Nepal, A. ruficeps Hsiao from Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, and A. laoensis Distant  from Thailand.  PMID:25544374

  7. Effects of prenatal care on maternal postpartum behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira

    2010-01-01

    Most research on the effectiveness of prenatal care has focused on birth outcomes and has found small or no effects. It is possible, however, that prenatal care is “too little too late” to improve pregnancy outcomes in the aggregate, but that it increases the use of pediatric health care or improves maternal health-related parenting practices and, ultimately, child health. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing birth cohort study that have been augmented with hospital medical record data to estimate effects of prenatal care timing on pediatric health care utilization and health-related parenting behaviors during the first year of the child’s life. We focus on maternal postpartum smoking, preventive health care visits for the child, and breastfeeding. We use a multi-pronged approach to address the potential endogeneity of the timing of prenatal care. We find that first trimester prenatal care appears to decrease maternal postpartum smoking by about 5 percentage points and increase the likelihood of 4 or more well-baby visits by about 1 percentage point, and that it may also have a positive effect on breastfeeding. These findings suggest that there are benefits to standard prenatal care that are generally not considered in evaluations of prenatal care programs and interventions. PMID:20582158

  8. Prenatal and Perinatal Factors Associated with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilder, Deborah A.; Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Bakian, Amanda V.; Miller, Judith S.; Dorius, Josette T.; Nangle, Barry; McMahon, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal and perinatal risk factors associated with intellectual disability (ID) were studied in 8-year-old Utah children from a 1994 birth cohort (N = 26,108) using broad ascertainment methods and birth records following the most current recording guidelines. Risk factor analyses were performed inclusive and exclusive of children with a known or…

  9. Keeping the Business Records. PACE Revised. Level 1. Unit 15. Research & Development Series No. 240AB15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Pritz, Sandra G.

    This lesson on keeping business records, the 15th in a series of 18 units, is part of the first level of a comprehensive entrepreneurship curriculum entitled: A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship (PACE). (Designed for use with secondary students, the first level of PACE introduces students to the concepts involved in…

  10. Sound and Video Recordings--E. S. Bird Library. Syracuse University Resources for Educators of Adults, MSS 23. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N., Comp.; Abbott, George, Comp.

    This document is a catalog of the adult education sound and videotape recordings available at the E. S. Bird Library at Syracuse University. The collection was gathered for use by practitioners and educators of adults who are conducting research. In the library collection, each media item has been catalogued by title, series, subject, author,…

  11. 76 FR 66950 - Privacy Act; Notice of Revision of System of Records, the Single Family Housing Enterprise Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... initiative supports HUD mission to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities and quality affordable homes. This notice deletes and supersedes prior notice published in the Federal Register at 73 FR 24604..., ``Federal Responsibilities for Maintaining Records About Individuals,'' July 25, 1994 (59 FR...

  12. Ambiguous genitalia: what prenatal genetic testing is practical?

    PubMed

    Adam, Margaret P; Fechner, Patricia Y; Ramsdell, Linda A; Badaru, Angela; Grady, Richard E; Pagon, Roberta A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Cheng, Edith Y; Parisi, Melissa A; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2012-06-01

    Concern for ambiguous genitalia or chromosome-phenotype discordance detected in a prenatal setting has increased over the last two decades. Practitioners faced with this prenatal finding have a variety of genetic tests available to them; however, it is unclear to what extent prenatal testing for disorders of sex development (DSD) is useful or practical. We undertook a retrospective review of the medical records of 140 individuals evaluated through the DSD clinic at Seattle Children's Hospital with birthdates from 01/01/1994 through 08/16/2011 to determine the rate of prenatal detection of ambiguous genitalia in individuals with DSD, what prenatal diagnostic workup was undertaken, and the postnatal outcome, including whether a postnatal genetic diagnosis was confirmed. Of all 140 subjects, 34 (24%) were identified prenatally. The most common postnatal diagnoses were penoscrotal hypospadias with transposition of the scrotum with no known genetic cause (24/140; 17%) and 21-hydroxylase deficiency (20/140; 14%). Apart from these, no single diagnosis comprised more than a few cases. Prenatal diagnostic testing varied widely, from no tests to multiple molecular tests with amniotic fluid hormone concentrations. In the absence of other fetal anomalies or growth retardation on ultrasound, prenatal karyotype with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the SRY gene is the most useful test when ambiguous genitalia is suspected. Further prenatal testing for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in 46,XY individuals and congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 46,XX individuals may be considered. However, targeted molecular testing for rare DSD conditions in the absence of a family history of DSD has a low yield. PMID:22581420

  13. Prenatal Care Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Michael

    Described is the development and evaluation of a prenatal instructional program designed to prevent birth defects. It is explained that the program, composed of five slide tape units on such topics as nutrition and environmental factors, was field tested and found effective with 97 participants (pregnant high school students, nursing students, and…

  14. [Prenatal care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness. PMID:24337130

  15. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River.

  16. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area.

  17. The Prenatal Care at School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Carol H.; Nasso, Jacqueline T.; Swider, Susan; Ellison, Brenda R.; Griswold, Daniel L.; Brooks, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    School absenteeism and poor compliance with prenatal appointments are concerns for pregnant teens. The Prenatal Care at School (PAS) program is a new model of prenatal care involving local health care providers and school personnel to reduce the need for students to leave school for prenatal care. The program combines prenatal care and education…

  18. Re-evaluation of the Bispingen palaeolake record - a revised chronology for the Eemian in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterbach, S.; Brauer, A.; Litt, T.; Schettler, G.

    2012-04-01

    Detailed studies of climate development during past interglacials, i.e. prior to significant human interference, can provide important information about natural climate variability and thus the extent of anthropogenic impact on present and future climate. However, comparison of palaeoclimate records from different regions and archives is often hampered by chronological uncertainties. For example, an asynchronous climate development with a several-thousand-year-long steep climatic gradient in Central Europe at the end of the Last Interglacial has been inferred from differences in the duration of the Eemian in German and French palaeoclimate records (Kukla et al. 1997). One of the key sites in this context is the Bispingen palaeolake sequence in Northern Germany, where a length of about 11 000 years for the Eemian has been estimated from varve counting (Müller 1974), which is a couple of thousand years shorter than in other sediment records in the North Atlantic realm (cf. Kukla et al. 2002). Here we present detailed microfacies analyses on new sediment cores from the Bispingen palaeolake combined with geochemical and pollen analyses, documenting changes in the depositional environment and vegetation during the Last Interglacial. Microscopic varve counting in the distinctly laminated lower part and sedimentation rate estimates for the faintly laminated upper part of the sequence enable a better assessment of the length of the Eemian in Northern Germany than in previous studies. Detailed lithological and palynological comparison of the new Bispingen cores with the record from Müller (1974) indicates the existence of major gaps in the old profile, leading to an underestimation of the duration of the Eemian in Northern Germany. The duration of about 17 000 years obtained from the new Bispingen cores is in good accordance with results from a marine record off Portugal (Shackleton et al. 2002) and the varve-dated Lake Monticchio record in southern Italy (Brauer et al

  19. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between ground water and surface water in the area. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Gunnison ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish numerical model boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Gunnison processing site; and modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  20. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before ... A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a baby before birth may seem ...

  1. Human prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  2. Revised paleoenvironmental analysis of the Holocene portion of the Barbados sea-level record: Cobbler's Reef revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, Marguerite A.

    2016-06-01

    Sample elevations corrected for tectonic uplift and assessed relative to local modeled sea levels provide a new perspective on paleoenvironmental history at Cobbler's Reef, Barbados. Previously, 14C-dated surface samples of fragmented Acropora palmata plotted above paleo sea level based on their present (uplifted) elevations, suggesting supratidal rubble deposited during a period of extreme storms (4500-3000 cal BP), precipitating reef demise. At several sites, however, A. palmata persisted, existing until ~370 cal BP. Uplift-corrected A. palmata sample elevations lie below the western Atlantic sea-level curve, and ~2 m below ICE-6G-modeled paleo sea level, under slow rates of sea-level rise, negating the possibility that Cobbler's Reef is a supratidal storm ridge. Most sites show limited age ranges from corals likely damaged/killed on the reef crest, not the mixed ages of rubble ridges, strongly suggesting the reef framework died off in stages over 6500 yr. Reef crest death assemblages invoke multiple paleohistoric causes, from ubiquitous hurricanes to anthropogenic impacts. Comparison of death assemblage ages to dated regional paleotempestological sequences, proxy-based paleotemperatures, recorded hurricanes, tsunamis, European settlement, deforestation, and resulting turbidity, reveals many possible factors inimical to the survival of A. palmata along Cobbler's Reef.

  3. Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Black Carbon and Memory Domains in Urban Children: Modification by Sex and Prenatal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, Whitney J.; Bellinger, David C.; Coull, Brent A.; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex. Objectives To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children’s memory and learning. Methods Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2) was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex. Results Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black); 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04). Conclusion The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children’s memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups. PMID:26544967

  4. Women’s Experiences of Group Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cohen, Sally S.; Groce, Nora E.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Group prenatal care (GPNC) is an innovative alternative to individual prenatal care. In this longitudinal study we used ethnographic methods to explore African American and Hispanic women’s experiences of receiving GPNC in two urban clinics. Methods included individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews of women and group leaders in GPNC, participant observation of GPNC sessions, and medical record review. GPNC offered positive experiences and met many of the women’s expressed preferences regarding prenatal care. Six themes were identified, which represented separate aspects of women’s experiences: investment, collaborative venture, a social gathering, relationships with boundaries, learning in the group, and changing self. Taken together, the themes conveyed the overall experience of GPNC. Women were especially enthusiastic about learning in groups, about their relationships with group leaders, and about having their pregnancy-related changes and fears normalized. There were also important boundaries on relationships between participants, and some women wished for greater privacy during physical examinations. PMID:20693516

  5. Prenatal Detection of Inherited Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    1981-01-01

    The following is a review of current concepts of prenatal detection. Transabdominal amniocentesis is recognized to be an integral adjunct to prenatal care. The analysis of cultured amniotic fluid cells collected at about 16 weeks of gestation provides in utero diagnosis of nearly all chromosomal aberration syndromes, several metabolic disorders which are due to a specific enzymic deficiency due to single gene disorders, and some multifactorial disorders, such as prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects by estimation of alphafeto protein in amniotic fluid. Various aspects of amniocentesis are discussed. PMID:7205985

  6. Does prenatal stress affect the motoric development of rat pups?

    PubMed

    Patin, V; Vincent, A; Lordi, B; Caston, J

    2004-04-19

    Pregnant rats were exposed to an acute or a repeated stress (presence of a cat) either at the 10th or the 14th gestational day, and the development of their offspring was studied during the first 2 weeks of life. Motor development was measured by different tests: rooting reflex, vibrissae placing response, righting reflex, negative geotaxis. Other landmarks such as eye opening and spontaneous locomotor activity were also recorded. The results showed that, except for the rooting reflex which was most often enhanced (while not significantly) in prenatally stressed rats, the development of the vibrissae placing response, the righting reflex and the negative geotaxis behavior was delayed in the offspring of dams stressed at the 10th gestational day and not (or almost not) in the offspring of dams stressed at the 14th gestational day, the delay being more severe when the prenatal stress was repeated than when it was acutely administered. The spontaneous motor activity was also altered in repeatedly prenatally stressed rats, whatever the day of pregnancy when it was administered, while it was unaffected in acutely prenatally stressed animals. The delay in motor reflexes development was interpreted as alterations in maturation of nervous structures sustaining motor skills, while permanent decrease of spontaneous motor activity was explained by emotional and motivational alterations due to prenatal stress. PMID:15063088

  7. [Agreement between data from prenatal care cards and maternal recall in a medium-sized Brazilian city].

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Mariza; Gonçalves, Carla Vitola; Cesar, Juraci A; Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal care is a key indicator of the quality of health services. The current study aimed to evaluate the correlation between data from prenatal care cards and maternal recall in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The cross-sectional study included all mothers from 2010 who had received prenatal care. Interviews were conducted with a pre-coded questionnaire in the maternity hospital. Of the 2,288 mothers interviewed, 1,228 (53.7%) had the prenatal care card with them and thus comprised the group for comparison. The analysis used kappa correlation and confidence interval. The variables six or more prenatal visits, clinical breast and gynecological examination, two blood tests, VDRL, HIV serology, urine test, and tetanus vaccination showed statistically significant differences between annotated and maternal recall data (p ≤ 0.001). Adequacy of prenatal care based on the guidelines of the Program for Humanization of Prenatal Care (PHPN) was 23.9% according to information provided by the patients and 4.4% according to information recorded on the prenatal cards (p ≤ 0.001). The prenatal care card showed underreporting, which limited the quality assessment of prenatal care. PMID:23703007

  8. Eugenics and prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R

    1986-01-01

    Prejudices against people with disabilities, poor people, and immigrants during the nineteenth century generated a science of "race improvement" called eugenics. In the United States, a number of eugenic measures were enacted early in this century, but it was in Nazi Germany that eugenics flourished under the name of racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene). In the guise of furthering the health of the German people, German scientists and physicians initially designed programs of sterilization. Next came euthanasia and finally mass extermination of "lives not worth living." Remembering this history, many German women oppose the new technical developments in prenatal diagnosis because they see them as yet another way to specify what kinds of people are and are not fit to inhabit the world. This paper tries to place the new technologies in the context of eugenics and to point out some of the ways in which the new, supposedly liberating, choices in fact limit women's control over our lives. PMID:3516893

  9. Ethical issues in prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Burgess, M M

    1994-04-01

    Many ethical concerns raised by prenatal testing are based on the use and effects of genetic information in nonclinical contexts. Correct or incorrect beliefs about social uses of genetic information may limit the voluntariness of informed consent to prenatal testing. A qualitative study of persons predictively tested for Huntington's disease illustrates how the social context, in this case the family history of being at risk, affects the interpretation of the genetic information and alters relationships. This constitutes a risk of genetic testing. Prenatal testing also requires ethical analysis based on careful understanding of how social attitudes and nonclinical uses affect voluntariness and potential harm and benefits of testing. Investigators conducting research on prenatal tests share the responsibility to evaluate social attitudes toward at-risk persons, nonclinical uses of genetic information, and the social benefits and harm of such uses. PMID:8070072

  10. MedlinePlus: Prenatal Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reliable Is Laboratory Testing? (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Prenatal Testing: Is It Right for You? (Mayo ... Spanish Amniotic Fluid Analysis (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Biophysical Profile (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ...

  11. Prenatal Depression Restricts Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify whether prenatal depression is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Methods Midgestation (18-20 weeks GA) estimated fetal weight and urine cortisol and birth weight and gestational age at birth data were collected on a sample of 40 depressed and 40 non-depressed women. Estimated fetal weight and birthweight data were then used to compute fetal growth rates. Results Depressed women had a 13% greater incidence of premature delivery (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61) and 15% greater incidence of low birthweight (OR = 4.75) than non-depressed women. Depressed women also had elevated prenatal cortisol levels (p = .006) and fetuses who were smaller (p = .001) and who showed slower fetal growth rates (p = .011) and lower birthweights (p = .008). Mediation analyses further revealed that prenatal maternal cortisol levels were a potential mediator for the relationship between maternal symptoms of depression and both gestational age at birth and the rate of fetal growth. After controlling for maternal demographic variables, prenatal maternal cortisol levels were associated with 30% of the variance in gestational age at birth and 14% of the variance in the rate of fetal growth. Conclusion Prenatal depression was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, including premature delivery and slower fetal growth rates. Prenatal maternal cortisol levels appear to play a role in mediating these outcomes. PMID:18723301

  12. Dacryocystocele on prenatal ultrasonography: diagnosis and postnatal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the incidence of dacryocystoceles detected by prenatal ultrasonography (US) and their postnatal outcomes and to determine the factors associated with the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles at birth. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the prenatal US database at our institution for the period between January 2012 and December 2013. The medical records of women who had fetuses diagnosed with dacryocystocel larger than 5 mm were reviewed for maternal age, gestational age (GA) at detection, size and side of the dacryocystoceles, delivery, and postnatal information, such as GA at delivery, delivery mode, and gender of the neonate. Results: A total of 49 singletons were diagnosed with a dacryocystocele on prenatal US, yielding an overall incidence of 0.43%. The incidence of dacryocystoceles was the highest at the GA of 27 weeks and decreased toward term. Of the 49 fetuses including three of undeter mined gender, 25 (54%) were female. The mean GA at first detection was 31.2 weeks. The dacryocystocele was unilateral in 29 cases, with a mean maximum diameter of 7 mm. Spontaneous resolution at birth was documented in 35 out of 46 neonates (76%), including six with prenatal resolution. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that GA at delivery was a significant predictor of the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles (P=0.045). Conclusion: The overall incidence of prenatal dacryocystoceles was 0.43%; the incidence was higher in the early third trimester and decreased thereafter. Prenatal dacryocystoceles resolved in 76% of the patients at birth, and the GA at delivery was a significant predictor of postnatal persistence. PMID:25475649

  13. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

  14. Prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning among children in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Sohel, Nazmul; Kumar Hore, Samar; Yunus, Mohammad; Bhuiya, Abbas; Kim Streatfield, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing concern regarding adverse effects of prenatal arsenic exposure on the neurodevelopment of children. We analyzed mortality data for children, who were born to 11,414 pregnant women between 2002 and 2004, with an average age of 5 years of follow-up. Individual drinking-water arsenic exposure during pregnancy was calculated using tubewell water arsenic concentration between last menstrual period and date of birth. There were 84 drowning deaths registered, with cause of death ascertained using verbal autopsy (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes X65–X70). The prenatal water arsenic exposure distribution was tertiled, and the risk of drowning mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning in children aged 1–5 years in the highest exposure tertile (HR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.03–2.94). This study showed that in utero arsenic exposure might be associated with excess mortality among children aged 1–5 years due to drowning. PMID:26511679

  15. Complex Developmental Issues of Prenatal Drug Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronstadt, Diana

    1991-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of prenatal drug exposure on child development, and reviews ideal early intervention programs. Researchers agree that prenatal drug exposure is only one of many factors that can influence a child's development. Specialized treatment programs and family support can ameliorate prenatal drug exposure effects. (SLD)

  16. Revising Lecture Notes: How Revision, Pauses, and Partners Affect Note Taking and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Linlin; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Samuelson, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Note taking has been categorized as a two-stage process: the recording of notes and the review of notes. We contend that note taking might best involve a three-stage process where the missing stage is revision. This study investigated the benefits of revising lecture notes and addressed two questions: First, is revision more effective than…

  17. Prenatal Famine and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Lumey, L.H.; Stein, Aryeh D.; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    We review human studies on the relation between acute exposures to prenatal famine and adult physical and mental health. These studies are observational and include exposures to a famine environment by natural or man-made causes or, more commonly, from the interplay between natural and human factors. These natural experiments provide an opportunity to examine long-term outcomes after famine exposures by comparing exposed and nonexposed individuals. The studies show consistent associations between prenatal famine and adult body size, diabetes, and schizophrenia. For other measures of adult health, findings are less robust. A relation between prenatal famine and some reported epigenetic changes may provide a potential mechanism to explain specific associations. Much progress can be made if current separate studies are further analyzed with comparable definitions of exposures and outcomes and using common analytic strategies. PMID:21219171

  18. Update on prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation. PMID:24506122

  19. Prenatal diagnosis and telemedicine consultation of fetal urologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Rabie, Nader Z; Canon, Stephen; Patel, Ashay; Zamilpa, Ismael; Magann, Everett F; Higley, Jared

    2016-06-01

    In Arkansas, telemedicine is used commonly in obstetrics through Antenatal and Neonatal Guidelines, Education and Learning System (ANGELS), the existing statewide telemedicine network. This network is used primarily for tele-ultrasound and maternal-fetal medicine consultation. This study is a retrospective case series, describing all the patients who had a prenatally diagnosed urologic anomaly that required prenatal urologic consultation. From 2009-2013, approximately 1300 anomalies were recorded in the Arkansas Fetal Diagnosis and Management (AFDM) database, 14% of which were urologic anomalies. Twenty-six cases required prenatal urologic consultation, 25 of which were conducted via telemedicine. Teleconsultation allowed patients to combine maternal-fetal medicine and urologic consultations in one visit, saving time and effort and ultimately, for most patients, providing reassurance that delivery could be accomplished locally with postnatal follow-up already arranged. While there are several studies reporting the use of telemedicine for various subspecialty consultations, to our knowledge, this is the first to describe the use of telemedicine for prenatal urology consultation. Future research could randomize patients prospectively to allow comparison of both the outcomes as well as the patient experience. PMID:26199277

  20. "Makin' Somethin' Outta Little-to-Nufin'': Racism, Revision and Rotating Records--The Hip-Hop DJ in Composition Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Prompted by a moment in the classroom in which the DJ becomes integral for the writing instructor, this article looks at how the hip-hop DJ and hip-hop DJ/Producer become the intrinsic examples for first-year college writing students to think about how they conduct revision in their writing. After a review of two seminal hip-hop books and other…

  1. Scar revision

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevention, treatment, and revision. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap ... Hebe Molmenti, MD, PhD, private practice specializing in plastic and reconstructive surgery, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by ...

  2. The impact of group prenatal care on pregnancy and postpartum weight trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Magriples, Urania; Boynton, Marcella H.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Epel, Elissa; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate whether group prenatal care (Centering Pregnancy Plus [CP+]) has an impact on pregnancy weight gain and postpartum weight loss trajectories and to determine whether prenatal depression and distress might moderate these trajectories. STUDY DESIGN This was a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized trial of CP+ in 14 Community Health Centers and hospitals in New York City. Participants were pregnant women aged 14–21 years (n = 984). Medical record review and 4 structured interviews were conducted: in the second and third trimesters and 6 and 12 months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling was utilized to evaluate the weight change trajectories in the control and intervention groups. Prenatal distress and depression were also assessed to examine their impact on weight change. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in baseline demographics. Thirty-five percent of the participants were overweight or obese, and more than 50% had excessive weight gain by Institute of Medicine standards. CP+ was associated with improved weight trajectories compared with controls (P < .0001): women at clinical sites randomized to group prenatal care gained less weight during pregnancy and lost more weight postpartum. This effect was sustained among women who were categorized as obese based on prepregnancy body mass index (P < .01). Prenatal depression and distress were significantly associated with higher antepartum weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Women with the highest levels of depression and prenatal distress exhibited the greatest positive impact of group prenatal care on weight trajectories during pregnancy and through 12 months postpartum. CONCLUSION Group prenatal care has a significant impact on weight gain trajectories in pregnancy and postpartum. The intervention also appeared to mitigate the effects of depression and prenatal distress on antepartum weight

  3. [Scientific and practical aspects of prenatal diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Baranov, V S

    2003-01-01

    Prenatal diagnostics (PD) is a relatively new branch of medical genetics enjoining presently a rapid practical and scientific progress. The key practical issues related with detecting the pregnant women at high risk of fetal congenital and inherited pathologies have already been solved, and a variety of fetal examinations by non-invasive (ultrasound) and invasive (cytogenetics, biochemistry and molecular tests) methods have been elaborated. Their practical application are totally dependant on the managerial and financial input in the discussed field of medicine. Further advancement in PD are tensely associated with early pregnancy stages (trimester 1), with the molecular diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of chromosomal diseases and with a comprehensive use of Pregnancy Genetic Form worked out and used already at our institute. DP opens up the promising opportunities for analyzing the human genome activity at the initial development stages, which comprises the revision of previously-obtained data on the cytogenetics of human embryo evolution, human chromosomes' functioning and of temporary embryonic organs as observed during the mentioned stages; it also comprises an analysis and application of umbilical and embryonic cells (embryonic cell therapy) and elaboration of scientific fundamentals for embryonic gene therapy. PD should not be referred to only as a set of diagnostic methods for it is also a good starting-ground for research of human embryo-genesis. PMID:14598504

  4. Prenatal Nutrition and Later Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…

  5. Record of a new species of the genus Viridopromontorius Luna de Carvalho (Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae) from India with a revised key to Corioxenidae.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sukhendu; Hazra, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Viridopromontorius Luna de Carvalho is described from West Bengal, India. The new species V. aequus differs from the other member of Viridopromontorius by having approximately equal size of antennomeres IV and V, maxillary palp nearly twice the length of base, vein R4 curved towards R2, very small distal process on tarsomeres II-III, tarsomere IV almost trapezoidal and acumen to some extent upwardly bent (in lateral view). A revised key of the family Corioxenidae is also provided. PMID:27615860

  6. Revision Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Loyo, Myriam; Wang, Tom D

    2016-01-01

    Revision rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging operations the facial plastic surgeon performs given the complex 3-dimensional anatomy of the nose and the psychological impact it has on patients. The intricate interplay of cartilages, bone, and soft tissue in the nose gives it its aesthetic and function. Facial harmony and attractiveness depends greatly on the nose given its central position in the face. In the following article, the authors review common motivations and anatomic findings for patients seeking revision rhinoplasty based on the senior author's 30-year experience with rhinoplasty and a review of the literature. PMID:26616705

  7. The accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatal sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Igbinedion, Blessing Ose-Emenim; Akhigbe, Theophilus Oriazo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women have been curious about the sex of their unborn child. The advent of ultrasound, its application into medicine, and the revolutionary changes in its resolution and function has led to the ability to assign a sex to these unborn children, thereby allaying the anxiety of these women but with consequent emergent ethical, moral, psycho-social, and medico-legal issues. The objectives were to determine the accuracy of sonographic prenatal sex determination, perform binary classification test, and the impact it has, including mis-diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective prenatal sonographic sex determination study on 205 consecutive consenting pregnant women aged 20-40 years in a private hospital in Benin between August 2010 and October 2011. Questionnaires were administered to these women before and after the scan and the women were told the sex of the fetuses and their feelings on the determined sex recorded. The sex at birth was confirmed and compared to the scan determined gender by their case note and telephone. Relevant discussions during the scan and later on were recorded on the questionnaires. The statistical package used was SPSS version 17 and binary classification tests were performed. Results: The sensitivity (98.2%) and binary classification components values of prenatal sex determination were high with the sensitivity of detecting a female higher than that of males. Two males were misdiagnosed as females. Most of the women were happy even when the sex differed from that which they desired. Conclusion: Prenatal sonographic sex determination has a high sensitivity index. Consequently we advocate its use prior to more invasive sex tests. PMID:23271849

  8. Effects of Prenatal Social Stress and Maternal Dietary Fatty Acid Ratio on Infant Temperament: Does Race Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Brunst, Kelly J.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kannan, Srimathi; Carroll, Kecia N.; Coull, Brent A.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant temperament predicts a range of developmental and behavioral outcomes throughout childhood. Both maternal fatty acid intake and psychosocial stress exposures during pregnancy may influence infant temperament. Furthermore, maternal race may modify prenatal diet and stress effects. The goals of this study are to examine the joint effects of prenatal diet and stress and the modifying effects of race on infant behavior. Methods Analyses included N=255 mother-infant dyads, primarily minorities (21% Blacks; 42% Hispanics), enrolled in an urban pregnancy cohort. Maternal prenatal stress was indexed by a negative life events (NLEs) score on the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey. Prenatal total daily intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (n3, n6) were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire; n3:n6 ratios were calculated. Mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), a measure of infant temperament, when the children were 6 months old. Three commonly used dimensions were derived: Orienting & Regulation, Extraversion, and Negative Affectivity. Associations among prenatal stress, maternal n3:n6 ratio, and race/ethnicity on infant temperament, controlling for maternal education and age and child sex, were examined. Results Among Blacks, prenatal stress effects on infant Orienting & Regulation scores were modified by maternal n3:n6 ratios (p=0.03): As NLEs increased, lower n3:n6 ratios predicted lower infant Orienting & Regulation scores, whereas higher n3:n6 ratios attenuated the effect of prenatal stress. There were no main or interaction effects predicting Extraversion or Negative Affectivity. Conclusions An optimal PUFA ratio may protect the fetus from stress effects on infant behavior, particularly among Blacks. These findings may have implications for later neurodevelopment and social functioning predicted by early temperamental characteristics. PMID:25328835

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomaly.

    PubMed

    Cacciaguerra, S; Lo Presti, L; Di Leo, L; Grasso, S; Gangarossa, S; Di Benedetto, V; Di Benedetto, A

    1998-02-01

    The authors present a case of prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomaly, characterized by the presence of oligohydramnios and cystic pelvic mass with changing features during observation. Postnatal study confirmed the presence of a recto-cloacal fistula, with a high confluence of the urinary, genital and intestinal systems. Both parents had a chromosome 9 inversion (p11q13), but the child was chromosomally normal. PMID:9561584

  10. The Future of Prenatal Diagnosis and Screening

    PubMed Central

    Pergament, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The future of prenatal diagnosis and screening lies in developing clinical approaches and laboratory technologies applicable to genetic analyses and therapeutic interventions during embryonic development. PMID:26237604

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. PMID:27241964

  12. Deglacial 14C plateau suites recalibrated by Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record - Revised 14C reservoir ages from three ocean basins corroborate extreme surface water variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnthein, M.; Balmer, S.; Grootes, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) reservoir/ventilation ages (Δ14C) provide unique insights into the dynamics of ocean water masses over LGM and deglacial times. The 14C plateau-tuning technique enables us to derive both an absolute chronology for marine sediment records and a high-resolution record of changing Δ14C values for deglacial surface and deep waters (Sarnthein et al., 2007; AGU Monogr. 173, 175). We designate as 14C plateau a sediment section in the age-depth profile with several almost constant planktic 14C ages - variation less than ×100 to ×300 yr - which form a plateau-shaped scatter band that extends over ~5 to 50 and up to 200 cm in sediment cores with sedimentation rates of >10 cm/ky. Previously, a suite of >15 plateau boundary ages were calibrated to a joint reference record of U/Th-dated 14C time series measured on coral samples, the Cariaco sediment record, and speleothems (Fairbanks et al., 2005, QSR 24; Hughen et al., 2006, QSR 25; Beck et al., 2001, Science 292). We now used the varve-counted atmospheric 14C record of Lake Suigetsu (Ramsey et al., 2012, Science 338, 370) to recalibrate the boundary ages and average ages of 14C plateaus and apply the amended plateau-tuning technique to a dozen Δ14C records from the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. Main results are: (1) The Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record reflects all 14C plateaus, their internal structures and relative length previously identified, but implies a rise in the average plateau age by <200 14C yr during the LGM, >700 yr at its end, and <200 yr in the Bølling-Allerød. (2) Based on different 14C ages of coeval atmospheric and planktic 14C plateaus surface water Δ14C may have temporarily dropped to an equivalent of 200 yr in low-latitude stratified waters, such as off northwestern South America, and in turn reached values corresponding to an age difference of >2500 14C yr in stratified subpolar regions and upwelled waters such as in the South China Sea, values that differ significantly from a

  13. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test) and 41.2% (two tests), and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25). A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with < 8 years of education (1.74%), who self-reported as black (1.8%) or mixed (1.2%), those who did not receive prenatal care (2.5%), and those attending public (1.37%) or mixed (0.93%) health care units. CONCLUSIONS The estimated prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy was similar to that reported in the last sentinel surveillance study conducted in 2006. There was an improvement in prenatal care and testing coverage rate, and the goals suggested by the World Health Organization were achieved in two regions. Regional

  14. Revision of Poa L. (Poaceae, Pooideae, Poeae, Poinae) in Mexico: new records, re-evaluation of P. ruprechtii, and two new species, P. palmeri and P. wendtii

    PubMed Central

    Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A revision and key to the 23 species and eight subspecies of Poa (including Dissanthelium) known to occur in Mexico is provided. All voucher specimens seen are cited for accepted taxa, except Poa annua for which one voucher per state is provided. Taxa not previously known from, or poorly understood in, Mexico are discussed.Poa palmeri sp. nov. is endemic to forested slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental, and we distinguished it from Poa ruprechtii s.s., a species of central Mexico that is here emended to include Poa sharpii (syn. nov.). Poa wendtii sp. nov. is described from the Sierra Santa Rosa in northern Coahuila. Poa tacanae is placed in synonymy in Poa seleri. Poa gymnantha and Poa occidentalis are newly reported for Mexico, and material historically identified as Poa villaroelii areplaced in Poa chamaeclinos.The genus Dissanthelium is considered to belong within Poa, and the Mexican taxa, Dissanthelium calycina subsp. mathewsii and Dissanthelium californicum, are treated as Poa calycina var. mathewsii and Poa thomasii, respectively. Poa subsect. Papillopoa subsect. nov. is erected for Poa mulleri. Lectotypes are designated for Poa conglomerata and Poa seleri. PMID:23185125

  15. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada'' Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-30

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada'' Revision 0

  16. The Minnesota Prenatal Care Coordination Project: successes and obstacles.

    PubMed

    Skovholt, C; Lia-Hoagberg, B; Mullett, S; Siiteri, R K; Vanman, R; Josten, L; McKay, C; Oberg, C N

    1994-01-01

    The Minnesota Prenatal Care Coordination Project was a statewide effort to present systematically education and technical support to providers as they implemented the Minnesota Prenatal Care Initiative for expanded services to high-risk women. Educational methods included holding 12 regional workshops throughout the State, one-to-one contacts by nurse consultants, and newsletters and a guidebook (manual) were distributed to reach community providers. Analysis of the implementation was conducted using site visits, interviews with providers, and reviews of medical records, claims data, and other project documents. Successes in the first year were a twofold increase in the numbers of Medicaid-enrolled women who received risk assessment and enhanced services, more than one-third increase in provider participation, greater collaboration among multidisciplinary providers at the community level, and improved communication between State and local health care agencies. Obstacles included provider resistance to changes in practice, dissatisfaction with the enhanced services package and level of reimbursement, and problems with implementation protocols. The project demonstrated that prenatal care providers will change; they will improve practices and collaboration as a result of personalized education and support. PMID:7800787

  17. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. PMID:27348804

  18. Prenatal lead exposure modifies the impact of maternal self-esteem on children's inattention behavior

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C.; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. Study design We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994 to 2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith-Self-esteem-Inventory. When children were 7-to-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners’ Parental-Rating-Scales-Revised (CPRS-R) and Behavior-Rating-Inventory-of-Executive-Function-Parent Form (BRIEF-P) were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Results Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, p-values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels < 0.10). Each 1-point increase in maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6-to-1.3-point decrease in CPRS-R and BRIEF-P T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Conclusions Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school-age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. PMID:26047683

  19. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at the New Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of inherited metabolic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Diukman, R; Goldberg, J D

    1993-01-01

    Advances in the prenatal diagnosis of inherited metabolic disease have provided new reproductive options to at-risk couples. These advances have occurred in both sampling techniques and methods of analysis. In this review we present an overview of the currently available prenatal diagnostic approaches for the diagnosis of metabolic disease in a fetus. Images PMID:8236980

  1. Conceptions of Prenatal Development: Behavioral Embryology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent progress in research on prenatal behavioral development and in a systematic fashion the various ways in which prenatal experience can affect the development of behavior in the neonate as well as in the embryo and fetus. (Author/RK)

  2. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  3. Characteristics of Breastfeeding Discussions at the Initial Prenatal Visit

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Jill R.; Bogen, Debra L.; Holland, Cynthia; Tarr, Jill A.; Rubio, Doris; Li, Jie; Nemecek, Marianne; Chang, Judy C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the observed characteristics of first prenatal visit breastfeeding discussions between obstetric providers and their pregnant patients. Methods This analysis was part of a larger study involving 69 providers and 377 patients attending their initial prenatal visits at a single clinic. Audio recordings and transcripts from the first 172 visits (including 36 obstetric-gynecology residents, six nurse midwives and five nurse practitioners) were reviewed for breastfeeding discussion occurrence, timing, and initiator of discussions, and adherence to American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (the College) prenatal breastfeeding guidelines. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and frequency of breastfeeding discussions. Logistic regression and chi-square tests were used to examine patterns in women's breastfeeding discussion preferences and discussion occurrence. Conversations were qualitatively analyzed for breastfeeding content. Results Breastfeeding discussions were infrequent (29% of visits), brief (m=39 seconds), and most often initiated by clinicians in an ambivalent manner. Sixty-nine percent of breastfeeding discussions incorporated any College breastfeeding recommendations. Breastfeeding was significantly more likely to be discussed by certified nurse midwives (CNMs) than residents (OR 24.54, 95% CI: 3.78-159.06; p<0.01), and CNMs tended to engage patients in more open discussions. Women indicating a preference for breastfeeding discussions at the first visit (n=19) were more likely to actually have the discussion (p<0.001). Conclusion Observed breastfeeding education at the first prenatal visit was suboptimal. The causes and effect of this deficiency on breastfeeding outcomes remains an important point of investigation. PMID:24201684

  4. Revision of Ernst Antevs' New England Varve Chronology: A Record of Meltwater Production and Southeastern LIS Recession: 18.2-12.5 kyr BP (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridge, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    runoff, vegetation, and erosion on a recently deglaciated paraglacial landscape. However, in this case cooling events are recognized by higher sediment input and thicker varves. Comparison of varve thickness records to GISP2 ice core records (δ18O original measurements with GICC05 time scale applied) show that from 15.0-12.5 kyr BP climate changes of decadal and longer scale recorded in both records appear identical in spacing and magnitude. Independent time scales for both records (varve 14C calibration and ice core layer counts) are different by 55 yr (well within time scale uncertainties) when similar features in the two records are matched. Varves and the Greenland ice cores appear to simultaneously record the same regional climate changes or, less likely, there is a consistent offset at all scales. After 15.0 yr BP there appears to have been a link between North Atlantic climate and glacial processes (ablation, meltwater production, and ice recession/advance). Prior to 15.0 kyr BP, glacial events are marked by more subtle changes in varve thickness but there is only a weak relationship between varve thickness and Greenland climate.

  5. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Sharif; Mohan, Yedathore; Malik, Asif; Malik, Ghaus; Gonik, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital dermal sinus (CDS) is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications. PMID:26199797

  6. Medicaid reimbursement, prenatal care and infant health.

    PubMed

    Sonchak, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of state-level Medicaid reimbursement rates for obstetric care on prenatal care utilization across demographic groups. It also uses these rates as an instrumental variable to assess the importance of prenatal care on birth weight. The analysis is conducted using a unique dataset of Medicaid reimbursement rates and 2001-2010 Vital Statistics Natality data. Conditional on county fixed effects, the study finds a modest, but statistically significant positive relationship between Medicaid reimbursement rates and the number of prenatal visits obtained by pregnant women. Additionally, higher rates are associated with an increase in the probability of obtaining adequate care, as well as a reduction in the incidence of going without any prenatal care. However, the effect of an additional prenatal visit on birth weight is virtually zero for black disadvantaged mothers, while an additional visit yields a substantial increase in birth weight of over 20 g for white disadvantaged mothers. PMID:26355229

  7. Prenatal management of disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Chitty, Lyn S; Chatelain, Pierre; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Aigrain, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) rarely present prenatally but, as they are very complex conditions, management should be directed by highly specialised medical teams to allow consideration of all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and ethical issues. In this brief review, we present an overview of the prenatal presentation and management of DSD, including the sonographic appearance of normal genitalia and methods of determining genetic sex, the prenatal management of pregnancies with the unexpected finding of genital ambiguity on prenatal ultrasound and a review of the prenatal management of pregnancies at high risk of DSD. As this is a rapidly developing field, management options will change over time, making the involvement of clinical geneticists, paediatric endocrinologists and urologists, as well as fetal medicine specialists, essential in the care of these complex pregnancies. The reader should also bear in mind that local social, ethical and legal aspects may also influence management. PMID:23131529

  8. Prenatal microwave exposure and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The hypotheses for the initial investigation was based on the idea that failure to observe structural teratogenesis following microwave exposure did not preclude the possibility that such exposure would result in behavioral changes. We also proposed that such exposure might specifically alter some aspect of thermoregulatory behavior. The results of these studies support both of these hypotheses. Whether the studies show enhanced thermal sensitivity or enhanced development, they do support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to microwave radiation is more likely to alter postnatal sensitivity to thermally related stimuli or conditions as compared to stimuli that are thermally neutral.

  9. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

  10. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K; Yoshimaru, H; Otake, M; Annegers, J F; Schull, W J

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to "seizure," "epilepsy," or "convulsion." Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures. PMID:2293744

  11. Correlation in the Discharges of Neighboring Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells During Prenatal Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, Lamberto; Galli-Resta, Lucia

    1990-04-01

    The spontaneous discharges of neighboring retinal ganglion cells were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized prenatal rats between embryonic days 18 and 21. We report here that in the majority of cases the firings of neighboring retinal ganglion cells are strongly correlated during prenatal life. Correlation in the discharges of neighboring cells during development has long been suggested as a way to consolidate synaptic connections with a target cell onto which they converge, a model first proposed by Hebb. Correlation in the activities of neighboring neurons in the retina could be the basis of developmental processes such as refinement of retinotopic maps in the brain and segregation of the inputs from the two eyes.

  12. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  13. Antidepressants May Mitigate the Effects of Prenatal Maternal Anxiety on Infant Auditory Sensory Gating

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sharon K.; Mendoza, Jordan H.; D’Anna, Kimberly; Zerbe, Gary O; McCarthy, LizBeth; Hoffman, Camille; Freedman, Robert; Ross, Randal G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prenatal maternal anxiety has detrimental effects on the resulting offspring’s neurocognitive development, including impaired attentional function. Antidepressants are commonly utilized during pregnancy, yet their impact on offspring attention and their interaction with maternal anxiety has not been assessed. Using P50 auditory sensory gating, a putative marker of early attentional processes measurable in young infants, the impact of maternal anxiety and antidepressant use are explored. Method Two hundred forty-two mother-infant dyads were classified relative to maternal history of anxiety and maternal prenatal antidepressant use. Infant P50 auditory sensory gating was recorded during active sleep at a mean± standard deviation of 76 ± 38 days of age. Results In the absence of prenatal antidepressant exposure, infants with mothers with a history of anxiety diagnoses had diminished P50 sensory gating (p<.001). Prenatal antidepressants mitigated the effect of anxiety (uncorrected p=.041). The effect of maternal anxiety was limited to amplitude of response to the second stimulus while antidepressants impacted the amplitude or response to both the first and second stimulus. Conclusion Maternal anxiety disorders are associated less inhibition during infant sensory gating, a performance deficit mitigated by prenatal antidepressant use. This effect may be important in considering the risks and benefits of prenatal antidepressant treatment. Cholinergic mechanisms are hypothesized for both anxiety and antidepressant effects; however the cholinergic receptors involved are likely different for anxiety and antidepressant effects. Additional work focused on understanding how treatment impacts the relationship between maternal prenatal illness and offspring neurocognitive development is indicated. PMID:22581104

  14. Postnatal Evaluation and Outcome of Prenatal Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ansari-Moghadam, Alireza; Rashidi, Somaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) is dilation in urinary collecting system and is the most frequent neonatal urinary tract abnormality with an incidence of 1% to 5% of all pregnancies. PNH is defined as anteroposterior diameter (APD) of renal pelvis ≥ 4 mm at gestational age (GA) of < 33 weeks and APD ≥ 7 mm at GA of ≥ 33 weeks to 2 months after birth. All patients need to be evaluated after birth by postnatal renal ultrasonography (US). In the vast majority of cases, watchful waiting is the only thing to do; others need medical or surgical therapy. Objectives: There is a direct relationship between APD of renal pelvis and outcome of PNH. Therefore we were to find the best cutoff point APD of renal pelvis which leads to surgical outcome. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 200 patients 1 to 60 days old with diagnosis of PNH based on before or after birth ultrasonography; as a prenatal or postnatal detected, respectively. These patients were referred to the nephrology clinic in Zahedan Iran during 2011 to 2013. The first step of investigation was a postnatal renal US, by the same expert radiologist and classifying the patients into 3 groups; normal, mild/moderate and severe. The second step was to perform voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for mild/moderate to severe cases at 4 - 6 weeks of life. Tc-diethylene triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was the last step and for those with normal VCUG who did not show improvement in follow-up examination, US to evaluate obstruction and renal function. Finally all patients with mild/moderate to severe PNH received conservative therapy and surgery was preserved only for progressive cases, obstruction or renal function ≤35%. All patients’ data and radiologic information was recorded in separate data forms, and then analyzed by SPSS (version 22). Results: 200 screened PNH patients with male to female ratio 3.5:1 underwent first postnatal control US, of whom 65% had normal, 18% mild

  15. Scar revision

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Wakure, Abhijeet

    2013-01-01

    Most surgical patients end up with a scar and most of these would want at least some improvement in the appearance of the scar. Using sound techniques for wound closure surgeons can, to a certain extent, prevent suboptimal scars. This article reviews the principles of prevention and treatment of suboptimal scars. Surgical techniques of scar revision, i.e., Z plasty, W plasty, and geometrical broken line closure are described. Post-operative care and other adjuvant therapies of scars are described. A short description of dermabrasion and lasers for management of scars is given. It is hoped that this review helps the surgeon to formulate a comprehensive plan for management of scars of these patients. PMID:24516292

  16. Prenatal diagnosis and obstetric management.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Pat; Nugent, Mae; Khalil, Asma

    2015-10-01

    Conjoined twins are rare, representing 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 200,000 live births, and the prognosis is generally poor. Accurate prenatal diagnosis by an experienced multidisciplinary team using a combination of imaging modalities allows parents to make fully informed choices. This may include termination of pregnancy, which is easier and safer at the earlier gestations at which diagnosis is now being made; continuing with the pregnancy but accepting that only palliative care is appropriate after birth; or planned intensive care and separation of the twins after birth. Delivery will invariably be by cesarean section in order to minimize the risk of peripartum harm to both mother and babies. PMID:26382256

  17. Prenatal cannibalism in an insect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Thomas; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2007-06-01

    Host selection and infection strategies of parasitoids often correlate with high parental investment and low numbers of progeny. In this study, we investigate how additional internal mechanisms might shape brood size and fitness of the offspring. Emblemasoma auditrix is a parasitoid fly in which about 38 larvae hatch simultaneously in utero. After host location, a single larva is deposited into the host, where it rapidly develops and pupates after about 5 days. The search for hosts can take several weeks, and during that time, the larvae arrest their development and remain in the first larval instar. Nevertheless, the larvae increase in weight within the uterus, and this growth correlates to a decrease in the number of larvae, although no larvae are deposited. Thus, our data indicate a first case of prenatal cannibalism in an invertebrate with larvae feeding on each other within the uterus of the adult.

  18. Revision surgeries following vagus nerve stimulator implantation.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sandi; Lin, Yimo; Curry, Daniel J; Reddy, Gaddum D; Warnke, Peter C

    2016-08-01

    The vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) has been shown to provide a safe, albeit costly, treatment for intractable epilepsy. We aimed to analyze the incidence, timing, and clinical/demographic associations of revision surgery post-VNS implantation in epilepsy patients. The Thomson Reuters MarketScan database, containing data from 23-50million individuals, was used. Epilepsy patients receiving VNS implantations from 2003 to 2009 were identified by Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification Of Diseases Ninth Revision codes. Incidence and timing of subsequent implant-related surgeries were recorded. Events were described using time-to-event methodology, with Kaplan-Meier failure estimation/Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for clinical/demographic factors. In 1234 patients, average incidence of revision surgeries over 6years of follow-up were <1%, <3%, 4-10%, and <1% for VNS electrode revision, battery revision/removal, battery replacement/implantation, and infection washout, respectively. For electrode revision and battery revision/replacement, the incidence was higher in the first year and for battery replacement in later years. Age, sex, insurance type, or geographic region did not significantly impact event occurrence. Implant-related revision surgeries are rare. Some events occur more often in certain follow-up years than others; none are significantly impacted by age, sex, insurance type, or geographic region. The most common reason for revision was battery replacement several years after VNS placement. PMID:27050913

  19. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for Fetal Anomalies and Outcomes in High-Risk Pregnancies due to Maternal HIV Infection: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Reitter, A.; Stücker, A. U.; Buxmann, H.; Herrmann, E.; Haberl, A. E.; Schlößer, R.; Louwen, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of prenatal screening and of adverse outcome in high-risk pregnancies due to maternal HIV infection. Study Design. The prevalence of prenatal screening in 330 pregnancies of HIV-positive women attending the department for prenatal screening and/or during labour between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2012, was recorded. Screening results were compared with the postnatal outcome and maternal morbidity, and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated. Results. One hundred of 330 women (30.5%) had an early anomaly scan, 252 (74.5%) had a detailed scan at 20–22 weeks, 18 (5.5%) had a detailed scan prior to birth, and three (0.9%) had an amniocentesis. In seven cases (2.12%), a fetal anomaly was detected prenatally and confirmed postnatally, while in eight (2.42%) an anomaly was only detected postnatally, even though a prenatal scan was performed. There were no anomalies in the unscreened group. MTCT occurred in three cases (0.9%) and seven fetal and neonatal deaths (2.1%) were reported. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of prenatal ultrasound screening in our cohort is 74.5%, but often the opportunity for prenatal ultrasonography in the first trimester is missed. In general, the aim should be to offer prenatal ultrasonography in the first trimester in all pregnancies. This allows early reassurance or if fetal disease is suspected, further steps can be taken. PMID:24194633

  20. Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Genetic counseling (and prenatal diagnosis) provides parents with the knowledge to make intelligent, informed decisions regarding possible pregnancy and its outcome. If a pregnancy occurs the couple may want to evaluate the ...

  1. Improving Prenatal Care for Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; OʼConnor, Caitlin; Gibeau, Anne M; Nadel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Since the inception of prenatal care in the early 1900s, the focus of care has been on risk reduction rather than on health promotion. Prenatal care began as individualized care, but more recently group prenatal care has been shown to be very successful in improving birth outcomes. For all women, an emphasis on improving health behaviors is important at this critical time while women are engaging regularly with the healthcare system. An emphasis on mental health promotion may decrease some of the disparities in birth outcomes that are well documented between minority and majority women, as minority women are known to experience increased levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. Providing support for pregnant women and incorporating knowledge and skills through prenatal care may promote both physical and mental health in minority women. PMID:26854915

  2. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure Linked with Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... a sequence of effects following prenatal exposure to cocaine, a stimulant similar to methamphetamine. Identifying such problems ...

  3. Prenatal Care for the 80s

    PubMed Central

    Mohide, P. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite improvements in the last decade, Canada's perinatal mortality rate is still higher than those of many other developed countries. Consumer expectations have increased not only for a good outcome, but also a more personal and humane process. The physician has to make a decision to be involved in prenatal care. Appropriate steps are suggested for initial assessment, genetic evaluation, and ongoing prenatal care. PMID:21289752

  4. Prenatal transportation stress alters temperament and serum cortisol concentrations in suckling Brahman calves.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, B P; Price, D M; Banta, J P; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2016-02-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor used was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 h at 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 d of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves ( = 41) were compared with controls ( = 44; dams did not undergo transportation during pregnancy) from 2 wk of age until weaning (average age at weaning = 174.8 ± 1.3 d). Temperament was defined by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = excitable), exit velocity (EV; m/sec), and temperament score (TS; (PS + EV)/2) and was recorded for each calf on d -168, -140, -112, -84, -56, -28, and 0 relative to weaning (d 0 = weaning). Cortisol concentrations were determined in serum samples obtained on d -168, -140, -28, and 0 relative to weaning. Birth weight and weaning weight were not different between treatment groups ( > 0.1). Pen score was greater ( = 0.03) in prenatally stressed calves (2.84 ± 0.21) relative to controls (2.31 ± 0.21). Exit velocity was greater ( < 0.01) in prenatally stressed calves (2.1 ± 0.14 m/sec) than in controls (1.61 ± 0.14 m/sec). Exit velocity was affected by a treatment × calf sex interaction ( = 0.04) and was greater in prenatally stressed females. Exit velocity was also affected by day ( < 0.0001). Temperament score was greater ( = 0.01) in prenatally stressed calves (2.45 ± 0.16) than in controls (1.95 ± 0.16). Temperament score was affected by day ( < 0.01). Basal cortisol concentrations were greater ( = 0.04) in prenatally stressed calves (15.87 ± 1.04 ng/mL) than in controls (13.42 ± 1.03 ng/mL). Basal cortisol concentrations were greater ( < 0.01) in females (16.61 ± 1.06 ng/mL) than in males (12.68 ± 1.02 ng/mL). Cortisol concentrations were positively correlated ( < 0.01) with PS ( = 0.55, < 0.01), EV ( = 0.4, < 0.01), and TS ( = 0.55, < 0.01). Overall, suckling Brahman calves that were prenatally stressed were more temperamental and

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.Y.F.

    1996-03-01

    I read with great interest the paper on {open_quotes}Prenatal Diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and 45,X: Implications for Postnatal Outcome{close_quotes} by Koeberl et al. They reported their experience with 12 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and made a clinical comparison between those 12 cases and their own 41 postnatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. As expected, they found an overall milder phenotypic manifestation in the prenatal cases than in the postnatal ones. These authors report a lack of previous prognostic information on this type of prenatally diagnosis of mosaicism and offer their findings to fill this need. However, considerable information on this topic has been published. There have been >200 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX. According to my data on 189 cases with a prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (Hsu 1992), there are 114 cases with available information on phenotypic outcome. Of these, 12 (10.5%) were reported to have some features of Turner syndrome, 4 had other anomalies probably not related to Turner syndrome, and 2 resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate for an abnormal phenotype in this category was thus 16/114 (14.03%). However, we must realize that, even in patients with a nonmosaic 45,X complement, the major features of Turner syndrome, such as short stature and sexual infantilism, are manifested only later in childhood or in adolescence. 3 refs.

  6. The development of thermoregulation after prenatal exposure to alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Zimmerberg, B; Ballard, G A; Riley, E P

    1987-01-01

    The effect of prenatal exposure to alcohol on the development of thermoregulation and behavioral thermogenesis was assessed in rats. Pups at 5, 10, 15, and 20 days of age were chosen from litters with one of three prenatal treatment histories: liquid diet with 35% ethanol-derived-calories (35% EDC), pair-fed control (0% EDC), or lab chow control (LC). Subjects were removed from the home nest and had their initial rectal temperatures recorded before placement alone in the center of an observational chamber in a testing room maintained at 23-24 degrees C. Rectal temperatures were recorded again every hour for the next 4 h. Speed to reach the wall for behavioral thermogenesis (wall-huddling) was also measured at each hourly interval. With increasing age, all pups displayed increasing ability to maintain their initial core temperature, but prenatal exposure to alcohol had a significant effect in retarding the development of thermoregulation. At 5 and 10 days of age, alcohol-exposed pups had significantly lower rectal temperatures at 1-4 h out of the nest compared to control pups. In addition, the speed to reach the wall was slower in 35% EDC pups than in pups from the two control groups, suggesting a deficit in behavioral thermogenesis as well. These results agree with others demonstrating alcohol-induced development delays, and may have implications for other behavioral deficits seen after prenatal exposure to alcohol. PMID:3108928

  7. Revision sphenoidethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Eichel, B S

    1985-03-01

    In 1981, a series of 236 intranasal ethmoidectomy (INE) procedures was reported with a complication rate of 1.8%. Special attention has subsequently been directed to the surgical failures; namely, recurrent nasal polyposis which accounted for approximately 17%. The reason for recurrence in most instances was felt due to failure to do a more thorough posterior ethmoidectomy and enter and clean out the sphenoid sinuses. Subsequently, in all revision cases where a more thorough sphenoidethmoidectomy (RSE) was performed, the overall long-term success rate raised to better than 90%. Attention to skeletonizing the middle turbinate by stripping mucosa and leaving a thin bony shell is an important technical factor. An attempt is made to leave some of this bony skeletonized medial wall of the middle turbinate as it represents the most crucial landmark in doing the surgery via the intranasal route. There still remains approximately 8% to 10% of this patient population with nasal polyposis and sinusitis of such severity that surgery has offered only a temporary measure of relief. In dealing with this group it may be necessary to see these patients postoperatively at four to six-week intervals, carefully suctioning the ethmoid labyrinth and occasionally doing minor office "touch-up" ethmoidectomy-polypectomy procedures to clean off redundant mucosa or early polyposis. This paper is written to offer a compromise to the two schools of intranasal ethmoidectomy surgery as to the necessity of removing the middle turbinate in its entirety. PMID:3974381

  8. Recording and cataloging hazards information, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A data collection process is described for the purpose of discerning causation factors of accidents, and the establishment of boundaries or controls aimed at mitigating and eliminating accidents. A procedure is proposed that suggests a discipline approach to hazard identification based on energy interrelationships together with an integrated control technique which takes the form of checklists.

  9. 77 FR 47641 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...In accordance with the requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (Privacy Act), the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) gives notice of and requests comments on the proposed revision of one existing system of records, the establishment of four new systems of records, and the removal of three existing systems of records notices. The revised existing system of records is ``Fraud......

  10. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL METHAMPHETAMINE EXPOSURE ON BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE FINDINGS AT 7.5 YEARS

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Sabrina D.; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine child behavioral and cognitive outcomes after prenatal exposure to methamphetamine. Study design 412 mother-infant pairs (204 methamphetamine-exposed and 208 unexposed matched comparisons) were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study. The 151 children exposed to methamphetamine and 147 comparisons who attended the 7.5 year visit were included. Exposure was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium toxicology. Maternal interviews assessed behavioral and cognitive outcomes using the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale – Revised: Short Form (CPRS-R:S). Results After adjusting for covariates, children exposed to methamphetamine had significantly higher cognitive problems subscale scores than comparisons and were 2.8 times more likely to have cognitive problems scores that were above average on the CPRS-R:S No association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure and behavioral problems, measured by the oppositional, hyperactivity and ADHD Index subscales, were found. Conclusion Prenatal methamphetamine exposure was associated with increased cognitive problems which may impact academic achievement and lead to increased negative behavioral outcomes. PMID:24630350

  11. Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon and prenatal counseling: a case series.

    PubMed

    Beissel, Anne; Riou, Stéphanie; Fischer Fumeaux, Céline Julie; Cassart, Marie; Blanc, Sébastien; Claris, Olivier; Guibaud, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon can be encountered in the perinatal period. No consensus exists regarding prenatal management. We report one prenatal case leading to therapeutic abortion and one neonatal case, successfully treated by a multimodal therapy. Prenatal counseling should include the possibility of neonatal multimodal treatment that can lead to favorable outcomes. PMID:27386131

  12. Prenatal Depressive Symptoms and Toddler Behavior Problems: The Role of Maternal Sensitivity and Child Sex.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Renee C; Hans, Sydney L

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that maternal depression during pregnancy is associated with child behavioral outcomes even after accounting for later maternal depression. The purpose of this study was to examine various mechanisms, including maternal sensitivity, neonatal problems, and concurrent maternal depression, that might explain the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and toddler behavior problems. Young, low income, African American mothers (n = 196) were interviewed during pregnancy and at 24-months postpartum, medical records were collected at the birth, and mother-child interactions were video-recorded at 24 months. Path analyses revealed that the association between prenatal depression and toddler behavior problems was mediated by maternal sensitivity and maternal depressive symptoms at 24 months. No evidence was found for a mediating effect of neonatal problems. Path models examining sex differences suggested that different mediating factors may be important for boys and girls, with boys being particularly susceptible to the effects of maternal sensitivity. PMID:26521260

  13. Prenatal pharmacogenomics: a promising area for research.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, E H; Cheng, E Y; Hebert, M F; Thummel, K E; Burke, W

    2016-08-01

    Clinical applications of prenatal genetic screening currently focus on detection of aneuploidy and other genetic diseases in the developing fetus. Growing evidence suggests that the fetal genome may also be informative about fetal exposures through contributions to placental transport as well as placental and fetal metabolism. Possible clinical applications of prenatal pharmacogenomic screening include prospective optimization of medication selection and dosage, as well as retrospective assessment of whether a fetus was previously exposed to significant risk. Newly available noninvasive methods of prenatal genetic screening mean that relevant fetal genotypes could be made available to obstetricians for use in management of a current pregnancy. This promising area for research merits more attention than it has thus far received.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 10 May 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.33. PMID:27168097

  14. The Padua Inventory: Do Revisions Need Revision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonner, Sascha; Ecker, Willi; Leonhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties, factorial structure, and validity of the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision and of the Padua Inventory-Revised in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 228) and with anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 213). The…

  15. Associations of Prenatal Growth with Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Nutritional Status in Chilean Children

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Francisco; Arnaiz, Pilar; Pacheco, Paz; Dominguez, Angelica; Villarroel, Luis; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barja, Salesa; Farías, Marcelo; Castillo, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS), and insulin resistance (IR) was studied in school-age children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. Results. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years) were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW) and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01–4.40) at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500–2,999). The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL) and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66–20.67) at BL < 48 cm compared to BL 52-53 cm). A U-shaped association between BL and BP ≥ 90th percentile was observed. Significant ORs were also found for MS and IR. Adjustments for present fat mass increased or maintained the most prenatal growth influences. Conclusions. Prenatal growth influences MS, IR, and nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes. PMID:25025054

  16. The impact of prenatal exposure to cocaine on newborn costs and length of stay.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, T; Racine, A D; McCalla, S; Wehbeh, H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our intention is to determine newborn costs and lengths of stay attributable to prenatal exposure to cocaine and other illicit drugs. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: All parturients who delivered at a large municipal hospital in New York City between November 18, 1991 and April 11, 1992. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis used multivariate, loglinear regressions to analyze differences in costs and length of stay between infants exposed and unexposed prenatally to cocaine and other illicit drugs, adjusting for maternal race, age, prenatal care, tobacco, parity, type of delivery, birth weight, prematurity, and newborn infection. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Urine specimens, with linked obstetric sheets and discharge abstracts, provided information on exposure, prenatal behaviors, costs, length of stay, and discharge disposition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infants exposed to cocaine or some other illicit drug stay approximately seven days longer at a cost of $7,731 more than infants unexposed. Approximately 60 percent of these costs are indirect, the result of adverse birth outcomes and newborn infection. Hospital screening as recorded on discharge abstracts substantially underestimates prevalence at delivery, but overestimates its impact on costs. PMID:7782220

  17. Prenatal chromosomal microarray for the Catholic physician

    PubMed Central

    Bringman, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal chromosomal microarray (CMA) is a test that is used to diagnose certain genetic problems in the fetus. While the test has been used in the pediatric setting for several years, it is now being introduced for use in the prenatal setting. The test offers great hope for detection of certain genetic defects in the fetus so that early intervention can be performed to improve the outcome for that individual. As with many biotechnical advances, CMA comes with certain bioethical issues that need to be addressed prior to its implementation. This paper is intended to provide guidance to all those that provide counseling regarding genetic testing options during pregnancy. PMID:24899750

  18. Hydronephrosis: prenatal and postnatal evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dennis B; Armstrong, William R; Maizels, Max

    2014-09-01

    Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is one of the most frequently detected abnormalities found on routine prenatal ultrasounds, affecting 1% to 4.5% of all pregnancies. Despite its prevalence, there continues to be uncertainty regarding the clinical impact after birth. Prognosis depends on the severity of the dilation. Expectant prenatal management is the rule with fetal intervention rarely needed in a few select cases. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most common postnatal diagnoses. A renal and bladder ultrasound is essential in the follow-up of patients with ANH and helps dictate further investigation with voiding cystourethrography and/or diuretic renography. PMID:25155734

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of a paraurethral cyst.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Clark T; Millard, Sarah E; Wang, Ming-Hsien; Ehsanipoor, Robert M

    2013-02-01

    Paraurethral cysts arising from Skene's gland are a rare cause of urogenital masses in the neonate. We report the case of a pelvic mass noted at the vaginal introitus on prenatal ultrasound that following delivery was found to be a paraurethral cyst. On prenatal ultrasound, there was no evidence of involvement of the urinary, gastrointestinal, or upper genital tract. Serial ultrasounds demonstrated slight enlargement of the cyst without other changes. The patient delivered at 33 weeks and postnatal evaluation demonstrated a paraurethral cyst. The cyst was managed expectantly and drained spontaneously on the second day of life with complete resolution. PMID:23146295

  20. Neandertals revised

    PubMed Central

    Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen a significant growth of our knowledge of the Neandertals, a population of Pleistocene hunter-gatherers who lived in (western) Eurasia between ∼400,000 and 40,000 y ago. Starting from a source population deep in the Middle Pleistocene, the hundreds of thousands of years of relative separation between African and Eurasian groups led to the emergence of different phenotypes in Late Pleistocene Europe and Africa. Both recently obtained genetic evidence and archeological data show that the biological and cultural gaps between these populations were probably smaller than previously thought. These data, reviewed here, falsify inferences to the effect that, compared with their near-modern contemporaries in Africa, Neandertals were outliers in terms of behavioral complexity. It is only around 40,000 y ago, tens of thousands of years after anatomically modern humans first left Africa and thousands of years after documented interbreeding between modern humans, Neandertals and Denisovans, that we see major changes in the archeological record, from western Eurasia to Southeast Asia, e.g., the emergence of representational imagery and the colonization of arctic areas and of greater Australia (Sahul). PMID:27274044

  1. Neandertals revised.

    PubMed

    Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant growth of our knowledge of the Neandertals, a population of Pleistocene hunter-gatherers who lived in (western) Eurasia between ∼400,000 and 40,000 y ago. Starting from a source population deep in the Middle Pleistocene, the hundreds of thousands of years of relative separation between African and Eurasian groups led to the emergence of different phenotypes in Late Pleistocene Europe and Africa. Both recently obtained genetic evidence and archeological data show that the biological and cultural gaps between these populations were probably smaller than previously thought. These data, reviewed here, falsify inferences to the effect that, compared with their near-modern contemporaries in Africa, Neandertals were outliers in terms of behavioral complexity. It is only around 40,000 y ago, tens of thousands of years after anatomically modern humans first left Africa and thousands of years after documented interbreeding between modern humans, Neandertals and Denisovans, that we see major changes in the archeological record, from western Eurasia to Southeast Asia, e.g., the emergence of representational imagery and the colonization of arctic areas and of greater Australia (Sahul). PMID:27274044

  2. Validation of Minimum Data of Archetyped Telehealth Clinical Report for Monitoring Prenatal Care.

    PubMed

    Santos Alves, Danielle; Times, Valéria Cesário; de Araújo Novaes, Magdala

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the validation of minimum data sets from international information standards have drawn the attention of the academic community to the identification of necessary requirements for the development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs). The primary motivation of such studies is the development of systems using archetypes. The aim of this study was to validate the minimum data set that should be used when constructing an archetyped EHR for prenatal care applications in telehealth. In order to achieve this, a data validation tool was built and used by nine expert obstetricians. The statistical analysis employed was the percentage of agreement and the content validity index. The study was conducted in three steps: 1) Literature review, 2)Instrument development, and 3) Validation of the minimum data set. Of the 179 evaluated pieces of data, 157 of them were validated to be included in the archetyped record of the first prenatal consultation, while 56 of them were allocated for the subsequent consultation record. The benefit of this research is the standardization (data validation for an archetyped system) of prenatal care, with the perspective of employing, both nationally and internationally, an archtyped telehealth system. PMID:26262011

  3. Prenatal diagnosis and assessment of congenital spinal anomalies: Review for prenatal counseling.

    PubMed

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Ketwaroo, Pamela Deaver; Estroff, Judy A; Warf, Benjamin C; Emans, John B; Glotzbecker, Michael P

    2016-07-18

    The last two decades have seen continuous advances in prenatal ultrasonography and in utero magnetic resonance imaging. These technologies have increasingly enabled the identification of various spinal pathologies during early stages of gestation. The purpose of this paper is to review the range of fetal spine anomalies and their management, with the goal of improving the clinician's ability to counsel expectant parents prenatally. PMID:27458551

  4. Prenatal diagnosis and assessment of congenital spinal anomalies: Review for prenatal counseling

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Ketwaroo, Pamela Deaver; Estroff, Judy A; Warf, Benjamin C; Emans, John B; Glotzbecker, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen continuous advances in prenatal ultrasonography and in utero magnetic resonance imaging. These technologies have increasingly enabled the identification of various spinal pathologies during early stages of gestation. The purpose of this paper is to review the range of fetal spine anomalies and their management, with the goal of improving the clinician’s ability to counsel expectant parents prenatally. PMID:27458551

  5. Fetal urinoma and prenatal hydronephrosis: how is renal function affected?

    PubMed Central

    Oktar, Tayfun; Salabaş, Emre; Kalelioğlu, İbrahim; Atar, Arda; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan; Has, Recep; Yüksel, Atıl

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In our study, the functional prognosis of kidneys with prenatal urinomas were investigated. Material and methods: Between 2006 and 2010, fetal urinomas were detected in 19 fetuses using prenatal ultrasonography (US), and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 19 cases, the follow-up data were available for 10 fetuses. The gestational age at diagnosis, prognosis of urinomas, clinical course and renal functions were recorded. Postnatal renal functions were assessed with renal scintigraphy. Results: Unilateral urinomas and increased parenchyma echogenicity in the ipsilateral kidney were detected in all of the fetuses. Of the 10 fetuses with follow-up data, the option of termination was offered in 6 cases of anhydramnios, including 3 cases with signs of infravesical obstruction (a possible posterior urethral valve (PUV) and poor prognostic factors and 3 cases with unilateral hydronephrosis and increased echogenicity in the contralateral kidney. Only one family agreed the termination. The other 5 fetuses died during the early postnatal period. The average postnatal follow-up period in the 4 surviving fetuses was 22.5 months (8–38 months). One patient with a PUV underwent ablation surgery during the early postnatal period. In the postnatal period, none of the 4 kidneys that were ipsilateral to the urinoma were functional on scintigraphic evaluation. The urinomas disappeared in 3 cases. Nephrectomy was performed in one case due to recurrent urinary tract infections. Conclusion: In our study, no function was detected in the ipsilateral kidney of surviving patients with urinomas. Upper urinary tract dilatation accompanied by a urinoma is a poor prognostic factor for renal function. PMID:26328088

  6. Intendedness of pregnancy and other predictive factors for symptoms of prenatal depression in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fellenzer, Jena L; Cibula, Donald A

    2014-12-01

    Prenatal depression (PD) as a risk factor for adverse birth outcomes is well documented. Less is known about maternal risks for PD, which could inform preventive strategies for perinatal and interconceptional care. This exploratory study investigates associations between prenatal depression symptoms and unintended and mistimed pregnancies and other maternal risk factors for PD. A subset of birth records from the New York Statewide Perinatal Data System (n = 19,219) was used in this secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression was used to identify factors that are independently associated with four self-reported levels of prenatal depression symptoms. Women with unintended pregnancies were more likely (AOR, 95 % CI) to report severe (3.6, 2.6-5.1) or moderate (2.0, 1.6-2.5) prenatal depression symptoms and less likely to report no symptoms, compared to women with intended pregnancies. Likewise, women with mistimed pregnancies were more likely to report severe (2.7, 2.2-3.5) or moderate (1.7, 1.5-2.1) prenatal depression symptoms than no symptoms, compared to women with intended pregnancies. Low education, drug use, smoking, minority race, being unmarried and having Medicaid insurance were also significant, independent predictors of PD symptoms. Results suggest that routine screening for depression, intendedness of pregnancy and other associated risk factors such as smoking and drug use during prenatal and interconceptional care visits may enable coordinated interventions that can reduce prenatal depression and unintended and mistimed pregnancies and improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24752314

  7. An update on current prenatal testing options: first trimester and noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Latendresse, Gwen; Deneris, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal genetic testing is rapidly evolving and requires that prenatal care providers stay up-to-date with accurate, evidence-based knowledge. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), first trimester maternal serum markers, and fetal nuchal translucency are the most recently developed screening tests added to the testing repertoire for detection of chromosomal disorders such as trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). NIPT is a new, highly accurate technique that uses maternal serum and is rapidly being introduced as a first trimester screening tool and increasingly being requested by pregnant women. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that all pregnant women be offered first and second trimester screening options, regardless of risk status, but does not yet recommend NIPT. It is important for prenatal care providers to be aware of and understand these testing options in order to assist women and their families in making well-informed decisions during pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to update midwives and other prenatal care providers on the current prenatal genetic testing options available and how to appropriately offer and discuss them with their clients. We discuss how these tests work; what to do with the results; and most importantly, how to support and communicate accurate information to women and families as they navigate through an increasingly complicated array of testing choices. PMID:25712277

  8. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  9. MALDI-TOF MS in Prenatal Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prenatal diagnosis aims either to provide the reassurance to the couples at risk of having an affected child by timely appropriate therapy or to give the parents a chance to decide the fate of the unborn babies with health problems. Invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD) is accurate, however, carrying a risk of miscarriage. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has been developed based on the existing of fetal genetic materials in maternal circulation; however, a minority fetal DNA in majority maternal background DNA hinders the detections of fetal traits. Different protocols and assays, such as homogenous MassEXTEND (hME), single allele base extension reaction (SABER), precise measuring copy number variation of each allele, and quantitative methylation and expression analysis using the high-throughput sensitive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), allow NIPD for single gene disorders, fetal blood group genotyping and fetal aneuploidies as well as the development of fetal gender-independent biomarkers in maternal circulation for management of pathological pregnancies. In this review, we summarise the use of MALDI-TOF MS in prenatal genomics. PMID:21049077

  10. Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2005-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Laxmi Devi; Hamza, Zareena V; Thampi, Madhavan Venugopalan; Nampoothiri, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period. PMID:27081225

  12. Prenatal care in your first trimester

    MedlinePlus

    ... first visit, your doctor or midwife will draw blood for a group of tests known as the prenatal panel. These tests are done to find problems or infections early in the pregnancy. ... blood count (CBC) Blood typing (including Rh screen) Rubella ...

  13. Noninvasive Prenatal Molecular Karyotyping from Maternal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Stephanie C. Y.; Jiang, Peiyong; Choy, Kwong W.; Chan, Kwan Chee Allen; Won, Hye-Sung; Leung, Wing C.; Lau, Elizabeth T.; Tang, Mary H. Y.; Leung, Tak Y.; Lo, Yuk Ming Dennis; Chiu, Rossa W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing. PMID:23613765

  14. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  15. Prenatal depression effects and interventions: a review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-12-01

    This review covers research on the negative effects of prenatal depression and cortisol on fetal growth, prematurity and low birthweight. Although prenatal depression and cortisol were typically measured at around 20 weeks gestation, other research suggests the stability of depression and cortisol levels across pregnancy. Women with Dysthymia as compared to Major Depression Disorder had higher cortisol levels, and their newborns had lower gestational age and birthweight. The cortisol effects in these studies were unfortunately confounded by low serotonin and low dopamine levels which in themselves could contribute to non-optimal pregnancy outcomes. The negative effects of depression and cortisol were also potentially confounded by comorbid anxiety, by demographic factors including younger age, less education and lower SES of the mothers and by the absence of a partner or a partner who was unhappy about the pregnancy or a partner who was depressed. Substance use (especially caffeine use) was still another risk factor. All of these problems including prenatal depression, elevated cortisol, prematurity and low birthweight and even postpartum depression have been reduced by prenatal massage therapy provided by the women's partners. Massage therapy combined with group interpersonal psychotherapy was also effective for reducing depression and cortisol levels. Several limitations of these studies were noted and suggestions for future research included exploring other predictor variables like progesterone/estriol ratios, immune factors and genetic determinants. Further research is needed both on the potential use of cortisol as a screening measure and the use of other therapies that might reduce prenatal depression and cortisol in the women and prematurity and low birthweight in their infants. PMID:20471091

  16. The economic impact of revision otologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Nadimi, Sahar; Leonetti, John P; Pontikis, George

    2016-03-01

    Revision otologic surgery places a significant economic burden on patients and the healthcare system. We conducted a retrospective chart analysis to estimate the economic impact of revision canal-wall-down (CWD) mastoidectomy. We reviewed the medical records of all 189 adults who had undergone CWD mastoidectomy performed by the senior author between June 2006 and August 2011 at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Ill. Institutional charges and collections for all patients were extrapolated to estimate the overall healthcare cost of revision surgery in Illinois and at the national level. Of the 189 CWD mastoidectomies, 89 were primary and 100 were revision procedures. The total charge for the revision cases was $2,783,700, and the net reimbursement (collections) was $846,289 (30.4%). Using Illinois Hospital Association data, we estimated that reimbursement for 387 revision CWD mastoidectomies that had been performed in fiscal year 2011 was nearly $3.3 million. By extrapolating our data to the national level, we estimated that 9,214 patients underwent revision CWD mastoidectomy in the United States during 2011, which cost the national healthcare system roughly $76 million, not including lost wages and productivity. Known causes of failed CWD mastoidectomies that often result in revision surgery include an inadequate meatoplasty, a facial ridge that is too high, residual diseased air cells, and recurrent cholesteatoma. A better understanding of these factors can reduce the need for revision surgery, which could have a positive impact on the economic strain related to this procedure at the local, state, and national levels. PMID:26991218

  17. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  18. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  19. Lessons from Prenatal Care Provider-Based Recruitment into the National Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, James M.; Bridges, Melissa D.; Childers, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Roseanne M.; McElfish, Pearl A.

    2015-01-01

    In response to recruitment difficulties experienced by the National Children’s Study, alternatives to the door-to-door recruitment method were pilot tested. This report describes outcomes, successes, and challenges of recruiting women through prenatal care providers in Benton County, Arkansas, USA. Eligible women residing in 14 randomly selected geographic segments were recruited. Data were collected during pregnancy, at birth, and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. Participants were compared to non-enrolled eligible women through birth records. Of 6402 attempts to screen for address eligibility, 468 patients were potentially eligible. Of 221 eligible women approached to participate, 151 (68%) enrolled in the 21-year study. Enrolled women were similar to non-enrolled women in age, marital status, number of prenatal care visits, and gestational age and birth weight of the newborn. Women enrolled from public clinics were more likely to be Hispanic, lower educated, younger and unmarried than those enrolled from private clinics. Sampling geographic areas from historical birth records failed to produce expected equivalent number of births across segments. Enrollment of pregnant women from prenatal care providers was successful. PMID:26500750

  20. 75 FR 34684 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Revision of Privacy Act Systems of Records. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is revising one Privacy Act (PA) system of records...

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of central nervous system abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Angtuaco, E E; Angtuaco, T L; Angtuaco, E J

    1994-01-01

    Fetal anomalies have been the subject of innumerable publications both in the prenatal and neonatal literature. This has significantly increased in the last 10 years, mainly because of the advent of high-resolution ultrasound equipment and improvement of scanning techniques. In addition, guidelines issued by professional organizations involved in prenatal diagnosis have encouraged a more universal approach to the imaging and documentation of prenatal findings. The fetal central nervous system is the most frequently investigated organ system, mainly because of its easy accessibility and prominence even in the early stages of embryologic development. The biparietal diameter was the first fetal measurement to be widely used in determining gestational age. As investigators gained more experience, the appearance of ultrasound images achieved the resolution that allows direct comparisons with gross specimens and more recent sophisticated techniques of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Now endovaginal ultrasound can document early first trimester development and compare it to known embryologic landmarks. Interest in demonstrating the ultrasound counterpart of central nervous system structures in the early stages of development has resulted in a plethora of articles proving the unique ability of ultrasound in imaging the developing fetus. In view of all these developments, the beginning ultrasound specialist is faced with the challenge and responsibility not only of being familiar with the literature but also of the mastery of scanning techniques that allow accurate prenatal diagnosis. It is therefore helpful to review key developmental milestones in embryologic life and correlate them with the corresponding prenatal ultrasound appearance. In addition, the changing appearance of the developing fetus has created a need for a systematic approach in the evaluation of structures so routine protocols can be established. This has been the subject of other

  2. Prenatal Phenol and Phthalate Exposures and Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Mary S.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J.; Zhu, Chenbo; Wetmur, James; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many phthalates and phenols are hormonally active and are suspected to alter the course of development. Objective We investigated prenatal exposures to phthalate and phenol metabolites and their associations with body size measures of the infants at birth. Methods We measured 5 phenol and 10 phthalate urinary metabolites in a multiethnic cohort of 404 women in New York City during their third trimester of pregnancy and recorded size of infants at birth. Results Median urinary concentrations were > 10 μg/L for 2 of 5 phenols and 6 of 10 phthalate monoester metabolites. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight phthalate monoesters (low-MWP) were approximately 5-fold greater than those of high-molecular-weight metabolites. Low-MWP metabolites had a positive association with gestational age [0.97 day gestational age per ln-biomarker; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07–1.9 days, multivariate adjusted] and with head circumference. Higher prenatal exposures to 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) predicted lower birth weight in boys (−210 g average birth weight difference between the third tertile and first tertile of 2,5-DCP; 95% CI, 71–348 g). Higher maternal benzophenone-3 (BP3) concentrations were associated with a similar decrease in birth weight among girls but with greater birth weight in boys. Conclusions We observed a range of phthalate and phenol exposures during pregnancy in our population, but few were associated with birth size. The association of 2,5-DCP and BP3 with reduced or increased birth weight could be important in very early or small-size births. In addition, positive associations of urinary metabolites with some outcomes may be attributable partly to unresolved confounding with maternal anthropometric factors. PMID:18709157

  3. Religious Traditions and Prenatal Genetic Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rebecca Rae

    2009-01-01

    Members of organized religious groups may look to their faith traditions for guidance regarding the moral implications of prenatal diagnosis and intervention. Many denominations have doctrinal statements relevant to these deliberations. In this paper, common spiritual issues arising in the genetic counseling encounter are described. Representative doctrinal positions, derived from the responses of 31 U.S. religious denominations to a survey relating to prenatal genetic counseling, are given. Because the long-term adjustment of patients may be dependent in part on their ability to reconcile their actions with their faith traditions, genetic counselors best serve their patients when they invite discussion of matters of faith. Unless invited, patients may assume these topics are ‘off limits’ or that care providers are indifferent to their beliefs. Although genetics professionals ought not assume the role of spiritual advisor, a working knowledge of doctrinal approaches should help counselors frame the issues, and avoid missteps. PMID:19170093

  4. Teaching prenatal ultrasound to family medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Dresang, Lee T; Rodney, William MacMillan; Dees, Jason

    2004-02-01

    Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful diagnostic tool, but there has been little research on how to teach ultrasound to family physicians. The available evidence supports teaching through didactics followed by supervised scanning. Didactic topics include physics and machine usage, indications, fetal biometry, anatomic survey, practice management, ethical issues, and resources. Supervised scanning reinforces the didactic components of training. A "hand-on-hand" supervised scanning technique is recommended for the transmission of psychomotor skills in these sessions. Curricula for teaching ultrasound should include information on which residents will be taught prenatal ultrasound, who will teach them, how to create time for learning ultrasound skills, and how to test for competency. The literature suggests that competency can be achieved within 25-50 supervised scans. Measures of competency include examination and qualitative analysis of scanning. Competency-based testing needs further development because no uniform standards have been established. PMID:14872356

  5. Chromosomal Microarray versus Karyotyping for Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wapner, Ronald J.; Martin, Christa Lese; Levy, Brynn; Ballif, Blake C.; Eng, Christine M.; Zachary, Julia M.; Savage, Melissa; Platt, Lawrence D.; Saltzman, Daniel; Grobman, William A.; Klugman, Susan; Scholl, Thomas; Simpson, Joe Leigh; McCall, Kimberly; Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Bunke, Brian; Nahum, Odelia; Patel, Ankita; Lamb, Allen N.; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Ledbetter, David H.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Jackson, Laird

    2013-01-01

    Background Chromosomal microarray analysis has emerged as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of developmental delay and structural malformations in children. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis as compared with karyotyping for routine prenatal diagnosis. Methods Samples from women undergoing prenatal diagnosis at 29 centers were sent to a central karyotyping laboratory. Each sample was split in two; standard karyotyping was performed on one portion and the other was sent to one of four laboratories for chromosomal microarray. Results We enrolled a total of 4406 women. Indications for prenatal diagnosis were advanced maternal age (46.6%), abnormal result on Down’s syndrome screening (18.8%), structural anomalies on ultrasonography (25.2%), and other indications (9.4%). In 4340 (98.8%) of the fetal samples, microarray analysis was successful; 87.9% of samples could be used without tissue culture. Microarray analysis of the 4282 nonmosaic samples identified all the aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements identified on karyotyping but did not identify balanced translocations and fetal triploidy. In samples with a normal karyotype, microarray analysis revealed clinically relevant deletions or duplications in 6.0% with a structural anomaly and in 1.7% of those whose indications were advanced maternal age or positive screening results. Conclusions In the context of prenatal diagnostic testing, chromosomal microarray analysis identified additional, clinically significant cytogenetic information as compared with karyotyping and was equally efficacious in identifying aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements but did not identify balanced translocations and triploidies. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01279733.) PMID:23215555

  6. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  7. Cerebral ultrasound images in prenatal cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Tomà, P; Magnano, G M; Mezzano, P; Lazzini, F; Bonacci, W; Serra, G

    1989-01-01

    A male newborn with prenatal cytomegalovirus infection was referred for cranial ultrasound. The cranial ultrasound demonstrated areas of increased echogenicity in the thalamic and gray nuclei resembling "a branched candlestick". Doppler technique located the "branched candlestick" along the thalamostriate arteries. This image is particularly interesting because to our knowledge it has never before been described in congenital cytomegalovirus infection, but only in congenital rubella. PMID:2550848

  8. Urinary biomarkers in prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Mia Gebauer; Nørregaard, Rikke; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Troels Munch

    2011-04-01

    The introduction of prenatal ultrasonography as a screening method entails an increasing number of infants diagnosed with prenatal hydronephrosis. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction accounts for 35% of prenatal hydronephrotic cases. Urinary tract obstruction that occurs during early kidney development affects renal morphogenesis, maturation and growth, and in the most severe cases this will ultimately cause renal insufficiency. A major challenge in the clinical management of these patients is to preserve renal function by selection of the 15%-20% who require early surgical intervention, leaving those for whom watchful waiting may be appropriate because of spontaneous resolution/stabilization without significant loss of renal function. Today, this requires medical surveillance, including repetitive invasive diuretic renograms relying on arbitrary threshold values, and therefore there is a need for non-arbitrary, non-invasive urinary biomarkers that may be used as predictors for renal structural changes and/or decreasing renal function, and thereby provide the surgeon with more clear indications for surgical intervention. In this review, we summarize the currently well-known facts about urinary biomarkers in ureteropelvic junction obstruction concerning renal function, and we also suggest potential novel urinary biomarkers. PMID:21220211

  9. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually. PMID:23025348

  10. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life. PMID:25960943

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of proximal focal femoral deficiency: Literature review of prenatal sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Valentina; Pasquali, Gaia; Squarcella, Antonia; Marcoccia, Eleonora; Filippis, Angela De; Gatto, Silvia; Camilla, Aliberti; Pizzuti, Antonio; Torre, Renato La; Giancotti, Antonella

    2016-05-01

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a rare musculoskeletal malformation that occurs in 0.11-0.2 per 10,000 live births. This congenital anomaly involves the pelvis and proximal femur with widely variable manifestations, from mild femoral shortening and hypoplasia to the absence of any functional femur and acetabular aplasia. Prenatal diagnosis of PFFD is still a challenge, but early recognition of this malformation could provide useful information to both parents and physicians concerning management and therapeutic planning. For this review, we analyzed all the cases of prenatally diagnosed PFFD that were reported in the literature from 1990 to 2014 and provide a description of the most common prenatal sonographic findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:252-259, 2016. PMID:26408260

  12. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p < 0.05). Similarly, when compared to extremely preterm neonates without exposure to prenatal stress, extremely preterm neonates with exposure to prenatal stress show significantly less connectivity between the left amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p < 0.05). Exploratory analysis of the combined cohorts suggests additive effects of prenatal stress on alterations in amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these

  13. A qualitative study of the experience of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care for physicians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study sought to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for physicians who were involved in providing CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Method The study followed the phenomenological qualitative tradition. Three physicians involved in group prenatal care participated in a one-on-one interview between November and December 2009. Two physicians participated in verification sessions. Interviews followed an open ended general guide and were audio recorded and transcribed. The purpose of the analysis was to identify meaning themes and the core meaning experienced by the physicians. Results Six themes emerged: (1) having a greater exchange of information, (2) getting to knowing, (3) seeing women get to know and support each other, (4) sharing ownership of care, (5) having more time, and (6) experiencing enjoyment and satisfaction in providing care. These themes contributed to the core meaning for physicians of “providing richer care.” Conclusions Physicians perceived providing better care and a better professional experience through CenteringPregnancy compared to their experience of individual prenatal care. Thus, CenteringPregnancy could improve work place satisfaction, increase retention of providers in maternity care, and improve health care for women. PMID:23445867

  14. The effectiveness of an abuse assessment protocol in public health prenatal clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Wiist, W H; McFarlane, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated whether incorporation of an abuse assessment protocol into the routine procedures of the prenatal clinics of a large urban public health department led to increased referral for and assessment, identification, and documentation of abuse. METHODS: Evaluation was conducted at 3 matched prenatal clinics serving a total of 12,000 maternity patients per year. Two clinics used the abuse protocol and 1 did not. An audit was performed at the clinics on a randomly selected sample of 540 maternity patient charts for the 15 months before the protocol was initiated and of 540 records for the 15 months after the protocol was introduced. Ninety-six percent of the patients represented in the sample were Latina. RESULTS: At the clinics using the protocol, abuse assessment increased from 0 to 88%. Detection of abuse increased from 0.8% to 7%. There were no changes at the comparison clinic. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporation of an abuse assessment protocol into the routine procedures of public health department prenatal clinics increases the assessment, identification, and documentation of and referral for abuse among pregnant women. An abuse protocol should be a routine part of maternity care. PMID:10432909

  15. Prenatal exposure to H2 blockers and to proton pump inhibitors and asthma development in offspring.

    PubMed

    Yitshak-Sade, Maayan; Gorodischer, Rafael; Aviram, Micha; Novack, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Fetal exposure to H2 blockers (H2 Bs) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been reported to be associated with asthma in children. We evaluated the risk of asthma in offspring following prenatal H2 Bs. We enrolled 91 428 children and their mothers who resided in southern Israel during 1998-2011. The computerized medications database was linked with records from the district hospital. Of the eligible children, 11 227 developed asthma, and overall 5.5% had been exposed to H2 Bs or PPIs prenatally. The risk of developing asthma was slightly higher in the group exposed to H2 Bs or PPIs (RR, 1.09; P = .023). At greater risk were children whose mothers purchased these medications more than 3 times (RR, 1.22; P = .038) or exposed to >20 defined daily doses or prenatally exposed to lansoprazole. The statistical association was significant and depended on magnitude of exposure and specific medication, but the absolute risk was low. The association between maternal consumption of H2 Bs or PPIs and asthma and childhood remained statistically significant 2 years after delivery, raising the possibility of confounding by the indication phenomenon. In view of the findings, a causal relationship could not be ascertained, and an unidentified etiological factor could be operative. PMID:26096778

  16. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  17. Guidelines for the Management of Student Records. The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 P. L. 93-380, and Section 513 of the Handicapped Act, P. L. 94-142. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    The information contained in the body of this document was obtained from the "Federal Register." The document presents educators in the state of Idaho with information on the maintenance of student records and the control of access to those records. The appendix contains examples of forms and procedures used by the state department of education…

  18. Triangular congenital cataract morphology associated with prenatal methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michael E; Schloff, Susan; Bothun, Erick D

    2009-08-01

    Bilateral congenital cataracts are often characterized by morphology, etiology, and related conditions. We report a case of unique congenital cataracts with triangular morphology and associated prenatal methamphetamine exposure. Although this association is likely coincidental, the cataract's morphology in light of the specific timing of prenatal drug use deserves reporting. PMID:19464935

  19. Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  1. Prenatal Estrogens and the Development of Homosexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that prenatal estrogens contribute to the development of human sexual orientation. Several groups of women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) were compared with several samples of control women. Findings showed that more DES-exposed women than controls were rated as bisexual or homosexual,…

  2. Does Rural Residence Affect Access to Prenatal Care in Oregon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Beth; Grant, Therese; Schiff, Melissa; Kasehagen, Laurin

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying how maternal residential location affects late initiation of prenatal care is important for policy planning and allocation of resources for intervention. Purpose: To determine how rural residence and other social and demographic characteristics affect late initiation of prenatal care, and how residence status is associated…

  3. Prenatal Smoking Exposure, Low Birth Weight, and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Breslau, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Prenatal problems are among theorized etiologies for child disruptive behavior problems. A key question concerns whether etiological contributors are shared across the broad range of disruptive psychopathology or are partially or largely distinct. Method: We examined prenatal smoking exposure and low birth weight as risk factors for…

  4. Long-term behavioral consequences of prenatal MDMA exposure.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Valerie B; Heiman, Justin; Chambers, James B; Benoit, Stephen C; Buesing, William R; Norman, Mantana K; Norman, Andrew B; Lipton, Jack W

    2009-03-23

    The current study sought to determine whether prenatal 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) exposure from E14-20 in the rat resulted in behavioral sequelae in adult offspring. Prenatal MDMA exposure results in increased dopaminergic fiber density in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and nucleus accumbens of young rats. Since these areas are critical in response to novelty, reward, attention and locomotor activity, we hypothesized that prenatal MDMA exposure would produce significant changes in the performance of tasks that examine such behaviors in adult rats. Adult rats prenatally exposed to MDMA exhibited greater activity and spent more time in the center during a novel open field test as compared to controls. This increased activity was not reflected in normal home cage activity. Prenatal exposure to MDMA did not affect feeding or food reward. It did not alter cocaine self-administration behaviors, nor did it have an effect on the locomotor response to amphetamine challenge. Finally, while prenatal MDMA did not affect performance in the radial arm maze or the Morris water maze (MWM), these animals demonstrated altered performance in a cued MWM paradigm. Prenatal MDMA exposure resulted in perseverative attendance to a hanging cue when the platform in the MWM was removed as compared to controls. Together, these data demonstrate that prenatal exposure to MDMA results in a behavioral phenotype in adult rats characterized by reduced anxiety, a heightened response to novelty, and "hyperattentiveness" to environmental cues during spatial learning. PMID:19162054

  5. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Infant Information Processing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A total of 403 black, inner-city infants born to women recruited prenatally on basis of their alcohol consumption during pregnancy were assessed on a battery of tests focusing on information processing and complexity of play. Increased prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with longer fixation duration, a result indicative of less efficient…

  6. Prenatal Care: A Content-Based ESL Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassel, Elissa Anne

    A content-based curriculum in English as a Second Language (ESL) focusing on prenatal self-care is presented. The course was designed as a solution to the problem of inadequate prenatal care for limited-English-proficient Mexican immigrant women. The first three sections offer background information on and discussion of (1) content-based ESL…

  7. Prenatally detected ureteropelvic junction obstruction: clinical features and associated urologic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Karnak, Ibrahim; Woo, Lynn L; Shah, Shetal N; Sirajuddin, Arlene; Kay, Robert; Ross, Jonathan H

    2008-04-01

    Urologic congenital anomalies associated with ureteropelvic obstruction (UPJO) have been previously characterized; however, less data are available regarding these associations in a prenatally diagnosed population. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate significant clinical features and urological anomalies associated with prenatally diagnosed UPJO. The records of 143 children with prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis secondary to UPJO were retrospectively reviewed. The gender, side of obstruction, degree of hydronephrosis, associated clinical features, and urological anomalies were noted. Hundred and forty-three children (M/F = 2.7) with a total of 198 affected renal units (RU) presenting with unilateral (61%) or bilateral (39%) UPJO were enrolled. In cases of unilateral obstruction, the left side was affected in 60 children (68%). The grade of hydronephrosis was Grade 1 in 56 RU (28%), Grade 2 in 51 RU (26%), Grade 3 in 50 RU (25%) and Grade 4 in 41 RU (21%). Associated clinical features included prematurity (n = 7, 4.9%), twinning (n = 5, 3.5%) and presentation with renal failure (RF) (n = 2). Excluding contralateral UPJO, other urologic anomalies were encountered in 29 patients (20.3%). Associated vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was encountered in 11 patients (7.7%, M/F = 2.7). Pyeloplasty was required more often in children with associated VUR (54.5 vs. 18.2%) (P = 0.01). Contralateral multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) was encountered in six patients (M/F = 2), one of whom presented with RF. One child carried the diagnosis of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS), demonstrating severe developmental and neurological disorders and bilateral hydronephrosis. The more frequent occurrence of UPJO in males with predominantly left-sided location, association with VUR and MCDK, and increased frequency of bilaterality in our prenatally diagnosed patients were similar to historical reports. In addition, prematurity and twinning were independently associated with UPJO

  8. Prenatal exposure to fenugreek impairs sensorimotor development and the operation of spinal cord networks in mice.

    PubMed

    Khalki, Loubna; Ba M'hamed, Saadia; Sokar, Zahra; Bennis, Mohamed; Vinay, Laurent; Bras, Hélène; Viemari, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    Fenugreek is a medicinal plant whose seeds are widely used in traditional medicine, mainly for its laxative, galactagogue and antidiabetic effects. However, consumption of fenugreek seeds during pregnancy has been associated with a range of congenital malformations, including hydrocephalus, anencephaly and spina bifida in humans. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prenatal treatment of fenugreek seeds on the development of sensorimotor functions from birth to young adults. Pregnant mice were treated by gavage with 1 g/kg/day of lyophilized fenugreek seeds aqueous extract (FSAE) or distilled water during the gestational period. Behavioral tests revealed in prenatally treated mice a significant delay in righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis responses and the swimming development. In addition, extracellular recording of motor output in spinal cord isolated from neonatal mice showed that the frequency of spontaneous activity and fictive locomotion was reduced in FSAE-exposed mice. On the other hand, the cross-correlation coefficient in control mice was significantly more negative than in treated animals indicating that alternating patterns are deteriorated in FSAE-treated animals. At advanced age, prenatally treated mice displayed altered locomotor coordination in the rotarod test and also changes in static and dynamic parameters assessed by the CatWalk automated gait analysis system. We conclude that FSAE impairs sensorimotor and coordination functions not only in neonates but also in adult mice. Moreover, spinal neuronal networks are less excitable in prenatally FSAE-exposed mice suggesting that modifications within the central nervous system are responsible, at least in part, for the motor impairments. PMID:24224030

  9. DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID PARTIALLY AMELIORATES DEFICITS IN SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND ULTRASONIC VOCALIZATIONS CAUSED BY PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Wellmann, Kristen A.; George, Finney; Brnouti, Fares; Mooney, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts social behavior in humans and rodents. One system particularly important for social behavior is the somatosensory system. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the structure and function of this area. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is necessary for normal brain development and brains from ethanol-exposed animals are DHA deficient. Thus, we determined whether postnatal DHA supplementation ameliorated behavioral deficits induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Timed pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of three groups: ad libitum access to an ethanol-containing liquid diet, pair fed an isocaloric isonutritive non-alcohol liquid diet, or ad libitum access to chow and water. Pups were assigned to one of two postnatal treatment groups; gavaged intragastrically once per day between postnatal day (P)11 and P20 with DHA (10 g/kg in artificial rat milk) or artificial rat milk. A third group was left untreated. Isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (iUSVs) were recorded on P14. Social behavior and play-induced USVs were tested on P28 or P42. Somatosensory performance was tested with a gap crossing test around P33 or on P42. Anxiety was tested on elevated plus maze around P35. Animals exposed to ethanol prenatally vocalized less, play fought less, and crossed a significantly shorter gap than control-treated animals. Administration of DHA ameliorated these ethanol-induced deficits such that the ethanol-exposed animals given DHA were no longer significantly different to control-treated animals. Thus, DHA administration may have therapeutic value to reverse some of ethanol’s damaging effects. PMID:25746516

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid partially ameliorates deficits in social behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations caused by prenatal ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Kristen A; George, Finney; Brnouti, Fares; Mooney, Sandra M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts social behavior in humans and rodents. One system particularly important for social behavior is the somatosensory system. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the structure and function of this area. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is necessary for normal brain development and brains from ethanol-exposed animals are DHA deficient. Thus, we determined whether postnatal DHA supplementation ameliorated behavioral deficits induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Timed pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of three groups: ad libitum access to an ethanol-containing liquid diet, pair fed an isocaloric isonutritive non-alcohol liquid diet, or ad libitum access to chow and water. Pups were assigned to one of two postnatal treatment groups; gavaged intragastrically once per day between postnatal day (P)11 and P20 with DHA (10g/kg in artificial rat milk) or artificial rat milk. A third group was left untreated. Isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (iUSVs) were recorded on P14. Social behavior and play-induced USVs were tested on P28 or P42. Somatosensory performance was tested with a gap crossing test around P33 or on P42. Anxiety was tested on elevated plus maze around P35. Animals exposed to ethanol prenatally vocalized less, play fought less, and crossed a significantly shorter gap than control-treated animals. Administration of DHA ameliorated these ethanol-induced deficits such that the ethanol-exposed animals given DHA were no longer significantly different to control-treated animals. Thus, DHA administration may have therapeutic value to reverse some of ethanol's damaging effects. PMID:25746516

  11. Maternal Prenatal Positive Affect, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Birth Outcomes: The PREDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuusinen, Tiina; Tuovinen, Soile; Villa, Pia; Hämäläinen, Esa; Laivuori, Hannele; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether maternal prenatal emotions are associated with gestational length and birth weight in the large PREDO Study with multiple measurement points of emotions during gestation. Methods Altogether 3376 pregnant women self-assessed their positive affect (PA, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) and anxiety (Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, STAI) symptoms up to 14 times during gestation. Birth characteristics were derived from the National Birth Register and from medical records. Results One standard deviation (SD) unit higher PA during the third pregnancy trimester was associated with a 0.05 SD unit longer gestational length, whereas one SD unit higher CES-D and STAI scores during the third trimester were associated with 0.04–0.05 SD unit shorter gestational lengths (P-values ≤ 0.02), corresponding to only 0.1–0.2% of the variation in gestational length. Higher PA during the third trimester was associated with a significantly decreased risk for preterm (< 37 weeks) delivery (for each SD unit higher positive affect, odds ratio was 0.8-fold (P = 0.02). Mothers with preterm delivery showed a decline in PA and an increase in CES-D and STAI during eight weeks prior to delivery. Post-term birth (≥ 42 weeks), birth weight and fetal growth were not associated with maternal prenatal emotions. Conclusions This study with 14 measurements of maternal emotions during pregnancy show modest effects of prenatal emotions during the third pregnancy trimester, particularly in the weeks close to delivery, on gestational length. From the clinical perspective, the effects were negligible. No associations were detected between prenatal emotions and birth weight. PMID:26919119

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of osteochondrodysplasias in high risk pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gordienko IYu; Grechanina EYa; Sopko, N I; Tarapurova, E N; Mikchailets, L P

    1996-05-01

    We collected data on 39 prenatally diagnosed osteochondrodysplasias. We detected 30 (76.9%) cases in the first and second trimesters, including 18 (46.2%) with two twins before the 24th week of gestation. Of 39 cases 11 (28.2%) had osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II. Verification of the prenatal diagnosis was attempted in 26 cases on the basis of the data obtained from ultrasonographs, radiographs, external examination, and autopsy protocols. The prenatal diagnosis was confirmed in 19 (73%) fetuses. In 13 cases verification was not possible because one or several investigations could not be performed. Counselling followed all identified cases with osteochondrodysplasia. We present the pedigree of two families indicating the possibility of early prenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type I and metatropic dysplasia. We propose indications for ultrasonographic anatomical screening with subsequent phenotype analysis in high risk pregnancy to provide for the prenatal detection of malformations and hereditary diseases. PMID:8723093

  13. Prenatal Imaging of the Gastrointestinal Tract with Postnatal Imaging Correlation.

    PubMed

    Blask, Anna Nussbaum; Fagen, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal detection of a wide variety of anomalies and masses of the gastrointestinal tract is now possible. Prenatal imaging with ultrasonography and in selected cases magnetic resonance imaging provides invaluable information to the referring obstetrician, the maternal fetal medicine specialist, the neonatologist and pediatrician who will care for the child after birth, the surgeons and pediatric specialists who will repair or manage a prenatally detected anomaly, and of course to the parents, allowing them to prepare psychologically and financially for the specific interventions that may be needed for their child. Additional screening for associated anomalies can take place, route of delivery can be decided, and arrangements for delivery in an appropriate setting can be made. Prenatal detection also allows for consideration for pregnancy termination. This article will give a broad overview of anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract that can be detected prenatally and their imaging appearance postnatally. PMID:26086457

  14. Sociodemographic factors and the quality of prenatal care.

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, M J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, maternal sociodemographic factors are examined in relationship to the quality of prenatal health services US women receive. METHODS: Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey and 1980 Fetal Mortality Survey were used for the analysis. Indicator variables for prenatal care quality are the percentages of prenatal visits at which blood pressure and urine were tested, the performance of hemoglobin or hematocrit tests, and the presence or absence of advice regarding salt restriction and diuretics usage during pregnancy. RESULTS: Distribution of the basic examinations in prenatal care vary according to marital status, parity, education, and residence in a metropolitan or nonmetropolitan county. The advice received concerning salt and diuretics usage was also influenced by sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses reveal that prenatal care is not of even minimally acceptable quality for many women. PMID:1953875

  15. Social Behavior of Offspring Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in Rodents: A Comparison with Prenatal Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Sobrian, Sonya K.; Holson, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently complex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking, and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms, and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation. PMID:22144967

  16. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, S D

    1999-01-01

    Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appears to be lifelong immunosuppression in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure may predispose the organism to postnatal autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant (i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity. PMID:10502532

  17. Empowering Women's Prenatal Communication: Does Literacy Matter?

    PubMed

    Roter, Debra L; Erby, Lori H; Rimal, Rajiv N; Smith, Katherine C; Larson, Susan; Bennett, Ian M; Cole, Katie Washington; Guan, Yue; Molloy, Matthew; Bienstock, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of an interactive computer program developed to empower prenatal communication among women with restricted literacy skills. A total of 83 women seeing 17 clinicians were randomized to a computer-based communication activation intervention (Healthy Babies Healthy Moms [HBHM]) or prenatal education (Baby Basics [BB]) prior to their prenatal visit. Visit communication was coded with the Roter Interaction Analysis System, and postvisit satisfaction was reported. Participants were on average 24 years of age and 25 weeks pregnant; 80% were African American. Two thirds scored ≤8th grade on a literacy screener. Women with literacy deficits were more verbally active, disclosed more medical and psychosocial/lifestyle information, and were rated as more dominant by coders in the HBHM group relative to their counterparts in the BB group (all ps < .05). Clinicians were less verbally dominant and more patient centered with literate HBHM relative to BB group women (p < .05); there was a similar, nonsignificant trend (p < .1) for lower literate women. Clinicians communicated less medical information and made fewer reassurance statements to lower literate women in the HBHM relative to the BB group (p < .05). There was a trend toward lower visit satisfaction for women with restricted literacy in the HBHM relative to the BB group (p < .1); no difference in satisfaction was evident for more literate women. The HBHM intervention empowered communication of all women and facilitated verbal engagement and relevant disclosure of medical and psychosocial information of women with literacy deficits. Satisfaction, however, tended to be lower for these women. PMID:26513032

  18. Causes and outcome of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzadeh, Ali; Tahmasebi, Morteza; Gharibvand, Mohammad Momen

    2009-03-01

    Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S). Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or non-obstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males) newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD) in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm), moderate (10-14.9 mm) and severe (> or =15 mm) hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO). Twenty two cases (32.8%) had mild, 20 (29.9%) had moderate, and 25 (37.3%) had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydroneph-rosis were VUR (40.2%), UPJO (32.8%), posterior urethral valves (PUVs) (13.4 %), and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %). The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2%) infants. Totally, 33 (49.2%) patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe) subsequently developed com-plications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4%) patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydro-nephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19237812

  19. Culturally sensitive prenatal care for Southeast Asians.

    PubMed

    Mattson, S; Lew, L

    1992-01-01

    The outreach program for Southeast Asian immigrants, chiefly Cambodians who arrived after 1980, begun by St. Mary Medical CEnter of Long Beach California, called the Southeast Asian Health Project (SEAHP) was evaluated by structured interviews of 199 women. The obstacles to full participation by these Asian immigrants in health care are described at length. They range from illiteracy and abuse in refugee camps to the immense cultural barrier involving philosophy of health to language barriers. The SEAHP Outreach services began with door-to-door canvassing, ads in refugee papers, and meetings in temples. Special educational resource materials were printed covering prenatal care, nutrition, child development, and feeding. Oral classes were held in CAmbodian and Lao with Vietnamese translators, as well as babysitters, transportation, and snacks. Class topics were nutrition, parenting skills, labor and delivery, child development, hygiene, and breast feeding. Training was also given to professional staff. 600 clients in prenatal clinics since 1987, 119 were interviewed by 4 workers fluent in Cambodian and Lao. The women were typical of refugees, only 1/2 were literate in native languages. 49% had delivered babies at home in Asia; 39% had delivered in refugee camp clinics. Women cited several different behaviors as a result of SEAHP classes: intake of milk products, use of food substitutes, food preparation, attendance at regular medical care, child care, and bathing. They said that they felt more comfortable at the clinic, and would recommend that friends go to the clinic for prenatal care. The concept of culture broker, and the role of nurses as culture brokers are discussed. PMID:1564588

  20. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of congenital varicella syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tongsong, Theera; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Traisrisilp, Kuntharee

    2012-01-01

    Congenital varicella syndrome is a rare disorder occurring in less than 1% of maternal varicella during early pregnancy but is associated with high fetal morbidity and mortality. This case report aimed to describe the sonographic features of congenital varicella syndrome following maternal varicella. Well-documented maternal chicken pox was made at 12 weeks of gestation and prenatal ultrasound was performed at 16 weeks. Striking sonographic features included hydropic changes and disseminated calcifications in multiple organs, especially liver and myocardium. Elective termination of pregnancy was done at 17 weeks. The presence of disseminated calcifications could suggest the diagnosis of congenital varicella syndrome. PMID:22323269

  1. Intrauterine Temporomandibular Joint Dislocation: Prenatal Sonographic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Çil, Ahmet Said; Bozkurt, Murat; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara

    2014-01-01

    Congenital temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases are very rare disorders and are usually diagnosed in childhood. Developmental disorders of the TMJ such as hypoplasia, hyperplasia, and aplasia of the TMJ compartments are characterized by TMJ dysfunction. In childhood, these patients experience recurrent dislocation, pain, and malocclusion. We present the case of a 25-week fetus with unilateral TMJ dislocation with fluid retention in the joint diagnosed by ultrasonography. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of TMJ dislocation diagnosed by ultrasonographic evaluation during the prenatal period. PMID:23669613

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of dicephalic parapagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Camuzcuoglu, Hakan; Toy, Harun; Vural, Mehmet; Cece, Hasan; Aydin, Halef

    2010-03-01

    Dicephalic parapagus is a rare anomaly of monochorionic twinning. We present prenatal diagnosis of this anomaly with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. She was at the 19th week of gestation. Even if earlier diagnosis is possible, this was her first examination unfortunately. Baby had two head and a common trunk. This is one of the rarest twinning. Termination of pregnancy is performed and baby is delivered by cesarean section. Imaging findings of the case are illustrated and discussed with the autopsy findings. PMID:19714344

  3. Prenatal choline and the development of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    FREEDMAN, Robert; ROSS, Randal G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The primary prevention of illness at the population level, the ultimate aim of medicine, seems out of reach for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia has a strong genetic component, and its pathogenesis begins long before the emergence of psychosis, as early as fetal brain development. Cholinergic neurotransmission at nicotinic receptors is a pathophysiological mechanism related to one aspect of this genetic risk. Choline activates these nicotinic receptors during fetal brain development. Dietary supplementation of maternal choline thus emerges as a possible intervention in pregnancy to alter the earliest developmental course of the illness. Aim Review available literature on the relationship of choline supplementation or choline levels during pregnancy and fetal brain development. Methods A Medline search was used to identify studies assessing effects of choline in human fetal development. Studies of other prenatal risk factors for schizophrenia and the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in its pathophysiology were also identified. Results Dietary requirements for choline are high during pregnancy because of its several uses, including membrane biosynthesis, one-carbon metabolism, and cholinergic neurotransmission. Its ability to act directly at high concentrations as a nicotinic agonist is critical for normal brain circuit development. Dietary supplementation in the second and third trimesters with phosphatidyl-choline supports these functions and is associated generally with better fetal outcome. Improvement in inhibitory neuronal functions whose deficit is associated with schizophrenia and attention deficit disorder has been observed. Conclusion Prenatal dietary supplementation with phosphatidyl-choline and promotion of diets rich in choline-containing foods (meats, soybeans, and eggs) are possible interventions to promote fetal brain development and thereby decrease the risk of subsequent mental illnesses. The low risk and short (sixmonth) duration of the

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of ductus arteriosus aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, S; Hutchinson, D P; Sampson, A J

    2015-11-01

    The ductus arteriosus holds major functional importance within the fetal circulation, and anomalies within the ductus arteriosus may interfere with the integrity of the fetal circulation. Ductus arteriosus aneurysm, previously considered a rare lesion, is now a well-reported finding in infancy with some reports describing this finding in the prenatal period. Postnatally, most ductus arteriosus aneurysms resolve spontaneously; however, a small group of infants show complications such as connective-tissue disorders, thrombo-embolism, compression of surrounding thoracic structures and life-threatening spontaneous rupture requiring surgical correction. As such, postnatal assessment in this group is recommended. PMID:27433265

  5. Intrauterine temporomandibular joint dislocation: prenatal sonographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Çil, Ahmet Said; Bozkurt, Murat; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara

    2014-09-01

    Congenital temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases are very rare disorders and are usually diagnosed in childhood. Developmental disorders of the TMJ such as hypoplasia, hyperplasia, and aplasia of the TMJ compartments are characterized by TMJ dysfunction. In childhood, these patients experience recurrent dislocation, pain, and malocclusion. We present the case of a 25-week fetus with unilateral TMJ dislocation with fluid retention in the joint diagnosed by ultrasonography. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of TMJ dislocation diagnosed by ultrasonographic evaluation during the prenatal period. PMID:23669613

  6. 14 CFR 171.327 - Operational records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... representative must revise the FAA Form 198 data after any major repair, modernization, or retuning to reflect an... parameters as specified in the manufacturer's equipment manual. This data will be recorded on each...

  7. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

  8. Prenatal Stress Enhances Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Impairs Long-Term Potentiation in the Frontal Cortex of Adult Offspring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sowa, Joanna; Bobula, Bartosz; Glombik, Katarzyna; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Hess, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The effects of prenatal stress procedure were investigated in 3 months old male rats. Prenatally stressed rats showed depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, including increased immobility, decreased mobility and decreased climbing. In ex vivo frontal cortex slices originating from prenatally stressed animals, the amplitude of extracellular field potentials (FPs) recorded in cortical layer II/III was larger, and the mean amplitude ratio of pharmacologically-isolated NMDA to the AMPA/kainate component of the field potential—smaller than in control preparations. Prenatal stress also resulted in a reduced magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP). These effects were accompanied by an increase in the mean frequency, but not the mean amplitude, of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. These data demonstrate that stress during pregnancy may lead not only to behavioral disturbances, but also impairs the glutamatergic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity in the frontal cortex of the adult offspring. PMID:25749097

  9. Efficacy of a Prenatal Oral Health Program Follow-up with Mothers and their Children.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Charles D; Larsen, Michael D; Ambrose, Terri; Degano, Robert; Gallo, Leonard; Cardo, Vito A

    2016-04-01

    Brookdale Hospital and Medical Center's Prenatal Care Assistance Program (PCAP) provides oral health education and treatment to expectant mothers from a minority, impoverished, high-risk population. A chart review examined dental records for 42 children of mothers who took PCAP training versus 49 children of mothers who did not. At age 2, the children of PCAP mothers had fewer dental caries, less severe dental caries and fewer extractions. When combining children at ages 2 and 3, results were statistically significant and clinically important. Evidence strongly suggests the PCAP program can lead to vastly improved oral health of participants' young children. PMID:27348946

  10. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 to ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV-519

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-25

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' DOE/NV--519.

  11. Grounded spatial belief revision.

    PubMed

    Nejasmic, Jelica; Bucher, Leandra; Knauff, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Beliefs frequently undergo revisions, especially when new pieces of information are true but inconsistent with current beliefs. In previous studies, we showed that linguistic asymmetries provided by relational statements, play a crucial role in spatial belief revision. Located objects (LO) are preferably revised compared to reference objects (RO), known as the LO-principle. Here we establish a connection between spatial belief revision and grounded cognition. In three experiments, we explored whether imagined physical object properties influence which object is relocated and which remains at its initial position. Participants mentally revised beliefs about the arrangements of objects which could be envisaged as light and heavy (Experiment 1), small and large (Experiment 2), or movable and immovable (Experiment 3). The results show that intrinsic object properties are differently taken into account during spatial belief revision. Object weight did not alter the LO-principle (Experiment 1), whereas object size was found to influence which object was preferably relocated (Experiment 2). Object movability did not affect relocation preferences but had an effect on relocation durations (Experiment 3). The findings support the simulation hypothesis within the grounded cognition approach and create new connections between the spatial mental model theory of reasoning and the idea of grounded cognition. PMID:25796056

  12. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life. PMID:22605683

  13. Neuroimaging of Children Following Prenatal Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Derauf, Chris; Kekatpure, Minal; Neyzi, Nurunisa; Lester, Barry; Kosofsky, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in MR-based brain imaging methods have provided unprecedented capabilities to visualize the brain. Application of these methods has allowed identification of brain structures and patterns of functional activation altered in offspring of mothers who used licit (e.g., alcohol and tobacco) and illicit (e.g., cocaine, methamphetamine, and marijuana) drugs during pregnancy. Here we review that literature, which though somewhat limited by the complexities of separating the specific effects of each drug from other confounding variables, points to sets of interconnected brain structures as being altered following prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. In particular, dopamine-rich cortical (e.g., frontal cortex) and subcortical (e.g., basal ganglia) fetal brain structures show evidence of vulnerability to intrauterine drug exposure suggesting that during brain development drugs of abuse share a specific profile of developmental neurotoxicity. Such brain malformations may shed light on mechanisms underlying prenatal drug-induced brain injury, may serve as bio-markers of significant intrauterine drug exposure, and may additionally be predictors of subsequent neuro-developmental compromise. Wider clinical use of these research-based non-invasive methods will allow for improved diagnosis and allocation of therapeutic resources for affected infants, children, and young adults. PMID:19560049

  14. Genomic futures of prenatal screening: ethical reflection.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, W J; Page-Christiaens, G C M L; de Wert, G M W R

    2016-05-01

    The practice of prenatal screening is undergoing important changes as a result of the introduction of genomic testing technologies at different stages of the screening trajectory. It is expected that eventually it will become possible to routinely obtain a comprehensive 'genome scan' of all fetuses. Although this will still take several years, there are clear continuities between present developments and this future scenario. As this review shows, behind the still limited scope of screening for common aneuploidies, a rapid widening of the range of conditions tested for is already taking shape at the invasive testing stage. But the continuities are not just technical; they are also ethical. If screening for Down's syndrome is a matter of providing autonomous reproductive choice, then why would providing the choice to have a full fetal genome scan be something entirely different? There is a clear need for a sustainable normative framework that will have to answer three challenges: the indeterminateness of the autonomy paradigm, the need to acknowledge the future child as an interested stakeholder, and the prospect of broad-scope genomic prenatal screening with a double purpose: autonomy and prevention. PMID:26178686

  15. Noninvasive Prenatal Measurement of the Fetal Genome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H. Christina; Gu, Wei; Wang, Jianbin; Blumenfeld, Yair J.; El-Sayed, Yasser Y.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of prenatal genetic testing requires invasive sampling. Since this poses a risk to the fetus, one must make a decision that weighs the desire for genetic information against the risk of an adverse outcome due to hazards of the testing process. These issues are not required to be coupled, and it would be desirable to discover genetic information about the fetus without incurring a health risk. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to noninvasively sequence the entire prenatal genome. Our results show that molecular counting of parental haplotypes in maternal plasma by shotgun sequencing of maternal plasma DNA allows the inherited fetal genome to be deciphered noninvasively. We also applied the counting principle directly to each allele in the fetal exome by performing exome capture on maternal plasma DNA prior to shotgun sequencing. This approach enables noninvasive exome screening of clinically relevant and deleterious alleles that were paternally inherited or had arisen as de novo germline mutations, and complements the haplotype counting approach to provide a comprehensive view of the fetal genome. Noninvasive determination of the fetal genome may ultimately facilitate the diagnosis of all inherited and de novo genetic disease. PMID:22763444

  16. Environmental noise and human prenatal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    To determine whether chronic exposure to relatively loud noise has demonstrable biological effects in humans, a study was conducted on the effect of mother's exposure to airport noise while pregnant, and of social and biological characteristics of the family upon birthweight and gestation length. The sample of births was drawn from a community located adjacent to an international airport in the U.S., where noise levels had been measured previously. Mother's noise exposure was based upon noise levels near her residence in the community while she was pregnant. Data from 115 births were used, these being from mothers whose noise exposure history was most complete throughout the pregnancy. Using multivariate analysis to correct for family characteristics, the partial correlation coefficient for noise exposure and gestation length was negative, large, and significant in girls (r . -0.49, p less than 0.001). In boys the partial correlation coefficient was also negative but was smaller and did not quite reach statistical significance. Partial correlations with birthweight were smaller in both boys and girls and not significant. These results agree best with previous studies that suggest that noise may reduce prenatal growth. The size of the observed effects may be related to a conservative research design biased towards underestimation, as well as to the real effects of noise upon human prenatal growth.

  17. PRENATAL TCDD IN MICE INCREASES ADULT AUTOIMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, Steven D.; Gogal, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Two immunologically-different mouse strains, C57BL/6 and SNF1, were exposed to a mid-gestation dose of TCDD. The C57BL/6 mouse has a high-affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and is sensitive to TCDD. The SNF1 mouse has a low-affinity AhR but spontaneously develops autoimmune nephritis. Autoreactive Vβ+CD4+17a and Vβ+CD3+ T cells were increased at 24-weeks-of-age in offspring of C57BL/6 mice, more so in females than males. The cytokine IFN-γ was elevated in the females, while IL-10 was elevated in males. Phenotypic changes in B-lineage cells were present in bone marrow and spleen, and circulating autoantibodies were increased after prenatal TCDD. Kidneys of males showed significant anti-IgG and anti-C3 deposition, suggesting early-stage autoimmune disease. The SNF1 offspring similarly showed increased peripheral Vβ+ cells in the females, increased autoantibody production in both sexes, and increased IFN-γ production in females. Male SNF1 mice had increased anti-IgG and anti-C3 deposition in kidneys. Both mouse models therefore showed clear signatures of enhanced autoimmunity after prenatal TCDD. PMID:20728533

  18. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. PMID:26683339

  19. Exploring the Organizational Effect of Prenatal Testosterone Upon the Sporting Brain

    PubMed Central

    Golby, Jim; Meggs, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The 2D:4D ratio is a putative marker for prenatal testosterone and has the potential to explain variations in sport performance. To date there has been little research into the association between sporting performance, digit ratio and psychological variables. This study examined the relationship between 2D:4D and mental toughness, optimism, goal orientations, aggression, coping style and their association with sporting achievement. A post facto design was adopted. Participants consisted of an opportunity sample of 122 sports people: male (n =60) and female (n = 62) from a university in North East England. Following informed consent, a Vernier Caliper was used to measure digit ratio hand scans. Participants completed self-reports measures including, the Alternative Psychological Performance Inventory (Golby et al., 2008), Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire (Sheard et al., 2009), Life Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier et al., 1994), Buss-Perry aggression (Buss-Perry, 1992) and 30 item coping style questionnaire (Joseph et al., 1995). MANOVA revealed significant gender differences in 2D:4D with males demonstrating lower ratios (Manning, 2002). The 2D:4D was found to differentiate eleven of the seventeen measured variables, including mental toughness scores (p < 0.001) and varying levels of sporting achievement i.e. international/national, regional and school levels (p< 0.001). Specifically, this difference was significant when comparing the highest (international/national) and lowest (leisure/school) groups. Perhaps there is a threshold for prenatal testosterone’s influence upon sporting ability. Further research is necessary to examine the subtle differences between competitors involved in different achievement levels. It is proposed that high prenatal levels of testosterone may contribute to the development of increased mental toughness, optimism, ego/task goal orientations in individuals, and hence aptitude towards sport. Findings lend support for the tentative

  20. Effects of prenatal stress on maternal behavior in the rat.

    PubMed

    Patin, V; Lordi, B; Vincent, A; Thoumas, J L; Vaudry, H; Caston, J

    2002-11-15

    Some authors reported a link between maternal stress and disturbances in their infants. Because of difficulties due to human research, the effects of prenatal stress have to be examined in animal models. Our approach was original in that the stressor was an ecological one and was applied at a given gestational day. Indeed, the stressor was a cat and the effects of stress on maternal behavior were investigated in five groups of 10 female rats: two groups were composed of females which were acutely stressed either at the 10th or the 14th gestational day; two other groups were composed of females which were repeatedly stressed either at the 10th or the 14th gestational day; the fifth group comprised non-stressed females. Plasma corticosterone concentrations measured in blood samples collected from dams just after stress were significantly higher than in controls showing that cat represents an efficient stressor for rats. Maternal behavior was recorded during 30 min at the 2nd, 4th, and 6th postnatal days. In all cases, stressed dams' activities directly directed towards the pups (retrieving, sniffing and licking), those non-directly directed towards the pups (carrying its tail and digging the sawdust), and those directed towards themselves (eating, drinking and resting) were altered to different degrees. These alterations in maternal behavior can explain, at least in part, the mortality and the low growth rate observed in pups born from stressed dams. PMID:12414088

  1. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    PubMed Central

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  2. Factors Affecting Improved Prenatal Screening: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Arabi, Hoda; Salehi, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal screening deals with the detection of structural and functional abnormalities in the fetus. Health care providers can minimize unintended pregnancy outcomes by providing proper counseling and performing prenatal screening. The purpose of the present review study is to investigate factors affecting improved prenatal screening. Methods: The present study is a narrative review searching public databases such as Google Scholar and specialized databases such as Pubmed, Magiran, Scientific Information Database, Elsevier, Ovid and Science Direct as well. Using the keywords “prenatal screening”, “fetus health” and “prenatal counseling”, 70 relevant articles published from 1994 to 2014 were selected. After reviewing the abstracts, the full data from 26 articles were ultimately used for writing the present review study. Results: Three general themes emerged from reviewing the studies: health care providers’ skills, clients’ characteristics and ethical considerations, which were the main factors affecting improved prenatal screening. Conclusion: Prenatal screening can be successful if performed by a trained and experienced expert through techniques suitable for the mother’s age. Also simultaneously providing proper counseling and giving a full description of the risks and benefits of the procedures for clients is recommended. PMID:26652091

  3. Making the most of uncertainty: Treasuring exceptions in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    Throughout the 20th century, human genetics research was driven by the identification of new variants. As pioneering geneticist William Bateson put it, novel variants were "exceptions" to "treasure". With the rise of human chromosomal analysis in the postwar period, the identification of genetic variants became increasingly significant to clinical and prenatal diagnosis. Human geneticists had long sought a broader sampling of human genetic variation, from a largely "normal" population. The expansion of prenatal diagnosis in the late 20th century offered a new resource for identifying novel genetic variants. In the prenatal diagnostic setting however, many of the exceptions to be treasured were of uncertain clinical significance, which raised anxiety among parents. In the early 1990s, providers reported that specific uncertain results from chorionic villus sampling (CVS) facilitated prenatal diagnoses that were not previously possible. Based on this, some prenatal diagnostic providers began to embrace uncertainty, when properly managed to reduce anxiety, rather than prevent it. The potential to produce uncertainty in prenatal diagnosis grew with whole genome microarray in the 2000s. Rather than outcomes to avoid, or accept as inevitable, providers presented uncertain results as starting points for research to improve the scope prenatal diagnosis, and bring future certainty. PMID:27010571

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Phthalates and Infant Neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Yolton, Kimberly; Xu, Yingying; Strauss, Donna; Altaye, Mekibib; Calafat, Antonia M.; Khoury, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and select common phthalates with infant neurobehavior measured at 5 weeks. Methods We compared the concentration of maternal urinary metabolites of bisphenol A and phthalates at two distinct time points in pregnancy (16w, 26w) with scores on the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) at 5 weeks of age in a cohort of 350 mother/infant pairs. Results Prenatal exposure to BPA was not significantly associated with neurobehavioral outcomes at 5 weeks. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to measured phthalates and infant neurobehavioral outcomes differed by type of phthalate and were only seen with exposure measured at 26 weeks. Higher total di-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites at 26w was associated with improved behavioral organization evidenced by decreased arousal (p=.04), increased self-regulation (p=.052), and decreased handling (p=.02). In males, higher total di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites at 26w was associated with more nonoptimal reflexes (p=.02). Conclusion The association between prenatal phthalate exposure and infant neurobehavior differed by type of phthalate and was evident only with exposure measured at 26w. Prenatal exposure to DBP was associated with improved behavioral organization in 5-week-old infants. Prenatal exposure to DEHP was associated with nonoptimal reflexes in male infants. There was no evidence of an association between prenatal BPA exposure and infant neurobehavior. PMID:21854843

  5. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Arpita K; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30-90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells -c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess. PMID:27328820

  6. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Arpita K.; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30–90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells –c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess. PMID:27328820

  7. Prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis: contemporary practices in light of the past.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2016-06-01

    The 20th century eugenics movement in the USA and contemporary practices involving prenatal screening (PNS), prenatal diagnosis (PND), abortion and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) share important morally relevant similarities. I summarise some features of the 20th century eugenics movement; describe the contemporary standard of care in the USA regarding PNS, PND, abortion and PGD; and demonstrate that the 'old eugenics' the contemporary standard of care share the underlying view that social resources should be invested to prevent the birth of people with certain characteristics. This comparison makes evident the difficulty of crafting moral arguments that treat some uses of PNS, PND, abortion and PGD as licit and others as illicit. PMID:27161556

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital renal and urinary tract malformations.

    PubMed

    Hindryckx, A; De Catte, L

    2011-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and the urinary tract are the most common sonographically identified -malformations in the prenatal period. Obstructive uropathies account for the majority of cases. The aim of prenatal diagnosis and management is to detect those anomalies having impact on the prognosis of the affected child and -requiring early postnatal evaluation or treatment to minimize adverse outcomes. In this paper, we summarize the embryology of kidneys and urinary tract, the normal sonographic appearance through-out pregnancy and the prenatal diagnosis of their congenital malformations. PMID:24753862

  9. Recent advances in prenatal screening and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Bozzette, Maryann

    2002-11-01

    In any pregnancy, there is an approximate 3% to 5% chance that a fetal complication will occur. The most familiar prenatal diagnostics cannot be performed until the fetus is well into gestation, and most involve invasive procedures along with their inherent risks. In light of these facts, many noninvasive prenatal screening and diagnostic tests have been developed, the newest using recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology in the examination of fetal cells. Through these procedures, genetic coding errors and chromosomal disruptions may be detected. This article discusses the currently available prenatal and screening diagnostic tests for genetic disorders with a focus on the latest technology. PMID:12473913

  10. [Prenatal care in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Zetina, M; Richardson, V; Avila, H; Caraveo, V E; Salomón, R E; Bacardí, M; Jiménez-Cruz, A

    2000-02-01

    This study was intended to explore the conditions under which prenatal care is delivered in the border city of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, and to assess the possible associations between that care and neonatal results in terms of birthweight, health of the neonate, and prematurity. Seven hospitals serving persons from different socioeconomic strata were chosen, and between December 1993 and March 1994 interviews were conducted with 279 women who were in the first 24 to 48 hours of puerperium. During the interviews data were collected on socioeconomic level; the mothers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning obstetric health; the mothers' perceptions of access to prenatal care; the quality of prenatal care visits (evaluated in terms of having blood and urine tested and weight and blood pressure measured); and the gynecological and obstetric and health history of the mother. A database was created using the SPSS statistics software package. Possible associations were explored, with prenatal care as the independent variable and various dependent variables, by means of contingency tables and a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. None of the neonates was premature, ill, or had a birthweight of < or = 2,500 g. For this reason it was decided to divide the variable corresponding to birthweight into two groupings, < or = 3,000 g and > 3,000 g. A significant (P < 0.00038) relationship was found between a lack of prenatal care and low birthweight. In addition, a lack of prenatal care was associated with: low family income; the mother's financial dependence on the father; the mother being in an unmarried relationship; little communication with the partner; having no medical insurance; an unwanted pregnancy; and giving delivery at the General Hospital. Out of the total sample of 279 women, 15 (5.4%) had received no prenatal care. None of these 15 women reported they had encountered difficulties that prevented them from obtaining prenatal care, but only 7 of those

  11. Prenatal diagnsis of intracardiac hamartoma and Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gedikbasi, Ali; Oztarhan, Kazim; Yararbas, Kanay; Arslan, Oguz; Yildirim, Dogukan; Oztek, Ibrahim; Ceylan, Yavuz

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome is associated with a higher frequency of heart defects detected prenatally when compared to postnatal reports. The most common heart defects detected prenatally are hypoplastic left heart syndrome and coarctation of the aorta. We report a case involving a fetus at 16 gestational weeks with a septated cystic hygroma located on the neck and head, an interventricular septal mass, a hypoplastic left ventricle due to aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis, and a hypoplastic aortic arch with a karyotype of mos 45, X, [47 cells]/47, XXX [3 cells]. The autopsy findings confirmed our prenatal diagnosis with a final diagnosis of Turner syndrome and congenital cardiac vascular malformation. PMID:20704479

  12. Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group. PMID:22464118

  13. The Italian haemophilia B mutation database: a tool for genetic counselling, carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Tagariello, Giuseppe; Belvini, Donata; Salviato, Roberta; Di Gaetano, Rosanna; Zanotto, Daniela; Radossi, Paolo; Risato, Renzo; Sartori, Roberto; Tassinari, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Italian database of factor IX gene (F9) mutations has been built since 2001 and is, so far, the most practical instrument for comprehensive genetic counselling, carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. Over time the haemophilia B database has been enriched by entries on a larger number of patients and molecular genetic data identifying heterogeneous mutations spanning the entire F9. Methods Conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis is a variant of heteroduplex analysis, which has been applied for screening F9 for mutations, which are further fully characterised by direct sequencing of the amplified mutated regions. This project has involved 29 Italian haemophilia centres and provides data concerning the analysis of a cohort of 306 unrelated patients with haemophilia B (191 with severe, 67 with moderate and 48 with mild disease, including 8 patients with severe haemophilia B with inhibitors). The recorded data include levels of factor IX clotting activity, inhibitor status and clinical severity. Results Detailed analysis of the mutations revealed 164 different mutations, that are considered as unique molecular events (8 large deletions, 11 small deletions, 1 combined deletion/ insertion, 2 insertions, 104 missense, 20 nonsense, 14 mutations in a splicing site, 3 in the promoter and 1 silent). The data recorded in the Italian F9 mutation database provided the basis to study 85 families with haemophilia B, involving 180 females (20 obligate carriers, 106 carriers and 54 non-carriers) and enabled 14 prenatal diagnoses to be made in 12 females. Conclusions Genetic analysis is required to determine female carrier status reliably. Female relatives may request carrier analysis, when a male relative is first diagnosed as having haemophilia or when they are pregnant. At present, the data collected in the Italian national register of mutations in haemophilia B provide the opportunity to perform prompt and precise determination of carrier status and prenatal

  14. Effects and consequences of prenatal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vos, O

    1989-06-01

    After a brief introduction about the historic development of risk estimates and maximum permissible doses of ionizing radiation, the risks of prenatal irradiation are discussed. Experimental data mainly obtained with mice indicate that the most important risk exists during the period of organogenesis and concerns the induction of malformations. Although in man this period lies between about 10 and 80 days after fertilization for most organs, the main development of the brain occurs later, namely between the 8th and 15th week after conception. Data from Japanese victims of the atomic bomb explosions above Hiroshima and Nagasaki indicate that during development the brain is the most sensitive organ to irradiation and maximal sensitivity is found between the 8th and 15th week after fertilization. A dose of one Gray received during this period induces a severe mental retardation in about 45% of the newborns. The dose response relationship is not significantly different from a linear one without a threshold dose. Studies of intelligence and school performance have shown that 1 Gray received during the 8th-15th week causes a shift of the average intelligence of about 30 points. Irradiation before the 8th week and after the 25th week had no effect on intelligence or mental retardation. During the 16th and 25th week sensitivity was about one fourth of that during the 8th-15th week. Although the irradiation of the embryo and fetus should be avoided as much as possible, the new data have led to an abandonment of the so-called 10-day rule. Generally an accidental irradiation of the embryo or fetus of less than 5 cGy is not considered as a medical indication for abortion. Retrospective studies showed that mothers from children who died from leukemia or other childhood tumors, had been subjected to a diagnostic irradiation of the pelvis or lower abdomen more frequently than mothers from children that did not develop a tumor. It has been estimated that prenatal sensitivity for

  15. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital mesoblastic nephroma.

    PubMed

    Do, A Young; Kim, Jung-Sun; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Congenital mesoblastic nephroma is a rare renal tumor that is diagnosed during pregnancy and is associated with polyhydramnios, prematurity, and neonatal hypertension. Differential diagnoses include Wilms tumor, adrenal neuroblastoma, and other abdominal tumors. We report a case of congenital mesoblastic nephroma detected by prenatal ultrasonography as a large fetal renal mass with polyhydramnios at 32 weeks of gestation. Ultrasonography showed a 6×6-cm complex, solid, hyperechoic, round mass in the right kidney. At 35 weeks of gestation, the patient was admitted with preterm premature rupture of membranes and the baby was delivered vaginally. Postnatal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a heterogeneous solid mass on the right kidney. At the end of the first week of life, a right nephrectomy was performed and subsequent pathological examination confirmed a cellular variant of congenital mesoblastic nephroma with a high mitotic count. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was administered. The newborn was discharged in good condition. PMID:26430667

  17. Mosaicism and uniparental disomy in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Eggermann, Thomas; Soellner, Lukas; Buiting, Karin; Kotzot, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    Chromosomal mosaicism is the presence of numerous cell lines with different chromosomal complements in the same individual. Uniparental disomy (UPD) is the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from the same parent. These genetic anomalies arise from errors in meiosis and/or mitosis and can occur independently or in combination. Due to the formation mechanisms of UPD, low-level or undetected mosaicisms are assumed for a significant number of UPD cases. The pre- and postnatal clinical consequences of mosaicism for chromosomal aberrations and/or UPD depend on the gene content of the involved chromosome. In prenatal evaluation of chromosomal mosaicism and UPD, genetic counseling should be offered before any laboratory testing. PMID:25547535

  18. Prenatal development in fishers (Martes pennanti)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, H.C.; Krohn, W.B.; Bezembluk, E.A.; Lott, R.; Wallace, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and quantified prenatal growth of fishers (Martes pennanti) using ultrasonography. Seven females gave birth to 21 kits. The first identifiable embryonic structures were seen 42 d prepartum; these appeared to be unimplanted blastocysts or gestational sacs, which subsequently implanted in the uterine horns. Maternal and fetal heart rates were monitored from first detection to birth. Maternal heart rates did not differ among sampling periods, while fetal hearts rates increased from first detection to birth. Head and body differentiation, visible limbs and skeletal ossification were visible by 30, 23 and 21 d prepartum, respectively. Mean diameter of gestational sacs and crown-rump lengths were linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001). Biparietal and body diameters were also linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001) and correctly predicted parturition dates within 1-2 d. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  20. The role of FISH in prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kulch, P.; Crandall, B.F.; Hsi, C.

    1994-09-01

    FISH provides a cytogenetic technique which is useful in defining de novo translocations, deletions, insertions, and marker chromosomes in prenatal diagnosis. While the cytogenetic interpretation may be improved with FISH, it may not resolve questions concerning prognosis and options which are genetic counseling issues. Two recent cases illustrate this. Case 1 involved a 45,X/46,X,+mar karyotype from amniocentesis. 22/50 cells had 46,X/46,X+mar; 28/50 cells had 45,X. The marker was smaller than a G. C banding did not confirm this as a Y. The father`s peripheral blood study was normal and his Y did not resemble the marker. It appeared likely that the marker was a structurally abnormal Y since male external genitalia were detected by fetal ultrasound. FISH using alpha- and classical (DYZ1/DYZ3) satellite Y-specific probes did not identify the marker as a Y. Case 2 was a fetus which had a de novo translocation 46,XX,t(3;11)(q26.3;q21) by amniocentesis and confirmed by UBS. FISH for the number 3 and 11 chromosomes confirmed this rearrangement. The parents were advised of the risk associated with a de novo balanced translocation. The possible prognosis for these two different fetuses was not changed by the FISH analysis. FISH, while helpful, is only one aspect of the studies done to provide more accurate genetic counseling to parents; the pregnancy/family history, fetal ultrasound, other possible prenatal studies and pregnancy outcome from perspective studies compose other important aspects that are not mutually exclusive.

  1. Prenatal drug exposure: infant and toddler outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bandstra, Emmalee S; Morrow, Connie E; Mansoor, Elana; Accornero, Veronica H

    2010-04-01

    This manuscript provides an overview of the current scientific literature on the impact of maternal drug use, specifically opioids and cocaine, during pregnancy on the acute and long-term outcomes of infants and toddlers from birth through age 3 years. Emphasis with regard to opioids is placed on heroin and opioid substitutes used to treat opioid addiction, including methadone, which has long been regarded as the standard of care in pregnancy, and buprenorphine, which is increasingly being investigated and prescribed as an alternative to methadone. Controlled studies comparing methadone at high and low doses, as well as those comparing methadone with buprenorphine, are highlighted and the diagnosis and management of neonatal abstinence syndrome is discussed. Over the past two decades, attention of the scientific and lay communities has also been focused on the potential adverse effects of cocaine and crack cocaine, especially during the height of the cocaine epidemic in the United States. Herein, the findings are summarized from prospective studies comparing cocaine-exposed with non-cocaine-exposed infants and toddlers with respect to anthropometric growth, infant neurobehavior, visual and auditory function, and cognitive, motor, and language development. The potentially stigmatizing label of the so-called "crack baby" preceded the evidence now accumulating from well-designed prospective investigations that have revealed less severe sequelae in the majority of prenatally exposed infants than originally anticipated. In contrast to opioids, which may produce neonatal abstinence syndrome and infant neurobehavioral deficits, prenatal cocaine exposure appears to be associated with what has been described as statistically significant but subtle decrements in neurobehavioral, cognitive, and language function, especially when viewed in the context of other exposures and the caregiving environment which may mediate or moderate the effects. Whether these early findings may

  2. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Seiji; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells to demonstrate: (1) molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, (2) the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and (3) interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26074774

  3. Methodological Issues in Assessing the Impact of Prenatal Drug Exposure.

    PubMed

    Konijnenberg, Carolien

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure is a common public health concern that can result in perinatal complications, birth defects, and developmental disorders. The growing literature regarding the effects of prenatal exposure to specific drugs such as tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, and heroin is often conflicting and constantly changing. This review discusses several reasons why the effects of prenatal drug exposure are so difficult to determine, including variations in dose, timing, duration of exposure, polydrug use, unreliable measures of drug exposure, latent or "sleeper" effects, genetic factors, and socioenvironmental influences. In addition to providing research guidelines, this review also aims to help clinicians and policy makers to identify the strengths and weaknesses in studies investigating the effects of prenatal drug exposure. This knowledge may be used to make better informed decisions regarding the appropriate treatment for pregnant, drug-dependent women and their children. PMID:26604776

  4. Development of prenatal screening--A historical overview.

    PubMed

    Cuckle, Howard; Maymon, Ron

    2016-02-01

    The first prenatal screening test to be introduced was based on a single maternal serum marker of neural tube defects. Since then various prenatal screening concepts have been developed, the most successful being Down syndrome risk estimation using multiple serum and ultrasound markers. Today a completely new approach to aneuploidy screening is available based on maternal plasma cell-free DNA testing. This has the potential to markedly improve screening performance but routine testing is currently too expensive in a public health setting. However, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker tests. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia that can be prevented using soluble low-dose aspirin treatment started before 16 weeks of gestation. Prenatal screening for cardiac abnormalities, fragile X syndrome and recessive genetic disorders is underutilized and public health planners should considered a more widespread application of available methods. PMID:26764253

  5. Prenatal stimulation and postnatal testosterone affects infanticide in female rats.

    PubMed

    Miley, W M; Blustein, J; Kennedy, K

    1982-04-01

    Prenatal handling, prenatal stress, and early postnatal exogeneous testosterone were examined in female rats for their effects on rat pup-killing and pup retrieval. During each of the last 5 days of pregnancy. Long-Evans rats received either 3 minutes of handling, 45 minutes of restraint and intense illumination or remained untouched. Half of the offspring of each group received testosterone from Day 1 after birth to Day 30. In adulthood, animals that received handling prenatally and testosterone postnatally killed pups more rapidly than any other group and a larger proportion did so than in the control groups. Animals not manipulated at any time retrieved pups more rapidly and a larger proportion did so than the combined other groups. The study suggests that prenatal handling interacts with testosterone presented immediately postnatally to increase infanticide in female rats. A variety of perinatal manipulations seem to suppress pup retrieval. PMID:7200619

  6. Methodological Issues in Assessing the Impact of Prenatal Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Konijnenberg, Carolien

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure is a common public health concern that can result in perinatal complications, birth defects, and developmental disorders. The growing literature regarding the effects of prenatal exposure to specific drugs such as tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, and heroin is often conflicting and constantly changing. This review discusses several reasons why the effects of prenatal drug exposure are so difficult to determine, including variations in dose, timing, duration of exposure, polydrug use, unreliable measures of drug exposure, latent or “sleeper” effects, genetic factors, and socioenvironmental influences. In addition to providing research guidelines, this review also aims to help clinicians and policy makers to identify the strengths and weaknesses in studies investigating the effects of prenatal drug exposure. This knowledge may be used to make better informed decisions regarding the appropriate treatment for pregnant, drug-dependent women and their children. PMID:26604776

  7. Prenatal lactation advice and intention to breastfeed: selected maternal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sable, M R; Patton, C B

    1998-03-01

    This study uses data from the NICHD/MMIHS to examine the relationship among maternal characteristics and (a) whether mothers were asked by their prenatal providers to consider breastfeeding and (b) mothers' prenatal plans on how to feed their infants. Only 37% of the study population reported that their providers advised them to consider breastfeeding. Proportions of women who received prenatal advice to breastfeed and who intended to breastfeed were higher among married, Caucasian non-Hispanic, primiparous mothers, and women who were not enrolled in WIC. Women who received advice to breastfeed had significantly higher rates of planning to breastfeed (61.1%) than women who did not receive this advice (34.7%; p < 0.005). Efforts to meet the DHHS Healthy People 2000 objective for 75% of women to breastfeed in the early postpartum period will require a concentrated effort by prenatal providers to help women overcome their resistance to breastfeeding by offering support and encouragement. PMID:9543957

  8. Understanding the Code: keeping accurate records.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-10-01

    In his continuing series looking at the legal and professional implications of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's revised Code of Conduct, Richard Griffith discusses the elements of accurate record keeping under Standard 10 of the Code. This article considers the importance of accurate record keeping for the safety of patients and protection of district nurses. The legal implications of records are explained along with how district nurses should write records to ensure these legal requirements are met. PMID:26418404

  9. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p < 0.05) in their use of prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p < 0.01) in prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the

  10. Endangering safe motherhood in Mozambique: prenatal care as pregnancy risk.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Rachel R

    2003-07-01

    Despite high infant and maternal mortality rates, many Mozambican women with access to prenatal services delay prenatal clinic consultations, limiting opportunity for prevention and treatment of preventable pregnancy complications. Ethnographic research, interviews with health providers and longitudinal pregnancy case studies with 83 women were conducted in Central Mozambique to examine pregnant women's underutilization of clinic-based prenatal services. The study found that pregnancy beliefs and prenatal practices reflect women's attempts to influence reproduction under conditions of vulnerability at multiple levels. Women reported high maternal reproductive morbidity, frequent pregnancy wastage, and immense pressure to bear children throughout their reproductive years. Reproductive vulnerability is intensified by poverty and an intense burden placed on poor, peri-urban women farmers for family subsistence and continuous fertility in a period of economic austerity, land shortages, and increasing social conflict and inequality. In this environment of economic insecurity exacerbated by congested living conditions, women report competing for scarce resources, including male support and income. This vulnerability heightens women's perceptions that they and their unborn infants will be targets of witchcraft or sorcery by jealous neighbors and kin. They respond by hiding pregnancy and delaying prenatal care. Within the context of women's perceived reproductive risks, delayed prenatal care can be seen as a strategy to protect pregnancy from purposeful human and spirit harm. Women mobilized limited resources to acquire prenatal care outside the formal clinic setting. It is concluded that provision of clinical prenatal services is insufficient to reduce reproductive risks for the most socially and economically marginal since it is their vulnerability that prevents women from using available services. Confidential maternity services and social safety nets for greater

  11. A Randomized Trial of Prenatal versus Postnatal Repair of Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Adzick, N. Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Brock, John W.; Burrows, Pamela K.; Johnson, Mark P.; Howell, Lori J.; Farrell, Jody A.; Dabrowiak, Mary E.; Sutton, Leslie N.; Gupta, Nalin; Tulipan, Noel B.; D'Alton, Mary E.; Farmer, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal repair of myelomeningocele, the most common form of spina bifida, may result in better neurologic function than repair deferred until after delivery. We compared outcomes of in utero repair with standard postnatal repair. Methods We randomly assigned eligible women to undergo either prenatal surgery before 26 weeks of gestation or standard postnatal repair. One primary outcome was a composite of fetal or neonatal death or the need for placement of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt by the age of 12 months. Another primary outcome at 30 months was a composite of mental development and motor function. Results The trial was stopped for efficacy of prenatal surgery after the recruitment of 183 of a planned 200 patients. This report is based on results in 158 patients whose children were evaluated at 12 months. The first primary outcome occurred in 68% of the infants in the prenatal-surgery group and in 98% of those in the postnatal-surgery group (relative risk, 0.70; 97.7% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.84; P<0.001). Actual rates of shunt placement were 40% in the prenatal-surgery group and 82% in the postnatal-surgery group (relative risk, 0.48; 97.7% CI, 0.36 to 0.64; P<0.001). Prenatal surgery also resulted in improvement in the composite score for mental development and motor function at 30 months (P = 0.007) and in improvement in several secondary outcomes, including hindbrain herniation by 12 months and ambulation by 30 months. However, prenatal surgery was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery and uterine dehiscence at delivery. Conclusions Prenatal surgery for myelomeningocele reduced the need for shunting and improved motor outcomes at 30 months but was associated with maternal and fetal risks. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00060606.) PMID:21306277

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosome Abnormalities: A 13-Year Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Carmen; Echevarria, Mónica; Rodríguez, María Ángeles; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Serra, Bernat; Cirigliano, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze trends in screening and invasive prenatal diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities (CA) over a 13-year period and correlate them to changes in the national prenatal screening policy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed Down syndrome (DS) screening tests and fetal karyotypes obtained by prenatal invasive testing (IT) in our fetal medicine unit between January 1999 and December 2011. Results: A total of 24,226 prenatal screening tests for DS and 11,045 invasive procedures have been analyzed. Over a 13-year period, utilization of non-invasive screening methods has significantly increased from 57% to 89%. The percentage of invasive procedures has declined from 49% to 12%, although the percentage of IT performed for maternal anxiety has increased from 22% to 55%. The percentage of detected CA increased from 2.5% to 5.9%. Overall, 31 invasive procedures are needed to diagnose 1 abnormal case, being 23 procedures in medical indications and 241 procedures in non-medical indications. Conclusions: Our experience on screening and invasive prenatal diagnostic practice shows a decrease of the number of IT, with a parallel decline in medical indications. There is an increasing efficiency of prenatal screening program to detect CA. Despite the increasing screening policies, our population shows a growing request for prenatal IT. The a priori low risk population shows a not negligible residual risk for relevant CA. This observation challenges the current prenatal screening strategy focused on DS; showing that the residual risk is higher than the current cut-off used to indicate an invasive technique. PMID:26859399

  13. Invasive prenatal genetic testing: A Catholic healthcare provider's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bringman, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive prenatal testing is performed for a variety of reasons, but the most common indication is for genetic testing of the fetus. Although many times the information obtained from this type of testing results in selective termination of fetuses with genetic diagnoses, the information itself may be morally neutral. Should a Catholic healthcare provider be willing to perform invasive prenatal testing in the setting of uncertainty with respect to the patient's plans following a diagnosis of a genetic abnormality? PMID:25473130

  14. Prenatal screening: an ethical agenda for the near future.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome differs from other forms of population screening in that the usual aim of achieving health gains through treatment or prevention does not seem to apply. This type of screening leads to no other options but the choice between continuing or terminating the pregnancy and can only be morally justified if its aim is to provide meaningful options for reproductive choice to pregnant women and their partners. However, this aim should not be understood as maximizing reproductive choice per se. Only if understood as allowing prospective parents to avoid suffering related to living with (a child with) serious disorders and handicaps can prenatal screening be a publicly or collectively funded programme. The alternative of moving prenatal testing outside the healthcare system into the private sector is problematic, as it makes these tests accessible only to those who can afford to pay for it. New developments in prenatal screening will have to be assessed in terms of whether and to what extent they either contribute to or undermine the stated aim of providing meaningful options for reproductive choice. In the light of this criterion, this article discusses the introduction of the new non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT), the tendency to widen the scope of follow-up testing, as well as the possible future scenarios of genome-wide screening and 'prenatal personalised medicine'. The article ends with recommendations for further debate, research and analysis. PMID:25521973

  15. 34 CFR 75.732 - Records related to performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-3 and 3474) Cross reference: See 34 CFR 74.25, Revision of budget and program plans. ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records related to performance. 75.732 Section 75.732... Responsibilities of a Grantee? Records § 75.732 Records related to performance. (a) A grantee shall keep records...

  16. 75 FR 3972 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Register 67 FR 66712. VA is amending the system records by revising the Routine Uses of Records Maintained... allow VA to disclose information from this system of records to the Department of Justice (DoJ), either... information from this system of records to the Department of Justice (DoJ), either on VA's initiative or...

  17. School Safety Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    The revised edition of this handbook represents a concerted effort to bring school safety to the forefront of business managers' daily and long-range planning activities. Although statistics show few fatalities on school grounds, schools appear to have a high frequency and incident rate of nonfatal injuries. According to the introduction, school…

  18. Business Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This revised curriculum gives information on the skills and knowledge students should acquire through a business education program. The competencies listed reflect the skills that employers see as necessary for success in clerical and accounting occupations. The handbook is organized in seven sections that cover the following: (1) the concept of…

  19. Revising the Institutional Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominick, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Revision of a college mission statement through a broadly participatory process can provide a new and sharpened sense of direction and priorities and a powerful mechanism for institutional change. Although institutional circumstances and processes may differ, the experience of Wittenberg University (Ohio) serves as an example of a model for…

  20. Prenatal zinc prevents communication impairments and BDNF disturbance in a rat model of autism induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS),which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induced autistic-like behavior. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism.We selected zinc as the prenatal treatment to prevent or ease the impairments induced by LPS because LPS induces hypozincaemia.Materials and methods:We evaluated the effects of LPS and zinc on female reproductive performance. Communication,which is impaired in autism,was tested in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined because it has been considered an autism important biomarker.Key findings: Prenatal LPS exposure reduced offspring number and treatment with zinc prevented this reduction.Moreover, pups that were prenatally exposed to LPS spent longer periods without calling their mothers, and posttreatment with zinc prevented this impairment induced by LPS to the same levels as controls. Prenatal LPS also increased BDNF levels in adult offspring, and posttreatment with zinc reduced the elevation of BDNF to the same levels as controls.Significance: BDNF hyperactivity was also found in several studies of autistic patients. Together with our previous studies, our model of prenatal LPS induced autistic-like behavioral, brain, and immune disturbances. This suggests that it is a valid rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc prevented reproductive, communication, and BDNF impairments.The present study revealed a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc administration for the prevention of autism with regard to the BDNF pathway. PMID:25817235

  1. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    van Schendel, Rachèl V; Kleinveld, Johanna H; Dondorp, Wybo J; Pajkrt, Eva; Timmermans, Danielle R M; Holtkamp, Kim C A; Karsten, Margreet; Vlietstra, Anne L; Lachmeijer, Augusta M A; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The Netherlands). Five focus groups with low-risk pregnant women (n=28), three focus groups with men (n=19) and 13 interviews with high- and low-risk pregnant women were conducted. Participants felt that current prenatal screening has great disadvantages such as uncertain results and risk of miscarriage from follow-up diagnostics. Characteristics of NIPT (accurate, safe and early testing) could therefore diminish these disadvantages of prenatal screening and help lower the barrier for participation. This suggests that NIPT might allow couples to decide about prenatal testing based mostly on their will to test or not, rather than largely based on fear of miscarriage risk or the uncertainty of results. The lower barrier for participation was also seen as a downside that could lead to uncritical use or pressure to test. Widening the scope of prenatal testing was seen as beneficial for severe disorders, although it was perceived difficult to determine where to draw the line. Participants argued that there should be a limit to the scope of NIPT, avoiding testing for minor abnormalities. The findings suggest that NIPT could enable more meaningful decision-making for prenatal screening. However, to ensure voluntary participation, especially when testing for multiple disorders, safeguards on the basis of informed decision-making will be of utmost importance. PMID:24642832

  2. CD Recorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of CD (compact disc) recorders describes recording applications, including storing large graphic files, creating audio CDs, and storing material downloaded from the Internet; backing up files; lifespan; CD recording formats; continuous recording; recording software; recorder media; vulnerability of CDs; basic computer requirements; and…

  3. 77 FR 4661 - Revisions of Regulations Concerning Procedures for Filing Initial FOIA Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... BOARD 29 CFR Part 102 Revisions of Regulations Concerning Procedures for Filing Initial FOIA Requests... Information Act (FOIA) requests. The revisions require that all FOIA requests for records located in Washington, DC, be made to the NLRB FOIA Officer in Washington, DC. DATES: Effective date: January 31,...

  4. 10 CFR 70.51 - Records requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... disposal of licensed material made under 10 CFR 20.2002 (including burials authorized before January 28... contained in the 10 CFR, parts 0 to 199, edition revised as of January 1, 1981. (2) Records required by 10 CFR 20.2103(b)(4); and (3) Records required by § 70.25(g). (b) If licensed activities are...

  5. 10 CFR 70.51 - Records requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposal of licensed material made under 10 CFR 20.2002 (including burials authorized before January 28... contained in the 10 CFR, parts 0 to 199, edition revised as of January 1, 1981. (2) Records required by 10 CFR 20.2103(b)(4); and (3) Records required by § 70.25(g). (b) If licensed activities are...

  6. 10 CFR 70.51 - Records requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disposal of licensed material made under 10 CFR 20.2002 (including burials authorized before January 28... contained in the 10 CFR, parts 0 to 199, edition revised as of January 1, 1981. (2) Records required by 10 CFR 20.2103(b)(4); and (3) Records required by § 70.25(g). (b) If licensed activities are...

  7. 10 CFR 70.51 - Records requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposal of licensed material made under 10 CFR 20.2002 (including burials authorized before January 28... contained in the 10 CFR, parts 0 to 199, edition revised as of January 1, 1981. (2) Records required by 10 CFR 20.2103(b)(4); and (3) Records required by § 70.25(g). (b) If licensed activities are...

  8. 10 CFR 70.51 - Records requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... disposal of licensed material made under 10 CFR 20.2002 (including burials authorized before January 28... contained in the 10 CFR, parts 0 to 199, edition revised as of January 1, 1981. (2) Records required by 10 CFR 20.2103(b)(4); and (3) Records required by § 70.25(g). (b) If licensed activities are...

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice; Rogers, Sarah; Gallagher, Lisa; Winter, Michael; Vieira, Veronica; Webster, Thomas; Ozonoff, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Prior studies of prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown mixed results regarding its effect on birth weight and gestational age. Objectives In this retrospective cohort study we examined whether PCE contamination of public drinking-water supplies in Massachusetts influenced the birth weight and gestational duration of children whose mothers were exposed before the child’s delivery. Methods The study included 1,353 children whose mothers were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water and a comparable group of 772 children of unexposed mothers. Birth records were used to identify subjects and provide information on the outcomes. Mothers completed a questionnaire to gather information on residential histories and confounding variables. PCE exposure was estimated using EPANET water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a fate and transport model. Results We found no meaningful associations between PCE exposure and birth weight or gestational duration. Compared with children whose mothers were unexposed during the year of the last menstrual period (LMP), adjusted mean differences in birth weight were 20.9, 6.2, 30.1, and 15.2 g for children whose mothers’ average monthly exposure during the LMP year ranged from the lowest to highest quartile. Similarly, compared with unexposed children, adjusted mean differences in gestational age were −0.2, 0.1, −0.1, and −0.2 weeks for children whose mothers’ average monthly exposure ranged from the lowest to highest quartile. Similar results were observed for two other measures of prenatal exposure. Conclusions These results suggest that prenatal PCE exposure does not have an adverse effect on these birth outcomes at the exposure levels experienced by this population. PMID:18560539

  10. The Association between Prenatal Yoga and the Administration of Ritodrine Hydrochloride during Pregnancy: An Adjunct Study of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Saijo, Yasuaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Takahiko; Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Sengoku, Kazuo; Ito, Yoshiya; Miyashita, Chihiro; Araki, Atsuko; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While the beneficial effects of prenatal yoga have been reported in recent years, little is known about its effectiveness in pregnant Japanese women. Despite several adverse effects, ritodrine hydrochloride is frequently prescribed to suppress preterm labor in Japan, and its usage may therefore indicate cases of preterm labor. This study aimed to clarify the association between prenatal yoga and ritodrine hydrochloride use during pregnancy. Methods An observational study was conducted as an adjunct study by the Hokkaido unit of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. Information on prenatal yoga practice was collected using a self-questionnaire between March 21, 2012, and July 7, 2015, targeting women who had recently delivered. Ritodrine hydrochloride use was identified from medical records. A total of 2,692 women were analyzed using logistic regression models that adjusted for possible confounders. Results There were 567 (21.1%) women who practiced prenatal yoga, which was associated with a lower risk of ritodrine hydrochloride use (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.77; 95% CI 0.61–0.98). This was especially evident in women with a total practice duration that exceeded 900 minutes throughout their pregnancy (adjusted OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.38–0.76). A sensitivity analysis that excluded patients with threatened abortion during the study period produced similar results. Conclusions Prenatal yoga was associated with a lower risk of ritodrine hydrochloride use, particularly in women with more than 900 minutes of practice time over the course of their pregnancy. Prenatal yoga may be a beneficial option for pregnant women in the selection of alternative therapies. PMID:27348869

  11. Assessing infant cognitive development after prenatal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Ross, Alleyne P; Goodman, Gay

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on infant behavioral development outcomes of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Studies performed to date, all of which relied on global developmental assessments, have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to psychomotor development, negative findings with regard to mental development, and no information as to the development of specific cognitive functions. Our review of these studies leads us to suspect that the use of global developmental assessments might partially explain the negative and inconsistent findings. To identify cognitive processes that might be sensitive to prenatal iodine supplementation, we examined the timing of thyroid hormone action on specific brain systems. The development of infant visual attention is sensitive to thyroid hormone during the early prenatal period, when the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormone. For this reason, infant visual attention has the potential to be a sensitive measure of infant outcomes in prenatal iodine supplementation studies. We suggest the assessment of infant visual attention, with follow-up examination of childhood executive functions, as a means of capturing the effects of maternal iodine deficiency and prenatal iodine supplementation on specific cognitive processes. In particular, we propose comparison of infant performance on global developmental tests and specialized tests of visual attention in pilot trials of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Only by comparing the 2 types of tests side by side will it be possible to establish whether the use of a sensitive measure of infant visual attention will increase the reliability of such supplementation studies. Recognizing that exposure misclassification may also provide a partial explanation for the inconsistent neurodevelopmental outcomes in previous studies, we suggest that urinary iodine concentration or

  12. Prenatal Depression and Adverse Birth Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Accortt, Eynav Elgavish; Cheadle, Alyssa C. D.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2015-01-01

    Complications related to preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Prenatal depression is a hypothesized psychosocial risk factor for both birth outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine evidence published between 1977 and 2013 on prenatal depression and risks of these primary adverse birth outcomes. A systematic search of the PUBMED and PsycINFO databases was conducted to identify studies testing the associations between prenatal depressive symptoms, or diagnoses of depression, and risk of PTB or LBW. We systematically selected 50 published reports on PTB and length of gestation, and 33 reports on LBW and BW. Results were reviewed by two independent reviewers and we evaluated the quality of the evidence with an established systematic review method, the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. We then undertook a narrative synthesis of the results following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Less than a quarter of 50 published reports found that prenatal depression was significantly associated with PTB or gestational age. In contrast, slightly more than half of the 33 reports found that prenatal depression was associated with LBW or BW. When weighing methodological features, we determined that the effects of prenatal depression on LBW are more consistent than effects on length of gestation or PTB. Although the evidence may not be strong enough to support routine depression screening for risk of adverse outcomes, screening to enable detection and timely treatment to reduce risk of postpartum depression is warranted. Further rigorous research on prenatal depression and adverse birth outcomes is needed. PMID:25452215

  13. Thermoregulatory deficits following prenatal alcohol exposure: structural correlates.

    PubMed

    Zimmerberg, B

    1989-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol delays the development of thermoregulation in newborn rats. This study examined two possible physiological correlates of this effect. In the first experiment, the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on the availability of brown adipose tissue for nonshivering thermogenesis was investigated in rat pups from birth to weanling age. Male and female pups were chosen from independent litters with one of three prenatal treatment histories: 35% ethanol-derived calories (35% EDC), pair-fed control (0% EDC), or lab-chow control (LC). Prenatal alcohol exposure resulted in decreased body weight from postnatal (PN) day 1 to 20 compared to controls. Similarly, alcohol-exposed subjects had lighter interscapular brown adipose tissue pads than controls. However, the proportion of brown adipose tissue to body weight in alcohol-exposed pups was not different from controls. It appears that thermoregulatory deficits at birth due to prenatal alcohol exposure are not due to decreased substrate availability. In the second experiment, the relative growth rate of the tail compared to the growth rate of the body was measured in male and female pups from the three prenatal treatment groups. Five-day-old rat pups exposed to alcohol prenatally had relatively slower tail growth than control pups. Since tail growth rate has been associated with ambient temperature, these results suggest that alcohol-exposed rat pups may be experiencing transient periods of cold stress in the nest because of their thermoregulatory deficiencies, which, in turn, could have important implications for neural and body growth retardation seen in Alcohol Related Birth Defects. PMID:2818842

  14. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30–90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level. PMID:25919188

  15. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level. PMID:25919188

  16. NASA records retention schedules: Procedures governing the retention, retirement, and destruction of agency records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This handbook sets forth the minimum retention periods of official records of NASA. Its provisions are applicable to NASA Headquarters and all field installations. This revised edition has been correlated to the 'NASA Uniform Files Index (UFI) (NHB 1442.1B), the General Records Schedules' produced by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and has been enlarged in scope to cover Privacy Act Systems of Records and record series previously omitted. Guidance is provided in the areas of record retirement, transfer, and retrieval from Federal Record Centers (FRC) and disposal actions. Included are provisions for making changes to these schedules by addition of new items or revision of current items. The NASA Records Retention Schedules (NRRS) were approved for NASA use by NARA, the General Services Administration, and the General Accounting Office.

  17. Descriptive Epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. Purpose To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. Results As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (<1%), and no response (<1%). Previous graft present at the time of injury was 70% autograft, 27% allograft, 2% combination, and 1% unknown. Sixty-two percent were more than 2 years removed from their last reconstruction. Graft choice for revision ACL reconstruction was 45% autograft, 54% allograft, and more than 1% both allograft and autograft. Meniscus and/or chondral damage was found in 90% of patients. Conclusion The MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most

  18. 77 FR 42332 - Large Power Transformers From Korea; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... investigation (77 FR 16559, March 21, 2012). The Commission is revising its schedule as follows: the Commission... its internet server ( http://www.usitc.gov ). The public record for this investigation may be...

  19. 78 FR 765 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... subject investigations (77 FR 51569, August 24, 2012). The Commission is revising its schedule as follows... accessing its Internet server ( http://www.usitc.gov ). The public record for these investigations may...

  20. Prenatal hydronephrosis: postnatal evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Vemulakonda, Vijaya; Yiee, Jenny; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2014-08-01

    Congenital hydronephrosis is one of the most common anomalies identified on antenatal ultrasound. The underlying etiology of congenital hydronephrosis is multifold, ranging from transient hydronephrosis in utero to clinically significant congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. While traditional management of hydronephrosis was aimed at relieving symptoms, the advent of routine prenatal ultrasound has led to a shift in the goal of treatment to prevention of renal injury in the asymptomatic patient. However, despite this focus on renal preservation, the diagnostic criteria for identification of children "at risk" for renal damage that can be alleviated by surgical treatment remain a subject of debate. Both antenatal and postnatal imaging studies have been evaluated as indicators for potential reversible renal damage and have been used as potential indicators of the need for surgical intervention. The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature regarding the role of postnatal clinical and radiographic evaluation to identify children who may benefit from early surgical intervention. PMID:24927968

  1. Prenatal Chemical Exposures and Child Language Development

    PubMed Central

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey LC; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both man made (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g. lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury—for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. PMID:26255253

  2. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal halothane

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Robert E.; Smith, Robert F.

    1977-01-01

    Permanent neurobehavioral toxicological effects have been theorized to occur at the lowest doses of a toxic agent if exposure occurs during early development compared to exposure during adulthood. Data are reviewed showing the exposure to 10 ppm of halothane from conception to day 60 of life post-partum led to adult rats (≥ 135 days of age) which were hyperalgesic to electric footshock and which committed 30% more errors learning a light-dark discrimination to escape footshock, or learning the shortest path to a food reward in a maze. Exposure only during adulthood to 10 ppm of halothane (from day 60 of life onwards) had no effects. To determine prenatal periods sensitive to halothane, rats were exposed to 12,500 ppm of halothane (with 35% oxygen) on day 3, 10, or 17 of gestation. As adults (≥ 75 days of age) day 3- and day 10-exposed rats, but not day 17-exposed rats, were hyperalgesic and committed 40% more errors in learning a visual discrimination to escape footshock. Food and water consumption, body weight, and running wheel activity were unaffected. Finally, adult rats exposed to 10, 50, or 100 ppm of halothane from conception to day 28 postpartum had 15% less 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in brain, but normal 5-hydroxytryptophan, noradrenalin, and dopamine. The possibility is discussed that the hyperalgesia noted above results from a permanently reduced turnover of brain serotonin produced by halothane present in brain at days 10-15 of gestation. PMID:612445

  3. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cellular Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Kylee J.; Muller, Daria; Golding, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol significantly alters the developmental trajectory of progenitor cells and fundamentally compromises tissue formation (i.e., histogenesis). Emerging research suggests that ethanol can impair mammalian development by interfering with the execution of molecular programs governing differentiation. For example, ethanol exposure disrupts cellular migration, changes cell–cell interactions, and alters growth factor signaling pathways. Additionally, ethanol can alter epigenetic mechanisms controlling gene expression. Normally, lineage-specific regulatory factors (i.e., transcription factors) establish the transcriptional networks of each new cell type; the cell’s identity then is maintained through epigenetic alterations in the way in which the DNA encoding each gene becomes packaged within the chromatin. Ethanol exposure can induce epigenetic changes that do not induce genetic mutations but nonetheless alter the course of fetal development and result in a large array of patterning defects. Two crucial enzyme complexes—the Polycomb and Trithorax proteins—are central to the epigenetic programs controlling the intricate balance between self-renewal and the execution of cellular differentiation, with diametrically opposed functions. Prenatal ethanol exposure may disrupt the functions of these two enzyme complexes, altering a crucial aspect of mammalian differentiation. Characterizing the involvement of Polycomb and Trithorax group complexes in the etiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders will undoubtedly enhance understanding of the role that epigenetic programming plays in this complex disorder. PMID:24313167

  4. Aneuploidy among prenatally detected neural tube defects

    SciTech Connect

    Hume, R.F. Jr.; Lampinen, J.; Martin, L.S.; Johnson, M.P.; Evans, M.I.

    1996-01-11

    We have reported previously a 10% aneuploidy detection rate among 39 cases of fetal neural tube defects (NTD). Subsequently we amassed an additional experience of over 17,000 prenatal diagnosis cases over a 5-year period. During this period 106 cases of NTDs were identified; 44 with anencephaly, 62 with open spina bifida. The average maternal age of this population with NTDs was 29 years (15-40); 6 patients declined amniocentesis. Six of 100 cytogenetic studies were aneuploid; on anencephalic fetus had inherited a maternal marker chromosome, and 5 NTD cases had trisomy 18. The average maternal age of the aneuploid cases was 21 (19-40); 3 were 35 years or older. Four of 5 trisomy 18 cases had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The overall aneuploidy detection rate in our cohort was 5-6, while aneuploidy occurred in 2% of the isolated NTD cases, and 24% of the MCA cases. Combining the earlier experience, 4/39 aneuploidy (2 trisomy 18, 4p+, del 13q) yields an aneuploidy detection frequency of 10/145 (7%), of which most (7/10) had trisomy 18. These data support fetal karyotyping for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and recurrence-risk counseling. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Transcriptional Landscape of the Prenatal Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jeremy A.; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M.; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L.; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James M.; Bennet, Crissa; Bertagnolli, Darren; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cuhaciyan, Christine; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Facer, Benjamin A. C.; Feng, David; Fliss, Tim P.; Gee, Garrett; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Benjamin W.; Gu, Guangyu; Howard, Robert E.; Jochim, Jayson M.; Kuan, Chihchau L.; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Lemon, Tracy A.; Lesnar, Phil; McMurray, Bergen; Mastan, Naveed; Mosqueda, Nerick F.; Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa; Ngo, Nhan-Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D.; Parry, Sheana E.; Player, Allison Stevens; Pletikos, Mihovil; Reding, Melissa; Royall, Joshua J.; Roll, Kate; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapouri, Sheila; Shapovalova, Nadiya V.; Shen, Elaine H.; Sjoquist, Nathan; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R.; Smith, Michael; Sodt, Andy J.; Williams, Derric; Zöllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Gerstein, Mark B.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Glass, Ian A.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hevner, Robert F.; Huang, Hao; Jones, Allan R.; Knowles, James A.; Levitt, Pat; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Dang, Chinh; Bernard, Amy; Hohmann, John G.; Lein, Ed S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is largely determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and postmitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and human-expanded outer subventricular zones. Both germinal and postmitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development. PMID:24695229

  6. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W. )

    1990-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

  7. Effect of Enhanced Information, Values Clarification, and Removal of Financial Barriers on Use of Prenatal Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kuppermann, Miriam; Pena, Sherri; Bishop, Judith T.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E.; Sit, Anita; Vargas, Juan; Caughey, Aaron B.; Sykes, Susan; Pierce, Lasha; Norton, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Prenatal genetic testing guidelines recommend providing patients with detailed information to allow informed, preference-based screening and diagnostic testing decisions. The effect of implementing these guidelines is not well understood. Objective Toanalyze the effect of a decision support guide and elimination of financial barriers to testing on use of prenatal genetic testing and decision-making among women of varying literacy and numeracy levels. Design Randomized trial conducted from 2010-2013. Setting Prenatal clinics at three county hospitals, a community clinic, an academic center, and three medical centers of an integrated health care delivery system in the San Francisco Bay area. Participants English- or Spanish-speaking women who had not yet undergone screening and/or diagnostic testing and remained pregnant at 11 weeks gestation (n=710). Interventions A computerized, interactive decision support guide and access to prenatal testing with no out-of-pocket expense (n=357) or usual care as per current guidelines (n=353). Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was invasive diagnostic test use, obtained via medical record review. Secondary outcomes included testing strategy undergone, and knowledge, risk comprehension, decisional conflict and decision regret at 24-36 weeks' gestation. Results Women randomized to the intervention group, compared to those randomized to the control group, were less likely to have invasive testing [5.9% vs. 12.3%, odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.80] and more likely to forego testing altogether [25.6% vs. 20.4%, OR 3.30 (reference group screening followed by invasive testing), CI 1.43-7.64]. They also had higher knowledge scores (9.4 vs. 8.6 on a 15-point scale, mean group difference 0.82, CI 0.34-1.31), and were more likely to correctly estimate the amniocentesis-related miscarriage risk (73.8% vs. 59.0%, OR 1.95, CI 1.39-2.75) and their age-adjusted chance of carrying a fetus with trisomy 21 (58.7% vs. 46

  8. Routine Prenatal Care Visits by Provider Specialty in the United States, 2009-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... of prenatal visits to non-ob/gyn providers did not differ by race and ethnicity group in ... Generally, women of different race and ethnicity groups did not differ in the percentage of prenatal care ...

  9. Oregon's Coordinated Care Organizations Increased Timely Prenatal Care Initiation And Decreased Disparities.

    PubMed

    Muoto, Ifeoma; Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Snowden, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Policies at the state and federal levels affect access to health services, including prenatal care. In 2012 the State of Oregon implemented a major reform of its Medicaid program. The new model, called a coordinated care organization (CCO), is designed to improve the coordination of care for Medicaid beneficiaries. This reform effort provides an ideal opportunity to evaluate the impact of broad financing and delivery reforms on prenatal care use. Using birth certificate data from Oregon and Washington State, we evaluated the effect of CCO implementation on the probability of early prenatal care initiation, prenatal care adequacy, and disparities in prenatal care use by type of insurance. Following CCO implementation, we found significant increases in early prenatal care initiation and a reduction in disparities across insurance types but no difference in overall prenatal care adequacy. Oregon's reforms could serve as a model for other Medicaid and commercial health plans seeking to improve prenatal care quality and reduce disparities. PMID:27605642

  10. Integration of noninvasive prenatal prediction of fetal blood group into clinical prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Frederik Banch

    2014-05-01

    Incompatibility of red blood cell blood group antigens between a pregnant woman and her fetus can cause maternal immunization and, consequently, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA can be used to assess the risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn to fetuses of immunized women. Prediction of the fetal RhD type has been very successful and is now integrated into clinical practice to assist in the management of the pregnancies of RhD immunized women. In addition, noninvasive prediction of the fetal RhD type can be applied to guide targeted prenatal prophylaxis, thus avoiding unnecessary exposure to anti-D in pregnant women. The analytical aspect of noninvasive fetal RHD typing is very robust and accurate, and its routine utilization has demonstrated high sensitivities for fetal RHD detection. A high compliance with administering anti-D is essential for obtaining a clinical effect. Noninvasive fetal typing of RHC/c, RHE/e, and KEL may become more widely used in the future. PMID:24431264

  11. Practice Bulletin No. 162: Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal genetic diagnostic testing is intended to determine, with as much certainty as possible, whether a specific genetic disorder or condition is present in the fetus. In contrast, prenatal genetic screening is designed to assess whether a patient is at increased risk of having a fetus affected by a genetic disorder. Originally, prenatal genetic testing focused primarily on Down syndrome (trisomy 21), but now it is able to detect a broad range of genetic disorders. Although it is necessary to perform amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) to definitively diagnose most genetic disorders, in some circumstances, fetal imaging with ultrasonography, echocardiography, or magnetic resonance imaging may be diagnostic of a particular structural fetal abnormality that is suggestive of an underlying genetic condition.The objective of prenatal genetic testing is to detect health problems that could affect the woman, fetus, or newborn and provide the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider with enough information to allow a fully informed decision about pregnancy management. Prenatal genetic testing cannot identify all abnormalities or problems in a fetus, and any testing should be focused on the individual patient's risks, reproductive goals, and preferences. It is important that patients understand the benefits and limitations of all prenatal screening and diagnostic testing, including the conditions for which tests are available and the conditions that will not be detected by testing. It also is important that patients realize that there is a broad range of clinical presentations, or phenotypes, for many genetic disorders and that results of genetic testing cannot predict all outcomes. Prenatal genetic testing has many benefits, including reassuring patients when results are normal, identifying disorders for which prenatal treatment may provide benefit, optimizing neonatal outcomes by ensuring the appropriate location for

  12. Resolved: Credit/Privacy Laws Need To Be Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    At Home with Consumers, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The following articles appear in this document devoted to debating whether credit privacy laws should be revised: "Who's Looking at Your Credit Report?" (Holstein); "Credit Reporting System Doesn't Need Fixing" (Ulrich); "The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA); A Remarkable Success" (Kurth); and "Revisit Law To Protect People's Credit Records"…

  13. The LS Graph: A Methodology for Visualizing Writing Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Eva; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.

    2002-01-01

    Computer keystroke-logging programs, which record all keystrokes and mouse actions, facilitate the collection of quantitative data about text creation during writing revision. Presents the LS graph, a novel way of graphically representing and summarizing the quantitative data collected when keystroke logging. (Author/VWL)

  14. Revision of the Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch (Diptera: Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; Freitas, Geovânia; Mathis, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Marbenia Malloch is revised and now includes 3 species: Marbenia cinerea, sp. nov., Marbenia pallida, sp. nov. and Marbenia peculiaris Malloch, 1931. The genus is herein recorded from the amazonian region of South America (Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador), and characters of male and female terminalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:25544089

  15. Narrative and Descriptive Text Revising Strategies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piolat, Annie; Roussey, Jean-Yves

    1991-01-01

    Presents study results on text revision strategies using a simplified word processor that records movements of linguistic units. Reports that adult subjects used the simultaneous strategy for correcting narrative and local-then-global strategy for correcting description whereas children used the local-then-global strategy for the narrative, but no…

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls: A Neuropsychologic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives A large body of literature documents the effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cognitive development of children. Despite this fact, no integrative synthesis has been published yet to identify the cognitive functions that are particularly affected. Our aim is to review this literature in an attempt to identify the cognitive profile associated with prenatal PCB exposure. Data sources Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database for articles published before June 2008. We reviewed data from nine prospective longitudinal birth cohorts for different aspects of cognition. Data extraction Associations between indicators of prenatal PCB exposure and performance on cognitive tasks reported in the selected studies are summarized and classified as general cognitive abilities, verbal or visual–spatial skills, memory, attention, and executive functions. Data synthesis The most consistent effects observed across studies are impaired executive functioning related to increased prenatal PCB exposure. Negative effects on processing speed, verbal abilities, and visual recognition memory are also reported by most studies. Converging results from different cohort studies in which exposure arises from different sources make it unlikely that co-exposure with another associated contaminant is responsible for the observed effects. Conclusion Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be related to a relatively specific cognitive profile of impairments. Failure to assess functions that are specifically impaired may explain the absence of effects found in some studies. Our findings have implications in the selection of cognitive assessment methods in future studies. PMID:19165381

  17. Prenatal x-ray and childhood cancer in twins

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate the causal nature of the relationship between prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer, a case control study was conducted in a population of over 32,000 twins born in the state of Connecticut from 1930-1969 and followed to age 15. Thirty-two incident cancer cases were identified by linking the Connecticut Twin and Tumor registries. Each case was matched with four controls on year of birth, sex, race, and survival. Prenatal x-ray information as well as reproductive, delivery and birth data were obtained from the hospital of birth, the physician providing prenatal care, private radiology groups and interviews with hospital staff. The case control study which obtained exposure information on selected subjects found an increased risk of childhood cancer from prenatal x-ray exposure. The risk associated with radiation exposure was elevated in the following subcategories: mother with history of pregnancy loss, a gravity greater than 1, under 30 years of age, and twins weighing five pounds or more at birth. The results, though based on small numbers, strengthen the association between prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer.

  18. Fractalkine Attenuates Microglial Cell Activation Induced by Prenatal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Chamera, Katarzyna; Roman, Adam; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The potential contribution of inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases has recently received substantial attention. In the brain, the main immune cells are the microglia. As they are the main source of inflammatory factors, it is plausible that the regulation of their activation may be a potential therapeutic target. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 play a crucial role in the control of the biological activity of the microglia. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether fractalkine is able to reverse changes in microglia caused by a prenatal stress procedure. Our study found that the microglia do not express fractalkine. Prenatal stress decreases the expression of the fractalkine receptor, which in turn is enhanced by the administration of exogenous fractalkine. Moreover, treatment with fractalkine diminishes the prenatal stress-induced overproduction of proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, or NO in the microglial cells derived from prenatally stressed newborns. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the pathological activation of microglia in prenatally stressed newborns may be attenuated by fractalkine administration. Therefore, understanding of the role of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 system may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuron-microglia interaction and its role in pathological conditions in the brain. PMID:27239349

  19. The effect of expanding Medicaid prenatal services on birth outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, L M; Larson, E H; Connell, F A; Nordlund, D; Cain, K C; Cawthon, M L; Byrns, P; Rosenblatt, R A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Over 80% of US states have implemented expansions in prenatal services for Medicaid-enrolled women, including case management, nutritional and psychosocial counseling, health education, and home visiting. This study evaluates the effect of Washington State's expansion of such services on prenatal care use and low-birthweight rates. METHODS: The change in prenatal care use and low-birthweight rates among Washington's Medicaid-enrolled pregnant women before and after initiation of expanded prenatal services was compared with the change in these outcomes in Colorado, a control state. RESULTS: The percentage of expected prenatal visits completed increased significantly, from 84% to 87%, in both states. Washington's low-birthweight rate decreased (7.1% to 6.4%, P = .12), while Colorado's rate increased slightly (10.4% to 10.6%, P = .74). Washington's improvement was largely due to decreases in low-birthweight rates for medically high-risk women (18.0% to 13.7%, P = .01, for adults; 22.5% to 11.5%, P = .03, for teenagers), especially those with preexisting medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: A statewide Medicaid-sponsored support service and case management program was associated with a decrease in the low-birthweight rate of medically high-risk women. PMID:9807527

  20. Non-invasive prenatal screening for trisomy 21: Consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Emily C; Sheldon, Jane P; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Yashar, Beverly M

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) has the potential to dramatically increase the prenatal detection rate of Down syndrome because of improvements in safety and accuracy over existing tests. There is concern that NIPS could lead to more negative attitudes towards Down syndrome and less support for individuals with Down syndrome. To assess the impact of NIPS on support for prenatal testing, decision-making about testing, and beliefs or attitudes about Down syndrome, we performed an Internet-based experiment using adults (N = 1,789) recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants were randomly assigned to read a mock news article about NIPS, a mock news article about amniocentesis, or no article. The content in the two articles varied only in their descriptions of the test characteristics. Participants then answered questions about their support for testing, hypothetical testing decision, and beliefs and attitudes about Down syndrome. Reading the mock NIPS news article predicted increased hypothetical test uptake. In addition, the NIPS article group also agreed more strongly that pregnant women, in general, should utilize prenatal testing. We also found that the more strongly participants supported prenatal testing for pregnant women, the less favorable their attitudes towards individuals with Down syndrome; providing some evidence that NIPS may indirectly result in more negative perceptions of individuals with this diagnosis. PMID:26553705

  1. Postnatal outcomes of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Mari J; Sybert, Virginia P

    2016-05-01

    High quality information is critical for informed decision-making in pregnancy following a prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidy. The goal of this study was to define the spectrum of outcomes in patients with prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX mosaic Turner syndrome in order to provide a better basis for genetic counseling at the time of intrauterine diagnosis. Phenotype data for twenty-five patients with prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX mosaicism were collected by retrospective chart review and, when possible, semi-structured telephone interview. Existing data from a cohort of 58 patients with postnatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XX mosaicism were used for comparison. Relative to those diagnosed postnatally, prenatal patients were more likely to have normal growth and normal secondary sexual development, less likely to manifest distinctive Turner syndrome features such as nuchal webbing and edema, and had significantly fewer renal defects. These differences underscore the need for a nuanced approach to prenatal counseling in cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26789280

  2. Melatonin influences sex-specific prenatal mortality in meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Gorman, M R; Ferkin, M H; Dark, J

    1994-11-01

    Meadow voles exhibit seasonal changes in litter size, ovulation rates, and prenatal mortality. To investigate the proximate bases of seasonal changes in reproductive effort, adult female voles, maintained in long photoperiods (14 h of light/day), were injected daily with 10 micrograms melatonin 2 h before light offset to extend the duration of the nighttime melatonin pulse. At parturition the number, sex, and weight of offspring were assessed. The number of ovarian corpora lutea (CL), an index of potential litter size, was used to calculate rates of prenatal survival (i.e., pups per CL). Prenatal survival rates were reduced in female but not male pups of dams that had been injected before blastocyst implantation (Days 1-6 of pregnancy) with melatonin as compared with saline. Melatonin injections initiated after blastocyst implantation (Days 7-21 of pregnancy) did not affect prenatal survival, nor were birth weights of pups affected by either pre- or postimplantation melatonin treatment. We conclude that sex-specific prenatal survival is a labile feature of vole reproduction that may be under proximate control of photoperiod and melatonin before blastocyst implantation. PMID:7849189

  3. Profiling β Thalassemia Mutations in Consanguinity and Nonconsanguinity for Prenatal Screening and Awareness Programme

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravindra; Arya, Vandana; Agarwal, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Mutation spectrum varies significantly in different parts and different ethnic groups of India. Social factors such as preference to marry within the community and among 1st degree relatives (consanguinity) play an important role in impeding the gene pool of the disease within the community and so in society by and large. The present paper discusses the role of consanguinity in profiling of beta thalassemia mutation, and thus the approach for prenatal screening and prevention based awareness programme. Clinically diagnosed 516 cases of beta thalassemia were screened at molecular level. A detailed clinical Proforma was recorded with the information of origin of the family, ethnicity, and consanguinity. The present study reports that subjects originating from Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, and Jharkhand have c.92+5G>C and c.124_127delTTCT mutation as the commonest mutation compared to the subjects hailing from Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and Nepal where sickle mutation was found more common. In 40 consanguineous unions more common and specific beta mutations with higher rate of homozygosity have been reported. This consanguinity-based data helps not only in deciding target oriented prenatal diagnostic strategies but also in objective based awareness programmes in prevention of thalassemia major birth. PMID:26576156

  4. Management of Severe Bilateral Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Neonates with Prenatally Diagnosed Bilateral Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongwon; Hong, Sungwoo; Park, Chang Hoo; Park, Hongzoo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The management of prenatally detected bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) remains controversial. We attempted to develop a treatment plan for patients with severe bilateral UPJO. Materials and Methods We evaluated the records of 13 patients with prenatally diagnosed grade 3 or more bilateral hydronephrosis that led to the postnatal diagnosis of severe bilateral UPJO. Ultrasonography and 99mtechnetium mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) renal scans were performed within 1 month. Four renal units had grade 3 and 22 had grade 4 hydronephrosis. All 13 patients were managed by unilateral pyeloplasty, and the patients' mean age was 3 months. At 1 month postoperatively, we decided whether delayed surgery in the opposite renal unit was necessary according to the findings of ultrasonography and 99mTc-MAG3 scans. Results Of 13 patients, 11 underwent initial pyeloplasty on renal units with more severe hydronephrosis or lower relative renal function (RRF) on 99mTc-MAG3 scans. The remaining 2 patients simultaneously underwent percutaneous nephrostomy on renal units with a lower RRF and initial pyeloplasty on renal units with a higher RRF. In 5 patients, contralateral hydronephrosis had spontaneously improved at 1 month postoperatively, and 8 patients underwent delayed contralateral pyeloplasty at 2 months postoperatively. Conclusions In children with severe bilateral UPJO, the non-operated renal units with grade 3 and some with grade 4 hydronephrosis improved spontaneously after unilateral pyeloplasty. Therefore, delayed pyeloplasty of the opposite side should be considered at 1 month following initial pyeloplasty. PMID:20856652

  5. Consequences of Delayed Prenatal Diagnosis of β-Thalassemia in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Yan, Jin-Mei; Xie, Xing-Mei; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Li, Ru; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2016-06-01

    β-Thalassemia (β-thal) is one of the most common inherited single gene disorders in the world. The aim of this study was to describe the gestational age at prenatal diagnosis (PND) for β-thal in at-risk women in mainland China. All pregnant women at-risk for β-thal and undergoing PND at a Mainland Chinese tertiary obstetric center between January 2005 and December 2014 were included. Information required for the survey was obtained from prenatal records and delivery charts. In total, 1307 women underwent PND for β-thal. The mean gestational age for the procedure was 18.5 weeks. There were 384 (29.0%) women with fetal diagnosis in early trimester (<14 weeks), 715 (55.0%) in early second trimester (14-24 weeks), and 208 (16.0%) in late second trimester or beyond (>24 weeks). Although the proportion of patients undergoing early PND increased along with the time span, the mean n gestational age was not decreased significantly during the study period. The delay in PND deprived couples of the opportunity to make informed decisions early in pregnancy. PMID:26930109

  6. Profiling β Thalassemia Mutations in Consanguinity and Nonconsanguinity for Prenatal Screening and Awareness Programme.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravindra; Arya, Vandana; Agarwal, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Mutation spectrum varies significantly in different parts and different ethnic groups of India. Social factors such as preference to marry within the community and among 1st degree relatives (consanguinity) play an important role in impeding the gene pool of the disease within the community and so in society by and large. The present paper discusses the role of consanguinity in profiling of beta thalassemia mutation, and thus the approach for prenatal screening and prevention based awareness programme. Clinically diagnosed 516 cases of beta thalassemia were screened at molecular level. A detailed clinical Proforma was recorded with the information of origin of the family, ethnicity, and consanguinity. The present study reports that subjects originating from Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, and Jharkhand have c.92+5G>C and c.124_127delTTCT mutation as the commonest mutation compared to the subjects hailing from Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and Nepal where sickle mutation was found more common. In 40 consanguineous unions more common and specific beta mutations with higher rate of homozygosity have been reported. This consanguinity-based data helps not only in deciding target oriented prenatal diagnostic strategies but also in objective based awareness programmes in prevention of thalassemia major birth. PMID:26576156

  7. Safe, accurate, prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia using ultrasound and free fetal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chitty, Lyn S; Khalil, Asma; Barrett, Angela N; Pajkrt, Eva; Griffin, David R; Cole, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia by defining the change in fetal size across gestation and the frequency of sonographic features, and developing non-invasive molecular genetic diagnosis based on cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma. Methods Fetuses with a confirmed diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia were ascertained, records reviewed, sonographic features and measurements determined. Charts of fetal size were then constructed using the LMS (lambda-mu-sigma) method and compared with charts used in normal pregnancies and those complicated by achondroplasia. Cases in this cohort referred to our Regional Genetics Laboratory for molecular diagnosis using cffDNA were identified and results reviewed. Results Forty-two cases were scanned in our units. Commonly reported sonographic features were very short and sometimes bowed femora, frontal bossing, cloverleaf skull, short fingers, a small chest and polyhydramnios. Limb shortening was obvious from as early as 13 weeks' gestation, with minimal growth after 20 weeks. Analysis of cffDNA in three of these pregnancies confirmed the presence of the c.742C>CT (p.Arg248Cys) or the c.1948A>AG (p.Lys650Glu) mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene. Conclusion These data should improve the accuracy of the sonographic diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia and have implications for reliable and safe targeted molecular confirmation using cffDNA. © 2013 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:23408600

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Risk of Early Childhood Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C.; Heck, Julia E.; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression–based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma. PMID:23989198

  9. Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Impairs Executive Control Signals in Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bryden, Daniel W; Burton, Amanda C; Barnett, Brian R; Cohen, Valerie J; Hearn, Taylor N; Jones, Emily A; Kariyil, Reshma J; Kunin, Alice; Kwak, Sae In; Lee, Jessica; Lubinski, Brooke L; Rao, Gautam K; Zhan, Ashley; Roesch, Matthew R

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) is linked to numerous psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Current literature suggests that core deficits observed in ADHD reflect abnormal inhibitory control governed by the prefrontal cortex. Yet, it is unclear how neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is modulated during tasks that assess response inhibition or if these neural correlates, along with behavior, are affected by PNE. To address this issue, we recorded from single mPFC neurons in control and PNE rats as they performed a stop-signal task. We found that PNE rats were faster for all trial-types, made more premature responses, and were less likely to inhibit behavior on 'STOP' trials during which rats had to inhibit an already initiated response. Activity in mPFC was modulated by response direction and was positively correlated with accuracy and movement time in control but not PNE rats. Although the number of single neurons correlated with response direction was significantly reduced by PNE, neural activity observed on general STOP trials was largely unaffected. However, dramatic behavioral deficits on STOP trials immediately following non-conflicting (GO) trials in the PNE group appear to be mediated by the loss of conflict monitoring signals in mPFC. We conclude that prenatal nicotine exposure makes rats impulsive and disrupts firing of mPFC neurons that carry signals related to response direction and conflict monitoring. PMID:26189451

  10. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C; Heck, Julia E; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-10-15

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression-based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma. PMID:23989198

  11. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Adiposity, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Methylation in Offspring, Grand-Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhonghai; Zhang, Hanjie; Maher, Christina; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Champagne, Frances A.; Wu, Licheng; McDonald, Jacob D.; Yan, Beizhan; Schwartz, Gary J.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Objectives We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. Materials and Methods Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α, cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. Findings Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. Conclusions Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny. PMID:25347678

  12. Prenatal immune activation alters hippocampal place cell firing characteristics in adult animals.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Amy R; Bilkey, David K

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Adults with these disorders display alterations in memory function that may result from changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus. In the present study we use an animal model to investigate the effect that a transient prenatal maternal immune activation episode has on the spatially-modulated firing activity of hippocampal neurons in adult animals. MIA was induced in pregnant rat dams with a single injection of the synthetic cytokine inducer polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day 15. Control dams were given a saline equivalent. Firing activity and local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the CA1 region of the adult male offspring of these dams as they moved freely in an open arena. Most neurons displayed characteristic spatially-modulated 'place cell' firing activity and while there was no between-group difference in mean firing rate between groups, place cells had smaller place fields in MIA-exposed animals when compared to control-group cells. Cells recorded in MIA-group animals also displayed an altered firing-phase synchrony relationship to simultaneously recorded LFPs. When the floor of the arena was rotated, the place fields of MIA-group cells were more likely to shift in the same direction as the floor rotation, suggesting that local cues may have been more salient for these animals. In contrast, place fields in control group cells were more likely to shift firing position to novel spatial locations suggesting an altered response to contextual cues. These findings show that a single MIA intervention is sufficient to change several important characteristics of hippocampal place cell activity in adult offspring. These changes could contribute to the memory dysfunction that is associated with MIA, by altering the encoding of spatial context and by

  13. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  14. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  15. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  16. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  17. Prenatal Stress and Risk for Psychopathology: Specific Effects or Induction of General Susceptibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizink, Anja C.; Mulder, Edu J. H.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on prenatal stress as a risk factor for psychopathology. Evidence from animal studies is summarized, and the relevance of prenatal stress models in animals for human studies is discussed. In the offspring of prenatally stressed animals, overactivity and impaired negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal…

  18. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  19. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  20. Associations between prenatal physical activity, birth weight, and DNA methylation at genomically imprinted domains in a multiethnic newborn cohort.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Lauren E; Mendez, Michelle A; Miller, Erline E; Murtha, Amy P; Murphy, Susan K; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Birth weight is a commonly used indicator of the fetal environment and a predictor of future health outcomes. While the etiology of birth weight extremes is likely multifactorial, epidemiologic data suggest that prenatal physical activity (PA) may play an important role. The mechanisms underlying this association remain unresolved, although epigenetics has been proposed. This study aimed to estimate associations between prenatal PA, birth weight, and newborn DNA methylation levels at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulating 4 imprinted genes known to be important in fetal development. Study participants (N = 1281) were enrolled as part of the Newborn Epigenetics Study. Prenatal PA was ascertained using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire, and birth weight data obtained from hospital records. Among 484 term mother-infant pairs, imprinted gene methylation levels were measured at DMRs using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Generalized linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations. After adjusting for preterm birth and race/ethnicity, we found that infants born to mothers in the highest quartile of total non-sedentary time had lower birth weight compared to infants of mothers in the lowest quartile (β = -81.16, SE = 42.02, P = 0.05). These associations appeared strongest among male infants (β = -125.40, SE = 58.10, P = 0.03). Methylation at the PLAGL1 DMR was related to total non-sedentary time (P < 0.05). Our findings confirm that prenatal PA is associated with reduced birth weight, and is the first study to support a role for imprinted gene plasticity in these associations. Larger studies are required. PMID:25928716

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities: role of fetal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Imbruglia, Laura; Recupero, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Fetal ultrasonografy is the most important tool to provide prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies. The detection of limb abnormalities may be a complex problem if the correct diagnostic approch is not established. A careful description of the abnormality using the rigth nomenclature is the first step. Looking for other associated abnormalities is the threshold to suspect chromosomal abnormalities or single gene disorder. According to the patogenic point of view, limb abnormalities may be the result of malformation, deformation, or disruption. The prenatal diagnosis and the management of limb abnormalities involve a multidisciplinary team of ostetrician, radiologist/sonologist, clinical geneticist, neonatologist, and orthopedic surgeons to provide the parents with the information regarding etiology of the disorder, prognosis, option related to the pregnancy and recurrence risk for future pregnancies. The aim of this review is to describe the importance of detailed fetal ultrasonography in prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities. PMID:22439035

  2. Benign prenatal hypophosphatasia: a treatable disease not to be missed.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Michigami, Toshimi; Tachikawa, Kanako; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal bowing of the long bones is often associated with severe bone dysplasias. We report a child who presented marked bowing of the long bones at birth but showed a relatively benign postnatal course with spontaneous improvement of bowing. The fetal imaging showed normal skeletal mineralization and normal chest and abdominal circumferences despite the limb bowing and shortening. Decreased serum alkaline phosphatase activity and elevated urine phosphoethanolamine was biochemically evident, and compound heterozygous mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene were identified, which confirmed the diagnosis of a benign form of prenatal hypophosphatasia. Benign prenatal hypophosphatasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital bowing of the long bones. PMID:24145968

  3. Prenatal screening for trisomy 21: recent advances and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Canick, Jacob

    2012-06-01

    The performance of prenatal screening tests for the identification of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) has markedly improved since the 1970s and early 1980s when maternal age was the sole mode of screening the general pregnant population. With the discovery of second trimester serum markers in the 1980s and 1990s and implementation of double, triple, and quad marker testing; the discovery of first trimester serum and ultrasound markers in the 1990s and implementation of the combined test; and the development of the integrated test and sequential screening strategies over the past decade, the performance of screening has improved to a detection rate of 90%–95% at a false positive rate of 2%–5%. In this review, I will describe the advances in prenatal screening for trisomy 21, present current screening strategies, and discuss guidelines published by professional societies and regulatory bodies, with a focus on current prenatal screening practice in the USA. PMID:21790505

  4. Ethanol sensitivity in rats: effect of prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    DeTurck, K H; Pohorecky, L A

    1987-01-01

    The present study examined whether sensitivity to ethanol could be altered by prenatal stress exposure. Pregnant female rats were handled during the third week of gestation and the offspring were tested for ethanol sensitivity as adults. Compared to control offspring, the following characteristic responses to acute ethanol were significantly attenuated in prenatally stress-exposed rats: the decreases in body temperature, motor coordination and startle amplitude, and the increases in circulating corticosterone and free fatty acids. Ethanol-induced impairment of swim performance, in contrast, was potentiated in these animals. Since no differences were found in blood or breath ethanol levels, the rate of ethanol metabolism was probably not affected by prenatal stress. Rather, the altered responses appear to result from long-term changes in central nervous system sensitivity to ethanol. PMID:3659158

  5. Prenatally diagnosed urinary tract abnormalities: long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D F M

    2008-06-01

    The long-term outcomes of prenatally detected uropathies are poorly documented. Limited data on fetal intervention show a possible reduction in early mortality from pulmonary hypoplasia, but no beneficial effect on long-term prognosis for renal function. Prenatally detected vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is characterised by males with high-grade primary reflux, who are at long-term risk of renal impairment. Prenatal diagnosis and surgical intervention have contributed to a reduction in long-term morbidity in children with pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. By the same token, many children have almost certainly undergone unnecessary early pyeloplasty for an obstruction that would have resolved spontaneously. Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) carries a low (1%) risk of hypertension in childhood. The limited evidence on the long-term outcome of mild dilatation (pelvicaliectasis) indicates this is a largely innocent finding, which carries no increased risk of morbidity. PMID:18037084

  6. Commercial Landscape of noninvasive prenatal testing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashwin; Sayres, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2014-01-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could significantly change the paradigm of prenatal testing and screening. Intellectual property (IP) and commercialization promise to be important components of the emerging debate about clinical implementation of these technologies. We have assembled information about types of testing, prices, turnaround times and reimbursement of recently launched commercial tests in the United States from the trade press, news articles, and scientific, legal, and business publications. We also describe the patenting and licensing landscape of technologies underlying these tests and ongoing patent litigation in the United States. Finally, we discuss how IP issues may affect clinical translation of NIPT and their potential implications for stakeholders. Fetal medicine professionals (clinicians and researchers), genetic counselors, insurers, regulators, test developers and patients may be able to use this information to make informed decisions about clinical implementation of current and emerging noninvasive prenatal tests. PMID:23686656

  7. Prenatal triclosan exposure and cord blood immune system biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Marshall, Jean

    2016-07-01

    Triclosan is widely used as an antimicrobial agent and preservative that has been hypothesized to play a role in asthma and allergic disease. The limited body of literature regarding the allergenicity of triclosan has not evaluated prenatal exposure and subsequent potential effects on the developing immune system. The objective of the present study was to determine the association between prenatal urinary triclosan concentrations and cord blood immune system biomarker concentrations. Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Biobank and were tested for three immune system biomarkers: immunoglobulin E (IgE), thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33). Triclosan concentrations were measured in urine at 6-13 weeks gestation. No statistically significant associations were observed between prenatal triclosan concentrations and elevated concentrations of any immune system biomarker (n=1219 participants). Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine how the observed findings at birth translate into childhood. PMID:27167448

  8. Prenatal pharmacotherapy for fetal anomalies: a 2011 update.

    PubMed

    Hui, Lisa; Bianchi, Diana W

    2011-07-01

    Fetal therapy can be defined as any prenatal treatment administered to the mother with the primary indication to improve perinatal or long-term outcomes for the fetus or newborn. This review provides an update of the pharmacological therapies that are solely directed at the fetus with anomalies and outlines a future transcriptomic approach. Fetal anomalies targeted with prenatal pharmacotherapy are a heterogeneous group of structural, endocrine, and metabolic conditions, including congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital heart block, fetal tachyarrhythmias, inborn errors of metabolism, fetal thyroid disorders, and polyhydramnios. To date, the majority of pharmacotherapies for fetal anomalies have been evaluated only in retrospective, uncontrolled studies. The way forward will be with an evidence-based approach to prenatal pharmacological interventions. PMID:21638296

  9. Effect of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter on ventilatory lung function of preschool children of non-smoking mothers.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Mroz, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Spengler, John D

    2010-09-01

    Impaired fetal development is associated with a number of adult chronic diseases and it is believed that these associations arise as a result of the phenomenon of prenatal programming, which involves persisting changes in structure and function of various body organs caused by ambient factors during critical and vulnerable periods of early development. The main goal of the study was to assess the association between lung function in early childhood and prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), which represents a wide range of chemical compounds potentially hazardous for fetal development. Among pregnant women recruited prenatally to the study, personal measurements of PM(2.5) were performed over 48 h in the second trimester of pregnancy. After delivery, infants were followed for 5 years; the interviewers visited participants in their homes to record children's respiratory symptoms every 3 months in the child's first 2 years of life and every 6 months thereafter. In the fifth year of the follow-up, children were invited for standard lung function testing of levels of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced expiratory volume in 0.5 s (FEV(0.5)). There were 176 children of non-smoking mothers, who performed at least two acceptable spirometry measurements. Multivariable linear regression showed a significant deficit of FVC at the highest quartile of PM(2.5) exposure (beta coefficient = -91.9, P = 0.008), after adjustment for covariates (age, gender, birthweight, height and wheezing). Also FEV(1) level in children was inversely correlated with prenatal exposure to PM(2.5), and the average FEV(1) deficit amounted to 87.7 mL (P = 0.008) at the higher level of exposure. Although the effect of PM(2.5) exposure on FEV(0.5) was proportionally weaker (-72.7, P = 0.026), it was also statistically significant. The lung function level was inversely and significantly associated with the wheezing recorded over the follow

  10. Prenatal stress enhances responsiveness to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K; Kapasova, Zuzana; Rezner, Betsy; See, Ronald E

    2008-03-01

    Early environmental events have profound influences on a wide range of adult behavior. In the current study, we assessed the influence of maternal stress during gestation on psychostimulant and neurochemical responsiveness to cocaine, cocaine self-administration, and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in adult offspring. Pregnant, female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either no treatment or to restraint stress three times per day for the last 7 days of gestation and cocaine-related behavior was assessed in offspring at 10 weeks of age. Relative to controls, a noncontingent cocaine injection elevated locomotor activity as well as nucleus accumbens levels of extracellular dopamine and glutamate to a greater extent in both cocaine-naive and cocaine-experienced prenatal stress (PNS) rats and elevated prefrontal cortex dopamine in cocaine-experienced PNS rats. To assess the impact of PNS on cocaine addiction-related behavior, rats were trained to lever press for intravenous (i.v.) infusions of cocaine (0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg/infusion), with each infusion paired with a light+tone-conditioned stimulus. Lever-pressing was extinguished and cocaine-seeking reinstated by re-exposure to the conditioned cues or by intraperitoneal cocaine-priming injections (5 or 10 mg/kg). PNS elevated active lever responding both during extinction and cocaine-primed reinstatement, but not during self-administration or conditioned-cued reinstatement. PNS also did not alter intake during self-administration. These findings demonstrate that PNS produces enduring nervous system alterations that increase the psychomotor stimulant, motivational, and neurochemical responsiveness to noncontingent cocaine. Thus, early environmental factors contribute to an individual's initial responsiveness to cocaine and propensity to relapse to cocaine-seeking. PMID:17487224

  11. Mental retardation and prenatal methylmercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J.

    2006-03-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.

  12. Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate whether treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin associated with a lack of monitoring for toxoplasmosis seroconversion affects the prognosis of patients. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study with 246 newborns (NB) at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis in Goiânia (Brazil) between October 2003 and October 2011. We analyzed the efficacy of maternal treatment with spiramycin. Results A total of 40.7% (66/162) of the neonates were born seriously infected. Vertical transmission associated with reactivation during pregnancy occurred in 5.5% (9/162) of the NB, with one showing severe infection (systemic). The presence of specific immunoglobulins (fetal IgM and NB IgA) suggested the worst prognosis. Treatment of pregnant women by spiramycin resulted in reduced vertical transmission. When infected pregnant women did not undergo proper treatment, the risk of severe infection (neural-optical) in NB was significantly increased. Fetal IgM was associated with ocular impairment in 48.0% (12/25) of the fetuses and neonatal IgA-specific was related to the neuro-ophthalmologic and systemic forms of the disease. When acute toxoplasmosis was identified in the postpartum period, a lack of monitoring of seronegative pregnant women resulted in a higher risk of severe congenital infection. Conclusion Treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin reduces the possibility of transmission of infection to the fetus. However, a lack of proper treatment is associated with the onset of the neural-optical form of congenital infection. Primary preventive measures should be increased for all pregnant women during the prenatal period and secondary prophylaxis through surveillance of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant woman should be introduced to reduce the

  13. 76 FR 65756 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... resulting from an organizational re-design of the Postal Service. DATES: The revision will become effective... organizational re-design. Many executive titles were updated to reflect the new responsibilities of the... new structure of the revised organization. III. Description of Changes to Systems of Records...

  14. Prenatal exposure to amphetamines. Risks and adverse outcomes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Plessinger, M A

    1998-03-01

    Based on findings in humans and the confirmation of prenatal exposures in animals, amphetamines and methamphetamines increase the risk of an adverse outcome when abused during pregnancy. Clefting, cardiac anomalies, and fetal growth reduction deficits that have been seen in infants exposed to amphetamines during pregnancy have all been reproduced in animal studies involving prenatal exposures to amphetamines. The differential effects of amphetamines between genetic strains of mice and between species demonstrate that pharmacokinetics and the genetic disposition of the mother and developing embryo can have an enormous influence on enhancing or reducing these potential risks. The effects of prenatal exposure to amphetamines in producing altered behavior in humans appear less compelling when one considers other confounding variables of human environment, genetics, and polydrug abuse. In view of the animal data concerning altered behavior and learning tasks in comparison with learning deficits observed in humans, the influence of the confounding variables in humans may serve to increase the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to prenatal exposure to amphetamines. These factors and others may predispose the developing conceptus to the damaging effects of amphetamines by actually lowering the threshold of susceptibility at the sites where damage occurs. Knowledge of the effects of prenatal exposure of the fetus and the mother to designer amphetamines is lacking. Based on the few studies in which designer drugs have been examined in animal models, more questions are raised than answered. Possible reasons why no malformations or significant fetal effects were found in the study by St. Omer include the genetic strain of rat used, the conservative exposure profile, or the fact that the placenta metabolized MDMA before reaching the embryo. These questions underscore the need for further investigations concerning the prenatal exposure effects of designer compounds and

  15. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p < .001) and ADHD (p < .001) on all VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population

  16. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue. PMID:25521968

  17. Chromosomal Microarrays for the Prenatal Detection of Microdeletions and Microduplications.

    PubMed

    Wou, Karen; Levy, Brynn; Wapner, Ronald J

    2016-06-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis has replaced conventional G-banded karyotype in prenatal diagnosis as the first-tier test for the cytogenetic detection of copy number imbalances in fetuses with/without major structural abnormalities. This article reviews the basic technology of microarray; the value and clinical significance of the detection of microdeletions, microduplications, and other copy number variants; as well as the importance of genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis. It also discusses the current status of noninvasive screening for some of these microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. PMID:27235911

  18. Prenatal Diagnosis of Concurrent Achondroplasia and Klinefelter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Carbajo, Esther; Sanfrutos-Llorente, Luis; Cruz-Melguizo, Sara; Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Iglesias-Goy, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most frequent nonlethal skeletal dysplasia, with a prevalence of 1 : 5000 to 1 : 40,000 live births, and it is caused by a fibroblast growth factor receptor alteration. The combination of achondroplasia and Klinefelter syndrome is extremely rare and just four reports have been published in the literature, which were all diagnosed postnatally. We report the fifth case described of this uncommon association and its prenatal diagnosis. In cases of prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia with additional suspicious morphological abnormalities, an invasive test such as amniocentesis must be carried out to assess the karyotype normality. PMID:25789188

  19. Severe subdural hemorrhage due to minimal prenatal trauma.

    PubMed

    Piastra, Marco; Pietrini, Domenico; Massimi, Luca; Caldarelli, Massimo; De Luca, Daniele; Del Lungo, Laura Minguell; De Carolis, Maria Pia; Di Rocco, Concezio; Conti, Giorgio; Zecca, Enrico

    2009-12-01

    The authors report a case of minimal prenatal trauma producing a large subdural hematoma in the fetus, which was diagnosed in utero by MR imaging. The occurrence of such a complication is extremely rare in the absence of significant maternal trauma. Prenatally diagnosed intracranial hemorrhages, particularly those that are subdural in origin, have a poor prognosis in most cases. After birth, brain compression required a complex neurosurgical intervention because simple hematoma evacuation was not possible. The clinical and neurological outcome at 6 months was excellent, as confirmed by the neuroimaging findings. PMID:19951041

  20. Advice on Pre-natal Work and Employment

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Heather E.

    1989-01-01

    Most pregnant women are now employed during pregnancy, and almost all pregnant women do physical work of some kind. The author reviews the four major considerations in the provision of good prenatal advice for the working woman: the woman and her health status, the pregnancy itself, the job, and the woman's circumstances. Particular features of the job, including physical, chemical, biological, and psychological factors, are noted. For further information on specific work exposures, the family physician can consult expert sources. The author outlines general features of prenatal information that can be provided for all women who work during pregnancy. PMID:21248928

  1. Screening for gonorrhea in a prenatal clinic in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Goh, T H; Ngeow, Y F; Teoh, S K

    1981-01-01

    Screening by culture of endocervical specimens revealed four cases of gonorrhea among 744 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic at the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The observed prevalence of gonorrhea (0.54%) in pregnant women is similar to that in Great Britain (0.2-0.7%), but lower than the prevalences reported for North America (2.5-7.5%) and Thailand (11.9%). The results indicate that routine screening of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Malaysia would aid in the control of gonorrhea in that country. PMID:7256495

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of concurrent achondroplasia and klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perez-Carbajo, Esther; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Sanfrutos-Llorente, Luis; Cruz-Melguizo, Sara; Martinez-Payo, Cristina; Iglesias-Goy, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most frequent nonlethal skeletal dysplasia, with a prevalence of 1 : 5000 to 1 : 40,000 live births, and it is caused by a fibroblast growth factor receptor alteration. The combination of achondroplasia and Klinefelter syndrome is extremely rare and just four reports have been published in the literature, which were all diagnosed postnatally. We report the fifth case described of this uncommon association and its prenatal diagnosis. In cases of prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia with additional suspicious morphological abnormalities, an invasive test such as amniocentesis must be carried out to assess the karyotype normality. PMID:25789188

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of Chudley-McCullough syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa; Perez, Francisco A; Ishak, Gisele E; Doherty, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by a complex brain malformation and profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Postnatal brain imaging findings include ventriculomegaly, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, inferior cerebellar dysplasia, arachnoid cysts, and malformations of cortical development including frontal subcortical heterotopia and polymicrogyria. Prenatal diagnosis of CMS is important due to the markedly less severe neurodevelopmental prognosis compared to disorders with similar brain imaging findings. We report prenatal imaging features that help distinguish CMS from other disorders, including slit-like frontal horns, agenesis of the corpus callosum, frontal subcortical heterotopia, arachnoid cysts, and cerebellar dysplasia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27312216

  4. ATTENTION FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN WITH PRENATAL DRUG EXPOSURE.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Dominique A; Suchan, Boris; Schölmerich, Axel; Schneider, Dominik T; Gawehn, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children born to drug abusers are exposed to teratogenic influences on intrauterine brain development and undergo postnatal withdrawal. We investigated the interplay of different domains and levels of attention functioning in 24 prenatally exposed and 25 nonexposed children who were 5 to 6 years old. Assessment included parent ratings and neuropsychological and electrophysiological methods. Exposed children had a higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms, tended to have poorer performance in an attention test battery, and showed EEG alterations in P3 and N2c. Findings suggest long-term effects of prenatal drug exposure on specific domains and on different levels of attention functioning. PMID:26331969

  5. Controversies in Revision Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Eric S; Toriumi, Dean M

    2016-08-01

    Revision rhinoplasty is a complex operation with many variables that may influence the final esthetic and functional outcome of the procedure. Cartilage forms the structural framework of the lower two-thirds of nose and is essential for long-term support and maintenance of a patent nasal airway. The use of autologous cartilage grafting is the primary source of this material, limited by donor site quantity, quality, and harvest morbidity. Alloplastic materials, solid and injectable, are often used for augmentation purposes and may have devastating consequences. This article discusses past and current treatment concepts for various nasal deformities using available autologous grafting techniques. PMID:27400847

  6. Revision and Validation of the Revised Teacher Beliefs Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Jane

    This study revised the Teacher Beliefs Survey (S. Wooley and A. Wooley, 1999; TBS), an instrument to assess teachers beliefs related to constructivist and behaviorist theories of learning, and then studied the validity of the revised TBS. Drawing on a literature review, researchers added items for the existing constructs of the TBS and added a new…

  7. [Sugar consumption and prenatal acceleration. II. Studies on the etiology and pathophysiology of secular prenatal acceleration].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, E

    1976-12-01

    The pathophysiologic considerations support the causal relationship between the secular trend of sugar consumption in industrialized society and the development of prenatal acceleration, which is evident on the basis of epidemiological data. The excessive consumption of sugar and the other quickly absorbed "refined" carbohydrates enhances the hormonogenic effect of food which is also potentiated by the proteins. Together with the caloric overloading, provoked also by the excess in fat, characteristic for the affluent society, the excessive sugar consumption enhances in the pregnant women obesity and "protodiabetes" (PFEIFFER), in the predisposed child the tendency to hyperinsulinism with its consequences. In a prediabetic mother with normal glucose-tolerance the regularly repeated postprandial overfloating of the fetus with maternal glucose changes the feto-maternal hormonal regulation and enhances together with the overloading of substrate, i.e. energy and elements of biosyntheses, the accelerated fetal growth and especially the obesity of the large baby. PMID:1035212

  8. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  9. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  10. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  11. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  12. 21 CFR 20.26 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indexes of certain records. 20.26 Section 20.26... INFORMATION General Policy § 20.26 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at... substantially the same records. (b) Each such index will be made available through the Internet at...

  13. Magnetic Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Charles E.

    A guide to the technology of magnetic recorders used in such fields as audio recording, broadcast and closed-circuit television, instrumentation recording, and computer data systems is presented. Included are discussions of applications, advantages, and limitations of magnetic recording, its basic principles and theory of operation, and its…

  14. Differences in pregnancy outcomes, prenatal care utilization, and maternal complications between teenagers and adult women in Korea: A nationwide epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Seung Mi; Lim, Nam Gu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Sung-Hee; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Un-Na; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Teenage mothers are at high risk for maternal and neonatal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic circumstances of teenage pregnancy, and determine whether these increased risks remained after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Corporation database, we selected women who terminated pregnancy, by delivery or abortion, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Abortion, delivery type, and maternal complications were defined based on the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. We compared teenagers (13-19 years at the time of pregnancy termination) with other age groups and investigated differences based on socioeconomic status, reflected by Medical Aid (MA) and National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. We used multivariate analysis to define the factors associated with preterm delivery. Among 463,847 pregnancies, 2267 (0.49%) involved teenagers. Teenage mothers were more likely to have an abortion (33.4%) than deliver a baby when compared with other age groups (20.8%; P < 0.001). About 14.4% of teenage mothers had never received prenatal care throughout pregnancy. Among teenage mothers, 61.7% of MA recipients made fewer than 4 prenatal care visits (vs 38.8% of NHI beneficiaries) (P < 0.001). Teenage mothers more often experienced preterm delivery and perineal laceration (P < 0.001). Teenage mothers (<20 years) were 2.47 times more likely to have preterm delivery than older mothers (20-34 years; P < 0.001). Teenage mothers had higher risk of inadequate prenatal care and subsequently of preterm delivery, which remained significantly higher after adjusting for socioeconomic confounding variables and adequacy of prenatal care in Korean teenagers (P < 0.001). PMID:27559960

  15. 78 FR 41962 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... December 12, 2000 (65 FR 77677). Accordingly, the Commission is proposing to revise two existing systems of.... Records may also be maintained at subcontracted childcare center locations. Electronic Reports of...

  16. 77 FR 837 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Department of the Treasury, published its inventory of Privacy Act systems of records beginning at 74 FR... emails, please place ``Revisions to SOR'' in the subject line. Comments will be made available for...

  17. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) in New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Roisin, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy. PMID:22287891

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Benzo(a)pyrene Impairs Later-Life Cortical Neuronal Function

    PubMed Central

    McCallister, Monique M.; Maguire, Mark; Ramesh, Aramandla; Aimin, Qiao; Liu, Sheng; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Aschner, Michael; Ebner, Ford F.; Hood, Darryl B.

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants, such as Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] has been shown to impair brain development. The overarching hypothesis of our work is that glutamate receptor subunit expression is crucial for cortical evoked responses and that prenatal B(a)P exposure modulates the temporal developmental expression of glutamatergic receptor subunits in the somatosensory cortex. To characterize prenatal B(a)P exposure on the development of cortical function, pregnant Long Evans rats were exposed to low-level B(a)P (300μg/kg BW) by oral gavage on gestational days 14 to 17. At this exposure dose, there was no significant effect of B(a)P on 1) the number of pups born per litter, 2) the pre-weaning growth curves and 3) initial and final brain to body weight ratios. Control and B(a)P-exposed offspring were profiled for B(a)P metabolites in plasma and whole brain during the pre-weaning period. No detectable levels of metabolites were found in the control offspring. However, a time-dependent decrease in total metabolite concentration was observed in B(a)P-exposed offspring. On PND100-120, cerebrocortical mRNA expression was determined for the glutamatergic NMDA receptor subunit (NR2B) in control and B(a)P-exposed offspring. Neural activity was also recorded from neurons in primary somatic sensory (barrel) cortex. Semiquantitative PCR from B(a)P-exposed offspring revealed a significant 50% reduction in NR2B mRNA expression in B(a)P-exposed offspring relative to controls. Recordings from B(a)P-exposed offspring revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor -dependent neuronal activity in barrel cortex evoked by whisker stimulation was also significantly reduced (70%) as compared to controls. Analysis showed that the greatest deficit in cortical neuronal responses occurred in the shorter latency epochs from 5-20ms post-stimulus. The results suggest that in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene results in diminished mRNA expression of the NMDA NR2B receptor

  19. The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Behavior: Rodent and Primate Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Colleen F.; Adkins, Miriam M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of alcohol by women during pregnancy is a continuing problem. In this review the behavioral effects of prenatal alcohol from animal models are described and related to studies of children and adults with FASD. Studies with monkeys and rodents show that prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects neonatal orienting, attention and motor maturity, as well as activity level, executive function, response inhibition, and sensory processing later in life. The primate moderate dose behavioral findings fill an important gap between human correlational data and rodent mechanistic research. These animal findings are directly translatable to human findings. Moreover, primate studies that manipulated prenatal alcohol exposure and prenatal stress independently show that prenatal stress exacerbates prenatal alcohol-induced behavioral impairments, underscoring the need to consider stress-induced effects in fetal alcohol research. Studies in rodents and primates show long-term effects of prenatal and developmental alcohol exposure on dopamine system functioning, which could underpin the behavioral effects. PMID:21499982

  20. [Prenatal diagnosis. Review, personal and prospective studies].

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Empson, J; DeLozier, D; McGee, B; da Costa Woodson, E; Engel-de Montmollin, M; Carter, T; Lorber, C; Cassidy, S B; Millis, J; Heller, R M; Boehm, F; Vanhooydonk, J

    1979-07-01

    instruments is particularly useful in cases where a severe fetal morphologic malformation cannot currently be identified by indirect visualization (ultrasound) or by analysis of cytogenetic or molecular markers. 6. Pathological accumulations of alpha-fetoprotein which are associated with diverse feto-placental abnormalities (particularly open malformations of the neural tube) can be detected in the amniotic fluid and/or maternal blood. In extension of this approach, it is foreseeable that conditions existing prenatally will be diagnosed in a growing number of cases from the study of fetal cells and molecules which can be isolated from the venous blood of pregnant women. This will become feasible as a result of some well-developed techniques which allow separation of fetal from maternal cells and metabolites, and also to some extremely fine analytic techniques, notably examination of the DNA itself by means of restriction enzymes. PMID:88763

  1. Least explored factors associated with prenatal smoking.

    PubMed

    Masho, Saba W; Bishop, Diane L; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara B; White, Shannon; Svikis, Dace

    2013-09-01

    Poor pregnancy and birth outcomes are major problems in the United States, and maternal smoking during pregnancy has been identified as one of the most preventable risk factors associated with these outcomes. This study examines less explored risk factors of smoking among underserved African American pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an outpatient obstetrics-gynecology clinic of an inner-city university hospital in Virginia from March 2009 through January 2011 in which pregnant women (N = 902) were interviewed at their first prenatal care visit. Survey questions included items related to women's sociodemographic characteristics as well as their pregnancy history; criminal history; receipt of social services; child protective services involvement; insurance status; and history of substance abuse, domestic violence, and depression. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to calculate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals depicting the relationship between these factors and smoking during pregnancy. The analysis reported that maternal age [OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.12], less than high school education [OR = 4.30, 95 % CI = 2.27-8.14], unemployed [OR = 2.33, 95 % CI = 1.35-4.04], criminal history [OR = 1.66, 95 % CI = 1.05-2.63], receipt of social services [OR = 2.26, 95 % CI = 1.35-3.79] alcohol use [OR = 2.73, 95 % CI = 1.65-4.51] and illicit drug use [OR = 1.97, 95 % CI = 1.04-3.74] during pregnancy were statistically significant risk factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. In addition to the well known risk factors, public health professionals should be aware that criminal history and receipt of social services are important factors associated with smoking during pregnancy. Social service providers such as WIC and prisons and jails may offer a unique opportunity for education and cessation interventions during the preconception or interconception period. PMID:22903305

  2. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  3. TRICARE reimbursement revisions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-06-27

    This final rule provides several necessary revisions to the regulation in order for TRICARE to be consistent with Medicare. These revisions affect: Hospice periods of care; reimbursement of physician assistants and assistant-at-surgery claims; and diagnosis-related group values, removing references to specific numeric diagnosis-related group values and replacing them with their narrative description. PMID:22737760

  4. Gendered Performances during Peer Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the ways gender is accomplished in varied social contexts during the peer revision process in a secondary English classroom. Using a post-structural feminist theoretical framework, an analysis of classroom discourse provided a basis for understanding the performance of gender during peer revision, the effects of gender…

  5. Intervention Strategies for Infants with Prenatal Drug Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jean Gardner

    1996-01-01

    The identification of clusters of behavior that are commonly seen in infants with prenatal drug exposure is discussed, as are intervention techniques that have been successful in hospital and home programs. Reading behavioral cues, modifying the environment, and providing support for the infant's attempts at self-regulation are suggested.…

  6. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infants' Preference for Novelty and Distractibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.; Gingras, Jeannine L.; Martin, Mindy; DeBrule, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The authors used the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (J. F. Fagan, L. T. Singer, J. E. Montie, & P. A. Shepherd, 1986) to examine preferences for novelty and to evaluate several indicators of attention (off- and on-task indexes and durations) in 6- and 9-month-old infants who had been prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke only or to cocaine plus…

  7. Prenatal emotion management improves obstetric outcomes: a randomized control study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Li, He-Jiang; Wang, Jue; Mao, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Wen-Ying; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Negative emotions can cause a number of prenatal problems and disturb obstetric outcomes. We determined the effectiveness of prenatal emotional management on obstetric outcomes in nulliparas. Methods: All participants completed the PHQ-9 at the baseline assessment. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the emotional management (EM) and usual care (UC) groups. The baseline evaluation began at 31 weeks gestation and the participants were followed up to 42 days postpartum. Each subject in the EM group received an extra EM program while the participants in the UC groups received routine prenatal care and education only. The PHQ-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) were used for assessment. Results: The EM group had a lower PHQ-9 score at 36 weeks gestation, and 7 and 42 days after delivery (P < 0.01), and a lower EPDS score 42 days postpartum (P < 0.05). The rate of cesarean section in the EM group was lower than the UC group (P < 0.01), and the cesarean section rate without a medical indication was lower (P < 0.01). The duration of the second stage of labor in the EM group was shorter than the UC group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Prenatal EM intervention could control anxiety and depressive feelings in nulliparas, and improve obstetric outcomes. It may serve as an innovative approach to reduce the cesarean section rate in China. PMID:26309641

  8. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Upregulates BDNF-TrkB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Andres; Bakshi, Kalindi P; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure causes profound changes in neurobehavior as well as synaptic function and structure with compromised glutamatergic transmission. Since synaptic health and glutamatergic activity are tightly regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its cognate tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), we hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure alters BDNF-TrkB signaling during brain development. Here we show prenatal cocaine exposure enhances BDNF-TrkB signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFCX) of 21-day-old rats without affecting the expression levels of TrkB, P75NTR, signaling molecules, NMDA receptor-NR1 subunit as well as proBDNF and BDNF. Prenatal cocaine exposure reduces activity-dependent proBDNF and BDNF release and elevates BDNF affinity for TrkB leading to increased tyrosine-phosphorylated TrkB, heightened Phospholipase C-γ1 and N-Shc/Shc recruitment and higher downstream PI3K and ERK activation in response to ex vivo BDNF. The augmented BDNF-TrkB signaling is accompanied by increases in association between activated TrkB and NMDARs. These data suggest that cocaine exposure during gestation upregulates BDNF-TrkB signaling and its interaction with NMDARs by increasing BDNF affinity, perhaps in an attempt to restore the diminished excitatory neurotransmission. PMID:27494324

  9. Sonographic prenatal diagnosis of intracranial fetus in fetu.

    PubMed

    Ianniruberto, A; Rossi, P; Ianniruberto, M; Rella, G; Ciminelli, V

    2001-07-01

    A case of sonographic prenatal diagnosis of a complex intracranial mass, with features of a fetus in fetu at 17 weeks' gestation, is reported. This diagnosis is reserved for a highly organized tumor containing a vertebral column and recognizable fetal parts and should be differentiated from a teratoma. PMID:11489229

  10. Prenatal development of Crocodylus niloticus niloticus Laurenti, 1768.

    PubMed

    Peterka, Miroslav; Sire, Jean Yves; Hovorakova, Maria; Prochazka, Jan; Fougeirol, Luc; Peterkova, Renata; Viriot, Laurent

    2010-07-15

    Prenatal development in crocodilians represents a very interesting model for comparative studies. As the speed of prenatal development of crocodilians varies depending on incubation conditions, the staging of embryos and fetuses is a very important prerequisite for data correlation. To establish a background for future developmental studies on Crocodylus niloticus, we characterized its prenatal development in a collection comprising 169 animals during embryonic/incubation days 9-70. The characteristics included external morphology, head morphometry, and wet body weight determined before fixation. We documented the external morphology of prenatal Nile crocodiles in a large collection of photographs and described landmarks during the morphogenesis of the head, face and limbs. In the development of the facial processes (medial nasal, lateral nasal, maxillary), three phases could be distinguished: union, separation, reunion. At the free jaw margin, a regular series of prominences was present. The outer aspect of a prominence gave rise to a labial scale, the inner aspect to a tooth. In contrast to mammals (humans and mice), the hindlimbs of C. niloticus developed faster than the forelimbs. We also determined changes in basic measures of the head and of the wet body weight. Both morphological and morphometric characteristics showed an apparent inter-individual variability among animals of the same age. This variability decreased among animals of a similar body weight (irrespective of their age). Body weight can be considered as the most representative and complex parameter for crocodile staging reflecting the overall growth of a whole embryo/fetus. PMID:20073049

  11. Reactivity and Regulation in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy; Bendersky, Margaret; Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at elevated risk for adjustment problems in early development because of greater reactivity and reduced regulation during challenging tasks. Few studies have examined whether cocaine-exposed children show such difficulties during the preschool years, a period marked by increased social and cognitive…

  12. Intervention Strategies for the Child with Prenatal Drug Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jean Gardner

    The behavior of the infant with prenatal drug exposure (PDE) is different from a nonexposed infant, and it is a difference that changes the rules of interaction for the caregiver. Infants exposed to opiates such as heroin or methadone demonstrate very specific signs of neurobehavioral dysfunction as they go through classic withdrawal symptoms.…

  13. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  14. Prenatal Stress Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis but Spares Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Belnoue, Laure; Grosjean, Noelle; Ladevèze, Elodie

    2013-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) and the olfactory bulb (OB) are two regions of the adult brain in which new neurons are integrated daily in the existing networks. It is clearly established that these newborn neurons are implicated in specific functions sustained by these regions and that different factors can influence neurogenesis in both structures. Among these, life events, particularly occurring during early life, were shown to profoundly affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its associated functions like spatial learning, but data regarding their impact on adult bulbar neurogenesis are lacking. We hypothesized that prenatal stress could interfere with the development of the olfactory system, which takes place during the prenatal period, leading to alterations in adult bulbar neurogenesis and in olfactory capacities. To test this hypothesis we exposed pregnant C57Bl/6J mice to gestational restraint stress and evaluated behavioral and anatomic consequences in adult male offspring. We report that prenatal stress has no impact on adult bulbar neurogenesis, and does not alter olfactory functions in adult male mice. However, it decreases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the DG of the hippocampus, thus confirming previous reports on rats. Altogether our data support a selective and cross-species long-term impact of prenatal stress on neurogenesis. PMID:24009723

  15. Promoting Prenatal Health in the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKirgan, Irene

    The continuing surge of women into the work force and the tendency for women to remain on the job throughout pregnancy and to return to work within months after delivery have led companies to initiate and place increasing importance on prenatal health promotion. Such programs have been found to improve employees' prospects for healthy pregnancies…

  16. Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: Resilient or Handicapped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Cox, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    Notes that prenatal exposure to cocaine may result in broad range of deficits. Reviews pharmacological properties of cocaine critical to neurological and behavioral outcomes. Delineates specific multilevel and multidisciplinary interventions with family unit. Advocates that services for each child be based on individual strengths and weaknesses…

  17. Prenatal hyperandrogenism induces alterations that affect liver lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Heber, Maria Florencia; Ferreira, Silvana Rocio; Velez, Leandro Martin; Reynoso, Roxana; Pignataro, Omar Pedro; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hyperandrogenism is hypothesized as one of the main factors contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients have high risk of developing fatty liver and steatosis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of prenatal hyperandrogenism in liver lipid metabolism and fatty liver development. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone. At pubertal age, the prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) female offspring displayed both ovulatory (PHov) and anovulatory (PHanov) phenotypes that mimic human PCOS features. We evaluated hepatic transferases, liver lipid content, the balance between lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidant/antioxidant balance and proinflammatory status. We also evaluated the general metabolic status through growth rate curve, basal glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR index and serum lipid profile. Although neither PH group showed signs of liver lipid content, the lipogenesis and fatty oxidation pathways were altered. The PH groups also showed impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, a decrease in the proinflammatory pathway (measured by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels), decreased glucose tolerance, imbalance of circulating lipids and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that prenatal hyperandrogenism generates both PHov and PHanov phenotypes with signs of liver alterations, imbalance in lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The anovulatory phenotype showed more alterations in liver lipogenesis and a more impaired balance of insulin and glucose metabolism, being more susceptible to the development of steatosis. PMID:27179108

  18. Prenatal stress: Role in psychotic and depressive diseases

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The birth of neurons, their migration to appropriate positions in the brain, and their establishment of the proper synaptic contacts happen predominately during the prenatal period. Environmental stressors during gestation can exert a major impact on brain development and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric illnesses, such as depression and psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. Objective The objectives here are to present recent preclinical studies of the impact of prenatal exposure to gestational stressors on the developing fetal brain and discuss their relevance to the neurobiological basis of mental illness. The focus is on maternal immune activation, psychological stresses, and malnutrition, due to the abundant clinical literature supporting their role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Results Prenatal maternal immune activation, viral infection, unpredictable psychological stress, and malnutrition all appear to foster the development of behavioral abnormalities in exposed offspring that may be relevant to the symptom domains of schizophrenia and psychosis, including sensorimotor gating, information processing, cognition, social function, and subcortical hyperdopaminergia. Depression-related phenotypes, such as learned helplessness or anxiety, are also observed in some model systems. These changes appear to be mediated by the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and/or corticosteroids in the fetal compartment that alter the development the neuroanatomical substrates involved in these behaviors. Conclusion Prenatal exposure to environmental stressors alters the trajectory of brain development and can be used to generate animal preparations that may be informative in understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in several human neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20949351

  19. The Relationship between Prenatal Parental Stress and Pregnancy Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihardt, Joanne E.

    To explore the relationship between prenatal parental stress and pregnancy outcome, this study investigated the hypothesis that parents of infants with defects would report greater amounts of stress in the year prior to their infant's birth than would parents of normally developing infants. Data on levels of parental stress were obtained from 37…

  20. Digynic triploidy: utility and challenges of noninvasive prenatal testing

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Julie; Shenoy, Archana; Goetzinger, Katherine; Cottrell, Catherine E; Baldridge, Dustin; White, Frances V; Shinawi, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Low fraction fetal DNA in noninvasive prenatal testing in the context of fetal growth restriction and multiple congenital anomalies should alert medical professionals to the possibility of digynic triploidy. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray can detect the parental origin of triploidy and explain its mechanism. PMID:26185638

  1. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications. PMID:27014443

  2. Maternal Plasma DNA and RNA Sequencing for Prenatal Testing.

    PubMed

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Maarle, Merel; Henneman, Lidewij; Oudejans, Cees B M; Cornel, Martina C; Sistermans, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings. Depending on the method used (targeted or nontargeted), chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 can be detected, either of fetal or maternal origin, also referred to as unsolicited or incidental findings. For various biological reasons, there is a small chance of having either a false-positive or false-negative NIPT result, or no result, also referred to as a "no-call." Both pre- and posttest counseling for NIPT should include discussing potential discrepancies. Since NIPT remains a screening test, a positive NIPT result should be confirmed by invasive diagnostic testing (either by chorionic villus biopsy or by amniocentesis). As the scope of NIPT is widening, professional guidelines need to discuss the ethics of what to offer and how to offer. In this review, we discuss the current biochemical, clinical, and ethical challenges of cfDNA testing in the prenatal setting and its future perspectives including novel applications that target RNA instead of DNA. PMID:27117661

  3. Prenatal Depression: Best Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura H.; Gintner, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide counselors with an overview of best practices for the treatment of women who experience prenatal depression (PND). The authors first discuss issues in the screening and diagnosis of PND. Next, the 2 most common treatments, antidepressants and psychotherapy, are reviewed and discussed in relation to current…

  4. Prenatal Mood Disturbance Predicts Sleep Problems in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Thomas G.; Caprariello, Peter; Blackmore, Emma Robertson; Gregory, Alice M.; Glover, Vivette; Fleming, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Experimental animal data link prenatal stress with sleep disturbance in offspring, but the link in humans is unclear. Aims To investigate the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and depression and infant sleep disturbance from 6 to 30 months of age. Study Design Longitudinal prospective study of a large birth cohort from pregnancy to 30 months. Questionnaire measures of anxiety and depression were completed by mothers at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and at 8 weeks and 8 months postpartum Subjects The ALSPAC cohort, a prospective community study of women in the UK who have been followed since pregnancy. Outcome measures Measures of total sleep time, number of awakenings, and broadly defined sleep problems were available on children at ages 6, 18, and 30 months. Results Reliable measures of total sleep time, nighttime awakenings, and sleep problems were identified at 6, 18, and 30 months. Higher levels of prenatal maternal anxiety and depression predicted more sleep problems at 18 and 30 months, after controlling for postnatal mood and obstetric and psychosocial covariates; the association was not restricted to clinical extremes. No link with total sleep time was observed. Conclusions Mood disturbance in pregnancy has persisting effects on sleep problems in the child, a finding that is consistent with experimental animal research. The findings add to a growing literature showing that maternal prenatal stress, anxiety, and depression may have lasting effects on child development. PMID:17008033

  5. Together Forever? Romantic Relationship Characteristics and Prenatal Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2008-01-01

    Using Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Data (N = 4,871), this paper examines why relationship status matters for prenatal health behaviors. The paper argues that a mother's potential investments in her child's health are conditioned by socioeconomic and interpersonal resources, including the quality of her relationship with the child's father.…

  6. Can prenatal social stress impact sex characteristics in piglets?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) alters sex traits in rodents by androgenizing offspring resulting in reduced reproduction. In production, gestating sows are often exposed to social stress of mixing. This study examined if mixing gestating sows alters sexual development in piglets. At 34 ± 10 d of gestation, 6...

  7. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic abnormalities by array CGH analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Array CGH analysis has been shown to be highly accurate for rapid detection of chromosomal aneuploidies and submicroscopic deletions or duplications on fetal DNA samples in a clinical prenatal diagnostic setting. The objective of this study is to present our "post-validation phase" experience with ...

  8. Facilitating Visitation for Infants with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burry, Caroline Long; Wright, Lois

    2006-01-01

    Permanency planning for infants with prenatal substance exposure is challenging due to characteristics of the infants and the ongoing substance use or relapse of the parents. Visitation is a primary mechanism through which child welfare workers determine and support permanency planning. Productive use of visitation for permanency planning for…

  9. Using natural disasters to study prenatal maternal stress in humans.

    PubMed

    King, Suzanne; Laplante, David P

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies of prenatal maternal stress permit random assignment of pregnant animals to stress and no-stress groups, and allow total control of the type, severity, and timing of the stressor in utero. Human studies have obvious constraints that make the use of experimental methods nearly impossible. Studying pregnant women who experience natural disasters during pregnancy, however, approximates the random assignment to groups enjoyed by animal studies, and can characterize the timing of the stressor in utero with great precision. In this chapter, we briefly describe our three ongoing prospective longitudinal studies of children exposed to prenatal maternal stress from natural disasters. We present results from Project Ice Storm in detail, showing effects of prenatal maternal stress on cognitive and neurodevelopment. We contrast these results with preliminary findings from the Iowa Flood Study and introduce the QF2011 Queensland Flood Project. In the "Discussion" section, we present conclusions to date and discuss the relative effects of the severity of maternal objective disaster exposure and maternal subjective distress levels, the moderating effects of fetal sex and the timing of the stressor in utero, and the longevity of the effects. Finally, we discuss some possible mechanisms that may mediate the effects of prenatal maternal stress on the neurodevelopment of children. PMID:25287546

  10. Maternal prenatal stress and infant regulatory capacity in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Lin, Betty; Crnic, Keith A; Luecken, Linda J; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2014-11-01

    The early postpartum period lays important groundwork for later self-regulation as infants' dispositional traits interact with caregivers' co-regulatory behaviors to produce the earliest forms of self-regulation. Although emerging literature suggests that fetal exposure to maternal stress may be integral in determining child self-regulatory capacity, the complex pathways that characterize these early developmental processes remain unclear. The current study considers these complex, transactional processes in a low income, Mexican American sample. Data were collected from 295 Mexican American infants and their mothers during prenatal, 6- and 12-week postpartum home interviews. Mother reports of stress were obtained prenatally, and mother reports of infant temperament were obtained at 6 weeks. Observer ratings of maternal sensitivity and infant regulatory behaviors were obtained at the 6- and 12-week time points. Study results indicate that prenatal stress predicts higher levels of infant negativity and surgency, both of which directly or interactively predict later engagement in regulatory behaviors. Unexpectedly, prenatal stress also predicted more engagement in orienting, but not self-comforting behaviors. Advancing understandings about the nature of these developmental pathways may have significant implications for targets of early intervention in this high risk population. PMID:25113917

  11. Perceptions of Latinas on the Traditional Prenatal Genetic Counseling Model.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephanie; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Lemons, Jennifer; Peterson, Susan K; Carreno, Carlos; Harbison, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    The traditional genetic counseling model encompasses an individualized counseling session that includes the presentation of information about genes, chromosomes, personalized risk assessment, and genetic testing and screening options. Counselors are challenged to balance the provision of enough basic genetic information to ensure clients' understanding of the genetic condition in question with a personalized discussion of what this information means to them. This study explored the perceptions Latinas have about prenatal genetic counseling sessions and aimed to determine if they had preferences about the delivery of care. Data were collected through focus groups and one-on-one, semi-structured interviews of 25 Spanish speaking Latinas who received genetic counseling during their current pregnancy. We implemented grounded theory to evaluate participant responses, and were able to identify common emergent themes. Several themes were identified including an overall satisfaction with their prenatal genetic counseling appointment, desire for a healthy baby, peace of mind following their appointment, lack of desire for invasive testing, and faith in God. Several participants stated a preference for group genetic counseling over the traditional individual genetic counseling model. Our data indicate that Latinas value the information presented at prenatal genetic counseling appointments despite disinterest in pursuing genetic testing or screening and suggest that group prenatal genetic counseling may be an effective alternative to the traditional genetic counseling model in the Latina population. PMID:25475921

  12. Adolescent Initiation of Drug Use: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Gale A.; Larkby, Cynthia; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent drug use, while controlling for other predictors of adolescent use. Method: Data are from a longitudinal study of PCE in which women and their offspring were assessed throughout childhood. Adolescents were interviewed at 15 years about their age at…

  13. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Nathan Anthony; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Context: A popular form of pregnancy physical activity (PA) is prenatal yoga. However, little is known about the intensity and energy cost of this practice. Aims: To examine the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga. Methods: Pregnant women in a prenatal yoga class (n = 19) wore a Sense Wear Armband during eleven 60 min classes each, and self-reported demographic variables, height and weight, prepregnancy weight, and PA behaviors and beliefs. Sense Wear Armband data included kilocalories, metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and time spent in various intensities. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were utilized to describe energy expenditure and intensity. Results: Energy expenditure averaged 109 ± 8 kcals, and the average MET value was 1.5 ± 0.02. On average, 93% and 7% of classes were sedentary and moderate intensity PA, respectively. Conclusions: Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability. PMID:26865776

  14. Risk Preferences and Prenatal Exposure to Sex Hormones for Ladinos

    PubMed Central

    Aycinena, Diego; Baltaduonis, Rimvydas; Rentschler, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D), which is negatively (positively) correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen). We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups. PMID:25084091

  15. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    PubMed

    Aycinena, Diego; Baltaduonis, Rimvydas; Rentschler, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D), which is negatively (positively) correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen). We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups. PMID:25084091

  16. Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Qi, Lihong

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted…

  17. Gender-related behavior in women exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, R R

    1993-01-01

    Accumulating evidence in experimental animals over the past three decades suggests that mammalian brain development and differentiation of the central nervous system are influenced by perinatal exposure to sex hormones. Hence, changes in human behavioral patterns may be associated with prenatal exposure to estrogenic substances such as diethylstilbestrol (DES). This paper reviews relevant studies from a series of laboratories and finds that no clear-cut differences can be demonstrated to date between unexposed and DES-exposed women in gender-related behavior, although the physical and psychological impact of the problems associated with exposure to DES are well documented. If both prenatal and postnatal influences such as social, economic, and environmental factors are taken into consideration, individual variation is more apparent than differences in gender-related behavior between unexposed and DES-exposed women. In summary, gender-related behavior is determined by a complex array of interacting factors, and prenatal influences are only one of many developmental events. More studies are needed using larger populations with carefully controlled selection criteria to suggest a direct role of prenatal DES exposure on subsequent gender-related behavior. Images p208-a PMID:8404755

  18. The effect of prenatal natural disaster exposure on school outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sarah C

    2014-08-01

    This study looks at the impact of exposure to natural disasters during pregnancy on the educational outcomes of North Carolina children at the third grade level. A broad literature relates negative birth outcomes to poor educational performance, and a number of recent studies have examined the effect of prenatal exposure to natural disasters on birth outcomes. This study takes the next step by considering how prenatal exposure affects later outcomes. Combining North Carolina administrative data on births and school performance with disaster declarations from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) allows for the identification of children who were exposed to disasters during prenatal development. These children are compared with other children born in the same county who were not exposed to disasters while in utero. Regression results suggest that children exposed to hurricanes prenatally have lower scores on third grade standardized tests in math and reading. Those exposed to flooding or tornadoes also have somewhat lower math scores. Additionally, results suggest that these negative effects are more concentrated among children in disadvantaged subgroups, especially children born to black mothers. However, no evidence exists that these effects are mediated by common measures of birth outcomes, including birth weight and gestational age. PMID:24903841

  19. Prenatal alcohol exposure and thermotaxic behavior in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Zimmerberg, B; Beckstead, J W; Riley, E P

    1987-01-01

    The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on thermotaxic behavior was investigated in 5-day-old rat pups. Pregnant dams were administered a liquid diet which contained 35% ethanol-derived calories (35% EDC) on days 6 to 20 of gestation. Two control groups were included: a liquid diet control which was pair-fed and had sucrose substituted for ethanol (0% EDC), and a group fed standard lab chow (LC) throughout pregnancy. Pups from each of these prenatal treatments were tested on a thermal gradient (thermocline). On each of 5 trails, pups were placed in the cool end of the thermocline and their position along the gradient was measured after 10 min. All prenatal treatment groups displayed thermotaxic behavior by moving towards the warm end. However, pups in the 35% EDC treatment group moved significantly further towards the warm end in the later trials. Despite their position on a warmer surface, their body temperature did not rise concurrently. Thermoregulatory deficits caused by prenatal alcohol exposure might account for these results. PMID:3683345

  20. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Upregulates BDNF-TrkB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stucky, Andres; Bakshi, Kalindi P.; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure causes profound changes in neurobehavior as well as synaptic function and structure with compromised glutamatergic transmission. Since synaptic health and glutamatergic activity are tightly regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its cognate tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), we hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure alters BDNF-TrkB signaling during brain development. Here we show prenatal cocaine exposure enhances BDNF-TrkB signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFCX) of 21-day-old rats without affecting the expression levels of TrkB, P75NTR, signaling molecules, NMDA receptor—NR1 subunit as well as proBDNF and BDNF. Prenatal cocaine exposure reduces activity-dependent proBDNF and BDNF release and elevates BDNF affinity for TrkB leading to increased tyrosine-phosphorylated TrkB, heightened Phospholipase C-γ1 and N-Shc/Shc recruitment and higher downstream PI3K and ERK activation in response to ex vivo BDNF. The augmented BDNF-TrkB signaling is accompanied by increases in association between activated TrkB and NMDARs. These data suggest that cocaine exposure during gestation upregulates BDNF-TrkB signaling and its interaction with NMDARs by increasing BDNF affinity, perhaps in an attempt to restore the diminished excitatory neurotransmission. PMID:27494324

  1. Prenatal diagnosis and fetopathological investigation of dorsolumbosacral agenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Gyula Richárd; Csapó, Zsolt; Barakonyi, Emese; Nagy, Bálint; Rigó, János

    2009-01-01

    Sacral and lumbosacral spine agenesis, as characteristic signs of a rare congenital malformation--caudal regression syndrome--has been well described. However, dorsolumbosacral agenesis involving the lower thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae has rarely been reported, and prenatal diagnosis of this severe form has not been published yet. A 37-year-old woman (gravida 2, para 0) who had diabetes mellitus asked for termination of her pregnancy, because second-trimester ultrasound screening showed dorsolumbosacral agenesis of the fetus. Fetopathological examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis and showed that the lower seven thoracic and all lumbosacral segments were absent. The noticed small "bony" structure in the lumbar region supported the idea that caudal regression syndrome can be regarded as a "multisegmental" spinal dysgenesis that involves the caudal part of the spine. Reliable prenatal diagnosis of dorsolumbosacral agenesis is possible by second-trimester ultrasound. The prenatal sonologist should always try to look for and assess abnormalities during examinations. Emphasis should be placed especially on those types that have a higher risk of being present in the fetus because of the known risk factors in the particular pregnancy. Fetopathological examination emphasized the suggestion that segmental spinal dysgenesis and caudal regression syndrome may represent two faces of a single spectrum of segmental malformations of the spine and spinal cord. PMID:19185430

  2. Maternal alexithymic traits, prenatal stress, and infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Kantonen, T; Karlsson, L; Nolvi, S; Karukivi, M; Tolvanen, M; Karlsson, H

    2015-11-01

    We aimed at investigating, whether maternal alexithymia or prenatal anxiety influences infant temperament (Infant Temperament Questionnaire, IBQ) at six months. Maternal alexithymic trait of "Difficulty in Identifying Feelings" predicted higher infant "Duration of Orienting". "Fear of Bearing a Handicapped Child" predicted lower infant "Activity Level". PMID:26263082

  3. Another case of prenatally diagnosed 48,XYY,+21

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.

    1995-02-13

    We report on a 20-month-old boy with 48,XYY,+21, the third prenatally diagnosed patient with this rare double aneuploidy syndrome. A review of 14 literature cases suggests that the Down syndrome phenotype appears unaltered by the extra Y chromosome. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. [Family law, witness of the analysis of prenatal paternity].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez López, Raquel; Marfil, Jorge A; González Poveda, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyse from a scientific and legal perspective, how paternity analysis in the prenatal period can be reliably performed exactly the same as with newborns, and therefore, establish kinship in accordance with established regulations. In other words, there is an option for those who might not want to wait until birth to establish kinship. PMID:19860347

  5. Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S

    1993-01-01

    Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population. PMID:8497574

  6. Newborn Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses (ABRs): Prenatal and Contemporary Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ann D.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are a literature review and new data on correlates of newborn auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs). Concludes that disorders of the central components of the ABR may be more of prenatal than of postnatal origin. The I-V interval had low but reliable correlations with four of 11 Brazelton scale variables. (RH)

  7. Getting to Know Your Baby and Yourself: Prenatal to Birth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Grace C.

    This illustrated booklet on prenatal care and birth is part of a related curriculum on parenting and child development designed for school-age mothers. Conception, embryonic and fetal development, the birth process, nutrition during pregnancy, and emotional and physical characteristics of pregnant women are explained. Short quizzes and answers are…

  8. Student Records: Complying with Federal Privacy Laws May be Simpler than You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoop, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) was passed in 1974 and revised in 1996. This act, also known as the Buckley Amendment, guarantees parents access to their children's education records and limits the disclosure of those records. The revised law regards most information that teachers, school administrators, and education…

  9. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Eleonora RO; Guimarães, Alzira Maria DN; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo DF; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%), with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age < 18 to 34 years at delivery, low maternal schooling, low family income, two or more previous deliveries, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having no partner and prenatal care obtained outside Aracaju were associated with inadequate prenatal care use. In contrast, private service attendance protected from inadequate prenatal care use. Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use. PMID:19622174

  10. Quality of prenatal care questionnaire: instrument development and testing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Utilization indices exist to measure quantity of prenatal care, but currently there is no published instrument to assess quality of prenatal care. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ). Methods Data for this instrument development study were collected in five Canadian cities. Items for the QPCQ were generated through interviews with 40 pregnant women and 40 health care providers and a review of prenatal care guidelines, followed by assessment of content validity and rating of importance of items. The preliminary 100-item QPCQ was administered to 422 postpartum women to conduct item reduction using exploratory factor analysis. The final 46-item version of the QPCQ was then administered to another 422 postpartum women to establish its construct validity, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results Exploratory factor analysis reduced the QPCQ to 46 items, factored into 6 subscales, which subsequently were validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was also demonstrated using a hypothesis testing approach; there was a significant positive association between women’s ratings of the quality of prenatal care and their satisfaction with care (r = 0.81). Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r = 0.63) between the “Support and Respect” subscale of the QPCQ and the “Respectfulness/Emotional Support” subscale of the Prenatal Interpersonal Processes of Care instrument. The overall QPCQ had acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.96), as did each of the subscales. The test-retest reliability result (Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.88) indicated stability of the instrument on repeat administration approximately one week later. Temporal stability testing confirmed that women’s ratings of their quality of prenatal care did not change as a result of giving

  11. Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues explored

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Frints, Suzanne G M; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ethical implications of introducing non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests (NIPD tests) in prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities. NIPD tests are easy and safe and can be performed early in pregnancy. Precisely because of these features, it is feared that informed consent may become more difficult, that both testing and selective abortion will become ‘normalized', and that there will be a trend towards accepting testing for minor abnormalities and non-medical traits as well. In our view, however, the real moral challenge of NIPD testing consists in the possibility of linking up a technique with these features (easy, safe and early) with new genomic technologies that allow prenatal diagnostic testing for a much broader range of abnormalities than is the case in current procedures. An increase in uptake and more selective abortions need not in itself be taken to signal a thoughtless acceptance of these procedures. However, combining this with considerably enlarging the scope of NIPD testing will indeed make informed consent more difficult and challenge the notion of prenatal screening as serving reproductive autonomy. If broad NIPD testing includes later-onset diseases, the ‘right not to know' of the future child will become a new issue in the debate about prenatal screening. With regard to the controversial issue of selective abortion, it may make a morally relevant difference that after NIPD testing, abortion can be done early. A lower moral status may be attributed to the foetus at that moment, given the dominant opinion that the moral status of the foetus progressively increases with its development. PMID:19953123

  12. Mutation-based prenatal diagnosis of Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Christiano, A M; Pulkkinen, L; McGrath, J A; Uitto, J

    1997-04-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of heritable diseases which manifest with blistering and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes. Due of life-threatening complications and significant long-term morbidity associated with the severe, neonatal lethal (Herlitz) form of junctional EB (H-JEB), there has been a demand for prenatal diagnosis from families at risk for recurrence. Previously, the only reliable method of prenatal diagnosis of EB was a fetal skin biopsy performed at 16-20 weeks' gestation and analysed by electron microscopy. Recently, the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, encoding the polypeptide subunits of laminin 5, an anchoring filament protein, have been shown to contain mutations in H-JEB. In this study, direct detection of pathogenetic mutations in the laminin 5 genes was used to perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based prenatal testing. DNA was obtained by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at 10-15 weeks or amniocentesis at 12-19 weeks' gestation in 15 families at risk for recurrence of JEB. In 13 cases, the fetus was predicted to be either genetically normal or a clinically unaffected carrier of a mutation in one allele. These predictions have been validated in all cases by the birth of a healthy child. In two cases, an affected fetus was predicted, and the diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent fetal skin biopsy. These results demonstrate that DNA-based prenatal testing offers an early, expedient, and accurate method of prenatal diagnosis or an exclusion of Herlitz JEB. PMID:9160387

  13. Predictors of bone loss in revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Michael R; Klika, Alison K; Lee, Ho H; Joyce, David M; Mehta, Priyesh; Barsoum, Wael K

    2010-03-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) requires preoperative planning to enable the reconstruction of bony deficiencies. The objective of this project was to identify predictors of bone loss management at RTKA based on the preoperative failure mode and patient demographics known preoperatively. We retrospectively reviewed 245 consecutive RTKA procedures in which the same revision knee system was utilized. Patient demographic and treatment data were recorded, and locations of bone loss were identified based on the reconstructive management. We identified significant predictors for use of femoral augments at all four positions. Several predictors significantly predisposed to use of a thick (>19 mm) polyethylene; however, no predictors of tibial augments were significant. Although the reconstruction of bone loss is primarily based on the intraoperative assessment, these findings may provide additional information to help the surgeon prepare for difficult revision procedures. PMID:20812582

  14. Prenatal stress puzzle, the oxytocin piece: Prenatal stress alters the behaviour and autonomic regulation in piglets, insights from oxytocin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental changes in response to prenatal stressors (PNS) may represent an adaptive strategy to enhance survival traits in the offspring. Yet, PNS could be maladaptive for captive animals, causing anxiety and abnormal social development. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety, whereas OT deficiencies are...

  15. Helical recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, P. T.; Studer, P. A.; Tyler, A. L.

    1969-01-01

    Tape recorder, using metallic tape, has a minimum of moving parts and no belts. It permits long-term bulk storage in extreme environments, and has less weight and bulk than present recording equipment.

  16. Does prenatal methamphetamine exposure induce cross-sensitization to cocaine and morphine in adult male rats?

    PubMed

    Slamberová, R; Yamamotová, A; Pometlová, M; Schutová, B; Hrubá, L; Nohejlová-Deykun, K; Nová, E; Macúchová, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure to challenge dose of cocaine or morphine. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed) were divided to groups with challenge doses of saline (1 ml/kg), cocaine (5 mg/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg). Behavior in unknown environment was examined in Laboras, nociception in Plantar test, and active drug-seeking behavior in conditioned place preference (CPP). Our data demonstrate that cocaine increased the exploratory activity in Laboras test in prenatally saline-exposed, but decreased it in prenatally MA-exposed rats. An analgesic effect of cocaine was demonstrated only by the tail withdrawal and it was independent of the prenatal drug exposure. CPP test showed that prenatal MA exposure induced rather tolerance than sensitization to cocaine. In contrast to cocaine effects, morphine decreased rearing activity in both, prenatally MA-exposed and saline-exposed rats, and locomotion only in prenatally MA-exposed rats in the Laboras. In the Plantar test, the results demonstrated that morphine had an analgesic effect in prenatally saline-exposed rats but this effect was suppressed in prenatally MA-exposed rats. In the CPP test morphine induced drug-seeking behavior, which however was not affected by prenatal drug exposure. Thus, our data demonstrate that there is a cross-effect between prenatal MA exposure and the challenge dose of other drug in adulthood, however drug-seeking behavior is not increased by prenatal MA exposure as we expected. PMID:22980560

  17. Revising probability estimates: Why increasing likelihood means increasing impact.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Sam J; Polman, Evan

    2016-08-01

    Forecasted probabilities rarely stay the same for long. Instead, they are subject to constant revision-moving upward or downward, uncertain events become more or less likely. Yet little is known about how people interpret probability estimates beyond static snapshots, like a 30% chance of rain. Here, we consider the cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of revisions to probability forecasts. Stemming from a lay belief that revisions signal the emergence of a trend, we find in 10 studies (comprising uncertain events such as weather, climate change, sex, sports, and wine) that upward changes to event-probability (e.g., increasing from 20% to 30%) cause events to feel less remote than downward changes (e.g., decreasing from 40% to 30%), and subsequently change people's behavior regarding those events despite the revised event-probabilities being the same. Our research sheds light on how revising the probabilities for future events changes how people manage those uncertain events. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281350

  18. Annotation and Classification of Argumentative Writing Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the annotation and classification of students' revision behaviors in argumentative writing. A sentence-level revision schema is proposed to capture why and how students make revisions. Based on the proposed schema, a small corpus of student essays and revisions was annotated. Studies show that manual annotation is reliable with…

  19. Prenatal exposure to antibiotics, cesarean section and risk of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, NT; Whyatt, R; Hoepner, L; Oberfield, S; Dominguez-Bello, MG; Widen, EM; Hassoun, A; Perera, F; Rundle, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Cesarean section (CS) and antibiotic use during pregnancy may alter normal maternal-offspring microbiota exchange, thereby contributing to aberrant microbial colonization of the infant gut and increased susceptibility to obesity later in life. We hypothesized that (i) maternal use of antibiotics in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and (ii) CS are independently associated with higher risk of childhood obesity in the offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS Of the 727 mothers enrolled in the Northern Manhattan Mothers and Children Study, we analyzed the 436 mother–child dyads followed until 7 years of age with complete data. We ascertained prenatal antibiotic use by a questionnaire administered late in the third trimester, and delivery mode by medical record. We derived age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores using the CDC SAS Macro, and defined obesity as BMI z ≥ 95th percentile. We used binary regression with robust variance and linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, pre-gravid BMI, maternal receipt of public assistance, birth weight, sex, breastfeeding in the first year and gestational antibiotics or delivery mode. RESULTS Compared with children not exposed to antibiotics during the second or third trimester, those exposed had 84% (33–154%) higher risk of obesity, after multivariable adjustment. Second or third trimester antibiotic exposure was also positively associated with BMI z-scores, waist circumference and % body fat (all P<0.05). Independent of prenatal antibiotic usage, CS was associated with 46% (8–98%) higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Associations were similar for elective and non-elective CS. CONCLUSIONS In our cohort, CS and exposure to antibiotics in the second or third trimester were associated with higher offspring risk of childhood obesity. Future studies that address the limitations of our study are warranted to determine if prenatal antibiotic use is associated with

  20. 78 FR 77549 - Revise Notice of Intent for an Environmental Impact Statement: State Route (SR) 95 Realignment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... facilitate project decision-making. This notice revises the NOI that was published in the Federal Register on... the completion of the environmental study. If the Record of Decision indicates that FHWA has...

  1. Exchange lists: revised 1986.

    PubMed

    Franz, M J; Barr, P; Holler, H; Powers, M A; Wheeler, M L; Wylie-Rosett, J

    1987-01-01

    A committee composed of members of The American Dietetic Association and the American Diabetes Association has revised Exchange List for Meal Planning. Changes were made, as deemed necessary, on the basis of nutritional recommendations for persons with diabetes as understood in 1986. Major changes include rewriting the text to make it more useful in the education of persons with diabetes; changing the order of the exchange lists to emphasize a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet, as well as to better reflect the order of foods in menu planning; adding symbols to foods high in fiber and sodium; changing nutritive values for the starch/bread and fruit lists; adding lists of combination foods, free foods, and foods recommended only for occasional use; developing a data base; and initiating a plan for field testing and evaluation. The committee also developed a simplified meal planning tool, Healthy Food Choices, to be used for initial or "survival" level education. In poster format, foods are grouped by calories into six food groups. Approximate portion sizes of commonly used foods are listed. Blank lines are provided for the nutrition counselor to write in a suggested menu or meal plan for the client. Because the booklet does not use the word "diabetes" specifically, it is appropriate as a general teaching tool. PMID:3794130

  2. OMB revises overhead rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    After pressure from university administrators, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has issued a new plan for saving money on research overhead costs, in place of a controversial proposal that was originally published in February 1986 (Eos, May 20, 1986, p. 481). The agency made the new plan more palatable to administrators and faculty by choosing to cap the rate of reimbursement for the activity that researchers say they find among the most difficult to document: the time they spend on administration of federally sponsored grants and contracts. An amendment to a bill signed by President Ronald Reagan on July 2 might force OMB to make additional concessions to colleges and universities.How much money the federal government would save under this policy is a matter of dispute. The agency's revisions to OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions,” call for fixing the reimbursement rate at 3% of modified total direct costs for departmental administration work done by “department heads, directors of divisions faculty, and professional staff.” The 3% figure represents about half of the current national average rate of reimbursement for these costs and would lead to federal government savings of $100 million a year, according to OMB.

  3. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in 10 Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Forde, Martin S; Dewailly, Eric; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Dumas, Pierre; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country' samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized. PMID:24968083

  4. Does prenatal care benefit maternal health? A study of post-partum maternal care use.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on prenatal care focus on its effects on infant health, while studying less about the effects on maternal health. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan in a recursive bivariate probit model, this study examines the impact of adequate prenatal care on the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization during the first 6 months after birth. The results show that adequate prenatal care significantly reduces the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization among women who have had vaginal delivery by 43.8%. This finding suggests that the benefits of prenatal care may have been underestimated among women with vaginal delivery. Timely and adequate prenatal care not only creates a positive impact on infant health, but also yields significant benefits for post-partum maternal health. However, we do not find similar benefits of prenatal care for women undergoing a cesarean section. PMID:26189913

  5. Attitudes among Danes toward prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Uldall, Sigurd W; Norup, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Denmark offers public financed prenatal testing (PNT) to all pregnant women, but results are typically not available until after 12 weeks gestation, which is also the time limit for termination of pregnancy (TOP) on request. Committees decide on requests for later TOP. In a questionnaire survey, we investigated attitudes among Danes toward these issues. We also asked for opinions on two claims commonly found in the debate concerning women's right to decide on TOP in relation to PNT. One thousand people aged 18-45 years were drawn randomly from the national personal register. The response rate was 49%. Women and older respondents were overrepresented and may have caused a bias toward conservative attitudes. A majority supported the current PNT program and time limit for TOP on request, but only one-third supported committees deciding on all cases of late TOP. The implications of prenatal testing results becoming more accessible are discussed. PMID:23210604

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis Innovation: Genome Sequencing of Maternal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Felix C K; Lo, Y M Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is accomplished by analysis of circulating cell-free fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma. The advent of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has enabled NIPT of chromosomal aneuploidies with unprecedented robustness, and these tests are now widely available for clinical use. Moreover, MPS-based NIPT of subchromosomal deletions/duplications and single-gene disorders has also been achieved, and the number of applications is growing. In addition to specific fetal genetic disorders, the whole fetal genome, transcriptome, and methylome have been revealed by deep sequencing of maternal plasma. The analysis of the fetal transcriptome and methylome may yield valuable information on fetal and maternal health. With continued improvement in sequencing technology and reduction in sequencing costs, the analysis of cell-free nucleic acids would play an increasingly important role in prenatal screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and risk stratification of fetal as well as maternal conditions. PMID:26473414

  7. Nondirectiveness in prenatal genetics: patients read between the lines.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G

    1999-03-01

    For decades questionnaires have been used to measure the cognitive and psychological effects of prenatal genetic testing, but little is known about why some women undergo testing and others decline. Research indicates that many factors influence decision making, including values and beliefs. What is often denied rather than recognized is that the professional and personal values and beliefs held by the health care provider influence the patient's decision. It is assumed that, if genetic services are delivered in a nondirective manner, patients will not be affected by the provider's personal and professional standpoint. The qualitative research data reported here challenge this assumption. Getting to know patients' moral understanding and patterns of ethical reasoning by listening to their personal stories is recommended as a better way for nurses to help patients to make informed and autonomous decisions about prenatal genetic screening or diagnostic tests. PMID:10358528

  8. Prenatal sonographic features of fetuses in trisomy 13 pregnancies. IV.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2010-03-01

    Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful tool to detect structural abnormalities associated with the fetuses in trisomy 13 pregnancies. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal sonographic markers of trisomy 13 in the first trimester, including fetal nuchal translucency thickness, fetal heart rate, fetal nasal bone, fetal tricuspid regurgitation, ductus venous flow, fetal crown-rump length, fetal trunk and head volume, fetal frontomaxillary facial angle, gestational sac volume and umbilical cord diameter, along with biochemical markers such as maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, maternal serum placental growth factor, and the fetal and total cell-free DNA concentration in the maternal circulation. PMID:20466286

  9. How do obstetric providers discuss referrals for prenatal genetic counseling?

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Barbara A; Haunstetter, Carrie Mastromarino; Roter, Debra; Geller, Gail

    2005-04-01

    To investigate referrals of pregnant women to genetic counseling, we analysed transcripts from audiotaped first prenatal visits of 104 patients (72 actual patient visits and 32 simulated patient visits) with 32 providers (obstetricians and nurse-midwives). All patients had at least one indication for referral. Only 10% of visits with actual patients included a genetic counseling referral. When genetic counseling was discussed, it was only briefly described, primarily as an information session. This study shows that the majority of pregnant women with an indication for referral for genetic counseling are not referred. In addition, obstetric providers' inadequate descriptions of prenatal genetic counseling may result in women being poorly prepared for genetic counseling sessions. PMID:15959642

  10. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Birnkrant, Jennifer M; Carmody, Dennis P; Lewis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and pubertal development. Children (n=192; 41% with PCE) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (Petersen et al. 1988) and provided salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) samples at 6month intervals from 11 to 13years. PCE was examined as a predictor of pubertal status, pubertal tempo, and DHEA levels in mixed models analyses controlling for age, sex, environmental risk, neonatal medical problems, other prenatal exposures, and BMI. PCE interacted with age such that PCE predicted slower pubertal tempo during early adolescence. PCE also interacted with age to predict slower increases in DHEA levels during early adolescence. These findings suggest that PCE may affect pubertal development and, if slower pubertal tempo continues, could lead to delayed pubertal status in mid-adolescence. PMID:25446013

  11. Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: risks outweigh benefits.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by administering dexamethasone to a woman presumed to be carrying an at-risk fetus has been described as safe and effective in several reports. A review of data from animal experimentation and human trials indicates that first-trimester dexamethasone decreases birthweight; affects renal, pancreatic beta cell, and brain development; increases anxiety; and predisposes to adult hypertension and hyperglycemia. In human studies, first-trimester dexamethasone is associated with orofacial clefts, decreased birthweight, poorer verbal working memory, and poorer self-perception of scholastic and social competence. Numerous medical societies have cautioned that prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone should only be done in prospective clinical research settings with institutional review board approval, and therefore is not appropriate for routine community practice. PMID:23123167

  12. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making. PMID:26530119

  13. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is limited evidence about the medical and psychological risks ofsurrogacy. Whether theoretical concerns about these risks are clinically relevant remains unknown. In the face of these uncertainties, the prenatal health care provider should have a low threshold for seeking obstetrical, social work, ethical and legal support. PMID:17296962

  14. Prenatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Ornoy, A; Weinstein-Fudim, L; Ergaz, Z

    2015-08-15

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal etiologies. We discuss the known associated prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy; whenever relevant, also summarize some animal data. Among the maternal diseases in pregnancy associated with ASD are pregestational and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM, GDM), maternal infections (i.e. rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV)), prolonged fever and maternal inflammation, which cause changes in a variety of inflammatory cytokines. Among the drugs are valproic acid, thalidomide, and possibly misoprostol and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Associations were described with ethanol, and possibly cocaine, heavy metals heavy smoking and Folic acid deficiency. Heavy exposure to pesticides and air pollution during pregnancy was recently associated with ASD. We need more epidemiologic data to establish many of these associations; if proven, they might be promising avenues for prevention. PMID:26021712

  15. Prenatal Diagnosis and Pregnancy Outcome Analysis of Polyhydramnios.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Ling; Pang, Li-Hong; Deng, Bi-Ye

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the etiology and pregnancy outcomes in mothers with polyhydramnios through prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy outcome analysis of pregnant women with polyhydramnios. One hundred and thirty women were enrolled. Fifty pregnant women with polyhydramnios were categorized as the case group, and 80 pregnant women with normal amniotic fluid were categorized as the control group. The causes of polyhydramnios and the pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. Two cases had chromosomal abnormalities, seven had severe α-thalassemia, 15 had fetal anomalies, four had maternal-fetal diseases and 22 had unexplained idiopathic polyhydramnios. Significantly, higher occurrences of cesarean section, preterm birth, fetal anomaly, fetal distress, fetal macrosomia and female fetuses occurred in patients with polyhydramnios than in patients without polyhydramnios. Polyhydramnios is associated with a higher occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes. Intensive monitoring of the maternal-fetal condition and prenatal diagnosis is important in patients with polyhydramnios. PMID:26720631

  16. Wrongful births. When is there liability for prenatal injury?

    PubMed

    Fleisher, L D

    1987-12-01

    Every jurisdiction recognizes the right of a child to recover damages for prenatal injury caused by the negligence of a third party. This concept of liability for prenatal injury has been extended to include the right of parents (and sometimes the child) to recover damages from a physician who negligently deprives them of the opportunity to prevent the "wrongful birth" of an affected child. The most troubling question to arise, however, is whether a pregnant woman has a legal duty to avoid negligent behavior that may injure her future child. The unique and compelling conflicts that surround the recognition of such a prematernal duty encompass the child's right to be born free of any negligently induced injury and the pregnant woman's rights to personal privacy and bodily autonomy. PMID:3687865

  17. Outcome of 116 moderate renal pelvis dilatations at prenatal ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Lepercq, J; Beaudoin, S; Bargy, F

    1998-01-01

    To determine the incidence of urinary tract abnormalities detected in the presence of moderate fetal renal pelvis dilatation, we followed up pre- and postnatally 116 fetuses and children between 1985 and 1995. At prenatal ultrasound, 50 (43%) fetuses showed regressive dilatations, 57 (49%) a stable pattern, and 9 (8%) an evolutive pattern. In the presence of an evolutive dilatation, urinary tract obstruction was present in 8 cases. When a stable pattern was observed, i.e., a patent uropathy was present, surgical correction was performed in 27 of 53 (51%) cases. Regarding the postnatal evolution of 50 prenatal regressive moderate dilatations, we observed in 12 of 50 (24%) vesicoureteric reflux, of which 5 (10%) required surgical correction, and it is concluded that careful and extensive follow-up is mandatory. PMID:9650651

  18. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Dan R

    2007-02-13

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is limited evidence about the medical and psychological risks of surrogacy. Whether theoretical concerns about these risks are clinically relevant remains unknown. In the face of these uncertainties, the prenatal health care provider should have a low threshold for seeking obstetrical, social work, ethical and legal support. PMID:17296962

  19. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.; Birnkrant, Jennifer M.; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and pubertal development. Children (n=192; 41% with PCE) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (Petersen, et al. 1988) and provided salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) samples at 6 month intervals from 11 to 13 years. PCE was examined as a predictor of pubertal status, pubertal tempo, and DHEA levels in mixed models analyses controlling for age, sex, environmental risk, neonatal medical problems, other prenatal exposures, and BMI. PCE interacted with age such that PCE predicted slower pubertal tempo during early adolescence. PCE also interacted with age to predict slower increases in DHEA levels during early adolescence. These findings suggest that PCE may affect pubertal development and, if slower pubertal tempo continues, could lead to delayed pubertal status in mid-adolescence. PMID:25446013

  20. [Prenatal discovery of Joubert syndrome associated with small bowel volvulus].

    PubMed

    Aurégan, C; Donciu, V; Millischer, A-E; Khen-Dunlop, N; Deloison, B; Sonigo, P; Magny, J-F

    2016-03-01

    Joubert syndrome and prenatal volvulus are difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. Joubert syndrome and related diseases should be considered in case of prenatal abnormal features of the fourth ventricle. Small bowel volvulus is also a surgical emergency because of the risk of intestinal necrosis before or after delivery. This type of condition justifies the transfer of pregnant women to a specialized hospital where the newborn may receive appropriate care. We report the case of a 31-week and 4-day gestational-age fetus in whom intrauterine growth retardation and small-bowel volvulus were diagnosed. Additional imaging revealed associated Joubert syndrome. This highlights the need for regular ultrasound monitoring during pregnancy and the comanagement of obstetricians and pediatricians to provide appropriate care before and after delivery. PMID:26850151

  1. Revision of the genus Alkindus Distant (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Thyreocoridae: Corimelaeninae).

    PubMed

    Matesco, Viviana Cauduro; Grazia, Jocelia

    2013-01-01

    The neotropical genus Alkindus Distant is revised based on morphological characters (general morphology, including the external scent efferent system and leg structures, and external genital morphology). The male of Alkindus crassicosta Horvath is here described for the first time. Illustrations, an adapted key to species, and a compiled list of plants associated with both species are provided. Distribution records are expanded to include Guatemala and Brazil (Roraima) for Alkindus atratus Distant and Brazil (Santa Catarina) for A. crassicosta. PMID:25113677

  2. Revision of the Rhinophoridae (Diptera: Calyptratae) of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, Daichi; Tachi, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese species of the family Rhinophoridae are revised. Melanophora roralis (Linnaeus) is newly recorded from Japan and is hypothesized as having been introduced to the country; one species, Acompomintho itoshimensis sp. nov., is described as new. Images of the habitus, wing and male terminalia are provided for all four Japanese species, together with an identification key and a map showing their distribution. PMID:27615871

  3. Clinical outcome and follow-up of prenatal hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Asl, Afshin Safaei; Maleknejad, Shohreh

    2012-05-01

    Hydronephrosis is probably the most common congenital abnormality detected prenatally by ultrasonography This study was performed to determine the cause and outcome of prenatal hydronephrosis in our hospital. A total of 45 infants, with 57 prenatally hydronephrotic renal units, were enrolled into this study. For the purpose of this study, the degree of hydronephrosis was defined as mild, moderate or severe. Postnatal ultrasonography was performed as soon as possible in those with bilateral hyronephrosis and 3-7 days after birth in those with unilateral hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrogram was performed in 6-8 weeks time. In the absence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), diethylenetriamene penta acetate scan was performed to exclude obstructive uropathy. There were 29 males and 16 females (male:female ratio 1.8:1), and unilateral and bilateral hydronephrosis were seen in 33 (73%) and 12 (27%) of the cases, respectively. Hydronephrosis was caused by ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in 20 (44.5%), VUR in 10 (22.2%), ureterovesical junction obstruction in four (8.9 %), posteriorurethral valves in four (8.9 %), UPJO with VUR in two (4.4%) and non-VUR non-obstructive in one (2.2%). During follow-up, 16 patients (35.5%) required operative intervention while seven (15.5%) improved spontaneously. Fetal hydronephrosis needs close follow-up during both ante-natal and postnatal periods. In this study, the most common cause for hydronephrosis were UPJO and VUR. Also seen in this study is the noteworthy point that mild fetal hydronephrosis is relatively benign and does not require surgical intervention in most cases and surgery should be performed only if there is renal function compromise. Prenatal consultation with a pediatric nephrologist and urologist is useful in decreasing parental anxiety and facilitating postnatal management. PMID:22569439

  4. The management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction presenting with prenatal hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Herndon, C D Anthony; Kitchens, David M

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of the newborn diagnosed with a ureteropelvic obstruction prenatally should follow a systematic approach. Although a majority of patients can be followed without surgical intervention, controversy exists concerning appropriate follow-up. Furthermore, a significant number of patients will manifest mild disease and thus deserve abbreviated follow-up. Herein, an appropriate algorithm and a review of the literature are discussed. PMID:19484161

  5. Prenatal Diagnosis of Tectocerebellar Dysraphia with Occipital Encephalocele

    PubMed Central

    Sanhal, Cem Y; Tokmak, Aytekin; Müftüoglu, Kamil H; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Tectocerebellar dysraphia (TCD) is an extremely rare disorder and comprises the congenital abnormalities including occipital encephalocele, aplasia and/or hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis and deformity of tectum. Only few reported cases of this entity are there in the literature. However, the diagnosis in each of the previous cases had been made after birth. We herein describe the first reported case of prenatal diagnosis for TCD in a Turkish woman. PMID:26816952

  6. Effectiveness of a combined prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation program.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Anne; Adams, Laurie; Tallman, Nancy; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Women frequently quit smoking during pregnancy but then relapse postpartum. The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program combines prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation counseling and biomarker feedback with monthly postpartum incentives. The settings included 22 sites (WIC offices and prenatal clinics) in upstate New York. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate this intervention, that included four face-to-face prenatal sessions with a counselor who did smoking cessation counseling, carbon monoxide testing and random saliva cotinine testing. For 1 year postpartum, mothers were biochemically tested every 3-4 weeks and, if negative, were issued a voucher for diapers. Three implementation models were studied: multi-tasking counselors at fixed sites (Models 1 and 2) versus itinerant smoking cessation specialists (Model 3). Outcomes included biochemically validated abstinence rates during pregnancy and postpartum. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of postpartum abstinence and program dropout. Proportional hazards regression was used to compare implementation models. Of the 777 pregnant women who enrolled in the program, 588 were eligible for the postpartum program. The intention to treat pregnancy quit rate was 60%. Postpartum, Model 3 showed consistently better quit outcomes than the other models. Predictors of abstinence at 6 months postpartum are: older age (OR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.12), lower baseline carbon monoxide level (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. 0.49-0.97), Model 3 (OR = 4.60, 95% C.I. 2.80-7.57) and attending more prenatal sessions (OR = 3.52; 95% C.I. 2.19-5.65). The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program is an effective smoking cessation program for pregnant and parenting women. PMID:20091107

  7. Prenatal exposure to phthalates and neuropsychological development during childhood.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Valvi, Damaskini; Forns, Joan; Casas, Maribel; Martínez, David; Júlvez, Jordi; Monfort, Núria; Ventura, Rosa; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-08-01

    There is inconsistent evidence regarding the effects of prenatal phthalate exposure on children's neuropsychological development. We evaluate the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and the cognitive, psychomotor and behavioral development of 367 children at repeated ages in a prospective birth cohort study. We measured phthalate metabolites (sum of four DEHP metabolites - Σ4DEHP, MBzP, MEP, MiBP and MnBP) in urine samples collected during the 1st and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy in women participating in the INMA-Sabadell birth cohort study. We assessed cognitive and psychomotor development of their children at 1 and 4 years, and social competence, ADHD symptoms and other behavioral problems at 4 and 7 years. No associations were observed between prenatal phthalate exposure and cognitive and psychomotor scores at the age of 1 year and at the age of 4 years, except for an association between MBzP and lower psychomotor scores (β=-1.49 [95% confidence interval (CI)=-2.78, -0.21]). Σ4DEHP concentrations were associated with increased social competence scores at 4 years and with reduced ADHD symptoms at age 4 and 7 years. Increasing MEP concentrations were associated with a reduced risk of inattention symptoms at 4 years. No associations were observed for MBzP, MiBP or MnBP in relation to behavioral problems. This study, with multiple phthalate exposure measurements and measures of neuropsychological domains at different ages, suggest that prenatal phthalate exposure does not adversely affect children's cognitive, psychomotor or behavioral development. PMID:26095249

  8. Prenatal assessment of a fast-growing giant epignathus.

    PubMed

    Faghfouri, Farahnaz; Bucourt, Martine; Garel, Catherine; Benchimol, Michel; Amarenco, Brigitte; Soupre, Véronique; Benbara, Amélie; Carbillon, Lionel

    2014-02-01

    Epignathus is a very rare fetal tumor. We report a case of fast-growing giant epignathus with severe distortion of the right part of the face and orbit. A thorough prenatal work-up was performed by the association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonography. A multidisciplinary approach was crucial to assess the operability and provide careful counseling to help parents understand and reach decision. PMID:24164281

  9. Trogocytosis as a mechanistic link between chimerism and prenatal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Alhajjat, Amir M; Strong, Beverly S; Durkin, Emily T; Turner, Lucas E; Wadhwani, Ram K; Midura, Emily F; Keswani, Sundeep G; Shaaban, Aimen F

    2013-01-01

    In utero hematopoietic cellular transplantation (IUHCT) holds great promise for the treatment of congenital diseases of cellular dysfunction such as sickle cell disease, immunodeficiency disorders and inherited metabolic disorders. However, repeated failures in clinical cases of IUHCT that do not involve an immunodeficiency disease force a closer examination of the fetal immune system. While the mechanisms regulating T cell tolerance have been previously studied, the educational mechanisms leading to NK cell tolerance in prenatal chimeras remain unknown. As a low level of donor cells (1.8%) is required to induce and maintain this tolerance, it is likely that these mechanisms employ indirect host-donor interaction. This report examines donor-to-host MHC transfer (trogocytosis) as an intrinsic mechanism regulating the development and maintenance of NK cell tolerance in prenatal chimeras. The findings demonstrate that phenotypically tolerant host NK cells express low levels of transferred donor MHC antigens during development and later as mature cytotoxic lymphocytes. Further study is needed to understand how the cis-recognition of transferred donor MHC ligand influences the selection and maintenance of tolerant NK cells in prenatal chimeras. PMID:24121538

  10. Public viewpoints on new non-invasive prenatal genetic tests.

    PubMed

    Farrimond, Hannah R; Kelly, Susan E

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal screening programmes have been critiqued for their routine implementation according to clinical rationale without public debate. A new approach, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD), promises diagnosis of fetal genetic disorders from a sample of maternal blood without the miscarriage risk of current invasive prenatal tests (e.g. amniocentesis). Little research has investigated the attitudes of wider publics to NIPD. This study used Q-methodology, which combines factor analysis with qualitative comments, to identify four distinct "viewpoints" amongst 71 UK men and women: 1. NIPD as a new tool in the ongoing societal discrimination against the disabled; 2. NIPD as a positive clinical application offering peace of mind in pregnancy; 3. NIPD as a medical option justified for severe disorders only; and 4. NIPD as a valid expansion of personal choice. Concerns included the "trivialisation of testing" and the implications of commercial/direct-to-consumer tests. Q-methodology has considerable potential to identify viewpoints and frame public debate about new technologies. PMID:23885055

  11. Results of lead research: prenatal exposure and neurological consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1996-01-01

    The history of advances in the understanding of the toxic effects of lead over the past 20 years is an outstanding example of how knowledge learned from research can impact public health. Measures that have had the greatest impact on reducing exposure to lead are reduction of lead from gasoline, elimination of lead solder from canned food, removal of lead from paint, and abatement of housing containing lead-based paint. Nevertheless, continuing factors that enhance risk to lead exposure, particularly during fetal life, are low socioeconomic status, old housing with lead-containing paint, and less than ideal nutrition, particularly low dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc. Prenatal exposure may result from endogenous sources such as lead in the maternal skeletal system or maternal exposures from diet and the environment. Experimental studies have shown that the developing nervous system is particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of lead and that a large number of the effects in the nervous system are due to interference of lead with biochemical functions dependent on calcium ions and impairment of neuronal connections dependent on dendritic pruning. There is need for more study to determine whether these effects are a continuum of prenatal lead exposure or whether prenatal exposure to lead produces unique effects. Images p1050-a Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8930545

  12. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Tourette Syndrome: A Nationwide Register Study.

    PubMed

    Leivonen, Susanna; Chudal, Roshan; Joelsson, Petteri; Ekblad, Mikael; Suominen, Auli; Brown, Alan S; Gissler, Mika; Voutilainen, Arja; Sourander, Andre

    2016-02-01

    This is the first nationwide register-based study to examine the relationship between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome. A total of 767 children diagnosed with Tourette syndrome were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Each case was matched to four controls. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with Tourette syndrome when comorbid with ADHD (OR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.2-13.5, p = 0.027 for exposure during first trimester, OR 1.7, 95 % CI, 1.05-2.7, p = 0.031 for exposure for the whole pregnancy). There was no association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and Tourette syndrome without comorbid ADHD (OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.2-1.3, p = 0.166, OR 0.9, 95 % CI 0.7-1.3, p = 0.567). Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind the association between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome with comorbid ADHD. PMID:25796373

  13. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  14. Piecing together the crazy quilt of prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Machala, M; Miner, M W

    1991-01-01

    The failure to provide adequate prenatal care for low-income pregnant women in the United States and the effects of this failure on infant mortality are well known. Many studies have identified institutional barriers against access to care as a major cause. To overcome these barriers, Public Health District V, South Central Idaho, has created a comprehensive prenatal health care model that has almost tripled participation in its program during the first year of implementation and increased it again significantly during the second year. This decentralized pregnancy program has succeeded in getting all of the physicians offering obstetrical care in the district to serve low-income pregnant clients on a rotating basis. The new program provides pregnancy testing as well as financial screening services. Also, it has combined support services into one-stop-shopping clinics that include an innovative expansion of the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. WIC food vouchers help attract clients into the prenatal care system and keep them coming. Enrichment of the duties of the public health nurse provides case coordination that pulls together the patchwork of medical and support services for the pregnant client. PMID:1908585

  15. Using fetal cells for prenatal diagnosis: History and recent progress.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, Arthur L

    2016-06-01

    The potential to use fetal cells in the mother's circulation during the first or second trimester for prenatal diagnosis was described in 1968, but it has not been possible do develop a routine clinical prenatal test despite extensive commercial and academic research efforts. Early attention focused on the detection of aneuploidy, but more recent technology opens the possibility of high resolution detection of copy number abnormalities and even whole genome or exome sequencing to detect both inherited and de novo mutations. In the interim, cell-free noninvasive prenatal testing NIPT has allowed improved detection of aneuploidy, but this has led to a sharp reduction in the number of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) procedures, which inevitably implies reduced detection of serious de novo deletion abnormalities. Attention has focused of both fetal nucleated red blood cells (fnRBCs) and trophoblasts. Recent progress presented at meetings, but not yet published, suggests that it will soon be possible to perform genome-wide relatively high resolution detection of deletions and duplications by recovering fetal trophoblasts during the first trimester and analyzing them by whole gene genome amplification followed by copy number analysis using arrays or next generation sequencing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27133782

  16. IARS mutation causes prenatal death in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Takeda, Kenji; Hara, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Kita, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Hanzawa, Kei

    2016-09-01

    Isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IARS) c.235G > C (p.V79L) is a causative mutation for a recessive disease called IARS disorder in Japanese black cattle. The disease is involved in weak calf syndrome and is characterized by low birth weight, weakness and poor suckling. The gestation period is often slightly extended, implying that intrauterine growth is retarded. In a previous analysis of 2597 artificial insemination (AI) procedures, we suggested that the IARS mutation might contribute toward an increase in the incidence of prenatal death. In this study, we extended this analysis to better clarify the association between the IARS mutation and prenatal death. The IARS genotypes of 92 animals resulting from crosses between carrier (G/C) × G/C were 27 normal (G/G), 55 G/C and 10 affected animals (C/C) (expected numbers: 23, 46 and 23, respectively). Compared to the expected numbers, there were significantly fewer affected animals in this population (P < 0.05), suggesting that more than half of the affected embryos died prenatally. When the number of AI procedures examined was increased to 11 580, the frequency of re-insemination after G/C × G/C insemination was significantly higher at 61-140 days (P < 0.001). The findings suggested that the homozygous IARS mutation not only causes calf death, but also embryonic or fetal death. PMID:27229878

  17. Prenatal Drug Exposure Affects Neonatal Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala–frontal, insula–frontal, and insula–sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala–frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  18. A rational approach to prenatal screening and intervention.

    PubMed

    Yagel, S; Anteby, E

    1998-05-01

    Improved testing procedures now allow prenatal screening for a wide range of congenital defects, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy. An emerging technique also allows diagnosis of congenital anomalies during the pre-implantation stage of in vitro fertilization. Thus, clinicians need an established criteria to use as a guide when counseling parents about what prenatal testing is possible, feasible, and desirable. For example, there are limits to prenatal testing for conditions like mutations in the breast cancer gene because affected individuals do not necessary develop the condition and a cure may be found by the time the condition develops. It is even questionable if parents should be given this information until the child reaches an appropriate age. One approach to development of guidelines is to classify congenital abnormalities according to severity, age of onset, and type (structural-functional versus mental). This system reveals anomalies that are clearly lethal, lead to moderate or severe disability with little or no prospect of improvement or cure, are characterized by early onset, and/or involve obvious mental retardation. This approach is particularly relevant in cases of trisomy 21, and progressively invasive screening techniques are available to detect this most common pattern of malformation in humans. PMID:9647530

  19. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  20. Interdisciplinary Prenatal Group Visits as a Significant Learning Experience

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Angela Yerdon; LaClair, Cynthia; Kenyon, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Aim Group visits offer documented benefit to patients and clinicians. They also provide an excellent venue to teach residents interdisciplinary care and group facilitation skills. Intervention Third-year residents received experiential training to provide prenatal care through group visits rather than one-on-one visits. Study Method A descriptive study is used to illustrate the effectiveness of various facets of resident skill acquisition and patient-centered prenatal care. Evaluation methods included feedback from patients, team members, learner self-reflection, and observation by a behavioral health clinician. Summary Residents collaboratively provide prenatal care in a group model during a 6-month period. Interdisciplinary team members explicitly teach and model biopsychosocial whole-person care and effective communication. This inventive experience has increased resident competency-based skills in facilitation and effective team collaboration as measured through observation. These skills are directly applicable in future primary care medical home practice. Using a group visit model benefits patients and clinicians, and promotes enriching and effective resident education. Our model can easily be implemented in other programs. PMID:22942965

  1. Perinatal Outcome in the Liveborn Infant with Prenatally Diagnosed Omphalocele

    PubMed Central

    KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.; ZORK, Noelia; PIERCE, Sara Michelle; ZOLLINGER, Terrell

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare perinatal outcomes between liveborn non-isolated and isolated omphaloceles diagnosed during a prenatal ultrasound. Study Design Fetuses (n=86) with omphalocele were identified between 1995–2007 at a single institution. Inclusion criteria were an omphalocele >14 weeks gestation, available fetal and/or neonatal karyotype, and a liveborn infant (n=46). Perinatal outcomes were compared in non-isolated (n=23) and isolated omphaloceles (n=23). Results For all omphaloceles, the majority delivered after 34 weeks by cesarean. Mean birth weight (2782 vs. 2704g), median length of stay (27 vs. 25 days), and mortality (2 in each group) was not different between the non-isolated and isolated groups, P>0.05. In the non-isolated group, 7 major anomalies were not confirmed postnatally. Of the prenatally diagnosed isolated omphaloceles, 8(35%) were diagnosed with a syndrome or other anomalies after birth. Conclusion The outcomes were similar in non-isolated and isolated prenatally diagnosed omphaloceles, but ultrasound did not always accurately determine the presence or absence of associated anomalies. PMID:21544770

  2. Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging in double aortic arch diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Trobo Marina, Duna; Bravo, Coral; Lancharro, Ángel; Gámez Alderete, Francisco; Marín, Carlos; de León-Luis, Juan

    2016-05-01

    Congenital double aortic arch (DAA) is an uncommon vascular anomaly; however, its prenatal detection is associated with congenital heart defects and chromosomal abnormalities, including 22q11 deletion. We present a case of DAA diagnosed prenatally. DAA can be diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound in the transverse three vessel-trachea view, which shows a trident image formed by a complete vascular ring and the ductus arteriosus. Postnatal magnetic resonance images in this view correlate well with prenatal ultrasound images and help in confirmation of diagnosis, evaluation of the risk of airway or esophageal compression, and planning of surgery. PMID:26979672

  3. Prenatal fluoxetine exposure affects cytokine and behavioral response to an immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Avitsur, Ronit; Levy, Sigal; Grinshpahet, Rachel; Goren, Naama; Hirsh, Ofer; Zalko, Assaf

    2015-07-15

    Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is a commonly prescribed antidepressant drug in pregnant women. FLX readily crosses the placenta, consequently altering serotonergic neurotransmission in the fetus and causing physiological and behavioral disturbances in the newborn. Studies have shown that serotonin plays a role in modulating immune signaling. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to FLX on the response to an immune challenge in offspring mice. Male and female mice were prenatally exposed to FLX and later injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at different stages of development. Results indicated that prenatal FLX modulated aspects of the response to the endotoxin challenge. Prenatal FLX diminished the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 in adult male and female mice. Prenatal exposure to FLX further suppressed TNFα and augmented IL-1β secretion in adult males. Early effects of LPS (within 24h of administration) on body weight and food consumption were diminished by prenatal exposure to FLX in adult mice. Delayed effects of LPS (within 60h of administration) were modulated by prenatal FLX in young animals. These results provide an indication that prenatal modulations of the serotonergic system had lasting implications for host response to an immune challenge. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of prenatal environment on the development of physiological systems that are important to coping with infectious challenges, and assist in understanding the limitations and precautions that should be taken in the use of SSRIs during pregnancy. PMID:26025058

  4. Individual differences in the effects of prenatal stress exposure in rodents.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress alters the phenotype of the offspring in adulthood. When the prenatal and adult environments do not match, these alterations may induce pathology risk. There are, however, large individual differences in the effects of prenatal stress. While some individuals seem vulnerable, others appear to be relatively resistant to its effects. In this review we discuss potential mechanisms underlying these individual differences with a focus on animal models. Differences between rodent models selected for stress coping traits are discussed. In addition, the role of circulating factors, like glucocorticoids and cytokines, factors involved in brain development and influences of epigenetic and genetic factors in prenatal stress induced phenotype are covered. PMID:27589662

  5. A revised accumulated cyclone energy index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia-Yuh; Chou, Chia; Chiu, Ping-Gin

    2009-07-01

    A new estimate of the wind energy associated with a tropical cyclone (TC), along with the revised accumulated cyclone energy (RACE) index, is introduced in this paper. In contrast to the conventional means employed in computing the ACE index, in which the wind energy is measured at the radius of maximum wind, the new estimate considers the mean wind energy averaged over a circular area based on the modified Rankine vortex structure. An examination of the seasonal TC activity using the JTWC best-track records over the western North Pacific suggests that, as long as there is a strong variability in TC activity (characterized by a substantial year-to-year variability in the RACE/ACE time series), employing a more precise estimate of the cyclone wind energy is not just physically reasonable, it can also be practically useful.

  6. EPA's proposal to revise the PM standards

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Page

    2006-06-15

    Over the next few months, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be finalizing its proposal to revise the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for fine and coarse particulate matter (PM). Since issuing the proposal in December 2005, the agency has sought comments from all interested parties, and will base its final decision on the record that was established through the comment period, which ended on April 17. In this issue articles present perspectives from some of the many non-EPA stakeholders who have played an important role in this review process. This article summarizes EPA's proposal, as well as the extensive process EPA goes through when setting air quality standards. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in rat offspring following prenatal maternal exposure to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Izvolskaia, Marina S; Tillet, Yves; Sharova, Viktoria S; Voronova, Svetlana N; Zakharova, Lyudmila A

    2016-03-01

    Postnatal treatment with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) changes the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) surge in rats. Exposure to an immune challenge in the critical periods of development has profound and long-lasting effects on the stress response, immune, metabolic, and reproductive functions. Prenatal LPS treatment delays the migration of GnRH neurons associated with increased cytokine release in maternal and fetal compartments. We investigated the effects of a single maternal exposure to LPS (18 μg/kg, i.p.) on day 12 (embryonic day (E)12) of pregnancy on reproductive parameters in rat offspring. Hypothalamic GnRH content, plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and estradiol concentrations were measured in both male and female offsprings at different stages of postnatal development by RIA and ELISA (n = 10 each per group). Body weight and in females day of vaginal opening (VO) were recorded. In offspring exposed to LPS prenatally, compared with controls, body weight was decreased in both sexes at P5 and P30; in females, VO was delayed; hypothalamic GnRH content was decreased at postnatal days 30-60 (P30-P60) in both sexes; plasma LH concentration was decreased at P14-P60 in females; plasma concentrations of testosterone/estradiol were increased at P14 in females, and plasma estradiol was increased at P14 in males. Hence activation of the maternal immune system by LPS treatment at a prenatal critical period leads to decreased GnRH and LH levels in pre- and postpubertal life and sex steroid imbalance in the prepubertal period, and delayed sexual maturation of female offspring. PMID:26941006

  8. An easy test but a hard decision: ethical issues concerning non-invasive prenatal testing for autosomal recessive disorders.

    PubMed

    Skirton, Heather; Goldsmith, Lesley; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal testing based on cell-free fetal DNA in maternal serum is now possible for specific monogenic conditions, and studies have shown that the use of non-invasive testing is supported by prospective parents and health professionals. However, some ethical issues have been raised concerning informed consent and paternal rights. The objective of this study was to explore ethical aspects of the use of non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing for autosomal recessive disorders. We used a qualitative cross-sectional design, based on Thematic Analysis, and recruited 27 individuals of reproductive age who were carriers of one of four conditions: thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis or spinal muscular atrophy. Data were collected via focus groups or interviews. Participants were aware of the potential for such tests to be viewed as routine and suggested that obtaining written consent and allowing time for consideration is needed to facilitate autonomous choice and informed consent. All participants felt that mothers should be able to request such tests, but fathers who declined carrier testing should be made aware that fetal test results may reveal their status. We suggest that a written record of consent for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis should be used as a standard to help reinforce the serious nature of the test results. Where the father's carrier status could be revealed through fetal testing, he should be made aware of this before the results are available. Health professionals should discuss with the pregnant woman the best way to manage unsought information about the father's carrier status to minimise family disruption. PMID:25351779

  9. Can Sibling Sex Ratios Be Used as a Valid Test for the Prenatal Androgen Hypothesis of Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Susser, Ezra; Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sibling sex ratios have been applied as an indirect test of a hypothesized association between prenatal testosterone levels and risk for autism, a developmental disorder disproportionately affecting males. Differences in sibling sex ratios between those with and without autism would provide evidence of a shared risk factor for autism and offspring sex. Conclusions related to prenatal testosterone, however, require additional assumptions. Here, we used directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to clarify the elements required for a valid test of the hypothesis that sibling sex ratios differ between children with and without autism. We then conducted such a test using a large, population-based sample of children. Methods Over 1.1 million subjects, born in California from 1992–2007, and identified through birth records, were included. The association between autism diagnosis, determined using the administrative database of the California Department of Developmental Services, and the sex of the subsequent sibling was examined using generalized estimating equations. Sources of potential bias identified using DAGs were addressed. Results Among male children with autism, 52.2% of next-born siblings were brothers, versus 51.0% for unaffected males. For females with autism, 50.2% of following siblings were brothers versus 51.2% among control females. The relative risk of a subsequent male sibling associated with autism diagnosis was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.04). Conclusions In a large, population-based sample we failed to find evidence suggesting an excess of brothers among children with autism while controlling for several threats to validity. This test cannot rule out a role of any given exposure, including prenatal testosterone, in either risk of autism or offspring sex ratio, but suggests against a common cause of both. PMID:26495967

  10. Prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of congenital anomalies: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior animal and human studies of prenatal exposure to solvents including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown increases in the risk of certain congenital anomalies among exposed offspring. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether PCE contamination of public drinking water supplies in Massachusetts influenced the occurrence of congenital anomalies among children whose mothers were exposed around the time of conception. Methods The study included 1,658 children whose mothers were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water and a comparable group of 2,999 children of unexposed mothers. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire to gather information on all of their prior births, including the presence of anomalies, residential histories and confounding variables. PCE exposure was estimated using EPANET water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a fate and transport model. Results Children whose mothers had high exposure levels around the time of conception had an increased risk of congenital anomalies. The adjusted odds ratio of all anomalies combined among children with prenatal exposure in the uppermost quartile was 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9, 2.5). No meaningful increases in the risk were seen for lower exposure levels. Increases were also observed in the risk of neural tube defects (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 0.8, 14.0) and oral clefts (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 0.7, 15.0) among offspring with any prenatal exposure. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the risk of certain congenital anomalies is increased among the offspring of women who were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water around the time of conception. Because these results are limited by the small number of children with congenital anomalies that were based on maternal reports, a follow-up investigation should be conducted with a larger number of affected children who are identified by independent records. PMID:19778411

  11. A revision of the Chinese Aulacidae (Hymenoptera, Evanioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-yan; Turrisi, Giuseppe Fabrizio; Xu, Zai-fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese Aulacidae are revised, keyed and illustrated for the first time. In total twenty-five species are recorded from China, included within two genera Aulacus Jurine, 1807 and Pristaulacus Kieffer, 1900, with five and twenty species respectively. Among the treated species, six are newly described for science: Aulacus magnus sp. n., Pristaulacus calidus sp. n., Pristaulacus centralis sp. n., Pristaulacus fopingi sp. n., Pristaulacus obscurus sp. n., and Pristaulacus pseudoiosephi sp. n. Three species are newly recorded from China: Pristaulacus excisus Turner, 1922, Pristaulacus iosephi Turrisi & Madl, 2013, and Pristaulacus rufobalteatus Cameron, 1907. PMID:27408528

  12. Revision of infected knee arthroplasties in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Bagger, Jens; Schrøder, Henrik M; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - The surgical treatment of periprosthetic knee infection is generally either a partial revision procedure (open debridement and exchange of the tibial insert) or a 2-stage exchange arthroplasty procedure. We describe the failure rates of these procedures on a nationwide basis. Patients and methods - 105 partial revisions (100 patients) and 215 potential 2-stage revision procedures (205 patients) performed due to infection from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013 were identified from the Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register (DKR). Failure was defined as surgically related death ≤ 90 days postoperatively, re-revision due to infection, or not reaching the second stage for a planned 2-stage procedure within a median follow-up period of 3.2 (2.2-4.2) years. Results - The failure rate of the partial revisions was 43%. 71 of the partial revisions (67%) were revisions of a primary prosthesis with a re-revision rate due to infection of 34%, as compared to 55% in revisions of a revision prosthesis (p = 0.05). The failure rate of the 2-stage revisions was 30%. Median time interval between stages was 84 (9-597) days. 117 (54%) of the 2-stage revisions were revisions of a primary prosthesis with a re-revision rate due to infection of 21%, as compared to 29% in revisions of a previously revised prosthesis (p = 0.1). Overall postoperative mortality was 0.6% in high-volume centers (> 30 procedures within 2 years) as opposed to 7% in the remaining centers (p = 0.003). Interpretation - The failure rates of 43% after the partial revision procedures and 30% after the 2-stage revisions in combination with the higher mortality outside high-volume centers call for centralization and reconsideration of surgical strategies. PMID:26900908

  13. 75 FR 4458 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Federal Register 65 FR 25531. VA is amending the system of records by revising the Routine Uses of Records... and VISN assignment, station address and phone number, home phone number, emergency contact and phone... guidelines issued by OMB (65 FR 77677), December 12, 2000. Dated: December 23, 2009. John R. Gingrich,...

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    2012-04-26

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    2010-06-25

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  16. 75 FR 26851 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

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    2010-05-12

    ... forth in the Federal Register 71 FR 6133. VA is amending the system of records by revising the Routine... information from this system of records to the Department of Justice (DoJ), either on VA's initiative or in... reasonably imminent violation of the law whether civil, criminal, or regulatory in nature and whether...

  17. 18 CFR 401.105 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Indexes of certain... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and Information § 401.105 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at least quarterly, for...

  18. 18 CFR 401.105 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indexes of certain... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and Information § 401.105 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at least quarterly, for...

  19. 18 CFR 401.105 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indexes of certain... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and Information § 401.105 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at least quarterly, for...

  20. 18 CFR 401.105 - Indexes of certain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indexes of certain... ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and Information § 401.105 Indexes of certain records. (a) Indexes shall be maintained, and revised at least quarterly, for...