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Sample records for prepare developing countries

  1. Competency Based Instruction for Teacher Preparation in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Hans O.

    The need to modernize teacher education procedures is a universal problem. This need is particularly evident in developing countries where adherence to the old syllabi and the "tried and true" methods of instruction is strong and where highly trained personnel capable of leading a reform are in short supply. This model for a competency approach to…

  2. Adult Educator in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    The role of adult education in developing countries is preparation of the people for accepting and inculcating change and helping to establish a pattern of social values enabling progress. Recommendations from the Asian Regional Seminar were a high degree of professionalism for adult educators and the establishing of a regional institute. (EA)

  3. Prevention in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Black, R E

    1990-01-01

    Developing countries have implemented primary health care programs directed primarily at prevention and management of important infectious and nutritional problems of children. Successful programs have emphasized the need for individual and community involvement and have been characterized by responsible government policies for equitable implementation of efficacious and cost-effective health interventions. Unfortunately, developing countries must also face increases in the chronic disease and social problems commonly associated with industrialized countries. Prevention efforts, for example, to reduce tobacco smoking, to modify the diet, to reduce injuries, or to avert environmental contamination, are needed to contain future morbidity and rapidly increasing medical care costs. Developing countries can build on their successful approaches to program implementation and add other measures directed at preservation of health and prevention of disease in adult as well as child populations. PMID:2231055

  4. Paraquat in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; van Wendel de Joode, B; Ruepert, C; León, C; Monge, P; Hermosillo, H; Partanen, T J

    2001-01-01

    The herbicide paraquat is considered safe by industry and the bulk of regulators worldwide. However, determinants of exposure from 30 years ago persist in developing countries. Little is known about systemic absorption from occupational exposures. The relationships between exposure determinants, levels of external exposure, biomarkers of exposure, and outcomes are not clear. High rates of severe acute poisonings have been documented. In addition, topical injuries occur in as many as 50% of exposed workers. Non-worker populations are also at risk, particularly children. Long-term and delayed health effects include Parkinson's disease, lung effects, and skin cancer. Regulatory agencies have not fully recognized either the inherent toxicity of paraquat or the particular risks derived from exposures in developing countries. Independent risk assessment in the developing-country context and application of the precautionary principle are necessary to prevent adverse effects of dangerous pesticides in susceptible populations. PMID:11783857

  5. [Communications in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manandhar, P. K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Eight articles on various aspects of communications in developing countries make up this newsletter issue: (1) "Extension and Communications in Nepal: Reforestation Program Uses Media Support" by P. K. Manandhar, E. Pelinck, and R. H. Gecolea; (2) "Using Puppets to Teach Ideas. 'Khel Dori Ka', an Audiovisual with Puppets from Bombay" by Myron J.…

  6. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  7. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  8. Glaucoma in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India) are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases). Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery) can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use) in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and their monitoring

  9. Reaching Out to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Stirling

    1984-01-01

    Some Canadian teachers play a special role in developing the teaching profession internationally. They participate in helping teachers in developing countries and promoting understanding worldwide. (MD)

  10. Special Education Teacher Preparation in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Clayton; Al-Hendawi, Maha; Abuelhassan, Hadeel

    2016-01-01

    The provision of special education for students with disabilities depends upon the availability of well-qualified special educators, which, in turn, depends upon the availability and characteristics of preparation programs. In countries of the world where special education systems are still developing the capacity to provide the education that…

  11. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  12. Physics teaching in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talisayon, V. M.

    1984-05-01

    The need for endogeneous learning materials that will relate physics to the student's culture and environment spurred countries like India, Thailand, The Philippines and Indonesia to develop their own physics curriculum materials and laboratory equipment. Meagre resources and widespread poverty necessitated the development of laboratory materials from everyday items, recycled materials and other low-cost or no-cost local materials. The process of developing learning materials for one's teaching-learning needs in physics and the search from within for solutions to one's problems contribute in no small measure to the development of self-reliance in physics teaching of a developing country. Major concerns of developing countries are food supply, livelihood, health, nutrition and growth of economy. At the level of the student and his family, food, health, and livelihood are also primary concerns. Many physics teaching problems can be overcome on a large scale, given political support and national will. In countries where national leadership recognises that science and technology developed is essential to national development and that science education in turn is crucial to science and technology development, scarce resources can be allocated to science education. In developing countries where science education receives little or no political support, the most important resource in the physics classroom is the physics teacher. A highly motivated and adequately trained teacher can rise above the constraining circumstances of paucity of material resources and government apathy. In developing countries the need is great for self-reliance in physics teaching at the country level, and more importantly at the teacher level.

  13. Food science in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-01

    suck salt-rich earth to avoid salt depletion symptoms after arduous exertion in tropical heat long before "modern science" learned why (20). The enumeration of examples could go on, but this was not meant to be an essay in folklore. The point is that all so-called primitive societies developed technologies, techniques, and a store of practical knowledge of a wide range of sophistication, by what must be admitted to be the scientific method, and neither their accomplishments and skills nor those of societies "en voie de développement" should be ignored or discounted. We are confident that modern food science and technology has much to contribute to helping the food-deficit nations eat adequately. First, we must find a way of using the best of Western technology without losing sight of the reality of the situation in the third world and without failing to take into account, better than we have done so far, the secondary and tertiary implications of the changes suggested. Second, we must encourage the examination of local problems in terms of the use and improvement of local technologies which are often quite sophisticated and the result of centuries of development. And third, we must inject a greater component of cultural awareness in the education of students to make them more creative in their application of scientific knowledge to local problems and more adaptable to the conditions that exist in developing countries. We should not lose sight of the fact that because of the precarious nature of their food supply, very often developing countries have much more rigid rules governing the production, preparation, and consumption of food than usually is the case in food-surplus societies, and disturbing these rules is a very serious matter. The time is past when "West is best" can be taken for granted; "adapt and adopt" is surely less offensively arrogant and much more to the point. PMID:17740013

  14. Breast health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources. PMID:25131779

  15. Reference Services in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velho Lopes, Roseanne R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of reference services in developing countries and describes some of the functions of libraries and information services. Topics discussed include meeting users' needs; criteria for the planning and organization of services; and technology, including electronic dictionaries, computerized community information files,…

  16. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  17. Soalr cooking in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1994-11-01

    Solar cooking must overcome a number of obstacles to realize its potential to improve the lives of women in developing countries. Unlike historical interest in solar cooking, current interest derives from vital environmental and human needs. Deforestation and reliance on wood for cooking lead to many hardships, especially for women, and women in developing countries need access to technology and funding. If the woman builds the oven herself, it notonly makes her more willing to use it but the process empower her with new knowledge and kills. The physical design of the oven must be adapted to local conditions and materials for the oven should be inexpensive and locally available.

  18. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits. PMID:26247291

  19. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program. PMID:19494625

  20. Physics in the Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moravcsik, Michael J.

    1972-01-01

    International cooperation for scientific advancement in developing countries is recognized as possible and necessary. Areas of manpower shortage and feelings of isolation among physicists could be partially solved by modifying science education programs for foreign students in the United States. Several programs in physics departments and…

  1. Space science in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeke, P. N.; Rao, U. R.; Anyaegbunam, F. C. C.

    1994-01-01

    The space era marked by the effort in organising the International Geophysical Year (IGY) more than three decades ago ushered in a new awakening of international cooperation in space sciences. Since then, there has been a growing awareness amongst developed and developing countries on what space technology has in store for explorations in astronomy and cosmology and for studying the changing global environment. Results from numerous space platforms, rockets, balloon borne instrumentation and ground based experiments have revealed the growing potential of the field. The role of developing countries in a concerted mode is vital, as the planning of scientific experiments, data analysis and interpretation would need mobilisation of regional talent and intellectual resources to understand the complex ensemble of problems of geosphere-biosphere interactions facing the planet earth and its residents.

  2. Space science in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeke, P. N.; Rao, U. R.; Anyaegbunam, F. C. C.

    1994-01-01

    The space era marked by the effort in organizing the International Geophysical Year (IGY) more than three decades ago ushered in a new awakening of international cooperation in space sciences. Since then, there has been a growing awareness among developed and developing countries on what space technology has in store for explorations in astronomy and cosmology and for studying the changing global environment. Results from numerous space platforms, rockets, balloon borne instrumentation and ground based experiments have revealed the growing potential of the field. The role of developing countries in a concerted mode is vital, as the planning of scientific experiments, data analysis and interpretation would need mobilization of regional talent and intellectual resources to understand the complex ensemble of problems of geosphere-biosphere interactions facing the planet earth and its residents.

  3. Teacher labor markets in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Helen F

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries-an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher salaries do not in general perform better on international tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only 4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to stem from policies that make salaries uniform across academic subject areas and across geographic regions. Shortages are especially common in math and science, in large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay teachers different salaries according to their subject area. Many countries are also experimenting with financial incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd notes that many developed countries are trying to attract teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching, often through special programs in traditional teacher training institutions and through adult education or distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new teachers, many developed countries have also been using formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and certification

  4. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  5. Renal transplantation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S Adibul Hasan; Naqvi, S A Anwar; Hussain, Zafar; Hashmi, Altaf; Akhtar, Fazal; Hussain, Manzoor; Ahmed, Ejaz; Zafar, M Naqi; Hafiz, Saleem; Muzaffar, Rana; Jawad, Fatema

    2003-02-01

    Healthcare in developing countries less funded than developed nations (0.8 to 4% vs. 10 to 15%, respectively), and must contend against approximately 1/3 of the population living below the poverty line ($1US/day), poor literacy (58% males/29% females), and less access to potable water and basic sanitation. Cultural and societal constraints combine with these economic obstacles to translate into poor transplantation activity. Donor shortage is a universal problem. Paid donation comprises 50% of all transplants in Pakistan. Post-transplant infections are a major problem in developing countries, with 15% developing tuberculosis, 30% cytomegalovirus, and nearly 50% bacterial infections. The solutions to these problems may seem simplistic: alleviate poverty, educate the general population, and expand the transplant programs in public sector hospitals where commerce is less likely to play a major role. The SIUT model of funding in a community-government partnership has increased the number of transplantations and patient and organ survival substantially. Over the last 15 years, it has operated by complete financial transparency, public audit and accountability. The scheme has proven effective and currently 110 transplants/year are performed, with free after care and immunosuppressive drugs. Confidence has been built in the community, with strong donations of money, equipment and medicines. We believe this model could be sustained in other developing nations. PMID:12864884

  6. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  7. Urban nutrition in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Gross, R

    1995-04-01

    In developing countries, the past decades have seen a marked demographic shift from rural to urban. By the year 2000, 40% of the population of the Third World will live in urban areas. We have limited specific knowledge of the similarities and differences in diet, nutrition status, and health effects of diet and lifestyle between the traditional rural populations and the emerging urban poor. Such information will be useful for basic descriptive information as well as for assistance in the design and execution of health and nutrition projects for the urban poor. PMID:7624063

  8. Effective subsidies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kelman, J

    2004-01-01

    During the last decades, significant subsidies have been allocated to government-owned water and sewerage enterprises in developing countries. However, water and sewerage coverage is still far from desirable and the poor are particularly affected by the shortage of these services. The truth is that a considerable part of these subsidies have been used up to build huge infrastructure works that would make some construction firms happy, while often decreasing the service costs for the richer. The costs associated of delivering water and sanitation services to the poor are significantly higher, as they often live in slums or irregular urban developments without urban infrastructure. It is possible, and desirable, to improve government's effectiveness through the use of appropriate economic incentives. The Brazilian River Basin Pollution Abatement Program, based on the "output-based aid" concept, is a good example of how this can be achieved. The Program is a success story that shows that the quality of expenditures on sanitation can be considerably improved if governments of developing countries refrain from contracting sanitation infrastructure works and start paying for results, not for promises. PMID:15195416

  9. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization. PMID:15770290

  10. [The drug trade between European countries and developing countries].

    PubMed

    Bruneton, C; Naboulet, P; van der Heide, B; Rey, J L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of medicinal products marketed in developing countries has recently become the focus of lively debate and new interest. This report describes a survey conducted among officials from exporting and importing countries designed to evaluate the content and enforcement of current regulations. Resulting data indicated that, despite the high volume of trading in medicinal products between European and developing countries, regulations are poorly applied and many infractions occur. The most obvious abnormalities involve definition of market status. A list of banned is issued by the WHO but not by the European Economic Community. Regulations regarding generic products differ from one country to another and, since determination of the exact origin of a product may be difficult, compliance with good manufacturing practices is often unverifiable. A more cooperative attitude on the part of exporting countries and standardization of formalities on the part of importing countries will be necessary to stem the growing tendency to consider medicinal products as ordinary goods. PMID:9612781

  11. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  12. AIDS in the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1988-01-01

    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd

  13. Antenatal care in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nylander, P P; Adekunle, A O

    1990-03-01

    The problem of antenatal care in developing countries may be considered from two aspects: (a) areas where antenatal facilities are absent or are inadequate, and (b) areas where antenatal facilities are adequate but for some reasons are not adequately utilized. The solution to the first part of the problem would appear to be simple. The governments concerned should provide the required facilities. This obviously is not an easy task in many areas of the world, especially with the present profound economic depression in many developing countries. The people just have to use the facilities available to their best advantage, or do without the facilities. The second part of the problem presents more difficulties. Where antenatal facilities are available, inadequate utilization has been shown to be due to a number of factors: 1. The facilities are too distant or too expensive. It has been shown how the Nigerian authorities dealt with this problem in the Ibarapa district. However, it is a very expensive solution and few governments will be able to afford this. 2. Illiteracy or ignorance. The obvious solution to this difficulty is to educate the masses and a few governments have already embarked on these commendable programmes. Unfortunately, this procedure is expensive, may take a long time and, as already pointed out, even literate women may not use the antenatal services. 3. Traditional and cultural beliefs and prejudices. It has already been shown that this factor is a very important one in the population in developing countries, even among literate patients. The saying that 'old habits die hard' is probably apt here. Probably, with time, education and closer contact with the developed world, these prejudices will disappear. From the above observations, it would appear that an inexpensive short-term solution to the two parts of the problem mentioned above is for governments to train and use the TBAs who are already 'in our midst' and who already enjoy the confidence of

  14. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  15. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.

  16. Gasoline demand in developing Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents econometric estimates of motor gasoline demand in eleven developing countries of Asia. The price and GDP per capita elasticities are estimated for each country separately, and for several pooled combinations of the countries. The estimated elasticities for the Asian countries are compared with those of the OECD countries. Generally, one finds that the OECD countries have GDP elasticities that are smaller, and price elasticities that are larger (in absolute value). The price elasticities for the low-income Asian countries are more inelastic than for the middle-income Asian countries, and the GDP elasticities are generally more elastic. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Maintenance dialysis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Aditi; Bagga, Arvind

    2015-02-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease require renal replacement therapy with maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis while awaiting transplantation. In addition to economic issues and limited state funding for advanced health care, the lack of trained medical personnel contributes to scarce dialysis facilities for children in developing countries. The establishment and operation of a hemodialysis unit with multidisciplinary facilities is both cost- and labor-intensive. Hemodialysis is usually carried out three times a week in a hospital setting and affects the curricular and extracurricular activities of the patient. Chronic ambulatory or cyclic peritoneal dialysis is technically simpler and allows better nutrition and growth, but is expensive for the majority of patients who must pay out of their own pocket. Multiple initiatives to enhance the training of pediatricians and nurses in skills related to initiating and managing patients on maintenance dialysis have resulted in the improved survival of children with end-stage renal disease. Support from state governments and philanthropic institutions have helped in establishing pediatric nephrology units that are equipped to provide renal replacement therapy for children. PMID:24469439

  18. Informational and Cultural Situation in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadirova, Goulnar

    Cultural development of modern countries in the East, including the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a complicated and contradictory process, where common cultural ways were shaped differently and specifically in the countries. Common historical fate has influenced this development and given these countries some common problems, but there is some…

  19. Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

  20. Professionalism in Broadcasting in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Rita Cruise

    1977-01-01

    Examines the modes of professionalism and organizational structure in broadcasting and investigates how these modes transfer from industrialized nations to developing countries such as Algeria and Senegal. (MH)

  1. Neuroinfections in developed versus developing countries.

    PubMed

    Krcméry, Vladimír; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2007-06-01

    etiology, risk factors, therapy and outcome of neuroinfections (which is a burning public health and social problem in tropics) in other third world countries versus developed high-tech medical settings of US, EU and other high income countries, as presented by Benca et al. [12]. PMID:17558364

  2. Designing Training Materials for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenweig, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Describes four training guides developed by the Water and Sanitation for Health Project for use in rural water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries, explains the development process, offers insights gained from the process, and presents five considerations for designing training in third world countries. (MBR)

  3. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided.

  4. Screening for Developmental Disabilities in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Despite waxing international interest in child disability, little information exists about the situation of children with disabilities in developing countries. Using a culture-free screen for child disability from the 2005–2007 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, this study reports percentages of children in 16 developing countries who screened positive for cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities, covariation among disabilities, deviation contrasts that compare each country to the overall effect of country (including effects of age and gender and their interactions), and associations of disabilities with the Human Development Index. Developmental disabilities vary by child age and country, and younger children in developing countries with lower standards of living are more likely to screen positive for disabilities. The discussion of these findings revolves around research and policy implications. PMID:23294875

  5. The International Telecommunication Union's report on Telemedicine and Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Wright, D

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the main conclusions and recommendations from the Report on Telemedicine and Developing Countries, which was prepared for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The report is the result of three years' effort by a group of experts in telecommunications and telemedicine from around the world. It provides an extensive survey of the telemedicine experience of various countries. It discusses the different types and applications of telemedicine, the technologies used, costs and benefits, trends, prospects for global standards, and provides guidelines and recommendations to developing countries for implementation of telemedicine services. The ITU study group which prepared the report is expected to begin some new tasks in 1998, including the identification of a set of pilot telemedicine projects for developing countries. PMID:9640746

  6. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    PubMed Central

    De Armas Rodríguez, Y.; Wissmann, G.; Müller, A.L.; Pederiva, M.A.; Brum, M.C.; Brackmann, R.L.; Capó De Paz, V.; Calderón, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010. PMID:21894262

  7. Overview: epilepsy surgery in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wieser, H G; Silfvenius, H

    2000-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery (ES) is addressed in relation to economic classifications of national resources and welfare in developing countries. A decade ago, ten developing countries conducted ES; now 26 such countries have reported results of ES. A number of international authorities define indicators of national economic welfare. Adopting the economic classification of the International Monetary Fund. we find that ES is nonexistent in 98% of African countries, 76% of Asian countries, 58% of European countries, 82% of Middle East countries, and in 86% of countries of the Western Hemisphere. The 1980-1990 global ES survey conducted by the International League Against Epilepsy identified ten developing countries reporting ES (DCRES): Brazil, China, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, Taiwan, the U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia, and Viet Nam. The present survey based on the proceedings of the 19th-23rd International Epilepsy Congresses and Medline reports from 1991 to November 1999 revealed at least 26 (18.3%) DCRES of 142 developing countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Hungary, India, Iran, Israel, Korea, Lithuania, Mexico, P.R.China, the U.S.S.R., Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and former Yugoslavia. National vital statistics expose the hardships of developing countries. The population ratio of developed countries to developing countries is approximately 1:5. The reverse per capita Gross Domestic Product ratio is 20:1. Great disparities exist in vital statistics, all to the disadvantage of the DCRES. The World Health Organization defines health-related sectors geographically, then divides developing countries into several subgroups. Disability caused by length of disease and years lived with disability can be quantified monetarily for epilepsy, and the total health expenditures of developed and developing countries can be compared. The DCRES are short of technology, and their ES

  8. Wind Energy Developments: Incentives In Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses developments in wind energy for the countries with significant wind capacity. After a brief overview of world capacity, it examines development trends, beginning with the United States - the number one country in wind electric generation capacity until 1997.

  9. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia" refers to…

  10. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  11. Teacher Labor Markets in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S.…

  12. Promoting Reading in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent, Ed.

    With the intention of illuminating the many obstacles involved with literacy promotion in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America, the authors of the 10 articles in this collection share their knowledge and experience of literacy promotion in the developing world--including the unique challenges faced by those who publish, print,…

  13. Recent growth trends in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1978-03-01

    The unprecedented economic conditions of the mid-1970s have created problems with economic development for all countries of the world. Recent economic growth trends in the following main groups of developing countries are reviewed: 1) low-income countries; 2) lower middle-income countries; 3) intermediate middle-income countries; 4) upper middle-come countries; and 5) balance of payments deficit oil exporting countries. Economic indicators for each group of countries are tabulated. The tables show that the developing countries have continued domestic economic growth at only moderately slower rates during the years since 1973. They have been helped by foreign aid or private-source borrowing. As a group, they have, in fact, helped to keep the world economy from plunging deeper into recession and to prevent world trade from contracting more than it actually did already in 1974 and 1975. The performance of these developing economies during these difficult years contributes to continued optimism regarding their future prospects. PMID:12335967

  14. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  15. Epidemiology of epilepsy in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, N.; Román, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Epilepsy is an important health problem in developing countries, where its prevalence can be up to 57 per 1000 population. This article reviews the epidemiology of epilepsy in developing countries in terms of its incidence, prevalence, seizure type, mortality data, and etiological factors. The prevalence of epilepsy is particularly high in Latin America and in several African countries, notably Liberia, Nigeria, and the United Republic of Tanzania. Parasitic infections, particularly neurocysticercosis, are important etiological factors for epilepsy in many of these countries. Other reasons for the high prevalence include intracranial infections of bacterial or viral origin, perinatal brain damage, head injuries, toxic agents, and hereditary factors. Many of these factors are, however, preventable or modifiable, and the introduction of appropriate measures to achieve this could lead to a substantial decrease in the incidence of epilepsy in developing countries. PMID:8490989

  16. Programmed Language Instruction for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bung, Klaus

    This paper considers the differences in the initial education and financial situation between industrial and developing countries. Programed learning (PL) techniques and PS research cannot be taken over wholesale from industrial countries, but techniques have to be adapted and the emphasis of research has to be changed. These principles are…

  17. [Demographic projections for Latin American countries prepared by CELADE].

    PubMed

    Somoza, J L

    1978-04-01

    The CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) prepares population projections for 20 Latin American countries, a difficult task considering the lack of reliable census data on births, deaths, and other demographic information. Nevertheless, the demographic situation can be estimated by distinguishing two states in the process: estimating past and present population history and formulating hypotheses regarding the future trends of demographic variables. In a typical situation for most Latin American countries, the first stage is the most difficult; results are mostly approximations of the reality. Thus, projections based on these data are unreliable. The present demographic situation in Latin America was analyzed by estimating fertility, mortality and international migration. Fertility rate was calculated based on the following data: number of children born to the female population, number of live births during the year prior to the census classified according to mother's age and number of children registered according to age up to 10 or 15 years of age. Fertility was thus calculated within 5 years prior to the census. Mortality was roughly estimated by calculating the annual death distribution by age. This promoted questions relating to orphans and the relative number of children who survived out of total number of children born to a woman. Little data was available on migration due to lack of registries on annual migration. It was estimated based on the number of people who left the country for 5 years, and promoted questions such as which country is one native of and year of entry into the country. The most important task relating to population projection of Latin America is the improvement of knowledge on fertility, mortality and migration. PMID:12335526

  18. Higher Education Challenges in Developing Countries: The Case of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Diane E.

    2004-01-01

    This review of literature was written in preparation for conducting a research study on the U.S. community college system as a potential model for developing countries, and using Vietnam as a specific case. It is divided into four sections: (a) a discussion of the purposes of higher education (HE), (b) an examination of problems faced by the HE…

  19. Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159549.html Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries Machines might ... Right now, people often associate the use of drones with warfare. But in the future they could ...

  20. Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159549.html Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries Machines might ... Right now, people often associate the use of drones with warfare. But in the future they could ...

  1. Reforming Earth science education in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    Improving the employability of Earth science graduates by reforming Earth science instruction is a matter of concern to universities worldwide. It should, however, be self-evident that the developing countries cannot follow the same blueprint for change as the industrialized countries due to constraints of affordability and relevance. Peanuts are every bit as nutritious as almonds; if one with limited means has to choose between a fistful of peanuts and just one almond, it is wise to choose the peanuts. A paradigm proposed here would allow institutions in developing countries to impart good quality relevant Earth science instruction that would be affordable and lead to employment.

  2. The solar dilemma in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Saif-Ul-Rehman, M. )

    1991-08-01

    This article examines the contribution that solar energy has made to the energy systems of developing countries. The topics discussed in the article are wealth and energy consumption disparities, past and present status of solar energy, inherent limitations of solar energy, modes of solar energy utilization, why solar energy has contributed little to the energy systems of the developing countries, and suggestions for promoting the solar industry.

  3. Preparing the Host Country Workforce for Expatriate Managers: The Neglected Other Side of the Coin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Charles M.; Ring, Peter Smith

    1994-01-01

    Using an instructional systems development approach, ways to prepare the host country workforce for the assignment of an expatriate manager are discussed. The model is based on a number of perspectives: exchange theory, participatory management, corporate social responsibility, communication theory, and strategic human resource planning. (SK)

  4. Feasible mitigation actions in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Michael; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Klasen, Stephan; Lay, Jann; Grunewald, Nicole; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Renner, Sebastian; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-11-01

    Energy use is not only crucial for economic development, but is also the main driver of greenhouse-gas emissions. Developing countries can reduce emissions and thrive only if economic growth is disentangled from energy-related emissions. Although possible in theory, the required energy-system transformation would impose considerable costs on developing nations. Developed countries could bear those costs fully, but policy design should avoid a possible 'climate rent curse', that is, a negative impact of financial inflows on recipients' economies. Mitigation measures could meet further resistance because of adverse distributional impacts as well as political economy reasons. Hence, drastically re-orienting development paths towards low-carbon growth in developing countries is not very realistic. Efforts should rather focus on 'feasible mitigation actions' such as fossil-fuel subsidy reform, decentralized modern energy and fuel switching in the power sector.

  5. Understanding the LANDSAT market in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The constraints on the growth of the market which stem from the development process itself and from a country's technical, political, and institutional attributes were examined. Four competing factors guide the development of policy regarding an operational land remote sensing system and are summarized. The factors are: there is a need to boost U.S. experts in areas where the U.S. holds a technological lead; the need to develop user applications in developing countries on their terms coincides with foreign policy; developing countries desire to take control of their own development; and the U.S. government wants to enlist the participation of major companies in the management, operation, and ownership of the operational system.

  6. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  7. Managing international migration in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Farrag, M

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of 180 participants from 57 governments attending the UN's International Office of Migration's (IOM) Migration Seminar in April 1997 in Geneva. The teams of researchers represented the four developing world regions: sub-Saharan Africa; South Asia; the Arab Region; and Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The seminar was part of IOM's research project on emigration dynamics in developing countries, which was begun in 1993. Researchers shared a common conceptual framework, which recognized the changing socioeconomic, sociopolitical, demographic, and ecological conditions in each country and subregion, the role of networks between people in sending and receiving countries, and the nature of entry restrictions. The research and workshop aimed to help policymakers in developed and developing countries. Conference delegates found the research framework acceptable despite the differences between regions and countries. Conference delegates agreed that the IOM research project was a unique forum for exchange of information and experience between sending and receiving countries. Many participants wanted IOM to provide technical assistance that would help countries manage migration. Delegates strongly desired international commitments to human rights for migrants. Delegates wanted better information exchanges, particularly interchanges of experience on policy measures among Governments, and the stronger inclusion of migrants in management. Returning migrants needed assistance with reintegration. The delegates made 12 recommendations about establishment of an effective system of information exchange, research on emigration dynamics and return migration, development of measures for managing flows that respect existing employment structures, new agreements, and reliable information for migrants on living conditions in host countries. PMID:12348081

  8. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  9. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies.

  10. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes. PMID:25292135

  11. Education for Copeability: Perspective on Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atta-Safoh, Alex

    Stressing the application of progressive thought as a possible innovation toward development in developing countries, the paper discusses three major educational philosophies: romanticism, cultural transmission, and progressivisim (emphasizing the cognitive-developmental theory). Educational innovation and strategies for reform in the Soviet Union…

  12. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  13. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  14. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  15. Quality of life in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Olweny, C L

    1992-01-01

    80% of cancers in developing countries present at an advanced stage and progress rapidly. Since ministries of health in these countries typically do not have the resources to afford aggressive responses to these conditions, the prevention and palliation of disease and related adverse circumstances are of paramount importance. To a clinical investigator, quality of life (QOL) is a measure of success in evaluating treatment outcomes; a means of assessing rehabilitation needs; and a predictor of response to treatment. It embraces broader functional domains than simply physical function and its measurement is likely to serve as a more accurate predictor of outcome than performance status alone. Under the aforementioned conditions under which cancer tends to present in developing countries, practitioners and programs should strive to attain the highest possible QOL for patients and families. Pain and distressing symptoms should be alleviated as much as possible. Socioeconomic and cultural aspects of developing countries are described followed by sections addressing QOL in terms of the impact of social influence; cultural influence on health, illness and QOL; measuring quality of life; and QOL studies in developing countries. Policy change is ultimately called for to ensure the constant availability of cheap analgesics, especially opioids, in a form easily transportable to rural areas. Essential drugs and priority on prevention and palliation are also needed; studies on QOL should help realize these goals. PMID:1432373

  16. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  17. Dental Curriculum Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phantumvanit, Prathip

    1996-01-01

    Since establishment of formal dental education in Southeast Asia, changes stemming from research and technology have led to dental curriculum changes. Development of the dental curriculum can be divided into three phases: disease oriented; health oriented; and community oriented. Evolution of these phases is traced in the dental curricula of Laos,…

  18. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  19. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  20. Poverty in the Developing Countries--1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Although the number of people in developing nations who are too poor to provide themselves with an adequate diet is rising, this is not reason to assume that such poverty is inevitable. Strategies that foster economic growth and include poor people in the growth process can be found in countries with such diverse political and economic systems as…

  1. Prevention of burns in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Van der Merwe, A E; Steenkamp, W C

    2012-12-31

    Burns represent an important health and economic problem in Africa and in the developing countries. Prevention programs in the developing countries are still at an infant phase. It is well known that prevention includes surveillance with data analysis and reporting. With information campaigns, an effort can be made to use regulatory action, to educate the population and modify the environment. The aim of this paper is to identify the risk factors in communities in order to implement communitybased burn prevention strategies, not only on the African continent but also in other developing countries. Effective prevention programs are highlighted. Evidence regarding adequate safety legislation with policing seems to show immediate effects with multiparty involvement and statistical decrease of injury and death. Three examples are discussed where political commitment is mobilised to ensure regulatory action. Other programs are cost-effective and have long-lasting effects, but they take time. Cochrane database system reviews highlighted the problems when people were encouraged to change their lifestyle. NGOs play a definite role in developing countries, and in Bangladesh and Pakistan efforts are being made to curb acid-throwing violence. Communities consist of many groups. There must be a societal responsibility to design products a. PMID:23766751

  2. The Book Famine in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Dina N.

    1970-01-01

    Problems facing book publishing in developing countries include lack of experienced authors, insufficient or complete non-availablility of paper, shortage of printing and binding facilities, publishers' lack of knowledge about editing, production and distribution techniques and shortage of finances. (Author)

  3. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  4. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  5. Priorities in neonatal care in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ho, N K

    1996-08-01

    Lower perinatal and neonatal mortality have been achieved in the developed countries following advancement of neonatal care, introduction of high technologies, and better knowledge of pathophysiology of the newborn infants. Other contributing factors are organised delivery room care with skillful resuscitative techniques as well as risk identification and efficient transport of the sick infants including in utero transfer of the fetus, etc. It cannot be assumed that similar results can be attained in developing countries where financial and human resources are the problems. With limited resources, it is necessary to prioritize neonatal care in the developing countries. It is essential to collect minimum meaningful perinatal data to define the problems of each individual country. This is crucial for monitoring, auditing, evaluation, and planning of perinatal health care of the country. The definition and terminology in perinatology should also be uniform and standardised for comparative studies. Paediatricians should be well trained in resuscitation and stabilisation of the newborn infants. Resuscitation should begin in the delivery room and a resuscitation team should be formed. This is the best way to curtail complication and morbidity of asphyxiated births. Nosocomial infections have been the leading cause of neonatal deaths. It is of paramount importance to prevent infections in the nursery. Staff working in the nursery should pay attention to usage of sterilised equipment, isolation of infected babies and aseptic procedures. Paediatricians should avoid indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Most important of all, hand-washing before examination of the baby is mandatory and should be strictly adhered to. Other simpler measures include warming devices for maintenance of body temperature of the newborn babies, blood glucose monitoring, and antenatal steroid for mothers in premature labour. In countries where neonatal jaundice is prevalent, effective management to

  6. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  7. Health Care System Reforms in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  8. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  9. Health care system reforms in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei

    2012-12-28

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  10. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  11. Hazards in cottage industries in developing countries.

    PubMed

    McCann, M

    1996-08-01

    Occupational health and safety research and prevention programs in developing countries have focused almost exclusively on large-scale industries. The informal sector--especially home-based arts and crafts industries such as pottery, jewelry, weaving, and woodworking, as well as other cottage industries--are a major and neglected part of the economies of developing countries. These industries have many hazards, including lead, silica, toxic woods, cadmium, dyes, and ergonomic problems. Since the work is often done in the home and can involve whole families, the entire family, including children, can be at risk. Prevention programs involving training and education about the hazards, suitable precautions, and development of safer substitutes are needed. This will also require training of local health care providers in the diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases related to hazards in these cottage industries. PMID:8844041

  12. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available. PMID:25346394

  13. Surgical services for children in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bickler, S. W.; Rode, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is growing evidence that childhood surgical conditions, especially injuries, are common in developing countries and that poor care results in significant numbers of deaths and cases of disability. Unfortunately, however, surgical care is not considered an essential component of most child health programmes. Strategies for improving paediatric surgical care should be evidence-based and cost-effective and should aim to benefit the largest possible number of children. The most likely way of achieving policy change is to demonstrate that childhood surgical conditions are a significant public health problem. For paediatric purposes, special attention should also be given to defining a cost-effective package of surgical services, improving surgical care at the community level, and strengthening surgical education. Surgical care should be an essential component of child health programmes in developing countries. PMID:12471405

  14. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. We studied two developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving -- cognitive and socioemotional -- in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006

  15. Digital processing system for developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanayakkara, C.; Wagner, H.

    1977-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform simple digital processing tasks using pre-existing general purpose digital computers. An experimental software package, LIGMALS, was obtained and modified for this purpose. The resulting software permits basic processing tasks to be performed including level slicing, gray mapping and ratio processing. The experience gained in this project indicates a possible direction which may be used by other developing countries to obtain digital processing capabilities.

  16. Special Session: Astronomy for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, A. H.

    A Special Session was held during the XXIV General Assembly on the topic "Astronomy for Developing Countries". During two-and-a-half days, thirty-eight oral papers were presented and a similar number of poster papers were displayed. Edited summaries of the oral papers are presented here. Full texts of those papers and abstracts of the posters appear in a separate volume published in 2001 by the ASP.

  17. Grid and Cloud for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, Monique

    2014-05-01

    The European Grid e-infrastructure has shown the capacity to connect geographically distributed heterogeneous compute resources in a secure way taking advantages of a robust and fast REN (Research and Education Network). In many countries like in Africa the first step has been to implement a REN and regional organizations like Ubuntunet, WACREN or ASREN to coordinate the development, improvement of the network and its interconnection. The Internet connections are still exploding in those countries. The second step has been to fill up compute needs of the scientists. Even if many of them have their own multi-core or not laptops for more and more applications it is not enough because they have to face intensive computing due to the large amount of data to be processed and/or complex codes. So far one solution has been to go abroad in Europe or in America to run large applications or not to participate to international communities. The Grid is very attractive to connect geographically-distributed heterogeneous resources, aggregate new ones and create new sites on the REN with a secure access. All the users have the same servicers even if they have no resources in their institute. With faster and more robust internet they will be able to take advantage of the European Grid. There are different initiatives to provide resources and training like UNESCO/HP Brain Gain initiative, EUMEDGrid, ..Nowadays Cloud becomes very attractive and they start to be developed in some countries. In this talk challenges for those countries to implement such e-infrastructures, to develop in parallel scientific and technical research and education in the new technologies will be presented illustrated by examples.

  18. Socioeconomic implications of AIDS in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J

    1991-12-01

    The author succinctly presents the socioeconomic impact of AIDs in developing countries in terms of demographic effects; economic impact; and the impact on the formal sector, agriculture, human capital, health, food and nutrition, and women and children. The answer to what can be done is directed to policymakers. First, prevention, which has been urged by WHO, is necessary even in areas sexual behavior. Knowledge is not enough. The use of condoms and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases helps; i.e., Thailand's well established and highly visible program. Blood screening is needed as well as the use of protective medical garments (gloves) and clean syringes. The 2nd approach is to concentrate on designing measures to ameliorate the consequences of the HIV infection. Such strategies may involve providing school fees for orphans, introducing and providing labor saving technology, and disseminating prevention messages. The effort should involve cooperative effort between government, nongovernmental and community organizations. Governments must acknowledge the seriousness of the problem and take action. The donor community is faced with the challenge to identify areas of comparative expertise and coordinate approaches. Without such undertakings, the decline in economic and social progress in developing countries and human tragedy will ensue. WHO estimates that in 1991 9 million adults and 1 million children are HIV infected worldwide, of which 80% are in developing countries. Prior focus on the human toll and the strain on national health care systems obfuscates the present threat to economic and social systems. AIDs victims are young and economically productive adults. AIDs has been difficult to model because of the immunological effect, the long incubation period, and the sexual mode of transmission. The epidemic has spread the quickest in sub Saharan Africa, which accounts for 66% of infection world wide. It is expected that by 2000 increase in AIDs cases in

  19. National energy planning for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between these components and our common interest in research to advance the state of the art; but it concludes that the most important needs at this time are institutional rather than analytical, which suggests a somewhat different set of priorities for scholarship related to national energy planning in the developing world.

  20. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Jose, Rod R; Rabie, Amr N; Gerstle, Theodore L; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2015-07-01

    The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents. PMID:26301132

  1. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Jose, Rod R.; Rabie, Amr N.; Gerstle, Theodore L.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents. PMID:26301132

  2. OpportunitiesandPerceptionofSpaceProgramsintheDevelopingCountries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Although the space program as a whole is a true reflection of the level of achievement in human history in the field of Science and Technology, but it is also important to note that there are numbers of communities and societies on this earth that are ignorant about this great achievement, hence leading to the continuous diverting of Potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologist to other disciplines, thereby undermining the development of the space program over time. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed Suggestions/Recommendations:- (1) The European Space Agency (ESA), National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency, should be organising and sponsoring public enlightenment conferences, seminars and workshops towards creating awareness and attracting Potential Astronomers and other Space Scientist mostly in the developing countries into the space program. (2) Esteemed organisations in space programs like NASA, ESA and others should be awarding scholarships to potential space scientist that lacks the financial capability to pursue studies in the field of space science from the developing countries. (3) The European Space Agency, National Aeronautic Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency, should open their offices for the development of the space program in the third world countries. I believe that if the above suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will lead to the development of the space program in general, otherwise the rate at which potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologists will be diverting into other disciplines will ever remain on the increase. Thanks for listening.

  3. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalu, A.; Ventre, G.

    1995-08-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  4. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, A; Ventre, G.

    1995-01-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  5. Climate change and agriculture in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Antle, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Most analysts agree that the poorest countries` agricultures are likely to be the most vulnerable to-and least capable of adapting to-climate change or other environmental disruptions. Research has only recently begun to assess what the likely impacts of climate change on developing countries` agricultures may be, how these agricultures might adapt to climate change, and how policies might be designed to facilitate adaptation. This paper begins with a discussion of what researchers currently believe the impacts of climate change could be on developing country agriculture, principally tropical agriculture. Climate changes are expected to occur from thirty to more than one hundred years in the future. These time horizons mean that predictions of the key factors determining impacts and adaptation-population, income, institutions, and technology-are probably as uncertain as predictions of climate change itself. Rates of productivity growth and technological adaptation will be critical to future food supplies, with or without climate change. Continuation of the trend of the past forty years could make so abundant that climate change effects would be inconsequential, but lower rates of growth could result in population growth outstripping food supplies. The second section of this paper addresses the critical issue of predicting the long-term trend in productivity by building on the substantial knowledge we have about the economic factors determining agricultural innovation and adaptation. Considering the time horizons and uncertainties involved in climate change, the wise policy strategy is to pursue investments that are economically justified, whether or not climate change occurs. A better understanding of managed ecosystems would improve our understanding of agricultural sustainability as well as climate change impacts and adaptation. The third section of this paper outlines an economic approach to modeling managed ecosystems. 21 refs.

  6. A renal transplantation model for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A H; Naqvi, S A A; Zafar, M N; Hussain, Z; Hashmi, A; Hussain, M; Akhtar, S F; Ahmed, E; Aziz, T; Sultan, G; Sultan, S; Mehdi, S H; Lal, M; Ali, B; Mubarak, M; Faiq, S M

    2011-11-01

    The estimated incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Pakistan is 100 per million population. Paucity and high costs of renal replacement therapy allows only 10% to get dialysis and 4-5% transplants. Our center, a government organization, started a dialysis and transplant program in 1980s where all services were provided free of charge to all patients. It was based on the concept of community government partnership funded by both partners. The guiding principles were equity, transparency, accountability and development of all facilities under one roof. This partnership has sustained itself for 30 years with an annual budget of $25 million in 2009. Daily 600 patients are dialyzed and weekly 10-12 receive transplants. One- and 5-year graft survival of 3000 transplants is 92% and 85%, respectively. The institute became a focus of transplantation in Pakistan and played a vital role in the campaign against transplant tourism and in promulgation of transplant law of 2007, and also helped to increase altruistic transplants in the country. This model emphasizes that in developing countries specialized centers in government sector are necessary for transplantation to progress and community support can make it available to the common man. PMID:21883911

  7. Work security impacts in developing countries: India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, T K

    2003-01-01

    Given the rapid pace of globalization, newly industrialized countries cannot adequately protect workers from emerging hazards. Only 5-10% of workers in developing countries have access to occupational health services. Work-related health problems are exacerbated by a scarcity of resources, socioeconomic dislocation, and poor general health status. The author considers the case of India and looks at its background in occupational safety and health (OSH) regulation, national health policy, and recent experience. He notes the decline in trade unions and rise of hazardous industries, and presents a case study of the situation in the state of Delhi. He concludes that the progress of OSH has stalled since economic reform. The high rate of injury and illness is a bad omen for productivity. Lowering the guard on safety and health will ultimately harm the businesses that currently seek to profit from it. The well-being of workers may deteriorate further if poor enforcement and widespread ignorance of OSH persist. Labor standards must be reevaluated and responsible legislation must be developed. Training and nutrition subsidies should be offered to increase productivity and improve worker health. PMID:17208723

  8. The roles of livestock in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M; Grace, D; Njuki, J; Johnson, N; Enahoro, D; Silvestri, S; Rufino, M C

    2013-03-01

    Livestock play a significant role in rural livelihoods and the economies of developing countries. They are providers of income and employment for producers and others working in, sometimes complex, value chains. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor, especially for women and pastoralist groups, and they provide an important source of nourishment for billions of rural and urban households. These socio-economic roles and others are increasing in importance as the sector grows because of increasing human populations, incomes and urbanisation rates. To provide these benefits, the sector uses a significant amount of land, water, biomass and other resources and emits a considerable quantity of greenhouse gases. There is concern on how to manage the sector's growth, so that these benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. Livestock and environment interactions in developing countries can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, manures from ruminant systems can be a valuable source of nutrients for smallholder crops, whereas in more industrial systems, or where there are large concentrations of animals, they can pollute water sources. On the other hand, ruminant systems in developing countries can be considered relatively resource-use inefficient. Because of the high yield gaps in most of these production systems, increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector through sustainable intensification practices presents a real opportunity where research and development can contribute to provide more sustainable solutions. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that production systems become market-orientated, better regulated in cases, and socially acceptable so that the right mix of incentives exists for the systems to intensify. Managing the required intensification and the shifts to new value chains is also essential to avoid a potential increase in zoonotic, food-borne and other diseases. New diversification options and improved

  9. The birth rate decline in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs historically have played an important role in providing information and counseling and supplying modern methods. Most programs are effective due to socioeconomic development and strong political support. Potential demand for services will be growing. This means that donor agencies must commit additional funding, and users must begin paying or paying more for contraceptives. Services and method choices need to be expanded, and quality of care needs to be improved. Three primary factors will impact on fertility decline: 1) the rate of social development, 2) the speed with which small family norms spread and contraception is adopted, and 3) the facility of private and public suppliers to meet contraceptive demand. Other factors influence reproductive decisions (women's roles and status, economic hardships or opportunities, religion, ethnicity, culture, and tradition). Contraceptive prevalence has increased from under 10% in the 1960s to 38% of all married, reproductive age women in the developing world, excluding China, which has contraceptive prevalence of 72%. Regional differences are wide. In Latin America, contraceptive use averages nearly 60% and ranges from over 50% in 10 countries and below 38% in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Haiti. Contraceptive prevalence is above average in Indonesia (50%), Sri Lanka (62%), and Thailand (68%) and just below average in Bangladesh (40%), India (45%), Philippines (34%), and Vietnam (53%). Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest prevalence, except for Zimbabwe (45%), Botswana (35%), and Kenya (27%). 80% of current users rely on modern methods. In most surveyed countries, 20-30% of married women have unmet demand. Fertility decline, unmet demand, and contraceptive use have all been affected by the diffusion of ideas about the use of family planning and the small family norm. Innovators are usually high status, educated women, who spread their views to other social groups or geographic areas. The spread can be rapid

  10. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  11. Delivering golden rice to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jorge E

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties. PMID:17955992

  12. Malnutrition and vaccination in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to an estimated 45% of deaths among children under 5 years of age in developing countries, predominantly due to infections. Malnourished children therefore stand to benefit hugely from vaccination, but malnutrition has been described as the most common immunodeficiency globally, suggesting that they may not be able to respond effectively to vaccines. The immunology of malnutrition remains poorly characterized, but is associated with impairments in mucosal barrier integrity, and innate and adaptive immune dysfunction. Despite this, the majority of malnourished children can mount a protective immune response following vaccination, although the timing, quality and duration of responses may be impaired. This paper reviews the evidence for vaccine immunogenicity in malnourished children, discusses the importance of vaccination in prevention of malnutrition and highlights evidence gaps in our current knowledge. PMID:25964453

  13. Nursing ethics in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Botes, A

    1999-03-01

    Nursing is a true profession, distinguished by its philosophy of care, its full-time commitment to human wellbeing, its particular blend of knowledge and skills and its valuable service to the community (Curtin & Flaherty, 1982:92). Ethics is vital to nursing. Being a professional implies ethical behaviour and knowledge of what it means to be ethical (Pera & Van Tonder, 1996:v). Ethics is the foundation of committed service to humankind. When nurses practice is an ethical manner they should adhere to ethical principles like autonomy, beneficence, justice, veracity, fidelity, confidentiality and privacy. From this conceptual framework two questions can be asked, namely: Does the behaviour of nurses in health services in South Africa comply with the principles of ethics? How can ethical behaviour be facilitated in nurses in South Africa? The first question was answered by doing a critical analysis of thirty-two case studies of recent ethical phenomena in health services. The ethical principles will be used as criteria for this analysis. Some of the ethical case studies will be presented in this paper to indicate the problems in relation to autonomy, beneficence, justice, veracity and fidelity. It will be demonstrated that from deontological ethical theories nurses are not doing their duty as advocates for the vulnerable patient and from utilitarianism the poor and uneducated patients are being exploited. To empower patients in developing countries it is of vital importance for nurses to behave in an ethical manner. From a literature study a program for rational interaction for moral sensitivity (Rossouw, 1995) and virtue-based ethics in Nursing Education is identified to facilitate moral behaviour amongst nurses in developing countries. PMID:11040612

  14. Developments in Assisting Countries in Implementing the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Cain, Ronald A.; Kovacic, Don N.; Apt, Kenneth E.; VanSickle, Matthew

    2010-08-11

    In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began assisting selected non-nuclear weapon states in planning and preparing for implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Additional Protocol (AP). Since then, the AP international implementation program has contributed to the substantial progress made by Vietnam, Thailand, Iraq, and Malaysia in preparing for entry-into-force of the AP. An overall engagement plan has been developed with components designed to train government AP implementing agencies, inform policy makers, conduct outreach to industry and universities, make AP reporting software available and useful, and plan a detailed approach for implementing the declaration and complementary access provisions of the AP. DOE recently began collaborating with Indonesia, which has already entered the AP into force, requiring a second method of engagement somewhat different from that taken with countries that have not entered the AP into force. The AP international implementation program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program, is working more closely with DOE’s International Nonproliferation Export Control Program to ensure countries are aware of and prepared to implement the export/import provisions of the AP. As the AP implementation program matures and helps move countries closer to entry-into-force or improved AP implementation, it is identifying characteristics of a country’s “end-state” that indicate that DOE assistance is no longer required. The U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification require the Administration to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states. DOE’s AP international implementation program is a significant part of these measures. This paper describes recent developments to increase the scope and effectiveness of the program.

  15. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, B; Barrios, J A; Mendez, J M; Diaz, J

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible for more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision on the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of these issues. PMID:15259962

  16. Teacher labor markets in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America

  17. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This Introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and violence, and the home environment addressing two common questions: How do developing and underresearched countries in the world vary with respect to these central indicators of children's development? and How do key indicators of national development relate to child development in each of these substantive areas? The Special Section concludes with policy implications from the international findings. PMID:22277004

  18. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  19. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  20. Community Work Teaching at Schools of Social Work in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, James; Adler, Zsuzsanna

    1978-01-01

    To examine the potential role of community social work in developing countries and the extent to which social workers in those countries are prepared, data from 22 schools of social work and 43 social work courses were analyzed. The authors emphasize that more community work teaching is needed. (MF)

  1. WBL to Promote Lifelong Learning among Farmers from Developing Countries: Key Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    In times of liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG), countries are looking to establish effective systems of lifelong learning to prepare farmers for changing agricultural sector. But offering lifelong learning to farmers in developing countries) is a vital challenge as majority of them are residing in remote and rural areas and have…

  2. Biotechnology and food systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2003-11-01

    Even in a world with adequate food supplies in global markets, which is the situation today, biotechnology offers important opportunities to developing countries in four domains. First, many agronomically hostile or degraded environments require major scientific breakthroughs to become productive agricultural systems. Few of these breakthroughs are likely to be achieved through traditional breeding approaches. Second, biofortification offers the promise of greater quantities and human availabilities of micronutrients from traditional staple foods, with obvious nutritional gains for poor consumers, especially their children. Third, many high yielding agricultural systems are approaching their agronomic potential. Radically new technologies will be required to sustain productivity growth in these systems, and only modern genetic technology offers this hope. Finally, many cropping systems use large quantities of chemical inputs, such as herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers that can be unhealthy for people and soils alike. Biotechnology offers the potential to reduce the need for these inputs in economically and environmentally sustainable ways. Applying these new technologies to society's basic foods raises obvious concerns for both human and ecological health. For some, these concerns have become outright fear, and this has mobilized a backlash against genetically modified foods in any form. These concerns (and fears) must be addressed carefully and rationally so that the public understands the risks (which are not zero) and benefits (which might be enormous). Only the scientific community has the expertise and credibility to build this public understanding. PMID:14608038

  3. Transfer of regulatory toxicology from developed to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Salinas, J A

    1988-12-01

    Over the past two decades, industrialized nations have addressed and attempted to solve the problems of chemical risk through the development of laws, government and private organizations, and specialized manpower. Developing nations are now recognizing that the presence of toxicants in the environment, foods, consumer products, and the workplace can seriously affect human health, the ecology, international relations, and economic activities such as trade and tourism. The design and implementation of regulatory programs in developing countries is hampered by lack of government and public concern, pressure of more urgent needs, vested interests of industry, and lack of adequately trained professionals. These factors have allowed developed nations to sell abroad drugs, pesticides, and other chemicals considered too hazardous for use in their own countries. Conversely, products from developing nations must comply with rigorous standards for acceptance by developed nations. Some of these problems would be lessened by agreement on international chemical control guidelines. Multilateral availability of complete information about chemicals is essential. The coordination of this effort should be in the hands of international organizations and reinforced by bilateral agreements between countries. Appropriate public education and economic incentives at the national level would help in enforcing regulatory toxicology. PMID:3077266

  4. Energy and development in Central America. Volume II. country assesments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-03-01

    This volume presents a country-by-country energy assessment of six Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. For each country it includes an assessment of geographic, social, and economic aspects of energy development, an assessment of energy resources, current and projected energy use, potential strategies for energy development, and finally recommendations to USAID for the orientation of its energy development programs. Each country assessment is supplemented with a summary of energy R and D activities and a description of each country's energy-related institutions.

  5. International sources of financial cooperation for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1983-01-01

    By direct consulation and review of published sources, a study of 16 selected official sources of international financial cooperation was conducted over the August 1979 to August 1980 period in order to assess the policies, programs, and prospects for support of established international health goals. This study demonstrated that approximately 90% of the external health sector funds are provided via development oriented agencies. The major agencies providing such assistance concur that no sector, including health, should be excluded "a priori," providing that the requesting nation conveys its proposals through the appropriate national development planning authority. The agencies in the study also were found to be supporting health related programs in all the geographic regions of the World Health Organization (WHO). An associated review of 30 external funding agencies revealed that only 5 reported providing health assistance in more than half of the countries where they provided assistance for general development purposes. Interviewed sources attributed this to the limited manner in which health proposals have been identified, prepared, and forwarded (with national development authority approval) to international agencies. In 1979 concessional development financing totaled approximately US$29.9 billion, US$24.2 billion being provided by 17 major industrial nations, US$4.7 billion by Organization of Petroleum Exporting (OPEC) countries, and less than US$1 billion by the countries of Eastern Europe. Approximately 2/3 of such concessional financing is administered bilaterally, only 1/3 passing through multilateral institutions. UN agencies receive only 12% of these total concessional development financing resources. In 1979, concessional funding for health totaled approximately US$3 billion, approximately 1/10 of which was administered by WHO and its regional offices. It is anticipated that future international funding for health in developing countries will continue

  6. Mandatory public reporting of healthcare-associated infections in developed countries: how can developing countries follow?

    PubMed

    Biswal, M; Mewara, A; Appannanavar, S B; Taneja, N

    2015-05-01

    The threat posed by increased transmission of drug-resistant pathogens within healthcare settings and from healthcare settings to the community is very real and alarming. Although the developed world has taken strong steps to curb this menace, there has been little pressure on developing countries to take any corrective action. If the reporting of alarming rates of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) from hospitals in India and many other developing countries was made mandatory, it would help to force stakeholders (e.g. healthcare workers, legislators, administrators and policy makers in hospitals) to acknowledge and tackle the problem. This would introduce quality control in a long neglected area of health care, and enable patient empowerment which is practically non-existent in India. Healthcare institutions should commit towards enforcing 'zero tolerance' towards lapses in prevention of HCAIs. Public pressure would force the Indian Government to acknowledge the problem, and to allocate more funds to improve resources and infrastructure; this could substantially elevate the standard of health care given to the average Indian. Despite the numerous challenges, overall public benchmarking of HCAIs is a commendable goal that would go a long way towards tackling this menace in developing countries such as India. PMID:25617089

  7. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. PMID:20575152

  8. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows. PMID:26576083

  9. Protein-calorie deficits in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Béhar, M

    1977-11-30

    Twenty years ago, we were invited to present a paper on severe protein-malnutrition in children in a meeting organized by this same Academy. In reviewing that paper for this presentation, it was very frustrating to find that the basic principles we stated there in regard to the nature of the probelm and its epidemiology are as valid today as they were 20 years ago. As most other workers in the field, we were then particularly concerned with the severe forms of protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM): kwashiorkor and marasmus. These individual cases occupied a large proportion of pediatric beds in hospitals of most developing countries, and we were interested in finding better ways to treat them. But also we were studying these cases as a basis for understanding the responsible factors better and for designing possible preventive measures. The interrelations of kwashiorkor and marasmus were recognized then, as well the fact that both protein and calories should be considered together in the epidemiology of the problem. We were also beginning to understand that the severe clinical cases that we were seeing in the hospitals were only the visible part of a much greater problem affecting the communities from which these children came. With the knowledge then available on the epidemiology of PCM, we were also starting to explore some specific measures for its prevention. I would like now to review what progress we have made, if any, in the understanding of the nature and magnitude of the problem, its epidemiology, and in designing preventive measures. PMID:100038

  10. Some ethical issues in international collaborative research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Robison, V A

    1998-12-01

    This report deals with some of the ethical issues involved in international, intercultural research collaboration. Externally sponsored research in developing countries merits special attention because the research should be guided both by biomedical ethics and development ethics. The report presents the context of the developing country researcher and examples of ethical problems in a donor-funded research collaboration project in a developing country dental school. Both donor and recipient countries share full responsibility for conducting research which is both ethical and which meets the health priorities of the recipient country. PMID:9881288

  11. (The economics of nuclear and conventional power plants in developing countries)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, H.I.

    1988-07-11

    The tasks of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Advisory Group (AG), were (1) to review cost data provided by six developing countries (Brazil, Peoples Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Korea, and Turkey) and (2) to develop an outline for a report to be prepared by IAEA staff. Based on the cost data submitted, it was projected that busbar generation costs for nuclear will be lower than for coal for five of the six developing countries represented. Only Brazil favored coal. However, developing countries must also be assured of adequate financing by the seller, high certainty in costs, significant domestic participation, and technology transfer. The report will become an annex to a study of nuclear and coal economics in industrially developed countries being prepared by the organization for economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

  12. Electricity demand growth in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sheahen, T.P.

    1998-07-01

    On the presumption of inevitable global warming, the US and some other industrialized countries signed a treaty in Kyoto, Japan to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} being emitted (but only by those countries who agreed to the limitations). Many observers have criticized this move as too hasty, because it would drastically impact the economies of the industralized nations, eliminating jobs and raising prices. They point out that manufacturing will shift to third-world countries who are not going to limit their CO{sub 2} emissions. Consequently, the Kyoto treaty may not be ratified by the US Senate. However, it has escaped attention just how numerically large will be the CO{sub 2} emitted by the non-participating countries as their electricity generation increases, despite the efforts of the industralized nations to cut back on CO{sub 2}. This paper presents calculation to estimate the seriousness of such emissions. The predictions follow from two clearly-stated assumptions, both of which are entirely plausible. Future R and D in combustion technology could partially offset the impact of the expected growth.

  13. The geostationary orbit and developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The geostationary orbit is becoming congested due to use by several countries throughout the world, and the request for use of this orbit is increasing. There are 188 geostationary stations in operation. An equitable distribution of stations on this orbit is requested.

  14. Destigmatizing day-to-day practices: what developed countries can learn from developing countries

    PubMed Central

    ROSEN, ALAN

    2006-01-01

    The nature of and threshold for stigma associated with mental disorders appears to be different between developed and developing countries. Decreasing stigma can be achieved through a combination of the best Western educational and media strategies and the systematization of some important lessons from developing countries. At the macro-level, this involves: societal changes leading to being more inclusive and re-integrating people with mental illness into our communities; finding socially useful and culturally valued work roles for such marginalized people; re-extending our kinship networks, and re-valuing contact with people with mental illness and learning from their experiences. At the micro-level, this involves developing more destigmatizing day-to-day clinical practices, including: more holistic appraisal of disorder, abilities and needs; therapeutic optimism; a strengths orientation; engaging family and redeveloping an extended support network; celebration of age appropriate rites of passage; invoking the language of recovery; valuing veterans of mental illness as "spirit guides"; promoting consumers' community living as full citizens; engaging and involving the local community in taking responsibility for their own mental health. PMID:16757986

  15. Inclusion Education and the Developing Countries: The Case of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibria, Gholam

    2005-01-01

    Following the trends of "Inclusion" movement in the USA and some Western countries, a number of Developing countries have been imbued with the philosophy of inclusion education. Some of these countries have enacted laws to safeguard the educational rights and welfare of children with disabilities, and others have been trying to initiate inclusion…

  16. Creating World-Class Universities: Implications for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeongwoo

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are now creating world-class universities (WCUs) as essential parts of their higher education reform agendas, and as national goals. It is legitimate to ask whether every country that aspires to build a WCU can do so--especially developing countries. To answer this question, this paper provides a three-step framework. The first step…

  17. Assessing the nutritional vulnerability of older people in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The nutrition of older people in developing countries, and the effect of their nutritional status on the quality of life, have not received sufficient attention. A 1997 symposium held at the London (England) School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine addressed the assessment of nutritional vulnerability in older people in rural and urban settings. Reported were the results of a collaborative study conducted in the urban slums of Mumbai, India; a refugee camp for Rwandans in Karagwe, Tanzania; and rural communities in Malawi. Physical impairment was highest in India and increased with both age and deteriorating nutritional status in all three settings. Among the risk factors for nutritional vulnerability identified through the study to date are living alone, social isolation, reduced food intake, illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, and certain diseases. A field handbook to assess nutritional vulnerability has been prepared based on the research program and will be published in 1988. PMID:12293175

  18. The diffusion of medical techniques to less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Piachaud, D

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the extent to which a set of eight modern medical techniques had been introduced in less developed countries in 1977. The results are presented for each country and related to the characteristics of the country. Many very poor countries were found to have introduced many very recent techniques. The reasons for this are discussed, and appropriate questions to be asked about any new technique are suggested. PMID:114497

  19. The Case for Research in Pure Physics in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mweene, H. V.

    Science and technology are the keys to modern economic development. But, it has often been argued that poor countries cannot really afford to support research, or that they should at most devote their efforts to applied science only. The scientific knowledge necessary for development would then be partly or wholly obtained from other countries. In this paper, the case will be argued that developing countries cannot afford to leave research, both pure and applied, to the developed countries and that the only way the developing world is going to solve its problems is through development driven by their own research activities. With reference to physics, the importance of research by researchers in poor countries is explained. Lastly, it is outlined how the logistics of doing research under the difficult conditions prevailing in poor countries can be managed.

  20. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  1. Can Norms Developed in One Country Be Applicable to Children of Another Country?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Hazel Mei Yung

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim this study was to investigate whether a gross motor proficiency norm developed in one country could be applied to young children in another country. The secondary aim of the study was to assess the gross motor proficiency of Hong Kong preschoolers aged five years. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) (subtests…

  2. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  3. Chemicals and environmentally caused diseases in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Jamall, I.S.; Davis, B. )

    1991-06-01

    This chapter discusses international aspects of diseases resulting from exposure to chemical pollutants in the environment, with an emphasis on developing countries. These countries share many of the same problems of air, water, and pesticide pollution that face the more industrialized countries. In developing countries, however, the problems are compounded by a number of unique situations, viz., economic priorities, high burden of infectious diseases, impoverishment, and absence of a regulatory framework for the disposal of toxic chemicals. This discussion emphasizes the importance of interactions among toxicants, malnutrition, and infectious diseases for both urban and rural populations insofar as these interactions contribute to disease. Toxicants not only produce disease directly but also exacerbate diseases with other causes. Specific examples from developing countries demonstrate how human health effects from exposures to environmental chemicals can be assessed. While they do not strictly fall under the rubric of developing countries, the public health consequences of inadequate control of environmental pollution in the East European countries should demonstrate the magnitude of the problem, except that in developing countries the public health consequence of environmental chemicals will be aggravated by the widespread malnutrition and high prevalence of infectious diseases. Much needs to be done before we can adequately quantify the contribution of environmental chemicals to morbidity and mortality in developing countries with the level of sophistication now evident in the charting of infectious diseases in these countries. 52 references.

  4. Rethinking HIV prevalence determination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Oyediran, Kolawole A

    2015-01-01

    The process for HIV prevalence determination using antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data has been plagued by criticisms of its biasness. Exploring other means of HIV prevalence determination is necessary to validate that estimates are near actual values or to replace the current system. We propose a data collection model that leverages the increasing adoption and penetration of the Internet and mobile technology to collect and archive routine data from HIV counseling and testing (HCT) client intake forms from all HCT centers and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) sites in a country. These data will then be mined to determine prevalence rates and risk factors at the community level. The need to improve the method for the generation of HIV prevalence rates has been repeatedly echoed by researchers though no one has been able to fashion out a better and more reliable way to the current ANC sentinel surveillance method at a reasonable cost. The chance of using routinely generated data during HCT and PMTCT is appealing and needs to be envisioned as the technology to achieve this is increasingly becoming available and affordable in countries worst hit by the pandemic. Triangulating data generated from routine HCT and PMTCT sites with data from sentinel surveillance and where the confidence of its quality is assured, as the sole source of HIV prevalence rate determination and behavioral risk assessment will improve the acceptance by communities and drive evidence-based interventions at the community level. PMID:25174731

  5. Innovations and Reforms in Schooling in Asia's Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclean, Rupert

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of problems facing Asia's developing countries as they strive to achieve economic development. Reviews trends in universal primary education; continuing education; restructuring secondary education; communications technology, vocational education, and professional development of teachers. (CFR)

  6. [Quality of medicines in least developed countries].

    PubMed

    Videau, J Y

    2006-12-01

    Due to worsening economic conditions and poor enforcement of existing pharmaceutical and customs regulations, third world countries are faced with a growing threat from counterfeit and substandard medicines. With the expansion of illicit markets in urban areas, the sales of medicines of uncertain quality and origin are increasing. Most victims of this illicit trade are among the world's poorest populations that cannot afford to buy quality drugs through private-sector distribution channels. National pharmaceutical programs promoting universal access to essential generic medicines at reasonable cost are the key to curbing this problem. A system based on strict, rational pharmaceutical purchasing and distribution policies with quality assurance at every level of the supply chain is needed to guarantee that patients receive safe effective high quality healthcare products. PMID:17286015

  7. Potential applications of advanced aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation sponsored by NASA indicates that air transportation can play an important role in the economic progress of developing countries. By the turn of the century, the rapid economic growth now occurring in many developing countries should result in a major redistribution of the world's income. Some countries now classified as 'developing' will become 'developed' and are likely to become far more important to the world's civil aviation industry. Developing countries will be increasingly important buyers of conventional subsonic long-haul jet passenger aircraft but not to the point of significant influence on the design or technological content of future aircraft of this type. However, the technological content of more specialized aircraft may be influenced by developing country requirements and reflected in designs which fill a need concerning specialized missions, related to short-haul, low-density, rough runways, and natural resource development.

  8. "Health for all" in a least-developed country.

    PubMed Central

    Shonubi, Aderibigbe M. O.; Odusan, Olatunde; Oloruntoba, David O.; Agbahowe, Solomon A.; Siddique, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) concept of primary healthcare as the basis for comprehensive healthcare delivery for developing countries has not been effectively applied in many of these countries. The Kingdom of Lesotho, one of the world's least-developed countries, has been able to provide a fairly comprehensive healthcare system for its citizenry based on prmary healthcare principles and a strong commitment on the part of the government despite severe limitations of finance and human resource capacity as well as difficult mountainous terrains. This paper presents the highlights of this system of healthcare delivery with the hope that other developing countries would draw some lessons from the model. PMID:16080673

  9. Interprofessional Education for Whom? — Challenges and Lessons Learned from Its Implementation in Developed Countries and Their Application to Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Hinthong, Woranich; Jimba, Masamine; Yasuoka, Junko

    2014-01-01

    advance, those who implement IPE programs in developing countries will be much more prepared, and can enhance the program's potential success. PMID:24809509

  10. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Ghaiath MA

    2009-01-01

    Background Bioethics as a field related to the health system and health service delivery has grown in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in North America. This is attributed, the author argues, to mainly three kinds of development that took place in the developed countries at a pace different than the developing countries. They are namely: development of the health system; moral development; and political development. Discussion This article discusses the factors that impede the development of the field of bioethics from an academic activity to a living field that is known and practiced by the people in the developing countries. They are quite many; however, the emphasis here is on role of the political structure in the developing countries and how it negatively affects the development of bioethics. It presents an argument that if bioethics is to grow within the system of health service, it should be accompanied by a parallel changes in the political mindsets in these countries. Summary For bioethics to flourish in developing countries, it needs an atmosphere of freedom where people can practice free moral reasoning and have full potential to take their life decisions by themselves. Moreover, bioethics could be a tool for political change through the empowerment of people, especially the vulnerable. To achieve that, the article is proposing a practical framework for facilitating the development of the field of bioethics in the developing countries. PMID:19463174

  11. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Rachael E; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking. PMID:23360772

  12. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  13. Outcomes of Students with Disabilities in a Developing Country: Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sheilah M.

    2011-01-01

    In most developed countries, research studies that investigate the effects of special education on student outcomes have become conventional practice. However, in developing countries such as the twin-island Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, there are no studies about the progress and outcomes of students and youths with disabilities. This…

  14. Perceived Requirements of MIS Curriculum Implementation in Bilingual Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabeil, Magdy M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses additional requirements associated with implementing a standard curriculum of Management Information Systems (MIS) in bilingual developing countries where both students and workplace users speak English as a second language. In such countries, MIS graduates are required to develop bilingual computer applications and to…

  15. Computer Needs and Computer Problems in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huskey, Harry D.

    A survey of the computer environment in a developing country is provided. Levels of development are considered and the educational requirements of countries at various levels are discussed. Computer activities in India, Burma, Pakistan, Brazil and a United Nations sponsored educational center in Hungary are all described. (SK/Author)

  16. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  17. Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  19. Control of oral cancer in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world. In Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka it is the most common and accounts for about a third of all cancers. More than 100 000 new cases occur every year in south and south-east Asia, with poor prospects of survival. The importance of oral cancer as a public health priority is underscored by the fact that the suffering, disfigurement, and death it causes need not occur. The commonest cause of oral cancer—tobacco use—is well known and can be eliminated. For the oral cancer cases that do occur, detection at an early stage is possible, allowing simple inexpensive treatment, and resulting in long-term survival. Enough is already known about the disease and its prevention for action to be taken. With firm commitment, correct priorities, and concerted efforts by governments and individuals, strategies can be designed, programmes can be implemented, and the disease can be prevented. The economic saving in health care costs to a country, by itself, justifies these steps; the prevention of suffering and death of oral cancer victims makes them mandatory. This article reviews the current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, pathology, prevention, and treatment of oral cancer. It describes a strategy for controlling the disease, sets priorities, and recommends actions that governments and individuals can take. Finally, it identifies targets for future research. PMID:6335843

  20. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework. PMID:15193088

  1. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services. PMID:18797803

  2. Simplified training for hazardous materials management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of dangerous situations happening daily in developing countries around the world involving untrained workers and hazardous materials. There are very few if any agencies in developing countries that are charged with ensuring safe and healthful working conditions. In addition to the problem of regulation and enforcement, there are potential training problems due to the level of literacy and degree of scientific background of these workers. Many of these workers are refugees from poorly developed countries who are willing to work no matter what the conditions. Training methods (standards) accepted as state of the art in the United States and other developed countries may not work well under the conditions found in developing countries. Because these methods may not be appropriate, new and novel ways to train workers quickly, precisely and economically in hazardous materials management should be developed. One approach is to develop training programs that use easily recognizable graphics with minimal verbal instruction, programs similar to the type used to teach universal international driving regulations and safety. The program as outlined in this paper could be tailored to any sized plant and any hazardous material handling or exposure situation. The situation in many developing countries is critical, development of simplified training methods for workers exposed to hazardous materials hold valuable market potential and are an opportunity for many underdeveloped countries to develop indigenous expertise in hazardous materials management.

  3. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    an earthquake- and tsunami-resistant structure in Sumatra to house a tsunami museum, a community training center, and offices of a local NGO that is preparing Padang for the next tsunami. This facility would be designed and built by a team of US and Indonesian academics, architects, engineers and students. Another initiative would launch a collaborative research program on school earthquake safety with the scientists and engineers from the US and the ten Islamic countries that comprise the Economic Cooperation Organization. Finally, GHI hopes to develop internet and satellite communication techniques that will allow earthquake risk managers in the US to interact with masons, government officials, engineers and architects in remote communities of vulnerable developing countries, closing the science and engineering divide.

  4. Bioethics in developing countries: ethics of scarcity and sacrifice.

    PubMed Central

    Olweny, C

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary issues such as euthanasia, surrogate motherhood, organ transplantation and gene therapy, which occupy the minds of ethicists in the industrialized countries are, for the moment, irrelevant in most developing countries. There, the ethics of scarcity, sacrifice, cross-cultural research, as well as the activities of multinational companies, are germane. In this article, only the ethics of scarcity and sacrifice will be discussed. Structural adjustment programmes, designed to solve the economic problems of the developing countries, muddied the waters. The dilemma confronting practitioners in developing countries is how to adhere to the basic principles of medical ethics in an atmosphere of hunger, poverty, war and ever-shrinking and often non-existent resources. Nowhere else in the world is the true meaning of scarcity portrayed as vividly as in the developing countries. Consequently, the doctor's clinical freedom may have to be sacrificed by the introduction of an essential drugs list and practice guidelines. The principle of greater good, while appealing, must be carefully interpreted and applied in the developing countries. Thus, while health promotion and disease prevention must be the primary focus, health planners should avoid pushing prevention at the expense of those currently sick. Health care reform in developing countries must not merely re-echo what is being done in the industrialized countries, but must respond to societal needs and be relevant to the community in question. PMID:7996563

  5. Nursing aspects of infection control in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sobayo, E I

    1991-06-01

    The quality of the infection control programme in developing countries is determined by the resource allocation to the health sector and the health care delivery system. These depend to a great extent on the socio-economic development of the country. Morbidity and mortality from communicable infections, such as diarrhoeal diseases and malaria are high. There is often an irregular water and electricity supply. Essential material resources, e.g. paper towels, gowns, gloves, masks and disinfectants may not be available and some disposable materials have to be re-used. Most hospitals have no infection control programme due to the lack of awareness of the problem or absence of trained personnel in infection control practices. Developing countries differ in many ways from each other, often having dissimilar cultures and languages and state of socio-economic development. Solutions will emerge only if there is co-operation between countries and provision of assistance, where appropriate, from wealthier countries. PMID:1679805

  6. What has bioethics to offer the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ren-Zong

    1993-04-01

    My paper consists of three parts. In the first part I try to explain the intellectual basis of bioethics in developing countries. In the second part I describe the bioethical dilemmas facing these countries. In the third part I shall discuss the changes that have to be made in bioethics if it is to take root in these countries, and thereby help them to improve the human existence. PMID:11651524

  7. Academic Patents and Access to Medicines in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There is a widespread and growing concern that patents hinder access to life-saving drugs in developing countries. Recent student movements and legislative initiatives emphasize the potential role that research universities in developed countries could have in ameliorating this “access gap.” These efforts are based on the assumption that universities own patents on a substantial number of drugs and that patents on these drugs are currently filed in developing countries. I provide empirical evidence regarding these issues and explore the feasibility and desirability of proposals to change university patenting and licensing practices to promote access to medicines in the developing world. PMID:19008514

  8. Health innovation networks to help developing countries address neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Morel, Carlos M; Acharya, Tara; Broun, Denis; Dangi, Ajit; Elias, Christopher; Ganguly, N K; Gardner, Charles A; Gupta, R K; Haycock, Jane; Heher, Anthony D; Hotez, Peter J; Kettler, Hannah E; Keusch, Gerald T; Krattiger, Anatole F; Kreutz, Fernando T; Lall, Sanjaya; Lee, Keun; Mahoney, Richard; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo; Mashelkar, R A; Matlin, Stephen A; Mzimba, Mandi; Oehler, Joachim; Ridley, Robert G; Senanayake, Pramilla; Singer, Peter; Yun, Mikyung

    2005-07-15

    Gross inequities in disease burden between developed and developing countries are now the subject of intense global attention. Public and private donors have marshaled resources and created organizational structures to accelerate the development of new health products and to procure and distribute drugs and vaccines for the poor. Despite these encouraging efforts directed primarily from and funded by industrialized countries, sufficiency and sustainability remain enormous challenges because of the sheer magnitude of the problem. Here we highlight a complementary and increasingly important means to improve health equity: the growing ability of some developing countries to undertake health innovation. PMID:16020723

  9. Basic Problems of Continuing Engineering Education in Developing Countries: Transfer of Technology from Developed to Developing Countries by CEE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Brito, Afonso Henriques

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) continuing engineering education (CEE) in developing countries and particularly the Brazilian experience; (2) financial sources provided by legislation passed by the government of Brazil and their importance for CEE expansion; and (3) CEE in traditional classroom education and limitations due to schedules for working engineers in…

  10. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  11. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  12. Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyoussef, Amor

    1977-01-01

    Reviews recent work dealing with methodological and technical issues in health and development; presents examples of the application of social sciences, including health demography and economics, in questions of health services delivery; and analyzes delivery of health services to rural and nomadic populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.…

  13. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C. B.; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L. A.; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N.; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G.; Vanek, Steven J.; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A.; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  14. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  15. Mitigation of non-communicable diseases in developing countries with community health workers.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Dinesh; Preen, David; Kallestrup, Per; Perry, Henry B

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly becoming priorities in developing countries. While developed countries are more prepared in terms of skilled human resources for NCD management, developing the required human resources is still a challenge in developing countries. In this context, mobilizing community health workers (CHWs) for control of NCDs seems promising. With proper training, supervision and logistical support, CHWs can participate in the detection and treatment of hypertension, diabetes, and other priority chronic diseases. Furthermore, advice and support that CHWs can provide about diet, physical activity, and other healthy lifestyle habits (such as avoidance of smoking and excessive alcohol intake) have the potential for contributing importantly to NCD programs. This paper explores the possibility of involving CHWs in developing countries for addressing NCDs. PMID:26555199

  16. The use of alternatives to animal tests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hong, H A; Hendriks, J

    1999-01-01

    Consideration of alternative methods for animal tests in developing countries is important because good quality laboratory animals and proper animal facilities are not always sufficiently available to perform the currently required quality control tests. In vitro methods have been implemented at the National Institute of Vaccines and Biological Substances (IVAC) in Vietnam. These include serological tests (such as the Toxin Binding Inhibition test and the VERO Cell test) for the estimation of potency of Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoid vaccines and for the evaluation of vaccine field trials. Currently, an inhibition ELISA test to determine anti-rabies activity in equine rabies immunoglobulin preparations is being developed with the long-term goal of its introduction in Vietnam. The results from validation studies are promising and have contributed to decisions made by the National Control Authority to replace imported DPT vaccines in the EPI program with Vietnamese-produced DPT vaccines. This paper summarizes IVAC's experience in introducing alternatives in Vietnam over the last 10 years and reports on the various local validation studies which were performed during this period. PMID:10566795

  17. Appropriate Technology and Information Services in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Examines reasons for the failure to bring about massive and direct transfers of advanced technology to developing countries. Certain necessary conditions for success require that the project be seen as (1) relevant to the client country (2) consistent with local attitudes, practices and traditions (3) capable of producting some visible and useful…

  18. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  19. The impact of oil on a developing country

    SciTech Connect

    Ikein, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development.

  20. Modeling household behavior in developing countries: discussion.

    PubMed

    Quisumbing, A R

    1996-12-01

    A large and growing body of literature has examined how agricultural households cope with risk. Much of the work has focused on which types of households are better able to smooth consumption, testing whether households with more resources and greater access to income-smoothing institutions, such as credit markets or well-functioning labor markets exhibit greater consumption smoothing. However, income shocks may have different effects upon different individuals within households, and differences in individual ability to smooth income or consumption may have welfare consequences which go beyond foregone income. The development of collective household models challenges the assumption that individuals within households maximize a single utility function. The assumption of income pooling has also been rejected in a growing body of empirical research on intrahousehold resource allocation. However, research on risk-pooling within households and differences in individual abilities to smooth consumption is relatively new. Selected papers are discussed. PMID:12292622

  1. Optics education in a developing country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonathan, Enock

    2005-10-01

    An optics laboratory plays a critical role in optics education. A major challenge for optics educators in Africa is the shortage or non-availability of laboratory teaching equipment. Optics teaching equipment is beyond the budget of most universities in the developing world such as the new National University of Science and Technology in Zimbabwe. The paper details a successful strategy - local fabrication/assembling of optics laboratory teaching aids - adopted by the Applied Physics Department at Zimbabwe's National University of Science and Technology. Students and technical staff under the guidance of an academic member of staff do equipment fabrication and assembling. The paper describes some of the project-type set-ups for performing experiments on (1) laser light scattering and impurity determination; (2) industrial imaging inspection (3) light transmission and reflection and (4) refractive index measurement.

  2. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world’s 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries. PMID:27167738

  3. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    PubMed

    Barbier, Edward B; Hochard, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world's 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries. PMID:27167738

  4. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Cosivi, O.; Grange, J. M.; Daborn, C. J.; Raviglione, M. C.; Fujikura, T.; Cousins, D.; Robinson, R. A.; Huchzermeyer, H. F.; de Kantor, I.; Meslin, F. X.

    1998-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. Zoonotic TB (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) is present in animals in most developing countries where surveillance and control activities are often inadequate or unavailable; therefore, many epidemiologic and public health aspects of infection remain largely unknown. We review available information on zoonotic TB in developing countries, analyze risk factors that may play a role in the disease, review recent WHO activities, and recommend actions to assess the magnitude of the problem and control the disease in humans and animals. PMID:9452399

  5. Energy management in rural sector of developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.; Duragapal, B.C.

    1983-12-01

    The necessity of finding new sources of energy is becoming urgent as the supply of fossil fuels is rapidly approaching depletion in the developing countries, and therefore, these countries are importing petroleum products from other countries. Recent hikes in petroleum prices by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries has given a serious jolt to economic development, and also disturbed the balance of payment position through the rise in the price of imports and essential goods. Therefore, rising prices of petroleum products have forced us to find alternative ways and means of producing energy. Rural areas of developing countries have large supplies of waste materials like animal wastes, crop residues and by-products. These wastes can be converted into useable thermal energy and organic fertilizer. In this paper, an attempt has been made to discuss the efficient and economic utilization of animal wastes, agricultural residues and by-products for the formation of thermal energy in the form of bio-gas and bio-fertilizers. Proper utilization of rural wastes, abundantly available in the rural sector of developing countries, would go a long way in conserving the fast-depleting forest resources, reducing environmental pollution, creating a healthy atmosphere and improving economic conditions of the rural masses in developing countries, where unemployment is rising with the continuous increase in population, aggravating environmental pollution and reducing conventional resources of energy.

  6. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH FOR HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Materials for building capacity in the health sector of developing countries on children's environmental health. includes a trainer's guide and harmonized guidance materials on assessing environmental exposure & risk as well as prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  7. GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

  8. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  9. Attitudes on Conducting Thesis Research in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, S. C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a survey conducted to study attitudes toward agronomy graduate students conducting thesis research in developing countries. Compares perceptions of executive officers of international program offices and departments of agronomy, and major professors. (TW)

  10. Modeling energy-sector issues of developing and industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper identifies important energy-planning issues in industrializing and developing countries based on the Argonne experience in energy-planning studies for Egypt, Korea, Portugal, Argentina, and Jamaica. Modeling approaches are reviewed for applicability to these issues.

  11. GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a brief summary of a report that offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. T...

  12. Successful approaches for battling invasive species in developed countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological invasions increasingly threaten natural resources and reduce biological diversity worldwide. To curtail biological invasions, developed countries have adopted multitire approaches that systematically address the process of invasion, encompassing introduction, establishment, spread and nat...

  13. Manufacturing in Mechanical Engineering Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses four problems which concern engineering education in developing countries: (1) less value of handiwork; (2) lack of industrial culture; (3) low salary of faculty; and (4) cultural distortions. Describes three successful cases in Indonesia and Thailand. (YP)

  14. The economics of environmental degradation from pollution-intensive multinational enterprises in less developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Grivoyannis, E.C.

    1997-06-01

    The economic productivity of ecological systems constitutes imperfectly known resources for many developing countries and, as a result, national incentives for their preservation are hampered. Scarcity of capital and foreign exchange, on the other hand, creates for these countries an economic pressure to reduce environmental quality standards in return for foreign exchange from pollution-intensive multinational enterprises. For a bargaining outcome to be considered successful, the host country`s marginal cost of environmental protection should be equal to the social scarcity cost of foreign exchange for capital accumulation. However, imperfections in the international capital markets and in he information processing of private and government institutions as well as government failure may upgrade the value of foreign exchange relative to environmental protection. As a result, many developing countries may prefer to have more direct investment gains derived from an inflow of foreign exchange by allowing pollution-intensive multinationals an excessive amount of pollution, than the strategically optimal one, if these enterprises are prepared to shift operations to their country. Strategic bargaining by pollution-intensive multinationals can turn the economic pressures of developing countries into an exploitable dependence. This paper investigates the socio-economic outcome from strategic bargaining opportunities between developing countries and pollution-intensive multinationals in an effort to provide a better understanding of what is negotiable in the presence of exploitable dependencies.

  15. Vocational preparation and employability development.

    PubMed

    North, J; Mallabar, M; Desrochers, R

    1988-01-01

    Finding and keeping a job are multidimensional tasks that foster care youths discharged to independent living must master. Foster care agencies play critical roles ranging from the development of individualized case plans and skill training to identifying and accessing community resources in helping youths to meet these challenges. PMID:3197459

  16. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  17. Surveillance for Occupational Respiratory Diseases in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Pinheiro, Germania A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa. PMID:26024351

  18. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  19. Providing ethical guidance for collaborative research in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Experience has shown that the application of ethical guidelines developed for research in developed countries to research in developing countries can be, and often is, impractical and raises a number of contentious issues. Various attempts have been made to provide guidelines more appropriate to the developing world context; however, to date these efforts have been dominated by the fields of bioscience, medical research and nutrition. There is very little advice available for those seeking to undertake collaborative social science or natural science research in developing countries and what is there tends to be held within disparate sources. Charting the development of a set of ethics documentation for future use by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme research community, this paper outlines past and present attitudes towards ethics procedures amongst this community and suggests ways in which ethics procedures might be made more relevant and user-friendly to researchers working in this area. PMID:26640509

  20. National climate change action plans: Interim report for developing and transition countries

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, R.; Ness, E.; Hirst, J.

    1997-10-01

    Under its Support for National Action Plans (SNAP) initiative, the U.S. Country Studies Program is providing financial and technical assistance to 18 countries for the development of climate change action plans. Although most of the countries have not yet completed their plans, the important lessons learned thus far are valuable and should be shared with other countries and international institutions that have an interest in the process of action plan development. This interim report describes the experience of 11 countries that are the furthest along in their planning activity and who have offered to share their results to date with the larger community of interested nations. These action plans delineate specific mitigation and adaptation measures that the countries will implement and integrate into their ongoing development programs. This report focuses on the measures the countries have selected and the methods they used to prepare their action plans. This executive summary presents key lessons and common themes using a structure similar to that used in the individual country chapters.

  1. Space technology transfer to developing countries: opportunities and difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloglu, U. M.; Kocaoglan, E.

    Space technology, with its implications on science, economy and security, is mostly chosen as one of the priority areas for technological development by developing countries. Most nations aspiring to begin playing in the space league prefer technology transfer programs as a first step. Decreasing initial costs by small satellite technology made this affordable for many countries. However, there is a long way from this first step to establishment of a reliable space industry that can both survive in the long term with limited financial support from the government and meet national needs. This is especially difficult when major defense companies of industrialized countries are merging to sustain their competitiveness. The prerequisites for the success are implementation of a well-planned space program and existence of industrialization that can support basic testing and manufacturing activities and supply qualified manpower. In this study, the difficulties to be negotiated and the vicious circles to be broken for latecomers, that is, developing countries that invest on space technologies are discussed. Especially, difficulties in the technology transfer process itself, brain drain from developing countries to industrialized countries, strong competition from big space companies for domestic needs, costs of establishing and maintaining an infrastructure necessary for manufacturing and testing activities, and finally, the impact of export control will be emphasized. We will also try to address how and to what extent collaboration can solve or minimize these problems. In discussing the ideas mentioned above, lessons learned from the BILSAT Project, a technology transfer program from the UK, will be referred.

  2. Cultural humility and working with marginalized populations in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kools, Susan; Chimwaza, Angela; Macha, Swebby

    2015-03-01

    Population health needs in developing countries are great and countries are scaling up health professional education to meet these needs. Marginalized populations, in particular, are vulnerable to poor health and health care. This paper presents a culturally appropriate diversity training program delivered to Global Health Fellows who are educators and leaders in health professions in Malawi and Zambia. The purpose of this interprofessional education experience was to promote culturally competent and humble care for marginalized populations. PMID:24842988

  3. Supporting Developing Countries in Establishing Distance Education Institutes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinck, Agneta Wangdahl; Flinck, Rune

    Because the future of the majority of developing nations depends on how quickly and effectively a national system of education can be developed, the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) has established a series of international development programs to prepare and implement programs for cooperation between Sweden and developing…

  4. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. PMID:25982869

  5. Child Development in Developing Countries: Child Rights and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context…

  6. The last mile: earthquake risk mitigation assistance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Haresh C

    2006-08-15

    Over the past few decades, we have seen many joint programmes between developed countries and developing countries to help the latter in managing their earthquake risks. These programmes span the whole spectrum of disciplines from seismology and geology to engineering, social science and economics. Many of these programmes have been effective in raising awareness, in urging governments to work towards risk reduction and in spawning an 'industry' of disaster management in many of the developing countries. However, even as these efforts proceed, we have seen death and destruction due to earthquake after earthquake in developing countries, strongly suggesting that the problems for which those assistance programmes were developed are not so effective. Therefore, it is natural to ask why this is happening. Are the assistance programmes reaching the right people? Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right type of things in these countries, but we have not allowed enough time for our actions to take effect. Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right actions for most of the miles we need to cover in helping communities mitigate their earthquake risks. However, the issue could be whether we are reaching people who represent the 'last mile' on this pathway. Here, I explore whether the work that many organizations and countries have done towards earthquake risk reduction over the past few decades in developing countries is appropriate or not. Why do we keep seeing the catastrophes of Sumatra, Chi Chi, Bhuj, Turkey, Algeria and on and on? I will articulate what I think is the problem. My contribution is intended to generate discussions, self-analysis of our approaches, what we are doing right and what we are not doing right. Hopefully such discussions will result in a better connection between the last mile and programmes around the world which are working towards earthquake risk mitigation. PMID:16844655

  7. Principles of adoption of the successful environmental practices used in developed countries into mining industry in developing countries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    The successful implementation of the environmental practices in the mining industry is of a paramount importance, as it not only prevents both local and trans-border pollution but also guarantees clean and healthy environment for the people regardless of their place of habitation. It is especially important to encourage the progress of the environmental practices implementation in developing countries because such countries have resource-oriented economy based on exploitation of nonrenewable resources. Poor environmental practices in developing countries will lead to local environmental crises that could eventually spill into surrounding countries including the most economically advanced. This abstract is a summary of a two-year research project attempted (1) to determine deficiencies of the mining sector ecological practices in developing countries and (2) to suggest substitute practices from developed countries that could be adapted to the developing countries reality. The following research methods were used: 1. The method of the system analysis, where the system is an interaction of the sets of environmental practices with the global mining sector; 2. The comparative method of inquiry, where the comparison was made between environmental protection practices as implemented in the US (developed country) and the developing countries such as RF, Mongolia mining sectors; 3. Quantitative date analysis, where date was collected from "The collection of statistic data", Russian Geographic Society Annual reports, the US EPA open reports, and the USGS Reports; The following results were obtained: Identified the systemic crisis of the ecological environmental policies and practices in the mining sector in developing countries based on the exploitation of nonrenewable resources, absence of the ecological interest by the mining companies that lack mechanisms of environmental and public health protection, the lack of insurance policy, the lack of risk assistance, and in the

  8. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22764734

  9. [Causes of adult mortality in developing and developed countries with low mortality rates].

    PubMed

    Vallin, J

    1995-06-01

    "In a certain number of developing countries, life expectancy levels now approach those of the developed world. But, though life expectancies at birth may be similar, the infant mortality rate in developing countries remains higher, but is compensated by a lower rate of mortality for adults. Is it to be expected that as infant mortality rates continue to decline, the developing countries will maintain their advantageous adult mortality rates and that life expectancy will forge ahead of the level achieved in developed countries?... To answer this question, recent trends in adult cause-specific mortality rates in four developing countries (Chile, Hong Kong, Mexico, and Costa Rica) were compared with those in three industrialized countries (France, Germany and Japan). The results were inconclusive. Whilst life expectancies in some of these countries may be expected to forge ahead (Chile, Hong Kong), in others the margin between their life expectancies and those of developed countries have already narrowed." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12347045

  10. The problems and promise of vaccine markets in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Batson, Amie

    2005-01-01

    As in the market in North America, major barriers to private investment in the development and production of vaccines exist for markets in developing countries. These include the risks of uncertain funding and demand and the difficulties created by historically low pricing. A number of promising and innovative approaches nonetheless are being explored to increase the incentives and reduce the risks of investing in vaccines for developing countries. These innovations are fueled by the growing recognition of powerful stakeholders that vaccines are a critical technology for ensuring global health. PMID:15886160

  11. Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

  12. Women, Work and Early Childhood: The Nexus in Developed and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.

    Most female workers in developing countries do not have wage jobs. However, the preponderance of female workers in non-wage jobs is not consistent across all developing countries. It is highly likely that the proportion of non-wage female workers in developing countries is greater than is suggested by the statistics. Consequently, mothers in the…

  13. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth. PMID:12292278

  14. Databases on Optical Discs and Their Potential in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, S. Nazim

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the reliance of developing nations on technologically advanced countries to provide information--especially in the areas of science and technology--to aid in technology transfer and research development, and examines the advantages of using optical data disk technology to store and retrieve this information. (22 references) (CLB)

  15. The Information Needs of the Developing Countries: Analytical Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salman, Lamia

    1981-01-01

    Presents the generalized conclusions from analytical case studies undertaken by UNESCO and the United Nations Interim Fund for Science and Technology for Development (IFSTD) on the needs and options for access to scientific and technical information in eight developing countries. (Author/JL)

  16. Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

    The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.…

  17. Improving Higher Education in Developing Countries. EDI Seminar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Angela; And Others

    This volume is the result of a policy seminar on Improvement and Innovation in Higher Education in Developing Countries, organized by the Economic Development Institute and the Population and Human Resources Department of the World Bank in collaboration with the Institute of Strategic and International Studies of Malaysia. The seminar was held in…

  18. Quality of Education, Comparability, and Assessment Choice in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, international development agencies have begun to emphasize the improvement of the quality (rather than simply quantity) of education in developing countries. This new focus has been paralleled by a significant increase in the use of educational assessments as a way to measure gains and losses in quality. As this interest in…

  19. Remote sensing utilization of developing countries: An appropriate technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conitz, M. W.; Lowe, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The activities of the Agency for international development were discussed. Regional and national training centers were established to create an understanding of the role and impact of remote sensing on the developing process. Workshops, training seminars, and demonstration projects were conducted. Research on application was carried out and financial and technical assistance to build or strengthen a country's capability were granted.

  20. Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

  1. Tailoring Information Strategies for Developing Countries: Some Latin American Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Warren

    This article addresses the conditions of developing countries which must be taken into account in developing information strategies for their public and educational institutions or projects. Its central argument is that newer information science concepts, although they demand technological and conceptual sophistication, can be useful in the…

  2. The Place of Calculators in Mathematics Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissane, Barry; Kemp, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Technology has become a major force in developing curricula and educational practice in mathematics education internationally. While many technologies are important in affluent developed countries, the hand-held calculator continues to be the technology most likely to be available to students when and where they need it. Modern calculators have…

  3. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  4. Hospital-acquired neonatal infections in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Anita K M; Huskins, W Charles; Thaver, Durrane; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Abbas, Zohair; Goldmann, Donald A

    Hospital-born babies in developing countries are at increased risk of neonatal infections because of poor intrapartum and postnatal infection-control practices. We reviewed data from developing countries on rates of neonatal infections among hospital-born babies, range of pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and infection-control interventions. Reported rates of neonatal infections were 3-20 times higher than those reported for hospital-born babies in industrialised countries. Klebsiella pneumoniae, other gram-negative rods (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp, Acinetobacter spp), and Staphylococcus aureus were the major pathogens among 11,471 bloodstream isolates reported. These infections can often present soon after birth. About 70% would not be covered by an empiric regimen of ampicillin and gentamicin, and many might be untreatable in resource-constrained environments. The associated morbidity, mortality, costs, and adverse effect on future health-seeking behaviour by communities pose barriers to improvement of neonatal outcomes in developing countries. Low-cost, "bundled" interventions using systems quality improvement approaches for improved infection control are possible, but should be supported by evidence in developing country settings. PMID:15794973

  5. Food composition database development for between country comparisons.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Anwar T; Dehghan, Mahshid

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional assessment by diet analysis is a two-stepped process consisting of evaluation of food consumption, and conversion of food into nutrient intake by using a food composition database, which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. Most reports in the literature focus on minimizing errors in estimation of food consumption but the selection of a specific food composition table used in nutrient estimation is also a source of errors. We are conducting a large prospective study internationally and need to compare diet, assessed by food frequency questionnaires, in a comparable manner between different countries. We have prepared a multi-country food composition database for nutrient estimation in all the countries participating in our study. The nutrient database is primarily based on the USDA food composition database, modified appropriately with reference to local food composition tables, and supplemented with recipes of locally eaten mixed dishes. By doing so we have ensured that the units of measurement, method of selection of foods for testing, and assays used for nutrient estimation are consistent and as current as possible, and yet have taken into account some local variations. Using this common metric for nutrient assessment will reduce differential errors in nutrient estimation and improve the validity of between-country comparisons. PMID:16423289

  6. Practising cloud-based telemedicine in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    In industrialised countries, telemedicine has proven to be a valuable tool for enabling access to knowledge and allowing information exchange, and showing that it is possible to provide good quality of healthcare to isolated communities. However, there are many barriers to the widespread implementation of telemedicine in rural areas of developing countries. These include deficient internet connectivity and sophisticated peripheral medical devices. Furthermore, developing countries have very high patients-per-doctor ratios. In this paper, we report our work on developing a cloud-based health information system, which promotes telemedicine and patient-centred healthcare by exploiting modern information and communication technologies such as OWL-ontologies and SQL-triggers. The reason for using cloud technology is twofold. First, cloud service models are easily adaptable for sharing patients health information, which is of prime importance in patient-centred healthcare as well as in telemedicine. Second, the cloud and the consulting physicians may locate anywhere in the internet. PMID:24191340

  7. Developing country finance in a post-2020 global climate agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Phillip M.; Liao, Zhenliang; Davis, Steven J.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A central task for negotiators of the post-2020 global climate agreement is to construct a finance regime that supports low-carbon development in developing economies. As power sector investments between developing countries grow, the climate finance regime should incentivize the decarbonization of these major sources of finance by integrating them as a complement to the commitments of developed nations. The emergence of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, South-South Cooperation Fund and other nascent institutions reveal the fissures that exist in rules and norms surrounding international finance in the power sector. Structuring the climate agreement in Paris to credit qualified finance from the developing world could have several advantages, including: (1) encouraging low-carbon cooperation between developing countries; (2) incentivizing emerging investors to prefer low-carbon investments; and (3) enabling more cost-effective attainment of national and global climate objectives. Failure to coordinate on standards now could hinder low-carbon development in the decades to come.

  8. Urology research publications: lessons learned from a developing country

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is very limited data on the nature and type of published research in the field of Urology in the developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the Urology research activities in one of the Gulf counties (United Arab Emirates (UAE) to define areas of deficiencies and challenges in a trial to learn some lessons to improve research in developing countries. Results A total of 96 manuscripts were published from UAE up to 2012. The first publication was in 1985. There is an overall increase in the number of manuscripts published per year over time (one manuscript in 1985 vs. 10 manuscripts in 2012). Forty seven (49%) manuscripts came from the main academic institute (UAE University) and the rest came from the many hospitals around the country. There were 68 original research articles, 4 reviews and 24 case reports. 64 manuscripts represented clinical whereas 32 represented laboratory-based research. The manuscripts represented various urology subspecialties, the commonest of which was urinary obstruction and urolithiasis (n = 19). None of the manuscripts represented a proper epidemiological research. The research activities were sporadic and driven by individuals during particular periods with lack of continuity. Conclusions Despite the increasing number of urology articles in this developing country, there is a lack of proper epidemiological studies to identify the local prevalence and behaviour of various conditions. There is also a lack of research groups and hence a lack of continuity of research in any particular field as the research is usually driven by specific research-oriented individuals the departure of who results in a cease in the research activities. Moreover, there is an evidence of lack of research training and capability in the majority of institutes. These observations might assist policy decision makers to develop research in this country and other developing countries. PMID:24996950

  9. Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries: Part II of II

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2010-01-01

    Although 80% of people with epilepsy reside in resource poor, developing countries, epilepsy care in these regions remains limited and the majority of epilepsy patients go untreated. Cost-effective, sustainable epilepsy care services, delivering first-line antiepileptic drugs through established primary health care facilities, are needed to decrease these treatment gaps. Neurologists with local experience and knowledge of the culture, who are willing to serve as educators, policy advisors, and advocates, can make a difference. This is Part II of a two-part article. Part I reviewed the burden of epilepsy and the current state of resources for treatment in developing countries, while Part II will now discuss various aspects of care in these countries. PMID:20944819

  10. Contracting out of health services in developing countries.

    PubMed

    McPake, B; Banda, E E

    1994-03-01

    Contracting out is emerging as a common policy issue in a number of developing countries. The theoretical case for contracting out suggests many advantages in combining public finance with private provision. However, practical difficulties such as those of ensuring that competition takes place between potential contractors, that competition leads to efficiency and that contracts and the process of contracting are effectively managed, suggest that such advantages may not always be realized. Most countries are likely only to contemplate restricted contracting of small-scale non-clinical services in the short term. Prerequisites of more extensive models appear to be the development of information systems and human resources to that end. Some urban areas of larger countries may have the existing preconditions for more successful large-scale contracting. PMID:10133098

  11. Ergonomics for industrially developing countries: an alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Rubio, C A

    1995-06-01

    The main focus of ergonomics is the improvement of working conditions and safety. Studies of workers in industrialized countries (ICs) have focused on subjects like occupational health, work physiology, biomechanics, design, and cognition. However, in industrially developing countries (IDCs), the characteristics and conditions of the worker and his workplace are different. This paper suggests an alternative approach to improve working conditions for ergonomists in industrially developing countries. Together with the ergonomic factors previously stated, this approach also considers the broader social and cultural context within which the worker and his workplace exist. The operator is regarded as a product of his socio-cultural environment. His work place (e.g. its ambience, organization, shopfloor conditions, and the state of technology) and his work practices (e.g. attitudes, behavior, ethics, and problem-solving abilities) are affected by societal conditions (like quality of training and education, technical infrastructure, and technical culture). PMID:8522788

  12. Strengthening International Collaboration: Geosciences Research and Education in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2009-05-01

    Geophysical research increasingly requires global multidisciplinary approaches and global integration. Global warming, increasing CO2 levels and increased needs of mineral and energy resources emphasize impact of human activities. The planetary view of our Earth as a deeply complex interconnected system also emphasizes the need of international scientific cooperation. International collaboration presents an immense potential and is urgently needed for further development of geosciences research and education. In analyzing international collaboration a relevant aspect is the role of scientific societies. Societies organize meetings, publish journals and books and promote cooperation through academic exchange activities and can further assist communities in developing countries providing and facilitating access to scientific literature, attendance to international meetings, short and long-term stays and student and young researcher mobility. Developing countries present additional challenges resulting from limited economic resources and social and political problems. Most countries urgently require improved educational and research programs. Needed are in-depth analyses of infrastructure and human resources and identification of major problems and needs. Questions may include what are the major limitations and needs in research and postgraduate education in developing countries? what and how should international collaboration do? and what are the roles of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, scientific societies? Here we attempt to examine some of these questions with reference to case examples and AGU role. We focus on current situation, size and characteristics of research community, education programs, facilities, economic support, and then move to perspectives for potential development in an international context.

  13. Measles in developing countries. Part I. Epidemiological parameters and patterns.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, A. R.; Anderson, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a review of published data concerning the epidemiology of measles in developing countries. Simple mathematical models provide a framework for data analysis and interpretation. The analyses highlight differences and similarities in the patterns of transmission of the measles virus in developed and developing countries. Whilst the rate of loss of maternally derived immunity to measles is broadly similar, the average age at infection is much lower, and case fatality rates are much higher in developing countries. Data analysis also serves to illustrate inter-relationships between different kinds of epidemiological data. Thus, for example, in order to correctly interpret an age stratified serological profile from a developing country it is necessary to have information on the rate of decay of maternal antibodies and age specific case fatality rates. To determine the probable impact of a given vaccination programme, information on the birth rate in the community concerned is also required. A discussion is given of the epidemiological data required in order to effectively design a community based vaccination programme aimed at the eradication of measles. PMID:3338500

  14. A blueprint for economic development in Indian country

    SciTech Connect

    Swimmer, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Economic development has become a commonly used phrase frequently abused when used as a metaphor describing changing conditions in Indian country. This phrase became part of the political rhetoric along with the change of Administrations in 1981. Unfortunately, many Indian tribes have interpreted the phrase as a means of getting more federal grants rather than a means to economic freedom for Indians. They have failed to understand that economic development was intended to mean less money from Washington, D.C. and more money from local economic growth generated by income from jobs created by the private sector. This article discusses the dependency of Indian tribes on federal assistance for economic development; defines the concept of economic development of Indian reservations; and finally, determines what role tribal governments and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) should play in economic development in Indian country.

  15. Handicapped Children in Developing Countries: Assessment, Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baine, David

    A discussion of teaching and testing methods for children with disabilities focuses on techniques appropriate for use in developing countries. The book has several purposes. Its aims are to: (1) discuss practical, step-by-step methods that can be used readily in existing classrooms; (2) describe ideal methods and materials as long-term goals to…

  16. Literature Awareness among Health Staff in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzel, Rolf

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the lack of professional literature awareness on the part of health care professionals in developing countries. Topics addressed include symptoms and causes of this problem, including economic factors and a tradition of oral communication; the role of literature awareness in health systems; and the promotion of literature awareness. (18…

  17. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  18. Educational Financing in Developing Countries: Research Findings and Contemporary Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    This study focuses on contemporary issues of educational financing in developing countries and on available research findings as these relate, or can be related, to these issues. The first two chapters are analytical, examining common educational finance issues and testing the conventional wisdom of certain usual proposals. Chapter 1, "Issues in…

  19. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  20. Factors Influencing Cloud-Computing Technology Adoption in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailu, Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of new technology has complicating components both from the selection, as well as decision-making criteria and process. Although new technology such as cloud computing provides great benefits especially to the developing countries, it has challenges that may complicate the selection decision and subsequent adoption process. This study…

  1. Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The cross-tabulation…

  2. Food Science in Developing Countries: A Selection of Unsolved Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Presented are summaries of 42 unsolved problems in food science which exist in various developing countries throughout the world. Problems deal with new foods, food processing, food composition, nutrition, and health. Each problem presented includes the problem description, background information, possible approaches to solutions, special…

  3. Learning for a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Jeff, Ed.; Talbot, Christopher, Ed.; Cipollone, Daiana B., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the product of research conducted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The papers, which were presented at a 2001 workshop, "Refugee Education in Developing Countries: Policy and Practice," are: "Education in Emergencies" (Margaret Sinclair), which reviews the rationale for education in…

  4. Instructional Technologies in Developing Countries: A Contextual Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Sonia; Clark, Kevin A.

    2004-01-01

    Many developing countries are moving forward and implementing information communication technology (ICT) initiatives to improve their citizens' access to education, increase the quality of education, and implement educational reform. Because of the increasingly scarce supporting resources, it is imperative that effective and meaningful…

  5. Financing Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Strategies for Sustainable Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith; Caillods, Francoise

    This book explores the problems and issues of secondary-school financing in developing countries. It outlines the rationale for expanding secondary education, investigates under what conditions it might be possible to do so at sustainable cost levels, presents case studies of secondary-school financing, and offers policy recommendations. The first…

  6. On-Line Distance Learning: A Model for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Abdul W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues related to open and distance-learning (ODL) in developing countries, using the virtual campus initiative of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (India) as an example and model of on-line program delivery and on-line, for-profit telelearning centers. Suggests strategies to enable open and distance-learning institutions to…

  7. Real and Potential Benefits of Bilingual Programmes in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carolyn J.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that bilingual education in developing countries represents an encouraging facet of efforts to improve primary schooling both quantitatively in terms of participation and qualitatively in terms of learning processes. Using examples from Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Mozambique, and Bolivia, demonstrates advantages of bilingual programming in…

  8. Implementing Ethics Policies in Developing Countries: Ploughing on Parched Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazonde, Isaac N.; Jackson-Malete, Jose; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    It is globally expected that universities will ensure that policies guiding researchers' conduct are in place and adhered to. This expectation is not waived in developing countries. Successful implementation of an ethics policy is facilitated by an appropriate national regulatory framework on which to base the argument for compliance. However, it…

  9. School Choice and Academic Performance: Some Evidence from Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Bao, Yong; Dixon, Pauline; Merrifield, John

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern about differences in the quality of state-run and private schooling. The concerns are especially severe in the numerous developing countries where much of the population has left state-provided schooling for private schooling, including many private schools not recognized by the government. The fees charged by the…

  10. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  11. Recruitment of Rural Teachers in Developing Countries: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Monetary and nonmonetary incentives for rural teacher recruitment are common in developing-country education systems. This paper interprets incentive policies within the framework of the economic theory of compensating differentials, clarifying implicit assumptions of incentive policies and aids in organizing further empirical work on their…

  12. CD-ROM Technology Use in Developing Countries: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Jane; Balson, David

    1988-01-01

    Describes an evaluative project in which a prototype bibliographic database on optical data disk was installed in six developing country libraries and a Canadian library. The results of the project are discussed in terms of user satisfaction and cost effectiveness, and recommendations are made to donor agencies, information providers, and…

  13. Advancing Energy Development in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  14. The Debate on Learning Assessments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Lockheed, Marlaine; Mullis, Ina; Martin, Michael O.; Kanjee, Anil; Gove, Amber; Dowd, Amy Jo

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, international and national education agencies have begun to emphasize the improvement of the quality (rather than quantity) of education in developing countries. This trend has been paralleled by a significant increase in the use of educational assessments as a way to measure gains and losses in quality of learning. As…

  15. The Educational Implications of Introducing a NQF for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The one-year research project on the implementation of NQFs in developing countries was launched by the ILO 2009 in collaboration with the ETF. This article reviews some of the educational issues that arose from the project. The findings of the case studies raise issues that are important for how future research and policy on NQFs is taken…

  16. Using Special Libraries to Interface with Developing Country Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, Donna; George, Paulette Foss

    1986-01-01

    Describes two special collections focusing on postharvest systems of handling, transportation, storage, and marketing of food and feed grain. Highlights include information needs of developing countries (e.g., Egypt, Honduras, Pakistan), and information center activities (communication and marketing, collection building, interpreting client needs,…

  17. Caste Structures and E-Governance in a Developing Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de', Rahul

    Castes, or endogamous kinship relationships, are prevalent in communities across the world and particularly in developing countries. Caste plays a strong role in determining community structures and political power. However, the role of caste as a factor in shaping e-governance design and outcomes is absent in the literature. This paper addresses this particular gap by examining some cases from India.

  18. Essays on the Economics of Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Uttam

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on a key challenge facing developing countries intent on enhancing their human capital base--namely, the issue of quality. One of the chapters evaluates the effectiveness of the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) initiative in Nepal's primary and lower-secondary schools. Although the OLPC program is being heavily promoted in…

  19. Small integrated solar energy systems for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreitmueller, K. R.

    1982-11-01

    Solar enegy applications in developing countries cover processing of food and other agricultural products, fresh water production, operation of cooling and freezing equipment, of water pumps and processing machinery. Evacuated tubular collectors turn out to be best suited for process heat generation; photovoltaic generators for electricity production. The Mexican fisher village of Las Barrancas gives a good example of an integrated solar energy system.

  20. Child and Family: Demographic Developments in the OECD Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bras, Herve

    This study of early childhood and the family in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) employs two statistical approaches to the problem of providing an accurate picture of modern conditions of family life. A classical demographic approach to population studies is initially used, then is critiqued,…

  1. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Michael; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with…

  2. Trade Policies toward Developing Countries: The Multilateral Trade Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lorenzo L., Ed.; Benedick, Gerald R., Ed.

    Proceedings are presented of a 1977 conference about aspects of international trade negotiations of importance to developing countries. Participants included staff from Washington-based international organizations, various United States departments, Congressional staff, and students of the Foreign Service Institute. Transcripts of three addresses…

  3. Financing Training in Developing Countries: The Role of Payroll Taxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, John; Ziderman, Adrian

    1990-01-01

    Although in most developing countries, major vocational training programs are financed from general government revenues, earmarked payroll taxes are becoming increasingly popular. This paper summarizes international experience with these payroll taxes, distinguishing between the more traditional revenue-raising schemes of the Latin American model…

  4. History and development of trauma registry: lessons from developed to developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Nwomeh, Benedict C; Lowell, Wendi; Kable, Renae; Haley, Kathy; Ameh, Emmanuel A

    2006-01-01

    Background A trauma registry is an integral component of modern comprehensive trauma care systems. Trauma registries have not been established in most developing countries, and where they exist are often rudimentary and incomplete. This review describes the role of trauma registries in the care of the injured, and discusses how lessons from developed countries can be applied toward their design and implementation in developing countries. Methods A detailed review of English-language articles on trauma registry was performed using MEDLINE and CINAHL. In addition, relevant articles from non-indexed journals were identified with Google Scholar. Results The history and development of trauma registries and their role in modern trauma care are discussed. Drawing from past and current experience, guidelines for the design and implementation of trauma registries are given, with emphasis on technical and logistic factors peculiar to developing countries. Conclusion Improvement in trauma care depends on the establishment of functioning trauma care systems, of which a trauma registry is a crucial component. Hospitals and governments in developing countries should be encouraged to establish trauma registries using proven cost-effective strategies. PMID:17076896

  5. Aspects of smoking in developing countries in Africa.

    PubMed

    Femi-Pearse, D

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of smoking in developing countries in Africa focuses on the cultivation of tobacco and the economics of tobacco smoking. The cultivation of tobacco in Africa has been encouraged in recent years by multinational companies, especially British American Tobacco and Rothmans, thus avoiding import duty on raw materials and conservation of scarce foreign exchange. In Nigeria, 60,000 farmers now grow tobacco on 120,000 acres. The 3 major deleterious effects of cultivating tobacco are: competition with cultivation of staple food crops, such as rice, millet, cassava, and guinea corn; displacement of necessary cash crops, such as cotton; and loss of timber through tree felling and bush fires due to ignited cigarette stubs and promotion of erosion and Sahelian migration in areas with already sparse vegetation. In the Sokoto region of Nigeria, tobacco thrives in the flood plains where rice would normally be expected to grow. Because tobacco provides ready cash, rice is a 2nd choice for cultivation. The net result of such displacement of staple food crops is that rice is now imported into Nigeria. Any development economist would rather cultivate rice than tobacco. Forest reserve has been lost from clearing bush to promote cultivation of tobacco and using wood fuel in flue-curing of tobacco. The ecologic consequences in areas bordering on the desert are disastrous. Yet, the spinoffs to the grower of tobacco cannot be dismissed. Most obvious is that cash returns for cultivating tobacco are better than for food crops. Because tobacco growers are relatively prosperous, they tend to stay on during periods of drought whereas food growers tend to migrate to the urban areas. The acquisition of modern skills is associated with growing tobacco. The multinational tobacco companies take pains to teach local farmers modern methods of land preparation. The fight against cultivation of tobacco can be won only by planned action. Recently, tobacco companies introduced programs

  6. Problems and Approaches for Blood Transfusion in the Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Field, Stephen; Delaney, Meghan; Bates, Imelda

    2016-04-01

    A safe supply of blood and the knowledge, skill, and resources for the appropriate use of blood are essential for medical services. Many problems are faced in the development of transfusion services in low- or medium-income countries (LMICs). Unfortunately, in many countries, providing safe blood is made more difficult by a lack of blood donors and the high frequency of transfusion-transmissible infections. The problems are compounded by the frequent need for urgent life-saving transfusions. This article examines the problems in supply, safety, and use of blood and how they are being addressed in LMICs, predominantly focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27040966

  7. A Primer for Using Transgenic Insecticidal Cotton in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Ann M.; Heuberger, Shannon; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Many developing countries face the decision of whether to approve the testing and commercial use of insecticidal transgenic cotton and the task of developing adequate regulations for its use. In this review, we outline concepts and provide information to assist farmers, regulators and scientists in making decisions concerning this technology. We address seven critical topics: 1) molecular and breeding techniques used for the development of transgenic cotton cultivars, 2) properties of transgenic cotton cultivars and their efficacy against major insect pests, 3) agronomic performance of transgenic cotton in developing countries, 4) factors affecting transgene expression, 5) impact of gene flow between transgenic and non-transgenic cotton, 6) non-target effects of transgenic cotton, and 7) management of pest resistance to transgenic cotton. PMID:19613464

  8. Climate Change and Food Security: Health Impacts in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Bentham, Graham; Boxall, Alistair B.A.; Draper, Alizon; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Hulme, Mike; Hunter, Paul R.; Nichols, Gordon; Waldron, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anthropogenic climate change will affect global food production, with uncertain consequences for human health in developed countries. Objectives: We investigated the potential impact of climate change on food security (nutrition and food safety) and the implications for human health in developed countries. Methods: Expert input and structured literature searches were conducted and synthesized to produce overall assessments of the likely impacts of climate change on global food production and recommendations for future research and policy changes. Results: Increasing food prices may lower the nutritional quality of dietary intakes, exacerbate obesity, and amplify health inequalities. Altered conditions for food production may result in emerging pathogens, new crop and livestock species, and altered use of pesticides and veterinary medicines, and affect the main transfer mechanisms through which contaminants move from the environment into food. All these have implications for food safety and the nutritional content of food. Climate change mitigation may increase consumption of foods whose production reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Impacts may include reduced red meat consumption (with positive effects on saturated fat, but negative impacts on zinc and iron intake) and reduced winter fruit and vegetable consumption. Developed countries have complex structures in place that may be used to adapt to the food safety consequences of climate change, although their effectiveness will vary between countries, and the ability to respond to nutritional challenges is less certain. Conclusions: Climate change will have notable impacts upon nutrition and food safety in developed countries, but further research is necessary to accurately quantify these impacts. Uncertainty about future impacts, coupled with evidence that climate change may lead to more variable food quality, emphasizes the need to maintain and strengthen existing structures and policies to regulate

  9. Perinatal problems in developing countries: lessons learned and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Kurjak, A; Bekavac, I

    2001-01-01

    Every year, approximately 600,000 women die of pregnancy-related causes--98% of these deaths occur in developing countries. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death and disability among women of reproductive age in developing countries. Of all human development indicators, the maternal mortality ratio shows the greatest discrepancy between developed and developing countries. In fact, maternal mortality itself contributes to underdevelopment, because of its severe impact on the lives of young children, the family and society in general. Furthermore, in addition to more than half a million maternal deaths each year 7 million perinatal deaths are recorded and 8 million infants die during the first year of life. Maternal morbidity and mortality as well as perinatal mortality can be reduced through the synergistic effect of combined interventions, without first attaining high levels of economic development. These include: education for all; universal access to basic health services and nutrition before, during and after childbirth; access to family planning services; attendance at birth by professional health workers and access to good quality care in case of complications; and policies that raise women's social and economic status, and their access to property, as well as the labor force. PMID:11447922

  10. Sustainable development and public health: rating European countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sustainable development and public health quite strongly correlate, being connected and conditioned by one another. This paper therein attempts to offer a representation of Europe’s current situation of sustainable development in the area of public health. Methods A dataset on sustainable development in the area of public health consisting of 31 European countries (formally proposed by the European Union Commission and EUROSTAT) has been used in this paper in order to evaluate said issue for the countries listed thereof. A statistical method which synthesizes several indicators into one quantitative indicator has also been utilized. Furthermore, the applied method offers the possibility to obtain an optimal set of variables for future studies of the problem, as well as for the possible development of indicators. Results According to the results obtained, Norway and Iceland are the two foremost European countries regarding sustainable development in the area of public health, whereas Romania, Lithuania, and Latvia, some of the European Union’s newest Member States, rank lowest. The results also demonstrate that the most significant variables (more than 80%) in rating countries are found to be “healthy life years at birth, females” (r2 = 0.880), “healthy life years at birth, males” (r2 = 0.864), “death rate due to chronic diseases, males” (r2 = 0.850), and “healthy life years, 65, females” (r2 = 0.844). Conclusions Based on the results of this paper, public health represents a precondition for sustainable development, which should be continuously invested in and improved. After the assessment of the dataset, proposed by EUROSTAT in order to evaluate progress towards the agreed goals of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), this paper offers an improved set of variables, which it is hoped, may initiate further studies concerning this problem. PMID:23356822

  11. Mental health and the workplace: issues for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Prem

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to work productively is a key component of health and emotional well-being. Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) are associated with reduced workplace productivity. It is anticipated that this impact is greatest in developing countries. Furthermore, workplace stress is associated with a significant adverse impact on emotional wellbeing and is linked with an increased risk of CMDs. This review will elaborate on the relationship between workplace environment and psychiatric morbidity. The evidence for mental health promotion and intervention studies will be discussed. A case will be developed to advocate for workplace reform and research to improve mental health in workplaces in developing countries in order to improve the wellbeing of employees and workplace productivity. PMID:19232117

  12. Country of Origin and Country of Service Delivery Effects in Transnational Higher Education: A Comparison of International Branch Campuses from Developed and Developing Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Chiu Mei; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Wilkins, Stephen; Ong, Fon Sim

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, international branch campuses have been established by universities from developing countries as well as developed countries. Little research has been conducted into students' perceptions of branch campuses from different countries, or how universities from different countries compete in the increasingly competitive market. A…

  13. Rating maternal and neonatal health services in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Ross, John A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal and neonatal health services in 49 developing countries. METHODS: The services were rated on a scale of 0 to 100 by 10 - 25 experts in each country. The ratings covered emergency and routine services, including family planning, at health centres and district hospitals, access to these services for both rural and urban women, the likelihood that women would receive particular forms of antenatal and delivery care, and supporting elements of programmes such as policy, resources, monitoring, health promotion and training. FINDINGS: The average rating was only 56, but countries varied widely, especially in access to services in rural areas. Comparatively good ratings were reported for immunization services, aspects of antenatal care and counselling on breast feeding. Ratings were particularly weak for emergency obstetric care in rural areas, safe abortion and HIV counselling. CONCLUSION: Maternal health programme effort in developing countries is seriously deficient, particularly in rural areas. Rural women are disadvantaged in many respects, but especially regarding the treatment of emergency obstetric conditions. Both rural and urban women receive inadequate HIV counselling and testing and have quite limited access to safe abortion. Improving services requires moving beyond policy reform to strengthening implementation of services and to better staff training and health promotion. Increased financing is only part of the solution. PMID:12378290

  14. Universities and National Development: Issues and Problems in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the relevance and contribution of universities to national development in economic, sociocultural, and political dimensions. Discusses rates of return, employment, vocational curricula, equality, and ideology. Concludes that a major problem in developing nations is ambivalence of universities stemming from their international and national…

  15. Mass Customization and Personalization Prospects in Developing Country: Indonesian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risdiyono; Djati Widodo, Imam; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of information technology (IT) has changed many modes and ways for people in doing their businesses. Mass Customization and Personalization (MCP) is one example of business modes that has been dramatically evolve, mainly due to the currently very fast IT development. MCP has enabled people to involve in adjusting some design parameters of a product to meet their personal requirements before purchased. The advancement of IT has made MCP more successful as it makes the process faster, easier, simpler and more joyful. The success stories of MCP are easily found in many developed countries, where the IT infrastructure has firmly been established. For developing countries, there are very few industries have implemented the MCP concept, including Indonesia. This paper discusses a descriptive study to depict what people think about MCP implementation in Indonesia especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Kano model was used to see the perception of both producers and consumers in relation with MCP implementation. Five dummy MCP prototypes were developed for five creative products including plaques, hats, invitation card, t-shirts and leather bags. Based on the KANO questionnaire analyses, it is clear that there are big opportunities to implement MCP in Indonesia especially for creative products produced by SMEs. Identifying the correct product features is an important key for successful MCP implementation in developing countries.

  16. Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Vivienne M; Ferroni, Marco

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural biotechnology holds much potential to contribute towards crop productivity gains and crop improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 14 million smallholder farmers are already benefiting from biotech crops such as cotton and maize in China, India and other Asian, African and Central/South American countries. Molecular breeding can accelerate crop improvement timescales and enable greater use of diversity of gene sources. Little impact has been realized to date with fruits and vegetables because of development timescales for molecular breeding and development and regulatory costs and political considerations facing biotech crops in many countries. Constraints to the development and adoption of technology-based solutions to reduce yield gaps need to be overcome. Full integration with broader commercial considerations such as farmer access to seed distribution systems that facilitate dissemination of improved varieties and functioning markets for produce are critical for the benefits of agricultural biotechnology to be fully realized by smallholders. Public-private partnerships offer opportunities to catalyze new approaches and investment while accelerating integrated research and development and commercial supply chain-based solutions. PMID:22155017

  17. [Deficient information in developing countries: Internet alone is no solution].

    PubMed

    Sluijs, M B; Veeken, H; Overbeke, A J P M

    2006-06-17

    Health-care personnel in developing countries have poor access to information, partly because the books are out of date and journals and Internet access are lacking, and partly because the information that is available is not appropriate for the local situation. There is too little research aimed at the problems of the Third World. This is due to a lack of interest in Western countries and because local scientists have done too little research. Internet solves the problem of access to information for health-care personnel in large hospitals and institutes, but there is still a shortage of relevant information for them as well. The editorial boards of professional journals could make a contribution by facilitating the publication of relevant research. Health-care personnel in rural areas will remain dependent upon basic books. This basic component of the provision of information should continue to receive attention. For the time being, Internet will remain inaccessible for rural health-care personnel. One of the initiatives being undertaken in order to improve the provision of information to health-care personnel in developing countries is the distribution of the 'blue trunk library' of the WHO with a selection of more than 100 basic books in every trunk. A number of journals have also taken action: the BMJ Publishing Group offers access to its journals free of charge to the 118 poorest countries and the Canadian Medical Association Journal provides free copies to libraries in developing countries. Moreover, a number ofwebsites have been started with a view to enlarging the information for health-care personnel in the Third World. PMID:16808368

  18. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries: determinants and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Jones, E F; Forrest, J D; Goldman, N; Henshaw, S K; Lincoln, R; Rosoff, J I; Westoff, C F; Wulf, D

    1985-01-01

    Because of the high adolescent fertility rates in the US, the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) conducted a 1985 study of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in 37 developed countries. This was an effort to unveil those factors responsible for determining teenage reproductive behavior. This article presents the data from that study. Birthrates were collected and separated into 2 age groups: for those under 18 and those women 18 to 19 years of age. A 42 variable questionnaire was sent to the public affairs officer of the American embassy and family planning organization in each foreign country to provide additional socioeconomic, behavioral, and educational data. Childbearing was found to be positively correlated with agricultural work, denoting a socioeconomic influence. Adolescent birthrates showed a positive correlation with levels of maternity leaves and benefits offered in the country. The lowest birthrates were found in those countries with the most liberal attitudes toward sex as demonstrated through media representation of female nudity, extent of nudity on public beaches, sales of sexually explicit literature, and media advertising of condoms. A negative correlation was seen for equitable distribution of income and the under 18 birthrate. The older teenage birthrate was found to be lower for countries with higher minimum ages for marriage. They also suggested a responsiveness to government efforts to increase fertility. Some general patterns emerged to explain the high teenage birthrate for the US: it is less open about sexual matters than countries with lower adolescent birthrates and the income in the US is distributed to families of low economic status. A more subtle factor is that although contraception is available, it is not that accessible to young men and women because of the cost. Case studies were presented to provide a more detailed understanding of the reasons for the high adolescent birthrates. Examined are desire for pregnancy, exposure to

  19. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  20. Calcium and vitamin D metabolism in children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pettifor, John M

    2014-01-01

    Low dietary calcium intakes and poor vitamin D status are common findings in children living in developing countries. Despite many of the countries lying within the tropics and subtropics, overcrowding, atmospheric pollution, a lack of vitamin D-fortified foods, and social customs that limit skin exposure to sunlight are major factors in the development of vitamin D deficiency. Low dietary calcium intakes are typically observed as a consequence of a diet limited in dairy products and high in phytates and oxalates which reduce calcium bioavailability. Calcium intakes of many children are a third to a half of the recommended intakes for children living in developed countries, yet the consequences of these low intakes are poorly understood as there is limited research in this area. It appears that the body adapts very adequately to these low intakes through reducing renal calcium excretion and increasing fractional intestinal absorption. However, severe deficiencies of either calcium or vitamin D can result in nutritional rickets, and low dietary calcium intakes in association with vitamin D insufficiency act synergistically to exacerbate the development of rickets. Calcium supplementation in children from developing countries slightly increases bone mass, but the benefit is usually lost on withdrawal of the supplement. It is suggested that the major effect of calcium supplementation is on reducing the bone remodelling space rather than structurally increasing bone size or volumetric bone density. Limited evidence from one study raises concerns about the use of calcium supplements in children on habitually low calcium intakes as the previously supplemented group went through puberty earlier and had a final height several centimetres shorter than the controls. PMID:25341870

  1. A developing country perspective on vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    John, T. Jacob

    2004-01-01

    When the Expanded Programme on Immunization was established and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was introduced for developing countries to use exclusively, national leaders of public health had no opportunity to make an informed choice between OPV and the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Today, as progress is made towards the goal of global eradication of poliomyelitis attributable to wild polioviruses, all developing countries where OPV is used face the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Until recently, awareness of VAPP has been poor and quantitative risk analysis scanty but it is now well known that the continued use of OPV perpetuates the risk of VAPP. Discontinuation or declining immunization coverage of OPV will increase the risk of emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) that re-acquire wild virus-like properties and may cause outbreaks of polio. To eliminate the risk of cVDPV, either very high immunization coverage must be maintained as long as OPV is in use, or IPV should replace OPV. Stopping OPV without first achieving high immunization coverage with IPV is unwise on account of the possibility of emergence of cVDPV. Increasing numbers of developed nations prefer IPV, and manufacturing capacities have not been scaled up, so its price remains prohibitively high and unaffordable by developing countries, where, in addition, large-scale field experience with IPV is lacking. Under these circumstances, a policy shift to increase the use of IPV in national immunization programmes in developing countries is a necessary first step; once IPV coverage reaches high levels (over 85%), the withdrawal of OPV may begin. PMID:15106301

  2. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  3. Emergency medical care in developing countries: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed Central

    Razzak, Junaid A.; Kellermann, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Prevention is a core value of any health system. Nonetheless, many health problems will continue to occur despite preventive services. A significant burden of diseases in developing countries is caused by time-sensitive illnesses and injuries, such as severe infections, hypoxia caused by respiratory infections, dehydration caused by diarrhoea, intentional and unintentional injuries, postpartum bleeding, and acute myocardial infarction. The provision of timely treatment during life-threatening emergencies is not a priority for many health systems in developing countries. This paper reviews evidence indicating the need to develop and/or strengthen emergency medical care systems in these countries. An argument is made for the role of emergency medical care in improving the health of populations and meeting expectations for access to emergency care. We consider emergency medical care in the community, during transportation, and at first-contact and regional referral facilities. Obstacles to developing effective emergency medical care include a lack of structural models, inappropriate training foci, concerns about cost, and sustainability in the face of a high demand for services. A basic but effective level of emergency medical care responds to perceived and actual community needs and improves the health of populations. PMID:12481213

  4. Management of Haemophilia in Developing Countries: Challenges and Options.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Ghosh, Kinjalka

    2016-09-01

    There are significant challenges in managing haemophilia patients in developing countries. These challenges are (i) Lack of proper health care infrastructure and human resources suitable for haemophilia care (ii) Competing health care priorities of the government. (iii) Lack of penetrance of medical insurance in the population. (iv) Lesser visibility of the haemophilia patients in health care system (v) Low awareness across the medical profession, population and the policy makers about the condition (vi) Non availability of factor concentrates (vii) Inadequate utilization of knowledge for reducing factor concentrate use. (viii) Inadequate pain relief (ix) Challenges due to inhibitor developing (x) Viral hepatitis & (xi) Lack of research publications relevant to the country are some of the challenges faced by PWH for their management in developing country. The solutions are not easy but development of a strong patient organization with linkages with World Federation of Haemophilia is an important initial step. Following that internal and international twinning, use of internal sources, strong advocacy programme targeting government, doctors, opinion makers will solve many of the challenges in the time to come. PMID:27429529

  5. Why Patient Centered Care Coordination Is Important in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Luna, D.; Marcelo, A.; Househ, M.; Mandirola, H.; Curioso, W.; Pazos, P.; Villalba, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patient Centered Care Coordination (PCCC) focuses on the patient health care needs. PCCC involves the organization, the patients and their families, that must coordinate resources in order to accomplish the goals of PCCC. In developing countries, where disparities are frequent, PCCC could improve clinical outcomes, costs and patients satisfaction. Objective the IMIA working group Health Informatics for Development analyzes the benefits, identifies the barriers and proposes strategies to reach PCCC. Methods Discussions about PCCC emerged from a brief guide that posed questions about what is PCCC, why consider PCCC important, barriers to grow in this direction and ask about resources considered relevant in the topic. Results PCCC encompasses a broad definition, includes physical, mental, socio-environmental and self care. Even benefits are proved, in developing countries the lack of a comprehensive and integrated healthcare network is one of the main barriers to reach this objective. Working hard to reach strong health policies, focus on patients, and optimizing the use of resources could improve the performance in the devolvement of PCCC programs. International collaboration could bring benefits. We believe information IT, and education in this field will play an important role in PCCC. Conclusion PCCC in developing countries has the potential to improve quality of care. Education, IT, policies and cultural issues must be addressed in an international collaborative context in order to reach this goal. PMID:26123907

  6. Preparation for Life in a Democratic Society in Five Countries in Southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuente, Carmen

    The aim of this report is to identify and explain the relevant experiences that are being undertaken in some Southern European schools to prepare young people for living in a democracy. To prepare the report, the authors visited schools in five countries: Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, and Spain. They also obtained information from ad hoc reports…

  7. Economic evaluation of rural woodlots in a developing country: Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Kihiyo, V.B.M.S.

    1996-03-01

    Rural areas in developing countries use wood as their main source of energy. Previously, wood has been obtained free from natural forests and woodlands. The pressure of increased demand through population growth, and the fact that natural trees take longer to grow, has made this resource scarce. Thus, raising trees in woodlots has been adopted as the solution to its shortage in the wild. However, growing trees in woodlots will inevitably require resources in terms of capital, land and manpower. Economic evaluation becomes necessary to ascertain that these resources are used economically. This paper dwells on some of the salient features of the economic evaluation of woodlots, such as interest rates, shadow prices of factors of production, social opportunity, cost of capital and sensitivity analysis of such woodlots in a developing country such as Tanzania. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  9. Routes to Better Health for Children in Four Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Croghan, Thomas W; Beatty, Amanda; Ron, Aviva

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective, affordable interventions for the most common causes of death, more than ten million children in developing countries die each year. This article describes the circumstances of four countries whose reductions in child mortality exceeded what might be expected from their poor economic circumstances, and it asks whether they followed common routes to improved health for children. The findings suggest that contextual factors, such as the degree of economic development, good governance, and strong health care systems, matter less than do targeted health intervention, foreign aid, and technical assistance. In general, these findings contradict prevailing U.S. foreign policy regarding the circumstances in which progress toward health goals can be made. PMID:16771821

  10. Energy data collection as a necessary activity for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Loebl, A.S.; Cagle, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for energy data collection by developing countries and includes an examination of the special requirements of Costa Rica for energy data collection. A primary reason for national data collection is to support the planning function, and this is particularly significant where energy planning and economic development are concerned. Energy data are necessary to support all phases of planning: short-term; mid-term; and long-range and/or strategic planning. These different planning requirements are discussed. Energy data are also necessary to support national management, as well as the economic-development functions. These latter requirements are also discussed briefly.

  11. Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Rashid, Naim; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Saif, Ameena; Ahmad, Nasir; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    Global pharmaceutical industry has relocated from the west to Asian countries to ensure competitive advantage. This industrial relocation has posed serious threats to the environment. The present study was carried out to assess the possible pharmaceutical contamination in the environment of emerging pharmaceutical manufacturing countries (Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan). Although these countries have made tremendous progress in the pharmaceutical sector but most of their industrial units discharge wastewater into domestic sewage network without any treatment. The application of untreated wastewater (industrial and domestic) and biosolids (sewage sludge and manure) in agriculture causes the contamination of surface water, soil, groundwater, and the entire food web with pharmaceutical compounds (PCs), their metabolites and transformed products (TPs), and multidrug resistant microbes. This pharmaceutical contamination in Asian countries poses global risks via product export and international traveling. Several prospective research hypotheses including the development of new analytical methods to monitor these PCs/TPs and their metabolites, highly resistant microbial strains, and mixture toxicity as a consequence of pharmaceutical contamination in these emerging pharmaceutical exporters have also been proposed based on the available literature. PMID:23535471

  12. Efficacy of Professional Development Schools in Developing Countries: Panama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon; Shaklee, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the creation and implementation of the first Professional Development School (PDS) model of teacher education in Panama. The authors set the context within brief histories of international education and PDSs and provide operational definitions of the critical terminology. To be sure, the scope and scale of the…

  13. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S A Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-02-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  14. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S. A. Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  15. Battery power comparison to charge medical devices in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Alesia M; Bray, Andrew S; Powers, Taylor A; Nimunkar, Amit J; Webster, John G

    2009-01-01

    Many people in developing countries cannot afford or rely on certain modes of electricity. We establish the reasonability of relying on lead-acid batteries, 9 V alkaline batteries, and lithium-ion batteries for charging low-voltage medical equipment. Based on the research and tests we conducted, we determined that using these battery types to charge medical devices truly is a reasonable solution. PMID:19964250

  16. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  17. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Nadel, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  18. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kalavapudi, M.; Iyengar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  20. Promoting the use of crumb rubber concrete in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Batayneh, Malek K; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2008-11-01

    The use of accumulated waste materials in third world countries is still in its early phases. It will take courage for contractors and others in the construction industry to recycle selected types of waste materials in the concrete mixes. This paper addresses the recycling of rubber tires accumulated every year in Jordan to be used in concrete mixes. The main objectives of this research were to provide more scientific evidence to support the use of legislation or incentive-based schemes to promote the reuse of accumulated waste tires. This research focused on using crumb tires as a replacement for a percentage of the local fine aggregates used in the concrete mixes in Jordan. Different concrete specimens were prepared and tested in terms of uniaxial compression and splitting tension. The main variable in the mixture was the volumetric percentage of crumb tires used in the mix. The test results showed that even though the compressive strength is reduced when using the crumb tires, it can meet the strength requirements of light weight concrete. In addition, test results and observations indicated that the addition of crumb rubber to the mix has a limited effect toward reducing the workability of the mixtures. The mechanical test results demonstrated that the tested specimens of the crumb rubber concrete remained relatively intact after failure compared to the conventional concrete specimens. It is also concluded that modified concrete would contribute to the disposal of the non-decaying scrap tires, since the amount being accumulated in third world countries is creating a challenge for proper disposal. Thus, obliging authorities to invest in facilitating the use of waste tires in concrete, a fundamental material to the booming construction industry in theses countries, serves two purposes. PMID:18956487

  1. Community factors affecting rising caesarean section rates in developing countries: an analysis of six countries.

    PubMed

    Leone, Tiziana; Padmadas, Sabu S; Matthews, Zoë

    2008-10-01

    Caesarean section rates have risen dramatically in several developing countries, especially in Latin America and South Asia. This raises a range of concerns about the use of caesarean section for non-emergency cases, not least the progressive shift of resources to non-essential medical interventions in resource-poor settings and additional health risks to mothers and newborns following a caesarean section. There are only a few studies that have systematically examined the factors influencing the recent increase in caesarean rates. In particular, it is not clear whether high elective caesarean rates are driven by medical, institutional or individual and family decisions. Where a woman's decisions predominate her interaction with peers and significant others have an impact on her caesarean section choices. Using random intercept logistic regression analyses, this paper analyses the institutional, socio-economic and community factors that influence caesarean section in six countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Morocco and Vietnam. The analyses, based on data from over 20,000 births, show that women of higher socio-economic background, who had better access to antenatal services are the most likely to undergo a caesarean section. Women who exchange reproductive health information with friends and family are less likely to experience a caesarean section than their counterparts. The study concludes that there is a need to pursue community-based approaches for curbing rising caesarean section rates in resource-poor settings. PMID:18657345

  2. Changing theoretical perspectives on urbanisation in Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lin, G C

    1994-02-01

    European models of urbanization inadequately capture the process of growth of urban cities in Asian developing countries. The following theoretical issues were presented as illustrations of the inadequacies of European paradigms: 1) the role of cities in regional development, 2) the dual nature of employment in Asian cities, 3) foreign investments, and 4) socialism. The concept of extended metropolitan regions in Asian countries was advanced by the studies of McGee and Ginsburg; metropolitan regions were recognized as unique to Asia. Socioeconomic development led to the blurring of regions into distinct urban and rural areas and to the mixing of agricultural and nonagricultural areas. The city-based model of economic concentration was replaced with a region-based urbanization. There is no universally applicable model of urban transition, although the influence of Euro-Americanism can still be felt in the theories of developing country development. What is not known is whether the new form of urban transition is a viable option or is a compromise between city-biased strategy and the development of intermediate and small towns. The effects of extended metropolitan regions are still unknown. Primary urbanization has its roots in early civilizations. Peterson developed the notions of the transitional stages of industrialization and urbanization: 1) preindustrial with high birth, death, and infant mortality rates of young, small populations; 2) early Western industrialization with reduced mortality and increased births; and 3) modern Western society with low birth and mortality rates and older, larger populations. Kingsley Davis provided the conception of rural-to-urban migration and urban growth, associated with urban economic and social opportunity and a shift from agricultural to nonagricultural employment. McGee postulated demographic, economic, and social transitions as part of the urbanization process. There is an increasing awareness that urban growth and the

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases in children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Richens, J

    1994-08-01

    The populations of developing countries have younger age structures than the populations of more developed, Western countries. That is, children, adolescents, and youth constitute a far greater proportion of the populations of developing countries than in developed countries. These young people experiment with sex and sexual intercourse or have coitus on a regular basis depending upon their individual personalities and circumstances. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among younger age groups in developing countries is not well documented. It may, however, be inferred on the basis of reported experience of STD in surveys of adolescents and young adults that many children are infected with STDs. Some young people have sex consensually, some are coaxed into it, and others are coerced. On the one hand, young children have been thought to contract STD by sitting on the laps of infected, scantily-clad adults where such limited attire is the norm. Close contact between youngsters such as communal sleeping, for example, could then facilitate the spread of the STD among children. Sex, consensual or otherwise, is not involved in such infection and transmission beyond the index adult. On the other hand, however, many children and adolescents are forced to have sexual relations and/or intercourse either directly against their will or as a result of the primal need to ensure their individual survival. For example, there are an estimated 100-200 million street children worldwide; many have little alternative but to sell sex to survive. When having sex, they may not use condoms because they are unaware of the STD risk they face, they have no access to free condoms, clients/employers/peers prevent them from using condoms, or due to a myriad of other reasons. Struggling to survive, many such kids place condom use very low on their list of priorities. Children and adolescents can also become infected and transmit STDs to others by engaging in sexual intercourse

  4. GLOBE Earth Science Education and Public Outreach in Developing Countries GLOBE Earth Science Education and Public Outreach in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Boger, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    GLOBE is an international hands-on earth science education program that involves scientists, teachers and students in more than 16,000 primary and secondary schools. GLOBE is funded by the National Aeronautics Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Department of State. GLOBE works with schools (teachers and students) through more than 100 U.S. GLOBE partnerships with universities, state and local school systems, and non-government organizations. Internationally, GLOBE is partnered with 109 countries that include many developing nations throughout the world. In addition to the GLOBE's different areas of investigation e.g. Atmosphere/ Weather, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover Biology and Phenology ( plant and animal), there are special projects such as the GLOBE Urban Phenology Year Project (GUPY) that engages developing and developed countries ( Finland, United States, Japan, Philippines, Thailand, Jordan, Kyrgystan, Senegal, Poland, Estonia, and the Dominican Republic) in studying the effects of urbanization on vegetation phenology, a sensitive indicator of climate change. Vegetation phenology integrates different components of the Earth system i.e. carbon and geochemical cycling, water cycling and energy cycling and is an excellent way to engage students in collaborative projects. This presentation will highlight the GUPY project and provide additional examples of local initiatives and collaborations with indigenous communities that use GLOBE and an inquiry approach to revise science education in developing countries .

  5. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology - Develop policies outlining

  6. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun; Wu, Yue; Schwebel, David C.; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%). Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries. PMID:27399740

  7. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country.

    PubMed

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-10-14

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emergency room. He appeared pale, and had no abdominal distention, tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, or findings of dehydration. He experienced bilious vomiting again during a physical examination. Laboratory tests showed mild elevation of white blood cells and C-reactive protein levels. Antigens of adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were not detected from his stool, and stool culture showed normal flora. Ultrasonography showed multiple, round-shaped structures within the small intestine, and a tubular structure in a longitudinal scan of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy showed a moving worm of Ascaris in the jejunum. Intestinal ascariasis should be considered as a cause of bilious vomiting in children, even at the emergency room in industrial countries. Ultrasound examination and capsule endoscopy are useful for diagnosis of pediatric intestinal ascariasis. PMID:25320546

  8. Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop

    2012-02-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. PMID:22240243

  9. Integrated framework for energy pricing in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Munasinghe, M.

    1980-07-01

    The interrelationships of energy subsectors and prices are examined to demonstrate the importance of coordinating energy planning and prices, particularly in developing countries where market distortions are often highest, investment funds are limited, and the population is poor. The framework developed can be adapted for nonconventional as well as conventional energy sources. Clearly stated national objectives and a way to trade off contradictory goals are incorporated into a framework of integrated energy pricing. A shadow-priced marginal opporunity cost of each subsector is determined, and the efficient price is adjusted in accordance with social and economic constraints. 7 figures, 15 references. (DCK)

  10. Issues of device safety in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Stanley Chen, Jih-Horn; Kou, Alex; Lee, Wei-Shiang

    2005-01-01

    Safe use of medical devices is a comprehensive concept with its technical integration. It includes not only its procedural operations but also its vigilance to patient status, correct installation of device, proper user's education and training, appropriate device maintenance, user facility compatibility, and acceptable interference from environment. Consequently, in technology advanced countries, the safety of medical device can be monitored by the operations through both the premarket approval and the postmarket surveillance. This also implies that regulations and standards take its own significant role to the safe operations of medical device. However, with the integrated and hierarchical operation of regulations and standards on medical devices is even non-existent in most of developing and underdeveloping countries. This article presents safety issues of medical devices in these particular circumstances. PMID:17282141

  11. Hearing impairment prevention in developing countries: making things happen.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, B O

    2000-10-16

    It is estimated that at least two thirds of the world's population of persons with disabling hearing impairment reside in developing countries. Yet, little and slow progress have been reported in these countries towards tackling this problem principally on account of inadequate resources. The prospects for improvement remain uncertain. This paper re-examines the peculiar nature of hearing impairment prevention within the context of the existing health-care needs of most of these nations. It establishes that the failure to recognize the dynamics of the social change that underlie an effective national programme on hearing impairment prevention may, in itself, forestall a successful and sustainable outcome even when more resources become available. PMID:11035172

  12. The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2006-02-01

    Thirty years ago international nutritionists were focussing on childhood malnutrition, the 'protein gap' and how to feed the world's burgeoning population, and medical services in the developing world were concentrated on the fight against infectious diseases. Today the World Health Organization (WHO) finds itself needing to deal with the new pandemic of obesity and its accompanying non-communicable diseases (NCDs) while the challenge of childhood malnutrition has far from disappeared, TB and malaria rates are escalating, and the scourge of AIDS has emerged. This has created a 'double burden' of disease that threatens to overwhelm the health services of many resource-poor countries. WHO warns that the greater future burden of obesity and diabetes will affect developing countries, and the projected numbers of new cases of diabetes run into the hundreds of millions within the next 2 decades. The obesity pandemic originated in the US and crossed to Europe and the world's other rich nations before, remarkably, it penetrated even the world's poorest countries especially in their urban areas. The pandemic is transmitted through the vectors of subsidized agriculture and multinational companies providing cheap, highly refined fats, oils, and carbohydrates, labour-saving mechanized devices, affordable motorized transport, and the seductions of sedentary pastimes such as television. This paper briefly reviews these macro-environmental trends as well as considering some of the socio-behavioural influences on weight gain in traditional societies. It concludes, pessimistically, that the pandemic will continue to spread for the foreseeable future, and that, apart from educational campaigns, the governments and health services of poor countries will have few effective public health levers with which they can try to arrest the trend. PMID:16326822

  13. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  14. Modeling financial disaster risk management in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechler, R.; Hochrainer, S.; Pflug, G.; Linnerooth-Bayer, J.

    2005-12-01

    The public sector plays a major role in reducing the long-term economic repercussions of disasters by repairing damaged infrastructure and providing financial assistance to households and businesses. If critical infrastructure is not repaired in a timely manner, there can be serious effects on the economy and the livelihoods of the population. The repair of public infrastructure, however, can be a significant drain on public budgets especially in developing and transition countries. Developing country governments frequently lack the liquidity, even including international aid and loans, to fully repair damaged critical public infrastructure or provide sufficient support to households and businesses for their recovery. The earthquake in Gujarat, and other recent cases of government post-disaster liquidity crises, have sounded an alarm, prompting financial development organizations, such as the World Bank, among others, to call for greater attention to reducing financial vulnerability and increasing the resilience of the public sector. This talk reports on a model designed to illustrate the tradeoffs and choices a developing country must make in financially managing the economic risks due to natural disasters. Budgetary resources allocated to pre-disaster risk management strategies, such as loss mitigation measures, a catastrophe reserve fund, insurance and contingent credit arrangements for public assets, reduce the probability of financing gaps - the inability of governments to meet their full obligations in providing relief to private victims and restoring public infrastructure - or prevent the deterioration of the ability to undertake additional borrowing without incurring a debt crisis. The model -which is equipped with a graphical interface - can be a helpful tool for building capacity of policy makers for developing and assessing public financing strategies for disaster risk by indicating the respective costs and consequences of financing alternatives.

  15. Opportunities and the Perception Ofspace Programs in the Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B. G.

    2006-08-01

    Although the space program as a whole is a true reflection of the level of achievement in human history in the field of Science and Technology, but it is also important to note that there are numbers of communities and societies on this earth that are ignorant about this great achievement, hence leading to the continuous diverting of Potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologist to other disciplines, thereby undermining the development of the space program over time. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed Suggestions/Recommendations:- 1. The European Space Agency (ESA), National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency, should be organising and sponsoring public enlightenment conferences, seminars and workshops towards creating awareness and attracting Potential Astronomers and other Space Scientist mostly in the developing countries into the space program. 2. Esteemed organisations in space programs like NASA, ESA and others should be awarding scholarships to potential space scientist that lack the financial capability to pursue studies in the field of space science from the developing countries. 3. The European Space Agency, National Aeronautic Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency, should open their offices for the development of the space program in the third world countries. I believe that if the above suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will lead to the development of the space program in general, otherwise the rate at which potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologists will be diverting into other disciplines will ever remain on the increase.

  16. The care of children from developing countries in Australia.

    PubMed

    Nossar, V

    1992-03-16

    Many children from developing countries enter Australia yearly either with their family or alone. Many such immigrants establish themselves in Sydney of Melbourne. Due to infectious, malnutrition, and poverty, the children come with a high risk of death, disease, and disability. these risks continue in Australia due to unemployment, poverty, and social obstacles. The government provides health screenings to protect Australians from infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis. Health services should also tend to the growth, development, and personal health needs of these immigrant children. Few health practitioners have received training in identifying and intervening in their health problems, however. A clinic has organized a service for immigrant children including those who had experienced war, threat, or disaster. An integrated health service which can address unique needs must be available to children from developing countries. In south Western Sydney, such a system exists. A community health nurse works with school age refugees to match them up with appropriate health services. The Service Director of the Department of Community Paediatrics in South Western sydney proposed an even more comprehensive health service for all children from developing countries which would encourage self-reliance and independence. Trained community nurses would actually g into their homes and schools to assist them in finding appropriate practitioners. This system of individual attention would round out the public health screenings. All health practitioners should familiarize themselves with the unique health needs of these children and the different cultural contexts from which they derive. Only then can these children reach the full development potential as Australian-born children. PMID:1545738

  17. HIV testing in developing countries: what is required?

    PubMed

    Alemnji, George; Nkengasong, John N; Parekh, Bharat S

    2011-12-01

    HIV diagnostic and follow up testing are usually done in laboratory settings. However, in developing countries there is a need to decentralize testing as the majority of the population lives in rural settings. In developing countries stringent quality assurance (QA) practices, which include appropriate training, development of standard operating procedures, maintenance of operator proficiency, routine use of quality control (QC) specimens, standardized data management, equipment calibration and maintenance, and biohazard safety with proper disinfection/disposal procedures are not routinely followed to ensure reliability of results and a safe work environment. The introduction of point-of-care testing technologies involving the use of non-laboratorians in routine testing has further increased the complexity of QA. Therefore, a careful approach towards improvement of laboratories that encourages best practices, coupled with incentives, and review of government policies in point-of-care testing is needed to improve quality of testing as decentralization takes place. Development of a functional laboratory tiered network that facilitates communication, referral, training and problem solving could further enhance confidence in laboratory testing. There is also a need for special considerations in implementing a step-wise approach towards quality improvement, strengthening of the supply chain management, human capacity development, infrastructure upgrade, and strong public private partnerships to ensure long term sustainability of these efforts. PMID:22310813

  18. Energy planning in developing countries - the Turkish case

    SciTech Connect

    Gunduz, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Since energy shortcomings promise to have serious economic, political, and social consequences, energy planning should constitute the most important aspect of overall development planning in developing countries. Turkey, an energy-important developing country, presently depends heavily on imported petroleum. The increases in international petroleum prices have affected the Turkish economy adversely, and promises to be the same in the future unless dependence on imported petroleum is reduced by substituting other resources for petroleum. Taking into account the degree of the present Turkish economic development and the level of industrialization attained, and the direction Turkish economy is heading in general, electricity from nuclear power plants, along with the development and use of other energy resources is found to be the most suitable substitute in this study. This is in contradiction with the present official policy of utilizing domestic lignite and hydro resources. Energy self-sufficiency at any cost does not seem to be a possibility for in the near future in Turkey, neither is it as vitally important as has been strived for the past. Nuclear fuels, supplied in part from domestic sources and also from Western nations, of which Turkey is a partner, will reduce Turkey's economic and political vulnerability.

  19. Building Capacity for Developing Statistical Literacy in a Developing Country: Lessons Learned from an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Delia; Gal, Iddo; Zewotir, Temesgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the emerging literature on capacity-building in statistics education by examining issues pertaining to the readiness of teachers in a developing country to teach basic statistical topics. The paper reflects on challenges and barriers to building statistics capacity at grass-roots level in a developing country,…

  20. Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    El-Ashry, M.T. )

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  2. Halothane: how should it be used in a developing country?

    PubMed

    Mahboobi, N; Esmaeili, S; Safari, S; Habibollahi, P; Dabbagh, A; Alavian, S M

    2012-02-01

    The anaesthetic agent halothane is still widely used in developing countries including the Islamic Republic of Iran because of its low price. Because of halothane-induced hepatitis, a rare complication, it has been replaced by other inhalation anaesthetics in Western countries; it has been suggested by some Iranian professionals that the Islamic Republic of Iran should do the same. We evaluated various dimensions of this replacement through a literature review to assess the incidence of halothane-induced hepatitis and costs of anaesthetics in the country. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of 30 anaesthesiology/gastroenterology experts about their views on the subject. The results indicate that the incidence of halothane hepatitis in the Islamic Republic of Iran is very low and could mostly be avoided by strict adherence to guidelines. Complete withdrawal of halothane in the Islamic Republic of Iran might not be appropriate at present. Comprehensive cost-effectiveness studies are needed before a decision is made on complete replacement of halothane with other anaesthetics. PMID:22571093

  3. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Cerutti, O.M.

    1992-08-01

    Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

  4. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Cerutti, O.M.

    1992-08-01

    Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions' levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

  5. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.

    2009-11-01

    Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation

  6. Organisation of reperfusion therapy for STEMI in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Dharma, Surya; Andriantoro, Hananto; Dakota, Iwan; Purnawan, Ismi; Pratama, Vireza; Isnanijah, Herawati; Yamin, Muhammad; Bagus, Tjatur; Hartono, Benny; Ratnaningsih, Endang; Suling, Frits; Basalamah, M Abas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Routine evaluation of performance measures for the system of care for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is needed to improve the STEMI network. We sought to evaluate the current status of reperfusion therapy for STEMI in the capital city of a developing country where a STEMI network was introduced in 2010. Methods Data were obtained from a local registry. A total of 28 812 patients admitted to the emergency department of a national cardiovascular hospital in three different periods (2007, 2010 and 2013) were retrospectively analysed; there were 2703 patients with STEMI. Results In 2013 compared with 2007, there was a major increase in the number of primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) (35% vs 24%, p<0.001), and the proportion of non-reperfused patients fell (62.8% vs 67.7%, p<0.001). An improvement in the overall STEMI mortality rate was also observed (7.5% vs 11.7%, p<0.001). Conclusions Implementation of a regional system of care for STEMI may improve utilisation of primary PCI. Future organisation of reperfusion therapy in a developing country such as Indonesia strongly calls for a strategy that focuses on prehospital care to minimise delay from the first medical contact to reperfusion therapy, and this may reduce the proportion of non-reperfused patients. These strategies are in concordance with guideline recommendations and may reduce or eliminate gaps in healthcare in developing countries, particularly the underutilisation of evidence-based therapies for patients with STEMI. Trial registration number NCT 02319473, Clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:26019883

  7. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG'). PMID:23334584

  8. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very

  9. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Lilliana Abarca; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-01

    Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very useful when planning, changing or implementing waste management systems in cities. PMID:23098815

  10. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development: Challenges for Developing Countries in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Crowder, L.; Lindley, W. I.; Bruening, T. H.; Doron, N.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural education institutions in developing countries must address immediate production needs as well as food security, sustainable agricultural, and rural development needs. This will mean moving to an interdisciplinary, systems approach that incorporates new topics. (Author/JOW)

  11. Micromanufacturing: Recent developments in this country and abroad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrington, Robert O.; Friedrich, Craig R.; Gao, Robert X.; Lin, Gang

    1993-01-01

    This paper has attempted to summarize some recent activities in this country and overseas. The effort in Louisiana is relatively new and growing. The Russian effort is not well coordinated or documented. A conference on Micro Systems Technologies is scheduled for June of 1993 in St. Petersburg, Russia. Serious consideration should be given to developing a strategy to not only participate in this meeting, but also to spend additional time in Russia assessing the technology. MEMS technologies will eventually affect virtually every aspect of our lives and, at least in the near term, mini-devices with micro-components will probably be the economic drivers for the technology.

  12. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis: trends in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Neena; Agrawal, Sanjay; Rai, Anil K

    2005-04-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is believed to be a rare and serious complication of odontogenic and oropharyngeal infections. It is associated with a high (up to 40%) mortality rate, which can be attributed to delays in diagnosis and inadequate surgical drainage. Between May 1999 and September 2002, we treated 7 cases at our institution in New Delhi, indicating that such fulminating infections are not so rare in developing countries. In our 7 cases, a high index of suspicion and early computed tomography helped us make a rapid diagnosis and initiate prompt treatment, which resulted in a favorable outcome in 6 cases (mortality rate: 14.3%). PMID:15929325

  13. Assessing medical technology in less-developed countries.

    PubMed

    Sideman, S; BenDak, J D

    1997-01-01

    Less developed countries (LDCs) are limited in medical resources. Medical technology and the management talent required to handle it play a particularly major role in their national health care and has significant economic, political, and ethical ramifications. This study of the assessment process of medical technology in the LDCs proposes a limited framework for the analysis of the major parameters involved, i.e., stakeholders, boundaries and constraints, goals and objectives, criteria to be met, performance measures, and measurement of performance. The importance of the intangible factors is elucidated. PMID:9308274

  14. Future of photovoltaic energy conversion in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, S.

    1980-04-01

    Recent studies reveal that photovoltaic energy conversion will be economically viable for usage in developing countries. An overview of programs designed to lower the costs of such conversion systems is presented. Government goals are reviewed, as well as application projects relative to rural usage. A summary of the state-of-the-art in both advanced research and commercially available technology is presented. It is concluded that with the range of the work being done, such systems will be viable for many rural applications within 5 years.

  15. Equilibrium urban unemployment in developing countries: is migration the culprit?

    PubMed

    Stark, O; Gupta, M R; Levhari, D

    1991-12-01

    "This paper challenges the prediction of Todaro's model of rural-to-urban migration that an 'increase in urban employment increases urban unemployed.' It is shown that if the urban demand for labor is isoelastic or inelastic, creation of urban jobs causes urban unemployment to decline and urban-to-rural migration to take place. Moveover, urban job creation always reduces the rate of urban unemployment. The paper then remodels the urban job search process and derives the result that equilibrium urban unemployment would not vanish even if the urban-rural wage gap were eliminated." The geographical focus is on developing countries. PMID:12317766

  16. Economic valuation of climate change adaptation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Stage, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation in developing countries, and identifies three key points for consideration in future studies. One key point is that all development policy should be formulated using forecasts from climate science as a baseline. When this is not done, there is risk that a false status quo without climate change is seen as an implicit baseline. Another key point is that authors must be clearer about their behavioral assumptions: Many studies either (problematically) assume profit maximization on the side of farm households, or do not specify behavioral assumptions at all. A third important point is that the allocation of rights is crucial for the results; if households have a right to maintain their current livelihoods, the costs of climate change in developing countries are considerably greater than traditional willingness-to-pay studies would indicate. Thus, costs and benefits of climate change adaptation cannot be analyzed using economic aspects only; climate science, behavioral science, and legal and moral aspects have crucial implications for the outcome of the analysis. PMID:20146767

  17. Interactions between zinc deficiency and environmental enteropathy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, Greta W; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency affects one-fifth of the world's population and leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. Environmental enteropathy (EE), a subclinical pathology of altered intestinal morphology and function, is almost universal among people living in developing countries and affects long-term growth and health. This review explores the overlapping nature of these 2 conditions and presents evidence for their interaction. EE leads to impaired zinc homeostasis, predominantly due to reduced absorptive capacity arising from disturbed intestinal architecture, and zinc deficiency exacerbates several of the proposed pathways that underlie EE, including intestinal permeability, enteric infection, and chronic inflammation. Ongoing zinc deficiency likely perpetuates the adverse outcomes of EE by worsening malabsorption, reducing intestinal mucosal immune responses, and exacerbating systemic inflammation. Although the etiology of EE is predominantly environmental, zinc deficiency may also have a role in its pathogenesis. Given the impact of both EE and zinc deficiency on morbidity and mortality in developing countries, better understanding the relation between these 2 conditions may be critical for developing combined interventions to improve child health. PMID:24425714

  18. Natural Treatment Systems as Sustainable Ecotechnologies for the Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed. PMID:23878819

  19. Interactions between intestinal pathogens, enteropathy and malnutrition in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J.; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on recent data highlighting the interactions between intestinal pathogens, enteropathy and malnutrition in developing countries, which drive morbidity and mortality and hinder the long-term developmental potential of children. Recent findings Diarrhoea remains the second commonest cause of death in children below 5 years, and malnutrition underlies 45% of all child deaths. Even in the absence of diarrhoea, subclinical pathogen carriage and enteropathy are almost universal in developing countries. Here, we review recent studies addressing the causes and consequences of diarrhoea; emerging data on environmental influences that govern postnatal development of the gut and microbiota; current concepts of environmental enteric dysfunction; and recent intervention trials in the field. We highlight the interactions between these processes, whereby intestinal pathogens drive a cycle of gut damage, malabsorption, chronic inflammation and failed mucosal regeneration, leading to malnutrition and susceptibility to further enteric infections. Summary Efforts to improve child survival and long-term developmental potential need to address the overlapping and interacting effects of diarrhoea, enteropathy and malnutrition. Recent insights from human and animal studies suggest potential targets for intervention. PMID:26967147

  20. Natural treatment systems as sustainable ecotechnologies for the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah; Afsheen, Sumera

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed. PMID:23878819

  1. Gas in developing countries: Volume 1, Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-17

    When gas is discovered in a developing country, and there is either insufficient to justify an Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) export project, or a surplus over-and-above LNG requirements, what are the problems that hinder its development for the internal market in that country. Are there positive steps that can be taken to facilitate such development. The major focus of this study is therefore on the problems that arise in negotiating and implementing agreements between companies and governments. The asymmetries and differences between the behavior and perceptions of the two groups impinge on the conduct of negotiations and the nature of agreements reached between the parties. Objectives are examined for each group as well as the procedures they follow and the constraints under which they operate. The effect of differences on exploration contracts, on pricing and on fiscal regimes are examined and practical ways in which the different objectives of governments and companies can be reconciled to their mutual advantage are suggested. The report is divided into two parts. This Volume, Part One of the report, contains a synthesis of our views on the issues raised by research, and the main conclusions.

  2. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Troschinetz, Alexis M; Mihelcic, James R

    2009-02-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors. PMID:18657963

  3. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  4. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Several reports suggest that antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem; but like most pandemics, the greatest toll is in the less developed countries. The dismally low rate of discovery of antimicrobials compared to the rate of development of antimicrobial resistance places humanity on a very dangerous precipice. Since antimicrobial resistance is part of an organism's natural survival instinct, total eradication might be unachievable; however, it can be reduced to a level that it no longer poses a threat to humanity. While inappropriate antimicrobial consumption contributes to the development of antimicrobial resistance, other complex political, social, economic and biomedical factors are equally important. Tackling the menace therefore should go beyond the conventional sensitization of members of the public and occasional press releases to include a multi-sectoral intervention involving the formation of various alliances and partnerships. Involving civil society organisations like the media could greatly enhance the success of the interventions PMID:19922676

  5. The social impact of HIV/AIDS in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Danziger, R

    1994-10-01

    This paper highlights some of the main areas of social impact of HIV and AIDS in developing countries and suggests that these must constitute priority areas for action among international and national policy makers, as well as others concerned with HIV and AIDS. The areas of impact which are considered are: economic and demographic; labour productivity; agricultural production and development; pressures on the health sector; the role of families and households; children; women; HIV/AIDS discrimination; and the impact of HIV/AIDS on the individual. Some of the responses which have already been developed to the impact of HIV and AIDS are considered, and many of these are seen to be at least partially effective ways of addressing some of the consequences of pandemic. The paper concludes however that the escalating cost of HIV and AIDS, in personal, social and economic terms, demands a greater degree of considered, concerted and coordinated action by international, national and local agencies. PMID:7992124

  6. Energy strategies for oil-importing developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Munasinghe, M.

    1984-04-01

    The author analyzes the impact of the past oil crises on the world economy in general, and on the oil importers in particular. He identifies possible adjustment strategies that the oil-importing developing countries (OIDCs) might adopt in the coming years. Energy planning will generally require the coordinated use of interrelated policy tools such as physical controls and legislation, technical methods (including research and development), direct investments or investment-inducing policies, education and propaganda, and pricing. The broad energy options available to OIDCs are efficiency improvements to both energy supply and consumption, an increased pace of developing indigenous resources, and a restructing of their economies for longer-run payoffs. 12 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  7. Newborn screening progress in developing countries--overcoming internal barriers.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Krotoski, Danuta; Therrell, Bradford L

    2010-04-01

    Newborn screening is an important public health measure aimed at early identification and management of affected newborns thereby lowering infant morbidity and mortality. It is a comprehensive system of education, screening, follow-up, diagnosis, treatment/management, and evaluation that must be institutionalized and sustained within public health systems often challenged by economic, political, and cultural considerations. As a result, developing countries face unique challenges in implementing and expanding newborn screening that can be grouped into the following categories: (1) planning, (2) leadership, (3) medical support, (4) technical support, (5) logistical support, (6) education, (7) protocol and policy development, (8) administration, (9) evaluation, and (10) sustainability. We review some of the experiences in overcoming implementation challenges in developing newborn screening programs, and discuss recent efforts to encourage increased newborn screening through support networking and information exchange activities in 2 regions-the Asia Pacific and the Middle East/North Africa. PMID:20207264

  8. Improving diabetes care in developing countries: the example of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Riaz, Musarrat; Fawwad, Asher

    2015-02-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with limited recourses and diverse economic social patterns. Pakistan has high prevalence of diabetes and its complication, which is a huge challenge to the existing health care system. The major contributing risk factors are urbanization and change in lifestyle, maternal and fetal malnutrition and genetic factors. National action plans for control of diabetes have been made since 1995 but actions in this regard were not perfect. Training of primary care physicians and development of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams was initiated. Prioritization strategies were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) guidance, mainly focusing on diabetic foot, diabetes education and children with diabetes. Researches for better understanding and management of diabetes in Pakistan were undertaken. Collaboration between various stakeholders was promoted at national and international level. In summary, public private relationships and development of multifaceted approaches is expected to improve the lives of millions of diabetics of Pakistan. PMID:25467615

  9. Reconciliation of climate protection & development: the role of OECD & developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropp, J. P.; Costa, L.; Rybski, D.

    2012-04-01

    Although developing countries are called to participate in CO2 emission reduction efforts to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of proposed reduction schemes in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We show the existence of a positive and time-dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use. We employ this empirical relation under consideration the parallel constraint of the 2°C target, extrapolations of the HDI, and using population scenarios to determine emission pathways for countries. We assume that developing countries will rely on fossil fuel use in the future, e.g. due to cost reasons (Development as Usual - DAU), but we also define as turning the 0.8 HDI threshold. Beyond this value a country is commonly considered as developed. We show if current demographic and development trends are maintained that around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8) by 2050. In such a case 300 Gt of cumulative CO2 emissions are estimated to be necessary for the development of 104 developing countries in the year 2000 between 2000 and 2050. This value represents between 20 % to 30 % of previously calculated CO2 budgets limiting global warming to 2°C. These constraints and results are incorporated into a CO2 reduction framework involving four domains of climate action for individual countries. The framework reserves a fair and equitable emission path for developing countries to proceed with their development by indexing country-dependent reduction rates proportional to the HDI in order to preserve the 2°C target after a particular development threshold is reached. It can be shown that in such a case the pressure to the OECD countries could be higher than assumed. For example, in each time step of five years, countries with an HDI of 0.85 would need to reduce their per capita emissions by approx. 17% and countries with

  10. A developing country perspective on implementing sustainable energy programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ul Haq, Z.; James, J.A.; Kamal, S.

    1997-12-31

    Bangladesh is a developing country faced with many challenges such as high population growth rate, low literacy levels, and poverty. One of its most difficult tasks is providing the infrastructure necessary to sustain a growing population with a finite resource base. There is a need to develop a long term energy strategy that relies on sustainable resources while reducing environmental harm. Solar energy has the potential to meet these requirements and presents a highly attractive energy source for Bangladesh. Bangladesh is fortunate enough to have a significant amount of solar irradiance. A number of projects have been started in Bangladesh to exploit renewable energy resources. This paper will highlight the current status of these projects. Major interest and activity is directed towards development of photovoltaic and wind resources. The market for renewable technologies is vast in Bangladesh where a significant portion of the population is off-grid and in need of energy. Although this is not an affluent market technology costs have come down sufficiently such that it is becoming accessible to rural populations with credit schemes. While developing sustainable energy is a worthwhile goal and much encouraged by donor agencies, Bangladesh`s perspective on attempting to develop this sector suggests that it is not an easy road to follow, due to numerous internal and external barriers. A discussion of the barriers to the commercialization of renewables will be included in this paper. The objective of this paper is to shed some light on these issues and to stimulate discussions on how to overcome the barriers and encourage the dissemination of renewables in developing countries.

  11. Bisphenol A and food safety: Lessons from developed to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2016-06-01

    Modern lifestyles and changes in the socio-economic characteristics of households have stimulated current developments in food technology, processing and packaging. Chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) are known to migrate from food packaging into the food, resulting in human exposure to these chemicals. Similarly, BPA can migrate from baby feeding bottles into milk. BPA has been associated with adverse effects attributed to its estrogenic properties in various animal models. This review analyzed peer-reviewed publications in the English literature on human BPA exposure and regulations in developing countries compared to developed countries. BPA has been reduced or eliminated from food packaging and contact materials such as baby bottles in developed countries either voluntarily or by legislation. The meager data from developing countries shows that human BPA exposure in developing countries is similar to that in developed countries. With minor exceptions, BPA restriction, voluntary or legal, is virtually absent in developing countries of Africa, SE Asia, and South and Central America. PMID:27041591

  12. Empiric treatment of neonatal sepsis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Obiero, Christina W; Seale, Anna C; Berkley, James A

    2015-06-01

    Infections are among the leading causes of neonatal mortality, and about 75% of the burden occurs in developing countries. Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in these countries is dependent on the recognition of a set of nonspecific clinical signs that maximize sensitivity because staff making initial assessments may not have specialist pediatric training. Accurate diagnosis is usually limited by the unavailability of reliable microbiological investigation. The World Health Organization recommends ampicillin (or penicillin; cloxacillin if staphylococcal infection is suspected) plus gentamicin for empiric treatment of neonates with suspected clinical sepsis or meningitis. However, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the causes of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility in developing countries to support these recommendations, especially in rural settings. Bacterial pathogens (predominantly Gram negative) with reduced susceptibility to empiric medication have been reported, with variations both between and within regions. Nosocomial infections with resistant organisms and high case fatality challenge the first-line use of cephalosporins. Improving local surveillance data using standardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and validation of diagnostic algorithms against microbial findings are essential. Standardized reporting of treatment outcomes is required to evaluate practice, provide guidance on second-line regimes and for studies of new approaches, such as simplified community-based regimens, and to determine the appropriate duration of empiric treatment for apparently low-risk neonates with early resolution of clinical signs, or where available, negative blood cultures. Thus, a multifaceted approach, with attention to microbiological quality assurance, is needed to better guide antimicrobial use and reduce mortality and long-term impairments. PMID:25806843

  13. The SLMTA programme: Transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Katy; Maruta, Talkmore; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Nkengasong, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Efficient and reliable laboratory services are essential to effective and well-functioning health systems. Laboratory managers play a critical role in ensuring the quality and timeliness of these services. However, few laboratory management programmes focus on the competencies required for the daily operations of a laboratory in resource-limited settings. This report provides a detailed description of an innovative laboratory management training tool called Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) and highlights some challenges, achievements and lessons learned during the first five years of implementation (2009–2013) in developing countries. Programme SLMTA is a competency-based programme that uses a series of short courses and work-based learning projects to effect immediate and measurable laboratory improvement, while empowering laboratory managers to implement practical quality management systems to ensure better patient care. A SLMTA training programme spans from 12 to 18 months; after each workshop, participants implement improvement projects supported by regular supervisory visits or on-site mentoring. In order to assess strengths, weaknesses and progress made by the laboratory, audits are conducted using the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist, which is based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 requirements. These internal audits are conducted at the beginning and end of the SLMTA training programme. Conclusion Within five years, SLMTA had been implemented in 617 laboratories in 47 countries, transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries. To our knowledge, SLMTA is the first programme that makes an explicit connection between the performance of specific management behaviours and routines and ISO 15189 requirements. Because of this close relationship, SLMTA is

  14. Regulations and Legislation Regarding Correspondence Education. A Survey of Five Countries with Recommended Guidelines for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunning, Robert

    Different types of existing regulations and legislation for correspondence education in France, West Germany, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States are reviewed for the benefit of other countries developing policies. For each country surveyed, four sections are provided in the report: a brief description of the educational system, as…

  15. Strategic Planning for Higher Education in Developing Countries: Challenges and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Fred M.

    2008-01-01

    The study presented in this article focuses on strategic planning in developing countries, drawing on the author's experiences in a dozen developing countries in Asia and Africa and focus groups in three of those countries: Afghanistan, Madagascar, and South Africa. It looks at the special challenges faced by planners in developing countries and…

  16. Modernity and acceptance of family limitation in four developing countries.

    PubMed

    Miller, K A; Inkeles, A

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between individual modernity and adoption of family planning was investigated in East Pakistan (Bangladesh), Israel, India, and Nigeria. The survey involved interviews with approximately 1000 males in each country, with an emphasis on industrial, nonindustrial, and agricultural workers. Results indicated that the variables of modernity, i.e., literacy and amount of education received, degree of exposure to mass media, urban residence, white-collar occupation, and a high standard of living, were only slightly significant in explaining the acceptance of family planning. Survey results indicate that modern experiences have their effect in indirect ways through general psychological modernity. Variables related to family and sex roles do not explain attitudes toward family planning. 2 variables which did relate to family planning attitudes were: belief in science, medicine, and technology, and a secular as opposed to religious life orientation. Implications of the study are that the only way to insure decreasing birthrates in developing countries is to progress with general economic development. However, mere modernization will not achieve the desired results. There must be an emphasis in communication on the value of science, medicine, and technology. PMID:12308805

  17. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  18. Gender and use of cataract surgical services in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Lewallen, Susan; Courtright, Paul

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine, from the existing literature, cataract surgical coverage rates by sex and the proportion of cataract blindness that could be eliminated if women and men had equal access to cataract surgical services. METHOD: Methodologically sound population-based cataract surveys from developing countries were identified through a literature search. Cataract surgical coverage rates were extracted from the surveys and rates for women were compared to those for men. Peto odds ratios were calculated for each survey and a meta-analysis of the surveys was performed. FINDINGS: From a literature review and meta-analysis of cataract surveys in developing countries, we found that the cataract surgical coverage rate was 1.2-1.7 times higher for males than for females. For females, the odds ratio of having surgery, compared to males, was 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60- 0.74). Despite their lower coverage rate, females accounted for approximately 63% of all cataract cases in the study populations, and if they received surgery at the same rates as males, the prevalence of cataract blindness would be reduced by a median of 12.5% (range 4-21%). CONCLUSION: Closing the gender gap could thus significantly decrease the prevalence of cataract blindness, and gender-sensitive intervention programmes are needed to improve cataract surgical coverage among females. PMID:12075366

  19. [Anthropology and oral health projects in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Grasveld, A E

    2016-01-01

    The mouth and teeth play an important role in social interactions around the world. The way people deal with their teeth and mouth, however, is determined culturally. When oral healthcare projects are being carried out in developing countries, differing cultural worldviews can cause misunderstandings between oral healthcare providers and their patients. The oral healthcare volunteer often has to try to understand the local assumptions about teeth and oral hygiene first, before he or she can bring about a change of behaviour, increase therapy compliance and make the oral healthcare project sustainable. Anthropology can be helpful in this respect. In 2014, in a pilot project commissioned by the Dutch Dental Care Foundation, in which oral healthcare was provided in combination with anthropological research, an oral healthcare project in Kwale (Kenia) was evaluated. The study identified 6 primary themes that indicate the most important factors influencing the oral health of school children in Kwale. Research into the local culture by oral healthcare providers would appear to be an important prerequisite to meaningful work in developing countries. PMID:27430039

  20. Animal biotechnology: applications and economic implications in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Madan, M L

    2005-04-01

    In most developing countries, biotechnological applications relating to livestock need to be suitable for animal owners who are resource-poor small-scale operators who own little or no land and few animals. Livestock is becoming increasingly important to economic growth in developing countries and the application of biotechnology is largely dictated by commercial considerations and socio-economic goals. Using technology to support livestock production is an integral part of viable agriculture in multi-enterprise systems. Livestock are part of a fragile ecosystem and a rich source of animal biodiversity, as local species and breeds possess genes and traits of excellence. Molecular markers are increasingly being used to identify and select the particular genes that lead to these desirable traits and it is now possible to select superior germ plasm and disseminate it using artificial insemination, embryo transfer and other assisted reproductive technologies. These technologies have been used in the genetic improvement of livestock, particularly in cattle and buffaloes, and the economic returns are significant. However, morbidity and mortality among animals produced using assisted reproductive technologies lead to high economic losses, so the principal application of animal biotechnology at present is in the production of cheap and dependable diagnostic kits and vaccines. Several obstacles limit the application of biotechnology at present: there is a lack of infrastructure and insufficient manpower, so funding is needed if resource-poor farmers are to benefit from biotechnology. PMID:16110883

  1. Utilization and Monetization of Healthcare Data in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bram, Joshua T.; Warwick-Clark, Boyd; Obeysekare, Eric; Mehta, Khanjan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In developing countries with fledgling healthcare systems, the efficient deployment of scarce resources is paramount. Comprehensive community health data and machine learning techniques can optimize the allocation of resources to areas, epidemics, or populations most in need of medical aid or services. However, reliable data collection in low-resource settings is challenging due to a wide range of contextual, business-related, communication, and technological factors. Community health workers (CHWs) are trusted community members who deliver basic health education and services to their friends and neighbors. While an increasing number of programs leverage CHWs for last mile data collection, a fundamental challenge to such programs is the lack of tangible incentives for the CHWs. This article describes potential applications of health data in developing countries and reviews the challenges to reliable data collection. Four practical CHW-centric business models that provide incentive and accountability structures to facilitate data collection are presented. Creating and strengthening the data collection infrastructure is a prerequisite for big data scientists, machine learning experts, and public health administrators to ultimately elevate and transform healthcare systems in resource-poor settings. PMID:26487984

  2. Face transplant: is it feasible in developing countries?

    PubMed

    González-García, Ignacio; Lyra-González, Iván; Medina-Preciado, David; Guerrero-Torres, Alejandro; Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on the case of a 28-year-old woman who was involved in a car accident, with diagnosis of polytrauma, loss of left eye, and second- and third-degree burns over the left midface, rendering an exposed area of 8 cm wide and 19 cm length, ranging from glabella to mandible, with skull exposure and loss of left eye.A latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous free flap was transferred into the defect; left eye and nose prosthetics were necessary to restore normal appearance. Excellent results were obtained; reinsertion to patient's normal life and reinstatement of facial appearance were achieved with minimal costs and no postsurgical complications.Analysis of the current situation in developing countries demonstrates that technique and infrastructure do not represent a real challenge to carry on face transplants. However, socioeconomic reality in these societies makes it difficult to establish face transplant as a feasible therapeutic opportunity for the overwhelming majority of patients who are victims of severe facial damage.Therefore, strategies such as latissimus dorsi free flap remains as an excellent therapy to face off our complex facial reconstructive challenges in developing countries such as Mexico. PMID:23348307

  3. Choice of prosthetic heart valve in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Talwar, Sachin; Airan, Balram

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical prostheses and stented xenografts (bioprosthesis) are most commonly used substitutes for aortic and mitral valve replacement. The mechanical valves have the advantage of durability but are accompanied with the risk of thromboembolism, problems of long-term anticoagulation, and associated risk of bleeding. In contrast, bioprosthetic valves do not require long-term anticoagulation, but carry the risk of structural valve degeneration and re-operation. A mechanical valve is favoured in young patients (<40 years) if reliable anticoagulation is ensured. In elderly patients (>60 years), a bioprosthesis is a suitable substitute. In middle-aged patients (40–60 years), risk of re-operation in a bioprosthesis is equal to that of bleeding in a mechanical valve. Traditionally, a bioprosthesis is opted in patients with limited life expectancy. Calculation of life expectancy, based solely upon chronological age, is erroneous. In developing countries, the calculated life expectancy is much lower than that of Western population, hence age related Western cut-offs are not valid in developing countries. Besides age, cardiac condition of the patient, systemic illnesses, socio-economic status, gender and geographical location also decide the life expectancy of the patients. Selection of the prosthetic valve substitute should be based on: aspiration of the patient, life expectancy, socio-economic and educational background, occupation of the patient, availability, cost, monitoring of anti-coagulation, monitoring of valve function and other valve related complications, and possibility of re-operation. PMID:27326237

  4. ISODEX: An entry point for developing countries into space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Mark Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Several threads current in the community of international space actors have led to calls at UN COPUOS Scientific & Technical Sub-Committee meetings for enhancing the scientific information available on man-made space objects, whilst fostering international space object data sharing. Growing awareness of the problems of space debris proliferation and space traffic management, especially amongst developing countries and non-traditional space faring nations, have fueled their desires to become involved in the areas of space object tracking, utilizing relatively modest astronomical instrumentation. Additionally, several commercial satellite operators, members of the Satellite Data Association, have called for augmentation of the information available from existing catalogs. This confluence of factors has led to an international discussion, at the UN and elsewhere, of the possibility of creating a clearing-house for parties willing to share data on space objects, with a working title of the “International Space Object Data Exchange” (ISODEX). We discuss the ideas behind this concept, how it might be implemented, and it might enhance the public’s knowledge of space activities, as well as providing an entry point into space for developing countries.

  5. Resource Paper on Application of Computers and Computing Techniques to Development, in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Sergio F.

    In spite of the lack of specific and properly defined goals and plans about the use of computers for their development, some non-industrialized countries have made substantial advances in this computer usage. In these countries, the number of computers installed ranges from zero to roughly 1 per 200,000 inhabitants. The distribution of these…

  6. Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeting, M.

    The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the

  7. Sustainable transfer of biotechnology to developing countries: fighting poverty by bringing scientific tools to developing-country partners.

    PubMed

    Coloma, Josefina; Harris, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Poverty and social inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious and other diseases but also the course of disease in those affected. The lack of proper diagnosis and access to adequate health services only compounds the problem. In low-resource settings, the burden of disease can be reduced if the basic human and material resources exist to support the use of low-cost interventions by appropriately trained personnel. For 20 years, the Sustainable Sciences Institute has built scientific capacity in developing countries to recognize, prevent, and respond to the threats posed by disease. PMID:17954678

  8. Entry into space: challenges for the developing country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M.

    A developing country that desires to undertake space-related activities has a host of challenges it has to overcome: low level of awareness of the importance of space; lack of or unsustained political will and commitment; limitation of resources; inability to tap resources if they exist; inadequate infrastructure and support system; and incorrect international perception of motivation. Even if it manages to overcome these hurdles, it needs to demonstrate a fast return of value for investment. Hence rapid operationalisation of technology developments is vital which in turn has to be balanced with an optimized transfer of know-how and technology. It would do well for the world space community to assist in overcoming some of these obstacles because a world that is equitably engaged in space will also be inclined to be a world that recognizes the need for the global protection of space and space assets.

  9. Indicators for assessing changes in natural resources in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The sustainability of the natural-resource base is being seriously threatened in many developing countries by local efforts to meet basic needs for food, fiber, and fuelwood. This paper suggests eight illustrative indicators for assessing the impact of A.I.D. agricultural and forestry projects on natural resources: soil-productivity maintenance, land use and management, vegetative cover and plant health, agroforestry and fuelwood supply, rangeland conditions and trends, water supply, environmental quality, and accelerated general degradation processes. Appendices cover procedures, data items, and costs for natural resource inventories in the United States; Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with digitized map information; costs of soil surveys, digitized maps, and GISs; estimated costs for remote sensing of natural resources; and a U.S. Department of Agriculture water erosion prediction project being developed to replace the universal soil loss equation. Includes a 5-page bibliography.

  10. Geoscience in Developing Countries of South Asia and International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, K.

    2007-12-01

    Earth Science community in developing countries of South Asia is actively engaged in interdisciplinary investigations of the Earth and its envelopes through geological, geophysical and geochemical processes, for these processes are interconnected. Interdisciplinary interaction will continue to grow since problems pertaining to the solid earth, with its core-mantle-crust, and fluid envelops can be solved only with contributions from different Science disciplines. The expanding population and revolution in data handling-and-computing have now become a necessity to tackle the geoscientific problems with modern techniques and methodologies to meet these new challenges. As a future strategy, geo-data generation and handling need to be speedier and easier and hence demands a well- knit coordiantion and understanding amongst Governments, Industries and Academic organizations. Such coordination will prove valuable for better understanding of the Earth's processes, especially mitigating natural hazards with more accurate and speedy prdictions, besides sustaining Earth's resources. South Asian geoscience must, therefore, seek new directions by way of strategies, policies, and actions to move forward in this century. Environmental and resource problems affecting the world population have become international issues, since global environmental changes demand international cooperation and planning. The Earth is continually modified by the interplay of internal and external processes. Hence we need to apply modern geophysical techniques and interpret the results with the help of available geological, geochronological and gechemical informations It is through such integrated approach that we could greatly refine our understanding of the deep structure and evolution of the Indian shield. However, the inputs into multi-disciplinary studies necessary to know the crustal structure and tectonics in the adjoining regions (Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka etc.) still remain

  11. Environmental issues relevant to the preparation of USAID/Mozambique`s country program strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    The present moment offers a unique opportunity to address Mozambique`s environmental problems, according to this assessment of Mozambique`s natural and environmental resources. Conducted to help USAID/M prepare its Country Program Strategic Plan (CPSP), the assessment covers: (1) the status of Mozambique`s natural resources (soil and land, water, vegetative cover, wildlife/biodiversity and nonrenewable resources), with emphasis on conservation and management of biological diversity and tropical forests; (2) shortcomings in the knowledge and management of these resources; (3) the efforts of other donors and NGOs to address natural resources degradation; and (4) recommendations. According to the report, while all three of the CPSP`s focus areas -- income generation, social services, the democratic governance -- can contribute notably to sustainable use of the environment, the income focus will have the most impact, as families who are struggling to survive often turn to destructive patterns of land use. The report cautions USAID/M not to neglect, in its emphasis on NGOs, the state agencies that will be responsible for guaranteeing security in areas such as land rights. In particular, the Mission should promote the policymaking and enforcement role of the National Commission for the Environment (CNA) and should involve the CNA in Mission environmental assessments. Appendices include a summary of donor environmental activities in Mozambique; a tabulated portrait of Mozambique`s forest resources and forestry sector; and a list of state agencies with responsibilities in Mozambique`s coastal zone.

  12. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family blood donors is justified. Methods: Review of old and recent literature through Pubmed and references from identified articles. Results and Discussion: Viral marker data comparing confirmed seroprevalence in 1st time volunteer non-remunerated donors (VNRD) and family/replacement donors (FRD) corrected for gender and age, show no significant difference between the two groups. Evidence has been provided that for both VNRD and FAD benevolence is more appropriate than altruism. The two groups merge for psychological attitude to donation for which knowing someone needing transfusion is a powerful incentive to give blood. Excluding a life or death situation found in areas where severe blood shortage justifies replacement donation, pressures are exerted on both VNRD and FRD. There is no evidence of coercion of FRD. FRDs therefore meet all criteria for VNRD and are willing to become VNRD and to repeat donation. Ostracising FRD is illegitimate and damaging to the blood supply in resource poor areas. In some countries no difference is made between the two groups of donors representing similar populations asked to give blood in different circumstances. Conclusions: FRDs remain a critical source of volunteer, non-remunerated, blood meeting all classical criteria of VNRD that should be considered legitimate and indispensable at this point in time instead of discouraged. PMID:27011664

  13. Building Technological Capability within Satellite Programs in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle Renee

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. They sometimes pursue this via collaborative satellite development projects with foreign firms that provide training. This phenomenon of collaborative satellite development projects is poorly understood by researchers of technological learning and technology transfer. The approach has potential to facilitate learning, but there are also challenges due to misaligned incentives and the tacit nature of the technology. Perspectives from literature on Technological Learning, Technology Transfer, Complex Product Systems and Product Delivery provide useful but incomplete insight for decision makers in such projects. This work seeks a deeper understanding of capability building through collaborative technology projects by conceiving of the projects as complex, socio-technical systems with architectures. The architecture of a system is the assignment of form to execute a function along a series of dimensions. The research questions explore the architecture of collaborative satellite projects, the nature of capability building during such projects, and the relationship between architecture and capability building. The research design uses inductive, exploratory case studies to investigate six collaborative satellite development projects. Data collection harnesses international field work driven by interviews, observation, and documents. The data analysis develops structured narratives, architectural comparison and capability building assessment. The architectural comparison reveals substantial variation in project implementation, especially in the areas of project initiation, technical specifications of the satellite, training approaches and the supplier selection process. The individual

  14. Emergency management of disasters involving livestock in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Heath, S E; Kenyon, S J; Zepeda Sein, C A

    1999-04-01

    Different disasters have similar consequence on the health and welfare of livestock. Numerous geophysical disasters can exacerbate epizootics, resulting in the deaths of many animals and the reduction of production efficiency. These disasters also present a considerable threat of spoilage of processed foods, endangering public health. Furthermore, large-scale disasters involving animals can modify the long-term stability of national economies, the environment and social structures. The authors discuss the vulnerability of the livestock industry to natural disasters and the impact of floods, droughts and transboundary diseases and pests on national economies. Examples are given on how some losses can be avoided, evaluated and compensated. The role of the veterinarian is presented in relation to work conducted by other relief organisations in cases of emergency. In developing countries, mitigation programmes should focus on strengthening global animal health services. Preparedness needs to be community based, with education provided in a timely manner. Effective recovery from disasters should be based on mitigation programmes, including international trade and mutual aid agreements between neighbouring countries to supply appropriate goods and environmentally and culturally appropriate breeds of livestock. Disaster relief for the care of livestock should be recognised as a form of humanitarian assistance, given the benefits to be derived for public health and the socio-economic implications of successful intervention. PMID:10190219

  15. Freshwater Assessments in Developing Country Contexts: Innovations and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, R.; Bryer, M.

    2005-05-01

    The world's developed nations have hosted the lion's share of freshwater conservation assessments, yet developing nations are home to a disproportionately large fraction of global freshwater biodiversity. With less `hard-path' infrastructure in place, opportunities for proactive freshwater conservation abound, but economic growth pressures do as well. The need for freshwater assessments is urgent in these environments, but assessment approaches and outcomes can exhibit important differences from those in developed country contexts. First, the need to balance biodiversity conservation with economic development interests is a common and strong undercurrent and translates to an elevated focus on freshwater ecosystem goods and services over pure existence values. Second, data gaps about species, habitats, and processes can be so extensive as to nearly engender paralysis. Assessment methodologies created for data-rich situations often transfer imperfectly to these environments, and planners must find creative ways of circumventing data gaps without sacrificing scientific robustness. In some cases, this need has catalyzed technological `leapfrogging,' with advanced tools developed expressly to address these gaps. Here we present examples of these innovations as applied in South America, with a focus on the use of habitat classifications and threat analyses based on models and geospatial data.

  16. Update on the burden of Campylobacter in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Kosek, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent work has added to the understanding of the burden of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter strains in children living in the developing world. Recent findings New diagnostic modalities and carefully-designed field studies are demonstrating that the burden of Campylobacter diarrhea in children in the developing world has been greatly underestimated. Furthermore, there is emerging recognition of an association between Campylobacter infection and malnutrition. Important progress has been made towards a Campylobacter jejuni vaccine. Finally, evidence of antibiotic resistance continues to be an important issue that is accentuated by the realization that the burden of disease is greater than previously recognized. Summary Additional research is needed to refine our understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections in developing countries, in particular to improve estimates of the burden of Campylobacter diarrhea in endemic settings, to determine the impact of recurrent Campylobacter infections on child development, and to describe the prevalence and clinical significance of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter infections. Progressive antibiotic resistance of isolates argues for augmented and expanded control measures of antibiotics in livestock. Continued work in vaccine development is warranted as is the extension of data available on the serotypes related to burden in different areas of the world and the relationship of serotypes to disease severity. PMID:25023741

  17. The Formulation of Human Resources for Farming and Household Work as Vocations: Lessons for Less Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Mary Jean

    1991-01-01

    Urban-biased perspectives have distorted debates concerning agriculture in rural schools of less developed countries (LDCs). Pervasive measurement biases have rendered women's household labor invisible in LDCs and treated their vocational preparation as inconsequential. Early American land-grant college research, education, and extension services…

  18. Measles control in developing and developed countries: the case for a two-dose policy.

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, T. H.; Ginsberg, G. M.; Abed, Y.; Angeles, M. T.; Akukwe, C.; Bonn, J.

    1993-01-01

    Despite major reductions in the incidence of measles and its complications, measles control with a single dose of the currently used. Schwarz strain vaccine has failed to eradicate the disease in the developed countries. In developing countries an enormous toll of measles deaths and disability continues, despite considerable efforts and increasing immunization coverage. Empirical evidence from a number of countries suggests that a two-dose measles vaccination programme, by improving individual protection and heard immunity can make a major contribution to measles control and elimination of local circulation of the disease. Cost-benefit analysis also supports the two-dose schedule in terms of savings in health costs, and total costs to society. A two-dose measles vaccination programme is therefore an essential component of preventive health care in developing, as well as developed countries for the 1990s. PMID:8440043

  19. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Pathogens In Developed and Developing Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Ellis, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal illness is a leading cause of child mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are no precise or current estimates of the types and prevalence of pathogens associated with diarrheal illnesses in developed and developing settings. This systematic review assessed data from 60 studies published in the English language from five developing regions and developed countries worldwide to provide regional estimates of enteric pathogens affecting children. The random-effect method was used to establish the weighted average prevalence of pathogens in adults and children for each region. Significantly more pathogens were reported by studies from developing regions compared with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries (P<0.016). The identification rates of pathogens from community based and hospital based studies were similar (58.5% and 58.1% respectively, P<0.619). The overall detection of enteric pathogens in developing countries was higher in adults (74.8%; 95% CI 63.1-83.8%) compared with children (56.7%; 95% CI 53.0-60.4%) (P<0.001). Rotavirus was the most frequently detected pathogen in all regions with the highest rate, 24.8% (95% CI 18.0-33.1%), detected in the developed countries. This systematic review is the first to provide an estimate of the prevalence of enteric pathogens associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in adults and children in developed and developing settings. While pathogen detection rate is greater in developing regions the consistently high prevalence of rotavirus in both developed and developing settings underscores the urgent need for access to rotavirus vaccines. Increased travel between developing and developed countries increases disease risk, and hence developed countries have a vested interest in supporting vaccine accessibility in developing settings. PMID:25170480

  20. A World Transformed: How Other Countries Are Preparing Students for the Interconnected World of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Vivien

    2005-01-01

    Whether by incorporating the study of other nations and cultures into the school curriculum, requiring students to learn foreign languages, or encouraging cross-cultural exchanges, countries around the world are preparing their students for life in the global era. Vivien Stewart describes efforts in Europe, Australia, and Asia and assesses how the…

  1. Constrained recycling: a framework to reduce landfilling in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ricardo; Otoma, Suehiro

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model that integrates three branches of research: (i) economics of solid waste that assesses consumer's willingness to recycle and to pay for disposal; (ii) economics of solid waste that compares private and social costs of final disposal and recycling; and (iii) theories on personal attitudes and social influence. The model identifies two arenas where decisions are made: upstream arena, where residents are decision-makers, and downstream arena, where municipal authorities are decision-makers, and graphically proposes interactions between disposal and recycling, as well as the concept of 'constrained recycling' (an alternative to optimal recycling) to guide policy design. It finally concludes that formative instruments, such as environmental education and benchmarks, should be combined with economic instruments, such as subsidies, to move constraints on source separation and recycling in the context of developing countries. PMID:23129605

  2. The (political) economics of antiretroviral treatment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nattrass, Nicoli J

    2008-12-01

    Despite unprecedented international mobilisation to support universal provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), national governments continue to play the key role in determining access to treatment. Whereas some AIDS-affected countries have performed as well as or better than expected given their level of development, institutional characteristics and demographic challenges (e.g. Thailand and Brazil), others (notably South Africa) have not. This article argues that the 'economics' of antiretroviral drug delivery is at heart a political-economy of access to treatment. It depends on commitment on the part of national governments to negotiate with pharmaceutical companies over patented antiretroviral drug prices, on their policy towards compulsory licensing, and on the approach they adopt to delivering HAART. Civil society has an important role to play in encouraging governments to become, and remain, committed to taking action to ensure sustainable and widespread access to HAART. PMID:18964022

  3. Determinants of breastfeeding in developing countries: overview and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Huffman, S L

    1984-01-01

    Breastfeeding can play a major role in fertility regulation in developing countries. The effect of breastfeeding is enhanced when the incidence of breastfeeding is high and the duration extended. These factors are more likely to occur when suckling at the breast is frequent. Sociological and behavioral factors can also influence a woman's decision to initiate and terminate breastfeeding. The effects of urbanization, maternal education, and socioeconomic status act through the intervening variables of sociocultural factors, health services, employment status of women, and availability of breastmilk substitutes. Strategies to alter these intervening variables include educational campaigns and support groups for lactating women, changes in health services, availability of child care facilities near employment centers, and enforcement of the international code of marketing of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:6474551

  4. US solar energy policy for less developed countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russett, B.

    1980-10-01

    While remaining sensitive to engineering and economic considerations, concentration is on some political and sociological issues which will have great affect on decisions whether and how to make use of solar energy technology in less developed countries (LDCs). Only with an understanding of these issues and with answers to some of the questions raised can there be any serious effort to devise a satisfactory United States government policy for the promotion of solar energy applications abroad. Tentative propositions outlining issues about which further information is required are based on the results of interviews in the United States, India and the Middle East, and an analysis of various reports by private individuals, national and transnational organizations, and government agencies.

  5. The impact of telecommunication on rural areas in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, P. A. M.; Kwaks, A. M. J.; Bruza, I. V.; Dijk, J.

    1987-12-01

    The economic and social impact of telecommunication in developing countries was studied. The economic impact not only depends on the direct returns of the investment, like tariffs, through the improved communication facilities, other sectors can indirectly profit from the investments too. Especially, in areas with a very low telephone density, the indirect returns of a telecommunication investment are enormous. Technical possibilities for building up transmission links in a rural network include coaxial cables, glass fibers, radio transmission, and satellite communication. In thinly populated rural areas, satellite communication with a single channel per carrier (SCPC) system is a good solution. With a SCPC system few groundstations can be used. These stations are easy to maintain, and use little power. As soon as a satellite channel and two groundstations are operational, transmission is possible, so a SCPC system can be implemented quickly.

  6. Poverty and Child Development: Relevance of Research in Developing Countries to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that research from developing countries may help in understanding effects of poverty on child development in the United States, citing three cases: (1) the link between anemia and decreased levels of mental and motor development; (2) the positive effects of supplemental nutrition programs on child development; and (3) effects of poor…

  7. Technology assessment: Some questions from a developing country perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Goonatilake, S.

    1994-01-01

    The emergence of technology assessment did not occur in a societal or value vacuum; neither did its practice. Today`s TA expertise is the outcome of historically located concerns, still unique to a particular narrow space ({open_quotes}Euro America{close_quotes}) and a narrow time frame (post-1960s). There are wide cultural, economic, societal and historical variations in the developing world as compared to the developed Western nations. This variation limits the usefulness of the simple transfer of concepts developed in the West. There are also many different potential stakeholders in developing countries. These also include those outside the formal sectors who variously define desirable and undesirable aspects of the social and other factors of technology. This results in different cultural definitions of ethics, different visions of gender equality, different attitudes to the environment, different contents and values in local knowledge systems, and different social organizations associated with a given technology. An effective TA should recognize this multiplicity. It requires cognition, action, and debate on these key factors. At times this becomes an unavoidable developmental debate. 45 refs.

  8. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

  9. Dialysis and Quality of Dialysate in Southeast Asian Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Naramura, Tomotaka; Hyodo, Toru; Kokubo, Kenichi; Matsubara, Hirokazu; Wakai, Haruki; Nakajima, Fumitaka; Shibahara, Nobuhisa; Yoshida, Kazunari; Komaru, Yoshinori; Kawanishi, Hideki; Kawamura, Akio; Hidai, Hideo; Takesawa, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of dialysis patients has been increasing in Southeast Asia, but statistical data about these patients and on the quality of dialysates in Southeast Asian dialysis facilities are still imprecise. For this study, dialysis-related statistical data were collected in Southeast Asia. Methods A survey of the quality of dialysates was carried out at 4 dialysis facilities in Vietnam and Cambodia. The dialysis patient survey included the numbers of dialysis facilities and patients receiving dialysis, a ranking of underlying diseases causing the initiation of dialysis, the number of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD)/on-line hemodiafiltration/continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the number of HD monitoring devices installed, the cost of each session of dialysis (in USD), the percentage of out-of-pocket payments, and the 1-year survival rates of the dialysis patients (in percent). The dialysate survey covered the endotoxin (ET) level and bacterial count in tap water, in water filtered through a reverse osmosis system and in dialysate. Results In each of the countries, the most frequent reason for the initiation of dialysis is diabetes mellitus. HD is usually carried out according to the ‘reuse’ principle. The 1-year survival rates are 70% in Myanmar and about 90% in the Philippines and Malaysia. The ET levels in standard dialysates were satisfactory at 2 facilities. The bacterial counts in dialysates were not acceptable at any of the facilities investigated. Conclusion There is an urgent need to teach medical workers involved in dialysis how to prepare sterile and ET-free dialysates. PMID:24926310

  10. International Cooperation for the Training of Water Managers from Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2007-12-01

    Water is the key to the well being of a community. On one hand, water security is linked to food security, as food cannot be grown without water. On the other hand, water security is linked to environmental security, as water is needed to maintain the health of a community. International cooperation is proposed for the training in Hyderabad, India, with international faculty, of ~ 300 water managers from the developing countries at an estimated cost of ~USD 3300/- per candidate (including ~ USD 1800/- for international travel), through ten interactive and customized training programmes during the period of five years, to enable them to address two crucial issues affecting the poor in the developing countries, namely, access to affordable water and coping with water scarcity. Ways of Good governance and geographical targeting of poverty alleviation programmes are built into each training programme. Each training programme will be for about three weeks (inclusive of field work). Each course will have a component common to all, plus a component customized to the biophysical and socioeconomic situation in a candidate's country. Ten course manuals will be produced. which can later be published commercially as low-cost volumes, for the benefit of the readership in the Developing countries . Each candidate will be provided his own computer, and software, and individual faculty adviser. On the basis of the training received, a candidate should be able to carry with him at the end of the course a draft outline of techno-socio-economic action plan for his country/area in respect of the theme of the course, prepared by himself/herself. A copy of this outline would be provided to the World Bank, and relevant organizations for follow- up activity

  11. A case of cephalic tetanus in a developed country.

    PubMed

    Fusetti, S; Ghirotto, C; Ferronato, G

    2013-01-01

    Tetanus is a potentially life-threatening infection that results from contamination of skin wound by Clostridium Tetani spores. Although, it remains an important health problem in developing countries without strict national immunization programs, this condition is rare in the developed world. The most frequent presenting symptoms are trismus and dysphagia, due to the spasmodic contraction of the masticatory muscles. Then the disease usually diffuses with a descending pattern inducing a generalized contraction of the agonist and antagonistic muscles, which characterize a tetanic spasm. Mortality usually results from respiratory failure, cardiovascular collapse, or autonomic dysfunctions. Treatment usually requires the prompt admission to the intensive care unit to avoid the development of potential life-threatening complications. We report the case of a 78-year-old farmer, who was referred to us with progressive onset of lock-jaw and muscular stiffness of the facial region, that had occurred after he had scratched himself with a rose. The recognition of the presenting signs of cephalic tetanus allowed the prompt management of the infection. However, because of the rarity of this condition, the clinicians may be unfamiliar with the clinical presentation, and be unsuspecting of the diagnosis. PMID:23527734

  12. Call for neonatal nursing specialization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Premji, Shahirose S; Spence, Kaye; Kenner, Carole

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to reach Millennium Development Goals, health facility births, which are births occurring in health centers, facilities, or institutions under the care of a skilled birth attendant, are increasing in developing countries. We examined the state of neonatal nursing care in the context of issues related to the capacity of these health facilities to provide quality care and the high facility mortality rates in those neonates admitted to hospital. Neonatal nursing as a specialty within a community-hospital-community network system is proposed as an effective scaling-up strategy to improve neonatal survival. Establishment of international competency standards for neonatal nursing together with regulatory processes with mechanisms to facilitate specialty education forms the basis for the specialty of neonatal nursing. We have identified a strategy to mobilize financial resources for the development of the specialty of neonatal nursing. Evaluation of trends in mortality and identification of process indicators will facilitate examination of the effectiveness of the introduction of the specialty of neonatal nursing as a scaling-up strategy. PMID:23792874

  13. The deployment and training of teachers for remote rural schools in less-developed countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankrah-Dove, Linda

    1982-03-01

    In less-developed countries schools in remote rural areas are likely to be poor in quality. One important aspect of this in certain contexts is the comparatively low quality of teachers and the high rate of teacher turnover in rural schools in these areas. It is likely that contributory factors are the ways in which posting and transfer procedures operate, inadequate preparation and support for teachers, and their own characteristics, values and interests. For purposes of analysis, two models are suggested which illuminate the policy assumptions behind different strategies used to try to remedy the situation. The rural deficit model tends to encourage the use of compulsory posting and incentives while the rural challenge model searches for better ways of preparing teachers for service in remote rural schools. From analysis of the literature, the author suggests that there are four inter-related features of contemporary teacher-education programmes which have potential and should be developed if good teachers are to be attracted to and retained in remote rural schools. These are field-based preparation, teamwork in training, community support of training and the recruitment and preparation of local teachers. A few examples of schemes employing these principles are described briefly.

  14. Deforestation, soil degradation, and wood energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate studies address the major issues of deforestation in developing countries, namely, Does deforestation seriously impair the soil-plant system. and How can a steady supply of wood fuels be guaranteed with diminishing natural forest. In Chapter 1, twenty-six cross-sectional and time series studies of soil properties in the US and ten countries between the tropics were examined to determine the changes associated with deforestation in soil organic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K, cation exchange capacity, available P, bulk density, and pH. Deforestation was associated with significant changes in these soil properties. Only bulk density and avaiable P showed any tendency to return to pre-clearing levels. Differences in soil response to deforestation according to climate and age of parent material were related to temperature, rainfall, vegetation, soil acidity, and organic matter production and decomposition on each site. In Chapter 2, a multiobjective linear program (MOP) decides where plantations should be located, what the harvest rotation should be, what mix of fuelwood and charcoal should be produced, and which villages should be supplied by each plantation given a known future pattern of demand. In the MOP the costs of labor expended in plantations are balanced against the unpriced labor expended by villagers to collect fuelwood. The results indicate that transition from natural forests to plantations would be very expensive in terms of labor and land required. The greater the value imputed to labor spent transporting fuel, the higher the total costs of the policy, but the distribution of wood resources between urban and rural areas is more equitable.

  15. The environmental implications of intensified land use in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, P. B.

    1997-01-01

    The major agricultural intensifications in the developed world over the last half century have produced a range of important environmental problems. These include pollution, damage to wildlife and landscape and other issues, both on- and off-site. These are largely being controlled by scientific investigation and Government regulation. As developing countries increase agricultural production over the next 30 years, this may also cause even more serious environmental damage.
    The paper distinguishes between production-related on-site damage, and off-site and more extensive effects. Both may involve soil and water effects, such as soil erosion, salinization, siltation, eutrophication and loss of water quality. The use of more agrochemicals can damage water quality, health, wildlife and biodiversity. Loss of habitat from the extension of farming is particularly damaging to biodiversity. A developing off-site problem is the production of greenhouse gases by farming systems, including the conversion of forests to farmland. In the future the introduction of genetically engineered species of plants, animals or microbes will need secure control.
    Work, probably on a catchment basis, is necessary to understand and control these problems. The three main requirements are much better environmental information from the developing world; the selection of environmental indicators to be monitored; and the support of local farmers in protecting the environment. There are encouraging indications of farmer concern and action over obvious on-site damage, but this may not extend to extensive off-site issues. The main danger is that developing food scarcity would cause the environmental issues to be ignored in a race for production.

  16. The ''Complex Reality'' of Research Capacity Development in Mathematics Education in Southern African Development Community Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julie, Cyril; Mikalsen, Oyvind; Persens, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how an aid-funded Ph.D.-programme in mathematics education instituted in some Southern African Development Community countries measures up to issues related to research capacity development projects. The research capacity development programme is described and reflected against mutual benefit, relevance, sustainability and…

  17. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  18. The Use of Biofuel for Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biofuel industry is divided into four categories comprising of feedstocks used in 1st and 2nd generation bioethanol and biodiesel. In order to identify and quantify each biofuel feedstock's potential for sustainable growth, each were evaluated according to self-developed social, financial, and environmental criteria. From the investigation and analysis carried out, 1st generation biodiesel and bioethanol were determined to be feedstocks not capable of facilitating sustainable growth. Results showed low earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of -0.5 to 1 USD per gallon for biodiesel and 0.25 to 0.5 USD per gallon for bioethanol. Results also showed a poor return on asset (ROA). The energy required to produce one MJ of 1st generation biofuel fuel was at least 0.4 MJ, showing poor energy balance. Furthermore, high land, water, pesticide, and fertilizer requirements strained surrounding ecosystems by affecting the food web, thus reducing biodiversity. Over 55% of land used by the biodiesel industry in Indonesia and Malaysia involved the deforestation of local rainforests. This not only displaced indigenous organisms from their habitat and decreased their scope of nutrition, but also contributed to soil erosion and increased the probability of flooding. If left unregulated, imbalances in the ecosystem due to unsustainable growth will result in a permanent reshaping of tropical rainforest ecosystems in Southeast Asia. Algae, an example of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstock, was concluded to be the biofuel feedstock most capable of supporting sustainable growth. This is due to its low production costs of $1-1.5/gal, high biological productivity of 5000 gallons of biodiesel per acre per year, and high ROA of 25-35%. Additionally, algae's adaptability to varying environmental conditions also makes it an appealing candidate for businesses in developing countries, where access to resource supplies is unstable. Additionally, its reduced net

  19. Healthy city projects in developing countries: the first evaluation.

    PubMed

    Harpham, T; Burton, S; Blue, I

    2001-06-01

    The 'healthy city' concept has only recently been adopted in developing countries. From 1995 to 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, supported healthy city projects (HCPs) in Cox's Bazar (Bangladesh), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Fayoum (Egypt), Managua (Nicaragua) and Quetta (Pakistan). The authors evaluated four of these projects, representing the first major evaluation of HCPs in developing countries. Methods used were stakeholder analysis, workshops, document analysis and interviews with 102 managers/implementers and 103 intended beneficiaries. Municipal health plan development (one of the main components of the healthy city strategy) in these cities was limited, which is a similar finding to evaluations of HCPs in Europe. The main activities selected by the projects were awareness raising and environmental improvements, particularly solid waste disposal. Two of the cities effectively used the 'settings' approach of the healthy city concept, whereby places such as markets and schools are targeted. The evaluation found that stakeholder involvement varied in relation to: (i) the level of knowledge of the project; (ii) the project office location; (iii) the project management structure; and (iv) type of activities (ranging from low stakeholder involvement in capital-intensive infrastructure projects, to high in some settings-type activities). There was evidence to suggest that understanding of environment-health links was increased across stakeholders. There was limited political commitment to the healthy city projects, perhaps due to the fact that most of the municipalities had not requested the projects. Consequently, the projects had little influence on written/expressed municipal policies. Some of the projects mobilized considerable resources, and most projects achieved effective intersectoral collaboration. WHO support enabled the project coordinators to network at national and international levels, and the capacity of these individuals (although

  20. The economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, E. B.

    1997-01-01

    The following paper investigates the economic determinants of land degradation in developing countries. The main trends examined are rural households' decisions to degrade as opposed to conserve land resources, and the expansion of frontier agricultural activity that contributes to forest and marginal land conversion. These two phenomena appear often to be linked. In many developing areas, a poor rural household's decision whether to undertake long-term investment in improving existing agricultural land must be weighed against the decision to abandon this land and migrate to environmentally fragile areas. Economic factors play a critical role in determining these relationships. Poverty, imperfect capital markets and insecure land tenure may reinforce the tendency towards short-term time horizons in production decisions, and may bias land use decisions against long-term land management strategies. In periods of commodity booms and land speculation, wealthier households generally take advantage of their superior political and market power to ensure initial access to better quality resources, in order to capture a larger share of the resource rents. Poorer households are confined either to marginal environmental areas where resource rents are limited, or only have access to resources once they are degraded and rents dissipated.
    Overall trends in land degradation and deforestation are examined, followed by an overview of rural households' resource management decisions with respect to land management, frontier agricultural expansion, and migration from existing agricultural land to frontiers. Finally, the discussion focuses on the scope for policy improvements to reduce economic constraints to effective land management.

  1. Environmental Enteropathy: Elusive but Significant Subclinical Abnormalities in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koji; Petri, William A

    2016-08-01

    Environmental enteropathy/Environmental enteric dysfunction (EE/EED) is a chronic disease of small intestine characterized by gut inflammation and barrier disruption, malabsorption and systemic inflammation in the absence of diarrhea. It is predominantly diseases of children in low income countries and is hypothesized to be caused by continuous exposure to fecally contaminated food, water and fomites. It had not been recognized as a priority health issue because it does not cause overt symptoms and was seen in apparently healthy individuals. However, there is a growing concern of EE/EED because of its impact on longitudinal public health issues, such as growth faltering, oral vaccine low efficacy and poor neurocognitive development. Recent works have provided important clues to unravel its complex pathogenesis, and suggest possible strategies for controlling EE/EED. However, effective diagnostic methods and interventions remain unsettled. Here, we review the existing literature, especially about its pathogenesis, and discuss a solution for children living in the developing world. PMID:27495791

  2. Indoor air pollution from unprocessed solid fuels in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Approximately half of the world's population relies on biomass (primarily wood and agricultural residues) or coal fuels (collectively termed solid fuels) for heating, lighting, and cooking. The incomplete combustion of such materials releases byproducts with well-known adverse health effects, hence increasing the risk of many diseases and death. Among these conditions are acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, cataracts and blindness, tuberculosis, asthma, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified the indoor combustion of coal emissions as Group 1, a known carcinogen to humans. Indoor air pollution exposure is greatest in individuals who live in rural developing countries. Interventions have been limited and show only mixed results. To reduce the morbidity and mortality from indoor air pollution, countermeasures have to be developed that are practical, efficient, sustainable, and economical with involvement from the government, the commercial sector, and individuals. This review focuses on the contribution of solid fuels to indoor air pollution. PMID:21038757

  3. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in rural Yunnan Province in Southwest China provided some financial/economic results, general conclusions, and an initial framework for conducting such assessments. Our assessment indicates that social and environmental benefits are substantial and that investment in the facility is well-justified. However, there are so many considerations to take into account when assessing biomass energy systems that their evaluation is exceedingly complex. These considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementing such systems requires another grouping of considerations into energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. These are further defined in an effort to establish a framework of evaluation and assessment for other such projects. The conclusions that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal.

  4. Use of Dietary Indexes among Children in Developed Countries12

    PubMed Central

    Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Newby, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review studies that have used dietary indexes to assess different aspects of diet in relation to health outcomes and sociodemographic factors in childhood populations of developed countries. Eighty-four papers published from 1980 to mid-2010 including 90 unique dietary indexes were reviewed. Seventy-two indexes were developed (or have been adapted) specifically for childhood populations; 38 of these were used to assess diet-disease associations, mostly of diet and obesity. In the majority of these studies, small inverse associations between dietary indexes and obesity indexes were shown. Children who were younger, female, and from high-income families had better dietary quality scores. Forty-nine indexes (of 90) were compared with other aspects of dietary intakes or behaviors, with correlations ranging from very low to modest (∼r = 0.05–0.50). Only 2 validation studies compared an index with nutritional biomarkers, and correlations were quite weak for most plasma nutrients (P < 0.10). Overall, a large number of indexes have been created and used, but the majority of studies are descriptive. Fewer analytic studies on index-health associations have been performed, and most analyses insufficiently adjusted for confounders. Thus, prospective and intervention research in diverse populations is needed to further test these tools. In conclusion, indexes are potentially useful methods for dietary assessment, because they offer valuable information on overall dietary patterns in children. However, understanding the advantages and limitations when applying them in research and public health settings is important, and more research is needed to further develop their utility. PMID:22332071

  5. Use of dietary indexes among children in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Newby, P K

    2011-07-01

    In this article, we review studies that have used dietary indexes to assess different aspects of diet in relation to health outcomes and sociodemographic factors in childhood populations of developed countries. Eighty-four papers published from 1980 to mid-2010 including 90 unique dietary indexes were reviewed. Seventy-two indexes were developed (or have been adapted) specifically for childhood populations; 38 of these were used to assess diet-disease associations, mostly of diet and obesity. In the majority of these studies, small inverse associations between dietary indexes and obesity indexes were shown. Children who were younger, female, and from high-income families had better dietary quality scores. Forty-nine indexes (of 90) were compared with other aspects of dietary intakes or behaviors, with correlations ranging from very low to modest (∼r = 0.05-0.50). Only 2 validation studies compared an index with nutritional biomarkers, and correlations were quite weak for most plasma nutrients (P < 0.10). Overall, a large number of indexes have been created and used, but the majority of studies are descriptive. Fewer analytic studies on index-health associations have been performed, and most analyses insufficiently adjusted for confounders. Thus, prospective and intervention research in diverse populations is needed to further test these tools. In conclusion, indexes are potentially useful methods for dietary assessment, because they offer valuable information on overall dietary patterns in children. However, understanding the advantages and limitations when applying them in research and public health settings is important, and more research is needed to further develop their utility. PMID:22332071

  6. Cultural-grant aid in astronomy for developing countries from the Japanese Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Masatoshi

    In order to promote education and research in developing countries, the Japanese Government began in 1982 providing high-grade equipment within the scheme of its ODA (Official Development Assistance). Since then, for astronomical development, twelve planetaria have been donated to eleven countries and seven reflecting telescopes, with accessories, have been installed in Asian and Latin-American countries.

  7. The Diffusion of IT in the Historical Context of Innovations from Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The well-known s-shaped diffusion of technology curve generally works well in developed countries. But how does it perform in the very different context of developing countries? Across a wide range of new technologies imported from the developed countries it works poorly. In most cases the penetration rate fails to reach 25% of the population. The…

  8. Problems of Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Engineering Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Surek

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between funding, management, and quality assurance in engineering education in developing countries. Presents a few case studies on problems of accreditation and quality assessment in larger developing countries such as India and the Philippines, and also in very small developing countries such as Papua New Guinea, Fiji,…

  9. Community Participation in Schools in Developing Countries: Characteristics, Methods and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how communities participate in schools across diverse contexts in developing countries and the results attributed to community participation. It reviews evaluations of participatory approaches to education in developing countries to answer two basic questions: 1) How do communities participate in school in developing countries?…

  10. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beneficiary developing country. 10.177 Section 10.177 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... produced in the beneficiary developing country. (a) “Produced in the beneficiary developing country... country” refer to the constituent materials of which the eligible article is composed which are either:...

  11. Implementation of space satellite remote sensing programs in developing countries (Ecuador)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segovia, A.

    1982-01-01

    The current state of space satellite remote sensing programs in developing countries is discussed. Sensors being utilized and results obtained are described. Requirements are presented for the research of resources in developing countries. It is recommended that a work procedure be developed for the use of satellite remote sensing data tailored to the necessities of the different countries.

  12. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beneficiary developing country. 10.177 Section 10.177 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... produced in the beneficiary developing country. (a) “Produced in the beneficiary developing country... country” refer to the constituent materials of which the eligible article is composed which are either:...

  13. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beneficiary developing country. 10.177 Section 10.177 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... produced in the beneficiary developing country. (a) “Produced in the beneficiary developing country... country” refer to the constituent materials of which the eligible article is composed which are either:...

  14. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beneficiary developing country. 10.177 Section 10.177 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... produced in the beneficiary developing country. (a) “Produced in the beneficiary developing country... country” refer to the constituent materials of which the eligible article is composed which are either:...

  15. 19 CFR 10.177 - Cost or value of materials produced in the beneficiary developing country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beneficiary developing country. 10.177 Section 10.177 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... produced in the beneficiary developing country. (a) “Produced in the beneficiary developing country... country” refer to the constituent materials of which the eligible article is composed which are either:...

  16. Rational development of guidelines for management of neonatal sepsis in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Anna C; Obiero, Christina W; Berkley, James A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses the rational development of guidelines for the management of neonatal sepsis in developing countries. Recent findings Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis with high specificity remains challenging in developing countries. Aetiology data, particularly from rural, community based studies are very limited, but molecular tests to improve diagnostics are being tested in a community-based study in South Asia. Antibiotic susceptibility data are limited, but suggest reducing susceptibility to first and second line antibiotics in both hospital and community acquired neonatal sepsis. Results of clinical trials in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa assessing feasibility of simplified antibiotic regimens are awaited. Summary Effective management of neonatal sepsis in developing countries is essential to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Simplified antibiotic regimens are currently being examined in clinical trials, but reduced antimicrobial susceptibility threatens current empiric treatment strategies. Improved clinical and microbiological surveillance is essential, to inform current practice, treatment guidelines, and monitor implementation of policy changes. PMID:25887615

  17. A neglected problem of developing countries: Noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Babayigit, Arzu; Olmez, Duygu; Uzuner, Nevin; Cakmakci, Handan; Tuncel, Tuba; Karaman, Ozkan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis has been defined as the abnormal and permanent dilation of the bronchi. It is still an important problem in many developing countries. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the chacteristics and underlying etiology of children followed with the diagnosis of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children with bronchiectasis confirmed with high-resolution computed tomography were enrolled into the study. The data of the patients, including symptoms of the disease, age at the onset of symptoms, findings of physical examination, labrotory investigations performed in order to identify the etiology of bronchiectasis, etiology of bronchiectasis if found, radiologic findings and treatment modalities were noted. RESULTS: Sixty-six children between 1 and 17 years were included in the study retrospectively. Forty-four of them were males (66.7%) and 22 (33.3%) were females. The most common presenting symptoms were cough (100%) and sputum expectoration (50%). An underlying etiology was identified in 44 (66.7%) of the study subjects. The four most common underlying causes were found as infections (21.2%), asthma (16.7%), aspiration syndromes and/or gastroesophageal reflux disease (9.1%) and immunodeficiency syndromes (7.6%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Identifying an underlying etiology will have a significant effect on the management of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Defining the cause of bronchiectasis may also decrease its incidence, progression and complications. PMID:19561918

  18. The costs of HIV prevention strategies in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, N.; Lavis, J.; Broomberg, J.; Mills, A.

    1993-01-01

    Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact. PMID:8261563

  19. Energy conservation in developing countries using green building idea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Akram; Mansoor Qureshi, Ijaz

    2013-06-01

    Green buildings uses processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle. In these buildings Certain energy conservative and environment friendly steps are considered and implemented from design, construction, operation, maintenance and renovation. In present era no doubt new technologies are constantly constructed and used in creating greener structures, energy efficient buildings. The common objective is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health using available energy efficiently. To increase the efficiency of the System or the building, Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomasscan significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. Any how power generation using renewable sources that is Solar system may further enhance energy conservation ideas. Power Factor improvement can also be another source of efficient tool for efficient use of Electrical Energy in green buildings. In developing countries a significant amount of Electrical Energy can be conserved and System efficiency as a whole can be increased by Power Factor correction. The reverse flow of power can be locally engaged instead of creating extra stress and opposition to the existing grid lines.

  20. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E.; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores. PMID:26838467

  1. US solar energy policy for less developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Russett, B.

    1980-10-01

    By many different standards, solar energy is considered to be, at least potentially, a good thing. The assessment of its utility, however, typically is made on technical engineering grounds, or on economic standards of cost-effectiveness, without close attention to political and sociological implications of its use. While remaining sensitive to engineering and economic considerations, this report will concentrate on some political and sociological issues which will have great affect on decisions whether and how to make use of solar energy technology in less developed countries (LDCs). Only with an understanding of these issues - and with answers to some of the questions raised - can there be any serious effort to devise a satisfactory United States government policy for the promotion of solar energy applications abroad. This report, in the form of tentative propositions outlining issues about which further information is required, is based on the results of interviews in the United States, India and the Middle East, and an analysis of various reports by private individuals, national and transnational organizations, and government agencies.

  2. Hydrocarbon emissions and health risks from cookstoves in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Smith, K R

    1996-01-01

    The nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from several types of cookstoves commonly used in developing countries were measured in a pilot study conducted in Manila, the Philippines. Four types of fuel, i.e., wood, charcoal, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), were tested. Because kerosene was burned in three different types of stoves, there were six fuel/stove combinations tested. Fifty-nine nonmethane hydrocarbons were identified frequently in emissions of these cookstoves, with emission ratios to CO2 up to 5.3 x 10(-3). The emissions were quantitated with emission factors on both a mass basis (emissions/kg fuel) and a task basis (emissions/cooking task). On a task basis, combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) generally produced higher emission factors than combustion of fossil fuels (kerosene and LPG). One type of kerosene stove (wick stove), however, still generated the greatest emissions of some individual and classes of hydrocarbons, indicating that emissions were dependent on not only fuel types but also combustion devices. Some hydrocarbons, e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, and xylenes, were of concern because of their carcinogenic properties. The lifetime risk from exposures to these compounds emitted from cookstoves was tentatively estimated by using a simple exposure model and published cancer potencies. PMID:8792294

  3. Disease surveillance at district level: a model for developing countries.

    PubMed

    John, T J; Samuel, R; Balraj, V; John, R

    1998-07-01

    For over a decade we have maintained within a district of 5 million people, a system of prompt reporting of cases of childhood vaccine-preventable diseases, encephalitis, meningitis, hepatitis, and rabies; together with a sentinel laboratory surveillance of cholera, typhoid fever, malaria, HIV infection and antimicrobial-resistance patterns of selected pathogens. The system combined government and private sectors, with every hospital enrolled and participating. Reports were scanned daily on a computer for any clustering of cases. Interventions included investigations, immunisation, antimicrobial treatment, health education, and physical rehabilitation of children with paralysis. All vaccine-preventable diseases have declined markedly, whilst malaria and HIV infections have increased steadily. Annual expense was less than one US cent per head. The reasons for the success and sustainability of this model include simplicity or reporting procedure, low budget, private-sector participation, personal rapport with people in the network, regular feedback of information through a monthly bulletin, and the visible interventions consequent upon reporting. This district-level disease surveillance model is replicable in developing countries for evaluating polio eradication efforts, monitoring immunisation programmes, detecting outbreaks of old or new diseases, and for evaluating control measures. PMID:9800768

  4. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores. PMID:26838467

  5. Melanoma early detection and awareness: how countries developing melanoma awareness programs could benefit from melanoma-proficient countries.

    PubMed

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars; Cinat, Gabriela; Demidov, Lev; Grob, Jean Jacques; Guo, Jun; Hersey, Peter; Espinosa, Enrique; Schachter, Jacob; Whitaker, Dagmar; Quirt, Ian; Hauschild, Axel; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for melanoma are well known and have guided plans for primary and secondary prevention. The presentation of the disease, however, varies widely depending on the geographic area, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. For this reason, many countries have developed specific strategies to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries are trying to implement similar measures. Future efforts to further improve the efficacy of preventive strategies should focus on populations that usually escape campaigns, such as elderly men and people with low socioeconomic status. Fast-growing tumors also require specific attention. PMID:24914500

  6. International Migration and Human Development in Destination Countries: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary levels of international migration in less-developed countries are raising new and important questions regarding the consequences of immigration for human welfare and well-being. However, there is little systematic cross-national evidence of how international migration affects human development levels in migrant-receiving countries in…

  7. White LEDs for lighting remote communities in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Stewart; Irvine-Halliday, Dave

    2001-12-01

    Over the past 5 years, the application of white LEDs for ambient lighting has been investigated in the remote villages of Nepal. Currently, lighting is often met using kerosene wick lamps, which emit unhealthy levels of fumes, or by burning sap-filled pine sticks, which are worse than the kerosene lamps. A team of students from Calgary University developed some LED lamps that could easily be fabricated in Nepal using local materials and personnel. To generate power, a pedal DC generator was developed to charge batteries, as well as a simple wind turbine. The Nepal Light Project implemented a series of many projects over the last 2 years in several villages across Nepal, using several different power generating systems. A total of 142 households, two schools and a temple were fitted with lamps in 2000, and more will follow in 2001. A research project has also been undertaken in Nepal for the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) to investigate the potential for energy efficient lamps in the micro hydro industry. The R&D project was very small, and conducted basic testing on locally available compact fluorescent lamps and LED lamps. The report concluded that encouraging the use of CFLs would decrease costs by 30-50%, and that they should be included in the subsidy policy, along with power factor correcting capacitors. LED lamps should not be overly encouraged as the development of the diodes was advancing very rapidly. The real advantage of LED lamps lies in extremely low maintenance costs due to the low power requirements and long life, which is just as important for remote villages as it is for traffic lights and exit signs. It is estimated that these low ongoing costs could be as low as $3/household/year for a rural lighting project. Pilot projects should be encouraged to demonstrate and investigate the potential of WLEDs for lighting in remote communities in developing countries. With 2 billion people without access to electricity, and lighting being

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Mass Media Development in Less-Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Hemant

    A study was conducted to examine the causal predictors of mass media development in 105 underdeveloped countries for various lengths of time to determine if there were consistent relationships among the dependent and independent variables regardless of the time lag. The study also sought to determine how mass media developed during the 29-year…

  9. The Global Impact of the Financial Crisis: Main Trends in Developed and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather; West, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the financial crisis on higher education has been considerable, and its effects are continuing. These effects can be discerned in a number of ways; but whereas both developed and developing countries are affected, they can be affected differently. A modifying factor is the shape and structure of the higher education system within…

  10. The Digital Balance between Industrialised and Developing Countries: Futures Studies for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Olli

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of researching the digital balance between industrialised and developing countries was to discover how information and communication technology (ICT), content and e-services developed in Finland will work on the African continent, and vice versa. Globalisation and the associated new international division of labour and well-being…

  11. Renewable energy for rural electrification in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Joy

    The environmental destruction caused by traditional methods of generating electricity and the environmental benefits of using renewable energy technologies are well-known. In additional to the environmental benefits, small, decentralized renewable energy systems are often the most economical way to electrify the rural areas of developing countries, where most of the world's unelectrified population lives. However, diffusion of these systems is proceeding very slowly and many of these projects have failed. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that an important determinant of the success of these projects is the extent to which they are compatible with the social and cultural attributes of the communities in which they are located. The hypothesis was examined by evaluating sixteen solar, wind and hybrid electrification projects in Mexico, using a procedure which rates projects according to criteria which reflect technical, economic and financial, environmental, and sociocultural factors deemed necessary to achieve success. Reasons for poor ratings within these criteria were then used to determine six preconditions for project success. The evaluation indicates that most of the wind and hybrid projects visited had low success ratings because of technical problems. The solar home system projects experienced few technical problems, yet many were unsuccessful. Most of the projects were unsustainable due to lack of financial resources, insufficient financial mechanisms, poor user training. In none of the communities were the projects economically viable, nor were they compatible with the needs of the users. The future success of even the most successful projects seen is doubtful because of the lack of provision for any maintenance by trained technicians and the scarcity of financial resources. A direct relationship between failure at the sociocultural criteria and overall project failure was not found. In most cases, failure at particular criteria could be attributed

  12. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    PubMed

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia. PMID:22455994

  13. Development of detergent additives for automotive fuels in other countries

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharova, E.L.; Emel`yanov, V.E.; Deineko, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    With increasing demands on environmental protection and with the production of reformulated unleaded motor fuels, new and effective detergent additives are urgently needed. A number of monographs and scientific works have been devoted to problems involved in the development and application of such additives. Since the mid-1980s in the United States and certain other countries, a crisis has been noted in the application of detergent additives. It has been found that certain types of detergents not only fail to give the required cleaning effect, but even promote the formation of deposits. This situation can be attributed primarily to the development of automotive gasoline engines with direct fuel injection. In the United States in 1989, about 90% of all automotive vehicles were equipped with such engines, which have very definite advantages in fuel economy, less smoking, and a number of other areas. However, after a few thousand kilometers of travel, the characteristics of these engines deteriorate, and undesirable changes are observed, including excessive fuel consumption, a reduction of the vehicle speed, and increased contents of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. These changes occur because of deposit formation in the fuel intake system, particularly on the intake valves. As the deposits continue to accumulate, the engines gradually experience an increase in octane number demand for engine operation without knocking. This phenomenon, which is known in American publications as {open_quotes}octane requirement increase{close_quotes} or ORI (Russian initialism RTOCh, literal translation, {open_quotes}increase of requirements for octane number{close_quotes}), continues until a certain equilibrium octane number is reached. This equilibrium value may change, depending on the engine design and other factors. In all cases, however, the ORI of modern engines is significant, amount to 2-14 octane numbers.

  14. Modification of Undergraduate Engineering Curricula in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Soon Haing

    1987-01-01

    Surveys the current status of environmental engineering education at the undergraduate level in Korea. Proposes guidelines for modifying and strengthening the curricula, along with recommendations for improving the environmental engineering educational system in Korea and other countries. (TW)

  15. Higher Education, Democracy, and Development: Implications for Newly Industrialized Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the university's role in emerging economies of the Pacific Rim's Newly Industrialized Countries, noting that universities are central to educating people for technologically oriented societies, providing a voice to emerging democracies. (SM)

  16. Meeting the pharmaceutical needs of a developing country.

    PubMed

    Froese, E H

    1991-01-01

    Zimbabwe is making advances in the selection, procurement, distribution, storage, management and use of pharmaceutical products. The periodic updating of the country's essential drugs list is a vital part of this process. PMID:1859593

  17. An overview of food waste management in developing countries: Current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Thi, Ngoc Bao Dung; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-07-01

    Food waste (FW) related issues in developing countries is currently considered to be a major threatening factor for sustainable development and FW management systems. Due to incomplete FW management systems, many developing countries are facing challenges, such as environmental and sanitary problems that are caused by FW. The difference in FW generation trends between developing countries and developed countries was reviewed in this work, which demonstrated that the effects of income level, population growth, and public participation in FW management are very important. Thus, this work aimed to provide an overview of recycling activities, related regulations, and current FW treatment technology in developing countries by following some case studies. Taiwan, has been suggested as being a successful case in terms of FW management, and is therefore a typical model for developing countries to follow. Finally, an integrative management system as a suitable model for FW management has been suggested for developing countries. PMID:25910976

  18. What can developing economies learn from health system reforms of developed countries?

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, D

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines some general lessons developing nations can draw from the health system reform experiences of developed nations. Using the experiences of developed countries, developing countries should be better able to anticipate socio-economic changes and choose an optimal path for their health systems development to accompany those changes. Most developed countries have adopted rather common objectives and principles in their health systems because of market failure in health care; developing countries may start adopting those principles because they do not have market conditions in the first place. It is suggested that developing countries strengthen what is probably the most fundamental initial systemic asset they have: public finance. They should do so by attracting democratically, possibly through earmarked taxes, resources otherwise channelled through the private sector, competing with public finance for limited real resources. This effort can be promoted by giving consumers, mainly of high income groups and in urban areas, more say (through institutions performing the OMCC function) in the nature of care these groups have access to under auspices of public finance. Where feasible, private insurance as a major source of finance should be seen as a transitional phenomenon, giving way to the emergence of OMCC institutions which require similar financial and managerial market infrastructure. Private and competitive provision of care may be unrealistic in many developing areas because of both scarcity of real resources, mainly manpower, and health needs. The challenge of government is, as resources grow, to divest itself from the provision of care and stay involved in activities and facilities that are of 'public nature'--under specific circumstances--that foster private competitive provision. In general, the government should play an enabling role also by investing in health promotions and management skills for health systems. PMID:10156647

  19. Towards a science of sustainable upland management in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Richard A.; Harper, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Farmers attempting to subsist in tropical uplands often rely upon unsustainable resource use practices that lead to soil erosion, declining crop yields, and a loss of soil productivity capacity. Other uses of tropical uplands, including logging and conversion of forest to rangelands, have similar results. The undesirable effects of these actions are felt on-site, at the watershed level, and even nationally. Ecological cause-effect relationships are poorly understood, and few examples exist of the successful integration of ecological knowledge with upland development. It is hypothesized that recent results of ecological research could be applied to uplands management so that stable sustainable systems of human use may be established. A second hypothesis is that statistically reliable data can be obtained from experiments in upland situations, although natural variations of soils, weather, and vegetation are great. To test these hypotheses, research involving multinational collaboration among American and Southeast Asian scientists has begun. The objective of the work is to provide credible quantitative information to help policy and decision makers and resident farmers to plan and implement improved practices based on ecological principles. Some findings to date include: 1. Ecological principles are difficult to relate to the practical context of upland agroecosystems. Indeed, the null hypothesis is necessary for planning experiments and demonstrations. 2. The “signal-to-noise” ratio in these field experiments is low, and the detection of changes due to human intervention in soil erosion, nutrient movement, and plant productivity is difficult. 3. Obstacles to field research in developing countries include logistic, cultural, political, and institutional factors. It is essential that local land managers participate from the start with scientific researchers in designing experiments. 4. Planned collaboration among academic and government scientists facilitates

  20. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  1. Reverse the trend. Fragile ecosystems in developing countries are threatened.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M H

    1991-12-01

    Homo sapiens as 1 species out of millions consume 40% of the primary products of the earth. The domestication of plants and animals produced significant change in how we survived as a species. It ultimately led to civilization, cities, the division of labor, and population growth. Presently we face a paradox between controlling the development of tropical areas even though it was through such means that progress was made in the 1st place. The tropical regions are full of life. It is estimated that 95% of all species live in tropical areas. By 2000 over 66% of the human population will live in the tropics. The forests are already being destroyed and such projections of population growth will only increase their rate of loss. The loss of tropical forests has severe impacts and consequences. Because of their rich species diversity they must be seen as a rich storehouse of natural resources that must be protected. The potential for medicine and food from the tropical forests has just been tapped and what we know already should force us to stop destroying them. An example is the alkaloid compound DMDP which was found in the leaves of a Panamanian moth's larval food plant. DMDP is a fructose analog that is currently the subject of 5 active areas of research, 4 of which involve human diseases: obesity, diabetes, cancer, and AIDS. This is just 1 single find out of millions of potential beneficial species. The forces of destruction that harm tropical forests are slash and burn agriculture, timber extraction, fuel wood extraction, and pasture creation for beef production. The greatest threat to forests, however, is poverty. Land management and internal migration laws in many countries make it desirable for landless people to start small farms. As population grows, so does the need for this type of land. If any progress is to be made in stopping deforestation, progress toward social justice and equality of opportunity must precede it. PMID:12284680

  2. Connecting Resources for Tertiary Chemical Education with Scientists and Students in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen-van Vuuren, Ross D.; Buchanan, Malcolm S.; McKenzie, Ross H.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of developing countries to provide a sound tertiary chemical education is a key ingredient to the improvement of living standards and economic development within these countries. However, teaching undergraduate experimental chemistry and building research capacity in institutions based within these countries involves formidable…

  3. 26 CFR 1.1248-5 - Stock ownership requirements for less developed country corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... country corporations. 1.1248-5 Section 1.1248-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Gains and Losses § 1.1248-5 Stock ownership requirements for less developed country corporations. (a... foreign corporation X, a less developed country corporation. On December 31, 1964, N recognizes gain...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1248-5 - Stock ownership requirements for less developed country corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... country corporations. 1.1248-5 Section 1.1248-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1248-5 Stock ownership requirements for less developed country corporations... foreign corporation X, a less developed country corporation. On December 31, 1964, N recognizes gain...

  5. Policies for transfer of technology to developing countries: the case of Middle Eastern oil-exporting countries

    SciTech Connect

    Bamakhramah, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Middle Eastern oil-exporting countries constitute a particular case among the developing countries. Two main characteristics contribute to this position: (1) availability of financial resources to purchase needed technology, particularly for surplus countries; (2) scarcity of labor, entrepreneurship and managerial skills. This study proposes policy measures for these countries which would serve their national economic, social, and political goals given the above characteristics. The treatment of the subject contains three main aspects: (1) the social, cultural and institutional factors affecting transfer of technology; (2) the strategies which these countries can follow to achieve better methods of technology transfer. These include technology assessment, technology bargaining, research and development and information; (3) economic and industrial policies regarding foreign direct investment, licensing agreements and management contracts as alternative mechanisms for acquisition of foreign technology. Transfer of technology was found to be influenced by other factors beyond financial costs and factors of production. These factors include the scale of production or product technology, the size of domestic markets, accessibility to international markets, local technological infrastructure, absorptive capacity and government regulations regarding foreign direct investment.

  6. Can Criteria for Identifying Educational Influentials in Developed Countries Be Applied to Other Countries? A Study in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Soltani, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: There are published criteria for identifying educational influentials (EIs). These criteria are based on studies that have been performed in developed countries. This study was performed to identify criteria and characteristics of EIs in Iran. Methods: The study was conducted on residents, interns, and clerks at a major educational…

  7. Development and technology transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Beurret, Michel; Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2012-07-13

    This paper describes the development of a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment/Netherlands Vaccine Institute (RIVM/NVI, Bilthoven, The Netherlands), and the subsequent transfer of its production process to manufacturers in developing countries. In 1998, at the outset of the project, the majority of the world's children were not immunized against Hib because of the high price and limited supply of the conjugate vaccines, due partly to the fact that local manufacturers in developing countries did not master the Hib conjugate production technology. To address this problem, the RIVM/NVI has developed a robust Hib conjugate vaccine production process based on a proven model, and transferred this technology to several partners in India, Indonesia, Korea and China. As a result, emerging manufacturers in developing countries acquired modern technologies previously unavailable to them. This has in turn facilitated their approach to producing other conjugate vaccines. As an additional spin-off from the project, a World Health Organization (WHO) Hib quality control (QC) course was designed and conducted at the RIVM/NVI, resulting in an increased regulatory capacity for conjugate vaccines in developing countries at the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) level. For the local populations, this has translated into an increased and sustainable supply of affordable Hib conjugate-containing combination vaccines. During the course of this project, developing countries have demonstrated their ability to produce large quantities of high-quality modern vaccines after a successful transfer of the technology. PMID:22683521

  8. Gestational diabetes: An overview with attention for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, M; Putoto, G; Laterza, F; Pizzol, Damiano

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance that occurs for the first time or it is first identified during pregnancy. The GDM etiology is multifactorial. It has not completely been established yet and several known risk factors may contribute to its onset. To date, there are no shared guidelines on the management and follow-up, especially regarding the low-income countries. In this paper, we describe the state of art about epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of GDM. Moreover, we focus on the current state in low income countries trying to outline basis for further research. PMID:27560638

  9. Improving remote sensing research and education in developing countries: Approaches and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Barry; Ryerson, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Since the 1970s, a number of different models have been used to develop basic and applied science capacities of remote sensing in developing countries. Those efforts have had varied levels of success. One of the more effective capacity building efforts is extended training workshops held within the targeted developing country institution with existing resources. The extending training format requires participant teams to complete a remote sensing project for their country in their organization. The basic science activity of developing country scientists was documented by a review of six remote sensing journals which determined that a very small percentage of remote sensing manuscript authors are from developing countries. Many developing countries have established internal remote sensing capacities but many others have not. Given the potential importance of remote sensing for natural resource assessment and monitoring as well as economic decision making, more attention must be given to assisting those countries in hardware, software, internet capacity and technical assistance.

  10. National Development Through International Education. IIE Services for Governments and Universities of Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Services for governments and universities of developing countries offered by the Institute of International Education (IIE), an organization that sponsors international educational programs and provides technical cooperation to governments in education administration, are outlined. Degree and certificate programs, special courses, short-term…

  11. The Professional Development of School Principals by Means of a Mentoring System in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhuizen, P. C. van der; Erasmus, M.

    This paper examines the need for a mentoring program for school principals in developing countries where, as in South Africa, no formal structures for principal mentorships exist. Following an overview of mentoring and a review of literature, characteristics of a successful mentoring system and effective techniques for observation and feedback are…

  12. The Impact of Vocational Schooling on Human Capital Development in Developing Countries: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyalka, Prashant; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Linxiu; Wei, Jianguo; Yi, Hongmei; Song, Yingquan; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Yaojiang; Chu, James; Maani, May; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A number of developing countries currently identify vocational education and training (VET) as a key approach to building human capital. For example, the promotion of VET at the high school level ("vocational high school", which is used here interchangeably with VET throughout the paper) has become a policy priority among emerging…

  13. How Do Learners in Developed and Developing Countries Relate to Environmental Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the framework of earlier research on environmental education for sustainability, using data collected in the ROSE Project. Attention was focused mainly on students' responses to sections and items related to environmental issues, regarding their countries' degree of development. The research questions dealt…

  14. Regional Disparities in Primary School Participation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Joel D.

    2008-01-01

    Education for All has focused international attention on the goals of universal primary education and improved education quality. However, national indicators related to these goals often mask significant differences among demographic and social groups, as well as among geographical regions within countries. This paper, based on a study…

  15. Mobiles for Literacy in Developing Countries: An Effectiveness Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Castillo, Nathan M.; Murphy, Katie M.; Crofton, Molly; Zahra, Fatima Tuz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the advent of low-cost digital and mobile devices has led to a strong expansion of social interventions, including those that try to improve student learning and literacy outcomes. Many of these are focused on improving reading in low-income countries, and particularly among the most disadvantaged. Some of these early efforts have…

  16. Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate in developing countries: An IAEA study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Barton, Michael; Mackillop, William; Fidarova, Elena; Cordero, Lisbeth; Yarney, Joel; Lim, Gerard; Abad, Anthony; Cernea, Valentin; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Strojan, Primoz; Kobachi, Lotfi; Quarneti, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution. PMID:26164776

  17. Promoting astronomy in developing countries: A historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochhar, Rk

    2006-08-01

    Any international effort to promote astronomy world wide today must necessarily take into account its cultural and historical component. The past few decades have ushered in an age, which we may call the Age of Cultural Copernicanism. In analogy with the cosmological principle that the universe has no preferred location or direction, Cultural Copernicanism would imply that no cultural or geographical area, or ethnic or social group, can be deemed to constitute a superior entity or a benchmark for judging or evaluating others. In this framework, astronomy (as well as science in general) is perceived as a multi-stage civilizational cumulus where each stage builds on the knowledge gained in the previous stages and in turn leads to the next. This framework however is a recent development. The 19th century historiography consciously projected modern science as a characteristic product of the Western civilization decoupled from and superior to its antecedents, with the implication that all material and ideological benefits arising from modern science were reserved for the West. As a reaction to this, the orientalized East has often tended to view modern science as "their" science, distance itself from its intellectual aspects, and seek to defend, protect and reinvent "our" science and the alleged (anti-science) Eastern mode of thought. This defensive mindset works against the propagation of modern astronomy in most of the non-Western countries. There is thus need to construct a history of world astronomy that is truly universal and unselfconscious. Similarly , the planetarium programs , for use the world over, should be culturally sensitive. IAU can help produce cultural-specific modules. Equipped with this paradigmatic background, we can now address the question of actual means to be adopted for the task at hand. Astronomical activity requires a certain minimum level of industrial activity support. Long-term maintenance of astronomical equipment is not a trivial task

  18. US fossil fuel technologies for developing countries: Costa Rica country packet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-21

    Costa Rica presents long-term opportunities for US participation in the power generation sector. A growing industrial base, high economic growth, and an increasing living standard will continue to require more reliable electric generation. Although the country has depended upon hydropower to meet much of its energy needs, coal could become a more reliable form of energy in the near term, based on estimated indigenous resources and proximity to food quality imports. Thus, trade opportunities exist for the United States, in the electric power sector, for the US advanced fossil fuel technologies and related services. This report describes the Costa Rican energy situation; examines the financial, economic, and trade issues; and discusses project opportunities in Costa Rica. Costa Rica appears to have a positive climate for trade and investment activities, stimulated by the Caribbean Basin Initiative. Although the economy has recently slowed, the economic outlook appears healthy. Application for membership in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is pending. Due to an unexpectedly large growth in electricity demand, the Costa Rican utility Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is evaluating the need for construction of a coal-fired power plant in the size range of 60 to 125 MW, with an in-service data of the mid-1990s. A decision is expected by the end of 1988 concerning the required size, source of coal, and timing of this coal-fired plant. Based on conditions in Costa Rica, US advanced fossil-fuel technologies were chosen for continued study in conjunction with the identified potential project opportunities. These technologies are the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor and coal-water mixtures. They could play a major role in meeting the utility expansion and/or industrial conversion opportunities summarized in Table I.1. The value of such projects could approximate US $160 million.

  19. Preparing Tanzania's Young Children for the Economic World: Possibilities for Collaboration with Other Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushi, Selina L. P.

    This paper is a critical analysis of the role of the Tanzanian education system in enhancing young children's awareness of economic aspects around them. The major factors the paper considers are: the poverty of the country; the prominence of the education system as a socializing agent for children; the aim of early education in Tanzania; and young…

  20. Petroleum developments in Middle East countries in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries in 1979 totaled 7,779,619,000 bbl at an average rate of 21,314,024 b/d, up 0.4% from 1978. Principal increases were in Iraq, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, and Saudi Arabia. Significant new discoveries were made in Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Abu Dhabi. New areas were explored in Oman, Syria, offshore South Yemen, Dubai, and Qatar.

  1. Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from…

  2. Factors Affecting Female Participation in Education in Seven Developing Countries. Second Edition. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin; Cammish, Nadine

    Factors affecting female participation in education in seven developing countries were examined through field visits to the following countries: Bangladesh, Cameroon, India, Jamaica, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, and Vanuatu. In each country, researchers interviewed key personnel, consulted local documentation, and conducted two empirical surveys…

  3. 78 FR 48333 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Least Developed Countries That Are Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... developed countries that are designated as eligible countries as follows: Changed the name of East Timor to Timor-Leste, reflecting the changed name on the UN list. Removed the Maldives, which is no longer a...), removing the countries of ``East Timor'' and ``Maldives'' and adding, in alphabetical order, the...

  4. FORENSIC DNA BANKING LEGISLATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY CONCERNS REGARDING A DRAFT FROM TURKISH LEGISLATION1

    PubMed Central

    İLGİLİ, Önder; ARDA, Berna

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses, in terms of privacy and confidentiality, the Turkish Draft Law on National DNA Database prepared in 2004, and concerning the use of DNA analysis for forensic objectives and identity verification in Turkey. After a short introduction including related concepts, we evaluate the draft law and provide articles about confidentiality. The evaluation reminded us of some important topics at international level for the developing countries. As a result, the need for sophisticated legislations about DNA databases, for solutions to issues related to the education of employees, and the technological dependency to other countries emerged as main challenges in terms of confidentiality for the developing countries. As seen in the Turkish Draft Law on National DNA Database, the protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms requires more care during the legislative efforts. PMID:25477772

  5. Developments in IVF legislation in a Catholic country.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Some time ago an article was published in this journal relating the difficulties of legislating for InVitro Fertilization in a Catholic country and the issues and side issues which had to be faced. Since then one has approached closer to having a law which regulates this technology. However several issues continue to challenge the country. The main concern, other than IVF not being a natural method of having children is the status of the embryo. The normative values of the country in fact induces politicians to discuss an 'embryology act' rather than a 'reproductive medicine' act. At the eleventh hour Bishops continue to launch concerns which raises queries on how the debate moved forward over the past two decades. This paper tackles these issues and other more recent concerns and suggestions and takes a look at how such processes can be improved through a more rigorous understanding and logistic of dialogue, as certainly such debates should have implications for bioethics in general. Although the Church's document Donum Vitae's instructions for politicians where legislation for this technology has to occur has been vindicated, I seems that whilst many disputes have been resolved, the main conflict--that of the value of the conjugal act--has not. PMID:23192568

  6. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    PubMed

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. PMID:22617902

  7. Acquisition of Scientific Literature in Developing Countries. 5: Arab Gulf Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, S. Nazim

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes the development of science and technology in the Arab Gulf States and discusses the collection building of the libraries in the region, focusing on problems of censorship and finance. Current purchasing methods are described, and the need for automation in acquisitions work and for centralized and cooperative purchasing is discussed.…

  8. Disparities in Retinoblastoma Presentation, Treatment, and Outcomes in Developed and Less-Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gobind; Daniels, Anthony B

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular malignancy in children. In the past century, RB survival rates in developed countries (DCs) have improved from <5% to as high as 99%. In contrast, in less developed countries (LDCs) where the tumor burden is greatest, survival rates remain poor, with some countries reporting survival rates as low as 0-5%. In addition, there are disparities between DCs and LDCs in RB presentation, treatment modalities, and prognosis. These disparities are due to many underlying causes, including delays in diagnosis, access to medical care, patient and physician familiarity with the disease, availability and cost of treatment, and patient acceptance of enucleation. It is our belief that attempts to extend the improvements in prognosis achieved in DCs to various LDCs must be culturally sensitive and tailored to each country's specific challenges, and thus, a "one-size-fits-all" approach to improving patient outcomes in LDCs is unlikely to work well. We discuss several culturally sensitive approaches that have been successfully implemented in various LDCs, including those that make use of telemedicine and "twinning" with centers of excellence around the world. PMID:27127937

  9. Indoor fuel exposure and the lung in both developing and developed countries: An update

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Almost 3 billion people worldwide burn solid fuels indoors. These fuels include biomass and coal. Although indoor solid fuel smoke is likely a greater problem in developing countries, wood burning populations in developed countries may also be at risk from these exposures. Despite the large population at risk worldwide, the effect of exposure to indoor solid fuel smoke has not been adequately studied. Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use is strongly associated with COPD (both emphysema and chronic bronchitis), acute respiratory tract infections, and lung cancer (primarily coal use) and weakly associated with asthma, tuberculosis, and interstitial lung disease. Tobacco use further potentiates the development of respiratory disease among subjects exposed to solid fuel smoke. There is a need to perform additional interventional studies in this field. It is also important to increase awareness about the health effects of solid fuel smoke inhalation among physicians and patients as well as trigger preventive actions through education, research, and policy change in both developing and developed countries. PMID:23153607

  10. Rapid culture-based diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in developed and developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, Shady; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths mainly in developing countries. Reviewing data reported over 20 years yields a state-of-the-art procedure for the routine culture of M. tuberculosis in both developed and developing countries. Useful specimens include sputum, induced sputum, and stools collected in quaternary ammonium preservative-containing sterile cans. The usefulness of other non-invasive specimens remains to be evaluated. Specimens can be collected in a diagnosis kit also containing sampling materials, instructions, laboratory requests, and informed consent. Automated direct LED fluorescence microscopy after auramine staining precedes inoculation of an egg-lecithin-containing culture solid medium under microaerophilic atmosphere, inverted microscope reading or scanning video-imaging detection of colonies and colonies identification by recent molecular methods. This procedure should result in a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis as fast as 5 days. It may be implemented in both developed and developing countries with automated steps replaceable by manual steps depending on local resources. PMID:26579092

  11. Rapid culture-based diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Asmar, Shady; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths mainly in developing countries. Reviewing data reported over 20 years yields a state-of-the-art procedure for the routine culture of M. tuberculosis in both developed and developing countries. Useful specimens include sputum, induced sputum, and stools collected in quaternary ammonium preservative-containing sterile cans. The usefulness of other non-invasive specimens remains to be evaluated. Specimens can be collected in a diagnosis kit also containing sampling materials, instructions, laboratory requests, and informed consent. Automated direct LED fluorescence microscopy after auramine staining precedes inoculation of an egg-lecithin-containing culture solid medium under microaerophilic atmosphere, inverted microscope reading or scanning video-imaging detection of colonies and colonies identification by recent molecular methods. This procedure should result in a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis as fast as 5 days. It may be implemented in both developed and developing countries with automated steps replaceable by manual steps depending on local resources. PMID:26579092

  12. School Leadership Preparation and Development in Africa: A Critical Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eacott, Scott; Asuga, Gladys Nyanchama

    2014-01-01

    When it comes to organizational performance, leaders matter. Without significant attention to the preparation and development of school leaders, government initiatives aimed at building world class education systems are unlikely to succeed. Across the Anglophone world leadership preparation and development has become a key leverage point in…

  13. Safe drinking water production in rural areas: a comparison between developed and less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Cotruvo, J A; Trevant, C

    2000-01-01

    At the fundamental level, there are remarkable parallels between developed and less developed countries in problems of providing safe drinking water in rural areas, but of course, they differ greatly in degree and in the opportunities for resolution. Small water supplies frequently encounter difficulty accessing sufficient quantities of drinking water for all domestic uses. If the water must be treated for safety reasons, then treatment facilities and trained operating personnel and finances are always in short supply. Ideally, each solution should be sustainable within its own cultural, political and economic context, and preferably with local personnel and financial resources. Otherwise, the water supply will be continuously dependent on outside resources and thus will not be able to control its destiny, and its future will be questionable. The history of success in this regard has been inconsistent, particularly in less developed but also in some developed countries. The traditional and ideal solution in developing countries has been central water treatment and a piped distribution network, however, results have had a mixed history primarily due to high initial costs and operation and maintenance, inadequate access to training, management and finance sufficient to support a fairly complex system for the long term. These complete systems are also slow to be implemented so waterborne disease continues in the interim. Thus, non-traditional, creative, cost-effective practical solutions that can be more rapidly implemented are needed. Some of these options could involve: small package central treatment coupled with non piped distribution, e.g. community supplied bottled water; decentralized treatment for the home using basic filtration and/or disinfection; higher levels of technology to deal with chemical contaminants e.g. natural fluoride or arsenic. These technological options coupled with training, technical support and other essential elements like community

  14. Teacher Education Matters: A Study of Middle School Mathematics Teacher Preparation in Six Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; Blomeke, Sigrid; Tatto, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Based on a major international teacher education research project--the Mathematics Teaching in the 21st Century Study (MT21)--this book investigates the pre-service preparation of middle school mathematics teachers in the United States, South Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Bulgaria, and Mexico. The study was funded by the National Science Foundation and…

  15. Exploring the Application of Community Development Methods on Water Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    In research and community development focused on water in developing countries, there is a common focus on issues of water quantity and quality. In the best circumstances both are innovative - bringing understanding and solutions to resource poor regions that is appropriate to their unique situations. But the underlying methods and measures for success often differ significantly. Applying critical aspects of community development methods to water research in developing countries could increase the probability of identifying innovative and sustainable solutions. This is examined through two case studies: the first identifies common methods across community development projects in six African countries, and the second examines water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa through the lens of these methods. The first case study is taken from observations gathered between 2008 and 2012 of community development projects focused on water quantity and quality in six sub-Saharan African countries implemented through different non-governmental organizations. These projects took place in rural and peri-urban regions where public utilities were few to none, instance of diarrheal disease was high, and most adults had received little formal education. The water projects included drilling of boreholes, building of rain water tanks, oasis rehabilitation, spring protection, and household biosand filters. All solutions were implemented with hygiene and sanitation components. Although these projects occurred in a wide array of cultural, geographical and climatic regions, the most successful projects shared methods of implementation. These methods are: high levels of stakeholder participation, environmental and cultural adaptation of process and product, and implementation over an extended length of time. The second case study focuses on water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa from 2003 to 2008. This research combined laboratory and statistical analyses with

  16. The development of green care in western European countries.

    PubMed

    Haubenhofer, Dorit Karla; Elings, Marjolein; Hassink, Jan; Hine, Rachel Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a review of green care across Western European countries. The following questions are addressed: What is green care, and what are its basic goals? What are the most commonly known types of green care interventions, and how are they connected to each other? There are different sectors of green care intervention that vary from each other regarding their structure, specific goals, and purpose. These traits will be investigated in this review. And lastly, how these interventions are designed and their approach to promote and provide health will be examined. PMID:20362268

  17. The introduction of space technology power systems into developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Allen F.; Ratajczak, Anthony F.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1984, NASA-Lewis was responsible for the design, fabrication, installation and operational support of 57 photovoltaic power systems in 27 countries. These systems were installed in locations not served by a central power system and ranged in size from 40 W for powering street lights to 29 kW for providing power to a complete village. Several of the system projects had socio/economic studies components that provided for an assessment of how the introduction of both electricity and a novel high technology power system affected the users and their society.

  18. Scientific practices and social behaviors in managing landslide risks: comparing experiences between developing and developed countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    A successful landslide risk reduction program requires that the society is aware and understand the landslide problems within the geographic area involved. Central organizations that manage national landslide risks should: a) create and systematically applied natural hazard laws/national landslide strategies, where roles and limits of responsibilities of federal, state, provincial, municipal and private entities are well defined; c) establish fruitful multidisciplinary and interinstitutional collaboration among scientists; d) provide good risk assessments in which landslide experts report transparently what is really known and the limitations of methods and tools used; e) share and systematically communicate their knowledge more effectively with all private and public stakeholders involved, paying attention to providing balanced information about risks and addressing inevitable uncertainties; f) support the mass-media in spreading correct scientific information; g) perform serious risk and cost-benefit analyses before mitigation measures are realized; h) assist local authorities in the application of land-use planning policies and g) built trust and confidence by means of a continuous contact and communication with the public and local authorities. However, this is not yet achieved, not even in developed countries where, in theory, more economical resources are available and people are better educated then in developing countries. Herein I make some observations on how national landslide prevention efforts are being organized in two countries (Nicaragua and Norway), where I have been worked at governmental agencies as landslide expert in the last 10 years. I start describing similarities and differences between the countries and try to compare practices and experiences. The analysis was motivated by the following questions: Why after so many years of landslide mapping and investigations, landslide prevention is not good and effective as it should be? Is this

  19. Education for Sustainable Development: Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation Expertise in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Shireen; Verstraten, Luke; Berry, Ashton J.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of an innovative education capacity assessment and delivery project to promote sustainable development in large ocean states in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region. Science education can help prepare the present and coming generations for stability in an uncertain future. Limited financial, geographical and…

  20. Climate Change, Global Warming and Global Inequity in Developed and Developing Countries (Analytical Perspective, Issue, Problem and Solution)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, A. S.

    2014-03-01

    Climate change becomes one of the most significant challenges faced by most environmentalist all over the world. Every country either developed or developing one has the same need in climate change impact mitigation and adaptation. However, developed countries are believed to have better ability rather than developing countries in particular to climate change adaptation impact. It is described by several indications pointed out by several practitioners. The methods compare findings in both developing and developed countries. It is analyzing two salient data justified by rational arguments and emphasizing with some justifications then finally summarizing with solutions and recommendations.

  1. Market definition study of photovoltaic power for remote villages in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, C.; Quashie, P.

    1980-01-01

    The potential market of photovoltaic systems in remote village applications in developing countries is assessed. It is indicated that photovoltaic technology is cost-competitive with diesel generators in many remote village applications. The major barriers to development of this market are the limited financial resources on the part of developing countries, and lack of awareness of photovoltaics as a viable option in rural electrification. A comprehensive information, education and demonstration program should be established as soon as possible to convince the potential customer countries and the various financial institutions of the viability of photovoltaics as an electricity option for developing countries.

  2. The Impact of Skills Development on Competitiveness: Empirical Evidence from a Cross-Country Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsomu, Eldah N.; Ngware, Moses W.; Manda, Damiano K.

    2010-01-01

    In the past half-century, most countries have emphasized the development of human capital as an instrument for economic growth, sustainable development, and improved global competitiveness. However, limited evidence exists on the link between skills development and a country's competitiveness. This paper examines the contribution and association…

  3. Does Critical Mass Matter? Women's Political Representation and Child Health in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Liam; Fallon, Kathleen M.; Burgos, Giovani

    2012-01-01

    Studies on developed countries demonstrate that an increase in women legislators leads to a prioritization in health, an increase in social policy spending, and a decrease in poverty. Women representatives could therefore improve development trajectories in developing countries; yet, currently, no cross-national and longitudinal studies explore…

  4. Lessons Learned from the Advanced Developing Countries. GENESYS Special Studies No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joekes, Susan P.

    This paper examines the experience of development in the advanced developing countries in Asia from a gender perspective and draws some lessons for women in development policy in middle income countries in the Asian and Near East regions. The nature of the paper is exploratory, asking many questions on which further research and information are…

  5. Universities and the Knowledge-Based Economy: Perceptions from a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bano, Shah; Taylor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the role of universities in the creation of a knowledge-based economy (KBE) in a developing country, Pakistan. Some developing countries have moved quickly to develop a KBE, but progress in Pakistan is much slower. Higher education plays a crucial role as part of the triple helix model for innovation. Based on the perceptions…

  6. Diffusion of Appropriate Educational Technology in Open & Distance Learning in Developing Commonwealth Countries. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roy

    The Diffusion of Appropriate Educational Technology in Open and Distance Learning in Developing Countries project was designed to determine awareness and use of educational technologies and communications media in developing countries, to identify factors constraining wider use of educational technologies by developing nations, and to explore…

  7. Problems of Organising and Reporting Internal and External Evaluation in Developing Countries: The Case of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop capacity to link knowledge to economic growth in developing countries, there is an urgent need to make quality the major element of higher education systems. In Iran, a developing country, such a need was felt a decade ago in the academic community. Based on research projects conducted, a model that combines collegial…

  8. Energy and development in Central America. Volume II: Country assessments. Final report October 1979-February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  9. Analysing inter-relationships among water, governance, human development variables in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondeynaz, C.; Carmona Moreno, C.; Céspedes Lorente, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    The "Integrated Water Resources Management" principle was formally laid down at the International Conference on Water and Sustainable development in Dublin 1992. One of the main results of this conference is that improving Water and Sanitation Services (WSS), being a complex and interdisciplinary issue, passes through collaboration and coordination of different sectors (environment, health, economic activities, governance, and international cooperation). These sectors influence or are influenced by the access to WSS. The understanding of these interrelations appears as crucial for decision makers in the water sector. In this framework, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) has developed a new database (WatSan4Dev database) containing 42 indicators (called variables in this paper) from environmental, socio-economic, governance and financial aid flows data in developing countries. This paper describes the development of the WatSan4Dev dataset, the statistical processes needed to improve the data quality, and finally, the analysis to verify the database coherence is presented. Based on 25 relevant variables, the relationships between variables are described and organised into five factors (HDP - Human Development against Poverty, AP - Human Activity Pressure on water resources, WR - Water Resources, ODA - Official Development Aid, CEC - Country Environmental Concern). Linear regression methods are used to identify key variables having influence on water supply and sanitation. First analysis indicates that the informal urbanisation development is an important factor negatively influencing the percentage of the population having access to WSS. Health, and in particular children's health, benefits from the improvement of WSS. Irrigation is also enhancing Water Supply service thanks to multi-purpose infrastructure. Five country profiles are also created to deeper understand and synthetize the amount of information gathered. This new

  10. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Schady, Norbert; Behrman, Jere; Araujo, Maria Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina; Vakis, Renos

    2014-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development. PMID:25983344

  11. Household energy use in non-OPEC developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Energy use in the residential sector in India, Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, the Sudan, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Guatemala is presented. Whenever possible, information is included on the commercial fuels (oil, gas, coal, and electricity) and on what are termed noncommercial fuels (firewood, animal dung, and crop residues). Of special interest are the differences in the consumption patterns of urban and rural areas, and of households at different income levels. Where the data allow, the effect of household size on energy consumption is discussed. Section II is an overview of the data for all eight countries. Section III examines those areas (India, Brazil, Mexico City) for which data exist on the actual quantity of energy consumed by households. Korea, the Sudan, and Pakistan, which collect data on household expenditures on fuels, are discussed in Section IV. The patterns of ownership of energy-using durables in Malaysia and Guatemala are discussed in Section V. (MCW)

  12. European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Le Manach, Frédéric; Chaboud, Christian; Copeland, Duncan; Cury, Philippe; Gascuel, Didier; Kleisner, Kristin M; Standing, André; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy. PMID:24312191

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in child mortality: comparisons across nine developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper generates and analyses survey data on inequalities in mortality among infants and children aged under five years by consumption in Brazil, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa, and Viet Nam. The data were obtained from the Living Standards Measurement Study and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Mortality rates were estimated directly where complete fertility histories were available and indirectly otherwise. Mortality distributions were compared between countries by means of concentration curves and concentration indices: dominance checks were carried out for all pairwise intercountry comparisons; standard errors were calculated for the concentration indices; and tests of intercountry differences in inequality were performed. PMID:10686730

  14. Forestry mitigation potential and costs in developing countries - Preface

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Makundi, Willy; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    The forest sector in Tanzania offers ample opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and sequestered carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems. More than 90% of the country's demand for primary energy is obtained from biomass mostly procured unsustainably from natural forests. This study examines the potential to sequester C through expansion of forest plantations aimed at reducing the dependence on natural forest for wood fuel production, as well as increase the country's output of industrial wood from plantations. These were compared ton conservation options in the tropical and miombo ecosystems. Three sequestration options were analyzed, involving the establishment of short rotation and long rotation plantations on about 1.7 x 106 hectares. The short rotation community forest option has a potential to sequester an equilibrium amount of 197.4 x 106 Mg C by 2024 at a net benefit of $79.5 x 106, while yielding a NPV of $0.46 Mg-1 C. The long rotation options for softwood and hardwood plantations will reach an equilibrium sequestration of 5.6 and 11.8 x 106 Mg C at a negative NPV of $0.60 Mg-1 C and $0.32 Mg-1 C. The three options provide cost competitive opportunities for sequestering about 7.5 x 106 Mg C yr -1 while providing desired forest products and easing the pressure on the natural forests in Tanzania. The endowment costs of the sequestration options were all found to be cheaper than the emission avoidance cost for conservation options which had an average cost of $1.27 Mg-1 C, rising to $7.5 Mg-1 C under some assumptions on vulnerability to encroachment. The estimates shown here may represent the upper bound, because the actual potential will be influenced by market prices for inputs and forest products, land use policy constraints and the structure of global C transactions.

  15. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  16. Ethical review of health research: a perspective from developing country researchers

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, A; Wali, S; Khan, A; Teoh, N; Kass, N; Dawson, L

    2004-01-01

    Background: Increasing collaboration between industrialised and developing countries in human research studies has led to concerns regarding the potential exploitation of resource deprived countries. This study, commissioned by the former National Bioethics Advisory Commission of the United States, surveyed developing country researchers about their concerns and opinions regarding ethical review processes and the performance of developing country and US international review boards (IRBs). Methods: Contact lists from four international organisations were used to identify and survey 670 health researchers in developing countries. A questionnaire with 169 questions explored issues of IRB review, informed consent, and recommendations. Results: The majority of the developing country researchers were middle aged males who were physicians and were employed by educational institutions, carrying out research on part time basis. Forty four percent of the respondents reported that their studies were not reviewed by a developing country IRB or Ministry of Health and one third of these studies were funded by the US. During the review process issues such as the need for local language consent forms and letters for approval, and confidentiality protection of participants were raised by US IRBs in significantly higher proportions than by host country IRBs. Conclusion: This survey indicates the need for the ethical review of collaborative research in both US and host countries. It also reflects a desire for focused capacity development in supporting ethical review of research. PMID:14872079

  17. Challenges to developing countries after joining WTO: risk assessment of chemicals in food.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junshi

    2004-05-20

    FAO/WHO encourages member countries to develop national food control measures based on risk assessment in order to assure proper protection level to consumers and facilitate fair trade. This is particularly important for developing countries as WTO members because it is clearly stated in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement that: (a) SPS measures should be based on risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organizations; and (b) Codex standards which is based on risk assessment are regarded as the international norm in trade dispute settlement. When conducting risk assessment on food chemicals (including additives and contaminants) in developing countries, in most cases it is not necessary to conduct their own hazard characterization because the ADIs or PTWIs of food chemicals developed by international expert groups (e.g. JECFA) are universally applicable and also developing countries do not have the resources to repeat those expensive toxicological studies. On the other hand, it is necessary to conduct exposure assessment in developing countries because exposure to food chemicals varies from country to country. This is not only crucial in setting national standards, but also very important for developing countries to participate in the process of developing Codex standards. In addition to food standard development, risk assessment is also useful in setting up priorities in imported food inspection and evaluating the success of various food safety control measures. PMID:15138023

  18. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the Zambian experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia’s experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs. PMID:24447509

  19. International Experiences and Frameworks to Support Country-Driven Low-Emissions Development

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, R.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.

    2012-08-01

    Countries can use low-emission development strategies (LEDS) to advance sustainable development, promote private-sector growth, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes a framework -- or support infrastructure -- to enable the efficient exchange of LEDS-related knowledge and technical assistance. Under the proposed framework, countries share LEDS-related resources via coordinating forums, 'knowledge platforms,' and networks of experts and investors. The virtual 'knowledge platforms' foster learning by allowing countries to communicate with each other and share technical reports, data, and analysis tools in support of LEDS development. Investing in all elements of the framework in an integrated fashion increases the efficacy of support for country-driven LEDS.

  20. Environmental health and development in a developing country: Rwanda, a case study.

    PubMed

    Blanc, P

    1984-06-01

    This article reports the author's field investigation into the effects of economic development on environmental health in Rwanda. It was hypothesized that the placement of environmentally hazardous industry would not be given meaningful consideration in the course of the introduction of advanced technolgies. Rwanda is a poor, overpopulated country with a subsistence economy whose development has been largely stimulated by international aid projects. Site visits to industrial and agricultural processing facilities revealed significant perticide exposure, lack of respiratory protection from mineral dusts, respiratory symptoms from organic dusts, and sources of heavy metal contamination. The Rwanda experience suggests that 2 major economic activities are most likely to have a major environmental impact in developing countries: exploitation of natural resources and agricultural commercialization. Mining activity, for example, has produced both chronic diseases such as silicosis and general environmental degradation such as runoff to surface water sources. The use of agricultural petrochemicals is likely to produce acute and chronic poisoning among peasant farmers with little access to adequate health care. Even the smallest industrial installation can have widespread impact if the proper infrastructure for waste treatment is not established. In addition, the technology required to test for environmental contamination is beyond the scope of Third World economies. Hazardous environmental exposures may have amplified or additive effects in the presence of compromised baseline health and sanitary conditions and inadequate health care facilities. It is concluded that Rwanda represents an example of the failure of economic developers to consider the far-reaching effects of changes in the work environment, introduction of new agricultural techniques, alteration of the rural-urban equilibrium, and degradation of the air, water, and soil quality. There is a need to adapt models