Science.gov

Sample records for prep software featuring

  1. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  2. MAMA Software Features: Visual Examples of Quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-20

    This document shows examples of the results from quantifying objects of certain sizes and types in the software. It is intended to give users a better feel for some of the quantification calculations, and, more importantly, to help users understand the challenges with using a small set of ‘shape’ quantification calculations for objects that can vary widely in shapes and features. We will add more examples to this in the coming year.

  3. MAMA Software Features: Quantification Verification Documentation-1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-21

    This document reviews the verification of the basic shape quantification attributes in the MAMA software against hand calculations in order to show that the calculations are implemented mathematically correctly and give the expected quantification results.

  4. The Effect of Software Features on Software Adoption and Training in the Audit Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Although software has been studied with technology adoption and training research, the study of specific software features for professional groups has been limited. To address this gap, I researched the impact of software features of varying complexity on internal audit (IA) professionals. Two studies along with the development of training…

  5. Early Childhood Educational Software: Specific Features and Issues of Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra

    2007-01-01

    The computer has now become a recognized tool in the education of young children and when used appropriately can reinforce their learning experiences. This paper reviews specific features (relating to pedagogic design, software content and user-interface design) of early childhood educational software and discusses issues in favor of its…

  6. Software for Demonstration of Features of Chain Polymerization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosnowski, Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Free software for the demonstration of the features of homo- and copolymerization processes (free radical, controlled radical, and living) is described. The software is based on the Monte Carlo algorithms and offers insight into the kinetics, molecular weight distribution, and microstructure of the macromolecules formed in those processes. It also…

  7. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  8. CosmoQuest: A software platform for surface feature mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    While many tools exist for allowing individuals to mark features in images, it has previously been unwieldy to get entire teams collaboratively mapping out surface features, and to statistically compare each team members contributions. Our CSB software was initially developed to facilitate crowd-sourcing projects, including CosmoQuest's "Moon Mappers" project. Statistically study of its results (Robbins et al 2014) has shown that professionals using this software get results that are as good as those they get using other commonly used software packages. This has lead to an expansion of the software to facilitate professional science use of the software. In order to allow the greatest use of CSB, and to facilitate better science collaboration, CosmoQuest now allows teams to create private projects. Basic features include: using their own data sets, allowing multiple team members to annotate the images, performing basic statistics on the resulting data, downloading all results in either .sql or .csv formats. In this presentation, we will overview how best to use CSB to improve your own science collaboration. Current applications include surface science and transient object identification, and published results include both crater maps and the discovery of KBOs.

  9. Open Source Software: Fully Featured vs. "The Devil You Know"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotrum, Michael; Ludwig, Brian; Baggaley, Jon

    2005-01-01

    The "ILIAS" learning management system (LMS) was evaluated, following its favourable rating in an independent evaluation study of open source software (OSS) products. The current review found "ILIAS" to have numerous features of value to distance education (DE) students and teachers, as well as problems for consideration in the system's ongoing…

  10. Tech Prep Ohio Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Tech prep programs integrate academic, occupational, and employability during the last 2 years of high school and the first 2 years of college, combining the best of college-prep academics with the best of vocational and technical education. The Ohio Tech Prep program, jointly administered by the Ohio Board of Regents and the Ohio Department of…

  11. Prep1 Controls Insulin Glucoregulatory Function in Liver by Transcriptional Targeting of SHP1 Tyrosine Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Oriente, Francesco; Iovino, Salvatore; Cabaro, Serena; Cassese, Angela; Longobardi, Elena; Miele, Claudia; Ungaro, Paola; Formisano, Pietro; Blasi, Francesco; Beguinot, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We investigated the function of the Prep1 gene in insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis in liver. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prep1 action on insulin glucoregulatory function has been analyzed in liver of Prep1-hypomorphic mice (Prep1i/i), which express 2–3% of Prep1 mRNA. RESULTS Based on euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies and measurement of glycogen content, livers from Prep1i/i mice feature increased sensitivity to insulin. Tyrosine phosphorylation of both insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1/2 was significantly enhanced in Prep1i/i livers accompanied by a specific downregulation of the SYP and SHP1 tyrosine phosphatases. Prep1 overexpression in HepG2 liver cells upregulated SYP and SHP1 and inhibited insulin-induced IR and IRS1/2 phosphorylation and was accompanied by reduced glycogen content. Consistently, overexpression of the Prep1 partner Pbx1, but not of p160MBP, mimicked Prep1 effects on tyrosine phosphorylations, glycogen content, and on SYP and SHP1 expression. In Prep1 overexpressing cells, antisense silencing of SHP1, but not that of SYP, rescued insulin-dependent IR phosphorylation and glycogen accumulation. Both Prep1 and Pbx1 bind SHP1 promoter at a site located between nucleotides −2,113 and −1,778. This fragment features enhancer activity and induces luciferase function by 7-, 6-, and 30-fold, respectively, in response to Prep1, Pbx1, or both. CONCLUSIONS SHP1, a known silencer of insulin signal, is a transcriptional target of Prep1. In liver, transcriptional activation of SHP1 gene by Prep1 attenuates insulin signal transduction and reduces glucose storage. PMID:20864515

  12. Data prep: the bottleneck of future applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramss, Juergen; Eichhorn, Hans; Lempke, Melchior; Jaritz, Renate; Neick, Volker; Beyer, Dirk; Buerger, Bertram; Baetz, Ulrich; Kunze, Klaus; Belic, Nikola

    2006-06-01

    There is no doubt that shaped beam systems have been well established in the mask write community since the introduction of the 130nm technology node. Moreover, they are successfully advancing to conquer also the wafer direct write market. To be able to handle today and in the near future the tremendous data volumes with their characteristic complexity as well as to make use of such indispensable methods like PEC and Fogging corrections, new, sophisticated solutions are necessary to master the challenging 45nm technology node. However, we are aware that the 45nm node presents only an intermediate step, because, according to the international roadmap, we soon will be confronted with the hardware and software requirements of the next, the 32nm technology node. In this context it becomes more and more important to consider potential showstoppers, in our case the data preparation process To investigate this complex subject a Linux cluster computer featuring 3.6GHz clock rate CPUs, and a software package supporting distributed computing with a 64Bit version and address units down to 0.1nm were used. The work was focused on the performance of pattern samples down to the 45nm node. Both mask and wafer data as well as NIL template manufacturing were considered, data prep times and CPU loads were analysed. Furthermore, the user-friendly Leica Interface for Data Preparations (LINDA) was applied. In addition, an outlook to future hardware/software configurations for mastering the challenges of the 32nm node will be given. The results presented in this paper prove that data preparation is not the bottleneck of current and future applications.

  13. Coal prep `95

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The proceedings of Coal Prep `95 - the 12th International Coal Preparation Exhibition and Conference, held May 2-4, 1995 in Lexington, KY are presented. The Conference covered such topics as chemicals for coal preparation, quality control, coal cleaning, operations, and research and development. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 24 papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Leatherwood prep plant upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, R.W.; Jain, S.M.

    2007-06-15

    The Blue Diamond Coal Co. recently implemented major circuit modifications to the Leatherwood coal preparation plant (formerly known as the J.K. Cornett prep plant) in Slemp, KY, USA. The plant was originally built in the late 1980s, and then modified in 1999. The 2006 plant modifications included: two Krebs 33-inch heavy-media cyclones; five 10 x 20 ft single deck Conn-Weld Banana type vibrating screens; two 10 ft x 48 inch Eriez self-leveling magnetic separators; two Derrick Stacksizer high frequency screens; two CMI EBR-48 centrifugal dryers; Warman process pumps; and eight triple start MDL spiral concentrators. 2 figs.

  15. The Many Features of Stanford's Housing Maintenance Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Explains how Stanford University custom designed its own building maintenance and administration software package: the Housing Operations Maintenance Enterprise Resource (HOMER). Describes how HOMER relieved facility maintenance staff from some archaic systems, and its development and functionality. (GR)

  16. Pardee prep plant expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, T.; Pinson, K.; Bethell, P.

    2007-01-15

    By adding a heavy-media vessel and improving the fine coal circuit, Cumberland River Coal's Pardee preparation plant (in Wise County, VA) increased raw feed capacity with minimal disruptions. The plan called for the installation of a heavy media vessel to treat 5 x 1/2 inch material with a cyclone circuit processing 1/2 inch x 1 mm, and a deslime column flotation circuit. The article describes the new circuit design and the construction process. In January 2006, the plant's raw feed capacity averaged 765 tph over six days. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal prep 2006 (2-4 May, Lexington, KY (United States)). 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. New and Improved Integrated Optical Design Analysis (IODA) Software Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troy, Edward; Moore, James D., Jr.; Montgomery, Edward E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New features have been added to IODA to support testing of lightweight optics. Algorithms have been developed to predict actuator influence functions and positions to correct for gravity loading effects. New features have also been added to import measured test data and to compare measured data with predicted data.

  18. The deficiency of tumor suppressor prep1 accelerates the onset of meis1- hoxa9 leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dardaei, Leila; Modica, Livia; Iotti, Giorgio; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Prep1 and Meis1 ortholog TALE transcription factors have opposing roles in tumorigenesis: Meis1 serves as an oncogene, Prep1 as a tumor suppressor. We now report that, Meis1 overexpression in primary Prep1-deficient (Prep1i/i) embryonic hematopoietic cells increases self-renewal potential of cells in vitro but not in vivo, whereas leukemia is instead obtained when Meis1 is combined with another oncogene, HoxA9. Prep1i/i Meis1-HoxA9-generated leukemic cells are less differentiated and grow more aggressively after the second passage in the mouse. These data indicate that Prep1 represents a barrier to the transforming activity of Meis1 in vitro, but its absence is not sufficient to induce early leukemogenesis. On the other hand, the Prep1i/i background appears to favor the insurgence of mutations that cause a more aggressive Meis1-HoxA9-generated leukemia. Indeed, the Prep1i/i leukemic cells upregulate the Polycomb protein Bmi-1 and expectedly down-regulate the Ink4a/Arf locus products. Finally, an important feature contributed by the Prep1i/i background is the post-transcriptional increase in Meis1 protein level. PMID:24809472

  19. Prep2: cloning and expression of a new prep family member.

    PubMed

    Haller, Klaus; Rambaldi, Isabel; Kovács, Erzsébet Nagy; Daniels, Eugene; Featherstone, Mark

    2002-11-01

    We describe Prep2, a new murine homeobox-containing gene closely related to Prep1. The PREP2 protein belongs to the three amino acid loop extension (TALE) superclass of homeodomain-containing proteins and encodes a polypeptide of 462 residues. As for PREP1, PREP2 binds an appropriate site on DNA as a heterodimer with PBX1A. Northern analysis, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization show widespread Prep2 expression during organogenesis and in the adult. The data suggest that Prep2 functions to varying degrees in a broad array of tissues and developmental processes. PMID:12412021

  20. The Principal's Role in Implementing Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlett, James M.

    1993-01-01

    To teach students more employable technical skills, Calvert County School District based its high school curriculum on a Tech Prep program model. Tech Prep is defined, and elements that support its effectiveness are listed. Tech Prep guides students to select one of three career paths to aid in focused learning. Ten Tasks that constitute the…

  1. Tech Prep and Educational Reform. Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerner, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Tech prep is a new initiative that shows great promise for educational reform. However, "tech prep" is not the new name for vocational education. Tech prep is a new program of articulated education involving 2 years of high school and 2 years of postsecondary preparation that includes a common core of mathematics, science, communications, and…

  2. A Comprehensive Tech Prep Curriculum Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Larry

    The Butte College Tech Prep Consortium (TPC), in Oroville, California, is a cooperative effort of secondary and postsecondary schools, local businesses, and community organizations to develop and implement Tech Prep opportunities in the area. The TPC has developed a competency-based, comprehensive tech prep curriculum model that is applicable to…

  3. The novel homeoprotein Prep1 modulates Pbx-Hox protein cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, J; Zappavigna, V; Ferretti, E; Mavilio, F; Blasi, F

    1998-03-01

    The products of the mammalian Pbx and Drosophila exd genes are able to interact with Hox proteins specifically and to increase their DNA binding affinity and selectivity. In the accompanying paper we show that Pbx proteins exist as stable heterodimers with a novel homeodomain protein, Prep1. Here we show that Prep1-Pbx interaction presents novel structural features: it is independent of DNA binding and of the integrity of their respective homeodomains, and requires sequences in the N-terminal portions of both proteins. The Prep1-Pbx protein-protein interaction is essential for DNA-binding activity. Prep1-Pbx complexes are present in early mouse embryos at a time when Pbx is also interacting with Hox proteins. The use of different interaction surfaces could allow Pbx to interact with Prep1 and Hox proteins simultaneously. Indeed, we observe the formation of a ternary Prep1-Pbx1-HOXB1 complex on a HOXB1-responsive target in vitro. Interaction with Prep1 enhances the ability of the HOXB1-Pbx1 complex to activate transcription in a cooperative fashion from the same target. Our data suggest that Prep1 is an additional component in the transcriptional regulation by Hox proteins. PMID:9482740

  4. Horticulture. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Wooster. Agricultural Technical Inst.

    This tech prep competency profile (TCP), which was developed by a consortium of Ohio educators and business/industry representatives, lists the competencies that have been identified as necessary for employment in the following occupations: nursery technician; golf course superintendent; landscape designer/manager; lawn care specialist; tree care…

  5. Success Is in the Details. No Element of Tech Prep Escapes the Fine-Tuned Planning of Oregon's Design Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Cheryl L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Articles describe elements of Oregon's' tech prep program: "New Software Helps Students Visualize a Career Path" (Buhl); "Bridge Construction Ahead" (Roach); and "To Track Students, Oregon Goes to the Bar" (Dutson). (JOW)

  6. Purification of the Prep1 interactome identifies novel pathways regulated by Prep1.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Víctor M; Bachi, Angela; Blasi, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor interacts with Pbx proteins to regulate oculogenesis, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis in mice. To isolate new Prep1 interactors competing or copurifying with Pbx, we identified proteins copurified with Prep1-TAP by tandem affinity purification (TAP). Prep1-TAP was fully functional and allowed the isolation of a Prep1 proteome from cytoplasm and nucleus, but most interactors were nuclear. The Prep1-TAP complex included Pbx1b, Pbx2, and other nonhomeodomain proteins: p160 Myb-binding protein (p160), beta-actin, NMMHCIIA. PMID:17623278

  7. A Review of Feature Extraction Software for Microarray Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ching Siang; Ting, Wai Soon; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Chan, Weng Howe; Deris, Safaai; Ali Shah, Zuraini

    2014-01-01

    When gene expression data are too large to be processed, they are transformed into a reduced representation set of genes. Transforming large-scale gene expression data into a set of genes is called feature extraction. If the genes extracted are carefully chosen, this gene set can extract the relevant information from the large-scale gene expression data, allowing further analysis by using this reduced representation instead of the full size data. In this paper, we review numerous software applications that can be used for feature extraction. The software reviewed is mainly for Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Partial Least Squares (PLS), and Local Linear Embedding (LLE). A summary and sources of the software are provided in the last section for each feature extraction method. PMID:25250315

  8. The effect of proposed software products' features on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of potential customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Yusof, Muhammad Mat

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the effect of proposed software products features on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of potential customers of proposed software products. Kano model's functional and dysfunctional technique was used along with Berger et al.'s customer satisfaction coefficients. The result shows that only two features performed the most in influencing the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of would-be customers of the proposed software product. Attractive and one-dimensional features had the highest impact on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of customers. This result will benefit requirements analysts, developers, designers, projects and sales managers in preparing for proposed products. Additional analysis showed that the Kano model's satisfaction and dissatisfaction scores were highly related to the Park et al.'s average satisfaction coefficient (r=96%), implying that these variables can be used interchangeably or in place of one another to elicit customer satisfaction. Furthermore, average satisfaction coefficients and satisfaction and dissatisfaction indexes were all positively and linearly correlated.

  9. Choice: 36 band feature selection software with applications to multispectral pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Feature selection software was developed at the Earth Resources Laboratory that is capable of inputting up to 36 channels and selecting channel subsets according to several criteria based on divergence. One of the criterion used is compatible with the table look-up classifier requirements. The software indicates which channel subset best separates (based on average divergence) each class from all other classes. The software employs an exhaustive search technique, and computer time is not prohibitive. A typical task to select the best 4 of 22 channels for 12 classes takes 9 minutes on a Univac 1108 computer.

  10. Evaluation of features to support safety and quality in general practice clinical software

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Electronic prescribing is now the norm in many countries. We wished to find out if clinical software systems used by general practitioners in Australia include features (functional capabilities and other characteristics) that facilitate improved patient safety and care, with a focus on quality use of medicines. Methods Seven clinical software systems used in general practice were evaluated. Fifty software features that were previously rated as likely to have a high impact on safety and/or quality of care in general practice were tested and are reported here. Results The range of results for the implementation of 50 features across the 7 clinical software systems was as follows: 17-31 features (34-62%) were fully implemented, 9-13 (18-26%) partially implemented, and 9-20 (18-40%) not implemented. Key findings included: Access to evidence based drug and therapeutic information was limited. Decision support for prescribing was available but varied markedly between systems. During prescribing there was potential for medicine mis-selection in some systems, and linking a medicine with its indication was optional. The definition of 'current medicines' versus 'past medicines' was not always clear. There were limited resources for patients, and some medicines lists for patients were suboptimal. Results were provided to the software vendors, who were keen to improve their systems. Conclusions The clinical systems tested lack some of the features expected to support patient safety and quality of care. Standards and certification for clinical software would ensure that safety features are present and that there is a minimum level of clinical functionality that clinicians could expect to find in any system.

  11. Reduction of Prep1 levels affects differentiation of normal and malignant B cells and accelerates Myc driven lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Giorgio; Mejetta, Stefania; Modica, Livia; Penkov, Dmitry; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Blasi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor has recently been recognized as a tumor suppressor. Among other features, haploinsufficiency of Prep1 is able to strongly accelerate the B-lymphomagenesis in EμMyc mice. Now we report that this occurs concomitantly with a change in the type of B-cell lymphomas generated by the Myc oncogene. Indeed, the tumors generated in the EμMyc-Prep1(+/-) mice are much more immature, being mostly made up of Pro-B or Pre-B cells, while those in the EμMyc-Prep1(+/+) mice are more differentiated being invariably IgM(+). Moreover, we show that Prep1 is in fact required for the differentiation of Pro-B and Pre-B cells into IgM(+) lymphocytes and/or their proliferation, thus showing also how a normal function of Prep1 affects EμMyc lymphomagenesis. Finally, we show that the haploinsufficiency of Prep1 is accompanied with a major decrease of Myc-induced apoptosis and that the haploinsufficieny is sufficient for all these effects because the second allele of Prep1 is not lost even at late stages. Therefore, the tumor-suppressive activity of Prep1 is intertwined with both the interference with Myc-induced apoptosis as well as with natural developmental functions of the protein. PMID:23133585

  12. Software features of a DBMS kernel in large real-time EMS systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, B.C.; Hemmaplardh, K.; Sackett, S.A.; Lawrence, G.M.; Davis, R.N.; Daine, D.N.

    1988-02-01

    A number of performance improvement features were designed and implemented in a database management system (DBMS). The performance oriented DBMS is of the relational model. The DBMS was specifically developed for real-time energy management and control systems (EMS) for electric utilities. Previous analysis had shown that commercially available DBMSs could not meet the performance requirements for the application. This paper describes the performance improvement software features.

  13. Prep1 and Meis1 competition for Pbx1 binding regulates protein stability and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Dardaei, Leila; Longobardi, Elena; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-03-11

    Pbx-regulating protein-1 (Prep1) is a tumor suppressor, whereas myeloid ecotropic viral integration site-1 (Meis1) is an oncogene. We show that, to perform these activities in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, both proteins competitively heterodimerize with pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox-1 (Pbx1). Meis1 alone transforms Prep1-deficient fibroblasts, whereas Prep1 overexpression inhibits Meis1 tumorigenicity. Pbx1 can, therefore, alternatively act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor. Prep1 posttranslationally controls the level of Meis1, decreasing its stability by sequestering Pbx1. The different levels of Meis1 and the presence of Prep1 are followed at the transcriptional level by the induction of specific transcriptional signatures. The decrease of Meis1 prevents Meis1 interaction with Ddx3x and Ddx5, which are essential for Meis1 tumorigenesis, and modifies the growth-promoting DNA binding landscape of Meis1 to the growth-controlling landscape of Prep1. Hence, the key feature of Prep1 tumor-inhibiting activity is the control of Meis1 stability. PMID:24578510

  14. COMPARISON OF PBPK MODELING SOFTWARE FEATURES AND APPROACHES TO MODELING IMPORTNAT PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL BEHAVIORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for 40th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, March 25-29, 2001

    COMPARISON OF PBPK MODELING SOFTWARE FEATURES AND APPROACHES TO MODELING IMPORTANT PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL BEHAVIORS. R S DeWoskin and R W Setzer. USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA.

    ...

  15. Software features of a DBMS kernel in large real-time EMS systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, B.C.; Sackett, S.A.; Lawrence, G.M.; Davis, R.N.; Daine, D.N.; Hemmaplardh, K.

    1986-01-01

    A number of performance improvement features were designed and implemented in a database management system (DBMS). The performance oriented DBMS is of the relational model. The DBMS was specifically developed for real-time energy management and control systems (EMS) for electric utilities. Previous analysis had shown that commercially available DBMSs could not meet the performance requirements for the application. This paper describes the performance improvement software features. The description focuses on the performance improvement features and the dual database concept for coordinated updates. The description of the performance improvement features deals with task structuring, buffer usage, active file restructuring, and pre-resolving access routes. Some of these features are applicable to other real-time systems with large databases shared by many application programs. A brief description of extending the DBMS design for use in a hierarchical real-time system is given.

  16. elPrep: High-Performance Preparation of Sequence Alignment/Map Files for Variant Calling

    PubMed Central

    Decap, Dries; Fostier, Jan; Reumers, Joke

    2015-01-01

    elPrep is a high-performance tool for preparing sequence alignment/map files for variant calling in sequencing pipelines. It can be used as a replacement for SAMtools and Picard for preparation steps such as filtering, sorting, marking duplicates, reordering contigs, and so on, while producing identical results. What sets elPrep apart is its software architecture that allows executing preparation pipelines by making only a single pass through the data, no matter how many preparation steps are used in the pipeline. elPrep is designed as a multithreaded application that runs entirely in memory, avoids repeated file I/O, and merges the computation of several preparation steps to significantly speed up the execution time. For example, for a preparation pipeline of five steps on a whole-exome BAM file (NA12878), we reduce the execution time from about 1:40 hours, when using a combination of SAMtools and Picard, to about 15 minutes when using elPrep, while utilising the same server resources, here 48 threads and 23GB of RAM. For the same pipeline on whole-genome data (NA12878), elPrep reduces the runtime from 24 hours to less than 5 hours. As a typical clinical study may contain sequencing data for hundreds of patients, elPrep can remove several hundreds of hours of computing time, and thus substantially reduce analysis time and cost. PMID:26182406

  17. Contextual Learning and Tech Prep Curriculum Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edling, Walter

    Because tech prep has the twin goals of preparing students for entry into postsecondary/continuing education or the work force after high school, tech prep programs require significant modification of conventional curricula and teaching methodologies. Both research and experience have demonstrated that the ability to transfer learning from one…

  18. Appendix B: Methodology. [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. This appendix describes the scope, methodology, timeline, staff, and standards involved in the production of "Teacher Prep Review 2014." Data collection, validation, and analysis for the report are…

  19. Health Technologies State Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This "tech prep" state competency profile contains all the competencies required and recommended for entry-level employees in occupations in the health technologies cluster. Introductory materials include the following: descriptions of the different types of competencies (essential ones that must be included in all new tech prep programs and…

  20. Integrating Technology Education and Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Paul B.

    A study identified and ranked those factors which facilitate and those which impede the linkage between technology education and tech prep. The top four states with regard to integration of technology education and tech prep were Illinois, South Carolina, Oregon, and Idaho. Factors that facilitated integration were as follows: technology…

  1. Tech Prep/Associate Degree Concept Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tech Prep Network, Waco, TX.

    The Tech Prep/Associate Degree concept offers an answer to the nationwide mandate to improve the U.S. educational system and thus to enable the country to remain competitive in the world market. Tech Prep is a sequence of study beginning in high school and continuing through at least 2 years of postsecondary occupational education. The Tech Prep…

  2. The Tech Prep Handbook: Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Oliver D., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook for tech prep practitioners in Texas consists of loose-leaf documents from the performance assessment areas currently available to tech prep practitioners. The first part of the handbook consists of 10 sample assessment documents that were selected from over 900 performance assessment based on a quantitative rating system. The…

  3. New Software Product Feature Identification: An Analysis of E-mail User Characteristics and Functional Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofuoglu, Ecehan; Basoglu, Nuri; Daim, Tugrul

    Improving the product development process is becoming more important as business environment gets more competitive. This study aims at understanding and characterizing potential users of a software product through idea sharing of users. It also targets to create a new product concept through understanding the common features users prefer most. During this product conceptualization stage, the customer ideas are captured through use of a questionnaire. The target users, priority of product functions and features are investigated and the details of the existing e-mail systems as well as of the ideal e-mail systems are identified. Some of the key results included users with demographic differences having different usage and requirements characteristics, expectations of females being higher than those of males and the software functions used and characteristics required being different for those with different job categories or educational backgrounds.

  4. PlanetPack software tool for exoplanets detection: coming new features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2014-07-01

    We briefly overview the new features of PlanetPack2, the forthcoming update of PlanetPack, which is a software tool for exoplanets detection and characterization from Doppler radial velocity data. Among other things, this major update brings parallelized computing, new advanced models of the Doppler noise, handling of the so-called Keplerian periodogram, and routines for transits fitting and transit timing variation analysis.

  5. A Full-Featured User Friendly CO{sub 2}-EOR and Sequestration Planning Software

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, Bill

    2013-11-30

    A Full-Featured, User Friendly CO{sub 2}-EOR and Sequestration Planning Software This project addressed the development of an integrated software solution that includes a graphical user interface, numerical simulation, visualization tools and optimization processes for reservoir simulation modeling of CO{sub 2}-EOR. The objective was to assist the industry in the development of domestic energy resources by expanding the application of CO{sub 2}-EOR technologies, and ultimately to maximize the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the U.S. The software resulted in a field-ready application for the industry to address the current CO{sub 2}-EOR technologies. The software has been made available to the public without restrictions and with user friendly operating documentation and tutorials. The software (executable only) can be downloaded from NITEC’s website at www.nitecllc.com. This integrated solution enables the design, optimization and operation of CO{sub 2}-EOR processes for small and mid-sized operators, who currently cannot afford the expensive, time intensive solutions that the major oil companies enjoy. Based on one estimate, small oil fields comprise 30% of the of total economic resource potential for the application of CO{sub 2}-EOR processes in the U.S. This corresponds to 21.7 billion barrels of incremental, technically recoverable oil using the current “best practices”, and 31.9 billion barrels using “next-generation” CO{sub 2}-EOR techniques. The project included a Case Study of a prospective CO{sub 2}-EOR candidate field in Wyoming by a small independent, Linc Energy Petroleum Wyoming, Inc. NITEC LLC has an established track record of developing innovative and user friendly software. The Principle Investigator is an experienced manager and engineer with expertise in software development, numerical techniques, and GUI applications. Unique, presently-proprietary NITEC technologies have been integrated into this application to further its ease of

  6. Washington Year Two Tech Prep Planning and Implementation Survey Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.

    All of Washington's 22 tech prep consortium directors responded to a 1994 survey examining selected aspects of tech prep planning/implementation. Ten of Washington's 22 consortia reported having tech prep students (only 1 of 15 consortia in 1992-93), and secondary student enrollment in tech prep programs totaled 2,203 (170 in 1992-93). All 19…

  7. The Tech Prep Associate Degree Challenge: A Report of the Tech Prep Roundtable. AACC Special Reports No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcone, Lisa, Ed.; Mundhenk, Robert, Ed.

    In fall 1993, a roundtable was held with leading Tech Prep practitioners to discuss the direction Tech Prep has taken since 1990 and emerging issues related to the implementation of Tech Prep Associate Degree (TPAD) programs. Stemming from the roundtable, this monograph describes Tech Prep, provides recommendations for implementation, and…

  8. Main features of the new software control system for the YuMO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilov, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    During the last years the new software instrumental complex Sonix+ has been developed at FLNP JINR to replace the former Sonix control system [1]. This complex has been tested at a number of IBR-2 instruments (REMUR, NERA-PR) and on instruments at other centers - KIA, Moscow (MOND), etc. We plan to install the new complex at the YuMO instrument as well. The Sonix+ is implemented on the PC/Windows XP platform, whereas the Sonix is based on the VME/Os-9 obsolete platform. The Sonix+ [1] has been designed considering the experience of long-term operation of the predecessor and recent trends. The paper is devoted to the main features of the new software and the comparison with the former one.

  9. An automated fitting procedure and software for dose-response curves with multiphasic features

    PubMed Central

    Veroli, Giovanni Y. Di; Fornari, Chiara; Goldlust, Ian; Mills, Graham; Koh, Siang Boon; Bramhall, Jo L; Richards, Frances M.; Jodrell, Duncan I.

    2015-01-01

    In cancer pharmacology (and many other areas), most dose-response curves are satisfactorily described by a classical Hill equation (i.e. 4 parameters logistical). Nevertheless, there are instances where the marked presence of more than one point of inflection, or the presence of combined agonist and antagonist effects, prevents straight-forward modelling of the data via a standard Hill equation. Here we propose a modified model and automated fitting procedure to describe dose-response curves with multiphasic features. The resulting general model enables interpreting each phase of the dose-response as an independent dose-dependent process. We developed an algorithm which automatically generates and ranks dose-response models with varying degrees of multiphasic features. The algorithm was implemented in new freely available Dr Fit software (sourceforge.net/projects/drfit/). We show how our approach is successful in describing dose-response curves with multiphasic features. Additionally, we analysed a large cancer cell viability screen involving 11650 dose-response curves. Based on our algorithm, we found that 28% of cases were better described by a multiphasic model than by the Hill model. We thus provide a robust approach to fit dose-response curves with various degrees of complexity, which, together with the provided software implementation, should enable a wide audience to easily process their own data. PMID:26424192

  10. Features of the Upgraded Imaging for Hypersonic Experimental Aeroheating Testing (IHEAT) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Michelle L.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-01-01

    The Imaging for Hypersonic Experimental Aeroheating Testing (IHEAT) software is used at the NASA Langley Research Center to analyze global aeroheating data on wind tunnel models tested in the Langley Aerothermodynamics Laboratory. One-dimensional, semi-infinite heating data derived from IHEAT are used in the design of thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles that are exposed to severe aeroheating loads, such as reentry vehicles during descent and landing procedures. This software program originally was written in the PV-WAVE(Registered Trademark) programming language to analyze phosphor thermography data from the two-color, relative-intensity system developed at Langley. To increase the efficiency, functionality, and reliability of IHEAT, the program was migrated to MATLAB(Registered Trademark) syntax and compiled as a stand-alone executable file labeled version 4.0. New features of IHEAT 4.0 include the options to perform diagnostic checks of the accuracy of the acquired data during a wind tunnel test, to extract data along a specified multi-segment line following a feature such as a leading edge or a streamline, and to batch process all of the temporal frame data from a wind tunnel run. Results from IHEAT 4.0 were compared on a pixel level to the output images from the legacy software to validate the program. The absolute differences between the heat transfer data output from the two programs were on the order of 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -7). IHEAT 4.0 replaces the PV-WAVE(Registered Trademark) version as the production software for aeroheating experiments conducted in the hypersonic facilities at NASA Langley.

  11. Appendix A: Rankings for All Programs in "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review 2014." [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. The rankings of all 2,400 elementary, secondary, and special education programs included in "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review 2014" are listed in this appendix as: (1) a numeric national ranking; (2)…

  12. Tech Prep Decision Making: Evaluation and Improvement Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    The evaluation process provides valuable information so that practitioners may share and benchmark their efforts to improve and enhance the quality of the educational reform initiative called tech prep. Evaluation should be part of every phase of a tech prep initiative, from needs assessment to completion. A tech prep program is typically at one…

  13. Planning a Tech Prep Program in Hospitality. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL. Chicago City-Wide Coll.

    A project conducted to establish tech prep articulation training agreements between City Colleges of Chicago and several public secondary schools is described in this report. Project activities were as follows: (1) developed a handbook to define the tech prep experience and guide committee members on how tech prep can be a valuable asset to…

  14. The Effect of Tech Prep on Students' Speed toward Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweat, Jewell; Fenster, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a tech prep program of study better prepared a student for success in Georgia's technical colleges. In this study, three hypotheses, which included high-school preparation, academic performance, and faster graduation of tech prep and non-tech prep students, were analyzed. Therefore, the main focus of…

  15. Tech-Prep Competency Profiles within the Engineering Technologies Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 12 competency profiles for tech prep courses within the engineering technologies cluster. The document consists of the following sections: (1) systemic curriculum reform philosophy--Ohio's vision of tech prep and its six critical components; (2) an explanation of the process of developing the tech prep competencies; (3) a…

  16. Tech Prep: An Embryonic Idea and Divergent Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerner, James L.; And Others

    The practice and processes of articulated tech prep programs were examined in Spring 1991. Two major areas of focus were getting a general picture of the status of tech prep programs in the United States and learning about tech prep programs for at-risk students. A literature review focused on three areas: definition, background, and philosophy;…

  17. Measuring Tech Prep Excellence: A Practitioner's Guide to Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.; Timms, Delia M.

    This guide is designed to assist state and local consortia with their evaluation of Tech Prep education programs and with their reporting of Tech Prep program and student outcomes data to meet the accountability requirements of the Perkins Act of 1998. Intended for Tech Prep stakeholders in secondary schools and two-year colleges, the guide also…

  18. Using Tech Prep Principles to Improve Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegge, Chris A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four research and synthesis activities were undertaken: review of reforms in science, math, and English; survey of 12 secondary tech prep administrators; focus group of tech prep teachers; and survey of 156 tech prep stakeholders using concept mapping. Five themes for teacher education emerged: (1) teaching through application; (2)…

  19. Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) - summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Saloio, J.H.; Vannoni, M.G.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear weapons have been produced in the US since the early 1950s by a network of contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities collectively known as the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC). Recognizing that the failure of an essential process might stop weapon production for a substantial period of time, the DOE Albuquerque Operations office initiated the Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess quantitatively the potential for serious disruptions in the NWC weapon production process. PREP was conducted from 1984-89. This document is an unclassified summary of the effort.

  20. Model Tech Prep Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Maryland Educational Consortium, La Plata.

    The Southern Maryland Educational Consortium's Tech Prep Model Demonstration project is described in this final report. The consortium members are Calvert, Charles, and St. Mary's county school districts and Charles County Community College in southern Maryland. The project is based on a 4 + 2 model in which ninth-grade students develop career…

  1. Tech Prep Model for Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.; King, Binky M.

    A project was conducted to develop two tech prep models for marketing education (ME) in Missouri to provide a sequence of courses for skill-enhanced and time-shortened programs. First, labor market trends, employment growth projections, and business and industry labor needs in Missouri were researched and analyzed. The analysis results were used…

  2. Electronics Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile covers the occupation of electronics technician. Section 1 provides the occupation definition. Section 2 lists development committee members. Section 3 provides the leveling codes--abbreviations for grade level, (by the end of grade 12, by the end of associate degree), academic codes (communications, math, or…

  3. Effort Determines Success at Roxbury Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott

    2013-01-01

    A middle school in Boston designs its curriculum and culture--from its nightly homework assignments to its Powerful Speaking Extravaganza--upon a foundation of strengthening students' motivation and ability to do the hard work necessary to accomplish their goals. Roxbury Prep's emphasis on perseverance finds support in a robust body of…

  4. [prepCheck computer-supported objective evaluation of students preparation in preclinical simulation laboratory].

    PubMed

    Lenherr, Patrik; Marinello, Carlo P

    2014-01-01

    Applications such as “prepCheck” allow objective and consistent judgments of tooth preparations. Hereby the respective preparation is matched with a standardized preparation. Whereas the learning curve in the beginning is time-consuming, after some time the faculty members will be relieved from additional mentoring time in the preclinical simulation laboratory. Students independently get an objective self-assessment by the software. Time and effort at the moment are in a misbalance since three scans (preparation, occlusion record, opposite jaw) are necessary. A simple one-scan procedure would be preferable. “prepCheck” is considered as a user-friendly software. It will play an essential role in the objective assessment of students tooth preparations in the future education. PMID:25341525

  5. Tech Prep Marketing Guide. The Complete Book of Strategies and Practical Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Patty

    This guide explains the concept of marketing tech prep and provides marketing principles and strategies to promote tech prep programs. The guide covers the following topics: (1) why it is necessary to market tech prep; (2) what a comprehensive tech prep marketing plan should include; (3) targeting the benefits message; (4) marketing tech prep to…

  6. The Texas Tech Prep Consortia: Strategies for Advancing Academic and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Oliver D., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 30 chapters on the tech prep initiative in Texas: "The Identity of Tech Prep in Texas" (Tunstall); "A Snap-Shot of the Impact of the Tech Prep Initiative in the Governor's 24 Planning Regions" (Brown); "The Tech Prep Consortium Directors: The Architects for the Future of Texas" (Hensley et al.); "Tech Prep: Jewel in the Crown"…

  7. Characterization of PREP2, a paralog of PREP1, which defines a novel sub-family of the MEINOX TALE homeodomain transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Fognani, C; Kilstrup-Nielsen, C; Berthelsen, J; Ferretti, E; Zappavigna, V; Blasi, F

    2002-05-01

    TALE (three amino acid loop extension) homeodomain proteins include the PBC and the MEINOX sub-families. MEINOX proteins form heterodimer complexes with PBC proteins. Heterodimerization is crucial to DNA binding and for nuclear localization. PBC-MEINOX heterodimers bind DNA also in combination with HOX proteins, thereby modulating their DNA-binding specificity. TALE proteins therefore play crucial roles in multiple developmental and differentiation pathways in vivo. We report the identification and characterization of a novel human gene homologous to PREP1, called PREP2. Sequence comparisons indicate that PREP1 and PREP2 define a novel sub-family of MEINOX proteins, distinct from the MEIS sub-family. PREP2 is expressed in a variety of human adult tissues and displays a more restricted expression pattern than PREP1. PREP2 is capable of heterodimerizing with PBC proteins. Heterodimerization with PBX1 appears to be essential for nuclear localization of both PREP2 and PBX1. A comparison between the functional properties of PREP1 and PREP2 reveals that PREP2-PBX display a faster DNA-dissociation rate than PREP1-PBX heterodimers, suggesting different roles in controlling gene expression. Like PREP1, PREP2-PBX heterodimers are capable of forming ternary complexes with HOXB1. The analysis of some PREP2 in vitro properties suggests a functional diversification among PREP and between PREP and MEIS MEINOX proteins. PMID:11972344

  8. Tech Prep: Pathways to Success? The Performance of Tech Prep and Non-Tech Prep Students at a Midwestern Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krile, Donna J.; Parmer, Penelope

    This study looks at all students who participated in a Tech Prep program at Sinclair Community College, Ohio, and who first enrolled in the program between fall 1997 and spring 2001. The comparison group consisted of all non-Tech Prep students who started at Sinclair between fall 1997 and fall 2000, and who had not transferred credits from any…

  9. Morphometric analysis with open source software to explore shallow hydrogeological features in Senegal and Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussi, Fabio; Di Leo, Margherita; Bonomi, Tullia; Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Hamidou Kane, Cheikh; Faye, Gayane; Niang, Magatte; Wade, Souleye; Hamidou, Barry; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Water represents a vital resource for everyone on this Planet, but, for some populations, the access to potable water is not given for granted. Recently, the interest in low cost technical solutions to improve access to ground water in developing countries, especially for people located in remote areas, has increased. Manual drilling (techniques to drill boreholes for water using human or animal power) is well known and practiced for centuries in many countries and represents a valid alternative to increase water access. Lately, this practice has raised the attention of national governments and international organizations. This technique is applicable only where hydrogeological conditions are suitable, namely in presence of thick layers of unconsolidated sediments and a shallow water table Aim of this study is exploring the potential of morphometric analysis to improve the methodology to identify areas with suitable hydrogeological conditions for manual drilling, supporting the implementation of water supply programs that can have great impact on living condition of the population. The characteristics of shallow geological layers are strongly dependent from geomorphological processes and are usually reflected in the morphological characteristics of landforms. Under these hypotheses, we have been investigating the geo-statistical correlation between several morphometric variables and a set of hydrogeological variables used in the estimation of suitability for manual drilling: thickness of unconsolidated sediments, texture, hydraulic conductivity of shallow aquifer, depth of water table. The morphology of two study areas with different landscape characteristics in Guinea and Senegal has been investigated coupling the Free and Open Source Software GRASS GIS and R. Several morphometric parameters have been extracted from ASTER GDEM digital elevation model, and have been compared with a set of hydrogeological characteristics obtained from semi-automatic analysis of

  10. Creating a Place in History [and] Tech Prep for Business and Marketing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Anita K.; Butler, Tommie L.

    1993-01-01

    "Creating a Place in History" (Decker) discusses the evolution of tech prep and the challenges it offers to secondary and postsecondary schools. "Tech Prep for Business and Marketing Technology" (Butler) describes tech prep in Arkansas. (JOW)

  11. Comparison Of Solar Surface Features Identified By The Autoclass Pattern Recognition Software From Mount Wilson Observatory Data To Solar Surface Feature Areas Measured By The San Fernando Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Daryl; Preminger, D.; Ulrich, R.; Bertello, L.; Cookson, A.; Chapman, G.

    2009-05-01

    In previous work, the AutoClass software, a Bayesian pattern recognition program based on a finite mixture model, developed by Cheeseman and Stutz (1996), has been used on Mount Wilson Solar Observatory (MWO) intensity and magnetogram images to identify spatially resolved areas on the solar surface associated with Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and to classify the identified areas in terms of traditional categories-spot, plage, quiet, etc. Those results, were in turn used to (1) model TSI variations as measured by satellite and composite TSI observations, with a correlation of better than 0.96, for the period 1996-2008-most of Cycle 23, and (2) create solar images as they would be seen by a hypothetical TSI instrument able to capture resolved images. Here, we compare the same regions identified by AutoClass which were found to be associated with TSI, and the indices derived from them, with the following areas measured by the San Fernando Observatory (SFO): (1) sunspot area in red continuum; (2) facular area in red continuum; (3) sunspot area in wide Ca K-line (WK-line); (4) plage area in WK-line; and (5) plage plus network area in WK-line. The correlations of the AutoClass-MWO indices with the different SFO area measurements varies from better than 0.91 to over 0.98, depending on the type of feature. The comparison of the spatially resolved surface areas identified by AutoClass in the MWO images to the areas of the different feature observed at SFO, and the creation of spatially resolved images depicting those areas, should enable better identification of the types of surface features associated with TSI measurements and their evolution over a solar cycle. The comparison should also assist in validating the automated categorization of solar features found using the AutoClass automated pattern recognition software.

  12. Tech Prep Degree: Preparing Tomorrow's Workforce. Design, Development and Implementation of a TECH PREP Core Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quad-City/Tri-County Vocational Regions, East Moline, IL.

    The focus of tech prep at Quad-City/Tri-County Vocational Regions/Black Hawk College was on providing all students with skills for higher education as well as job opportunities. To accomplish this, a comprehensive model applicable to all program areas was implemented to provide sequenced, vocationally and academically integrated, and complementary…

  13. High School PREP: Thematic Planning, Fall '83. Preparation for Raising Educational Performance. [HS PREP Experimental Program].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This is a handbook designed for carrying out the goals and objectives of Preparation for Raising Educational Performance (PREP), a thematic, remedial program for ninth graders in New York City public schools. The lessons presented in the handbook model an approach to learning which follows the patterns of actual language development: listening,…

  14. AVA Guide to Federal Funding for Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brustein, Michael

    This handbook outlines the options and requirements for federal support for tech prep in the Perkins law. It explains what educators must do and not do to assure compliance with all the law's mandates and to avoid audit exceptions. The guide also covers new tech prep provisions that were included in the Higher Education Act of 1992. Discussed in…

  15. PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... negative and have taken PrEP for up to 5 years, no significant health effects have been seen. Learn more about how to protect yourself and get information tailored to meet your needs from CDC’s HIV Risk Reduction Tool (BETA). Can you start PrEP after you have ...

  16. Implementing Tech Prep: A Guide to Planning a Quality Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; And Others

    This guide provides perspectives about Technical Preparation (tech prep) from personnel representing the 50 state agencies and many local consortia. The guide also explores an approach to implementing tech prep based on the concept of total quality management (TQM). Each chapter begins with an overview that provides background, a summary, and list…

  17. Mississippi Tech-Prep Coordinators: Identifying Challenges of the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Jean Alice; Boggs, Brad D.; Stumpf, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Mississippi tech-prep coordinators were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the difficulty of their various job responsibilities as identified in the Mississippi Tech Prep Handbook Pilot Site Implementation Guide 1993-94 (1993). It was hypothesized that their perceptions would be influenced by the number of sites served by individual…

  18. HIV PrEP Trials: The Road to Success

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Melanie R; Adams, Jessica L; Kashuba, Angela DM

    2013-01-01

    Summary The global HIV epidemic cannot be controlled by current treatment or prevention strategies. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretrovirals is a promising approach to curbing the spread of HIV transmission. Recently, four clinical trials demonstrated favorable results when antiretroviral PrEP was administered topically or orally. However, two additional trials were unable to demonstrate a benefit, indicating that further study is required to define the populations and conditions under which PrEP will be effective. Adherence is highly correlated with protection, yet the exact level of adherence required is unknown. Future studies may require increased drug exposure testing and more objective methods to monitor adherence in real-time. Although the development of drug resistance in the PrEP trials has been low, it remains a concern, as therapeutic options could be compromised for those who seroconvert while on PrEP. PMID:24409341

  19. Self-reported Recent PrEP Dosing and Drug Detection in an Open Label PrEP Study.

    PubMed

    Amico, K Rivet; Mehrotra, Megha; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; McMahan, Vanessa; Veloso, Valdilea G; Anderson, Peter; Guanira, Juan; Grant, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is part of the recommended package for PrEP prescribing, yet ongoing concerns about how to do so confidently are exacerbated by gross discrepancies in reported and actual use in clinical trials. We evaluated concordance between reports of recent PrEP dosing collected via neutral interviewing and drug quantitation in the iPrEx open-label extension, where participants (n = 1172) had the choice to receive or not receive PrEP. Self-report of recent dosing (at least one PrEP dose in the past 3-day) was the most common report (84 % of participants), and among these 83 % did have quantifiable levels of drug. The vast majority of those reporting no doses in the past 3-day (16 % of the sample) did not have quantifiable levels of drug (82 %). Predictors of over-report of dosing included younger age and lower educational attainment. Monitoring recent PrEP use through neutral interviewing may be a productive approach for clinicians to consider in implementation of real-world PrEP. Strategies to capture longer term or prevention-effective PrEP use, particularly for younger cohorts, are needed. PMID:26992393

  20. Transition from High School to College and Work for Tech Prep Participants in Eight Selected Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Loeb, Jane W.; Gong, Yuqin; Deng, Chi-Ping; Yoo, Jung-sup; Hill, Jerry L.

    The transition from high school to college and work for tech prep participants was examined in a 4-year longitudinal study of local tech prep consortia in eight regions of the United States. The study methodology drew heavily on transcript analysis and two surveys with tech prep participants and nonparticipants. The tech prep participants and…

  1. Tech Prep Leadership Summit: A Conference Report (Chicago, Illinois, June 22-23, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This report presents outcomes of deliberations at the Tech Prep Leadership Summit on a "national vision" for tech prep. Following an introduction, Section 2 represents the consensus reached at the summit. Discussion of the purpose of tech prep focuses on the mission statement and goals of the Tech Prep Act. The discussion of program outcomes…

  2. Spike detection, characterization, and discrimination using feature analysis software written in LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Stewart, C M; Newlands, S D; Perachio, A A

    2004-12-01

    Rapid and accurate discrimination of single units from extracellular recordings is a fundamental process for the analysis and interpretation of electrophysiological recordings. We present an algorithm that performs detection, characterization, discrimination, and analysis of action potentials from extracellular recording sessions. The program was entirely written in LabVIEW (National Instruments), and requires no external hardware devices or a priori information about action potential shapes. Waveform events are detected by scanning the digital record for voltages that exceed a user-adjustable trigger. Detected events are characterized to determine nine different time and voltage levels for each event. Various algebraic combinations of these waveform features are used as axis choices for 2-D Cartesian plots of events. The user selects axis choices that generate distinct clusters. Multiple clusters may be defined as action potentials by manually generating boundaries of arbitrary shape. Events defined as action potentials are validated by visual inspection of overlain waveforms. Stimulus-response relationships may be identified by selecting any recorded channel for comparison to continuous and average cycle histograms of binned unit data. The algorithm includes novel aspects of feature analysis and acquisition, including higher acquisition rates for electrophysiological data compared to other channels. The program confirms that electrophysiological data may be discriminated with high-speed and efficiency using algebraic combinations of waveform features derived from high-speed digital records. PMID:15501510

  3. BEopt(TM) Software for Building Energy Optimization: Features and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Courtney, A.; Spencer, J.

    2006-08-01

    BEopt is a computer program designed to find optimal building designs along the path to ZNE. A user selects from predefined options in various categories to specify options to be considered in the optimization. Energy savings are calculated relative to a reference. The reference can be either a user-defined base-case building or a climate-specific Building America Benchmark building automatically generated by BEopt. The user can also review and modify detailed information on all available options in a linked options library spreadsheet. BEopt calls the DOE2 and TRNSYS simulation engines and uses a sequential search technique to automate the process of identifying optimal building designs along the path to ZNE. BEopt finds these optimal and near-optimal designs based on discrete building options reflecting realistic construction options. BEopt handles special situations with positive or negative interactions between options in different categories. The BEopt software includes a results browser that allows the user to navigate among different design points and retrieve detailed results regarding energy end-use and option costs in different categories. Multiple cases, based on a selected parameter such as climate, can be included in a BEopt project file for comparative purposes.

  4. Optimizing Content for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Counseling for Men who have Sex with Men: Perspectives of PrEP Users and High-risk PrEP Naïve Men

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S. Wade; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Elsesser, Steven M.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Existing trials of antiretroviral (ARV) medication as chemoprophylaxis against HIV reveal that the degree of protection is primarily dependent on product adherence. However, there is a lack of data on targets for behavioral interventions to improve adherence to ARV as prevention. Information from individuals who have used ARV as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can inform behavioral intervention development. Thirty-nine HIV-uninfected MSM at high risk for HIV acquisition participated in one of four semi-structured focus groups. Two of the focus groups consisted of MSM who had been prescribed and used PrEP in the context of a clinical trial; the other two consisted of high-risk MSM who had not previously used PrEP. An in-depth, within-case/across-case content analysis resulted in six descriptive themes potentially salient for a PrEP adherence behavioral intervention: (1) motivations to use PrEP, (2) barriers to PrEP use, (3) facilitators to PrEP use, (4) sexual decision-making in the context of PrEP, (5) prospective PrEP education content, and, (6) perceived effective characteristics of PrEP delivery personnel. Addressing these themes in behavioral interventions in the context of prescribing PrEP may result in the optimal “packaging” public health programs that implement PrEP for high-risk MSM. PMID:24077928

  5. Clinician Attitudes Toward CDC Interim Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Guidance and Operationalizing PrEP for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prior to issuing formal HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) clinical practice guidelines in 2014, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had released interim guidance for oral PrEP use among adults. Because oral PrEP may be used off-label for youth and may soon be indicated for minor adolescents, we examined the potential adoption of the interim guidance among clinicians who care for HIV-infected and at-risk youth. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 US clinicians who were recruited through an adolescent HIV research network. The theory-driven interview guide, consisting primarily of open-ended questions, assessed demographics, familiarity with the guidance, attitudes toward the guidance, and attitudes toward the use of the guidance for adult and adolescent patients. Transcripts were analyzed using framework analysis. Most clinicians (11/15) reported that the guidance was compatible with their practice, although several reported that some aspects, particularly frequency of follow-up visits, needed to be tailored to meet their patients' needs. We found variability in clinician reported characteristics of appropriate PrEP candidates (e.g., youth with substance use and mental health issues were noted to be both suitable and unsuitable PrEP candidates) and PrEP use in serodiscordant couples (e.g., whether PrEP would be recommended to a patient whose HIV-infected partner is virally suppressed). Clinician reported steps for initiation, monitoring, and discontinuing PrEP were largely consistent with the guidance. The observed variability in clinician practice with regard to oral PrEP may be reduced through interventions to educate clinicians about the content and rationale for guideline recommendations. PMID:25692683

  6. Tech-Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains competency profiles for Ohio tech prep courses in the following 12 health technologies occupations: radiographer, respiratory care therapist, occupational therapy assistant, physical therapist assistant, registered nurse (associate degree), pharmacy technologist, medical laboratory technician, histotechnologist, emergency…

  7. Feature Selection for Evolutionary Commercial-off-the-Shelf Software: Studies Focusing on Time-to-Market, Innovation and Hedonic-Utilitarian Trade-Offs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakar, Adarsh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Feature selection is one of the most important decisions made by product managers. This three article study investigates the concepts, tools and techniques for making trade-off decisions of introducing new features in evolving Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products. The first article investigates the efficacy of various feature…

  8. AirfoilPrep.py Documentation: Release 0.1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    AirfoilPrep.py provides functionality to preprocess aerodynamic airfoil data. Essentially, the module is an object oriented version of the AirfoilPrep spreadsheet with additional functionality and is written in the Python language. It allows the user to read in two-dimensional aerodynamic airfoil data, apply three-dimensional rotation corrections for wind turbine applications, and extend the datato very large angles of attack. This document discusses installation, usage, and documentation of the module.

  9. Prevention and recovery in early psychosis (PREP(®)): building a public-academic partnership program in Massachusetts, United States.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Brina; Zimmet, Suzanna V; Meyer, Eric C; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Monteleone, Thomas; Jude Leung, Y; Guyer, Margaret E; Rood, Laura Logue; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been increasing emphasis on early intervention (EI) for psychotic disorders. EI programs in public mental health settings have been established in countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada. However, there are relatively few EI programs in the United States (U.S.). Here we describe the conceptual origins and practical development of the PREP program, i.e., Prevention and Recovery in Early Psychosis, as it evolved in a public academic psychiatry setting in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. PREP developed over a decade through a partnership between the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health and academic institutions within the Harvard Department of Psychiatry. We discuss the evolution, programmatic features, funding mechanisms, staffing, and the role of clinical training in PREP. The key principles in developing the PREP Program include the focus on early, evidence based, person-centered and phase-specific, integrated and continuous, comprehensive care. This program has served as a foundation for the emergence of related services at our institution, including a research clinic treating those at clinical high risk or within the putative "prodromal" period preceding frank psychosis. This account offers one possible blueprint for the development of EI programs despite the lack in the U.S. of a national mandate for EI or prevention-based mental health programs. PMID:23466116

  10. PREP1, MEIS1 homolog protein, regulates PF4 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiaki; Matsuura, Eri; Nagai, Ryohei; Sato, Takahiro; Watanabe, Ayako; Morita, Ikuo; Doi, Takefumi

    2003-05-23

    We have previously demonstrated that homeodomain proteins, MEIS1 and PBXs, transactivate the PF4 gene through the novel regulatory element termed TME. This study focuses on Pbx regulating protein 1 (PREP1), a MEIS1 homolog protein, for its transcriptional activity in the PF4 promoter. PREP1 binds to the TME in HEL cells. PREP1 was expressed in human megakaryocytes that differentiated from CD34(+) cells. EMSA shows that either PREP1 by itself or PREP1/PBX complexes bind to the two TGACAG motifs in the TME and activate the PF4 promoter. Furthermore, PREP1 and PREP1/PBX complexes synergistically activate the PF4 promoter with GATA-1 and ETS-1. These data demonstrate that PREP1 is also an important transcription factor that regulates PF4 gene expression such as MEIS1. Additionally, these data imply functional similarities and differences between PREP1 and MEIS1 in the regulation of PF4 gene expression. PMID:12732210

  11. Prep1, a novel functional partner of Pbx proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, J; Zappavigna, V; Mavilio, F; Blasi, F

    1998-03-01

    The human transcription factor, UEF3, is important in regulating the activity of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene enhancer. The UEF3 DNA target site is a regulatory element in the promoters of several growth factor and protease genes. We reported previously that purified UEF3 is a complex of several subunits. In this paper we report the cloning of the cDNA of one of the subunits which encodes for a novel human homeodomain protein, which we have termed Prep1. The Prep1 homeodomain belongs to the TALE class of homeodomains, is most closely related to those of the TGIF and Meis1 proteins, and like these, recognizes a TGACAG motif. We further identify the other UEF3 subunit as a member of the Pbx protein family. Unlike other proteins known to interact with Pbx, Prep1 forms a stable complex with Pbx independent of DNA binding. Heterodimerization of Prep1 and Pbx results in a strong DNA binding affinity towards the TGACAG target site of the uPA promoter. Overall, these data indicate that Prep1 is a stable intracellular partner of Pbx in vivo. PMID:9482739

  12. Get on Board the Cost Effective Way: A Tech Prep Replication Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Wayne A.; Szul, Linda F.; Rivosecchi, Karen

    1997-01-01

    The Northwestern Pennsylvania Tech Prep Consortium model for replicating tech prep programs includes these steps: fact finding, local industry analysis, curriculum development, detailed description, marketing strategies, implementation, and program evaluation. (SK)

  13. 2014 Teacher Prep Review: A Review of the Nation's Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    "Teacher Prep Review 2014" is the second edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) annual assessment of the nation's 2,400 teacher prep programs. The "Review" uncovers early evidence that teacher prep programs are beginning to make changes. It arrives at a time of heightened, unprecedented…

  14. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED TECH-PREP EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 406.1 What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? If the...

  15. Using Concept Mapping Techniques to Compare Stakeholder Groups' Perceptions of Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegge, Chris A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to develop a conceptual framework for tech prep programs based on the perceptions of personnel involved in the planning and implementation of local tech prep programs. A structured conceptualization process called concept mapping was used to develop a pictorial representation of stakeholders' perceptions of tech prep. Using a…

  16. Selected Outcomes Related to Tech Prep Implementation by Illinois Consortia, 2001-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Kirby, Catherine; Zhu, Rongchun

    2006-01-01

    This report is the summary of key aspects of Tech Prep in Illinois over the five year period of 2001-2005 during which all Tech Prep consortia provided annual data based on federal legislative requirements and state-determined essential elements of successful programs. These annual Tech Prep reports enable local educators to monitor student…

  17. Evaluating and Improving Tech Prep: Development, Validation, and Results of the Minnesota Self-Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Minnesota Tech Prep Self-Evaluation System is a framework based on ideas from Deming, Juran, and the Baldridge award. Testing with 17 Minnesota tech prep consortia found it effective in identifying areas needing improvement and promoting dialog among those involved in tech prep implementation. (SK)

  18. Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics: Software Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yushau, B.; Bokhari, M. A.; Wessels, D. C. J.

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Learning of Mathematics (CALM) has been in use for some time in the Prep-Year Mathematics Program at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Different kinds of software (both locally designed and imported) have been used in the quest of optimizing the recitation/problem session hour of the mathematics classes. This paper…

  19. Prep1 (pKnox1)-deficiency leads to spontaneous tumor development in mice and accelerates EmuMyc lymphomagenesis: a tumor suppressor role for Prep1.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, E; Iotti, G; Di Rosa, P; Mejetta, S; Bianchi, F; Fernandez-Diaz, L C; Micali, N; Nuciforo, P; Lenti, E; Ponzoni, M; Doglioni, C; Caniatti, M; Di Fiore, P P; Blasi, F

    2010-04-01

    The Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor is essential for embryonic development. 25% of hypomorphic Prep1(i/i) embryos, expressing the gene at 2% of the normal levels, survive pregnancy and live a normal-length life. Later in life, however, these mice develop spontaneous pre-tumoral lesions or solid tumors (lymphomas and carcinomas). In addition, transplantation of E14.5 fetal liver (FL) Prep1(i/i) cells into lethally irradiated mice induces lymphomas. In agreement with the above data, haploinsufficiency of a different Prep1-deficient (null) allele accelerates EmuMyc lymphoma growth. Therefore Prep1 has a tumor suppressor function in mice. Immunohistochemistry on tissue micrroarrays (TMA) generated from three distinct human cohorts comprising a total of some 1000 human tumors revealed that 70% of the tumors express no or extremely low levels of Prep1, unlike normal tissues. Our data in mice are thus potentially relevant to human cancer. PMID:20106730

  20. A Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Preschool Children. PREP-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…

  1. Comprehensive Vocational and Applied Technology Program. Seattle Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle Community Coll. District, Washington.

    This package contains a program description and miscellaneous brochures about the Seattle (Washington) Public Schools' tech prep program. The program description booklet is designed to show how a comprehensive vocational and applied technology program is being introduced at Nathan Hale High School in Seattle. Included in the booklet are the…

  2. Tech Prep Associate Degree: A Win/Win Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Dan, Comp.; Parnell, Dale, Comp.

    Designed to serve as a "how to" guide for policymakers, and state, federal, and institutional leaders, as well as public school and higher education practitioners interested in developing a Tech Prep/Associate Degree (TPAD) consortium, this book provides a detailed synthesis of successful TPAD consortia and programs. The first five chapters offer…

  3. Appendix D: More on Recommendations. [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. This appendix presents next steps for prospective college or graduate students who aspire to enter teaching (and their parents) and for current students who are already enrolled in a teacher preparation program…

  4. Tech Prep + School-to-Work = Career Pathways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkisson, Dennis L.; Lane, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Describes efforts of an Iowa high school principal and a community college tech-prep coordinator to develop a school-to-work program based on working partnerships among the regional education agency, local education agencies, students, parents, community colleges, and businesses. Following development and marketing phases, career maps provided the…

  5. Macy BioPrep Project: Preliminary Analysis of Student Questionnaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Victoria Anne; And Others

    This paper reports on a study of the Biomedical Sciences Preparation Program (BioPrep), a rural component of the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation's funded projects. The program was intended to give Alabama students (particularly minorities) academic competency in mathematics, science, and oral and written communication relevant to medical professions.…

  6. Curriculum Designs for Tech Prep Clusters. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains descriptions of various Tech Prep programs developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each entry includes general program descriptions, curriculum outlines, and course descriptions. The clusters and their specialty areas described in the booklet are:…

  7. Tech Prep Intergenerational Curriculum Development Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock.

    A project was conducted at Texas Tech University to develop a competency-based curriculum to support statewide implementation of tech prep intergenerational programs (careers in providing services to well elderly persons and to children). Project activities included the following: (1) revision and expansion of the Intergenerational Target…

  8. Improving Employability Skills through Cooperative Education and Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Todd; Lesniak, Greta

    The possibility of improving employability skills through cooperative education and tech prep was examined in an action research project involving high school students from two neighboring suburban communities in northern Illinois. The extent to which the schools were currently teaching employment and career development skills was examined by…

  9. Chicago Manufacturing Tech Prep. Fiscal Year 1991 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    During its first year of development in 1991, the Chicago Manufacturing Technical Preparation (Tech Prep) Program established a plan for implementing an industry-driven, articulated 4-year manufacturing technology course of study that integrates applied academic courses with technical courses and meets industry hiring standards. The project…

  10. Theme: Tech Prep--Articulation, Curriculum Change, Implementation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuemmel, William L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Theme issue includes the following: "Tech Prep (TP)--Articulation Check!" (Thuemmel); "Delivering an Education That Works" (Perry); "TP: A Flood of Change" (Mahler, Vold); "Implementation Strategies for TP" (Harris, Birkenholz); and "Making Transitions in Agricultural Education through TP" (Sutphin). (SK)

  11. Physics and Physical Science Units for Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeld, Marilyn; Daniels, Sadie; Hall, Yolanda; McClendon, Cecil; Schlinger, Gary

    Promoting ACademic Excellence in Mathematics and Science for Workers of the 21st Century (PACE) was a consortium project made up of Indiana University Northwest, the Gary Community Schools, and the Merrillville Community Schools. The focus of this project was to prepare teachers and curricula for Tech Prep mathematics and science courses for the…

  12. Health Science Careers: Tech Prep Consortium for New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan; D'Anna, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    A high school health sciences program consists of an interdisciplinary core curriculum, clinical job shadowing, and potential to earn college credit. Interactive television and CD-ROMs enhance teaching. A consortium of high schools offers the tech prep program in collaboration with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. (SK)

  13. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile covers these occupations: manufacturing technician, computer-assisted design and drafting (CADD) technician, quality technician, and mechanical technician. Section 1 provides occupation definitions. Section 2 lists development committee members. Section 3 provides the leveling codes---abbreviations for grade level…

  14. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile for computer-integrated manufacturing technology begins with definitions for four occupations: manufacturing technician, quality technician, mechanical engineering technician, and computer-assisted design/drafting (CADD) technician. A chart lists competencies by unit and indicates whether entire or partial unit is…

  15. Tech Prep in Arkansas: A Proposed Better Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Harold E.

    In 1991, the state of Arkansas passed state requirements for the establishment of a tech prep core curriculum for high school programs. The Arkansas program will be developed around the 2+4+2+2 theory, but will mostly focus on the 2+2 plan integrating academic and vocational education. The goal will be to advance the competencies of academic and…

  16. Model 2 + 2 + 2 Tech Prep Program in Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hata, David M.

    In 1986, Portland Community College (PCC) received federal funding to expand its pilot 2 + 2 Tech Prep program in engineering technology to include five local high schools and to link the program to the upper-division engineering technology program at the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT). Program results included the following: (1) eight high…

  17. SPC-Prep 1. Participant's Manual. Workplace Education. Project ALERT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruetz, Nancy

    This companion document to the instructor's guide for a course designed to prepare employees for statistical process control (SPC) training given at their workplace by refreshing math skills and building the concepts and vocabulary necessary to understand SPC in manufacturing environments. SPC-Prep 1 addresses the math skills necessary to perform…

  18. SPC-Prep. Instructor's Guide. Workplace Education. Project ALERT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruetz, Nancy

    This instructor's guide contains materials for a course designed to prepare employees for statistical process control (SPC) training given at their workplace by refreshing math skills and building the concepts and vocabulary necessary to understand SPC in manufacturing environments. SPC-Prep 1 addresses the math skills necessary to perform SPC…

  19. From High School to Work: 150 Great Tech Prep Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This book presents information on 150 careers in a wide variety of fields that fall under the broad category of tech prep. Each four- to five-page profile contains the following: definition of the occupation, the nature of the work, requirements for educational and work experiences needed to enter and advance, opportunities for experience and…

  20. Stepping Stones: Never Waste Your Prep Period Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsley, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Breaks are the best part of working. At some point everyone does look forward to his or her lunch break. For teachers, however, it seems there is never truly a break, for whenever they have extra time, they must use it wisely to prepare for their teaching. Unfortunately, many teachers don't manage their time efficiently during a prep or planning…

  1. Down syndrome fibroblasts and mouse Prep1-overexpressing cells display increased sensitivity to genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nicola; Longobardi, Elena; Iotti, Giorgio; Ferrai, Carmelo; Castagnaro, Laura; Ricciardi, Mario; Blasi, Francesco; Crippa, Massimo P

    2010-06-01

    PREP1 (PKNOX1) maps in the Down syndrome (DS) critical region of chromosome 21, is overexpressed in some DS tissues and might be involved in the DS phenotype. By using fibroblasts from DS patients and by overexpressing Prep1 in F9 teratocarcinoma and Prep1(i/i) MEF to single out the role of the protein, we report that excess Prep1 increases the sensitivity of cells to genotoxic stress and the extent of the apoptosis directly correlates with the level of Prep1. The apoptotic response of Prep1-overexpressing cells is mediated by the pro-apoptotic p53 protein that we show is a direct target of Prep1, as its depletion reverts the apoptotic phenotype. The induction of p53 overcomes the anti-apoptotic role of Bcl-X(L), previously shown to be also a Prep1 target, the levels of which are increased in Prep1-overexpressing cells as well. Our results provide a rationale for the involvement of PREP1 in the apoptotic phenotype of DS tissues and indicate that differences in Prep1 level can have drastic effects. PMID:20110257

  2. Down syndrome fibroblasts and mouse Prep1-overexpressing cells display increased sensitivity to genotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Micali, Nicola; Longobardi, Elena; Iotti, Giorgio; Ferrai, Carmelo; Castagnaro, Laura; Ricciardi, Mario; Blasi, Francesco; Crippa, Massimo P.

    2010-01-01

    PREP1 (PKNOX1) maps in the Down syndrome (DS) critical region of chromosome 21, is overexpressed in some DS tissues and might be involved in the DS phenotype. By using fibroblasts from DS patients and by overexpressing Prep1 in F9 teratocarcinoma and Prep1i/i MEF to single out the role of the protein, we report that excess Prep1 increases the sensitivity of cells to genotoxic stress and the extent of the apoptosis directly correlates with the level of Prep1. The apoptotic response of Prep1-overexpressing cells is mediated by the pro-apoptotic p53 protein that we show is a direct target of Prep1, as its depletion reverts the apoptotic phenotype. The induction of p53 overcomes the anti-apoptotic role of Bcl-XL, previously shown to be also a Prep1 target, the levels of which are increased in Prep1-overexpressing cells as well. Our results provide a rationale for the involvement of PREP1 in the apoptotic phenotype of DS tissues and indicate that differences in Prep1 level can have drastic effects. PMID:20110257

  3. Pknox1/Prep1 regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation components in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kanzleiter, Timo; Rath, Michaela; Penkov, Dmitry; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schulz, Nadja; Blasi, Francesco; Schürmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor Prep1 was previously shown to regulate insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to study the specific role of Prep1 for the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific ablation of Prep1 resulted in increased expression of respiratory chain subunits. This finding was consistent with an increase in mitochondrial enzyme activity without affecting mitochondrial volume fraction as assessed by electron microscopy. Metabolic phenotyping revealed no differences in daily energy expenditure or body composition. However, during treadmill exercise challenge, Prep1 ablation resulted in a higher maximal oxidative capacity and better endurance. Elevated PGC-1α expression was identified as a cause for increased mitochondrial capacity in Prep1 ablated mice. Prep1 stabilizes p160 Mybbp1a, a known inhibitor of PGC-1α activity. Thereby, p160 protein levels were significantly lower in the muscle of Prep1 ablated mice. By a chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) approach, PREP1 binding sites in genes encoding mitochondrial components (e.g., Ndufs2) were identified that might be responsible for elevated proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the muscle of Prep1 null mutants. These results suggest that Prep1 exhibits additional direct effects on regulation of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore conclude that Prep1 is a regulator of oxidative phosphorylation components via direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24216763

  4. Pknox1/Prep1 Regulates Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Components in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Michaela; Penkov, Dmitry; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schulz, Nadja; Blasi, Francesco; Schürmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor Prep1 was previously shown to regulate insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to study the specific role of Prep1 for the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific ablation of Prep1 resulted in increased expression of respiratory chain subunits. This finding was consistent with an increase in mitochondrial enzyme activity without affecting mitochondrial volume fraction as assessed by electron microscopy. Metabolic phenotyping revealed no differences in daily energy expenditure or body composition. However, during treadmill exercise challenge, Prep1 ablation resulted in a higher maximal oxidative capacity and better endurance. Elevated PGC-1α expression was identified as a cause for increased mitochondrial capacity in Prep1 ablated mice. Prep1 stabilizes p160 Mybbp1a, a known inhibitor of PGC-1α activity. Thereby, p160 protein levels were significantly lower in the muscle of Prep1 ablated mice. By a chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) approach, PREP1 binding sites in genes encoding mitochondrial components (e.g., Ndufs2) were identified that might be responsible for elevated proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the muscle of Prep1 null mutants. These results suggest that Prep1 exhibits additional direct effects on regulation of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore conclude that Prep1 is a regulator of oxidative phosphorylation components via direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24216763

  5. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  6. Homeodomain transcription factor and tumor suppressor Prep1 is required to maintain genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Giorgio; Longobardi, Elena; Masella, Silvia; Dardaei, Leila; De Santis, Francesca; Micali, Nicola; Blasi, Francesco

    2011-07-19

    Prep1 is a homeodomain transcription factor that is essential in embryonic development and functions in the adult as a tumor suppressor. We show here that Prep1 is involved in maintaining genomic stability and preventing neoplastic transformation. Hypomorphic homozygous Prep1(i/i) fetal liver cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit increased basal DNA damage and normal DNA damage response after γ-irradiation compared with WT. Cytogenetic analysis shows the presence of numerous chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy in very early-passage Prep1(i/i) MEFs. In human fibroblasts, acute Prep1 down-regulation by siRNA induces DNA damage response, like in Prep1(i/i) MEFs, together with an increase in heterochromatin-associated modifications: rapid increase of histone methylation and decreased transcription of satellite DNA. Ectopic expression of Prep1 rescues DNA damage and heterochromatin methylation. Inhibition of Suv39 activity blocks the chromatin but not the DNA damage phenotype. Finally, Prep1 deficiency facilitates cell immortalization, escape from oncogene-induced senescence, and H-Ras(V12)-dependent transformation. Importantly, the latter can be partially rescued by restoration of Prep1 level. The results show that the tumor suppressor role of Prep1 is associated with the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:21715654

  7. Tenofovir-based Oral PrEP Prevents HIV Infection among Women

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Kerry A.; Baeten, Jared M.; Mugo, Nelly R.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Celum, Connie L.; Heffron, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite tremendous promise as a female-controlled HIV prevention strategy, implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women has been limited, in part because of disparate efficacy results from randomized trials in this population. This review synthesizes existing evidence regarding PrEP efficacy for preventing HIV infection in women and considerations for delivering PrEP to women. Recent findings In three efficacy trials, conducted among men and women, tenofovir-based oral PrEP reduced HIV acquisition in subgroups of women by 49–79% in intent-to-treat analyses, and by >85% when accounting for PrEP adherence. Two trials did not demonstrate an HIV prevention benefit from PrEP in women, but substantial evidence indicates those results were compromised by very low adherence to the study medication. Qualitative research has identified risk perception, stigma, and aspects of clinical trial participation as influencing adherence to study medication. Pharmacokinetic studies provide supporting evidence that PrEP offers HIV protection in women who are adherent to the medication. Summary Tenofovir-based daily oral PrEP prevents HIV acquisition in women. Offering PrEP as an HIV prevention option for women at high risk of HIV acquisition is a public health imperative and opportunities to evaluate implementation strategies for PrEP for women are needed. PMID:26417954

  8. Acceptability of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) as an HIV prevention strategy: Barriers and facilitators to PrEP uptake among at-risk Peruvian populations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Salazar, Ximena; Lee, Sung-Jae; Giron, Maziel; Sayles, Jennifer N.; Cáceres, Carlos; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among female sex workers, male-to-female transgendered persons, and men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru. Focus groups explored social issues associated with PrEP acceptability and conjoint analysis assessed preferences among eight hypothetical PrEP scenarios with varying attribute profiles and their relative impact on acceptability. Conjoint analysis revealed that PrEP acceptability ranged from 19.8 to 82.5 out of a possible score of 100 across the eight hypothetical PrEP scenarios. Out-of-pocket cost had the greatest impact on PrEP acceptability (25.2, p <0.001), followed by efficacy (21.4, p <0.001) and potential side effects (14.7, p <0.001). Focus group data supported these findings, and also revealed that potential sexual risk disinhibition, stigma and discrimination associated with PrEP use, and mistrust of health care professionals were also concerns. These issues will require careful attention when planning for PrEP roll-out if proven efficacious in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:21571973

  9. Instructional and Organizational Effectiveness in Selected PREPS-Identified Value Added and PREPS-Identified Value Subtracted Elementary Schools in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jimmy Dale

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals, teachers, and support staff at 3 PREPS-identified value added and three PREPS-identified value subtracted elementary schools in Mississippi to determine if there were "effective schools" practices in the areas of instructional and organizational systems that were unique to either group. The…

  10. Findings and implications from a national study on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs).

    PubMed

    Hund, Lisa M; Farrelly, Matthew C; Allen, Jane A; Chou, Rosaleen H; St Claire, Ann W; Vallone, Donna M; Healton, Cheryl G

    2006-12-01

    Tobacco companies have recently introduced products that they claim have reduced toxins and carcinogens, and that they say may be less harmful to smokers. These are potential reduced exposure products, or PREPs. This study measured smokers' awareness of PREPs, use of PREPs, interest in trying PREPs, and beliefs about the regulation of PREPs. This study was based on nationally representative data collected in 2002 and 2003 through the American Smoking and Health Survey. The final sample included 1,174 adult smokers. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to produce estimates and explore potential correlates of the outcomes. A total of 41.9% of adult smokers reported having heard of at least one of the PREPs measured, and 11.0% reported having tried one of these products. Half of adult smokers (49.9%) said they would like to try PREPs. Interest in trying PREPs was associated with having made a quit attempt, being concerned about the effect of smoking on one's health, and having a household income of less than US dollars 20,000. About half of adult smokers (49.1%) incorrectly believed that PREPs are evaluated for safety by the government before being placed on the market, and 84.2% believed that the government should evaluate the safety of PREPs before they are sold to consumers. This study provides new and timely information on the use of, interest in trying, and beliefs about the regulation of PREPs among a nationally representative sample of adult smokers. With half of adult smokers interested in trying PREPs, the need for concrete scientific evidence on the potential impact of these products is critical. PMID:17132527

  11. Houston prefreshman enrichment program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 10, 1996--August 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The 1996 Houston Pre-freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted on the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 10 to August 1, 1996. Program Participants were recruited from the Greater Houston area. All participants were identified as high achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Crockett, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 197 students starting the program, 170 completed, 142 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups underrepresented in the engineering and science professions, and 121 of the 197 were female. Our First Year group for 1996 composed of 96% minority and women students. Our Second and Third Year students were 100% and 93.75% minority or women respectively. This gave an overall minority and female population of 93.75%. This year, special efforts were again made to recruit students from minority groups, which caused a significant increase in qualified applicants. However, due to space limitations, 140 applicants were rejected. Investigative and discovery learning were key elements of PREP. The academic components of the program included Algebraic Structures, Engineering, Introduction to Computer Science, Introduction to Physics, Logic and Its Application to Mathematics, Probability and Statistics, Problem Solving Seminar using computers and PLATO software, SAT Preparatory Seminars, and Technical Writing.

  12. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. PMID:26332268

  13. p160 Myb-binding protein interacts with Prep1 and inhibits its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Víctor M; Mori, Silvia; Longobardi, Elena; Menendez, Guillermo; Ferrai, Carmelo; Keough, Rebecca A; Bachi, Angela; Blasi, Francesco

    2007-11-01

    Prep1 is known to interact in vivo with Pbx1 to regulate development and organogenesis. We have identified a novel Prep1-interacting protein, p160 c-Myb binding protein (p160). p160 and Pbx1 compete for Prep1 in vitro, and p160 inhibits Prep1-dependent HoxB2 expression in retinoic acid-treated NT2-D1 cells. The N-terminal physiologically truncated form of p160, p67, binds the sequence 63LFPLL67 in the HR1 domain of Prep1. Mutation of both L63 and L66 impairs the binding of Prep1 to both p160/p67 and Pbx1. The sequences required to bind Prep1 are mainly located in residues 51 to 151. Immunofluorescence colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous p160 and Prep1 are induced by ActD, which translocates p160 from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. These data therefore show that p160 is a novel regulator of Prep1-Pbx1 transcriptional activity. PMID:17875935

  14. The absence of Prep1 causes p53-dependent apoptosis of mouse pluripotent epiblast cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Diaz, Luis C; Laurent, Audrey; Girasoli, Sara; Turco, Margherita; Longobardi, Elena; Iotti, Giorgio; Jenkins, Nancy A; Fiorenza, Maria Teresa; Copeland, Neal G; Blasi, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    Disruption of mouse Prep1, which codes for a homeodomain transcription factor, leads to embryonic lethality during post-implantation stages. Prep1(-/-) embryos stop developing after implantation and before anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) formation. In Prep1(-/-) embryos at E6.5 (onset of gastrulation), the AVE is absent and the proliferating extra-embryonic ectoderm and epiblast, marked by Bmp4 and Oct4, respectively, are reduced in size. At E.7.5, Prep1(-/-) embryos are small and very delayed, showing no evidence of primitive streak or of differentiated embryonic lineages. Bmp4 is expressed residually, while the reduced number of Oct4-positive cells is constant up to E8.5. At E6.5, Prep1(-/-) embryos retain a normal mitotic index but show a major increase in cleaved caspase 3 and TUNEL staining, indicating apoptosis. Therefore, the mouse embryo requires Prep1 when undergoing maximal expansion in cell number. Indeed, the phenotype is partially rescued in a p53(-/-), but not in a p16(-/-), background. Apoptosis is probably due to DNA damage as Atm downregulation exacerbates the phenotype. Despite this early lethal phenotype, Prep1 is not essential for ES cell establishment. A differential embryonic expression pattern underscores the unique function of Prep1 within the Meis-Prep family. PMID:20826531

  15. The Interacting Domains of PREP1 and p160 are Endowed with a Remarkable Structural Stability.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Virginia; Mascanzoni, Fabiola; Vitagliano, Luigi; Ruvo, Menotti; Doti, Nunzianna

    2016-05-01

    PREP1/p160 is a protein complex with relevant physiopathological roles in vivo. p160 regulates PREP1 transcriptional activity by preventing the formation of other PREP1-containing complexes, whereas PREP1 regulates p160 activity by increasing its stability. This induces the repression of the insulin-regulated glucose transporter GLUT4 dampening insulin sensitivity. In spite of the considerable amount of functional studies performed on the PREP1/p160 complex in vivo, a biochemical and structural characterization of this complex has not been so far undertaken, given the poor stability of the recombinant full-length proteins. Here, we report the design and preparation of PREP1 and p160 domains together with preliminary structural and binding studies. PREP1, residues 45-155, and p160, residues 20-160, have been expressed and purified as folded, monomeric domains. The two domains show both all-alpha secondary structures, as demonstrated by CD studies and are endowed with unusually high thermal stabilities. We have also estimated for the first time the PREP1-p160 interaction strength finding that the two recombinant domains interact with a KD ranging between about 0.3 and 1 μM. Altogether, data suggest that the selected PREP1 and p160 domains are structurally independent and that their structure is underlined by high stability and a prevailing alpha-helical organization. PMID:26979610

  16. MASIC: a software program for fast quantitation and flexible visualization of chromatographic profiles from detected LC-MS(/MS) features

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, Matthew E.; Shaw, Jason L.; Daly, Don S.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative analysis of liquid chromatography (LC)- mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data is essential to many proteomics studies. We have developed MASIC to accurately measure peptide abundances and LC elution times in low-resolution LC-MS/MS analyses. This software program uses an efficient processing algorithm to quickly generate mass specific selected ion chromatograms from a dataset and provides an interactive browser that allows users to examine individual chromatograms in a variety of fashions. The improved elution time estimates afforded by MASIC increase the utility of LC-MS/MS data in the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach to proteomics.

  17. Combined coronary lumen and vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging with i-T2prep: influence of nitroglycerin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tarique; Henningsson, Markus; Butzbach, Britta; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Greil, Gerald F; Andia, Marcelo E; Botnar, Rene M

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) improves image quality of coronary lumen magnetic resonance angiography. Our aim was to investigate the influence of NTG on coronary lumen and vessel wall image quality using a combined, single sequence approach (i-T2prep), which is able to image both within the known time frame of action of NTG. Ten healthy volunteers underwent right coronary artery lumen and vessel wall imaging using the i-T2prep sequence before and after administration of NTG. Image quality was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Diameter, length and wall thickness were also measured using dedicated semi-automatic software. NTG induced coronary vasodilatation (lumen diameter increased from 2.16 ± 0.32 to 2.52 ± 0.59 mm; p = 0.036). As a result, visualized lumen length (9.8 ± 2.6 to 11.4 ± 3.3 cm; p = 0.025) and qualitative lumen image quality (median 3 (interquartile range 2-3.25) vs. median 3 (interquartile range 3-4); p = 0.046) both improved. Vessel wall imaging also demonstrated a significant improvement in vessel wall sharpness after NTG (24.8 vs. 27.3 %; p = 0.036). This study demonstrates the benefits of NTG for coronary lumen and vessel wall imaging using a combined sequence, i-T2prep. The methodology described here has great potential for future pathophysiological studies. PMID:25200588

  18. CeleST: computer vision software for quantitative analysis of C. elegans swim behavior reveals novel features of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Restif, Christophe; Ibáñez-Ventoso, Carolina; Vora, Mehul M; Guo, Suzhen; Metaxas, Dimitris; Driscoll, Monica

    2014-07-01

    In the effort to define genes and specific neuronal circuits that control behavior and plasticity, the capacity for high-precision automated analysis of behavior is essential. We report on comprehensive computer vision software for analysis of swimming locomotion of C. elegans, a simple animal model initially developed to facilitate elaboration of genetic influences on behavior. C. elegans swim test software CeleST tracks swimming of multiple animals, measures 10 novel parameters of swim behavior that can fully report dynamic changes in posture and speed, and generates data in several analysis formats, complete with statistics. Our measures of swim locomotion utilize a deformable model approach and a novel mathematical analysis of curvature maps that enable even irregular patterns and dynamic changes to be scored without need for thresholding or dropping outlier swimmers from study. Operation of CeleST is mostly automated and only requires minimal investigator interventions, such as the selection of videotaped swim trials and choice of data output format. Data can be analyzed from the level of the single animal to populations of thousands. We document how the CeleST program reveals unexpected preferences for specific swim "gaits" in wild-type C. elegans, uncovers previously unknown mutant phenotypes, efficiently tracks changes in aging populations, and distinguishes "graceful" from poor aging. The sensitivity, dynamic range, and comprehensive nature of CeleST measures elevate swim locomotion analysis to a new level of ease, economy, and detail that enables behavioral plasticity resulting from genetic, cellular, or experience manipulation to be analyzed in ways not previously possible. PMID:25033081

  19. CeleST: Computer Vision Software for Quantitative Analysis of C. elegans Swim Behavior Reveals Novel Features of Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Mehul M.; Guo, Suzhen; Metaxas, Dimitris; Driscoll, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In the effort to define genes and specific neuronal circuits that control behavior and plasticity, the capacity for high-precision automated analysis of behavior is essential. We report on comprehensive computer vision software for analysis of swimming locomotion of C. elegans, a simple animal model initially developed to facilitate elaboration of genetic influences on behavior. C. elegans swim test software CeleST tracks swimming of multiple animals, measures 10 novel parameters of swim behavior that can fully report dynamic changes in posture and speed, and generates data in several analysis formats, complete with statistics. Our measures of swim locomotion utilize a deformable model approach and a novel mathematical analysis of curvature maps that enable even irregular patterns and dynamic changes to be scored without need for thresholding or dropping outlier swimmers from study. Operation of CeleST is mostly automated and only requires minimal investigator interventions, such as the selection of videotaped swim trials and choice of data output format. Data can be analyzed from the level of the single animal to populations of thousands. We document how the CeleST program reveals unexpected preferences for specific swim “gaits” in wild-type C. elegans, uncovers previously unknown mutant phenotypes, efficiently tracks changes in aging populations, and distinguishes “graceful” from poor aging. The sensitivity, dynamic range, and comprehensive nature of CeleST measures elevate swim locomotion analysis to a new level of ease, economy, and detail that enables behavioral plasticity resulting from genetic, cellular, or experience manipulation to be analyzed in ways not previously possible. PMID:25033081

  20. Unified Parallel Software

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, Mike

    2003-12-01

    UPS (Unified Paralled Software is a collection of software tools libraries, scripts, executables) that assist in parallel programming. This consists of: o libups.a C/Fortran callable routines for message passing (utilities written on top of MPI) and file IO (utilities written on top of HDF). o libuserd-HDF.so EnSight user-defined reader for visualizing data files written with UPS File IO. o ups_libuserd_query, ups_libuserd_prep.pl, ups_libuserd_script.pl Executables/scripts to get information from data files and to simplify the use of EnSight on those data files. o ups_io_rm/ups_io_cp Manipulate data files written with UPS File IO These tools are portable to a wide variety of Unix platforms.

  1. Unified Parallel Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-12-01

    UPS (Unified Paralled Software is a collection of software tools libraries, scripts, executables) that assist in parallel programming. This consists of: o libups.a C/Fortran callable routines for message passing (utilities written on top of MPI) and file IO (utilities written on top of HDF). o libuserd-HDF.so EnSight user-defined reader for visualizing data files written with UPS File IO. o ups_libuserd_query, ups_libuserd_prep.pl, ups_libuserd_script.pl Executables/scripts to get information from data files and to simplify the use ofmore » EnSight on those data files. o ups_io_rm/ups_io_cp Manipulate data files written with UPS File IO These tools are portable to a wide variety of Unix platforms.« less

  2. The PBX-regulating protein PREP1 is present in different PBX-complexed forms in mouse.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, E; Schulz, H; Talarico, D; Blasi, F; Berthelsen, J

    1999-05-01

    Human PREP1, a novel homeodomain protein of the TALE super-family, forms a stable DNA-binding complex with PBX proteins in solution, a ternary complex with PBX and HOXB1 on DNA, and is able to act as a co-activator in the transcription of PBX-HOXB1 activated promoters (Berthelsen, J., Zappavigna, V., Ferretti, E., Mavilio, F., Blasi, F. , 1998b. The novel homeoprotein Prep1 modulates Pbx-Hox protein cooperatity. EMBO J. 17, 1434-1445; Berthelsen, J., Zappavigna, V., Mavilio, F., Blasi, F., 1998c. Prep1, a novel functional partner of Pbx proteins. EMBO J. 17, 1423-1433). Here we demonstrate the presence of DNA-binding PREP1-PBX complexes also in murine cells. In vivo, PREP1 is a predominant partner of PBX proteins in various murine tissues. However, the choice of PBX family member associated with PREP1 is largely tissue-type specific. We report the cloning and expression domain of murine Prep1 gene. Murine PREP1 shares 100% identity with human PREP1 in the homeodomain and 95% similarity throughout the whole protein. In the adult mouse, PREP1 is expressed ubiquitously, with peaks in testis and thymus. We further demonstrate the presence of murine Prep1 mRNA and protein, and of different DNA-binding PREP1-PBX complexes, in mouse embryos from at least 9.5 days p.c. Moreover, we show that PREP1 is present in all embryonic tissues from at least 7.5-17.5 days p.c with a predominantly nuclear staining. PREP1 is able to super-activate the PBX-HOXB-1 autoregulated Hoxb-1 promoter, and we show that all three proteins, PREP1, PBX and HOXB-1, are present together in the mouse rhombomere 4 domain in vivo, compatible with a role of PREP1 as a regulator of PBX and HOXB-1 proteins activity during development. PMID:10381567

  3. Tile-Based Fisher-Ratio Software for Improved Feature Selection Analysis of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Marney, Luke C.; Siegler, William C.; Parsons, Brendon A.; Hoggard, Jamin C.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2013-10-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC – TOFMS) is a highly capable instrumental platform that produces complex and information-rich multi-dimensional chemical data. The complex data can be overwhelming, especially when many samples (of various sample classes) are analyzed with multiple injections for each sample. Thus, the data must be analyzed in such a way to extract the most meaningful information. The pixel-based and peak table-based algorithmic use of Fisher ratios has been used successfully in the past to reduce the multi-dimensional data down to those chemical compounds that are changing between classes relative to those that are not (i.e., chemical feature selection). We report on the initial development of a computationally fast novel tile-based Fisher-ratio software that addresses challenges due to 2D retention time misalignment without explicitly aligning the data, which is a problem for both pixel-based and peak table- based methods. Concurrently, the tile-based Fisher-ratio software maximizes the sensitivity contrast of true positives against a background of potential false positives and noise. To study this software, eight compounds, plus one internal standard, were spiked into diesel at various concentrations. The tile-based F-ratio software was able to discover all spiked analytes, within the complex diesel sample matrix with thousands of potential false positives, in each possible concentration comparison, even at the lowest absolute spiked analyte concentration ratio of 1.06.

  4. Access to Success. Strategies for Serving Special Populations in Tech Prep Programs. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuli, Kelli

    This handbook is designed to help educators at the secondary and postsecondary level implement strategies to serve students with special needs in tech prep programs. Chapter 1 suggests how it can be used. Chapter 2 defines tech prep and addresses its funding, students, and mission and goal in Virginia. Chapter 3 focuses on what the Perkins Act…

  5. Loss of the Homeodomain Transcription Factor Prep1 Perturbs Adult Hematopoiesis in the Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Kentaro; Oda, Akihisa; Notsu, Chihiro; Ohtsuka, Takafumi; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Nakamura, Takuro; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Prep1, a TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, has been demonstrated to play a critical role in embryonic hematopoiesis, as its insufficiency caused late embryonic lethality associated with defective hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. In the present study, we generated hematopoietic- and endothelial cell-specific Prep1-deficient mice and demonstrated that expression of Prep1 in the hematopoietic cell compartment is not essential for either embryonic or adult hematopoiesis, although its absence causes significant hematopoietic abnormalities in the adult bone marrow. Loss of Prep1 promotes cell cycling of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC), leading to the expansion of the HSPC pool. Prep1 deficiency also results in the accumulation of lineage-committed progenitors, increased monocyte/macrophage differentiation and arrested erythroid maturation. Maturation of T cells and B cells is also perturbed in Prep-deficient mice. These findings provide novel insight into the pleiotropic roles of Prep1 in adult hematopoiesis that were unrecognized in previous studies using germline Prep1 hypomorphic mice. PMID:26285139

  6. Development of a Career Student Guide for the Tech Prep Program for Henry County High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Ruth Ann

    This practicum report describes the research conducted in preparation for developing a career student guide to acquaint students attending Henry County High School (HCHS) in McDonough, Georgia, with the school's new tech prep program. Chapters 1 and 2 contain background information about HCHS' tech prep program and a review of literature regarding…

  7. Loss of the Homeodomain Transcription Factor Prep1 Perturbs Adult Hematopoiesis in the Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Kentaro; Oda, Akihisa; Notsu, Chihiro; Ohtsuka, Takafumi; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Nakamura, Takuro; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Prep1, a TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, has been demonstrated to play a critical role in embryonic hematopoiesis, as its insufficiency caused late embryonic lethality associated with defective hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. In the present study, we generated hematopoietic- and endothelial cell-specific Prep1-deficient mice and demonstrated that expression of Prep1 in the hematopoietic cell compartment is not essential for either embryonic or adult hematopoiesis, although its absence causes significant hematopoietic abnormalities in the adult bone marrow. Loss of Prep1 promotes cell cycling of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC), leading to the expansion of the HSPC pool. Prep1 deficiency also results in the accumulation of lineage-committed progenitors, increased monocyte/macrophage differentiation and arrested erythroid maturation. Maturation of T cells and B cells is also perturbed in Prep-deficient mice. These findings provide novel insight into the pleiotropic roles of Prep1 in adult hematopoiesis that were unrecognized in previous studies using germline Prep1 hypomorphic mice. PMID:26285139

  8. Prep1 directly regulates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by controlling Bcl-XL levels.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nicola; Ferrai, Carmelo; Fernandez-Diaz, Luis C; Blasi, Francesco; Crippa, Massimo P

    2009-03-01

    The Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor is essential in embryonic development. Prep1 hypomorphic mutant mouse (Prep1(i/i)) embryos (embryonic day 9.5) display an increased terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling reaction compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Prep1(i/i) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) show an increased basal level of annexin V binding activity, reduction of the mitochondrial-membrane potential, and increased caspase 9 and 3 activation, indicating increased apoptosis. Prep1(i/i) MEFs also respond faster than WT MEFs to genotoxic stress, indicating increased activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. We did not observe an increase in p53 or an abnormal p53 response to apoptotic stimuli. However, hypomorphic MEFs have decreased endogenous levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-X(L) mRNA and protein, and Bcl-x overexpression rescues the defect of Prep1(i/i) MEFs. Using transient transfections and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we identified the Bcl-x promoter as a novel target of Prep1. Thus, Prep1 directly controls mitochondrial homeostasis (and the apoptotic potential) by modulating Bcl-x gene expression. PMID:19103748

  9. Follow-Up Survey of Participants in Preparing for Profit (PREP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Informed Decision Services, Englewood, NJ.

    Established as a pilot project in 1991, Preparing for Profit (PREP) was a four-session entrepreneurial training seminar offered by LaGuardia Community College/City University of New York, the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority, and Coopers & Lybrand. PREP was designed to enhance opportunities for minority- and women-owned businesses to…

  10. The Effect of Studying Tech Prep in High School and College Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Larry A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the academic performance of Tech Prep students (referred to as participants) in comparison to non-Tech Prep students (referred to as non-participants) entering a two-year community college from sixteen different high schools in Stark County, Ohio. This study provided a quantitative analysis of students' academic experiences to…

  11. 77 FR 10542 - Revision of the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public meeting: After considering public comments and developing a revised... SECURITY Coast Guard Revision of the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines... Response Exercise Program (PREP) is designed to facilitate the periodic testing of oil spill response...

  12. Tech-Prep Competency Profiles within the Business/Computer Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for educators throughout Ohio who are involved in planning and/or delivering tech prep programs within the business/computer technologies cluster, discusses and presents tech prep competency profiles (TCPs) for 12 business/computer technology occupations. The first part of the document contains the following:…

  13. Charter Schools as Nation Builders: Democracy Prep and Civic Education. Policy Brief 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautzenheiser, Daniel; Kelly, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    This policy brief is the first in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. This paper introduces Democracy Prep, a network of seven public charter schools with a civic mission at its core. Democracy Prep's founder and…

  14. Follow-Up Survey of Graduates of Preparing for Profit (PREP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumstein, Renee J.

    The Preparing for Profit (PREP) entrepreneurial training seminar at LaGuardia Community College/CUNY was designed to assist minority and women business owners attain certification by public agencies and win government contracts. In summer 1993, a study was conducted of the effects of the PREP program on the businesses of a random sample of 51 of…

  15. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Themes and Priority Areas of Tech Prep in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegge, Chris A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    After a definition of tech prep was formed through concept mapping, 450 stakeholders in Illinois tech prep (6 state staff, 16 employers, 35 postsecondary educators, 99 secondary educators) identified key themes/priorities: outcomes assessment, planning and support, external involvement, articulation/integration, benefits, enrollment incentives,…

  16. On the Right Track: Southern Maryland Schools Revamp Their Curriculum around Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, Kathy

    1992-01-01

    In St. Mary's County (Maryland) schools' revamped curriculum, tech prep encompasses four clusters: applied business/management, applied engineering/mechanics, applied health/human services, and college prep. Career counselors help eighth graders choose a cluster and monitor their satisfaction with their choice, allowing them to change until junior…

  17. Making the Case for Tech Prep. New Perkins Act Boosts Secondary/Postsecondary Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Tech prep prepares people for technical careers by linking high school studies with community college coursework. The Pee Dee Tech Prep Program in North Carolina is a joint venture between the Richmond County Schools and Richmond Community College that connects essential skills learned in high school with occupation-specific skills taught in…

  18. Evaluating Tech Prep Education Programs: Implications for Reporting Program and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    2003-01-01

    Tech Prep education programs play a vital role in the education of American youth. During the past decade, with funding from the Perkins Act, Tech Prep consortia have consolidated and developed programs for students. The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998 required each state to identify performance levels relevant to…

  19. Software Defined Networking challenges and future direction: A case study of implementing SDN features on OpenStack private cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamugam, Veeramani; Murray, I.; Leong, J. A.; Sidhu, Amandeep S.

    2016-03-01

    Cloud computing provides services on demand instantly, such as access to network infrastructure consisting of computing hardware, operating systems, network storage, database and applications. Network usage and demands are growing at a very fast rate and to meet the current requirements, there is a need for automatic infrastructure scaling. Traditional networks are difficult to automate because of the distributed nature of their decision making process for switching or routing which are collocated on the same device. Managing complex environments using traditional networks is time-consuming and expensive, especially in the case of generating virtual machines, migration and network configuration. To mitigate the challenges, network operations require efficient, flexible, agile and scalable software defined networks (SDN). This paper discuss various issues in SDN and suggests how to mitigate the network management related issues. A private cloud prototype test bed was setup to implement the SDN on the OpenStack platform to test and evaluate the various network performances provided by the various configurations.

  20. Prep/Tech: Volume 1, No. 1, Youth on homelessness

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.

  1. Peer-Mentored Preparedness (PM-Prep): A New Disaster Preparedness Program for Adults Living Independently in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list…

  2. Environmentally Optimised Sprayer (EOS)--A software application for comprehensive assessment of environmental safety features of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Doruchowski, Grzegorz; Balsari, Paolo; Gil, Emilio; Marucco, Paolo; Roettele, Manfred; Wehmann, Hans-Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Despite technological progress in pesticide application equipment, chemical crop protection continues to contribute to environmental pollution. Water is at risk of contamination with pesticides from point and diffuse sources and could be reduced to a great extent with a better sprayer design. The sprayer manufacturers and pesticide applicators need to take more responsibility for the prevention of water pollution and therefore they have to make environmentally responsible decisions at different stages, from designing to servicing sprayers. The objective of the presented work was to develop an interactive application that would support decisions made by sprayer manufacturers during the production process, and by pesticide applicators when selecting and operating the sprayers. The EOS (Environmentally Optimised Sprayer) is an application evaluating the risk mitigation potential of sprayers based on their technological features, within five risk areas, representing sources of pollution: (i) Inside Contamination; (ii) Outside Contamination; (iii) Filling; (iv) Spray Loss & Drift; (v) Remnants. The evaluator completes the EOS questionnaire by checking for the technical solutions identified in the evaluated sprayer and the result reflects the sprayer quality in terms of potential environmental risk mitigation. The EOS tool also proved its awareness raising facility and educative value when used during training activities and university courses. PMID:24651055

  3. Acceptability of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PREP) Among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) in a Canadian Setting.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Daniel J; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Nguyen, Paul; Lurie, Mark N; Sued, Omar; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2015-05-01

    A recent clinical trial provided evidence that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to prevent HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). We examined willingness to use PrEP among HIV-negative PWID in Vancouver, Canada (n = 543) to inform PrEP implementation efforts. One third (35.4 %) expressed willingness to use PrEP, with adjusted models indicating that younger age, no regular employment, requiring help injecting, engaging in sex work, and reporting multiple recent sexual partners were positively associated with willingness to use PrEP. Although willingness to use PrEP was low, PrEP was acceptable to some PWID at heightened risk for HIV infection. PMID:25086669

  4. PrEP as Peri-conception HIV Prevention for Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Heffron, Renee; Pintye, Jillian; Matthews, Lynn T; Weber, Shannon; Mugo, Nelly

    2016-06-01

    Daily oral tenofovir (TDF)-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy and recommended for men and women with substantial risk of HIV acquisition. The peri-conception period, the stage prior to pregnancy when condom use is necessarily reduced, has elevated HIV risk that can be mitigated by PrEP use. Data from a randomized trial suggest that peri-conception PrEP use by HIV-seronegative women does not increase the risk of pregnancy loss, birth defects or congenital anomalies, preterm birth, or infant growth faltering. Women considering PrEP use throughout pregnancy must weigh the known increased risk of HIV acquisition with unknown risks of drug effects on infant growth. PrEP has been used safely by HIV-seronegative men with HIV-seropositive female partners who have become pregnant. As an effective user-controlled HIV prevention strategy, PrEP offers autonomy and empowerment for HIV prevention and can be recommended alongside antiretroviral therapy, fertility screening, vaginal self-insemination, intercourse timed to peak fertility, medically assisted reproduction, and other safer conception strategies to provide multiple options. The integration of PrEP into safer conception programs is warranted and will safely reduce HIV transmission to women, men, and children during the peri-conception period. PMID:26993627

  5. Characterization of the regulatory region of the zebrafish Prep1.1 gene: analogies to the promoter of the human PREP1.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Elisa; Deflorian, Gianluca; Pezzimenti, Federica; Pezzinenti, Federica; Diaz, Victor M; Mione, Marina; Blasi, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Prep1 is a developmentally essential TALE class homeodomain transcription factor. In zebrafish and mouse, Prep1 is already ubiquitously expressed at the earliest stages of development, with important tissue-specific peculiarities. The Prep1 gene in mouse is developmentally essential and has haploinsufficient tumor suppressor activity [1]. We have determined the human Prep1 transcription start site (TSS) by primer extension analysis and identified, within 20 bp, the transcription start region (TSR) of the zebrafish Prep1.1 promoter. The functions of the zebrafish 5' upstream sequences were analyzed both by transient transfections in Hela Cells and by injection in zebrafish embryos. This analysis revealed a complex promoter with regulatory sequences extending up to -1.8, possibly -5.0 Kb, responsible for tissue specific expression. Moreover, the first intron contains a conserved tissue-specific enhancer both in zebrafish and in human cells. Finally, a two nucleotides mutation of an EGR-1 site, conserved in all species including human and zebrafish and located at a short distance from the TSS, destroyed the promoter activity of the -5.0 Kb promoter. A transgenic fish expressing GFP under the -1.8 Kb zebrafish promoter/enhancer co-expressed GFP and endogenous Prep1.1 during embryonic development. In the adult fish, GFP was expressed in hematopoietic regions like the kidney, in agreement with the essential function of Prep1 in mouse hematopoiesis. Sequence comparison showed conservation from man to fish of the sequences around the TSS, within the first intron enhancer. Moreover, about 40% of the sequences spread throughout the 5 Kbof the zebrafish promoter are concentrated in the -3 to -5 Kb of the human upstream region. PMID:21203543

  6. Characterization of the Regulatory Region of the Zebrafish Prep1.1 Gene: Analogies to the Promoter of the Human PREP1

    PubMed Central

    Pezzinenti, Federica; Diaz, Victor M.; Mione, Marina; Blasi, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Prep1 is a developmentally essential TALE class homeodomain transcription factor. In zebrafish and mouse, Prep1 is already ubiquitously expressed at the earliest stages of development, with important tissue-specific peculiarities. The Prep1 gene in mouse is developmentally essential and has haploinsufficient tumor suppressor activity [1]. We have determined the human Prep1 transcription start site (TSS) by primer extension analysis and identified, within 20 bp, the transcription start region (TSR) of the zebrafish Prep1.1 promoter. The functions of the zebrafish 5′ upstream sequences were analyzed both by transient transfections in Hela Cells and by injection in zebrafish embryos. This analysis revealed a complex promoter with regulatory sequences extending up to −1.8, possibly −5.0 Kb, responsible for tissue specific expression. Moreover, the first intron contains a conserved tissue-specific enhancer both in zebrafish and in human cells. Finally, a two nucleotides mutation of an EGR-1 site, conserved in all species including human and zebrafish and located at a short distance from the TSS, destroyed the promoter activity of the −5.0 Kb promoter. A transgenic fish expressing GFP under the −1.8 Kb zebrafish promoter/enhancer co-expressed GFP and endogenous Prep1.1 during embryonic development. In the adult fish, GFP was expressed in hematopoietic regions like the kidney, in agreement with the essential function of Prep1 in mouse hematopoiesis. Sequence comparison showed conservation from man to fish of the sequences around the TSS, within the first intron enhancer. Moreover, about 40% of the sequences spread throughout the 5 Kbof the zebrafish promoter are concentrated in the −3 to −5 Kb of the human upstream region. PMID:21203543

  7. Analysis of nanopore arrangement and structural features of anodic alumina layers formed by two-step anodizing in oxalic acid using the dedicated executable software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Ciepiela, Eryk; Jaskuła, Marian

    2014-02-01

    Anodic porous alumina layers were fabricated by a two-step self-organized anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid under various anodizing potentials ranging from 30 to 60 V at two different temperatures (10 and 17 ∘C). The effect of anodizing conditions on structural features and pore arrangement of AAO was investigated in detail by using the dedicated executable publication combined with ImageJ software. With increasing anodizing potential, a linear increase of the average pore diameter, interpore distance, wall thickness and barrier layer thickness, as well as a decrease of the pore density, were observed. In addition, the higher pore diameter and porosity values were obtained for samples anodized at the elevated temperature, independently of the anodizing potential. A degree of pore order was investigated on the basis of Delaunay triangulations (defect maps) and calculation of pair distribution or angle distribution functions (PDF or ADF), respectively. All methods confirmed that in order to obtain nanoporous alumina with the best, hexagonal pore arrangement, the potential of 40 V should be applied during anodization. It was confirmed that the dedicated executable publication can be used to a fast and complex analysis of nanopore arrangement and structural features of nanoporous oxide layers.

  8. SKILL PREP Program for American Indian Students. Final report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloh, S.; Huebner, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL) precollege college program of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology concluded the 1994 PREP program on July 22, 1994. The program graduated 22 students from the 4-week residential math/science program for American Indian students. Primary academic focus was physics (30 hours); each student was given a bicycle to solve problems on angular momentum and mechanical advantage. Mathematical calculations and problem solving exercises were done in mathematics class (20 hours). Preliminary results in math, physics, and geology show dramatic increases in student achievement over the 4- week period. The program paired every two students with a faculty member or research scientist, and each team completed a research project.

  9. Mama Software Features: Uncertainty Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-30

    This document reviews how the uncertainty in the calculations is being determined with test image data. The results of this testing give an ‘initial uncertainty’ number than can be used to estimate the ‘back end’ uncertainty in digital image quantification in images. Statisticians are refining these numbers as part of a UQ effort.

  10. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software packages, "Solutions Unlimited" and "BASIC Data Base System." Provides a description, summary, strengths and weaknesses, availability and costs. Includes reviews of three structured BASIC packages: "True BASIC (2.0)"; "Turbo BASIC (1.0)"; and "QuickBASIC (3.0)." Explains significant features such as graphics, costs,…

  11. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages including "Frog Dissection Lab Report,""Backyard Birds,""LEGO TC Logo,""Alcohol--Four Interactive Programs,""Windows on Science--Life Science,""Climate and Weather/Our Town Database," and "Weeds to Trees." Discussed are availability, features, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  12. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teles, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages for Macintosh microcomputers including "Phase Portraits," an exploratory graphics tool for studying first-order planar systems; and "MacMath," a set of programs for exploring differential equations, linear algebra, and other mathematical topics. Features, ease of use, cost, availability, and hardware…

  13. Prep1 deficiency induces protection from diabetes and increased insulin sensitivity through a p160-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Oriente, Francesco; Fernandez Diaz, Luis Cesar; Miele, Claudia; Iovino, Salvatore; Mori, Silvia; Diaz, Victor Manuel; Troncone, Giancarlo; Cassese, Angela; Formisano, Pietro; Blasi, Francesco; Beguinot, Francesco

    2008-09-01

    We have examined glucose homeostasis in mice hypomorphic for the homeotic transcription factor gene Prep1. Prep1-hypomorphic (Prep1(i/i)) mice exhibit an absolute reduction in circulating insulin levels but normal glucose tolerance. In addition, these mice exhibit protection from streptozotocin-induced diabetes and enhanced insulin sensitivity with improved glucose uptake and insulin-dependent glucose disposal by skeletal muscle. This muscle phenotype does not depend on reduced expression of the known Prep1 transcription partner, Pbx1. Instead, in Prep1(i/i) muscle, we find normal Pbx1 but reduced levels of the recently identified novel Prep1 interactor p160. Consistent with this reduction, we find a muscle-selective increase in mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1alpha, accompanied by enhanced expression of the GLUT4 transporter, responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle. Indeed, using L6 skeletal muscle cells, we induced the opposite effects by overexpressing Prep1 or p160, but not Pbx1. In vivo skeletal muscle delivery of p160 cDNA in Prep1(i/i) mice also reverses the molecular phenotype. Finally, we show that Prep1 controls the stability of the p160 protein. We conclude that Prep1 controls insulin sensitivity through the p160-GLUT4 pathway. PMID:18644868

  14. Prep1 Deficiency Induces Protection from Diabetes and Increased Insulin Sensitivity through a p160-Mediated Mechanism▿

    PubMed Central

    Oriente, Francesco; Fernandez Diaz, Luis Cesar; Miele, Claudia; Iovino, Salvatore; Mori, Silvia; Diaz, Victor Manuel; Troncone, Giancarlo; Cassese, Angela; Formisano, Pietro; Blasi, Francesco; Beguinot, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We have examined glucose homeostasis in mice hypomorphic for the homeotic transcription factor gene Prep1. Prep1-hypomorphic (Prep1i/i) mice exhibit an absolute reduction in circulating insulin levels but normal glucose tolerance. In addition, these mice exhibit protection from streptozotocin-induced diabetes and enhanced insulin sensitivity with improved glucose uptake and insulin-dependent glucose disposal by skeletal muscle. This muscle phenotype does not depend on reduced expression of the known Prep1 transcription partner, Pbx1. Instead, in Prep1i/i muscle, we find normal Pbx1 but reduced levels of the recently identified novel Prep1 interactor p160. Consistent with this reduction, we find a muscle-selective increase in mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1α, accompanied by enhanced expression of the GLUT4 transporter, responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle. Indeed, using L6 skeletal muscle cells, we induced the opposite effects by overexpressing Prep1 or p160, but not Pbx1. In vivo skeletal muscle delivery of p160 cDNA in Prep1i/i mice also reverses the molecular phenotype. Finally, we show that Prep1 controls the stability of the p160 protein. We conclude that Prep1 controls insulin sensitivity through the p160-GLUT4 pathway. PMID:18644868

  15. Purification and Characterization of a DNA-Binding Recombinant PREP1:PBX1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Bruckmann, Chiara; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Blasi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Human PREP1 and PBX1 are homeodomain transcriptional factors, whose biochemical and structural characterization has not yet been fully described. Expression of full-length recombinant PREP1 (47.6 kDa) and PBX1 (46.6 kDa) in E. coli is difficult because of poor yield, high instability and insufficient purity, in particular for structural studies. We cloned the cDNA of both proteins into a dicistronic vector containing an N-terminal glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag and co-expressed and co-purified a stable PBX1:PREP1 complex. For structural studies, we produced two C-terminally truncated complexes that retain their ability to bind DNA and are more stable than the full-length proteins through various purification steps. Here we report the production of large amounts of soluble and pure recombinant human PBX1:PREP1 complex in an active form capable of binding DNA. PMID:25856340

  16. Purification and characterization of a DNA-binding recombinant PREP1:PBX1 complex.

    PubMed

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Bruckmann, Chiara; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Blasi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Human PREP1 and PBX1 are homeodomain transcriptional factors, whose biochemical and structural characterization has not yet been fully described. Expression of full-length recombinant PREP1 (47.6 kDa) and PBX1 (46.6 kDa) in E. coli is difficult because of poor yield, high instability and insufficient purity, in particular for structural studies. We cloned the cDNA of both proteins into a dicistronic vector containing an N-terminal glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag and co-expressed and co-purified a stable PBX1:PREP1 complex. For structural studies, we produced two C-terminally truncated complexes that retain their ability to bind DNA and are more stable than the full-length proteins through various purification steps. Here we report the production of large amounts of soluble and pure recombinant human PBX1:PREP1 complex in an active form capable of binding DNA. PMID:25856340

  17. Building Tech Prep Consortia: Steps to Take--And Pitfalls to Avoid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Cassy; Key, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Common mistakes of tech prep consortia are (1) sacrificing effectiveness for efficiency; (2) poor labor market analysis; (3) superficial curriculum reorganization; and (4) no mechanism for continuity and poor communication. (SK)

  18. 77 FR 8272 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, PrepCAST.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... the State, Local and Tribal jurisdiction level. It also collects National Incident Management System... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, PrepCAST. AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

  19. Involvement of Prep1 in the alphabeta T-cell receptor T-lymphocytic potential of hematopoietic precursors.

    PubMed

    Penkov, Dmitri; Di Rosa, Patrizia; Fernandez Diaz, Luis; Basso, Veronica; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Grassi, Fabio; Mondino, Anna; Blasi, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    Prep1 is a homeodomain transcription factor that acts by dimerizing with Pbx. Since Prep1 null embryos die at gastrulation, we studied Prep1(i/i) hypomorphic mice to study the physiological role of Prep1. A low percentage of homozygous Prep1(i/i) mice survived at birth, and their postnatal functions could be investigated. Reduced Prep1 expression caused an abnormal thymic T-cell development: increased CD4(-) CD8(-) double-negative thymocytes, decrease in alphabetaTCR(high) cells (cells with high levels of the alphabetaTau-cell receptor [alphabetaTCR]) and CD4(+) and CD8(+) single-positive (SP) thymocytes, and increase in gammadeltaTCR cells. Peripheral lymphoid organs of Prep1(i/i) mice contained fewer alphabetaTCR mature T cells and more gammadeltaTCR T cells than wild-type littermates. Moreover, Prep1(i/i) CD4(+) CD8(+) double-positive thymocytes underwent more apoptosis, and SP thymocytes proliferated less than control littermates. Mice that were lethally irradiated and then had Prep1(i/i) fetal liver cells transplanted showed the same defects as the Prep1(i/i) mice did. Among PBC family members, Pbx2 and very low levels of Pbx3 were observed in the thymi of wild-type mice. In Prep1(i/i) mice, the level of Pbx2 protein was profoundly decreased, while for Pbx3 no definitive conclusion could be reached. Therefore, the deficient postnatal T-lymphocytic potential of the Prep1 hematopoietic progenitors depends on the combined, not compensated, absence of Prep1 and at least Pbx2. PMID:16314502

  20. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.1 Section 406.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED TECH-PREP EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 406.1 What is...

  1. The TALE class homeobox gene Smed-prep defines the anterior compartment for head regeneration.

    PubMed

    Felix, Daniel A; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Planaria continue to blossom as a model system for understanding all aspects of regeneration. They provide an opportunity to understand how the replacement of missing tissues from preexisting adult tissue is orchestrated at the molecular level. When amputated along any plane, planaria are capable of regenerating all missing tissue and rescaling all structures to the new size of the animal. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the developmental pathways that control planarian regeneration. In particular Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is central in promoting posterior fates and inhibiting anterior identity. Currently the mechanisms that actively promote anterior identity remain unknown. Here, Smed-prep, encoding a TALE class homeodomain, is described as the first gene necessary for correct anterior fate and patterning during planarian regeneration. Smed-prep is expressed at high levels in the anterior portion of whole animals, and Smed-prep(RNAi) leads to loss of the whole brain during anterior regeneration, but not during lateral regeneration or homeostasis in intact worms. Expression of markers of different anterior fated cells are greatly reduced or lost in Smed-prep(RNAi) animals. We find that the ectopic anterior structures induced by abrogation of Wnt signaling also require Smed-prep to form. We use double knockdown experiments with the S. mediterranea ortholog of nou-darake (that when knocked down induces ectopic brain formation) to show that Smed-prep defines an anterior fated compartment within which stem cells are permitted to assume brain fate, but is not required directly for this differentiation process. Smed-prep is the first gene clearly implicated as being necessary for promoting anterior fate and the first homeobox gene implicated in establishing positional identity during regeneration. Together our results suggest that Smed-prep is required in stem cell progeny as they form the anterior regenerative blastema and is required for

  2. Biochemistry of the tale transcription factors PREP, MEIS, and PBX in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, E; Penkov, D; Mateos, D; De Florian, G; Torres, M; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    TALE (three amino acids loop extension) homeodomain transcription factors are required in various steps of embryo development, in many adult physiological functions, and are involved in important pathologies. This review focuses on the PREP, MEIS, and PBX sub-families of TALE factors and aims at giving information on their biochemical properties, i.e., structure, interactors, and interaction surfaces. Members of the three sets of protein form dimers in which the common partner is PBX but they can also directly interact with other proteins forming higher-order complexes, in particular HOX. Finally, recent advances in determining the genome-wide DNA-binding sites of PREP1, MEIS1, and PBX1, and their partial correspondence with the binding sites of some HOX proteins, are reviewed. These studies have generated a few general rules that can be applied to all members of the three gene families. PREP and MEIS recognize slightly different consensus sequences: PREP prefers to bind to promoters and to have PBX as a DNA-binding partner; MEIS prefers HOX as partner, and both PREP and MEIS drive PBX to their own binding sites. This outlines the clear individuality of the PREP and MEIS proteins, the former mostly devoted to basic cellular functions, the latter more to developmental functions. PMID:23873833

  3. Biochemistry of the tale transcription factors PREP, MEIS, and PBX in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Wellik, Deneen; Torres, Miguel; Ros, Marian

    2014-01-01

    TALE (three amino acids loop extension) homeodomain transcription factors are required in various steps of embryo development, in many adult physiological functions, and are involved in important pathologies. This review focuses on the PREP, MEIS, and PBX sub-families of TALE factors and aims at giving information on their biochemical properties, i.e., structure, interactors, and interaction surfaces. Members of the three sets of protein form dimers in which the common partner is PBX but they can also directly interact with other proteins forming higher-order complexes, in particular HOX. Finally, recent advances in determining the genome-wide DNA-binding sites of PREP1, MEIS1, and PBX1, and their partial correspondence with the binding sites of some HOX proteins, are reviewed. These studies have generated a few general rules that can be applied to all members of the three gene families. PREP and MEIS recognize slightly different consensus sequences: PREP prefers to bind to promoters and to have PBX as a DNA-binding partner; MEIS prefers HOX as partner, and both PREP and MEIS drive PBX to their own binding sites. This outlines the clear individuality of the PREP and MEIS proteins, the former mostly devoted to basic cellular functions, the latter more to developmental functions. Developmental Dynamics 243:59–75, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23873833

  4. Correlates of PrEP Indication in a Multi-Site Cohort of Young HIV-Uninfected Transgender Women.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Gayles, Travis; Shelendich, Michael; Garofalo, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Transgender women are at high risk of HIV infection, with younger transgender women (YTW) particularly vulnerable. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown efficacy in reducing HIV acquisition, but little is known about PrEP indication or initiation among YTW. Baseline data from 180 YTW age 18-29 years enrolled in Project LifeSkills, an on-going HIV prevention intervention for YTW, were analyzed to examine factors associated with PrEP indication. The sample (mean age = 23.4, SD = 3.2) was comprised largely of women of color (69 %) and of low socioeconomic status (71 % unemployed). Overall, 62 % met criteria for PrEP indication, but only 5 % reported ever taking PrEP. Factors associated with increased odds of PrEP indication were: PrEP interest (aOR 3.24; 95 % CI 1.44, 7.33), number of recent anal sex partners (aOR 1.23; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.46), and lower collective self-esteem scores (aOR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.47, 0.94). Despite high levels of PrEP indication, there remain low levels of PrEP awareness and uptake among YTW. PMID:26336946

  5. Tech-Prep/Associate Degree Program Guide: Tech Prep Associate Degree Program, Business Administration Associate Degree Program, Office Administration Associate Degree Program, Allied Health Associate Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmaras, Judy; Neri, Pat

    The Tech-Prep Associate Degree Program (TPAD) at the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) in Warwick, is a high school/community college partnership providing high school students with an alternative program of study focused on goal setting, basic academic skills development, and the skills needed to pursue a career in a technical, business or…

  6. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Clauson, Kevin A.; Polen, Hyla H.; Joseph, Shine A.; Zapantis, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an “evening before pill”. The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing

  7. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Joseph, Shine A; Zapantis, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an "evening before pill". The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing policy

  8. From Efficacy to Effectiveness: Facilitators and Barriers to PrEP Acceptability and Motivations for Adherence Among MSM and Transgender Women in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Surace, Anthony; Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined potential facilitators and barriers to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use and their association with PrEP acceptability and motivations for adherence among 184 MSM and transgender women living in New York City. Participants were presented with educational information about PrEP and completed a computerized survey. Overall, 55.4% of participants reported willingness to take PrEP. The most highly endorsed barriers to PrEP use were health concerns, including both long-term impacts and short-term side effects, questions about PrEP's impact on future drug resistance, and concerns that PrEP does not provide complete protection against HIV. The most highly endorsed facilitator was free access to PrEP, followed by access to support services such as regular HIV testing, sexual health care/monitoring, and access to one-on-one counseling. Participants of color rated both barriers and facilitators as more important than their White counterparts. In multivariate models, barrier and facilitator scores significantly predicted not only PrEP acceptability, but also motivation for PrEP adherence among those who were likely to use PrEP. PrEP implementation programs should consider addressing these barriers and facilitators in protocol and policy development. Findings underscore the importance of support services, such as sexual health counseling, to the success of PrEP as a prevention strategy. PMID:23565928

  9. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  10. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie L; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; McConnell, Margaret; van Rooyen, Heidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kurth, Ann; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Desmond, Chris; Morton, Jennifer; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Discussion Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies for delivering oral PrEP

  11. Willingness to Take PrEP and Potential for Risk Compensation Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Whitfield, Thomas H F; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-12-01

    Once-daily Truvada (Emtricitabine/Tenofovir) as a method of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the most promising biomedical interventions to eliminate new HIV infections; however, uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men has been slow amidst growing concern in popular/social media that PrEP use will result in reduced condom use (i.e., risk compensation). We investigated demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial differences in willingness to use PrEP as well as the perceived impact of PrEP on participants' condom use in a sample of 206 highly sexually active HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Nearly half (46.1 %) said they would be willing to take PrEP if it were provided at no cost. Although men willing to take PrEP (vs. others) reported similar numbers of recent casual male partners (<6 weeks), they had higher odds of recent receptive condomless anal sex (CAS)-i.e., those already at high risk of contracting HIV were more willing to take PrEP. Neither age, race/ethnicity, nor income were associated with willingness to take PrEP, suggesting equal acceptability among subpopulations that are experiencing disparities in HIV incidence. There was limited evidence to suggest men would risk compensate. Only 10 % of men who had not engaged in recent CAS felt that PrEP would result in them starting to have CAS. Men who had not tested for HIV recently were also significantly more likely than others to indicate willingness to take PrEP. Offering PrEP to men who test infrequently may serve to engage them more in routine HIV/STI testing and create a continued dialogue around sexual health between patient and provider in order to prevent HIV infection. PMID:25735243

  12. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  13. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: Clinical evaluation methodology

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jennifer N.; Breland, Alison B.; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evaluating PREPs for SLT users. This report describes two studies examining the toxicant exposure and effects of two PREPs for SLT users. Study 1 (n = 13) consisted of four 4.5-hr laboratory sessions where SLT products (own brand, Stonewall, General snus, and tobacco-free placebo) were used for four 30-min episodes and nicotine exposure and tobacco/nicotine abstinence symptoms were measured. Study 2 (n = 19) consisted of four 5-day ad libitum use periods when participants used own brand, Stonewall, General snus, or no SLT and urinary levels of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine) and the TSN 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNAL) and abstinence symptoms were measured. Compared with own brand, Stonewall was associated with lower levels of cotinine and NNAL, while General snus was associated with similar levels of cotinine and lower levels of NNAL. Abstinence symptoms generally did not differ across tobacco conditions. These results show that clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression associated with PREPs for SLT users. PMID:19023835

  14. 'I am not a man': Trans-specific barriers and facilitators to PrEP acceptability among transgender women.

    PubMed

    Sevelius, Jae M; Keatley, JoAnne; Calma, Nikki; Arnold, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The frequent conflation of transgender ('trans') women with 'men who have sex with men (MSM)' in HIV prevention obscures trans women's unique gender identities, social and behavioural vulnerabilities, and their disproportionately high rates of HIV infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious biomedical HIV prevention approach. However, trans women are underrepresented in PrEP research, and are often aggregated with MSM without consideration for their unique positions within sociocultural contexts. This study examined PrEP acceptability among trans women via three focus groups and nine individual interviews (total N = 30) in San Francisco. While knowledge of PrEP was low, interest was relatively high once participants were informed. Due to past negative healthcare experiences, ability to obtain PrEP from a trans-competent provider was cited as essential to PrEP uptake and adherence. Participants noted that PrEP could address situations in which trans women experience reduced power to negotiate safer sex, including sex work. Trans-specific barriers included lack of trans-inclusive marketing of PrEP, prioritisation of hormone use, and medical mistrust due to transphobia. Findings underscore the importance of disaggregating trans women from MSM in HIV prevention strategies to mitigate disparate risk among this highly vulnerable population. PMID:26963756

  15. Does the Number of College Credits Earned in a Tech Prep and Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program Predict College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a Tech Prep Program located in Northwest Ohio and determine the degree to which college credits earned in high school through the Tech Prep and PSEO Programs predict college success and if there were any significant gender/race differences in credits earned and college success as well as high school…

  16. "When We Remix...We Remake!!!" Reflections on Collaborative Ethnography, the New Digital Ethic, and Test Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This article describes two very different projects undertaken in the same basic writing course: collaborative ethnography and ACT test prep. At first glance, it appears that the work on collaborative ethnography accomplished our goal of creating better, more self-conscious writers while the work on test prep achieved our goal of creating better…

  17. Gendered differences in the perceived risks and benefits of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jennifer J; Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathryn; Mugo, Nelly R; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-08-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective for preventing HIV among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Gender roles may influence perceived personal and social risks related to HIV-prevention behaviors and may affect use of PrEP. In this study, interviews and focus groups were conducted with 68 individuals from 34 mutually disclosed serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships in Thika, Kenya. Sociocultural factors that affect adherence to PrEP were explored using grounded analysis. Three factors were identified, which shape perceptions of PrEP: gendered power dynamics and control over decision-making in the household; conflicts between risk-reduction strategies and male sexual desire; culture-bound definitions of women's work. Adherence to PrEP in the Partners PrEP Study was high; however, participants articulated conflicting interests related to PrEP in connection with traditional gender roles. The successful delivery of PrEP will require understanding of key social factors, particularly related to gender and dyadic dynamics around HIV serostatus. PMID:26754017

  18. Communications for Lifelong Success I and II (Tech Prep English I and II). Pilot Test Materials for Pendleton High School, Pendleton, South Carolina. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turlington, Anita; And Others

    These instructional materials include six supplementary units for Tech Prep English I (grade 9) and six assignments for Tech Prep English II (grade 10). The Tech Prep English I units have these components: unit objectives, introduction, and follow-up exercises. Topics include goal setting, problem solving and decision making, listening and reading…

  19. PrEP implementation: moving from trials to policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Carlos F; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Mayer, Kenneth H; Baggaley, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is increasingly clear that the HIV response will not be sustainable if the number of infections is not significantly reduced. Discussion For two decades, research has been ongoing to identify new behavioural and biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. In the past few years, the efficacy of several new strategies has been demonstrated, including oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; i.e. daily use of tenofovir/emtricitabine). Because several social, political and logistic barriers remain, however, optimal PrEP implementation will require a better dissemination of new evidence in a number of areas and additional implementation research from various disciplinary perspectives (i.e. social science, policy and ethics; health systems; and economics, including cost-effectiveness studies). Discussion of new evidence on those topics, as well as case studies of potential PrEP implementation in diverse environments, can improve the understanding of the role that PrEP may play in addressing the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. In light of these needs, the Network for Multidisciplinary Studies in ARV-based HIV Prevention (NEMUS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) were honoured to co-organize a special issue of JIAS aimed at contributing to a scholarly discussion of current conditions surrounding PrEP implementation, potential impact and efficiency, social science concerns and the study of PrEP implementation in specific country cases. The papers included in this monograph identify and cover many of the main aspects of the complex yet promising discussions around PrEP implementation today. Conclusions This is a collection of timely contributions from global leaders in HIV research and policy that addresses geographic diversity, uses a trans-disciplinary approach and covers a variety of the complex issues raised by PrEP. As this publication will become accessible to all, we hope that it will remain a valuable resource for policy makers, programme managers

  20. An intervention to support HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence in HIV serodiscordant couples in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Psaros, Christina; Haberer, Jessica E.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Campbell, James D.; Wangisi, Jonathan; Mugwanya, Kenneth; Kintu, Alex; Enyakoit, Michael; Thomas, Katherine K.; Donnell, Deborah; Krows, Meighan; Kidoguchi, Lara; Ware, Norma; Baeten, Jared M.; Celum, Connie; Bangsberg, David R.; Safren, Steve A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy, but adherence is required for maximum benefit. To date, there are no empirically supported PrEP adherence interventions. This manuscript describes the process of developing a PrEP adherence intervention and presents results on its impact on adherence. Methods The Partners PrEP Study was a placebo-controlled efficacy trial of daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine/tenofovir PrEP among uninfected members of HIV serodiscordant couples. An ancillary adherence study was conducted at three study sites in Uganda. Participants with <80% adherence as measured by unannounced pill count received an additional adherence counseling intervention based on Lifesteps, an evidence-based HIV treatment adherence intervention, based on principles of cognitive-behavioral theory. Findings Of the 1,147 HIV seronegative participants were enrolled in the ancillary adherence study, 168 (14.6%) triggered the adherence intervention. Of participants triggering the intervention, 62% were male; median age was 32.5 years. The median number of adherence counseling sessions was 10. Mean adherence during the month before the intervention was 75.7%, and increased significantly to 84.1% in the month after the first intervention session (p<0.001). The most frequently endorsed adherence barriers at session one were travel and forgetting. Interpretation A PrEP adherence intervention was feasible in a clinical trial of PrEP in Uganda and PrEP adherence increased after the intervention. Future research should identify PrEP users with low adherence for enhanced adherence counseling and determine optimal implementation strategies for interventions to maximize PrEP effectiveness. PMID:24853311

  1. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  2. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E.; Campbell, Chadwick K.; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City—a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  3. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK – A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Methods Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Results Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18–25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. Conclusion These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health

  4. Preparing for the Rollout of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): A Vignette Survey to Identify Intended Sexual Behaviors among Women in Kenya and South Africa if Using PrEP

    PubMed Central

    Corneli, Amy; Field, Samuel; Namey, Emily; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Odhiambo, Jacob; Skhosana, Joseph; Guest, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in reducing HIV risk. One concern with introducing PrEP is whether users will engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Methods We assessed the effect that PrEP may have on sexual risk behaviors by administering a survey to 799 women in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Participants were asked about their sexual behavior intentions twice — once as if they were taking PrEP and once as if they were not taking PrEP — within four risk situations (vignettes). They responded using a 5-point ordinal scale. We used a series of linear mixed effects models with an unstructured residual covariance matrix to estimate the between- and within-subject differences in the mean likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior across the PrEP and non-PrEP contexts. We also calculated the total percentage of participants who reported a greater likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior if taking PrEP than if not taking PrEP, by vignette. Results We found statistically significant differences in the mean likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior with the between-subject comparison (-0.17, p < 0.01) and with the within-subject comparison (-0.31, p < 0.001). Depending on the vignette, 27% to 40% of participants reported a greater likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior if taking PrEP than if not taking PrEP. Conclusions Our findings indicate that modest increases in risky sexual behavior could occur with PrEP. Although responses from the majority of participants suggest they would not be more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior if they took PrEP, a substantial proportion might. Programs rolling out PrEP should be prepared to assist similar women in making informed choices about reducing their risk of HIV and about their sexual health beyond HIV prevention. PMID:26056842

  5. I Knew I Would Be Safer. Experiences of Kenyan HIV Serodiscordant Couples Soon After Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Initiation.

    PubMed

    Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathyrn; Vusha, Sophie; Ngutu, Mariah; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-02-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-uninfected persons is highly efficacious for HIV prevention. Understanding how people at risk for HIV will use PrEP is important to inform PrEP scale-up and implementation. We used qualitative methods to gather insights into couples' early experiences with PrEP use within the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label implementation study evaluating integrated delivery of PrEP and antiretroviral therapy (ART). PrEP is offered to HIV uninfected partners until the HIV-infected partner initiates and sustains ART use (i.e., PrEP as a "bridge" to ART initiation and viral suppression). From August 2013 to March 2014 we conducted 20 in-depth dyadic interviews (n = 40) with heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples participating at the Thika, Kenya study site, exploring how couples make decisions about using PrEP for HIV prevention. We developed and applied deductive and inductive codes to identify key themes related to experiences of PrEP initiation and use of time-limited PrEP. Couples reported that PrEP offered them an additional strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission, meet their fertility desires, and cope with HIV serodiscordance. Remaining HIV negative at follow-up visits reinforced couples' decisions and motivated continued adherence to PrEP. In addition, confidence in their provider's advice and client-friendly services were critical to their decisions to initiate and continue use of PrEP. Strategies for wide-scale PrEP delivery for HIV serodiscordant couples in low resource settings may include building capacity of health providers to counsel on PrEP adoption while addressing couples' concerns and barriers to adoption and continued use. PMID:26836236

  6. The Promise and Peril of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Using Social Science to Inform PrEP Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Bazzi, Angela M. Robertson; Scheibe, Andrew; Adebajo, Sylvia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers. Several recent trials testing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy, although others have been stopped early for futility. Given the importance and complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention, we discuss several key areas of consideration moving forward, including trial participation, adherence strategies, social relationships, and the structural factors that shape PrEP interest, use, and potential effectiveness among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review highlights the importance of involving social scientists in clinical and community-based research on PrEP. We advocate for a shift away from a singular “re-medicalization” of the HIV epidemic to that of a “reintegration” of interdisciplinary approaches to prevention that could benefit female sex workers and other key populations at risk of acquiring HIV. PMID:26050379

  7. Computer Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature and development of computer software. Programing, programing languages, types of software (including dynamic spreadsheets), and software of the future are among the topics considered. (JN)

  8. Tech Prep: Developing Cooperative Programs and Partnerships. National Satellite Teleconference Proceedings (Blacksburg, Virginia, October 29, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg.

    This document reports the proceedings of a teleconference convened to acquaint vocational education leaders and the vocational education community with the federal guidelines for "tech prep" programs as well as the elements of successful programs. About 700 down-link sites from 48 states participated in the conference, with an etimated audience of…

  9. Relationship of Tech Prep and Dual Credit to College Readiness and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JoHyun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of tech prep and dual credit to college readiness in reading, writing, and math and retention, measured as total college-level credit hours earned. A sample of 612 high school graduates who enrolled in a community college in two consortia, one in Florida (n = 339) and the other in Oregon…

  10. Effectiveness of Previous Initiatives Similar to Programs of Study: Tech Prep, Career Pathways, and Youth Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    The federal career and technical legislation reauthorized in 2006 required the recipients of its funding to offer at least one Program of Study (POS). All states have developed some components of POS through earlier initiatives, primarily Tech Prep, career pathways, and youth apprenticeship, that attempted to ease the transition of students from…

  11. Reinforcing Productive Classroom Behavior: A Teacher's Guide to Behavior Modification. PREP-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Edward M.; Sarason, Irwin G.

    An interpretive studies project on applying reinforcement principles in the classroom was conducted by Dr. Edward M. Glaser of the Human Interaction Research Institute, Los Angeles, California and Dr. Irwin G. Sarason of the University of Washington, Seattle. PREP kit No. 18 has been adapted from the teacher's guide to behavioral modification…

  12. The DELTA PREP Initiative" Accelerating Coalition Capacity for Intimate Partner Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakocs, Ronda; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The DELTA PREP Project aimed to build the prevention capacity of 19 state domestic violence coalitions by offering eight supports designed to promote prevention integration over a 3-year period: modest grant awards, training events, technical assistance, action planning, coaching hubs, the Coalition Prevention Capacity Assessment, an…

  13. Tech Prep. South Dakota Career Activities for the Classroom, 4th Edition, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucker, Marsha, Comp.

    This document presents a sampling of projects and activities that have been implemented in Tech Prep training in South Dakota, or will be implemented during the upcoming school year. The projects and activities are categorized into 12 areas: career clusters; career units and activities; curriculum materials; employability skills; entrepreneurship;…

  14. Central Services PREP (A Curriculum for Sterilization Technicians in the Workplace). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tri-County Opportunities Industrialization Center, Inc., Harrisburg, PA.

    A workplace literacy curriculum for entry-level hospital workers who sterilize medical equipment for doctors and nurses was developed, tested, and published in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. An assessment was conducted to identify the needs of the hospital's management and the literacy skills needed by its central services prep department, and…

  15. A Dialogue with the Original Curriculum Basher about Tech Prep and a Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    An imaginary dialogue with Socrates elicits premises about tech prep: (1) it is not narrow vocationalism or anomalous to liberal education; (2) by blending academic and vocational content, it emulates liberal education purposes; (3) critical thinking skills must be fostered; and (4) meaningful cross-disciplinary integration is vital. (SK)

  16. Appendix C: Background and Methodology for Alternative Certification Pilot. [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. As part of the "Review," this appendix reports on a pilot study of new standards for assessing the quality of alternative certification programs. Background and methodology for alternative…

  17. Integrating Work-Based Learning into Comprehensive Tech Prep Programs: Recommendations from a Practitioner's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Diana M.

    This handbook, which is one in a series of handbooks designed to help tech prep practitioners replicate successful materials, projects, or programs that have been developed by Partnership for Academic and Career Education (PACE) consortium members, presents 10 recommendations concerning integrating work- based learning into comprehensive tech prep…

  18. A Case Study of Interagency Collaboration as Reported by the PREP Advisory Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Cathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore with key members of the Pilot Reintegration Education Program (PREP) Advisory Committee, the characteristics of their interagency process and how they perceived that these factors contributed to accomplishing the common objective of providing a smooth and effective transition for students between release…

  19. Summer Professional Development in Chemistry for Inservice Teachers Using OWL Quick Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Pamplin, Kim L.; Blake, Robert E.; Mason, Diana S.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary teachers participating in summer professional development chemistry workshops in Texas used an online chemistry tutoring program, OWL Quick Prep (Day et al. in OWL: Online Web-based Learning, Brooks-Cole Cengage Learning, Florence, KY, 1997) as a part of the inservice training. Self-reported demographic data were used to identify factors…

  20. An Evaluation of the Southern Maryland Educational Consortium's Tech Prep Program: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raber, Suzanne M.; Merchlinsky, Suzanne R.

    In the Southern Maryland Educational Consortium's 4 + 2 tech prep program, ninth-grade students develop career plans and follow career pathways in one of three technologies--health and human services, electronics and engineering, or business. The program was evaluated by an independent social science research firm to identify the different…

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Prep Course for Chemistry Graduate Teaching Assistants at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Schaefer, Kathryn L.; Kumi, Bryna C.; Friedman, Lee A.; Thompson, Katerina V.; Doyle, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of a prep course for chemistry graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). The course was developed around three major goals: (i) building a community for new GTAs and socializing them into the department; (ii) modeling teaching with well-documented, innovative teaching and learning techniques; and…

  2. Integrated Curriculum Activities. Integration of Vocational and Academic Learning through Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    The integrated learning activities in this guide were developed by a committee of educators from Osceola District Schools, Orange County Public Schools, and Valencia Community College (Florida) for a tech prep curriculum. Included are 32 communications-related activities, 30 mathematics activities, and 10 science activities. Each activity includes…

  3. Southeastern Illinois Tech Prep Project. Final Report. July 1, 1991-June 30, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Illinois Vocational System, Harrisburg.

    The Southeastern Illinois Technical Preparation project was undertaken to develop sequenced tech prep programs in principles of technology/electronics, computer programming, and secretary/business management at nine high schools and Southeastern Illinois College with emphasis on preparation in mathematics, science, and communication and on…

  4. Tech-Prep in New York State: Profiles of Four Diverse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenkel, Michael W.; Brodsky, Stanley M.

    These case studies highlight the diversity of four tech programs that responded with a unique set of organizational policies and procedures to a unique set of challenges. The case study on City Tech Tech-Prep Consortium in Brooklyn focuses on three strategies: transition to City Tech program, postsecondary component, and program evaluation. The…

  5. Oregon Tech Prep/Associate Degree Program: Developing a High Performance Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem.

    Issued jointly by Oregon's Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Commissioner of Community Colleges, this policy statement is aimed at implementing the Oregon Tech Prep/Associate Degree Program (TPAD), a new applied academics curricular structure. The paper begins with a summary of Oregon's school reform effort, an open letter to the…

  6. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  7. Restructuring Student Experiences Using Tech Prep Mapping To Integrate Vocational and Academic Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirozzoli, Don

    The growing emphasis on accountability and the demand for better prepared students is pressing institutions of higher education to examine restructuring. Student experiences represent an important arena for school restructuring, and a useful approach to changing student experiences is the Tech Prep Mapping (TPM) process. The TPM process requires…

  8. The Effectiveness of PREP with Lower-Income Racial/Ethnic Minority Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Bergen, Carrie; Inch, Leslie J.; France, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) with lower-income and racial/ethnic minority (African American and Latino/a) couples. Additionally, we tested whether relationship outcomes varied based on the delivery format (i.e., group format vs. couple format). The sample included 321…

  9. 76 FR 51037 - Determination That Halflytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (Containing Two Bisacodyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution... potassium chloride for oral solution and two bisacodyl delayed release tablets, 5 mg. FOR FURTHER... Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (PEG- 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride...

  10. School Science Prep Room Designs Fail to Deliver--A Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, James; Piggott, Andy

    2010-01-01

    A special report has been published aimed at reducing the number of poorly designed and equipped prep rooms specified by architects who have little or no experience in what is a very specialised area. Produced by school science equipment manufacturer, Gratnells, this report is the first step of its new "Architect Connection" initiative, a…

  11. 76 FR 63936 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; PrepCAST

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses.... Collection of Information Title: PrepCAST. Type of Information Collection: Revision of a currently approved... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

  12. Guide for the preparation of proposals for the pre-freshman enrichment program, PREP, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document describes preparations for a pre-freshman enrichment program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE). The purpose of the PREP'' program is to encourage women and minorities to enter the engineering profession. Covered in this report are deadlines demography, eligibility, project management, DOE support, publicity, application, various forms, and budget considerations. (FSD)

  13. A Culture of High Expectations: Teacher Leadership at Pritzker College Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Relying on teachers as culture leaders is a solution embraced by many high-performing charter schools. This profile focuses on the design of the Grade Level Lead roles at Pritzker College Prep, a member of the Noble Network of Schools in Chicago. The successes of this school and network are well-documented: Of non-selective public high schools in…

  14. Preparing Michigan Students for the Jobs of Tomorrow: The Report of the Tech Prep Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    Both secondary schools and community colleges are under pressure to increase the technical content of their curricula to produce graduates who can fill highly skilled technician jobs in a changing work force. Technical Preparation (Tech Prep) Programs are partnerships between these two institutional levels that incorporate career counseling and…

  15. Antiproinflammatory effects of iodixanol (OptiPrep)-based density gradient purification on human islet preparations.

    PubMed

    Mita, A; Ricordi, C; Messinger, S; Miki, A; Misawa, R; Barker, S; Molano, R D; Haertter, R; Khan, A; Miyagawa, S; Pileggi, A; Inverardi, L; Alejandro, R; Hering, B J; Ichii, H

    2010-01-01

    Islet isolation and purification using a continuous density gradient may reduce the volume of tissue necessary for implantation into patients, therefore minimizing the risks associated with intraportal infusion in islet transplantation. On the other hand, the purification procedure might result in a decreased number of islets recovered due to various stresses such as exposure to cytokine/chemokine. While a Ficoll-based density gradient has been widely used in purification for clinical trials, purification with iodixanol (OptiPrep) has been recently reported in islet transplant series with successful clinical outcomes. The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of the purification method using OptiPrep-based and Ficoll-based density gradients. Human islet isolations were performed using a modified automated method. After the digestion phase, pre-purification digests were divided into two groups and purified using a semiautomated cell processor with either a continuous Ficoll- or OptiPrep-based density gradient. The quantity, purity, viability, and cellular composition of islet preparations from each group were assessed. Cytokine/chemokine and tissue factor production from islet preparations after 48-h culture were also measured. Although islet purity, post-purification IEQ, islet recovery rate, FDA/PI, and fractional β-cell viability were comparable, β-cell mass after 48-h culture significantly improved in the OptiPrep group when compared to the Ficoll group. The production of cytokine/chemokine including IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1β, MCP-1, and RANTES but not tissue factor from the OptiPrep group was significantly lower during 48-h culture after isolation. Each preparation contained the similar number of ductal cells and macrophages. Endotoxin level in both gradient medium was also comparable. The purification method using OptiPrep gradient media significantly reduced cytokine/chemokine production but not tissue factor from human islet

  16. Commercial Data Mining Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  17. PrEP Awareness and Attitudes in a National Survey of Primary Care Clinicians in the United States, 2009–2015

    PubMed Central

    Stryker, Jo Ellen; Rose, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives As trials were assessing the safety and efficacy of daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of HIV infection, there was a clear need to understand the evolution of knowledge of, and attitudes toward, PrEP among primary care clinicians. Methods Physicians and nurse practitioners were surveyed in 2009 (n = 1500), 2010 (n = 1504), 2012 (n = 1503), 2013 (n = 1507), 2014 (n = 1508) and 2015 (n = 1501) to assess their awareness of PrEP, willingness to prescribe PrEP, and whether they support use of public funds to pay for PrEP. Pharmacists (n = 251) were surveyed about PrEP in 2012 only. Descriptive statistics were computed for physician demographics and PrEP-related questions. Prevalence ratios for willingness to prescribe PrEP were computed using Poisson regression analysis. Results Awareness of PrEP was low among clinicians (2009: 24%, 2010: 29%) but increased after trials reported effectiveness (2012: 49%, 2013: 51%, 2014: 61%, 2015: 66%). Following a description of PrEP with an estimated effectiveness of 75%, across 6 of the study years 91% of clinicians indicated a willingness to prescribe PrEP to at least one group at high risk of HIV acquisition. A smaller majority of clinicians indicated support for public funding of PrEP in 2009: 59%, 2010: 53%, and 2013: 63%. Conclusions In surveys conducted before and after the release of PrEP trial results, primary care clinicians were largely unaware of PrEP. They indicated high levels of willingness to prescribe it for patients at high risk of HIV acquisition and expressed interest in education about how to deliver this new clinical HIV prevention method. It will be important to continue monitoring clinician knowledge, attitudes, and practices as the use of PrEP increases in the US. PMID:27258374

  18. When and why women might suspend PrEP use according to perceived seasons of risk: implications for PrEP-specific risk-reduction counselling.

    PubMed

    Namey, Emily; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Odhiambo, Jacob; Skhosana, Joseph; Guest, Greg; Corneli, Amy

    2016-09-01

    Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral drug emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) has been shown to dramatically reduce the risk of HIV acquisition for women at higher risk of infection if taken daily. Understanding when and why women would intentionally stop using an efficacious oral PrEP drug within the context of their 'normal' daily lives is essential for delivering effective PrEP risk-reduction counselling. As part of a larger study, we conducted 60 qualitative interviews with women at higher risk of HIV in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Participants charted their sexual contacts over the previous six months, indicated whether they would have taken PrEP if available and discussed whether and why they would have suspended PrEP use. Nearly all participants said they would have used PrEP in the previous six months; half indicated they would have suspended PrEP use at some point. Participants' reasons for an extended break from PrEP were related to partnership dynamics (e.g., perceived low risk of a stable partner) and phases of life (e.g., trying to conceive). Life events (e.g., holidays and travel) could prompt shorter breaks in PrEP use. These circumstances may or may not correspond to actual contexts of lower risk, highlighting the importance of tailored PrEP risk-reduction counselling. PMID:27093238

  19. Hypomorphic mutation of the TALE gene Prep1 (pKnox1) causes a major reduction of Pbx and Meis proteins and a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Elisabetta; Villaescusa, J Carlos; Di Rosa, Patrizia; Fernandez-Diaz, Luis C; Longobardi, Elena; Mazzieri, Roberta; Miccio, Annarita; Micali, Nicola; Selleri, Licia; Ferrari, Giuliana; Blasi, Francesco

    2006-08-01

    The interaction of Prep1 and Pbx homeodomain transcription factors regulates their activity, nuclear localization, and likely, function in development. To understand the in vivo role of Prep1, we have analyzed an embryonic lethal hypomorphic mutant mouse (Prep1(i/i)). Prep1(i/i) embryos die at embryonic day 17.5 (E17.5) to birth with an overall organ hypoplasia, severe anemia, impaired angiogenesis, and eye anomalies, particularly in the lens and retina. The anemia correlates with delayed differentiation of erythroid progenitors and may be, at least in part, responsible for intrauterine death. At E14.5, Prep1 is present in fetal liver (FL) cMyb-positive cells, whose deficiency causes a marked hematopoietic phenotype. Prep1 is also localized to FL endothelial progenitors, consistent with the observed angiogenic phenotype. Likewise, at the same gestational day, Prep1 is present in the eye cells that bear Pax6, implicated in eye development. The levels of cMyb and Pax6 in FL and in the retina, respectively, are significantly decreased in Prep1(i/i) embryos, consistent with the hematopoietic and eye phenotypes. Concomitantly, Prep1 deficiency results in the overall decrease of protein levels of its related family member Meis1 and its partners Pbx1 and Pbx2. As both Prep1 and Meis interact with Pbx, the overall Prep1/Meis-Pbx DNA-binding activity is strongly reduced in whole Prep1(i/i) embryos and their organs. Our data indicate that Prep1 is an essential gene that acts upstream of and within a Pbx-Meis network that regulates multiple aspects of embryonic development. PMID:16847320

  20. Transcription factor PREP1 induces EMT and metastasis by controlling the TGF-β-SMAD3 pathway in non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Risolino, Maurizio; Mandia, Nadia; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Dardaei, Leila; Longobardi, Elena; Fernandez, Serena; Talotta, Francesco; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Harter, Patrick N; Mittelbronn, Michel; Schulte, Dorothea; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blasi, Francesco; Verde, Pasquale

    2014-09-01

    Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (Pbx)-regulating protein-1 (Prep1) is a ubiquitous homeoprotein involved in early development, genomic stability, insulin sensitivity, and hematopoiesis. Previously we have shown that Prep1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that inhibits neoplastic transformation by competing with myeloid ecotropic integration site 1 for binding to the common heterodimeric partner Pbx1. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is controlled by complex networks of proinvasive transcription factors responsive to paracrine factors such as TGF-β. Here we show that, in addition to inhibiting primary tumor growth, PREP1 is a novel EMT inducer and prometastatic transcription factor. In human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, PREP1 overexpression is sufficient to trigger EMT, whereas PREP1 down-regulation inhibits the induction of EMT in response to TGF-β. PREP1 modulates the cellular sensitivity to TGF-β by inducing the small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) nuclear translocation through mechanisms dependent, at least in part, on PREP1-mediated transactivation of a regulatory element in the SMAD3 first intron. Along with the stabilization and accumulation of PBX1, PREP1 induces the expression of multiple activator protein 1 components including the proinvasive Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) oncoprotein. Both FRA-1 and PBX1 are required for the mesenchymal changes triggered by PREP1 in lung tumor cells. Finally, we show that the PREP1-induced mesenchymal transformation correlates with significantly increased lung colonization by cells overexpressing PREP1. Accordingly, we have detected PREP1 accumulation in a large number of human brain metastases of various solid tumors, including NSCLC. These findings point to a novel role of the PREP1 homeoprotein in the control of the TGF-β pathway, EMT, and metastasis in NSCLC. PMID:25157139

  1. Transcription factor PREP1 induces EMT and metastasis by controlling the TGF-β–SMAD3 pathway in non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Risolino, Maurizio; Mandia, Nadia; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Dardaei, Leila; Longobardi, Elena; Fernandez, Serena; Talotta, Francesco; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Harter, Patrick N.; Mittelbronn, Michel; Schulte, Dorothea; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blasi, Francesco; Verde, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Pre–B-cell leukemia homeobox (Pbx)-regulating protein-1 (Prep1) is a ubiquitous homeoprotein involved in early development, genomic stability, insulin sensitivity, and hematopoiesis. Previously we have shown that Prep1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that inhibits neoplastic transformation by competing with myeloid ecotropic integration site 1 for binding to the common heterodimeric partner Pbx1. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is controlled by complex networks of proinvasive transcription factors responsive to paracrine factors such as TGF-β. Here we show that, in addition to inhibiting primary tumor growth, PREP1 is a novel EMT inducer and prometastatic transcription factor. In human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, PREP1 overexpression is sufficient to trigger EMT, whereas PREP1 down-regulation inhibits the induction of EMT in response to TGF-β. PREP1 modulates the cellular sensitivity to TGF-β by inducing the small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) nuclear translocation through mechanisms dependent, at least in part, on PREP1-mediated transactivation of a regulatory element in the SMAD3 first intron. Along with the stabilization and accumulation of PBX1, PREP1 induces the expression of multiple activator protein 1 components including the proinvasive Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) oncoprotein. Both FRA-1 and PBX1 are required for the mesenchymal changes triggered by PREP1 in lung tumor cells. Finally, we show that the PREP1-induced mesenchymal transformation correlates with significantly increased lung colonization by cells overexpressing PREP1. Accordingly, we have detected PREP1 accumulation in a large number of human brain metastases of various solid tumors, including NSCLC. These findings point to a novel role of the PREP1 homeoprotein in the control of the TGF-β pathway, EMT, and metastasis in NSCLC. PMID:25157139

  2. Tailored combination prevention packages and PrEP for young key populations

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey; Nguyen, Nadia L; Celum, Connie; Cowan, Frances M; Go, Vivian; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Young key populations, defined in this article as men who have sex with men, transgender persons, people who sell sex and people who inject drugs, are at particularly high risk for HIV. Due to the often marginalized and sometimes criminalized status of young people who identify as members of key populations, there is a need for HIV prevention packages that account for the unique and challenging circumstances they face. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is likely to become an important element of combination prevention for many young key populations. Objective In this paper, we discuss important challenges to HIV prevention among young key populations, identify key components of a tailored combination prevention package for this population and examine the role of PrEP in these prevention packages. Methods We conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence to date on prevention strategies, challenges to prevention and combination prevention packages for young key populations. We focused specifically on the role of PrEP in these prevention packages and on young people under the age of 24, and 18 in particular. Results and discussion Combination prevention packages that include effective, acceptable and scalable behavioural, structural and biologic interventions are needed for all key populations to prevent new HIV infections. Interventions in these packages should meaningfully involve beneficiaries in the design and implementation of the intervention, and take into account the context in which the intervention is being delivered to thoughtfully address issues of stigma and discrimination. These interventions will likely be most effective if implemented in conjunction with strategies to facilitate an enabling environment, including increasing access to HIV testing and health services for PrEP and other prevention strategies, decriminalizing key populations’ practices, increasing access to prevention and care, reducing stigma and discrimination, and

  3. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection in France: a nationwide cross-sectional study (PREVIC study).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E; Piroth, L; Cua, E; Joulié, A; Ravaux, I; Chauveau, M; Lacombe, K; Cotte, L; Bonnard, P; Weiss, L; Longuet, M; Pradier, C; Cacoub, P

    2014-02-01

    Although preliminary studies showed that preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) lowers the HIV transmission in individuals with HIV, confirmative trials are ongoing and PrEP is not routinely recommended. The aim of this study was to assess whether individuals with HIV share antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for PrEP and to describe awareness and discussion on PrEP in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in France in 23 representative departments of infectious diseases and internal medicine. Physicians administered an anonymous standardized questionnaire to all individuals with HIV receiving ARVs and followed between 24 and 31 October 2011. The questionnaire included items regarding PrEP (awareness; discussion with their close circle, physician or patients' association; experience), personal sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviors and HIV status of the participants. Five hundred and ninety three participants were recruited: male 74.2% (men who have sex with men 52.4%, heterosexuals 21.6%), member of patient's association 9.8%. Half of them (50.6%) lived with a stable partner and 35.2% with an HIV-negative partner. Almost half (41.8%) were aware and 29.5% had had discussion about PrEP. In logistic regression, awareness and discussion on PrEP were more frequent: (1) among males, in patients' association members (p< 0.001 for both) and in nonheterosexuals (p=0.023 and 0.057, respectively); (2) among women, in those not living with a stable partner (p=0.035 and p=0.03, respectively) or living with an HIV-negative partner (p=0.049 and p=0.083, respectively). One percent of the participants declared having shared ARVs with someone and 8.3% reported PrEP in their close circle. Men reporting PrEP in their close circle shared ARVs more frequently than those who did not (10.3% vs. 0.2%, p < 0.001). Today, individuals with HIV do not seem to widely share personal ARVs for PrEP with seronegative people. A significant number of individuals with HIV are aware of and

  4. The homeodomain transcription factor Prep1 (pKnox1) is required for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell activity.

    PubMed

    Di Rosa, Patrizia; Villaescusa, J Carlos; Longobardi, Elena; Iotti, Giorgio; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Diaz, Victor M; Miccio, Annarita; Ferrari, Giuliana; Blasi, Francesco

    2007-11-15

    Most of the hypomorphic Prep1(i/i) embryos (expressing 3-10% of the Prep1 protein), die between E17.5 and P0, with profound anemia, eye malformations and angiogenic anomalies [Ferretti, E., Villaescusa, J.C., Di Rosa, P., Fernandez-Diaz, L.-C., Longobardi, E., Mazzieri, R., Miccio, A., Micali, N., Selleri, L., Ferrari G., Blasi, F. (2006). Hypomorphic mutation of the TALE gene Prep1 (pKnox1) causes a major reduction of Pbx and Meis proteins and a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype. Mol. Cell. Biol. 26, 5650-5662]. We now report on the hematopoietic phenotype of these embryos. Prep1(i/i) fetal livers (FL) are hypoplastic, produce less common myeloid progenitors colonies (CFU-GEMM) in cytokine-supplemented methylcellulose and have an increased number of B-cells precursors that differentiate poorly. Prep1(i/i) FL is able to protect lethally irradiated mice only at high cell doses but the few protected mice show major anomalies in all hematopoietic lineages in both bone marrow (BM) and peripheral organs. Prep1(i/i) FL cells compete inefficiently with wild type bone marrow in competitive repopulation experiments, suggesting that the major defect lies in long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (LTR-HSC). Indeed, wt embryonic expression of Prep1 in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, fetal liver (FL), cKit(+)Sca1(+)Lin(-)AA4.1(+) (KSLA) cells and B-lymphocytes precursors agrees with the observed phenotype. We therefore conclude that Prep1 is required for a correct and complete hematopoiesis. PMID:17904118

  5. Principles of development and specific features relating to practical application of software for solving problems connected with erosion-corrosion of metal in power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    Principles used in the development of modern computation codes for calculating erosion-corrosion of power equipment are considered. Specific features of their practical applications aimed at preventing, revealing, and eliminating erosion-corrosion thinning of the metal of elements used in the units of power stations are analyzed. Results obtained from using the domestically developed computation code RAMEK for operating power units are presented and prospects for implementing it in designing new power units of nuclear power stations are determined.

  6. Selecting Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a comprehensive computer software selection and evaluation process, including documenting district needs, evaluating software packages, weighing the alternatives, and making the purchase. (PKP)

  7. Swords, Shields, and the Fight for Our Children: Lessons from Urban Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The grim statistics are well known, but bear repeating: in Chicago, close to 60% of Black boys do not graduate from high school, and only one in forty receive a bachelor's degree by age 25. In the fall of 2006, Urban Prep Charter Academy for Young Men-Englewood Campus, the nation's first all-male charter public high school, was opened. In 2010 and…

  8. Prep1 (pKnox1) regulates mouse embryonic HSC cycling and self-renewal affecting the Stat1-Sca1 IFN-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Modica, Livia; Iotti, Giorgio; D'Avola, Annalisa; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    A hypomorphic Prep1 mutation results in embryonic lethality at late gestation with a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype that includes defects in all hematopoietic lineages. Reduced functionality of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment might be responsible for the hematopoietic phenotype observed at mid-gestation. In this paper we demonstrate that Prep1 regulates the number of HSCs in fetal livers (FLs), their clonogenic potential and their ability to de novo generate the hematopoietic system in ablated hosts. Furthermore, we show that Prep1 controls the self-renewal ability of the FL HSC compartment as demonstrated by serial transplantation experiments. The premature exhaustion of Prep1 mutant HSCs correlates with the reduced quiescent stem cell pool thus suggesting that Prep1 regulates the self-renewal ability by controlling the quiescence/proliferation balance. Finally, we show that in FL HSCs Prep1 absence induces the interferon signaling pathway leading to premature cycling and exhaustion of fetal HSCs. PMID:25233378

  9. Prep1 (pKnox1) Regulates Mouse Embryonic HSC Cycling and Self-Renewal Affecting the Stat1-Sca1 IFN-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Livia; Iotti, Giorgio; D’Avola, Annalisa; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    A hypomorphic Prep1 mutation results in embryonic lethality at late gestation with a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype that includes defects in all hematopoietic lineages. Reduced functionality of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment might be responsible for the hematopoietic phenotype observed at mid-gestation. In this paper we demonstrate that Prep1 regulates the number of HSCs in fetal livers (FLs), their clonogenic potential and their ability to de novo generate the hematopoietic system in ablated hosts. Furthermore, we show that Prep1 controls the self-renewal ability of the FL HSC compartment as demonstrated by serial transplantation experiments. The premature exhaustion of Prep1 mutant HSCs correlates with the reduced quiescent stem cell pool thus suggesting that Prep1 regulates the self-renewal ability by controlling the quiescence/proliferation balance. Finally, we show that in FL HSCs Prep1 absence induces the interferon signaling pathway leading to premature cycling and exhaustion of fetal HSCs. PMID:25233378

  10. Propagation of Information About Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Through Twitter.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Margaret L; Hou, Jinghui; Meng, Jingbo; Hu, Chih-Wei; An, Zheng; Park, Mina; Nam, Yujung

    2016-08-01

    Previous literature has suggested that examining Twitter messages can be productive for studying how the public shares and spreads health information on social media. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising approach to HIV prevention, yet there are many issues that may influence its effective implementation. This study examined social representations of PrEP on Twitter. One thousand four hundred and thirty-five Tweets were collected and 774 English Tweets were content-analyzed to explore propagation of various issues around daily oral PrEP, as well as characteristics of the sources of those Tweets. We also examined how Twitter message content influenced information propagation. Our findings revealed that PrEP-related information on Twitter covered a wide range of issues, and individual users constituted the majority of the Tweet creators among all the sources, including news media, nonprofit and academic groups, and commercial entities. Using Poisson regression, we also found that a Tweet's affective tone was a significant predictor of message propagation frequency. Implications for health practitioners are discussed. PMID:26756069

  11. Software Use Control

    SciTech Connect

    Trussell, F.G.

    1994-03-01

    The topic of this technical presentation is Use Control Software. The nuclear weapon software design community is being subjected to many surety forces that are stretching the envelope of their designs. Given that software is a critical part of the use control system design, we must work to limit the errors of the software development process. The objective of this paper is to discuss a methodology that the author, as a member of the Security and Use Control Assessment Department, is working on. This is the first introduction of the proposed methodology. Software that is a part of any use control system, subsystem, device, or component is critical to the operation of that apparatus. The software is expected to meet the criteria of modern software quality. In a use control application, meeting the normal quality standards is short of the expectations in meeting the use control obligations. The NWC community expects the use control features of a nuclear weapon to provide assurance that the weapon is protected from unauthorized nuclear detonation. The methodology that the author is proposing will provide a focused scrutiny to software that is used in the hardware of use control systems, subsystems, devices, and components. The methodology proposes further scrutiny of the structure of the software, memory, variables, storage, and control features.

  12. ACCEPTABILITY OF PrEP UPTAKE AMONG RACIALLY/ETHNICALLY DIVERSE YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: THE P18 STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697

  13. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts. PMID:26891840

  14. Acceptability of PrEP Uptake Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: The P18 Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C; Eddy, Jessica A; Halkitis, Perry N

    2015-04-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697

  15. HIV providers' likelihood to prescribe pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention differs by patient type: a short report.

    PubMed

    Adams, Leah M; Balderson, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the antiretroviral treatment regimen for HIV-negative people at high risk of acquiring HIV, has demonstrated efficacy across clinical trials in several patient populations. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have released detailed guidelines to aid providers in prescribing PrEP for their high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men (MSM), high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users (IDUs). Given that much attention in PrEP has focused on MSM patients, the present study used an online survey to assess factors involved in HIV care providers' (n = 363) decisions about prescribing PrEP, along with their willingness to prescribe PrEP to patients from various risk populations (e.g., MSM, heterosexuals, IDUs). The efficacy of PrEP was an important factor in providers' decisions about prescribing PrEP, as were considerations about patients' adherence to the regimen, regular follow-up for care, and medication costs. This survey's findings also suggest that providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP varies by patient group, with providers most willing to initiate the regimen with MSM who have an HIV-positive partner, and least willing to prescribe to high-risk heterosexuals or IDUs. In the context of the current CDC recommendations for PrEP that include MSM, heterosexuals, and IDUs, examining providers' rationales for and barriers against supporting this HIV prevention strategy across patient groups merits further attention. PMID:26915281

  16. Minimal Awareness and Stalled Uptake of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among at Risk, HIV-Negative, Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Driffin, Daniel D.; Bauermeister, Jose; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, rates of HIV infection are highest among black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective form of HIV prevention, but the uptake of this strategy has been slow since FDA approval in 2012, and it is unknown whether information about PrEP is reaching BMSM. Four hundred and thirty-six BMSM in Atlanta, GA were surveyed from January 2012 (6 months prior to PrEP approval) to March 2014 (20 months after approval). Analyses revealed no association between date of survey assessment and awareness of PrEP (20.5% were aware of PrEP before approval and 23.4% were aware after approval; OR=0.99 [0.98–1.02], p=0.952). In a multivariate model, BMSM unaware of PrEP reported lower rates of HIV testing knowledge, fewer experiences with HIV testing, and higher rates of transactional sex than BMSM who were aware of PrEP. Our findings suggest that there is limited understanding of PrEP and that there is considerable groundwork that needs to be achieved in order to reap the full benefits of PrEP. The current findings call attention to the need to both prioritize and better understand how to strengthen the bridge between medical advances and community uptake. PMID:26083143

  17. What's New in Software? Selecting Software for Student Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Nancy J.; Hedley, Carolyn N.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that, in reviewing software, educators should apply the following criteria within the context of their objectives and the students' needs: content; instructional presentation; demands placed on the learner; technical features; and documentation and management features. Concludes that integration of computer software with traditional means…

  18. Assistive Software for Disabled Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon; Baggaley, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Previous reports in this series (#32 and 36) have discussed online software features of value to disabled learners in distance education. The current report evaluates four specific assistive software products with useful features for visually and hearing impaired learners: "ATutor", "ACollab", "Natural Voice", and "Just Vanilla". The evaluative…

  19. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial

    PubMed Central

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno; for the ANRS IPERGAY Study Group

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40–98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate–emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants’ adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0–M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1–max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9–35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2–18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8–29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2–68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3–79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3–75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4–max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency

  20. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    PubMed

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  1. How Much Do We Know about Drug Resistance Due to PrEP Use? Analysis of Experts’ Opinion and Its Influence on the Projected Public Health Impact

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T.; Boily, Marie-Claude; Hallett, Timothy B.; Albert, Jan; Boucher, Charles; Mellors, John W.; Pillay, Deenan; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials reported that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir and emtricitabine rarely selects for drug resistance. However, drug resistance due to PrEP is not completely understood. In daily practice, PrEP will not be used under the well-controlled conditions available in the trials, suggesting that widespread use of PrEP can result in increased drug resistance. Methods We surveyed expert virologists with questions about biological assumptions regarding drug resistance due to PrEP use. The influence of these assumptions on the prevalence of drug resistance and the fraction of HIV transmitted resistance was studied with a mathematical model. For comparability, 50% PrEP-coverage of and 90% per-act efficacy of PrEP in preventing HIV acquisition are assumed in all simulations. Results Virologists disagreed on the following: the time until resistance emergence (range: 20–180 days) in infected PrEP users with breakthrough HIV infections; the efficacy of PrEP against drug-resistant HIV (25%-90%); and the likelihood of resistance acquisition upon transmission (10%-75%). These differences translate into projections of 0.6%- 1% and 3.5%—6% infected individuals with detectable resistance 10 years after introducing PrEP, assuming 100% and 50% adherence, respectively. The rate of resistance emergence following breakthrough HIV infection and the rate of resistance reversion after PrEP use is discontinued, were the factors identified as most influential on the expected resistance associated with PrEP. Importantly, 17–23% infected individuals could virologically fail treatment as a result of past PrEP use or transmitted resistance to PrEP with moderate adherence. Conclusions There is no broad consensus on quantification of key biological processes that underpin the emergence of PrEP-associated drug resistance. Despite this, the contribution of PrEP use to the prevalence of the detectable drug resistance is expected to be small. However

  2. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Interventions in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Carson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices) may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultural norms may influence the implementation and scalability of future HIV PrEP interventions in Vancouver, Canada. Methods We conducted 50 interviews with young men (ages 18–24) with a variety of HIV risk behavioural profiles (e.g., young men who inject drugs; MSM). Interviews focused on participants’ experiences and perceptions with various HIV interventions and policies, including PrEP. Results While awareness of PrEP was generally low, perceptions about the potential personal and public health gains associated with PrEP were interconnected with expressions of complex and sometimes conflicting social norms. Some accounts characterized PrEP as a convenient form of reliable protection against HIV, likening it to the female birth control pill. Other accounts cast PrEP as a means to facilitate ‘socially unacceptable’ behaviour (e.g., promiscuity). Stigmatizing rhetoric was used to position PrEP as a tool that could promote some groups’ proclivities to take ‘risks’. Conclusion Stigma regarding ‘risky’ behaviour and PrEP should not be underestimated as a serious implementation challenge. Pre-implementation strategies that concomitantly aim to improve knowledge about PrEP, while addressing associated social prejudices, may be key to effective implementation and scale-up. PMID:26756474

  3. Acceptability of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Implementation Challenges Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: A Qualitative Investigation.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Mengle, Shruta; Varghese, Jarvis; Nelson, Ruban; Bharat, Shalini

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study explored the acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM in India, and identified facilitators and barriers to future PrEP uptake. In 2014, we conducted 10 focus groups (n=61) among a purposive sample of diverse MSM recruited through community-based organizations in Chennai and Mumbai, and 10 key informant interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Participants' mean age was 26.1 years (SD 4.8); 62% completed secondary education, and 42% engaged in sex work. No focus group participants had heard of PrEP, but once explained, most reported they would likely use it. PrEP was alternately perceived as a 'back-up plan', a condom substitute, or a burden with concurrent condom use. Facilitators were potential for covert use, sex without condoms, and anxiety-less sex. Potential barriers emerged around stigma associated with PrEP use, fear of disclosures to one's family, wife, or male steady partner, and being labeled as HIV-positive or promiscuous by peers. Preferences emerged for intermittent rather than daily PrEP use, injectable PrEP, and free or subsidized access through community organizations or government hospitals. Key informants expressed additional concerns about risk compensation, non-adherence, and impact on ART availability for treatment. Demonstration projects are needed in India to support PrEP implementation tailored for at-risk MSM. Educational interventions for MSM should address concerns about PrEP effectiveness, side effects, and mitigate risk compensation. Community engagement may facilitate broad acceptability and challenge stigma around PrEP use. Importantly, provision of free or subsidized PrEP is necessary to making implementation feasible among low socioeconomic status MSM in India. PMID:26348459

  4. Powerplant software

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, T.C.

    1995-07-01

    Powerplants need software to thrive and compete. Covered here are many programs and applications -- an overview of the functions, tasks, and problem-solving software is used for today. Software or, more accurately, software-driven systems are pervasive. Their presence is felt in every nook and cranny of the powerplant -- from design and construction through operation and maintenance, even dismantling and decommissioning -- embracing whole systems but also focusing on individual pieces of equipment. No one software supplier or two or three dominates -- powerplant software is the purview of scores if not hundreds of suppliers ranging from the largest corporations to individual consultants and application developers.

  5. Functional and cooperative interactions between the homeodomain PDX1, Pbx, and Prep1 factors on the somatostatin promoter.

    PubMed

    Goudet, G; Delhalle, S; Biemar, F; Martial, J A; Peers, B

    1999-02-12

    Expression of the somatostatin gene in endocrine pancreatic cells is controlled by several regulatory cis-elements located in the promoter region. Among these, the adjacent UE-A and TSEI elements, located from -113 to -85 relative to the transcription initiation site, function in combination and act as a pancreas-specific mini-enhancer. The TSEI element is recognized by the pancreatic homeodomain factor PDX1. In the present study, we show that the UE-A element binds a heterodimeric complex composed of a Pbx factor and the Prep1 protein, both belonging to the atypical three-amino acid loop extension homeodomain family. Recombinant Pbx1 and Prep1 proteins bind cooperatively to the UE-A site, whereas neither protein can bind this site alone. Transient transfection experiments reveal that both Pbx1 and Prep1 are required to generate a strong transcriptional activation from the UE-A element when this element is inserted close to the TATA box. In contrast, in the context of the intact somatostatin promoter or mini-enhancer, Pbx1 and Prep1 alone have no effect, but they produce a drastic activation when the pancreatic homeodomain factor PDX1 is also coexpressed. Thus, the activity of the somatostatin mini-enhancer is mediated by a cooperative interaction between the Pbx-Prep1 heterodimeric complex and the pancreatic factor PDX1. PMID:9933599

  6. Attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn K; Toledo, Lauren; Smith, Donna Jo; Adams, Mary Anne; Rothenberg, Richard

    2012-10-01

    We elicited attitudes about, and service access preferences for, daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) from urban, African-American young men and women, ages 18-24 years, at risk for HIV transmission through their sexual and drug-related behaviors participating in eight mixed-gender and two MSM-only focus groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants reported substantial interest in PrEP associated with its perceived cost, effectiveness, and ease of accessing services and medication near to their homes or by public transportation. Frequent HIV testing was a perceived benefit. Participants differed about whether risk-reduction behaviors would change, and in which direction; and whether PrEP use would be associated with HIV stigma or would enhance the reputation for PrEP users. This provides the first information about the interests, concerns, and preferences of young adult African Americans that can be used to inform the introduction of PrEP services into HIV prevention efforts for this critical population group. PMID:23016502

  7. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft (manned or unmanned) launched that did not have a computer on board that provided vital command and control services. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Led by the NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard (STD-18l9.13B) has recently undergone a significant update in an attempt to provide that consistency. This paper will discuss the key features of the new NASA Software Safety Standard. It will start with a brief history of the use and development of software in safety critical applications at NASA. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Working Group and the approach it took to revise the software engineering process across the Agency.

  8. Software Program: Software Management Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Software Management Guidebook is twofold. First, this document defines the core products and activities required of NASA software projects. It defines life-cycle models and activity-related methods but acknowledges that no single life-cycle model is appropriate for all NASA software projects. It also acknowledges that the appropriate method for accomplishing a required activity depends on characteristics of the software project. Second, this guidebook provides specific guidance to software project managers and team leaders in selecting appropriate life cycles and methods to develop a tailored plan for a software engineering project.

  9. Proprietary software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marnock, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The protection of intellectual property by a patent, a copyright, or trade secrets is reviewed. The present and future use of computers and software are discussed, along with the governmental uses of software. The popularity of contractual agreements for sale or lease of computer programs and software services is also summarized.

  10. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  11. Targeting capacity and conservation of PreP homologues localization in mitochondria of different species.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Nyosha; Berglund, Anna-Karin; Engmann, Tanja; Spånning, Erika; Vögtle, F-Nora; Pavlov, Pavel; Meisinger, Chris; Langer, Thomas; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2011-07-15

    Mitochondrial presequences and other unstructured peptides are degraded inside mitochondria by presequence proteases (PrePs) identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPreP), humans (hPreP), and yeast (Cym1/Mop112). The presequences of A. thaliana and human PreP are predicted to consist of 85 and 29 amino acids, respectively, whereas the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cym1/Mop112 presequence contains only 7 residues. These differences may explain the reported targeting of homologous proteins to different mitochondrial subcompartments. Here we have investigated the targeting capacity of the PreP homologues' presequences. We have produced fusion constructs containing N-terminal portions of AtPreP(1-125), hPreP(1-69), and Cym1(1-40) coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and studied their import into isolated plant, mammalian, and yeast mitochondria, followed by mitochondrial subfractionation. Whereas the AtPreP presequence has the capacity to target GFP into the mitochondrial matrix of all three species, the hPreP presequence only targets GFP to the matrix of mammalian and yeast mitochondria. The Cym1/Mop112 presequence has an overall much weaker targeting capacity and only ensures mitochondrial sorting in its host species yeast. Revisiting the submitochondrial localization of Cym1 revealed that endogenous Cym1/Mop112 is localized to the matrix space, as has been previously reported for the plant and human homologues. Moreover, complementation studies in yeast show that native AtPreP restores the growth phenotype of yeast cells lacking Cym1, demonstrating functional conservation. PMID:21621546

  12. Degradation of the amyloid beta-protein by the novel mitochondrial peptidasome, PreP.

    PubMed

    Falkevall, Annelie; Alikhani, Nyosha; Bhushan, Shashi; Pavlov, Pavel F; Busch, Katrin; Johnson, Kenneth A; Eneqvist, Therese; Tjernberg, Lars; Ankarcrona, Maria; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2006-09-29

    Recently we have identified the novel mitochondrial peptidase responsible for degrading presequences and other short unstructured peptides in mitochondria, the presequence peptidase, which we named PreP peptidasome. In the present study we have identified and characterized the human PreP homologue, hPreP, in brain mitochondria, and we show its capacity to degrade the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta). PreP belongs to the pitrilysin oligopeptidase family M16C containing an inverted zinc-binding motif. We show that hPreP is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. In situ immuno-inactivation studies in human brain mitochondria using anti-hPreP antibodies showed complete inhibition of proteolytic activity against Abeta. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified recombinant hPreP and its mutant with catalytic base Glu(78) in the inverted zinc-binding motif replaced by Gln. In vitro studies using recombinant hPreP and liquid chromatography nanospray tandem mass spectrometry revealed novel cleavage specificities against Abeta-(1-42), Abeta-(1-40), and Abeta Arctic, a protein that causes increased protofibril formation an early onset familial variant of Alzheimer disease. In contrast to insulin degrading enzyme, which is a functional analogue of hPreP, hPreP does not degrade insulin but does degrade insulin B-chain. Molecular modeling of hPreP based on the crystal structure at 2.1 A resolution of AtPreP allowed us to identify Cys(90) and Cys(527) that form disulfide bridges under oxidized conditions and might be involved in redox regulation of the enzyme. Degradation of the mitochondrial Abeta by hPreP may potentially be of importance in the pathology of Alzheimer disease. PMID:16849325

  13. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes.

    PubMed

    Carlo Hojilla, J; Koester, Kimberly A; Cohen, Stephanie E; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was 'seasonal' and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts. PMID:25835463

  14. ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identify components of the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways as Prep1 target genes in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Audrey; Calabrese, Manuela; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Tkachuk, Vsevolod; Torres, Miguel; Blasi, Francesco; Penkov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The Prep1 (Pknox1) homeodomain transcription factor is essential at multiple stages of embryo development. In the E11.5 embryo trunk, we previously estimated that Prep1 binds about 3,300 genomic sites at a highly specific decameric consensus sequence, mainly governing basal cellular functions. We now show that in embryonic stem (ES) cells Prep1 binding pattern only partly overlaps that of the embryo trunk, with about 2,000 novel sites. Moreover, in ES cells Prep1 still binds mostly to promoters, as in total embryo trunk but, among the peaks bound exclusively in ES cells, the percentage of enhancers was three-fold higher. RNA-seq identifies about 1800 genes down-regulated in Prep1-/- ES cells which belong to gene ontology categories not enriched in the E11.5 Prep1i/i differentiated embryo, including in particular essential components of the Wnt and Fgf pathways. These data agree with aberrant Wnt and Fgf expression levels in the Prep1-/- ES cells with a deficient embryoid bodies (EBs) formation and differentiation. Re-establishment of the Prep1 level rescues the phenotype. PMID:25875616

  15. An Exploratory Investigation of the Promoting Responsibility through Education and Prevention (PREP) after School Program for African American At-Risk Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sale, Elizabeth; Weil, Virginia; Kryah, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) program is an after school substance abuse and violence prevention program for at-risk fourth and fifth grade youths in St. Louis, Missouri. Staffed by licensed clinical social workers and professional volunteers, PREP offers cultural cooking classes, yoga, and art as well as…

  16. ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq Analyses Identify Components of the Wnt and Fgf Signaling Pathways as Prep1 Target Genes in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Audrey; Calabrese, Manuela; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Tkachuk, Vsevolod; Torres, Miguel; Blasi, Francesco; Penkov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The Prep1 (Pknox1) homeodomain transcription factor is essential at multiple stages of embryo development. In the E11.5 embryo trunk, we previously estimated that Prep1 binds about 3,300 genomic sites at a highly specific decameric consensus sequence, mainly governing basal cellular functions. We now show that in embryonic stem (ES) cells Prep1 binding pattern only partly overlaps that of the embryo trunk, with about 2,000 novel sites. Moreover, in ES cells Prep1 still binds mostly to promoters, as in total embryo trunk but, among the peaks bound exclusively in ES cells, the percentage of enhancers was three-fold higher. RNA-seq identifies about 1800 genes down-regulated in Prep1-/- ES cells which belong to gene ontology categories not enriched in the E11.5 Prep1i/i differentiated embryo, including in particular essential components of the Wnt and Fgf pathways. These data agree with aberrant Wnt and Fgf expression levels in the Prep1-/- ES cells with a deficient embryoid bodies (EBs) formation and differentiation. Re-establishment of the Prep1 level rescues the phenotype. PMID:25875616

  17. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course: ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-01-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message…

  18. PREP (Army Predischarge Education Program) USA: An Analysis of the Predischarge Education Program of Army Posts in the Continental United States. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alburn, Norman; And Others

    Growth of the Army Pre-discharge Education Program (PREP) has been a slow and cumbersome process since Public Law 91-219 was passed in 1970. The Academy for Educational Development visited 12 major Army installations in the United States and made 22 recommendations for improving the PREP in six major areas: i.e., technology, evaluation and…

  19. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry Following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course. ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-03-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message system) permitted them to work independently without the need for textbook or lecture. On average, students who completed ChemPrep had higher grades in the subsequent GenChem, Nursing, and Honors chemistry courses, with a greater percentage achieving a grade of C- or higher. Participation in ChemPrep was voluntary, and more women than men responded. Students in the Honors course enrolled in ChemPrep in higher percentages than students in GenChem and Nursing. SAT and departmental math placement exam scores were used as proxy measures of prior achievement and ability. Based on these, Honors chemistry ChemPrep users were on par with their peers but performed better in the course than non-users. In GenChem and Nursing chemistry courses, ChemPrep helped students of high prior achievement and ability perform better than their achievement scores would predict. Weaker or less motivated students did not respond to the voluntary offerings of ChemPrep in the same numbers as stronger or more motivated students, and we are seeking alternate ways to reach this population.

  20. Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Prevention of HIV in Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Julie E.; Kurth, Ann E.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Mannheimer, Sharon B.; Simmons, Janie; Pouget, Enrique R.; Trabold, Nicole; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP—injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. PMID:25045996

  1. Peer-mentored preparedness (PM-Prep): a new disaster preparedness program for adults living independently in the community.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-02-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list control arm. Earthquake safety knowledge and preparedness supplies were assessed prior to the intervention and at 1 month after the intervention (N  =  82). Adults in the experimental arm significantly increased preparedness by 19 percentage points, from 56% to 75% completed (p < .0001), and improved their knowledge by 8 percentage points, from 79% to 87% correct (p  =  .001). This is the first peer-mentored, targeted, and tailored disaster preparedness program tested with this population. PMID:24635691

  2. Non-prep restoration of an ankylosed incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Andree; Blum, Jasmin; Abendroth, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Dental restorations without tooth preparation are among today's more advanced treatment options. This article presents the case of a young man who was treated with a non-prep laminate veneer that provided 3.5 mm of incisal elongation. A Photoshop assessment and functional evaluation, as well as a wax-up and mock-up, were used during pre-prosthetic planning. A combination of pressable and feldspathic ceramics was used as a restorative material, which was applied to the tooth surface without any preparation of dental hard tissue. An ideal functional and esthetic restoration was achieved thanks to close collaboration between the patient, the dentist, and the technician. PMID:25642458

  3. Vulnerable infected populations and street markets for ARVs: Potential implications for PrEP rollout in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven P; Buttram, Mance E; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-04-01

    Widespread diversion of antiretroviral (ARV) medications to illicit markets has recently been documented among indigent patients in South Florida. The recent approval of ARVs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to broaden these illicit markets, as high-risk individuals seek ARVs without a prescription or medical supervision. Nonadherence among diverters and unsupervised use of ARVs for treatment or PrEP increase risks of treatment failure, drug resistance, and disease transmission. We report the scope of ARV diversion among substance-using men who have sex with men in South Florida. Structured interviews (N = 515) queried demographics, HIV status, mental distress, substance dependence, and sexual risks. HIV-positive participants answered questions about medical care, treatment, and ARV adherence and diversion. Median age was 39. Of 46.4% who were HIV-positive, 79.1% were prescribed ARVs. Of these, 27% reported selling/trading ARVs. Reasons for diversion were sharing/trading with friends, sale/trade for money/drugs, and sale/trade of unused medications. ARV diverters, compared to nondiverters, were more likely to be substance dependent (74.5% vs. 58.7%, p = 0.046) and have traded sex for money/drugs (60.8% vs. 32.6%, p < 0.001), and less likely to be adherent to ARVs (54.9% vs. 73.9%, p = 0.012). ARV diversion should be a particular concern in communities of high-risk men who have sex with men as uninfected men in such communities are likely to benefit most from PrEP but unlikely to have access to PrEP and necessary ancillary services through the health-care system. The implications of diversion for increased risks of treatment failure, disease transmission, and PrEP failure should be carefully considered in developing policy and behavioral supports to scaling up treatment as prevention and PrEP. PMID:24033118

  4. Computer software.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, L E

    1986-10-01

    Software is the component in a computer system that permits the hardware to perform the various functions that a computer system is capable of doing. The history of software and its development can be traced to the early nineteenth century. All computer systems are designed to utilize the "stored program concept" as first developed by Charles Babbage in the 1850s. The concept was lost until the mid-1940s, when modern computers made their appearance. Today, because of the complex and myriad tasks that a computer system can perform, there has been a differentiation of types of software. There is software designed to perform specific business applications. There is software that controls the overall operation of a computer system. And there is software that is designed to carry out specialized tasks. Regardless of types, software is the most critical component of any computer system. Without it, all one has is a collection of circuits, transistors, and silicone chips. PMID:3536223

  5. Partnership for Research & Education in Plants (PREP): Involving High School Students in Authentic Research in Collaboration with Scientists

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, ERIC; DOLAN, ERIN; TAX, FRANS

    2013-01-01

    A partnership between scientists, high school teachers, and their students provides authentic research experiences to help students understand the nature and processes of science. The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP) engages students in a large-scale genomics research project using classroom-tested protocols that can help to find the function of a disabled gene in the widely studied plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe the framework of PREP in the classroom within the context of the National Science Education Standards. PMID:24339450

  6. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Safer Conception Among Serodifferent Couples: Findings from Healthcare Providers Serving Patients with HIV in Seven US Cities.

    PubMed

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Champassak, Sofie; Hoyt, Mary Jo; Short, William; Chakraborty, Rana; Weber, Shannon; Levison, Judy; Phillips, Joanne; Storm, Deborah; Anderson, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce the risk of HIV transmission among serodifferent couples trying to conceive, yet provider knowledge, attitudes, and experience utilizing PrEP for this purpose are largely unexamined. Trained interviewers conducted phone interviews with healthcare providers treating patients with HIV in seven cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Houston, Kansas City, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco, N = 85 total). Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to describe experience, concerns, and perceived barriers to prescribing PrEP for safer conception. Providers (67.1% female, 43 mean years of age, 70.4% white, 10 mean years treating HIV+ patients, 56% in academic vs. community facilities, 62.2% MD) discussed both benefits and concerns of PrEP for safer conception among serodifferent couples. Only 18.8% of providers reported experience prescribing PrEP, 74.2% were willing to prescribe it under ideal circumstances, and 7.0% were not comfortable prescribing PrEP. Benefits included added protection and a greater sense of control for the HIV-negative partner. Concerns were categorized as clinical, system-level, cost, or behavioral. Significant differences in provider characteristics existed across sites, but experience with PrEP for safer conception did not, p = 0.14. Despite limited experience, most providers were open to recommending PrEP for safer conception as long as patients understood the range of concerns and could make informed decisions. Strategies to identify and link serodifferent couples to PrEP services and clinical guidance specific to PrEP for safer conception are needed. PMID:26824425

  7. Prep1/Pbx2 complexes regulate CCL2 expression through the -2578 guanine polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wright, E K; Page, S H; Barber, S A; Clements, J E

    2008-07-01

    CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is the major chemoattractant protein that recruits monocytes to sites of inflammation and increased expression of CCL2 is associated with numerous inflammatory diseases including human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia (HIV-D). The -2578 guanine polymorphism in the CCL2 promoter has been associated with increased expression of CCL2 as well as pathogenesis of HIV-D; however, the molecular mechanism of regulation is unknown. We propose a molecular model for -2578 G-regulated CCL2 expression in astrocytes, which are major producers of CCL2 in the brain. The -2578 G polymorphism creates a consensus-binding site for the transcriptional regulator Prep1, which along with binding partner Pbx2, preferentially binds the -2578 G allele. CCL2 promoters harboring the G allele under unstimulated conditions exhibit a lower basal activity compared to the ancestral A allele. Upon interleukin-1 beta stimulation, Prep1/Pbx2 complexes maintain the ability to bind -2578 G alleles, yet transcription levels from promoters that harbor the A or G allele are equally activated, suggesting that the -2578 region does not influence CCL2 transcription under proinflammatory conditions. Therefore, promoters that harbor the -2578 G allele undergo a higher fold induction and by extension, individuals homozygous for -2578 G would be expected to exhibit hyper-responsive CCL2 phenotypes during periods of inflammation. PMID:18480829

  8. Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 9, 1997--July 25, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The 1997 Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted at the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 9 to July 25, 1997. Program participants were recruited from the Greater Houston Area. All participants were identified as high-achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Clear Creek, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 194 students starting the program, 165 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups under-represented in the engineering and science professions, and 118 of the 194 were women. Our First Year group for 1997 composed of 96% minority and women students. Second and Third Year students combined were 96% minority or women. With financial support from the Center for Computational Sciences and Advanced Distributed Simulation, the Fourth Year Program was added to PREP this year. Twelve students completed the program (83% minority or women).

  9. Prep1/Pbx2 Complexes Regulate CCL2 Expression Through the −2578 Guanine Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Edward K.; Page, Stephen H.; Barber, Sheila A.; Clements, Janice E.

    2008-01-01

    CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is the major chemoattractant protein that recruits monocytes to sites of inflammation and increased expression of CCL2 is associated with numerous inflammatory diseases including human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia (HIV-D). The −2578 guanine polymorphism in the CCL2 promoter has been associated with increased expression of CCL2 as well as pathogenesis of HIV-D; however, the molecular mechanism of regulation is unknown. We propose a molecular model for −2578G regulated CCL2 expression in astrocytes, which are major producers of CCL2 in the brain. The −2578G polymorphism creates a consensus binding site for the transcriptional regulator Prep1, which along with binding partner Pbx2, preferentially binds the −2578G allele. CCL2 promoters harboring the G allele under unstimulated conditions exhibit a lower basal activity compared to the ancestral A allele. Upon IL-1β stimulation, Prep1/Pbx2 complexes maintain the ability to bind −2578G alleles, yet transcription levels from promoters that harbor the A allele or G allele are equally activated, suggesting that the −2578 region does not influence CCL2 transcription under pro-inflammatory conditions. Therefore, promoters that harbor the −2578G allele undergo a higher fold induction and by extension, individuals homozygous for −2578G would be expected to exhibit hyper-responsive CCL2 phenotypes during periods of inflammation. PMID:18480829

  10. The PREP pipeline: standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Kothe, Christian; Su, Kyung-Min; Robbins, Kay A

    2015-01-01

    The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP) and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode. PMID:26150785

  11. The PREP pipeline: standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Kothe, Christian; Su, Kyung-Min; Robbins, Kay A.

    2015-01-01

    The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP) and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode. PMID:26150785

  12. Design Features for Online Examination Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Gerald V.; Hargis, Jace

    2012-01-01

    Online education and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) have existed for years, but few general tools exist to help instructors create and evaluate lessons. Are these tools sufficient? Specifically, what elements do instructors want to see in online testing tools? This study asked instructors from various disciplines to identify and evaluate the…

  13. Selection Criteria for Communications Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuysen, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Provides criteria for selection of microcomputer communications software for asynchronous (serial) communication and for communication with host computers. The following features are discussed: (1) communication options; (2) transmitting data; (3) receiving data; (4) filtering; (5) translating; (6) special features; and (7) general features such…

  14. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers’ Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Krakower, Douglas S.; Eldahan, Adam I.; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Dovidio, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers’ adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers’ firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription—financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)—as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014–2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered

  15. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers' Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H; Krakower, Douglas S; Eldahan, Adam I; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers' adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers' firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription-financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)-as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014-2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered a wide

  16. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  17. Software for global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Mockus, L.

    1994-12-31

    The interactive graphical software that implements numeric methods and other techniques to solve global optimization problems is presented. The Bayesian approach to the optimization is the underlying idea of numeric methods used. Software is designed to solve deterministic and stochastic problems of different complexity and with many variables. It includes global and local optimization methods for differentiable and nondifferentiable functions. Implemented numerical techniques for global optimization vary from simple Monte-Carlo simulation to Bayesian methods by J. Mockus and extrapolation theory based methods by Zilinskas. Local optimization techniques includes simplex method of Nelder and Mead method of nonlinear programming by Shitkowski, and method of stochastic approximation with Bayesian step size control by J. Mockus. Software is interactive, it allows user to start and stop chosen method of global or local optimization, define and change its parameters and examine the solution process. Out-put from solution process is both numerical and graphical. Currently available graphical features are the projection of the objective function on a chosen plane and convergence plot. Both these features let the user easily observe solution process and interactively modify it. More features can be added in a standard way. It is up to the user how many graphical and numerical output features activate or deactivate at any given time. Software is implemented in C++ using X Windows as graphical platform.

  18. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    requirements. This allows the projects leeway to meet these requirements in many forms that best suit a particular project's needs and safety risk. In other words, it tells the project what to do, not how to do it. This update also incorporated advances in the state of the practice of software safety from academia and private industry. It addresses some of the more common issues now facing software developers in the NASA environment such as the use of Commercial-Off-the-Shelf Software (COTS), Modified OTS (MOTS), Government OTS (GOTS), and reused software. A team from across NASA developed the update and it has had both NASA-wide internal reviews by software engineering, quality, safety, and project management. It has also had expert external review. This presentation and paper will discuss the new NASA Software Safety Standard, its organization, and key features. It will start with a brief discussion of some NASA mission failures and incidents that had software as one of their root causes. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Safety Process. This will include an overview of the key personnel responsibilities and functions that must be performed for safety-critical software.

  19. The Boeing Company's Tech Prep Story: A Community College Bridge to the School-to-Work Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayton, Carver; Parnell, Dale

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the Boeing Tech Prep Program, an associate degree program combining high school and community college vocational and academic curricula. Describes the three phases of the program's development: the provision of seed grants to schools, the development of an associate degree program, and the institution of an internship program. (MAB)

  20. Connections: A Compendium of Integration Ideas. Illinois Tech Prep Innovators. 1992 Compendium. Integrative Teaching Ideas from Illinois Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This report contains 51 one-page abstracts of innovative Illinois tech prep programs that integrate academic and vocational education. Each abstract includes the following: curriculum areas, grade level, types of students for whom the program is appropriate, materials needed, suggested resources, a contact person with address and telephone number,…

  1. Lower East Side Prep: An Alternative to the Conventional High School Program. First Year of Operation, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Seth F.

    This evaluation report of one alternative high school in New York City analyzes the academic achievement, attendance, testing, academic credit, English language proficiency, and attitudes of the sixty minority students who attended this urban prep school in Chinatown. Three fifths of the students in the program were recent Chinese immigrants. The…

  2. Changing High School Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Eric Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether participation in the Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP), a long-term authentic plant research project, in conjunction with explicit verses implicit instruction can change high school students' conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The participants included a total of 134 students comprised…

  3. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  4. 75 FR 13292 - Determination That HalfLytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (Containing 4 Bisacodyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution... potassium chloride for oral solution and 4 bisacodyl delayed release tablets, 5 mg. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... PREP KIT (PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution and...

  5. Saying 'No' to PrEP research in Malawi: what constitutes 'failure' in offshored HIV prevention research?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristin; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Chigwedere, Edward; Nthete, Evaristo

    2015-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2005, the first multi-sited clinical trial tested whether an existing, marketed antiretroviral drug, Tenofovir (TDF), could prevent HIV transmission. Referred to as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), most of these trial sites prematurely closed down. Two sites located in Cambodia and Cameroon received international media attention. But little attention was drawn to sites in Malawi and Nigeria, where university ethicists and research scientists extensively debated PrEP. This article focuses on events that took place in Malawi where there was a prolonged dispute over the scientific rationales of PrEP and not trial specific ethics referred to as 'bioethics'. Specifically, the article discusses debates pertaining to three PrEP trial protocols that were refused ethics approval in Malawi between 2004 and 2009. It is argued that HIV science debates in Malawi are embedded in postcolonial politics--geopolitical histories and state and household economic dispossessions that have created the structural possibilities for Malawi to become an offshore destination for HIV clinical research. As such, ethics in this case does not pertain to trial or bioethical 'failures'. Rather, ethics is located at the scale of imperial relations that give rise to multiple, often invisible, research concerns and constraints. PMID:26422196

  6. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews three computer software: (1) "Elastic Lines: The Electronic Geoboard" on elementary geometry; (2) "Wildlife Adventures: Whales" on environmental science; and (3) "What Do You Do with a Broken Calculator?" on computation and problem solving. Summarizes the descriptions, strengths and weaknesses, and applications of each software. (YP)

  7. Software Repository

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P., D.

    1983-01-01

    The Common Software Module Repository (CSMR) is computerized library system with high product and service visibility to potential users. Online capabilities of system allow both librarian and user to interact with library. Librarian is responsible for maintaining information in CSMR library. User searches library to locate software modules that meet his or her current needs.

  8. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anne, Ed.; Radziemski, Cathy, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software packages for the Macintosh series. "Course Builder 2.0," a courseware authoring system, allows the user to create programs which stand alone and may be used independently in the classroom. "World Builder," an artificial intelligence software package, allows creative thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making. (YP)

  9. Software Bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    I-Bridge is a commercial version of software developed by I-Kinetics under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The software allows users of Windows applications to gain quick, easy access to databases, programs and files on UNIX services. Information goes directly onto spreadsheets and other applications; users need not manually locate, transfer and convert data.

  10. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of six computer software programs for teaching science. Provides the publisher, grade level, cost, and descriptions of software, including: (1) "Recycling Logic"; (2) "Introduction to Biochemistry"; (3) "Food for Thought"; (4) "Watts in a Home"; (5) "Geology in Action"; and (6) "Biomes." All are for Apple series microcomputers.…

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Likelihood of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use Among US Women at Risk of Acquiring HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kinsky, Suzanne; Brown, Gina; Charles, Vignetta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved oral Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for women at risk of HIV infection in the US in July 2012, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidance for clinicians to provide PrEP to women “at substantial risk of HIV acquisition” in May 2014, there remain no clinical trial data on efficacy among US women, and there is a dearth of research on knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of use of PrEP among them. We conducted a qualitative focus group (FG) study with 144 at-risk women in six US cities between July and September 2013, including locations in the Southern US, where HIV infections among women are most prevalent. FG questions elicited awareness of PrEP, attitudes about administration and uptake, and barriers to and facilitators of use. Women expressed anger at the fact that they had not heard of PrEP prior to the study, but once informed most found it attractive. PrEP was seen as additional, not substitute protection to condoms, and participants suggested several dissemination strategies to meet the diverse needs of women. Key barriers to PrEP uptake included distrust of the medical system, stigma, and cost. Findings suggest that US women view PrEP as an important prevention option, assuming side effects and the cost to the consumer are minimal, the efficacy of the drug is reasonable, and PrEP is delivered by trusted providers in trusted venues. PMID:25513954

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among US women at risk of acquiring HIV.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Judith D; Kinsky, Suzanne; Brown, Gina; Charles, Vignetta

    2015-02-01

    Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved oral Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for women at risk of HIV infection in the US in July 2012, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidance for clinicians to provide PrEP to women "at substantial risk of HIV acquisition" in May 2014, there remain no clinical trial data on efficacy among US women, and there is a dearth of research on knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of use of PrEP among them. We conducted a qualitative focus group (FG) study with 144 at-risk women in six US cities between July and September 2013, including locations in the Southern US, where HIV infections among women are most prevalent. FG questions elicited awareness of PrEP, attitudes about administration and uptake, and barriers to and facilitators of use. Women expressed anger at the fact that they had not heard of PrEP prior to the study, but once informed most found it attractive. PrEP was seen as additional, not substitute protection to condoms, and participants suggested several dissemination strategies to meet the diverse needs of women. Key barriers to PrEP uptake included distrust of the medical system, stigma, and cost. Findings suggest that US women view PrEP as an important prevention option, assuming side effects and the cost to the consumer are minimal, the efficacy of the drug is reasonable, and PrEP is delivered by trusted providers in trusted venues. PMID:25513954

  13. Prep1.1 has essential genetic functions in hindbrain development and cranial neural crest cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Deflorian, Gianluca; Tiso, Natascia; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Meyer, Dirk; Blasi, Francesco; Bortolussi, Marino; Argenton, Francesco

    2004-02-01

    In this study we analysed the function of the Meinox gene prep1.1 during zebrafish development. Meinox proteins form heterotrimeric complexes with Hox and Pbx members, increasing the DNA binding specificity of Hox proteins in vitro and in vivo. However, a role for a specific Meinox protein in the regulation of Hox activity in vivo has not been demonstrated. In situ hybridization showed that prep1.1 is expressed maternally and ubiquitously up to 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf), and restricted to the head from 48 hpf onwards. Morpholino-induced prep1.1 loss-of-function caused significant apoptosis in the CNS. Hindbrain segmentation and patterning was affected severely, as revealed by either loss or defective expression of several hindbrain markers (foxb1.2/mariposa, krox20, pax2.1 and pax6.1), including anteriorly expressed Hox genes (hoxb1a, hoxa2 and hoxb2), the impaired migration of facial nerve motor neurons, and the lack of reticulospinal neurons (RSNs) except Mauthner cells. Furthermore, the heads of prep1.1 morphants lacked all pharyngeal cartilages. This was not caused by the absence of neural crest cells or their impaired migration into the pharyngeal arches, as shown by expression of dlx2 and snail1, but by the inability of these cells to differentiate into chondroblasts. Our results indicate that prep1.1 has a unique genetic function in craniofacial chondrogenesis and, acting as a member of Meinox-Pbc-Hox trimers, it plays an essential role in hindbrain development. PMID:14711874

  14. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, Harry; Hayes, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    With the support of NASA's Astrophysics Data Program (NRA 92-OSSA-15), we have developed the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS): a distributed, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URLs indexed for full-text searching. Users are performing about 400 searches per month. A new aspect of our service is the inclusion of telescope and instrumentation manuals, which prompted us to change the name to the Astronomical Software and Documentation Service. ASDS was originally conceived to serve two purposes: to provide a useful Internet service in an area of expertise of the investigators (astronomical software), and as a research project to investigate various architectures for searching through a set of documents distributed across the Internet. Two of the co-investigators were then installing and maintaining astronomical software as their primary job responsibility. We felt that a service which incorporated our experience in this area would be more useful than a straightforward listing of software packages. The original concept was for a service based on the client/server model, which would function as a directory/referral service rather than as an archive. For performing the searches, we began our investigation with a decision to evaluate the Isite software from the Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (CNIDR). This software was intended as a replacement for Wide-Area Information Service (WAIS), a client/server technology for performing full-text searches through a set of documents. Isite had some additional features that we considered attractive, and we enjoyed the cooperation of the Isite developers, who were happy to have ASDS as a demonstration project. We ended up staying with the software throughout the project, making modifications to take advantage of new features as they came along, as well as

  15. Software Smarts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contract with Johnson Space Center, Knowledge Based Systems Inc. (KBSI) developed an intelligent software environment for modeling and analyzing mission planning activities, simulating behavior, and, using a unique constraint propagation mechanism, updating plans with each change in mission planning activities. KBSI developed this technology into a commercial product, PROJECTLINK, a two-way bridge between PROSIm, KBSI's process modeling and simulation software and leading project management software like Microsoft Project and Primavera's SureTrak Project Manager.

  16. Software testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2016-01-01

    Now more than ever, scientific results are dependent on sophisticated software and analysis. Why should we trust code written by others? How do you ensure your own code produces sensible results? How do you make sure it continues to do so as you update, modify, and add functionality? Software testing is an integral part of code validation and writing tests should be a requirement for any software project. I will talk about Python-based tools that make managing and running tests much easier and explore some statistics for projects hosted on GitHub that contain tests.

  17. Stockinette application over a non-prepped foot risks proximal contamination.

    PubMed

    Marvil, Sean C; Tiedeken, Nathan C; Hampton, David M; Kwok, Simon C M; Samuel, Solomon P; Sweitzer, Brett A

    2014-09-01

    This study sought to determine if there was an increased risk for surgical site contamination during stockinette application for a lower extremity surgery draping technique. Utilizing a simulated, sterile surgical field, stockinettes were applied over 10 cadaver lower extremities that were contaminated with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli on the foot. Of those, five specimens were then disinfected with Chloroprep and another 5 did not undergo any disinfection. All the specimens in which the stockinette was applied over a non-prepped foot showed proximal contamination. No contamination occurred in any of the specimens where the foot was disinfected. Stockinette can be a source of surgical site contamination when placed over a non-prepared foot. PMID:24891004

  18. GC Preps: Fast and Easy Extraction of Stable Yeast Genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Benjamin A.; Driessen, Maureen R. M.; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Existing yeast genomic DNA extraction methods are not ideally suited to extensive screening of colonies by PCR, due to being too lengthy, too laborious or yielding poor quality DNA and inconsistent results. We developed the GC prep method as a solution to this problem. Yeast cells from colonies or liquid cultures are lysed by vortex mixing with glass beads and then boiled in the presence of a metal chelating resin. In around 12 minutes, multiple samples can be processed to extract high yields of genomic DNA. These preparations perform as effectively in PCR screening as DNA purified by organic solvent methods, are stable for up to 1 year at room temperature and can be used as the template for PCR amplification of fragments of at least 8 kb. PMID:27240644

  19. GC Preps: Fast and Easy Extraction of Stable Yeast Genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Blount, Benjamin A; Driessen, Maureen R M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Existing yeast genomic DNA extraction methods are not ideally suited to extensive screening of colonies by PCR, due to being too lengthy, too laborious or yielding poor quality DNA and inconsistent results. We developed the GC prep method as a solution to this problem. Yeast cells from colonies or liquid cultures are lysed by vortex mixing with glass beads and then boiled in the presence of a metal chelating resin. In around 12 minutes, multiple samples can be processed to extract high yields of genomic DNA. These preparations perform as effectively in PCR screening as DNA purified by organic solvent methods, are stable for up to 1 year at room temperature and can be used as the template for PCR amplification of fragments of at least 8 kb. PMID:27240644

  20. Esthetic Rehabilitation of the Smile with No-Prep Porcelain Laminates and Partial Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Farias-Neto, Arcelino; Gomes, Edna Maria da Cunha Ferreira; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Sánchez-Ayala, Alejandro; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with anterior conoid teeth may present a challenge for the clinician, especially when trying to mimic the nature with composite resins. This clinical report exemplifies how a patient with conoid upper lateral incisors was rehabilitated with minimally invasive adhesive restorations. Following diagnostic wax-up and cosmetic mock-up, no-prep veneers and ceramic fragments (partial veneers) were constructed with feldspathic porcelain. This restorative material presents excellent reproduction of the optical properties of the dental structure, especially at minimal thicknesses. In this paper, the details about the treatment are described. A very pleasing outcome was achieved, confirming that minimally invasive adhesive restorations are an excellent option for situations in which the dental elements are healthy, and can be modified exclusively by adding material and the patient does not want to suffer any wear on the teeth. PMID:26568893

  1. Lecture to inquiry: The transformation of a tech prep biology teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Deborah Harris

    As teachers implement the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) many have to reform the instructional methods they have used throughout their careers. This case study examines the transformation of Laurie, a 20-year teacher, during her first year of change from a "traditional" textbook/lecture style of teaching to a facilitator of an inquiry-based classroom. Implementing change requires not only pedagogical expertise, but also the belief that the modifications can be made and that the outcomes are significant. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory as a framework, changes in Laurie's self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and motivation are followed throughout the transition. During her first year of change, Laurie used worksheets, small group activities, and guided inquiry activities, all strategies in which she had high self-efficacy and experienced positive student outcomes. She rarely used class forums, authentic assessment, and formative assessment. Factors that influenced her change were experiential professional development opportunities that allowed her to practice inquiry-based techniques, a change in her teaching environment from college prep chemistry to tech prep biology, autonomy regarding classroom decisions, and reflective decision making as she learned through experience. Using a standards-based biology textbook increased her self-efficacy toward using inquiry-based practices. The textbook format of embedding text in activities rather than adding activities to the text resulted in an increase of the number and frequency of activities done. Facilitating the textbook's Guided Inquiries and Extended Inquiries helped Laurie gain experience with inquiry-based methods. She also realized that when building from the students' concrete experiences, her students were able to attain higher-level thinking skills. The study revealed six factors contributing to Laurie's change process: (a) experiential professional development, (b) motivation for change

  2. Assessing Consumer Responses to PREPs: A Review of Tobacco Industry and Independent Research Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Cummings, K. Michael; O'Connor, Richard J.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Parascandola, Mark; Shields, Peter G.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Internal tobacco industry documents and the mainstream literature are reviewed to identify methods and measures for evaluating tobacco consumer response. The review aims to outline areas in which established methods exist, identify gaps in current methods for assessing CR, and consider how these methods might be applied to evaluate PREPs and new products. Methods Internal industry research reviewed included published papers, manuscript drafts, presentations, protocols, and instruments relating to consumer response measures were identified and analyzed. Peer-reviewed research was identified using PubMed and Scopus. Results Industry research on consumer response focuses on product development and marketing. To develop and refine new products, the tobacco industry has developed notable strategies for assessing consumers' sensory and subjective responses to product design characteristics. Independent research is often conducted to gauge the likelihood of future product adoption by measuring consumers' risk perceptions, responses to product, and product acceptability. Conclusions A model which conceptualizes consumer response as comprising the separate, but interacting domains of product perceptions and response to product is outlined. Industry and independent research supports the dual domain model, and provides a wide range of methods for assessment of the construct components of consumer response. Further research is needed to validate consumer response constructs, determine the relationship between consumer response and tobacco user behavior, and improve reliability of consumer response measures. Scientifically rigorous consumer response assessment methods will provide a needed empirical basis for future regulation of PREPs and new products, to counteract tobacco industry influence on consumers, and enhance the public health. PMID:19959675

  3. Maintenance simulation: Software issues

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, C.H.; Jette, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    The maintenance of a distributed software system in a production environment involves: (1) maintaining software integrity, (2) maintaining and database integrity, (3) adding new features, and (4) adding new systems. These issues will be discussed in general: what they are and how they are handled. This paper will present our experience with a distributed resource management system that accounts for resources consumed, in real-time, on a network of heterogenous computers. The simulated environments to maintain this system will be presented relate to the four maintenance areas.

  4. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six computer software packages including "Lunar Greenhouse,""Dyno-Quest,""How Weather Works,""Animal Trackers,""Personal Science Laboratory," and "The Skeletal and Muscular Systems." Availability, functional, and hardware requirements are discussed. (CW)

  5. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two programs: (1) "The Weather Machine" on understanding weather and weather forecasting and (2) "The Mystery of the Hotel Victoria" on problem solving in mathematics. Presents the descriptions, advantages, and weaknesses of the software. (YP)

  6. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelly J., Ed.; Knaupp, Jon, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed is computer software on: (1) classification of living things, a tutorial program for grades 5-10; and (2) polynomial practice using tiles, a drill-and-practice program for algebra students. (MNS)

  7. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of four science software programs. Includes topics such as plate tectonics, laboratory experiment simulations, the human body, and light and temperature. Contains information on ordering and reviewers' comments. (ML)

  8. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  9. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jeffrey P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a variety of computer software. The packages reviewed include a variety of simulations, a spread sheet, a printer driver and an alternative operating system for DBM.PCs and compatible programs. (BSR)

  10. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Eugene T., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews by classroom teachers of software for teaching science. Includes material on the work of geologists, genetics, earth science, classification of living things, astronomy, endangered species, skeleton, drugs, and heartbeat. Provides information on availability and equipment needed. (RT)

  11. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software packages including "Martin Luther King, Jr.: Instant Replay of History,""Weeds to Trees," and "The New Print Shop, School Edition." Discussed are hardware requirements, costs, grade levels, availability, emphasis, strengths, and weaknesses. (CW)

  12. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics and Computer Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents reviews of six software packages. Includes (1) "Plain Vanilla Statistics"; (2) "MathCAD 2.0"; (3) "GrFx"; (4) "Trigonometry"; (5) "Algebra II"; (6) "Algebra Drill and Practice I, II, and III." (PK)

  13. Astronomy Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Software Bisque's TheSky, SkyPro and Remote Astronomy Software incorporate technology developed for the Hubble Space Telescope. TheSky and SkyPro work together to orchestrate locating, identifying and acquiring images of deep sky objects. With all three systems, the user can directly control computer-driven telescopes and charge coupled device (CCD) cameras through serial ports. Through the systems, astronomers and students can remotely operate a telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory Institute.

  14. The subcellular localization of PBX1 and EXD proteins depends on nuclear import and export signals and is modulated by association with PREP1 and HTH.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, J; Kilstrup-Nielsen, C; Blasi, F; Mavilio, F; Zappavigna, V

    1999-04-15

    Nuclear localization of the Extradenticle (EXD) and PBX1 proteins is regionally restricted during Drosophila and mammalian development. We studied the subcellular localization of EXD, PBX, and their partners Homothorax (HTH) and PREP1, in different cell contexts. HTH and PREP1 are cytoplasmic and require association with EXD/PBX for nuclear localization. EXD and PBX1 are nuclear in murine fibroblasts but not in Drosophila Schneider cells, in which they are actively exported to the cytoplasm. Coexpression of EXD/PBX with HTH/PREP1 causes nuclear localization of their heterodimers in both cell contexts. We propose that heterodimerization with HTH/PREP induces nuclear translocation of EXD and PBX1 in specific cell contexts by blocking their nuclear export. PMID:10215622

  15. The subcellular localization of PBX1 and EXD proteins depends on nuclear import and export signals and is modulated by association with PREP1 and HTH

    PubMed Central

    Berthelsen, Jens; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Blasi, Francesco; Mavilio, Fulvio; Zappavigna, Vincenzo

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear localization of the Extradenticle (EXD) and PBX1 proteins is regionally restricted during Drosophila and mammalian development. We studied the subcellular localization of EXD, PBX, and their partners Homothorax (HTH) and PREP1, in different cell contexts. HTH and PREP1 are cytoplasmic and require association with EXD/PBX for nuclear localization. EXD and PBX1 are nuclear in murine fibroblasts but not in Drosophila Schneider cells, in which they are actively exported to the cytoplasm. Coexpression of EXD/PBX with HTH/PREP1 causes nuclear localization of their heterodimers in both cell contexts. We propose that heterodimerization with HTH/PREP induces nuclear translocation of EXD and PBX1 in specific cell contexts by blocking their nuclear export. PMID:10215622

  16. Familiarity with and Preferences for Oral and Long-Acting Injectable HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in a National Sample of Gay and Bisexual Men in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Rendina, H Jonathon; Whitfield, Thomas H F; Grov, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine preferences for oral versus long-acting injectable (LAI) PrEP among gay and bisexual men (GBM). We surveyed a national U.S. sample of 1071 GBM about forms of PrEP. LAI PrEP was found to be acceptable among 43.2 % of men when injected monthly compared with 53.6 % of men when injected every 3 months. When asked to choose between forms of PrEP, 46.0 % preferred LAI, 14.3 % oral, 21.7 % whichever was most effective, 10.1 % had no preference, and 7.8 % would not take PrEP. There were no differences in PrEP preferences by race/ethnicity, income, region of residence, or relationship status. Those unwilling to take PrEP were significantly older than those who preferred LAI PrEP and those who would take either. Those who preferred the most effective form were younger, had less education, and reported more recent club drug use. Those who reported condomless anal sex and those who thought they were good PrEP candidates were more willing to take PrEP. Long-term health and side effects were of the greatest concern for both LAI and oral PrEP. The availability of LAI PrEP has the potential to increase uptake among GBM. The results of ongoing clinical trials of LAI PrEP will need to demonstrate similar or greater efficacy as daily Truvada for uptake to be maximized. PMID:27000145

  17. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Catherine; Macklin, Ruth; Warren, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of antiretroviral prophylaxis for their countries. This paper outlines key economic, regulatory and distributive justice issues that must be addressed for effective and acceptable PrEP implementation. Discussion In considering the role that PrEP can play in combination prevention programmes, decision-makers must determine who can benefit most from PrEP, how PrEP can be provided safely and efficiently, and what kind of health system support will ensure successful implementation. To do this, they need contextualized information on disease burden by population, analyses of how PrEP services might best be delivered, and projections of the human resource and infrastructure requirements for each potential delivery model. There are cost considerations, varying cost-effectiveness results and regulatory challenges. The principles of ethics can inform thorny discussions about who should be prioritized for oral PrEP and how best to introduce it fairly. We describe the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in different populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, its price in low- and middle-income countries, and the current regulatory situation. We explore the principles of ethics that can inform resource allocation decision-making about PrEP anchored in distributive justice, at a time when universal access to antiretroviral treatment remains to be assured. We then highlight the role of advocacy in moving the PrEP agenda forward. Conclusions The time is ripe now for decisions about whether, how and for whom PrEP should be introduced into a country's HIV response. It has the potential to contribute significantly to high impact HIV prevention if it is tailored to those who can most benefit

  18. prep1.2 and aldh1a2 participate to a positive loop required for branchial arches development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Enrico; Deflorian, Gianluca; Bernardi, Elisa; Pauls, Stefan; Tiso, Natascia; Bortolussi, Marino; Argenton, Francesco

    2010-07-01

    Segmentation is a key step in embryonic development. Acting in all germ layers, it is responsible for the generation of antero-posterior asymmetries. Hox genes, with their diverse expression in individual segments, are fundamental players in the determination of different segmental fates. In vertebrates, Hox gene products gain specificity for DNA sequences by interacting with Pbx, Prep and Meis homeodomain transcription factors. In this work we cloned and analysed prep1.2 in zebrafish. In-situ hybridization experiments show that prep1.2 is maternally and ubiquitously expressed up to early somitogenesis when its expression pattern becomes more restricted to the head and trunk mesenchyme. Experiments of loss of function with prep1.2 morpholinos change the shape of the hyoid and third pharyngeal cartilages while arches 4-7 and pectoral fins are absent, a phenotype strikingly similar to that caused by loss of retinoic acid (RA). In fact, we show that prep1.2 is positively regulated by RA and required for the normal expression of aldh1a2 at later stages, particularly in tissues involved in the development of the branchial arches and pectoral fins. Thus, prep1.2 and aldh1a2 are members of an indirect positive feedback loop required for pharyngeal endoderm and posterior branchial arches development. As the paralogue gene prep1.1 is more important in hindbrain patterning and neural crest chondrogenesis, we provide evidence of a functional specialization of prep genes in zebrafish head segmentation and morphogenesis. PMID:20423710

  19. The HOXC13-controlled expression of early hair keratin genes in the human hair follicle does not involve TALE proteins MEIS and PREP as cofactors.

    PubMed

    Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Schweizer, Jürgen

    2006-02-01

    We previously showed that the homeodomain protein HOXC13 is involved in the expression control of the early human hair keratin genes hHa5 and hHa2, which contain specific HOXC13 binding sites in their proximal promoters. Hox specificity is generally thought to be enhanced by the interaction with members of the TALE superclass of homeodomain proteins Pbx, Meis, and Prep. Using reverse transcription PCR with total human hair follicle RNA, we demonstrated transcripts of the major TALE proteins PBX1-4, MEIS1, 2 and PREP1, 2 in the human hair follicle. In view of the presence of MEIS/PREP responsive elements in close vicinity to the HOXC13 binding sites of the hHa5 and hHa2 promoters, we determined the expression sites of these TALE proteins in the human hair follicle. We found that MEIS1, MEIS2, PREP1 and PREP2 were differentially expressed in the three layers of the inner root sheath. In addition, MEIS2 and PREP1 exhibited expression in the mid-to upper hair cortex, with PREP1 being also expressed in the dermal papilla and the connective tissue sheath of the hair follicle. In virtually all cases, the expression of these TALE proteins was exclusively cytoplasmic. Considering that in contrast, HOXC13 is expressed in the nuclei of matrix, precortex and lower cuticle cells of the hair follicle, our data suggest that despite the presence of MEIS/PREP binding sites in the hHa5 and hHa2 promoters, the HOXC13-controlled activation of these genes in the hair follicle does not seem to involve these TALE proteins as cofactors. PMID:16292560

  20. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Mukandavire, Zindoga; Mitchell, Kate M; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-03-01

    In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use-one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed 'pimps') was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used. PMID:26972515

  1. SAR Product Control Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, P. J.; Hounam, D.; Rye, A. J.; Rosich, B.; Börner, T.; Closa, J.; Schättler, B.; Smith, P. J.; Zink, M.

    2003-03-01

    As SAR instruments and their operating modes become more complex, as new applications place more and more demands on image quality and as our understanding of their imperfections becomes more sophisticated, there is increasing recognition that SAR data quality has to be controlled more completely to keep pace. The SAR product CONtrol software (SARCON) is a comprehensive SAR product control software suite tailored to the latest generation of SAR sensors. SARCON profits from the most up-to-date thinking on SAR image performance derived from other spaceborne and airborne SAR projects and is based on the newest applications. This paper gives an overview of the structure and the features of this new software tool, which is a product of a co-operation between teams at BAE SYSTEMS Advanced Technology Centre and DLR under contract to ESA (ESRIN). Work on SARCON began in 1999 and is continuing.

  2. The Ettention software package.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. PMID:26686659

  3. Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Hiott, Jim; Golej, Jim; Plumb, Allan

    1993-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the space shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to reengineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. The latest release of the environment was in Feb. 1992.

  4. Software reengineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. JSC created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the Space Shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to re-engineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. A beta vision of the environment was released in Mar. 1991. The commercial potential for such re-engineering tools is very great. CASE TRENDS magazine reported it to be the primary concern of over four hundred of the top MIS executives.

  5. Flight Software Math Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  6. Cooperative interactions between PBX, PREP, and HOX proteins modulate the activity of the alpha 2(V) collagen (COL5A2) promoter.

    PubMed

    Penkov, D; Tanaka, S; Di Rocco, G; Berthelsen, J; Blasi, F; Ramirez, F

    2000-06-01

    Cell type-specific expression of the human alpha2(V) collagen (COL5A2) gene depends on a cis-acting element that consists of two contiguous protein binding sites (FPA and FPB) located between nucleotides -149 and -95, relative to the transcription start site. The present study focused on the characterization of the FPB-bound complex. DNA binding assays and cell transfection experiments revealed that the bipartite core sequence of FPB (5'-ATCAATCA-3') binds the PBX1/2, PREP1, and HOXB1 proteins, and this in turn leads to promoter transactivation. In the presence of all three nuclear factors, cooperative interactions between recombinant PBX1 and PREP1 or PBX1 and HOXB1 result in binding of the heterodimers to FPB in vitro. Similarly, overexpression of different combinations of PBX1, PREP1, and HOXB1 transactivates FPB-driven transcription. In contrast to the composition of the FPB complex purified from COL5A2-positive cells, the FPB complex from COL5A2-negative cells contains PBX2 and PREP1 but lacks PBX1. However, PBX1 exogenously introduced into COL5A2-negative cells cannot stimulate FPB-driven transcription unless co-expressed with PREP1. Within the intrinsic limitations of the experimental model, our results indicate that combinatorial interactions among PBX and PREP or HOX proteins are involved in regulating tissue-specific production of collagen V. PMID:10748126

  7. I Am Men's Health: Generating Adherence to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Daughtridge, Giffin W; Conyngham, S Caitlin; Ramirez, Noel; Koenig, Helen C

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Truvada as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for adults at risk of HIV. PrEP is highly effective at preventing HIV when taken daily, but no gold standard exists for consistently administering PrEP to populations at highest risk. The "I Am Men's Health" program used an innovative methodology to generate adherence to PrEP in 23 mostly young men who have sex with men of color (yMSMc), during a 28-week period from February to September 2013. Adherence was measured using weekly medication pickup rates. The average age of the participants was 21 years, and the majority were black and lived below the poverty line. Time on PrEP ranged from 1 to 28 weeks (2723 person-days), and the weighted average adherence was 73%. The methodology used in this study was preliminarily effective at generating adherence to PrEP among high-risk yMSMc in a community setting and may help inform large-scale future HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25331226

  8. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. Methods The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Results Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Conclusions Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention. PMID:25124457

  9. Control Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Real-Time Innovations, Inc. (RTI) collaborated with Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Stanford University to leverage NASA research to produce ControlShell software. RTI is the first "graduate" of Ames Research Center's Technology Commercialization Center. The ControlShell system was used extensively on a cooperative project to enhance the capabilities of a Russian-built Marsokhod rover being evaluated for eventual flight to Mars. RTI's ControlShell is complex, real-time command and control software, capable of processing information and controlling mechanical devices. One ControlShell tool is StethoScope. As a real-time data collection and display tool, StethoScope allows a user to see how a program is running without changing its execution. RTI has successfully applied its software savvy in other arenas, such as telecommunications, networking, video editing, semiconductor manufacturing, automobile systems, and medical imaging.

  10. Antiterrorist Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    In light of the escalation of terrorism, the Department of Defense spearheaded the development of new antiterrorist software for all Government agencies by issuing a Broad Agency Announcement to solicit proposals. This Government-wide competition resulted in a team that includes NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Services Division, who will develop the graphical user interface (GUI) and test it in their usability lab. The team launched a program entitled Joint Sphere of Security (JSOS), crafted a design architecture (see the following figure), and is testing the interface. This software system has a state-ofthe- art, object-oriented architecture, with a main kernel composed of the Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) developed by Argonne National Laboratory. DIAS will be used as the software "breadboard" for assembling the components of explosions, such as blast and collapse simulations.

  11. JSATS Decoder Software Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Flory, Adam E.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2013-05-01

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) Decoder is a software application that converts a digitized acoustic signal (a waveform stored in the .bwm file format) into a list of potential JSATS Acoustic MicroTransmitter (AMT) tagcodes along with other data about the signal including time of arrival and signal to noise ratios (SNR). This software is capable of decoding single files, directories, and viewing raw acoustic waveforms. When coupled with the JSATS Detector, the Decoder is capable of decoding in ‘real-time’ and can also provide statistical information about acoustic beacons placed within receive range of hydrophones within a JSATS array. This document details the features and functionality of the software. The document begins with software installation instructions (section 2), followed in order by instructions for decoder setup (section 3), decoding process initiation (section 4), then monitoring of beacons (section 5) using real-time decoding features. The last section in the manual describes the beacon, beacon statistics, and the results file formats. This document does not consider the raw binary waveform file format.

  12. Partial-prep bonded restorations in the anterior dentition: Long-term gingival health and predictability. A case report.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ivan Contreras; Molina, Gil Contreras; Stanley, Kyle; Lago, Carlo; Xavier, Clessius Ferreira; Volpato, Claudia Angela Maziero

    2016-01-01

    Bonded porcelain restorations are a predictable and durable treatment option that can restore not only the strength and function of the teeth but also the esthetic appearance. One important issue in adhesive dentistry is the preservation of sound enamel. Following biomimetic principles, employing minimally invasive applications and adhesive technologies is of paramount importance for successful restorations. While it is widely accepted that minimally invasive restorative techniques should be favored, there is still some controversy over the noninvasive approaches. The purpose of this article is to question the complete "no-prep veneer" concept due to the possible negative effects on periodontal health caused by excessive contour and overhangs of the ceramic restoration, and to propose a new method to assess the quality and longevity of veneers with a partial-prep concept. PMID:26417617

  13. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  14. 34 CFR 406.31 - How does a State carry out the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... board. (b) A State board may use funds reserved under 34 CFR 403.180(b)(3) to provide support for the... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does a State carry out the State-Administered Tech... TECH-PREP EDUCATION PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met After a State Receives an Award? § 406.31...

  15. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV-uninfected individuals with high-risk behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nadery, S; Geerlings, S E

    2013-01-01

    The global incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased by 15% over the past years, but is still too high. Despite current programs to reduce the incidence of HIV infection, further approaches are needed to limit this epidemic. Oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is currently one of the most discussed possible prevention methods. This literature study demonstrates whether orally antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis in HIV-uninfected individuals with high-risk behaviour reduces the transmission of HIV. We used the PICO method and conducted a search to identify relevant studies. Subjects of the study were HIV-uninfected individuals with high-risk behaviour. Intervention was oral PrEP with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) alone or plus emtricitabine (FTC) versus placebo. The primary outcome was the HIV incidence among this high-risk group. Secondary outcomes were adherence to PrEP, frequency and type of adverse effects. We identified ten studies from which five randomised control trials (RCTs) were included after screening. The results from three out of five trials showed a reduction, but two trials showed no protection in acquiring HIV infection. There were no significant differences in adverse events. The adherence was different among different groups and affected the outcome of the studies. In conclusion, this prophylaxis might offer protection when used in combination with intense monitoring and guidance in uninfected individuals with a high risk of HIV acquisition. However, there are still many unresolved questions. Drug adherence seems to be a crucial factor in the effectiveness of PrEP. Therefore, individual risk behaviour remains an important determinant for success in the prevention of HIV transmission. PMID:23956310

  16. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages: "Super Solvers Midnight Rescue!" a problem-solving program for IBM PCs; and "Interactive Physics," a simulation program for the Macintosh computer. The functions of the package are discussed including strengths and weaknesses and teaching suggestions. (CW)

  17. Reviews, Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two software programs for Apple series computers. Includes "Orbital Mech," a basic planetary orbital simulation for the Macintosh, and "START: Stimulus and Response Tools for Experiments in Memory, Learning, Cognition, and Perception," a program that demonstrates basic psychological principles and experiments. (CW)

  18. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Six software packages are described in this review. Included are "Molecules and Atoms: Exploring the Essence of Matter"; "Heart Probe"; "GM Sunraycer"; "Six Puzzles"; "Information Laboratory--Life Science"; and "Science Test Builder." Hardware requirements, prices, and a summary of the abilities of each program are presented. (CW)

  19. Educational Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The third session of IT@EDU98 consisted of five papers on educational software and was chaired by Tran Van Hao (University of Education, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam). "Courseware Engineering" (Nguyen Thanh Son, Ngo Ngoc Bao Tran, Quan Thanh Tho, Nguyen Hong Lam) briefly describes the use of courseware. "Machine Discovery Theorems in Geometry: A…

  20. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computing Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Reprinted from "The Computing Teacher," this document contains software reviews for 23 computer programs that educators could use in the classroom or for administrative purposes. Each review describes the program by listing the program title, subject, producer, grade level (if applicable), hardware required, cost, and reviewer's name and…

  1. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three software packages: (1) "The Weather Machine Courseware Kit" for grades 7-12; (2) "Exploring Measurement, Time, and Money--Level I," for primary level mathematics; and (3) "Professor DOS with SmartGuide for DOS" providing an extensive tutorial covering DOS 2.1 to 4.0. Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each package. (YP)

  2. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Reviewed are three computer software programs: the Astronomer (astronomy program for middle school students and older); Hands-on-Statistics: Explorations with a Microcomputer (statistics program for secondary school students and older); and CATGEN (a genetics program for secondary school students and older). Each review provides information on:…

  3. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are seven computer software packages for IBM and/or Apple Computers. Included are "Windows on Science: Volume 1--Physical Science"; "Science Probe--Physical Science"; "Wildlife Adventures--Grizzly Bears"; "Science Skills--Development Programs"; "The Clean Machine"; "Rock Doctor"; and "Geology Search." Cost, quality, hardware, and…

  4. Software Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed is a computer software package entitled "Audubon Wildlife Adventures: Grizzly Bears" for Apple II and IBM microcomputers. Included are availability, hardware requirements, cost, and a description of the program. The murder-mystery flavor of the program is stressed in this program that focuses on illegal hunting and game management. (CW)

  5. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presents comments by classroom teachers on software for science teaching including topics on: the size of a molecule, matter, leaves, vitamins and minerals, dinosaurs, and collecting and measuring data. Each is an Apple computer series. Availability and costs are included. (RT)

  6. Software Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Software Comparison Package (SCP) compares similar files. Normally, these are 90-character files produced by CDC UPDATE utility from program libraries that contain FORTRAN source code plus identifier. SCP also used to compare load maps, cross-reference outputs, and UPDATE corrections sets. Helps wherever line-by-line comparison of similarly structured files required.

  7. Software Patents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  8. Software reengineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Programs in use today generally have all of the function and information processing capabilities required to do their specified job. However, older programs usually use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other programs, and are difficult to maintain. Reengineering is becoming a prominent discipline as organizations try to move their systems to more modern and maintainable technologies. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Software Technology Branch (STB) is researching and developing a system to support reengineering older FORTRAN programs into more maintainable forms that can also be more readily translated to a modern languages such as FORTRAN 8x, Ada, or C. This activity has led to the development of maintenance strategies for design recovery and reengineering. These strategies include a set of standards, methodologies, and the concepts for a software environment to support design recovery and reengineering. A brief description of the problem being addressed and the approach that is being taken by the STB toward providing an economic solution to the problem is provided. A statement of the maintenance problems, the benefits and drawbacks of three alternative solutions, and a brief history of the STB experience in software reengineering are followed by the STB new FORTRAN standards, methodology, and the concepts for a software environment.

  9. Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A NASA contractor and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) participant has converted its research into commercial software products for auto design, structural analysis and other applications. ViGYAN, Inc., utilizing the aeronautical research principle of computational fluid dynamics, has created - with VGRID3D and VPLOT3D - an easier alternative to conventional structured grids for fluid dynamic calculations.

  10. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews six software packages for use with school age children ranging from grade 3 to grade 12. Includes "The Microcomputer Based Lab Project: Motion, Sound"; "Genetics"; "Geologic History"; "The Microscope Simulator"; and "Wiz Works" all for Apple II and "Reading for Information: Level II" for IBM. (CW)

  11. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews of seven software packages are presented including "The Environment I: Habitats and EcoSystems; II Cycles and Interactions"; "Super Sign Maker"; "The Great Knowledge Race: Substance Abuse"; "Exploring Science: Temperature"; "Fast Food Calculator and RD Aide"; "The Human Body: Circulation and Respiration" and "Forces in Liquids and Gases."…

  12. Star Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloza, Brad

    2000-01-01

    Presents a collection of computer software programs designed to spark learning enthusiasm at every grade level and across the curriculum. They include Reader Rabbit's Learn to Read, Spelling Power, Mind Twister Math, Community Construction Kit, Breaking the Code, Encarta Africana 2000, Virtual Serengeti, Operation: Frog (Deluxe), and My First…

  13. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Diane, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software programs for Apple II computers on weather for upper elementary and middle school grades. "Weather" introduces the major factors (temperature, humidity, wind, and air pressure) affecting weather. "How Weather Works" uses simulation and auto-tutorial formats on sun, wind, fronts, clouds, and storms. (YP)

  14. Statistical Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callamaras, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)

  15. Reviews: Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Norma N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four computer software packages including: "The Physical Science Series: Sound" which demonstrates making waves, speed of sound, doppler effect, and human hearing; "Andromeda" depicting celestial motions in any direction; "Biology Quiz: Humans" covering chemistry, cells, viruses, and human biology; and "MacStronomy" covering information on…

  16. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Norma N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes computer software for use with various age groups. Topics include activities involving temperature, simulations, earth science, the circulatory system, human body, reading in science, and ecology. Provides information on equipment needed, availability, package contents, and price. Comments of reviews are presented by classroom teachers.…

  17. Identification of homeodomain proteins, PBX1 and PREP1, involved in the transcription of murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Chao, Sheng-Hao; Walker, John R; Chanda, Sumit K; Gray, Nathanael S; Caldwell, Jeremy S

    2003-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) have been shown to block human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus. It is hypothesized that CDKIs block viral replication by inhibiting transcription of specific cellular genes. Here we find that three CDKIs, flavopiridol, purvalanol A, and methoxy-roscovitine, block Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) transcription events. Using gene expression microarray technology to examine the inhibitory effects of CDKIs, we observed a cellular gene, the pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (Pbx1) gene, down-regulated by CDKI treatment. The PBX consensus element (PCE), TGATTGAC, is conserved in the long terminal repeats of several murine retroviruses, including Moloney MLV. Mutations in the PCE completely inhibited viral transcription whereas overexpression of PBX1 and a PBX1-associated protein, PREP1, enhanced viral transcription. The interaction between the PCE and PBX1-PREP1 proteins was confirmed by gel shift experiments. Blocking PBX1 protein synthesis resulted in a significant decrease in viral transcription. Collectively, our results represent the first work demonstrating that the homeodomain proteins PBX1 and PREP1 are cellular factors involved in Moloney MLV transcription regulation. PMID:12529389

  18. Space Station Software Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor); Beskenis, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Issues in the development of software for the Space Station are discussed. Software acquisition and management, software development environment, standards, information system support for software developers, and a future software advisory board are addressed.

  19. A retrospective comparison of smart prep and test bolus multi-detector CT pulmonary angiography protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Suckling, Tara; Smith, Tony; Reed, Warren

    2013-06-15

    Optimal arterial opacification is crucial in imaging the pulmonary arteries using computed tomography (CT). This poses the challenge of precisely timing data acquisition to coincide with the transit of the contrast bolus through the pulmonary vasculature. The aim of this quality assurance exercise was to investigate if a change in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scanning protocol resulted in improved opacification of the pulmonary arteries. Comparison was made between the smart prep protocol (SPP) and the test bolus protocol (TBP) for opacification in the pulmonary trunk. A total of 160 CTPA examinations (80 using each protocol) performed between January 2010 and February 2011 were assessed retrospectively. CT attenuation coefficients were measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) using regions of interest at the level of the pulmonary trunk. The average pixel value, standard deviation (SD), maximum, and minimum were recorded. For each of these variables a mean value was then calculated and compared for these two CTPA protocols. Minimum opacification of 200 HU was achieved in 98% of the TBP sample but only 90% of the SPP sample. The average CT attenuation over the pulmonary trunk for the SPP was 329 (SD = ±21) HU, whereas for the TBP it was 396 (SD = ±22) HU (P = 0.0017). The TBP also recorded higher maximum (P = 0.0024) and minimum (P = 0.0039) levels of opacification. This study has found that a TBP resulted in significantly better opacification of the pulmonary trunk than the SPP.

  20. Universal Solid-Phase Reversible Sample-Prep for Concurrent Proteome and N-Glycome Characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Morley, Samantha; Kostel, Stephen; Freeman, Michael R; Joshi, Vivek; Brewster, David; Lee, Richard S

    2016-03-01

    We describe a novel solid-phase reversible sample-prep (SRS) platform that enables rapid sample preparation for concurrent proteome and N-glycome characterization for nearly all protein samples. SRS utilizes a uniquely functionalized, silica-based bead that has strong affinity toward proteins with minimal to no affinity for peptides and other small molecules. By leveraging this inherent size difference between proteins and peptides, SRS permits high-capacity binding of proteins, rapid removal of small molecules (detergents, metabolites, salts, peptides, etc.), extensive manipulation including enzymatic and chemical treatments on bead-bound proteins, and easy recovery of N-glycans and peptides. SRS was evaluated in a wide range of samples including glycoproteins, cell lysate, murine tissues, and human urine. SRS was also coupled to a quantitative strategy to investigate the differences between DU145 prostate cancer cells and its DIAPH3-silenced counterpart. Previous studies suggested that DIAPH3 silencing in DU145 induced transition to an amoeboid phenotype that correlated with tumor progression and metastasis. In this pilot study we identified distinct proteomic and N-glycomic alterations between them. A metastasis-associated tyrosine kinase receptor ephrin-type-A receptor (EPHA2) was highly up-regulated in DIAPH3-silenced cells, indicating a possible connection between EPHA2 and DIAPH3. Moreover, distinct alterations in the N-glycome were identified, suggesting cross-links between DIAPH3 and glycosyltransferase networks. PMID:26791391

  1. Web Prep: How to Prepare NAS Reports For Publication on the Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela; Balakrishnan, Prithika; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Felchle, Gail; Brickell, Cristy

    1996-01-01

    This document contains specific advice and requirements for NASA Ames Code IN authors of NAS reports. Much of the information may be of interest to other authors writing for the Web. WebPrep has a graphic Table of Contents in the form of a WebToon, which simulates a discussion between a scientist and a Web publishing consultant. In the WebToon, Frequently Asked Questions about preparing reports for the Web are linked to relevant text in the body of this document. We also provide a text-only Table of Contents. The text for this document is divided into chapters: each chapter corresponds to one frame of the WebToons. The chapter topics are: converting text to HTML, converting 2D graphic images to gif, creating imagemaps and tables, converting movie and audio files to Web formats, supplying 3D interactive data, and (briefly) JAVA capabilities. The last chapter is specifically for NAS staff authors. The Glossary-Index lists web related words and links to topics covered in the main text.

  2. Application of Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment: A Review of Operational Vignettes.

    PubMed

    Caci, Jennifer B

    2015-01-01

    Medical intelligence is an underused or sometimes misapplied tool in the protection of our Soldiers and the execution of nonkinetic operations. The somewhat improved infrastructure of the operational environment in Iraq and Afghanistan led to an inevitable sense of complacency in regard to the threat of disease nonbattle injury (DNBI). The picture changed somewhat in 2010 with the advent of the village stability program and the establishment of SOF camps in austere locations with degraded living situations rife with exposure risks. In addition, the increasing deployments to unstable locations around the globe, reminiscent of typical Special Operations Forces (SOF) missions before the Global War on Terrorism, indicate a need for better preparation for deployment from the standpoint of disease risk and force health protection. A knowledge gap has developed because we simply did not need to apply as stringent an evaluation of DNBI risk in environments where improved life support mitigated the risk for us. The tools necessary to decrease or even eliminate the impact of DNBI exist but they must be shared and implemented. This article will present four vignettes from current and former SOF Force Health Protection personnel starting with a simple method of executing Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment (MIPOE) and highlighting situations in which it either was or could have been implemented to mitigate risk and decrease the impact on mission accomplishment and individual operators. A follow-on article will present vignettes of the successful application of MIPOE to nonkinetic operations. PMID:26630107

  3. Programming software for usability evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.L.; Allen, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the work completed for a portion of the User Interface Testbed for Technology Packaging (UseIT) project. The authors present software methods for programming systems to record and view interactions with a graphical user interface. A brief description of the human factors design process is presented. The software methods exploit features available in the X Window System and the operating system for Windows{trademark} 95 and Windows{trademark} NT{reg_sign}.

  4. Documenting the Development of Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Some routine supervisory functions performed automatically. Program Management Facility (PMF) computer program integrated software-development and control system. Applicable to large software systems involving as many as several hundred programmers and one million lines of codes, it ensures timely and orderly planning, development, implementation, and documentation of software. Designed as support tool. Has many features providing efficient processing and utilization of space for development programmer. Incorporates security system to prevent improper maintenance. Provides full set of cross-referenced reports and supervisory functions for detailed management information. Written in assembler. IBM program TSO required.

  5. Software engineering and the role of Ada: Executive seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to introduce the basic terminology and concepts of software engineering and Ada. The life cycle model is reviewed. The application of the goals and principles of software engineering is applied. An introductory understanding of the features of the Ada language is gained. Topics addressed include: the software crises; the mandate of the Space Station Program; software life cycle model; software engineering; and Ada under the software engineering umbrella.

  6. Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    General Purpose Boundary Element Solution Technology (GPBEST) software employs the boundary element method of mechanical engineering analysis, as opposed to finite element. It is, according to one of its developers, 10 times faster in data preparation and more accurate than other methods. Its use results in less expensive products because the time between design and manufacturing is shortened. A commercial derivative of a NASA-developed computer code, it is marketed by Best Corporation to solve problems in stress analysis, heat transfer, fluid analysis and yielding and cracking of solids. Other applications include designing tractor and auto parts, household appliances and acoustic analysis.

  7. Seminar Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Society for Computer Simulation International is a professional technical society that distributes information on methodology techniques and uses of computer simulation. The society uses NETS, a NASA-developed program, to assist seminar participants in learning to use neural networks for computer simulation. NETS is a software system modeled after the human brain; it is designed to help scientists exploring artificial intelligence to solve pattern matching problems. Examples from NETS are presented to seminar participants, who can then manipulate, alter or enhance them for their own applications.

  8. Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Various NASA Small Business Innovation Research grants from Marshall Space Flight Center, Langley Research Center and Ames Research Center were used to develop the 'kernel' of COMCO's modeling and simulation software, the PHLEX finite element code. NASA needed it to model designs of flight vehicles; one of many customized commercial applications is UNISIM, a PHLEX-based code for analyzing underground flows in oil reservoirs for Texaco, Inc. COMCO's products simulate a computational mechanics problem, estimate the solution's error and produce the optimal hp-adapted mesh for the accuracy the user chooses. The system is also used as a research or training tool in universities and in mechanical design in industrial corporations.

  9. Software Surrogate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, Blackboard Technology received a NASA Phase I SBIR award entitled "A Blackboard-Based Framework for Mixed-Initiative, Crewed- Space-System Applications." This research continued in Phase II at JSC, where a generic architecture was developed in which a software surrogate serves as the operator's representative in the fast-paced realm of nearly autonomous, intelligent systems. This SBIR research effort addressed the need to support human-operator monitoring and intervention with intelligent systems such as those being developed for NASA's crewed space program.

  10. The Prolyl Peptidases PRCP/PREP Regulate IRS-1 Stability Critical for Rapamycin-induced Feedback Activation of PI3K and AKT*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Lei; Ying, Guoguang; Danzer, Brian; Perez, Ricardo E.; Shariat-Madar, Zia; Levenson, Victor V.; Maki, Carl G.

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway conveys signals from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) to regulate cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, and motility. Previously we found that prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) regulate proliferation and survival in breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that PRCP and the related family member prolylendopeptidase (PREP) are essential for proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. Depletion/inhibition of PRCP and PREP-induced serine phosphorylation and degradation of IRS-1, leading to inactivation of the cellular PI3K and AKT. Notably, depletion/inhibition of PRCP/PREP destabilized IRS-1 in the cells treated with rapamycin, blocking the feedback activation PI3K/AKT. Consequently, inhibition of PRCP/PREP enhanced rapamycin-induced cytotoxicity. Thus, we have identified PRCP and PREP as a stabilizer of IRS-1 which is critical for PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:24936056

  11. Increased neuronal PreP activity reduces Aβ accumulation, attenuates neuroinflammation and improves mitochondrial and synaptic function in Alzheimer disease's mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fang, Du; Wang, Yongfu; Zhang, Zhihua; Du, Heng; Yan, Shiqiang; Sun, Qinru; Zhong, Changjia; Wu, Long; Vangavaragu, Jhansi Rani; Yan, Shijun; Hu, Gang; Guo, Lan; Rabinowitz, Molly; Glaser, Elzbieta; Arancio, Ottavio; Sosunov, Alexander A; McKhann, Guy M; Chen, John Xi; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2015-09-15

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in synaptic mitochondria is associated with mitochondrial and synaptic injury. The underlying mechanisms and strategies to eliminate Aβ and rescue mitochondrial and synaptic defects remain elusive. Presequence protease (PreP), a mitochondrial peptidasome, is a novel mitochondrial Aβ degrading enzyme. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that increased expression of active human PreP in cortical neurons attenuates Alzheimer disease's (AD)-like mitochondrial amyloid pathology and synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppresses mitochondrial oxidative stress. Notably, PreP-overexpressed AD mice show significant reduction in the production of proinflammatory mediators. Accordingly, increased neuronal PreP expression improves learning and memory and synaptic function in vivo AD mice, and alleviates Aβ-mediated reduction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Our results provide in vivo evidence that PreP may play an important role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function by clearance and degradation of mitochondrial Aβ along with the improvement in synaptic and behavioral function in AD mouse model. Thus, enhancing PreP activity/expression may be a new therapeutic avenue for treatment of AD. PMID:26123488

  12. Software system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  13. Relay Sequence Generation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy E.; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2009-01-01

    Due to thermal and electromagnetic interactivity between the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which performs relay sessions with the Martian landers, and the remainder of the MRO payloads, it is required to integrate and de-conflict relay sessions with the MRO science plan. The MRO relay SASF/PTF (spacecraft activity sequence file/ payload target file) generation software facilitates this process by generating a PTF that is needed to integrate the periods of time during which MRO supports relay activities with the rest of the MRO science plans. The software also generates the needed command products that initiate the relay sessions, some features of which are provided by the lander team, some are managed by MRO internally, and some being derived.

  14. Hoxb1 enhancer and control of rhombomere 4 expression: complex interplay between PREP1-PBX1-HOXB1 binding sites.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Elisabetta; Cambronero, Francisco; Tümpel, Stefan; Longobardi, Elena; Wiedemann, Leanne M; Blasi, Francesco; Krumlauf, Robb

    2005-10-01

    The Hoxb1 autoregulatory enhancer directs segmental expression in vertebrate hindbrain. Three conserved repeats (R1, R2, and R3) in the enhancer have been described as Pbx-Hoxb1 (PH) binding sites, and one Pbx-Meinox (PM) binding site has also been characterized. We have investigated the importance and relative roles of PH and PM binding sites with respect to protein interactions and in vivo regulatory activity. We have identified a new PM site (PM2) and found that it cooperates with the R3 PH site to form ternary Prep1-Pbx1-Hoxb1 complexes. In vivo, the combination of the R3 and PM2 sites is sufficient to mediate transgenic reporter activity in the developing chick hindbrain. In both chicken and mouse transgenic embryos, mutations of the PM1 and PM2 sites reveal that they cooperate to modulate in vivo regulatory activity of the Hoxb1 enhancer. Furthermore, we have shown that the R2 motif functions as a strong PM site, with a high binding affinity for Prep1-Pbx1 dimers, and renamed this site R2/PM3. In vitro R2/PM3, when combined with the PM1 and R3 motifs, inhibits ternary complex formation mediated by these elements and in vivo reduces and restricts reporter expression in transgenic embryos. These inhibitory effects appear to be a consequence of the high PM binding activity of the R2/PM3 site. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the activity of the Hoxb1 autoregulatory enhancer depends upon multiple Prep1-Pbx1 (PM1, PM2, and PM3) and Pbx1-Hoxb1 (R1 and R3) binding sites that cooperate to modulate and spatially restrict the expression of Hoxb1 in r4 rhombomere. PMID:16166636

  15. The functional role of the Meis/Prep-binding elements in Pax6 locus during pancreas and eye development.

    PubMed

    Carbe, Christian; Hertzler-Schaefer, Kristina; Zhang, Xin

    2012-03-01

    Pax6 is an essential transcription factor for lens, lacrimal gland and pancreas development. Previous transgenic analyses have identified several Pax6 regulatory elements, but their functional significance and binding factors remain largely unknown. In this study, we generated two genomic truncations to delete three elements that were previously shown to bind to the Meis/Prep family homeoproteins. One 3.1 kb deletion (Pax6(∆DP/∆DP)) removed two putative pancreatic enhancers and a previously identified ectodermal enhancer, while a 450 bp sub-deletion (Pax6(∆PE/∆PE)) eliminated only the promoter-proximal pancreatic enhancer. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Pax6(∆PE/∆PE) pancreata had a significant decrease in Pax6, glucagon, and insulin expression, while no further reductions were observed in the Pax6(∆DP/∆DP) mice, indicating that only the 450 bp region is required for pancreatic development. In contrast, Pax6(∆DP/∆DP), but not Pax6(∆PE/∆PE) mice, developed stunted lacrimal gland and lens hypoplasia which was significantly more severe than that reported when only the ectodermal enhancer was deleted. This result suggested that the ectodermal enhancer must cooperate with its neighboring sequences to regulate the Pax6 ectodermal expression. Finally, we generated conditional knockouts of Prep1 in the lens and pancreas, but surprisingly, did not observe any developmental defects. Together, these results provide functional evidence for the independent and synergistic roles of the Pax6 upstream enhancers, and they suggest the potential redundancy of Meis/Prep protein in Pax6 regulation. PMID:22240097

  16. The functional role of the Meis/Prep-binding elements in Pax6 locus during pancreas and eye development

    PubMed Central

    Carbe, Christian; Hertzler-Schaefer, Kristina; Zhang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Pax6 is an essential transcription factor for lens, lacrimal gland and pancreas development. Previous transgenic analyses have identified several Pax6 regulatory elements, but their functional significance and binding factors remain largely unknown. In this study, we generated two genomic truncations to delete three elements that were previously shown to bind to the Meis/Prep family homeoproteins. One 3.1 kb deletion (Pax6 ΔDP/ΔDP) removed two putative pancreatic enhancers and a previously identified ectodermal enhancer, while a 450 bp sub-deletion (Pax6ΔPE/ΔPE) eliminated only the promoter-proximal pancreatic enhancer. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Pax6ΔPE/ΔPE pancreata had a significant decrease in Pax6, glucagon, and insulin expression, while no further reductions were observed in the Pax6ΔDP/ΔDP mice, indicating that only the 450 bp region is required for pancreatic development. In contrast, Pax6ΔDP/ΔDP, but not Pax6ΔPE/ΔPE mice, developed stunted lacrimal gland and lens hypoplasia which was significantly more severe than that reported when only the ectodermal enhancer was deleted. This result suggested that the ectodermal enhancer must cooperate with its neighboring sequences to regulate the Pax6 ectodermal expression. Finally, we generated conditional knockouts of Prep1 in lens and pancreas, but surprisingly, did not observe any developmental defects. Together, these results provide functional evidence for the independent and synergistic roles of the Pax6 upstream enhancers, and they suggest the potential redundancy of Meis/Prep protein in Pax6 regulation. PMID:22240097

  17. Evaluation of Agricultural Accounting Software. Improved Decision Making. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Ashley C., Comp.

    Following a discussion of the evaluation criteria for choosing accounting software, this guide contains reviews of 27 accounting software programs that could be used by farm or ranch business managers. The information in the reviews was provided by the software vendors and covers the following points for each software package: general features,…

  18. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less

  19. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  20. Master Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2003-01-01

    A basic function of a computational grid such as the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG) is to allow users to execute applications on remote computer systems. The Globus Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM) provides this functionality in the IPG and many other grids at this time. While the functionality provided by GRAM clients is adequate, GRAM does not support useful features such as staging several sets of files, running more than one executable in a single job submission, and maintaining historical information about execution operations. This specification is intended to provide the environmental and software functional requirements for the IPG Job Manager V2.0 being developed by AMTI for NASA.

  1. BLTC control system software

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.B., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-10

    This is a direct revision to Rev. 0 of the BLTC Control System Software. The entire document is being revised and released as HNF-SD-FF-CSWD-025, Rev 1. The changes incorporated by this revision include addition of a feature to automate the sodium drain when removing assemblies from sodium wetted facilities. Other changes eliminate locked in alarms during cold operation and improve the function of the Oxygen Analyzer. See FCN-620498 for further details regarding these changes. Note the change in the document number prefix, in accordance with HNF-MD-003.

  2. The effects of a prenatal course including PREP for effective family living on self-esteem and parenting attitudes of adolescents: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Emmons, R D; Nystul, M S

    1994-01-01

    Nine adolescent females were enrolled in a prenatal course that included the PREP for Effective Family Living Program (the treatment group). Two comparison groups were utilized in this study; one attended the prenatal group without the PREP program, and the second did not attend either the prenatal course or the PREP program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale (a parental attitude scale) was administered to all participants. No significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of self-concept. A significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of parental attitudes, with the treatment group scoring higher on democratic parenting attitudes than did the two comparison groups. PMID:7892802

  3. Chem-Prep PZT 95/5 for neutron generator applications : development of laboratory-scale powder processing operations.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Ted V.; Moore, Roger Howard; Spindle, Thomas Lewis Jr.

    2003-12-01

    Chemical synthesis methods are being developed as a future source of PZT 95/5 powder for neutron generator voltage bar applications. Laboratory-scale powder processes were established to produce PZT billets from these powders. The interactions between calcining temperature, sintering temperature, and pore former content were studied to identify the conditions necessary to produce PZT billets of the desired density and grain size. Several binder systems and pressing aids were evaluated for producing uniform sintered billets with low open porosity. The development of these processes supported the powder synthesis efforts and enabled comparisons between different chem-prep routes.

  4. Software quality assurance and software safety in the Biomed Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.P.; Chu, W.T.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Marks, K.M.; Nyman, M.A.; Renner, T.R.; Stradtner, R.

    1989-10-31

    The Biomed Control System is a hardware/software system used for the delivery, measurement and monitoring of heavy-ion beams in the patient treatment and biology experiment rooms in the Bevalac at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This paper describes some aspects of this system including historical background philosophy, configuration management, hardware features that facilitate software testing, software testing procedures, the release of new software quality assurance, safety and operator monitoring. 3 refs.

  5. Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  7. Office Computer Software: A Comprehensive Review of Software Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secretary, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes types of software including system software, application software, spreadsheets, accounting software, graphics packages, desktop publishing software, database, desktop and personal information management software, project and records management software, groupware, and shareware. (JOW)

  8. Journal of Chemical Education: Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Described are two reviews of a computer software package: "The Periodic Table Stack," a Hypercard stack that operates on a database of information about the properties and reactions of the elements and designed to help users of Macintosh computers access data found on "KC? Discoverer." Discussed are features of the program and hardware…

  9. Balloon Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger

    2007-01-01

    PlanetaryBalloon Version 5.0 is a software package for the design of meridionally lobed planetary balloons. It operates in a Windows environment, and programming was done in Visual Basic 6. By including the effects of circular lobes with load tapes, skin mass, hoop and meridional stress, and elasticity in the structural elements, a more accurate balloon shape of practical construction can be determined as well as the room-temperature cut pattern for the gore shapes. The computer algorithm is formulated for sizing meridionally lobed balloons for any generalized atmosphere or planet. This also covers zero-pressure, over-pressure, and super-pressure balloons. Low circumferential loads with meridionally reinforced load tapes will produce shapes close to what are known as the "natural shape." The software allows for the design of constant angle, constant radius, or constant hoop stress balloons. It uses the desired payload capacity for given atmospheric conditions and determines the required volume, allowing users to design exactly to their requirements. The formulations are generalized to use any lift gas (or mixture of gases), any atmosphere, or any planet as described by the local acceleration of gravity. PlanetaryBalloon software has a comprehensive user manual that covers features ranging from, but not limited to, buoyancy and super-pressure, convenient design equations, shape formulation, and orthotropic stress/strain.

  10. Programming Makes Software; Support Makes Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batcheller, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Skilled software engineers may build fantastic software for climate modeling, yet fail to achieve their project’s objectives. Software support and related activities are just as critical as writing software. This study followed three different software projects in the climate sciences, using interviews, observation, and document analysis to examine the value added by support work. Supporting the project and interacting with users was a key task for software developers, who often spent 50% of their time on it. Such support work most often involved replying to questions on an email list, but also included talking to users on teleconference calls and in person. Software support increased adoption by building the software’s reputation and showing individuals how the software can meet their needs. In the process of providing support, developers often learned new of requirements as users reported features they desire and bugs they found. As software matures and gains widespread use, support work often increases. In fact, such increases can be one signal that the software has achieved broad acceptance. Maturing projects also find demand for instructional classes, online tutorials and detailed examples of how to use the software. The importance of support highlights the fact that building software systems involves both social and technical aspects. Yes, we need to build the software, but we also need to “build” the users and practices that can take advantage of it.

  11. Modern Tools for Modern Software

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G; Epperly, T

    2001-10-31

    This is a proposal for a new software configure/build tool for building, maintaining, deploying, and installing software. At its completion, this new tool will replace current standard tool suites such as ''autoconf'', ''automake'', ''libtool'', and the de facto standard build tool, ''make''. This ambitious project is born out of the realization that as scientific software has grown in size and complexity over the years, the difficulty of configuring and building software has increased as well. For high performance scientific software, additional complexities often arises from the need for portability to multiple platforms (including many one-of-a-kind platforms), multilanguage implementations, use of third party libraries, and a need to adapt algorithms to the specific features of the hardware. Development of scientific software is being hampered by the quality of configuration and build tools commonly available. Inordinate amounts of time and expertise are required to develop and maintain the configure and build system for a moderately complex project. Better build and configure tools will increase developer productivity. This proposal is a first step in a process of shoring up the foundation upon which DOE software is created and used.

  12. Software for batch farms

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bird; Bryan Hess; Andy Kowalski

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, LSF has become a standard for job management on batch farms. However, there are many instances where it cannot be deployed for a variety of reasons. In large farms the cost may be prohibitive for the set of features actually used; small university groups who wish to clone the farms and software of larger laboratories often have constraints which preclude the use of LSF. This paper discusses a generic interface developed at Jefferson Lab to provide a set of common services to the user, while using any one of a variety of underlying batch management software products. Initially the system provides an interface to LSF and an alternative--Portable Batch System (PBS) developed by NASA and freely available in source form. It is straightforward to extend this to other systems. Such a generic interface allows users to move from one location to another and run their jobs with no modification, and by extension provides a framework for a ''global'' batch system where jobs submitted at one site may be transparently executed at another. The interface also provides additional features not found in the underlying batch software. Being written in Java, the client can be easily installed anywhere and allows for authenticated remote job submission and manipulation, including a web interface. This paper will also discuss the problem of keeping a large batch farm occupied with work without waiting for slow tape access. The use of file caching, pre-staging of files from tape and the interconnection with the batch system will be discussed. As well as automated techniques, the provision of appropriate information to the user to allow optimization should not be overlooked.

  13. Software Model Of Software-Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Synott, Debra J.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1990-01-01

    Collection of computer programs constitutes software tool for simulation of medium- to large-scale software-development projects. Necessary to include easily identifiable and more-readily quantifiable characteristics like costs, times, and numbers of errors. Mathematical model incorporating these and other factors of dynamics of software-development process implemented in the Software Life Cycle Simulator (SLICS) computer program. Simulates dynamics of software-development process. In combination with input and output expert software systems and knowledge-based management software system, develops information for use in managing large software-development project. Intended to aid managers in planning, managing, and controlling software-development processes by reducing uncertainties in budgets, required personnel, and schedules.

  14. Software Choices for In-House Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Lundeen, Gerald W.

    1988-01-01

    Categorizes software packages for microcomputer database creation by their typical features and strengths, and discusses appropriate applications of each category. A directory of vendors for each type of software--text retrieval, file managers, database management, information storage and retrieval, integrated bibliographic systems, and library…

  15. The diagnostic value of the ThinPrep pap test in endometrial carcinoma: a prospective study with histological follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhong; Tomashefski, Joseph F; Sawady, Joram; Ferrer, Hector; Khiyami, Amer

    2013-05-01

    Case-control studies have demonstrated that the ThinPrep Pap test may provide improved detection of endometrial carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to prospectively examine the diagnostic potential of the ThinPrep Pap test in the detection of endometrial carcinoma. ThinPrep Pap test slides were collected from high-risk patient groups. Pap-stained slides were reviewed and the cytological diagnosis was rendered independently by investigators. Each case was assigned to one of the four diagnostic categories: within normal limit (WNL); atypical glandular cells (AGC); atypical endometrial cells (AEC); or adenocarcinoma, probably endometrial origin. After cytological diagnosis was made, the histological follow-up diagnosis was obtained through the laboratory information system and the cyto-histological correlation was analyzed. Of 106 patients identified, 60 had histological follow-up. For all eight cases interpreted by cytology as positive, endometrial carcinoma was confirmed histologically. Among 25 patients with normal endometrial cells present, histological follow-up showed benign endometrium. Among 17 cases interpreted cytologically as AEC, 14 cases (82.4%) had benign histological follow-up and 3 cases (17.6%) had endometrial carcinoma. All 11 cases (100%) classified as AGC had benign histological follow-up. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting endometrial malignancy were 72.7% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 100%. In this prospective study, we demonstrated that the Thin Prep Pap test had a reasonably high sensitivity and/or specificity in detecting endometrial carcinoma. PMID:22351503

  16. Computer Aided Drafting and Design, Industrial Manufacturing Technician, and Mechanical Engineering Technician and Machine Tool, Die and Moldmaking Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-East Ohio Tech Prep Consortium, Zanesville.

    This document contains competency profiles in four areas: computer-aided drafting and design; industrial manufacturing technician; mechanical engineering technician; and machine tool, die, and moldmaking technology occupations. The profiles are intended for use in articulating tech prep programs from high school through associate degrees in Ohio.…

  17. The Influence and Outcomes of High School to College Transition Policy (Tech Prep) for Career and Technical Education Students in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the role of career and technical education has shifted from one preparing students directly for employment, to one that offers vocational training as well as college preparatory academics. To support this effort, the federal government enacted the "Tech Prep Act" Title II under the larger "1990 Carl D.…

  18. Tech Prep Early Childhood Professions Advanced Specialty Curriculum Guide for Postsecondary Colleges. Part of an Articulated Program for Secondary & Postsecondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Marilyn Williams

    The Tech Prep Early Childhood Professions Program is designed to provide high school and community college students in Texas with the necessary training and skills to find employment in the child care and education professions as teachers, directors, or special needs paraprofessionals. This Advanced Speciality Curriculum Guide is designed for…

  19. A Time for Questions: The Future of Integration and Tech Prep. A Report of a Three-Day Summit (Washington, D.C., June 27-29, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol; Flaxman, Erwin

    A 3-day summit of researchers, policymakers, administrators, practitioners, and other concerned individuals examined the organizational, instructional, and political problems in implementing integration and tech prep (I/TP) programs. The following propositions emerged from the discussions: (1) I/TP face numerous structural and professional…

  20. MEIS1, PREP1, and PBX4 Are Differentially Expressed in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Association of MEIS1 Expression with Higher Proliferation and Chemotherapy Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Three-amino acid-loop-extension (TALE) superfamily of homeodomain-containing transcription factors have been implicated in normal hematopoiesis and in leukemogenesis and are important survival, differentiation, and apoptosis pathway modulators. In this work, we determined the expression levels of TALE genes in leukemic-derived cell lines, in blood samples of patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and in the blood samples of healthy donors. Results Here we show increased expression of MEIS1, MEIS2, and PREP1 genes in leukemia-derived cell lines compared with blood normal cells. High levels of MEIS1 and PREP1, and low levels of PBX4 expression were also founded in samples of patients with ALL. Importantly, silencing of MEIS1 decreases the proliferation of leukemia-derived cells but increases their survival after etoposide treatment. Etoposide-induced apoptosis induces down-regulation of MEIS1 expression or PREP1 up-regulation in chemotherapy-resistant cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that up-regulation of MEIS1 is important for sustaining proliferation of leukemic cells and that down-regulation of MEIS1 or up-regulation of PREP1 and PBX genes could be implicated in the modulation of the cellular response to chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis. PMID:22185299

  1. Access to Basic HIV-Related Services and PrEP Acceptability among Men Who Have sex with Men Worldwide: Barriers, Facilitators, and Implications for Combination Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Makofane, Keletso; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Beck, Jack; Do, Tri D.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Pyun, Thomas; Arreola, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV globally. Easily accessible combination HIV prevention strategies, tailored to the needs of MSM, are needed to effectively address the AIDS pandemic. Methods and Materials. We conducted a cross-sectional study among MSM (n = 3748) from 145 countries from April to August 2012. Using multivariable random effects models, we examined factors associated with acceptability of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and access to condoms, lubricants, HIV testing, and HIV treatment. Results. Condoms and lubricants were accessible to 35% and 22% of all respondents, respectively. HIV testing was accessible to 35% of HIV-negative respondents. Forty-three percent of all HIV-positive respondents reported that antiretroviral therapy was easily accessible. Homophobia, outness, and service provider stigma were significantly associated with reduced access to services. Conversely, community engagement, connection to gay community, and comfort with service providers were associated with increased access. PrEP acceptability was associated with lower PrEP-related stigma, less knowledge about PrEP, less outness, higher service provider stigma, and having experienced violence for being MSM. Conclusions. Ensuring HIV service access among MSM will be critical in maximizing the potential effectiveness of combination approaches, especially given the interdependence of both basic and newer interventions like PrEP. Barriers and facilitators of HIV service access for MSM should be better understood and addressed. PMID:26316968

  2. "Get a Blue and You Will See Your Money Back Again": Staffing and Marketing the English Prep School, 1890-1912

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, John

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which English prep schools were staffed and marketed in the years before the First World War. Its aim more specifically is to employ a biographical approach to consider the emphasis that the schools placed upon sport, and in particular the extent to which they recruited Oxford and Cambridge Blues as teachers…

  3. Unprepared for P.R.E.P. A Study of the Implementation of the Program to Raise Educational Performance in New York City's High Schools, Fall 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Priorities Panel, New York, NY.

    This document tracks the 1983 implementation in 11 New York City schools of the Program to Raise Educational Performance (PREP), designed for ninth graders who do not meet high school entrance requirements. Under the program, students may enter high school, take credit courses, and also receive special support and theme-related remedial reading…

  4. The Effects of Advance Graphic Organizers Strategy Intervention on Academic Achievement, Self Efficacy, and Motivation to Learn Social Studies in Learning Disabled Second Year Prep Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using advance graphic organizers on academic achievement, self efficacy, and motivation to learn social studies in learning disabled second year prep students. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30, 23 boys,…

  5. 2 + 2 Tech Prep Early Childhood Professions I and II Curriculum Guide: A Four Year Articulated Program for Secondary and Postsecondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Mary Martin; Harriman, Marilyn Williams

    The 2 + 2 Tech Prep Early Childhood Professions I and II curriculum guides, developed through funding from the Carl D. Perkins Education Act, are designed for students entering the first and second years of the program. They are the first and second in a series of courses that systematically expand students' knowledge, skills application, and…

  6. Software attribute visualization for high integrity software

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents a prototype tool developed to investigate the use of visualization and virtual reality technologies for improving software surety confidence. The tool is utilized within the execution phase of the software life cycle. It provides a capability to monitor an executing program against prespecified requirements constraints provided in a program written in the requirements specification language SAGE. The resulting Software Attribute Visual Analysis Tool (SAVAnT) also provides a technique to assess the completeness of a software specification.

  7. Navigation/Prop Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruchmiller, Tomas; Tran, Sanh; Lee, Mathew; Bucker, Scott; Bupane, Catherine; Bennett, Charles; Cantu, Sergio; Kwong, Ping; Propst, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Navigation (Nav)/Prop software is used to support shuttle mission analysis, production, and some operations tasks. The Nav/Prop suite containing configuration items (CIs) resides on IPS/Linux workstations. It features lifecycle documents, and data files used for shuttle navigation and propellant analysis for all flight segments. This suite also includes trajectory server, archive server, and RAT software residing on MCC/Linux workstations. Navigation/Prop represents tool versions established during or after IPS Equipment Rehost-3 or after the MCC Rehost.

  8. Experimental research control software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  9. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  10. Evaluation of the Illumina(®) Beta Version ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit for use in genetic profiling.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Jennifer D; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    While capillary electrophoresis-based technologies have been the mainstay for human identity typing applications, there are limitations with this methodology's resolution, scalability, and throughput. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers the capability to multiplex multiple types of forensically-relevant markers and multiple samples together in one run all at an overall lower cost per nucleotide than traditional capillary electrophoresis-based methods; thus, addressing some of these limitations. MPS also is poised to expand forensic typing capabilities by providing new strategies for mixture deconvolution with the identification of intra-STR allele sequence variants and the potential to generate new types of investigative leads with an increase in the overall number and types of genetic markers being analyzed. The beta version of the Illumina ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit is a MPS library preparation method with a streamlined workflow that allows for targeted amplification and sequencing of 63 STRs and 95 identity SNPs, with the option to include an additional 56 ancestry SNPs and 22 phenotypic SNPs depending on the primer mix chosen for amplification, on the MiSeq desktop sequencer (Illumina). This study was divided into a series of experiments that evaluated reliability, sensitivity of detection, mixture analysis, concordance, and the ability to analyze challenged samples. Genotype accuracy, depth of coverage, and allele balance were used as informative metrics for the quality of the data produced. The ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit produced reliable, reproducible results and obtained full profiles with DNA input amounts of 1ng. Data were found to be concordant with current capillary electrophoresis methods, and mixtures at a 1:19 ratio were resolved accurately. Data from the challenged samples showed concordant results with current DNA typing methods with markers in common and minimal allele drop out from the large number of markers typed on these

  11. Heterodimeric Pbx-Prep1 homeodomain protein binding to the glucagon gene restricting transcription in a cell type-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Herzig, S; Fuzesi, L; Knepel, W

    2000-09-01

    Homeodomain proteins specify developmental pathways and cell-specific gene transcription whereby proteins of the PBC subclass can direct target gene specificity of Hox proteins. Proteins encoded by nonclustered homeobox genes have been shown to be essential for cell lineage differentiation and gene expression in pancreatic islets. Using specific antiserum in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and in vitro transcribed/translated proteins, the nuclear proteins binding domain B of the G3 enhancer-like element of the glucagon gene were identified in the present study as heterodimers consisting of the ubiquitously expressed homeodomain protein Prep1 and the also widely expressed PBC homeoprotein Pbx (isoform 1a, 1b, or 2). These heterodimeric complexes were found to bind also to the glucagon cAMP response element and to a newly identified element termed G5 (from -169 to -140). Whereas the expression of Prep1 or Pbx forms alone had no effect, coexpression of Pbx1a/1b-Prep1 inhibited the glucagon promoter when activated by cotransfected Pax6 or another transcription factor in non-glucagon-producing cells. In contrast, in glucagon-producing pancreatic islet cells, Pbx-Prep1 had no effect on GAL4-Pax6-induced mutant glucagon promoter activity or on Pax6-dependent wild-type glucagon promoter activity. Furthermore, 5'-deletion of G5 enhanced glucagon promoter activity in a non-glucagon-producing cell line but not in glucagon-producing islet cells. This study thus identifies a novel target and Hox-independent function of Pbx-Prep1 heterodimers that, through repression of glucagon gene transcription in non-glucagon-producing cells, may help to establish islet cell-specific expression of the glucagon gene. PMID:10869353

  12. Patterns and Correlates of PrEP Drug Detection among MSM and Transgender Women in the Global iPrEx Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Glidden, David V.; Anderson, Peter L.; Amico, K.R.; McMahan, Vanessa; Mehrotra, Megha; Lama, Javier R.; MacRae, John; Hinojosa, Juan Carlos; Montoya, Orlando; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Schechter, Mauro; Kallas, Esper G.; Chariyalerstak, Suwat; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Mayer, Kenneth; Buchbinder, Susan; Grant, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is critical for efficacy. Antiretroviral concentrations are an objective measure of PrEP use and correlate with efficacy. Understanding patterns and correlates of drug detection can identify populations at risk for non-adherence and inform design of PrEP adherence interventions. Methods Blood antiretroviral concentrations were assessed among active-arm participants in iPrEx, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of emtricitabine/tenofovir in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in 6 countries. We evaluated rates and correlates of drug detection among a random sample of 470 participants at week 8 and a longitudinal cohort of 303 participants through 72 weeks of follow-up. Results Overall, 55% (95% CI 49–60%) of participants tested at week 8 had drug detected. Drug detection was associated with older age and varied by study site. In longitudinal analysis, 31% never had drug detected, 30% always had drug detected, and 39% had an inconsistent pattern. Overall detection rates declined over time. Drug detection at some or all visits was associated with older age; indices of sexual risk, including condomless receptive anal sex; and responding "don't know" to a question about belief of PrEP efficacy (0–10 scale). Conclusions Distinct patterns of study-product use were identified, with a significant proportion demonstrating no drug detection at any visit. Research literacy may explain greater drug detection among populations having greater research experience, such as older MSM in the US. Greater drug detection among those reporting highest-risk sexual practices is expected to increase the impact and cost-effectiveness of PrEP. PMID:25230290

  13. Report: Scientific Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of scientific software, including evaluation and selection of commercial software products; program exchanges, catalogs, and other information sources; major data analysis packages; statistics and chemometrics software; and artificial intelligence. (JN)

  14. Controlling Software Piracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1992-01-01

    Explains what software manufacturers are doing to combat software piracy, recommends how managers should deal with this problem, and provides a role-playing exercise to help students understand the issues in software piracy. (SR)

  15. Software Engineering Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  16. Software For Development Of Expert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark L.; Atkinson, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Modular software system helps create efficient artificial-intelligence computer programs. STAR*TOOL system: Set of high-level software tools; assists programmers in creation of efficient knowledge-based software systems. Provides language and capabilities for compilation of application programs written in Common LISP. Features modularity enabling elimination of unnecessary capabilities from final application program and achieves greater computing performance. Runs on any computer that supports Common LISP and has sufficient memory. Provides programmer with necessary software tools to build wide variety of reasoning and inference engines for such applications as planning, diagnosis and analysis, and simulation.

  17. Programming Language Software For Graphics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Brian C.

    1993-01-01

    New approach reduces repetitive development of features common to different applications. High-level programming language and interactive environment with access to graphical hardware and software created by adding graphical commands and other constructs to standardized, general-purpose programming language, "Scheme". Designed for use in developing other software incorporating interactive computer-graphics capabilities into application programs. Provides alternative to programming entire applications in C or FORTRAN, specifically ameliorating design and implementation of complex control and data structures typifying applications with interactive graphics. Enables experimental programming and rapid development of prototype software, and yields high-level programs serving as executable versions of software-design documentation.

  18. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Polepeddi, S

    2004-12-08

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data, which would be of use to

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Gene Encoding Transcription Factor Prep1 Is Associated with HIV-1-Associated Dementia

    PubMed Central

    van Manen, Daniëlle; Bunnik, Evelien M.; van Sighem, Ard I.; Sieberer, Margit; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte; de Wolf, Frank; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Portegies, Peter; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Infection with HIV-1 may result in severe cognitive and motor impairment, referred to as HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). While its prevalence has dropped significantly in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, milder neurocognitive disorders persist with a high prevalence. To identify additional therapeutic targets for treating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, several candidate gene polymorphisms have been evaluated, but few have been replicated across multiple studies. Methods We here tested 7 candidate gene polymorphisms for association with HAD in a case-control study consisting of 86 HAD cases and 246 non-HAD AIDS patients as controls. Since infected monocytes and macrophages are thought to play an important role in the infection of the brain, 5 recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting HIV-1 replication in macrophages in vitro were also tested. Results The CCR5 wt/Δ32 genotype was only associated with HAD in individuals who developed AIDS prior to 1991, in agreement with the observed fading effect of this genotype on viral load set point. A significant difference in genotype distribution among all cases and controls irrespective of year of AIDS diagnosis was found only for a SNP in candidate gene PREP1 (p = 1.2×10−5). Prep1 has recently been identified as a transcription factor preferentially binding the −2,518 G allele in the promoter of the gene encoding MCP-1, a protein with a well established role in the etiology of HAD. Conclusion These results support previous findings suggesting an important role for MCP-1 in the onset of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:22347417

  20. Software Configuration Management Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The growth in cost and importance of software to NASA has caused NASA to address the improvement of software development across the agency. One of the products of this program is a series of guidebooks that define a NASA concept of the assurance processes which are used in software development. The Software Assurance Guidebook, SMAP-GB-A201, issued in September, 1989, provides an overall picture of the concepts and practices of NASA in software assurance. Lower level guidebooks focus on specific activities that fall within the software assurance discipline, and provide more detailed information for the manager and/or practitioner. This is the Software Configuration Management Guidebook which describes software configuration management in a way that is compatible with practices in industry and at NASA Centers. Software configuration management is a key software development process, and is essential for doing software assurance.

  1. FCLib: The Feature Characterization Library.

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Ann C.; Doyle, Wendy S. K.; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip; Ulmer, Craig D.

    2008-11-01

    The Feature Characterization Library (FCLib) is a software library that simplifies the process of interrogating, analyzing, and understanding complex data sets generated by finite element applications. This document provides an overview of the library, a description of both the design philosophy and implementation of the library, and examples of how the library can be utilized to extract understanding from raw datasets.

  2. Software distribution using xnetlib

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. |; Rowan, T.H.; Wade, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    Xnetlib is a new tool for software distribution. Whereas its predecessor netlib uses e-mail as the user interface to its large collection of public-domain mathematical software, xnetlib uses an X Window interface and socket-based communication. Xnetlib makes it easy to search through a large distributed collection of software and to retrieve requested software in seconds.

  3. Agile Software Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Many software development firms are now adopting the agile software development method. This method involves the customer at every level of software development, thus reducing the impact of change in the requirement at a later stage. In this article, the principles of the agile method for software development are explored and there is a focus on…

  4. Proceedings, Conference on the Computing Environment for Mathematical Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Recent advances in software and hardware technology which make it economical to create computing environments appropriate for specialized applications are addressed. Topics included software tools, FORTRAN standards activity, and features of languages, operating systems, and hardware that are important for the development, testing, and maintenance of mathematical software.

  5. Software productivity improvement through software engineering technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been estimated that NASA expends anywhere from 6 to 10 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition, implementation and maintenance of computer software. Although researchers have produced numerous software engineering approaches over the past 5-10 years; each claiming to be more effective than the other, there is very limited quantitative information verifying the measurable impact htat any of these technologies may have in a production environment. At NASA/GSFC, an extended research effort aimed at identifying and measuring software techniques that favorably impact productivity of software development, has been active over the past 8 years. Specific, measurable, software development technologies have been applied and measured in a production environment. Resulting software development approaches have been shown to be effective in both improving quality as well as productivity in this one environment.

  6. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  7. An Investigation of an Open-Source Software Development Environment in a Software Engineering Graduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xun; Huang, Kun; Dong, Yifei

    2010-01-01

    A semester-long ethnography study was carried out to investigate project-based learning in a graduate software engineering course through the implementation of an Open-Source Software Development (OSSD) learning environment, which featured authentic projects, learning community, cognitive apprenticeship, and technology affordances. The study…

  8. Unsatisfactory rates vary between cervical cytology samples prepared using ThinPrep and SurePath platforms: a review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Daniel; Narine, Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare unsatisfactory rates between the two major liquid-based cytology (LBC) platforms, namely ThinPrep (Hologic) and SurePath (Becton Dickinson). Design The authors performed both a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Inclusion criteria were English language, data presented on unsatisfactory rates for either ThinPrep or SurePath, utilising actual patient samples (ie, not laboratory manipulated samples) and no manipulation using acetic acid to increase the satisfactory rate. The authors searched PubMed for articles using the keywords ‘SurePath’ or ‘ThinPrep’ and ‘unsatisfactory’. References of retrieved studies were searched for additional articles. Key researchers in the field were also contacted. Participants and interventions Eligible studies were reviewed for rates of unsatisfactory cervical cytology smears processed on either the ThinPrep or SurePath platforms (compared with a general linear model) or data on unsatisfactory rates for both platforms for the same laboratory and the same patient population (compared with a meta-analysis using a random effects model and pooled RR). Primary Outcome Measure Unsatisfactory rate of cervical cytology smears. Results A total of 1 120 418 cervical cytology smears were reported in 14 different studies using the SurePath platform for an overall unsatisfactory rate (weighted average) of 0.3%. 28 studies reported on 1 148 755 smears prepared using the ThinPrep platform for an overall unsatisfactory rate (weighted average) of 1.3%. The general linear model did not show a difference between LBC platforms when other variables were controlled for; however, the power to detect a difference (0.087) was very low. The meta-analysis performed on four studies where both ThinPrep and SurePath results were reported from the same laboratory showed fewer unsatisfactory tests from the SurePath platform (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77, p=0.004). Conclusions Multiple factors affect LBC unsatisfactory rates

  9. VOUS Software Facilitates Development Of Other Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliger, Joseph; Pichumani, Ramini; Ponceleon, Dulce

    1992-01-01

    Visual Object Oriented Unification System (VOUS) computer program provides facility for development of other, high-level software. Does not replace, but rather extends, preexisting software tools for development of other software. Provides comprehensive, graphical, interactive medium for all phases in development of computer code from early exploration of concepts, through detailed coding-and-error-checking process, to final reporting of finished code and compilation of instruction manual for its use. Simplifies and partly automates programmer's task.

  10. Barriers to uptake and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among communities most affected by HIV in the UK: findings from a qualitative study in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among gay, bisexual and men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrant African communities in Scotland, UK. Design Consecutive mixed qualitative methods consisting of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) explored PrEP acceptability. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically to identify anticipated and emerging themes. Setting Participants were recruited through community sexual health and outreach support services, and from non-sexual health settings across Scotland. Participants Inclusion criteria included identification as either MSM and/or from migrant African communities; 18 years and older; living in Scotland at the time of participation. 7 FGs were conducted (n=33): 5 with MSM (n=22) and 2 mixed-sex groups with African participants (n=11, women=8), aged 18–75 years. 34 IDIs were conducted with MSM (n=20) and African participants (n=14, women=10), aged 19–60 years. The sample included participants who were HIV-positive and HIV-negative or untested (HIV-positive FG participants, n=22; HIV-positive IDI participants, n=17). Results Understandings of PrEP effectiveness and concerns about maintaining regular adherence were identified as barriers to potential PrEP uptake and use. Low perception of HIV risk due to existing risk management strategies meant few participants saw themselves as PrEP candidates. Participants identified risk of other sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy as a concern which PrEP did not address for either themselves or their sexual partners. PrEP emerged as a contentious issue because of the potentially negative implications it had for HIV prevention. Many participants viewed PrEP as problematic because they perceived that others would stop using condoms if PrEP was to become available. Conclusions PrEP implementation needs to identify appropriate communication methods in the context of diverse HIV literacy

  11. Software For Computing Reliability Of Other Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen; Antczak, Thomas M.; Lyu, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Computer Aided Software Reliability Estimation (CASRE) computer program developed for use in measuring reliability of other software. Easier for non-specialists in reliability to use than many other currently available programs developed for same purpose. CASRE incorporates mathematical modeling capabilities of public-domain Statistical Modeling and Estimation of Reliability Functions for Software (SMERFS) computer program and runs in Windows software environment. Provides menu-driven command interface; enabling and disabling of menu options guides user through (1) selection of set of failure data, (2) execution of mathematical model, and (3) analysis of results from model. Written in C language.

  12. Starlink Software Submission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawden, M. D.

    The definition, structure and management of the Starlink Software Collection is described in SGP/20 which should be read by everyone involved in the production of software for the Starlink project. The Collection is managed by the Starlink Software Librarian (username STAR) who decides where new software should be stored in the existing structure and who has editorial control of Starlink documentation. This paper describes the principles governing the preparation and submission of software for inclusion in the Collection.

  13. Responsbility for unreliable software

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    Unreliable software exposes software developers and distributors to legal risks. Under certain circumstances, the developer and distributor of unreliable software can be sued. To avoid lawsuits, software developers should do the following: determine what the risks am, understand the extent of the risks, and identify ways of avoiding the risks and lessening the consequences of the risks. Liability issues associated with unreliable software are explored in this article.

  14. Software component quality evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  15. Software Design Improvements. Part 2; Software Quality and the Design and Inspection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.; Ziemianski, Tom

    1997-01-01

    The application of assurance engineering techniques improves the duration of failure-free performance of software. The totality of features and characteristics of a software product are what determine its ability to satisfy customer needs. Software in safety-critical systems is very important to NASA. We follow the System Safety Working Groups definition for system safety software as: 'The optimization of system safety in the design, development, use and maintenance of software and its integration with safety-critical systems in an operational environment. 'If it is not safe, say so' has become our motto. This paper goes over methods that have been used by NASA to make software design improvements by focusing on software quality and the design and inspection process.

  16. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features thatmore » includes associated information about the detected features.« less

  17. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features that includes associated information about the detected features.

  18. Interactive Visualization of Assessment Data: The Software Package Mondrian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Ali; Sargin, Anatol

    2009-01-01

    Mondrian is state-of-the-art statistical data visualization software featuring modern interactive visualization techniques for a wide range of data types. This article reviews the capabilities, functionality, and interactive properties of this software package. Key features of Mondrian are illustrated with data from the Programme for International…

  19. Software Quality Assurance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McRae, Kalindra A.

    2004-01-01

    Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.

  20. Seasons of Risk: Anticipated Behavior on Vacation and Interest in Episodic Antiretroviral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among a Large National Sample of U.S. Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Elsesser, Steven A; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Biello, Katie B; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A; Egan, James E; Novak, David S; Krakower, Douglas S; Stall, Ron; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    The current analysis evaluates interest in and acceptability of daily PrEP during short episodes of anticipated increased risk (i.e. Epi-PrEP). In 2013, U.S. members of an internet-based MSM sexual networking site were invited to complete a survey about HIV prevention practices in the context of vacationing. 7305 MSM responded to the survey. Of respondents who had vacationed in the past year, 25.6 % reported condomless anal sex (CAS) with new male sex partners while vacationing. Most (92.6 %) respondents agreed that having to use PrEP every day was a barrier to PrEP use and 74.3 % indicated they would take PrEP if they knew it would be helpful for short periods of anticipated increased risk. MSM who reported increased CAS while on vacation in the past year were more likely to indicate that they would take PrEP if it were helpful when used for short periods than respondents who did not (aOR = 2.02, 95 % CI 1.59-2.56, p < 0.001). Studies designed to evaluate uptake, adherence, and protective benefit of short PrEP courses are warranted. PMID:26538056

  1. Correlates of Awareness of and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Applications in New York City.

    PubMed

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-07-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications are commonly used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications residing in New York City. Recruitment utilizing broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM yielded a sample of 152 HIV-uninfected MSM. Multivariable models were used to assess demographic and behavioral correlates of awareness of and willingness to use PrEP. Most participants (85.5 %) had heard about PrEP but few (9.2 %) reported current use. Unwillingness to use PrEP was associated with concerns about side effects (PR = 0.303; 95 % CI 0.130, 0.708; p = 0.006). Given that more than half (57.6 %) of participants were willing to use PrEP, future research is needed to elucidate both individual and structural barriers to PrEP use among MSM. PMID:26966013

  2. Space Station Software Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Four panels of invited experts and NASA representatives focused on the following topics: software management, software development environment, languages, and software standards. Each panel deliberated in private, held two open sessions with audience participation, and developed recommendations for the NASA Space Station Program. The major thrusts of the recommendations were as follows: (1) The software management plan should establish policies, responsibilities, and decision points for software acquisition; (2) NASA should furnish a uniform modular software support environment and require its use for all space station software acquired (or developed); (3) The language Ada should be selected for space station software, and NASA should begin to address issues related to the effective use of Ada; and (4) The space station software standards should be selected (based upon existing standards where possible), and an organization should be identified to promulgate and enforce them. These and related recommendations are described in detail in the conference proceedings.

  3. Payload software technology: Software technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Programmatic requirements for the advancement of software technology are identified for meeting the space flight requirements in the 1980 to 1990 time period. The development items are described, and software technology item derivation worksheets are presented along with the cost/time/priority assessments.

  4. Software For Simulation Of Development Of Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    SOFTREL is prototype software package simulating creation, detection, and repair of defects and faults during software-development project. Personnel, resources, errors, and other realistic factors represented in simulation. Available in executable form only for IBM PC. SOFTREL is copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  5. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  6. Software Defined Radio with Parallelized Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This software implements software-defined radio procession over multicore, multi-CPU systems in a way that maximizes the use of CPU resources in the system. The software treats each processing step in either a communications or navigation modulator or demodulator system as an independent, threaded block. Each threaded block is defined with a programmable number of input or output buffers; these buffers are implemented using POSIX pipes. In addition, each threaded block is assigned a unique thread upon block installation. A modulator or demodulator system is built by assembly of the threaded blocks into a flow graph, which assembles the processing blocks to accomplish the desired signal processing. This software architecture allows the software to scale effortlessly between single CPU/single-core computers or multi-CPU/multi-core computers without recompilation. NASA spaceflight and ground communications systems currently rely exclusively on ASICs or FPGAs. This software allows low- and medium-bandwidth (100 bps to approx.50 Mbps) software defined radios to be designed and implemented solely in C/C++ software, while lowering development costs and facilitating reuse and extensibility.

  7. Software Defined Radio with Parallelized Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This software implements software-defined radio procession over multi-core, multi-CPU systems in a way that maximizes the use of CPU resources in the system. The software treats each processing step in either a communications or navigation modulator or demodulator system as an independent, threaded block. Each threaded block is defined with a programmable number of input or output buffers; these buffers are implemented using POSIX pipes. In addition, each threaded block is assigned a unique thread upon block installation. A modulator or demodulator system is built by assembly of the threaded blocks into a flow graph, which assembles the processing blocks to accomplish the desired signal processing. This software architecture allows the software to scale effortlessly between single CPU/single-core computers or multi-CPU/multi-core computers without recompilation. NASA spaceflight and ground communications systems currently rely exclusively on ASICs or FPGAs. This software allows low- and medium-bandwidth (100 bps to .50 Mbps) software defined radios to be designed and implemented solely in C/C++ software, while lowering development costs and facilitating reuse and extensibility.

  8. SutraPrep, a pre-processor for SUTRA, a model for ground-water flow with solute or energy transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Provost, Alden M.

    2002-01-01

    SutraPrep facilitates the creation of three-dimensional (3D) input datasets for the USGS ground-water flow and transport model SUTRA Version 2D3D.1. It is most useful for applications in which the geometry of the 3D model domain and the spatial distribution of physical properties and boundary conditions is relatively simple. SutraPrep can be used to create a SUTRA main input (?.inp?) file, an initial conditions (?.ics?) file, and a 3D plot of the finite-element mesh in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format. Input and output are text-based. The code can be run on any platform that has a standard FORTRAN-90 compiler. Executable code is available for Microsoft Windows.

  9. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  10. Evolvable Neural Software System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  11. Activin regulation of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit gene involves Smads and the TALE homeodomain proteins Pbx1 and Prep1.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Janice S; Rave-Harel, Naama; McGillivray, Shauna M; Coss, Djurdjica; Mellon, Pamela L

    2004-05-01

    FSH is critical for normal reproductive function in both males and females. Activin, a member of the TGFbeta family of growth factors, is an important regulator of FSH expression, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms through which it acts. We used transient transfections into the immortalized gonadotrope cell line LbetaT2 to identify three regions (at -973/-962, -167, and -134) of the ovine FSH beta-subunit gene that are required for full activin response. All three regions contain homology to consensus binding sites for Smad proteins, the intracellular mediators of TGFbeta family signaling. Mutation of the distal site reduces activin responsiveness, whereas mutation of either proximal site profoundly disrupts activin regulation of the FSHbeta gene. These sites specifically bind LbetaT2 nuclear proteins in EMSAs, and the -973/-962 site binds Smad4 protein. Interestingly, the protein complex binding to the -134 site contains Smad4 in association with the homeodomain proteins Pbx1 and Prep1. Using glutathione S-transferase interaction assays, we demonstrate that Pbx1 and Prep1 interact with Smads 2 and 3 as well. The two proximal activin response elements are well conserved across species, and Pbx1 and Prep1 proteins bind to the mouse gene in vivo. Furthermore, mutation of either proximal site abrogates activin responsiveness of a mouse FSHbeta reporter gene as well, confirming their functional conservation. Our studies provide a basis for understanding activin regulation of FSHbeta gene expression and identify Pbx1 and Prep1 as Smad partners and novel mediators of activin action. PMID:14764653

  12. The homeodomain Pbx2-Prep1 complex modulates hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha-mediated activation of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 gene.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Philip A; Mackenzie, Peter I

    2002-07-01

    UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are expressed in a wide range of tissues in which their levels of expression and distribution are dependent on cell-type specific regulatory mechanisms. The presence of a hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1 binding site in the proximal promoters of several UGT2B genes has been shown to contribute to their expression in liver cells and possibly other HNF1-containing cell types. In some of these UGT2B genes, a putative pre-B cell homeobox (Pbx) transcription factor binding site is found directly adjacent to the functional HNF1 site. To determine whether this putative Pbx site contributes to the regulation of UGT2B expression, we chose the UGT2B17 gene and investigated the capacity of its Pbx site to bind specific transcription factors and alter promoter activity. The UGT2B17 Pbx site matches a consensus Pbx site known to bind members of the Pbx, Hox, Meis, and Prep1 families of homeodomain-containing proteins and has previously been shown to bind nuclear proteins in DNaseI footprint assays. In this study, we used gel shift and functional assays to show that a Pbx2-Prep1 heterodimer can bind to the UGT2B17 Pbx site and interfere with the binding of HNF1alpha to its site adjacent to the Pbx site. This interaction of Pbx2-Prep1 and HNF1alpha results in down-regulation of HNF1alpha-mediated activation of the UGT2B17 promoter. Modulation of transcription by restricting the binding of transcriptional effectors to their target site is a novel role for Pbx2-Prep1 complexes. PMID:12065766

  13. The Safety of Tenofovir–Emtricitabine for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Individuals With Active Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Mauro; Liu, Albert Y.; McManhan, Vanessa M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Hance, Robert J.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Grant, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) prevents HIV infection. The safety and feasibility of HIV PrEP in the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were evaluated. Methods: The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición study randomized 2499 HIV-negative men and transgender women who have sex with men to once-daily oral FTC/TDF versus placebo. Hepatitis serologies and transaminases were obtained at screening and at the time PrEP was discontinued. HBV DNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and drug resistance was assessed by population sequencing. Vaccination was offered to individuals susceptible to HBV infection. Results: Of the 2499 participants, 12 (0.5%; including 6 randomized to FTC/TDF) had chronic HBV infection. After stopping FTC/TDF, 5 of the 6 participants in the active arm had liver function tests performed at follow-up. Liver function tests remained within normal limits at post-stop visits except for a grade 1 elevation in 1 participant at post-stop week 12 (alanine aminotransferase = 90, aspartate aminotransferase = 61). There was no evidence of hepatic flares. Polymerase chain reaction of stored samples showed that 2 participants in the active arm had evidence of acute HBV infection at enrollment. Both had evidence of grade 4 transaminase elevations with subsequent resolution. Overall, there was no evidence of TDF or FTC resistance among tested genotypes. Of 1633 eligible for vaccination, 1587 (97.2%) received at least 1 vaccine; 1383 (84.7%) completed the series. Conclusions: PrEP can be safely provided to individuals with HBV infection if there is no evidence of cirrhosis or substantial transaminase elevation. HBV vaccination rates at screening were low globally, despite recommendations for its use, yet uptake and efficacy were high when offered. PMID:26413853

  14. Software engineering and automatic continuous verification of scientific software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piggott, M. D.; Hill, J.; Farrell, P. E.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R.; Ham, D.; Gorman, G. J.; Bond, T.

    2011-12-01

    Software engineering of scientific code is challenging for a number of reasons including pressure to publish and a lack of awareness of the pitfalls of software engineering by scientists. The Applied Modelling and Computation Group at Imperial College is a diverse group of researchers that employ best practice software engineering methods whilst developing open source scientific software. Our main code is Fluidity - a multi-purpose computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code that can be used for a wide range of scientific applications from earth-scale mantle convection, through basin-scale ocean dynamics, to laboratory-scale classic CFD problems, and is coupled to a number of other codes including nuclear radiation and solid modelling. Our software development infrastructure consists of a number of free tools that could be employed by any group that develops scientific code and has been developed over a number of years with many lessons learnt. A single code base is developed by over 30 people for which we use bazaar for revision control, making good use of the strong branching and merging capabilities. Using features of Canonical's Launchpad platform, such as code review, blueprints for designing features and bug reporting gives the group, partners and other Fluidity uers an easy-to-use platform to collaborate and allows the induction of new members of the group into an environment where software development forms a central part of their work. The code repositoriy are coupled to an automated test and verification system which performs over 20,000 tests, including unit tests, short regression tests, code verification and large parallel tests. Included in these tests are build tests on HPC systems, including local and UK National HPC services. The testing of code in this manner leads to a continuous verification process; not a discrete event performed once development has ceased. Much of the code verification is done via the "gold standard" of comparisons to analytical

  15. HIV Risk Behaviors, Perceptions, and Testing and Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Awareness/Use in Grindr-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Hickson, DeMarc A; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-01-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications such as Grindr can help men who have sex with men (MSM) meet sexual partners. Given the high incidence of HIV in the Deep South, the purpose of our study was to assess HIV risk and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and use in a sample of HIV-uninfected, Grindr-using MSM residing in Atlanta, Georgia (n = 84). Most (n = 71; 84.6%) reported being somewhat or very concerned about becoming HIV infected. Most (n = 74; 88.1%) had been tested for HIV in their lifetimes. About three fourths (n = 65; 77.4%) were aware of PrEP, but only 11.9% currently used the medication. HIV continues to disproportionately impact MSM and represents a significant source of concern. As the number of new infections continues to rise, it is important to decrease risks associated with acquisition and transmission of HIV by increasing rates of HIV testing and the use of biobehavioral interventions such as PrEP. PMID:26708834

  16. Experience with a software engineering environment framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, R.; Reedy, A.; Yodis, E.

    1985-01-01

    Experience with a software engineering environment framework tool called the Automated Product Control Environment (APCE) is described. The goals of the framework design, an overview of the major functions and features of the framework, and implementation and use of the framework are presented. Aspects of the framework discussed include automation and control; portability, distributability, and interoperability; cost/benefit analysis; and productivity. Results of using the framework are discussed and the framework approach is briefly compared to other software development environment approaches.

  17. A software development environment utilizing PAMELA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flick, R. L.; Connelly, Richard W.

    1986-01-01

    Hardware capability and efficiency has increased dramatically since the invention of the computer, while software programmer productivity and efficiency has remained at a relatively low level. A user-friendly, adaptable, integrated software development environment is needed to alleviate this problem. The environment should be designed around the Ada language and a design methodology which takes advantage of the features of the Ada language as the Process Abstraction Method for Embedded Large Applications (PAMELA).

  18. Design software for reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracz, Will

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the designing of software for reuse. Topics include terminology, software reuse maxims, the science of programming, an interface design example, a modularization example, and reuse and implementation guidelines.

  19. Software assurance standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This standard specifies the software assurance program for the provider of software. It also delineates the assurance activities for the provider and the assurance data that are to be furnished by the provider to the acquirer. In any software development effort, the provider is the entity or individual that actually designs, develops, and implements the software product, while the acquirer is the entity or individual who specifies the requirements and accepts the resulting products. This standard specifies at a high level an overall software assurance program for software developed for and by NASA. Assurance includes the disciplines of quality assurance, quality engineering, verification and validation, nonconformance reporting and corrective action, safety assurance, and security assurance. The application of these disciplines during a software development life cycle is called software assurance. Subsequent lower-level standards will specify the specific processes within these disciplines.

  20. Guidelines for software inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Quality control inspections are software problem finding procedures which provide defect removal as well as improvements in software functionality, maintenance, quality, and development and testing methodology is discussed. The many side benefits include education, documentation, training, and scheduling.

  1. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  2. Software verification and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    General procedures for software verification and validation are provided as a guide for managers, programmers, and analysts involved in software development. The verification and validation procedures described are based primarily on testing techniques. Testing refers to the execution of all or part of a software system for the purpose of detecting errors. Planning, execution, and analysis of tests are outlined in this document. Code reading and static analysis techniques for software verification are also described.

  3. Agent Building Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  4. Experimentation in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Selby, R. W.; Hutchens, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimentation in software engineering supports the advancement of the field through an iterative learning process. In this paper, a framework for analyzing most of the experimental work performed in software engineering over the past several years is presented. A variety of experiments in the framework is described and their contribution to the software engineering discipline is discussed. Some useful recommendations for the application of the experimental process in software engineering are included.

  5. Standard Annuciator Software overview

    SciTech Connect

    Anspach, D.A. ); Fox, E.T.; Kissock, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The Standard Annunciator Software is responsible for maintaining a current display of system status conditions. The software interfaces with other systems -- IACS, CCTV, UPS, and portable PC -- to determine their status and then displays this information at the operator's console. This manual describes the software organization, operation, and generation mechanisms for development and target environments. 6 figs.

  6. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  7. CALIPSO Data Read Software

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-02

      CALIPSO Data Read Software Callable routines in Interactive Data Language ... Solutions . CALIPSO_READERS_3.5v1 Software (IDL) tar (611.5 KB) zip (261 KB) ... CALIPSO_READERS_3.4v1 Software (IDL) tar  (612.9 KB) zip  (261.4 KB) ...

  8. Evaluation Software in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabella, Russell A.

    Counselors today are presented with a number of differing applications software. This article intends to advance the counselor's knowledge and considerations of the various aspects of application software. Included is a discussion of the software applications typically of help to counselors in (a) managing their work (computer managed counseling);…

  9. SPEAR 3 Commissioning Software

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Portmann, G.J.; Safranek, J.A.; Terebilo, A.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-09

    The short SPEAR 3 startup time required precommissioned software for machine setup, beam measurements and data analysis. To accomplish this goal, we used Matlab with the Accelerator Toolbox (AT), the Channel Access Toolbox (MCA) and Middle Layer software to integrate code and streamline production. This paper outlines the software architecture, describes the Middle Layer component and provides examples from SPEAR 3 commissioning.

  10. Astronomical Software Directory Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H.; Hayes, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report on the development of the Astronomical Software Directory Service (ASDS), a distributable, searchable, WWW-based database of software packages and their related documentation. ASDS provides integrated access to 56 astronomical software packages, with more than 16,000 URL's indexed for full-text searching.

  11. Software Shopper. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sandra Hart, Comp.

    This annotated index describes and illustrates a wide selection of public domain instructional software that may be useful in the education of deaf students and provides educators with a way to order the listed programs. The software programs are designed for use on Apple computers and their compatibles. The software descriptions are presented in…

  12. Software suite for finite difference method models.

    PubMed

    Arola, T; Hannula, M; Narra, N; Malmivuo, J; Hyttinen, J

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a software suite for finite difference method (FDM) model construction, visualization and quasi-static simulation to be used in bioelectric field modeling. The aim of the software is to provide a full path from medical image data to simulation of bioelectric phenomena and results visualization. It is written in Java and can be run on various platforms while still supporting all features included. The software can be distributed across a network utilizing dedicated servers for calculation intensive tasks. Supported visualization modes are both two- and three-dimensional modes. PMID:17946057

  13. C-terminal domain of MEIS1 converts PKNOX1 (PREP1) into a HOXA9-collaborating oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bisaillon, Richard; Wilhelm, Brian T; Krosl, Jana; Sauvageau, Guy

    2011-10-27

    The three-amino-acid loop extension (TALE) class homeodomain proteins MEIS1 and PKNOX1 (PREP1) share the ability to interact with PBX and HOX family members and bind similar DNA sequences but appear to play opposing roles in tumor development. Elevated levels of MEIS1 accelerate development of HOX- and MLL-induced leukemias, and this pro-tumorigenic property has been associated with transcriptional activity of MEIS1. In contrast, reduction of PKNOX1 levels has been linked with cancer development despite the absence of an identifiable transactivating domain. In this report, we show that a chimeric protein generated by fusion of the MEIS1 C-terminal region encompassing the transactivating domain with the full-length PKNOX1 (PKNOX1-MC) acquired the ability to accelerate the onset of Hoxa9-induced leukemia in the mouse bone marrow transduction/transplantation model. Gene expression profiling of primary bone marrow cells transduced with Hoxa9 plus Meis1, or Hoxa9 plus Pknox1-MC revealed perturbations in overlapping functional gene subsets implicated in DNA packaging, chromosome organization, and in cell cycle regulation. Together, results presented in this report suggest that the C-terminal domain of MEIS1 confers to PKNOX1 an ectopic transactivating function that promotes leukemogenesis by regulating expression of genes involved in chromatin accessibility and cell cycle progression. PMID:21900201

  14. Protocol for an open-label, single-arm trial of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among people at high risk of HIV infection: the NSW Demonstration Project PRELUDE

    PubMed Central

    Vaccher, S; Grulich, A; McAllister, J; Templeton, D J; Bloch, M; McNulty, A; Holden, J; Poynten, I M; Prestage, G; Zablotska, I

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite a number of HIV prevention strategies, the number of new HIV infections remains high. In Australia, over three-quarters of new HIV diagnoses are in gay and bisexual men (GBM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to be effective at preventing new HIV infections in several randomised trials. The PRELUDE study aims to evaluate the implementation of PrEP in healthcare settings in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, among a sample of high-risk adults. Methods and analysis PRELUDE is an ongoing open-label, single-arm demonstration project, conducted in public and private clinics across NSW, Australia. Enrolment began in November 2014. The study is designed for 300 high-risk participants—mainly GBM and heterosexual women. Participants receive daily oral PrEP, composed of emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), for up to 2.5 years. Quarterly study visits include testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), assessment of ongoing eligibility and side effects, and self-reported adherence. Following each study visit, online behavioural surveys are administered to collect information on medication adherence, risk behaviours and attitudes. Blood samples will be collected in a subset of patients 1, 6 and 12 months after PrEP initiation to measure FTC/TDF concentrations. Analyses using longitudinal regression models will focus on feasibility, adherence, safety, tolerability and effects of PrEP on behaviour. This study will inform PrEP policy and guide the implementation of PrEP in Australia in people at high risk of HIV. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. All patients will provide written informed consent prior to participation in the study. Publications relating to each of the primary end points will be gradually released after 12 months of follow-up is complete. Trial registration number NCT02206555; Pre-results. PMID:27324719

  15. High Interest in Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men at Risk for HIV-Infection: Baseline Data from the US PrEP Demonstration Project

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stephanie E.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Bacon, Oliver; Doblecki-Lewis, Susanne; Postle, Brian S.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Matheson, Tim; Trainor, Nikole; Blue, Robert Wilder; Estrada, Yannine; Coleman, Megan E.; Elion, Richard; Castro, Jose G.; Chege, Wairimu; Philip, Susan S.; Buchbinder, Susan; Kolber, Michael A.; Liu, Albert Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the first biomedical intervention with proven efficacy to reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Little is known about levels of interest and characteristics of individuals who elect to take PrEP in real-world clinical settings. Methods The US PrEP Demonstration Project is a prospective, open-label cohort study assessing PrEP delivery in municipal STD clinics in San Francisco and Miami and a community health center in Washington, DC. HIV-uninfected MSM and TGW seeking sexual health services at participating clinics were assessed for eligibility and offered up to 48 weeks of emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP. Predictors of enrollment were assessed using a multivariable Poisson regression model, and characteristics of enrolled participants are described. Results Of 1069 clients assessed for participation, 921 were potentially eligible and 557 (60.5%) enrolled. In multivariable analysis, participants from Miami (aRR 1.53; 95% CI 1.33-1.75) or DC (aRR 1.33; 95% CI 1.2-1.47), those who were self-referred (aRR 1.48; 95% CI 1.32-1.66), with prior PrEP awareness (aRR 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.33) and those reporting >1 episode of anal sex with an HIV-infected partner in the last 12 months (aRR 1.20; 95% CI 1.09-1.33) were more likely to enroll. Almost all (98%) of enrolled participants were MSM, and at baseline, 63.5% reported condomless receptive anal sex in the prior three months. Conclusions Interest in PrEP is high among a diverse population of MSM at risk for HIV infection when offered in STD and community health clinics. PMID:25501614

  16. SHMTools: a general-purpose software tool for SHM applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Dustin; Farrar, Charles; Taylor, Stuart; Park, Gyuhae; Flynn, Eric B; Kpotufe, Samory; Dondi, Denis; Mollov, Todor; Todd, Michael D; Rosin, Tajana S; Figueiredo, Eloi

    2010-11-30

    This paper describes a new software package for various structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The software is a set of standardized MATLAB routines covering three main stages of SHM: data acquisition, feature extraction, and feature classification for damage identification. A subset of the software in SHMTools is embeddable, which consists of Matlab functions that can be cross-compiled into generic 'C' programs to be run on a target hardware. The software is also designed to accommodate multiple sensing modalities, including piezoelectric active-sensing, which has been widely used in SHM practice. The software package, including standardized datasets, are publicly available for use by the SHM community. The details of this embeddable software will be discussed, along with several example processes that can be used for guidelines for future use of the software.

  17. Problem-Solving Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

  18. Tracker 300 Software

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R. Wes

    2006-01-12

    The Tracker300 software is downloaded to an off-the-shelf product called RCM3400/RCM3410 made by Rabbit Semiconductor. The software is a closed loop control which computes the sun's position and provides stability compensation. Using the RCM3400/RCM3410 module, the software stores and retrieves parameters from the onboard flash. The software also allows for communication with a host. It will allow the parameters to be downloaded or uploaded, it will show the status of the controller, it will provide real-time feedback, and it will send command acknowledgements. The software will capture the GPS response and ensure the internal clock is set correctly.

  19. Payload software technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A software analysis was performed of known STS sortie payload elements and their associated experiments. This provided basic data for STS payload software characteristics and sizes. A set of technology drivers was identified based on a survey of future technology needs and an assessment of current software technology. The results will be used to evolve a planned approach to software technology development. The purpose of this plan is to ensure that software technology is advanced at a pace and a depth sufficient to fulfill the identified future needs.

  20. Remotely Monitored Sealing Array Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-12

    The Remotely Monitored Sealing Array (RMSA) utilizes the Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) framework to establish the fundamental operating capabilities for communication, security, power management, and cryptography. In addition to the SSP framework the RMSA software has unique capabilities to support monitoring a fiber optic seal. Fiber monitoring includes open and closed as well as parametric monitoring to detect tampering attacks. The fiber monitoring techniques, using the SSP power management processes, allow the seals to lastmore » for years while maintaining the security requirements of the monitoring application. The seal is enclosed in a tamper resistant housing with software to support active tamper monitoring. New features include LED notification of fiber closure, the ability to retrieve the entire fiber optic history via translator command, separate memory storage for fiber optic events, and a more robust method for tracking and resending failed messages.« less