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Sample records for preps developing survey

  1. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  2. Washington Year Two Tech Prep Planning and Implementation Survey Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.

    All of Washington's 22 tech prep consortium directors responded to a 1994 survey examining selected aspects of tech prep planning/implementation. Ten of Washington's 22 consortia reported having tech prep students (only 1 of 15 consortia in 1992-93), and secondary student enrollment in tech prep programs totaled 2,203 (170 in 1992-93). All 19…

  3. Tech Prep Intergenerational Curriculum Development Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock.

    A project was conducted at Texas Tech University to develop a competency-based curriculum to support statewide implementation of tech prep intergenerational programs (careers in providing services to well elderly persons and to children). Project activities included the following: (1) revision and expansion of the Intergenerational Target…

  4. Prep1 (pKnox1)-deficiency leads to spontaneous tumor development in mice and accelerates EmuMyc lymphomagenesis: a tumor suppressor role for Prep1.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, E; Iotti, G; Di Rosa, P; Mejetta, S; Bianchi, F; Fernandez-Diaz, L C; Micali, N; Nuciforo, P; Lenti, E; Ponzoni, M; Doglioni, C; Caniatti, M; Di Fiore, P P; Blasi, F

    2010-04-01

    The Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor is essential for embryonic development. 25% of hypomorphic Prep1(i/i) embryos, expressing the gene at 2% of the normal levels, survive pregnancy and live a normal-length life. Later in life, however, these mice develop spontaneous pre-tumoral lesions or solid tumors (lymphomas and carcinomas). In addition, transplantation of E14.5 fetal liver (FL) Prep1(i/i) cells into lethally irradiated mice induces lymphomas. In agreement with the above data, haploinsufficiency of a different Prep1-deficient (null) allele accelerates EmuMyc lymphoma growth. Therefore Prep1 has a tumor suppressor function in mice. Immunohistochemistry on tissue micrroarrays (TMA) generated from three distinct human cohorts comprising a total of some 1000 human tumors revealed that 70% of the tumors express no or extremely low levels of Prep1, unlike normal tissues. Our data in mice are thus potentially relevant to human cancer. PMID:20106730

  5. Tech Prep Degree: Preparing Tomorrow's Workforce. Design, Development and Implementation of a TECH PREP Core Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quad-City/Tri-County Vocational Regions, East Moline, IL.

    The focus of tech prep at Quad-City/Tri-County Vocational Regions/Black Hawk College was on providing all students with skills for higher education as well as job opportunities. To accomplish this, a comprehensive model applicable to all program areas was implemented to provide sequenced, vocationally and academically integrated, and complementary…

  6. Development of a Career Student Guide for the Tech Prep Program for Henry County High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Ruth Ann

    This practicum report describes the research conducted in preparation for developing a career student guide to acquaint students attending Henry County High School (HCHS) in McDonough, Georgia, with the school's new tech prep program. Chapters 1 and 2 contain background information about HCHS' tech prep program and a review of literature regarding…

  7. PrEP Awareness and Attitudes in a National Survey of Primary Care Clinicians in the United States, 2009–2015

    PubMed Central

    Stryker, Jo Ellen; Rose, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives As trials were assessing the safety and efficacy of daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of HIV infection, there was a clear need to understand the evolution of knowledge of, and attitudes toward, PrEP among primary care clinicians. Methods Physicians and nurse practitioners were surveyed in 2009 (n = 1500), 2010 (n = 1504), 2012 (n = 1503), 2013 (n = 1507), 2014 (n = 1508) and 2015 (n = 1501) to assess their awareness of PrEP, willingness to prescribe PrEP, and whether they support use of public funds to pay for PrEP. Pharmacists (n = 251) were surveyed about PrEP in 2012 only. Descriptive statistics were computed for physician demographics and PrEP-related questions. Prevalence ratios for willingness to prescribe PrEP were computed using Poisson regression analysis. Results Awareness of PrEP was low among clinicians (2009: 24%, 2010: 29%) but increased after trials reported effectiveness (2012: 49%, 2013: 51%, 2014: 61%, 2015: 66%). Following a description of PrEP with an estimated effectiveness of 75%, across 6 of the study years 91% of clinicians indicated a willingness to prescribe PrEP to at least one group at high risk of HIV acquisition. A smaller majority of clinicians indicated support for public funding of PrEP in 2009: 59%, 2010: 53%, and 2013: 63%. Conclusions In surveys conducted before and after the release of PrEP trial results, primary care clinicians were largely unaware of PrEP. They indicated high levels of willingness to prescribe it for patients at high risk of HIV acquisition and expressed interest in education about how to deliver this new clinical HIV prevention method. It will be important to continue monitoring clinician knowledge, attitudes, and practices as the use of PrEP increases in the US. PMID:27258374

  8. Preparing for the Rollout of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): A Vignette Survey to Identify Intended Sexual Behaviors among Women in Kenya and South Africa if Using PrEP

    PubMed Central

    Corneli, Amy; Field, Samuel; Namey, Emily; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Odhiambo, Jacob; Skhosana, Joseph; Guest, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in reducing HIV risk. One concern with introducing PrEP is whether users will engage in riskier sexual behaviors. Methods We assessed the effect that PrEP may have on sexual risk behaviors by administering a survey to 799 women in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Participants were asked about their sexual behavior intentions twice — once as if they were taking PrEP and once as if they were not taking PrEP — within four risk situations (vignettes). They responded using a 5-point ordinal scale. We used a series of linear mixed effects models with an unstructured residual covariance matrix to estimate the between- and within-subject differences in the mean likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior across the PrEP and non-PrEP contexts. We also calculated the total percentage of participants who reported a greater likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior if taking PrEP than if not taking PrEP, by vignette. Results We found statistically significant differences in the mean likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior with the between-subject comparison (-0.17, p < 0.01) and with the within-subject comparison (-0.31, p < 0.001). Depending on the vignette, 27% to 40% of participants reported a greater likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior if taking PrEP than if not taking PrEP. Conclusions Our findings indicate that modest increases in risky sexual behavior could occur with PrEP. Although responses from the majority of participants suggest they would not be more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior if they took PrEP, a substantial proportion might. Programs rolling out PrEP should be prepared to assist similar women in making informed choices about reducing their risk of HIV and about their sexual health beyond HIV prevention. PMID:26056842

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Prep Course for Chemistry Graduate Teaching Assistants at a Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Schaefer, Kathryn L.; Kumi, Bryna C.; Friedman, Lee A.; Thompson, Katerina V.; Doyle, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of a prep course for chemistry graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). The course was developed around three major goals: (i) building a community for new GTAs and socializing them into the department; (ii) modeling teaching with well-documented, innovative teaching and learning techniques; and…

  10. Summer Professional Development in Chemistry for Inservice Teachers Using OWL Quick Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Pamplin, Kim L.; Blake, Robert E.; Mason, Diana S.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary teachers participating in summer professional development chemistry workshops in Texas used an online chemistry tutoring program, OWL Quick Prep (Day et al. in OWL: Online Web-based Learning, Brooks-Cole Cengage Learning, Florence, KY, 1997) as a part of the inservice training. Self-reported demographic data were used to identify factors…

  11. Follow-Up Survey of Participants in Preparing for Profit (PREP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Informed Decision Services, Englewood, NJ.

    Established as a pilot project in 1991, Preparing for Profit (PREP) was a four-session entrepreneurial training seminar offered by LaGuardia Community College/City University of New York, the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority, and Coopers & Lybrand. PREP was designed to enhance opportunities for minority- and women-owned businesses to…

  12. Follow-Up Survey of Graduates of Preparing for Profit (PREP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumstein, Renee J.

    The Preparing for Profit (PREP) entrepreneurial training seminar at LaGuardia Community College/CUNY was designed to assist minority and women business owners attain certification by public agencies and win government contracts. In summer 1993, a study was conducted of the effects of the PREP program on the businesses of a random sample of 51 of…

  13. Evaluating and Improving Tech Prep: Development, Validation, and Results of the Minnesota Self-Assessment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucel, David J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Minnesota Tech Prep Self-Evaluation System is a framework based on ideas from Deming, Juran, and the Baldridge award. Testing with 17 Minnesota tech prep consortia found it effective in identifying areas needing improvement and promoting dialog among those involved in tech prep implementation. (SK)

  14. From Efficacy to Effectiveness: Facilitators and Barriers to PrEP Acceptability and Motivations for Adherence Among MSM and Transgender Women in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Surace, Anthony; Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined potential facilitators and barriers to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use and their association with PrEP acceptability and motivations for adherence among 184 MSM and transgender women living in New York City. Participants were presented with educational information about PrEP and completed a computerized survey. Overall, 55.4% of participants reported willingness to take PrEP. The most highly endorsed barriers to PrEP use were health concerns, including both long-term impacts and short-term side effects, questions about PrEP's impact on future drug resistance, and concerns that PrEP does not provide complete protection against HIV. The most highly endorsed facilitator was free access to PrEP, followed by access to support services such as regular HIV testing, sexual health care/monitoring, and access to one-on-one counseling. Participants of color rated both barriers and facilitators as more important than their White counterparts. In multivariate models, barrier and facilitator scores significantly predicted not only PrEP acceptability, but also motivation for PrEP adherence among those who were likely to use PrEP. PrEP implementation programs should consider addressing these barriers and facilitators in protocol and policy development. Findings underscore the importance of support services, such as sexual health counseling, to the success of PrEP as a prevention strategy. PMID:23565928

  15. A Comprehensive Tech Prep Curriculum Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Larry

    The Butte College Tech Prep Consortium (TPC), in Oroville, California, is a cooperative effort of secondary and postsecondary schools, local businesses, and community organizations to develop and implement Tech Prep opportunities in the area. The TPC has developed a competency-based, comprehensive tech prep curriculum model that is applicable to…

  16. Prep1.1 has essential genetic functions in hindbrain development and cranial neural crest cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Deflorian, Gianluca; Tiso, Natascia; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Meyer, Dirk; Blasi, Francesco; Bortolussi, Marino; Argenton, Francesco

    2004-02-01

    In this study we analysed the function of the Meinox gene prep1.1 during zebrafish development. Meinox proteins form heterotrimeric complexes with Hox and Pbx members, increasing the DNA binding specificity of Hox proteins in vitro and in vivo. However, a role for a specific Meinox protein in the regulation of Hox activity in vivo has not been demonstrated. In situ hybridization showed that prep1.1 is expressed maternally and ubiquitously up to 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf), and restricted to the head from 48 hpf onwards. Morpholino-induced prep1.1 loss-of-function caused significant apoptosis in the CNS. Hindbrain segmentation and patterning was affected severely, as revealed by either loss or defective expression of several hindbrain markers (foxb1.2/mariposa, krox20, pax2.1 and pax6.1), including anteriorly expressed Hox genes (hoxb1a, hoxa2 and hoxb2), the impaired migration of facial nerve motor neurons, and the lack of reticulospinal neurons (RSNs) except Mauthner cells. Furthermore, the heads of prep1.1 morphants lacked all pharyngeal cartilages. This was not caused by the absence of neural crest cells or their impaired migration into the pharyngeal arches, as shown by expression of dlx2 and snail1, but by the inability of these cells to differentiate into chondroblasts. Our results indicate that prep1.1 has a unique genetic function in craniofacial chondrogenesis and, acting as a member of Meinox-Pbc-Hox trimers, it plays an essential role in hindbrain development. PMID:14711874

  17. Using Tech Prep Principles to Improve Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegge, Chris A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four research and synthesis activities were undertaken: review of reforms in science, math, and English; survey of 12 secondary tech prep administrators; focus group of tech prep teachers; and survey of 156 tech prep stakeholders using concept mapping. Five themes for teacher education emerged: (1) teaching through application; (2)…

  18. prep1.2 and aldh1a2 participate to a positive loop required for branchial arches development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Enrico; Deflorian, Gianluca; Bernardi, Elisa; Pauls, Stefan; Tiso, Natascia; Bortolussi, Marino; Argenton, Francesco

    2010-07-01

    Segmentation is a key step in embryonic development. Acting in all germ layers, it is responsible for the generation of antero-posterior asymmetries. Hox genes, with their diverse expression in individual segments, are fundamental players in the determination of different segmental fates. In vertebrates, Hox gene products gain specificity for DNA sequences by interacting with Pbx, Prep and Meis homeodomain transcription factors. In this work we cloned and analysed prep1.2 in zebrafish. In-situ hybridization experiments show that prep1.2 is maternally and ubiquitously expressed up to early somitogenesis when its expression pattern becomes more restricted to the head and trunk mesenchyme. Experiments of loss of function with prep1.2 morpholinos change the shape of the hyoid and third pharyngeal cartilages while arches 4-7 and pectoral fins are absent, a phenotype strikingly similar to that caused by loss of retinoic acid (RA). In fact, we show that prep1.2 is positively regulated by RA and required for the normal expression of aldh1a2 at later stages, particularly in tissues involved in the development of the branchial arches and pectoral fins. Thus, prep1.2 and aldh1a2 are members of an indirect positive feedback loop required for pharyngeal endoderm and posterior branchial arches development. As the paralogue gene prep1.1 is more important in hindbrain patterning and neural crest chondrogenesis, we provide evidence of a functional specialization of prep genes in zebrafish head segmentation and morphogenesis. PMID:20423710

  19. Tech Prep: Developing Cooperative Programs and Partnerships. National Satellite Teleconference Proceedings (Blacksburg, Virginia, October 29, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg.

    This document reports the proceedings of a teleconference convened to acquaint vocational education leaders and the vocational education community with the federal guidelines for "tech prep" programs as well as the elements of successful programs. About 700 down-link sites from 48 states participated in the conference, with an etimated audience of…

  20. Oregon Tech Prep/Associate Degree Program: Developing a High Performance Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem.

    Issued jointly by Oregon's Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Commissioner of Community Colleges, this policy statement is aimed at implementing the Oregon Tech Prep/Associate Degree Program (TPAD), a new applied academics curricular structure. The paper begins with a summary of Oregon's school reform effort, an open letter to the…

  1. Chem-Prep PZT 95/5 for neutron generator applications : development of laboratory-scale powder processing operations.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Ted V.; Moore, Roger Howard; Spindle, Thomas Lewis Jr.

    2003-12-01

    Chemical synthesis methods are being developed as a future source of PZT 95/5 powder for neutron generator voltage bar applications. Laboratory-scale powder processes were established to produce PZT billets from these powders. The interactions between calcining temperature, sintering temperature, and pore former content were studied to identify the conditions necessary to produce PZT billets of the desired density and grain size. Several binder systems and pressing aids were evaluated for producing uniform sintered billets with low open porosity. The development of these processes supported the powder synthesis efforts and enabled comparisons between different chem-prep routes.

  2. Coal prep `95

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The proceedings of Coal Prep `95 - the 12th International Coal Preparation Exhibition and Conference, held May 2-4, 1995 in Lexington, KY are presented. The Conference covered such topics as chemicals for coal preparation, quality control, coal cleaning, operations, and research and development. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 24 papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. The functional role of the Meis/Prep-binding elements in Pax6 locus during pancreas and eye development.

    PubMed

    Carbe, Christian; Hertzler-Schaefer, Kristina; Zhang, Xin

    2012-03-01

    Pax6 is an essential transcription factor for lens, lacrimal gland and pancreas development. Previous transgenic analyses have identified several Pax6 regulatory elements, but their functional significance and binding factors remain largely unknown. In this study, we generated two genomic truncations to delete three elements that were previously shown to bind to the Meis/Prep family homeoproteins. One 3.1 kb deletion (Pax6(∆DP/∆DP)) removed two putative pancreatic enhancers and a previously identified ectodermal enhancer, while a 450 bp sub-deletion (Pax6(∆PE/∆PE)) eliminated only the promoter-proximal pancreatic enhancer. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Pax6(∆PE/∆PE) pancreata had a significant decrease in Pax6, glucagon, and insulin expression, while no further reductions were observed in the Pax6(∆DP/∆DP) mice, indicating that only the 450 bp region is required for pancreatic development. In contrast, Pax6(∆DP/∆DP), but not Pax6(∆PE/∆PE) mice, developed stunted lacrimal gland and lens hypoplasia which was significantly more severe than that reported when only the ectodermal enhancer was deleted. This result suggested that the ectodermal enhancer must cooperate with its neighboring sequences to regulate the Pax6 ectodermal expression. Finally, we generated conditional knockouts of Prep1 in the lens and pancreas, but surprisingly, did not observe any developmental defects. Together, these results provide functional evidence for the independent and synergistic roles of the Pax6 upstream enhancers, and they suggest the potential redundancy of Meis/Prep protein in Pax6 regulation. PMID:22240097

  4. The functional role of the Meis/Prep-binding elements in Pax6 locus during pancreas and eye development

    PubMed Central

    Carbe, Christian; Hertzler-Schaefer, Kristina; Zhang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Pax6 is an essential transcription factor for lens, lacrimal gland and pancreas development. Previous transgenic analyses have identified several Pax6 regulatory elements, but their functional significance and binding factors remain largely unknown. In this study, we generated two genomic truncations to delete three elements that were previously shown to bind to the Meis/Prep family homeoproteins. One 3.1 kb deletion (Pax6 ΔDP/ΔDP) removed two putative pancreatic enhancers and a previously identified ectodermal enhancer, while a 450 bp sub-deletion (Pax6ΔPE/ΔPE) eliminated only the promoter-proximal pancreatic enhancer. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Pax6ΔPE/ΔPE pancreata had a significant decrease in Pax6, glucagon, and insulin expression, while no further reductions were observed in the Pax6ΔDP/ΔDP mice, indicating that only the 450 bp region is required for pancreatic development. In contrast, Pax6ΔDP/ΔDP, but not Pax6ΔPE/ΔPE mice, developed stunted lacrimal gland and lens hypoplasia which was significantly more severe than that reported when only the ectodermal enhancer was deleted. This result suggested that the ectodermal enhancer must cooperate with its neighboring sequences to regulate the Pax6 ectodermal expression. Finally, we generated conditional knockouts of Prep1 in lens and pancreas, but surprisingly, did not observe any developmental defects. Together, these results provide functional evidence for the independent and synergistic roles of the Pax6 upstream enhancers, and they suggest the potential redundancy of Meis/Prep protein in Pax6 regulation. PMID:22240097

  5. Transition from High School to College and Work for Tech Prep Participants in Eight Selected Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Loeb, Jane W.; Gong, Yuqin; Deng, Chi-Ping; Yoo, Jung-sup; Hill, Jerry L.

    The transition from high school to college and work for tech prep participants was examined in a 4-year longitudinal study of local tech prep consortia in eight regions of the United States. The study methodology drew heavily on transcript analysis and two surveys with tech prep participants and nonparticipants. The tech prep participants and…

  6. Planning a Tech Prep Program in Hospitality. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL. Chicago City-Wide Coll.

    A project conducted to establish tech prep articulation training agreements between City Colleges of Chicago and several public secondary schools is described in this report. Project activities were as follows: (1) developed a handbook to define the tech prep experience and guide committee members on how tech prep can be a valuable asset to…

  7. Tech-Prep Competency Profiles within the Engineering Technologies Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 12 competency profiles for tech prep courses within the engineering technologies cluster. The document consists of the following sections: (1) systemic curriculum reform philosophy--Ohio's vision of tech prep and its six critical components; (2) an explanation of the process of developing the tech prep competencies; (3) a…

  8. Horticulture. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Wooster. Agricultural Technical Inst.

    This tech prep competency profile (TCP), which was developed by a consortium of Ohio educators and business/industry representatives, lists the competencies that have been identified as necessary for employment in the following occupations: nursery technician; golf course superintendent; landscape designer/manager; lawn care specialist; tree care…

  9. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  10. Mississippi Tech-Prep Coordinators: Identifying Challenges of the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Jean Alice; Boggs, Brad D.; Stumpf, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Mississippi tech-prep coordinators were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the difficulty of their various job responsibilities as identified in the Mississippi Tech Prep Handbook Pilot Site Implementation Guide 1993-94 (1993). It was hypothesized that their perceptions would be influenced by the number of sites served by individual…

  11. Optimizing Content for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Counseling for Men who have Sex with Men: Perspectives of PrEP Users and High-risk PrEP Naïve Men

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S. Wade; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Elsesser, Steven M.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Existing trials of antiretroviral (ARV) medication as chemoprophylaxis against HIV reveal that the degree of protection is primarily dependent on product adherence. However, there is a lack of data on targets for behavioral interventions to improve adherence to ARV as prevention. Information from individuals who have used ARV as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can inform behavioral intervention development. Thirty-nine HIV-uninfected MSM at high risk for HIV acquisition participated in one of four semi-structured focus groups. Two of the focus groups consisted of MSM who had been prescribed and used PrEP in the context of a clinical trial; the other two consisted of high-risk MSM who had not previously used PrEP. An in-depth, within-case/across-case content analysis resulted in six descriptive themes potentially salient for a PrEP adherence behavioral intervention: (1) motivations to use PrEP, (2) barriers to PrEP use, (3) facilitators to PrEP use, (4) sexual decision-making in the context of PrEP, (5) prospective PrEP education content, and, (6) perceived effective characteristics of PrEP delivery personnel. Addressing these themes in behavioral interventions in the context of prescribing PrEP may result in the optimal “packaging” public health programs that implement PrEP for high-risk MSM. PMID:24077928

  12. Get on Board the Cost Effective Way: A Tech Prep Replication Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Wayne A.; Szul, Linda F.; Rivosecchi, Karen

    1997-01-01

    The Northwestern Pennsylvania Tech Prep Consortium model for replicating tech prep programs includes these steps: fact finding, local industry analysis, curriculum development, detailed description, marketing strategies, implementation, and program evaluation. (SK)

  13. Tech Prep Ohio Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Tech prep programs integrate academic, occupational, and employability during the last 2 years of high school and the first 2 years of college, combining the best of college-prep academics with the best of vocational and technical education. The Ohio Tech Prep program, jointly administered by the Ohio Board of Regents and the Ohio Department of…

  14. Using Concept Mapping Techniques to Compare Stakeholder Groups' Perceptions of Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegge, Chris A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to develop a conceptual framework for tech prep programs based on the perceptions of personnel involved in the planning and implementation of local tech prep programs. A structured conceptualization process called concept mapping was used to develop a pictorial representation of stakeholders' perceptions of tech prep. Using a…

  15. Developing the online survey.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data. PMID:18940417

  16. HIV PrEP Trials: The Road to Success

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Melanie R; Adams, Jessica L; Kashuba, Angela DM

    2013-01-01

    Summary The global HIV epidemic cannot be controlled by current treatment or prevention strategies. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretrovirals is a promising approach to curbing the spread of HIV transmission. Recently, four clinical trials demonstrated favorable results when antiretroviral PrEP was administered topically or orally. However, two additional trials were unable to demonstrate a benefit, indicating that further study is required to define the populations and conditions under which PrEP will be effective. Adherence is highly correlated with protection, yet the exact level of adherence required is unknown. Future studies may require increased drug exposure testing and more objective methods to monitor adherence in real-time. Although the development of drug resistance in the PrEP trials has been low, it remains a concern, as therapeutic options could be compromised for those who seroconvert while on PrEP. PMID:24409341

  17. Model Tech Prep Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Maryland Educational Consortium, La Plata.

    The Southern Maryland Educational Consortium's Tech Prep Model Demonstration project is described in this final report. The consortium members are Calvert, Charles, and St. Mary's county school districts and Charles County Community College in southern Maryland. The project is based on a 4 + 2 model in which ninth-grade students develop career…

  18. Tech Prep Model for Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.; King, Binky M.

    A project was conducted to develop two tech prep models for marketing education (ME) in Missouri to provide a sequence of courses for skill-enhanced and time-shortened programs. First, labor market trends, employment growth projections, and business and industry labor needs in Missouri were researched and analyzed. The analysis results were used…

  19. Electronics Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile covers the occupation of electronics technician. Section 1 provides the occupation definition. Section 2 lists development committee members. Section 3 provides the leveling codes--abbreviations for grade level, (by the end of grade 12, by the end of associate degree), academic codes (communications, math, or…

  20. Leatherwood prep plant upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, R.W.; Jain, S.M.

    2007-06-15

    The Blue Diamond Coal Co. recently implemented major circuit modifications to the Leatherwood coal preparation plant (formerly known as the J.K. Cornett prep plant) in Slemp, KY, USA. The plant was originally built in the late 1980s, and then modified in 1999. The 2006 plant modifications included: two Krebs 33-inch heavy-media cyclones; five 10 x 20 ft single deck Conn-Weld Banana type vibrating screens; two 10 ft x 48 inch Eriez self-leveling magnetic separators; two Derrick Stacksizer high frequency screens; two CMI EBR-48 centrifugal dryers; Warman process pumps; and eight triple start MDL spiral concentrators. 2 figs.

  1. Pardee prep plant expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, T.; Pinson, K.; Bethell, P.

    2007-01-15

    By adding a heavy-media vessel and improving the fine coal circuit, Cumberland River Coal's Pardee preparation plant (in Wise County, VA) increased raw feed capacity with minimal disruptions. The plan called for the installation of a heavy media vessel to treat 5 x 1/2 inch material with a cyclone circuit processing 1/2 inch x 1 mm, and a deslime column flotation circuit. The article describes the new circuit design and the construction process. In January 2006, the plant's raw feed capacity averaged 765 tph over six days. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal prep 2006 (2-4 May, Lexington, KY (United States)). 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. High School PREP: Thematic Planning, Fall '83. Preparation for Raising Educational Performance. [HS PREP Experimental Program].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This is a handbook designed for carrying out the goals and objectives of Preparation for Raising Educational Performance (PREP), a thematic, remedial program for ninth graders in New York City public schools. The lessons presented in the handbook model an approach to learning which follows the patterns of actual language development: listening,…

  3. Homeodomain transcription factor and tumor suppressor Prep1 is required to maintain genomic stability.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Giorgio; Longobardi, Elena; Masella, Silvia; Dardaei, Leila; De Santis, Francesca; Micali, Nicola; Blasi, Francesco

    2011-07-19

    Prep1 is a homeodomain transcription factor that is essential in embryonic development and functions in the adult as a tumor suppressor. We show here that Prep1 is involved in maintaining genomic stability and preventing neoplastic transformation. Hypomorphic homozygous Prep1(i/i) fetal liver cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit increased basal DNA damage and normal DNA damage response after γ-irradiation compared with WT. Cytogenetic analysis shows the presence of numerous chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy in very early-passage Prep1(i/i) MEFs. In human fibroblasts, acute Prep1 down-regulation by siRNA induces DNA damage response, like in Prep1(i/i) MEFs, together with an increase in heterochromatin-associated modifications: rapid increase of histone methylation and decreased transcription of satellite DNA. Ectopic expression of Prep1 rescues DNA damage and heterochromatin methylation. Inhibition of Suv39 activity blocks the chromatin but not the DNA damage phenotype. Finally, Prep1 deficiency facilitates cell immortalization, escape from oncogene-induced senescence, and H-Ras(V12)-dependent transformation. Importantly, the latter can be partially rescued by restoration of Prep1 level. The results show that the tumor suppressor role of Prep1 is associated with the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:21715654

  4. The PBX-regulating protein PREP1 is present in different PBX-complexed forms in mouse.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, E; Schulz, H; Talarico, D; Blasi, F; Berthelsen, J

    1999-05-01

    Human PREP1, a novel homeodomain protein of the TALE super-family, forms a stable DNA-binding complex with PBX proteins in solution, a ternary complex with PBX and HOXB1 on DNA, and is able to act as a co-activator in the transcription of PBX-HOXB1 activated promoters (Berthelsen, J., Zappavigna, V., Ferretti, E., Mavilio, F., Blasi, F. , 1998b. The novel homeoprotein Prep1 modulates Pbx-Hox protein cooperatity. EMBO J. 17, 1434-1445; Berthelsen, J., Zappavigna, V., Mavilio, F., Blasi, F., 1998c. Prep1, a novel functional partner of Pbx proteins. EMBO J. 17, 1423-1433). Here we demonstrate the presence of DNA-binding PREP1-PBX complexes also in murine cells. In vivo, PREP1 is a predominant partner of PBX proteins in various murine tissues. However, the choice of PBX family member associated with PREP1 is largely tissue-type specific. We report the cloning and expression domain of murine Prep1 gene. Murine PREP1 shares 100% identity with human PREP1 in the homeodomain and 95% similarity throughout the whole protein. In the adult mouse, PREP1 is expressed ubiquitously, with peaks in testis and thymus. We further demonstrate the presence of murine Prep1 mRNA and protein, and of different DNA-binding PREP1-PBX complexes, in mouse embryos from at least 9.5 days p.c. Moreover, we show that PREP1 is present in all embryonic tissues from at least 7.5-17.5 days p.c with a predominantly nuclear staining. PREP1 is able to super-activate the PBX-HOXB-1 autoregulated Hoxb-1 promoter, and we show that all three proteins, PREP1, PBX and HOXB-1, are present together in the mouse rhombomere 4 domain in vivo, compatible with a role of PREP1 as a regulator of PBX and HOXB-1 proteins activity during development. PMID:10381567

  5. Findings and implications from a national study on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs).

    PubMed

    Hund, Lisa M; Farrelly, Matthew C; Allen, Jane A; Chou, Rosaleen H; St Claire, Ann W; Vallone, Donna M; Healton, Cheryl G

    2006-12-01

    Tobacco companies have recently introduced products that they claim have reduced toxins and carcinogens, and that they say may be less harmful to smokers. These are potential reduced exposure products, or PREPs. This study measured smokers' awareness of PREPs, use of PREPs, interest in trying PREPs, and beliefs about the regulation of PREPs. This study was based on nationally representative data collected in 2002 and 2003 through the American Smoking and Health Survey. The final sample included 1,174 adult smokers. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to produce estimates and explore potential correlates of the outcomes. A total of 41.9% of adult smokers reported having heard of at least one of the PREPs measured, and 11.0% reported having tried one of these products. Half of adult smokers (49.9%) said they would like to try PREPs. Interest in trying PREPs was associated with having made a quit attempt, being concerned about the effect of smoking on one's health, and having a household income of less than US dollars 20,000. About half of adult smokers (49.1%) incorrectly believed that PREPs are evaluated for safety by the government before being placed on the market, and 84.2% believed that the government should evaluate the safety of PREPs before they are sold to consumers. This study provides new and timely information on the use of, interest in trying, and beliefs about the regulation of PREPs among a nationally representative sample of adult smokers. With half of adult smokers interested in trying PREPs, the need for concrete scientific evidence on the potential impact of these products is critical. PMID:17132527

  6. Career Development Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulley, Barbara W.; And Others

    Based on a 1992 survey of 146 child care centers, this report documents the current wages and turnover rates for early child care staff in the St. Louis metropolitan area. The survey was designed to collect descriptive information about the population of individuals working in child care and early education and to provide baseline data to assess…

  7. p160 Myb-binding protein interacts with Prep1 and inhibits its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Víctor M; Mori, Silvia; Longobardi, Elena; Menendez, Guillermo; Ferrai, Carmelo; Keough, Rebecca A; Bachi, Angela; Blasi, Francesco

    2007-11-01

    Prep1 is known to interact in vivo with Pbx1 to regulate development and organogenesis. We have identified a novel Prep1-interacting protein, p160 c-Myb binding protein (p160). p160 and Pbx1 compete for Prep1 in vitro, and p160 inhibits Prep1-dependent HoxB2 expression in retinoic acid-treated NT2-D1 cells. The N-terminal physiologically truncated form of p160, p67, binds the sequence 63LFPLL67 in the HR1 domain of Prep1. Mutation of both L63 and L66 impairs the binding of Prep1 to both p160/p67 and Pbx1. The sequences required to bind Prep1 are mainly located in residues 51 to 151. Immunofluorescence colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous p160 and Prep1 are induced by ActD, which translocates p160 from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. These data therefore show that p160 is a novel regulator of Prep1-Pbx1 transcriptional activity. PMID:17875935

  8. The absence of Prep1 causes p53-dependent apoptosis of mouse pluripotent epiblast cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Diaz, Luis C; Laurent, Audrey; Girasoli, Sara; Turco, Margherita; Longobardi, Elena; Iotti, Giorgio; Jenkins, Nancy A; Fiorenza, Maria Teresa; Copeland, Neal G; Blasi, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    Disruption of mouse Prep1, which codes for a homeodomain transcription factor, leads to embryonic lethality during post-implantation stages. Prep1(-/-) embryos stop developing after implantation and before anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) formation. In Prep1(-/-) embryos at E6.5 (onset of gastrulation), the AVE is absent and the proliferating extra-embryonic ectoderm and epiblast, marked by Bmp4 and Oct4, respectively, are reduced in size. At E.7.5, Prep1(-/-) embryos are small and very delayed, showing no evidence of primitive streak or of differentiated embryonic lineages. Bmp4 is expressed residually, while the reduced number of Oct4-positive cells is constant up to E8.5. At E6.5, Prep1(-/-) embryos retain a normal mitotic index but show a major increase in cleaved caspase 3 and TUNEL staining, indicating apoptosis. Therefore, the mouse embryo requires Prep1 when undergoing maximal expansion in cell number. Indeed, the phenotype is partially rescued in a p53(-/-), but not in a p16(-/-), background. Apoptosis is probably due to DNA damage as Atm downregulation exacerbates the phenotype. Despite this early lethal phenotype, Prep1 is not essential for ES cell establishment. A differential embryonic expression pattern underscores the unique function of Prep1 within the Meis-Prep family. PMID:20826531

  9. Prep2: cloning and expression of a new prep family member.

    PubMed

    Haller, Klaus; Rambaldi, Isabel; Kovács, Erzsébet Nagy; Daniels, Eugene; Featherstone, Mark

    2002-11-01

    We describe Prep2, a new murine homeobox-containing gene closely related to Prep1. The PREP2 protein belongs to the three amino acid loop extension (TALE) superclass of homeodomain-containing proteins and encodes a polypeptide of 462 residues. As for PREP1, PREP2 binds an appropriate site on DNA as a heterodimer with PBX1A. Northern analysis, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization show widespread Prep2 expression during organogenesis and in the adult. The data suggest that Prep2 functions to varying degrees in a broad array of tissues and developmental processes. PMID:12412021

  10. The Principal's Role in Implementing Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlett, James M.

    1993-01-01

    To teach students more employable technical skills, Calvert County School District based its high school curriculum on a Tech Prep program model. Tech Prep is defined, and elements that support its effectiveness are listed. Tech Prep guides students to select one of three career paths to aid in focused learning. Ten Tasks that constitute the…

  11. Tech Prep and Educational Reform. Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerner, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Tech prep is a new initiative that shows great promise for educational reform. However, "tech prep" is not the new name for vocational education. Tech prep is a new program of articulated education involving 2 years of high school and 2 years of postsecondary preparation that includes a common core of mathematics, science, communications, and…

  12. 77 FR 10542 - Revision of the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public meeting: After considering public comments and developing a revised... SECURITY Coast Guard Revision of the National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines... Response Exercise Program (PREP) is designed to facilitate the periodic testing of oil spill response...

  13. Evaluating Tech Prep Education Programs: Implications for Reporting Program and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    2003-01-01

    Tech Prep education programs play a vital role in the education of American youth. During the past decade, with funding from the Perkins Act, Tech Prep consortia have consolidated and developed programs for students. The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998 required each state to identify performance levels relevant to…

  14. Developing a disaster preparedness campaign targeting low-income Latino immigrants: focus group results for project PREP.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David P; Glik, Deborah; Maranon, Richard; Gonzales, Lupe; Asch, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Low-income immigrant Latinos are particularly vulnerable to disasters because they are both ill-prepared and disproportionately affected. Disaster preparedness programs that are culturally appropriate must be developed and tested. To develop such a program, we conducted 12 focus groups with low-income immigrant Latinos to understand their perceptions and understanding of disaster preparedness, and facilitators and obstacles to it. Participants were concerned about remaining calm during an earthquake. Obstacles to storage of disaster supplies in a kit and developing a family communication plan were mentioned frequently. Misunderstandings were voiced about the proper quantity of water to store and about communication plans. Several focus groups spontaneously suggested small group discussions (platicas) as a way to learn about disaster preparedness. They wanted specific help with building their family communication plans. They rated promotoras de salud highly as potential teachers. Results will guide the development of a disaster preparedness program tailored to the needs of low-income Latino immigrants. PMID:19395833

  15. Purification of the Prep1 interactome identifies novel pathways regulated by Prep1.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Víctor M; Bachi, Angela; Blasi, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor interacts with Pbx proteins to regulate oculogenesis, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis in mice. To isolate new Prep1 interactors competing or copurifying with Pbx, we identified proteins copurified with Prep1-TAP by tandem affinity purification (TAP). Prep1-TAP was fully functional and allowed the isolation of a Prep1 proteome from cytoplasm and nucleus, but most interactors were nuclear. The Prep1-TAP complex included Pbx1b, Pbx2, and other nonhomeodomain proteins: p160 Myb-binding protein (p160), beta-actin, NMMHCIIA. PMID:17623278

  16. Prep1 directly regulates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by controlling Bcl-XL levels.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nicola; Ferrai, Carmelo; Fernandez-Diaz, Luis C; Blasi, Francesco; Crippa, Massimo P

    2009-03-01

    The Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor is essential in embryonic development. Prep1 hypomorphic mutant mouse (Prep1(i/i)) embryos (embryonic day 9.5) display an increased terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling reaction compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Prep1(i/i) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) show an increased basal level of annexin V binding activity, reduction of the mitochondrial-membrane potential, and increased caspase 9 and 3 activation, indicating increased apoptosis. Prep1(i/i) MEFs also respond faster than WT MEFs to genotoxic stress, indicating increased activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. We did not observe an increase in p53 or an abnormal p53 response to apoptotic stimuli. However, hypomorphic MEFs have decreased endogenous levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-X(L) mRNA and protein, and Bcl-x overexpression rescues the defect of Prep1(i/i) MEFs. Using transient transfections and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we identified the Bcl-x promoter as a novel target of Prep1. Thus, Prep1 directly controls mitochondrial homeostasis (and the apoptotic potential) by modulating Bcl-x gene expression. PMID:19103748

  17. Involvement of Prep1 in the alphabeta T-cell receptor T-lymphocytic potential of hematopoietic precursors.

    PubMed

    Penkov, Dmitri; Di Rosa, Patrizia; Fernandez Diaz, Luis; Basso, Veronica; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Grassi, Fabio; Mondino, Anna; Blasi, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    Prep1 is a homeodomain transcription factor that acts by dimerizing with Pbx. Since Prep1 null embryos die at gastrulation, we studied Prep1(i/i) hypomorphic mice to study the physiological role of Prep1. A low percentage of homozygous Prep1(i/i) mice survived at birth, and their postnatal functions could be investigated. Reduced Prep1 expression caused an abnormal thymic T-cell development: increased CD4(-) CD8(-) double-negative thymocytes, decrease in alphabetaTCR(high) cells (cells with high levels of the alphabetaTau-cell receptor [alphabetaTCR]) and CD4(+) and CD8(+) single-positive (SP) thymocytes, and increase in gammadeltaTCR cells. Peripheral lymphoid organs of Prep1(i/i) mice contained fewer alphabetaTCR mature T cells and more gammadeltaTCR T cells than wild-type littermates. Moreover, Prep1(i/i) CD4(+) CD8(+) double-positive thymocytes underwent more apoptosis, and SP thymocytes proliferated less than control littermates. Mice that were lethally irradiated and then had Prep1(i/i) fetal liver cells transplanted showed the same defects as the Prep1(i/i) mice did. Among PBC family members, Pbx2 and very low levels of Pbx3 were observed in the thymi of wild-type mice. In Prep1(i/i) mice, the level of Pbx2 protein was profoundly decreased, while for Pbx3 no definitive conclusion could be reached. Therefore, the deficient postnatal T-lymphocytic potential of the Prep1 hematopoietic progenitors depends on the combined, not compensated, absence of Prep1 and at least Pbx2. PMID:16314502

  18. Tech Prep + School-to-Work = Career Pathways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkisson, Dennis L.; Lane, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Describes efforts of an Iowa high school principal and a community college tech-prep coordinator to develop a school-to-work program based on working partnerships among the regional education agency, local education agencies, students, parents, community colleges, and businesses. Following development and marketing phases, career maps provided the…

  19. Educational Cooperatives. PREP-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    Dr. Larry W. Hughes and Dr. C. M. Achilles of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, conducted a national survey for the Office of Education on educational cooperatives--studying and reporting on the nature and kind of cooperative endeavors, their organization, governance, financial arrangements, services, and personnel. Their study focused upon…

  20. Two-step regulation of Ad4BP/SF-1 gene transcription during fetal adrenal development: initiation by a Hox-Pbx1-Prep1 complex and maintenance via autoregulation by Ad4BP/SF-1.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Mohamad; Ishihara, Satoru; Oka, Sanae; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou

    2006-06-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor Ad4BP/SF-1 (adrenal 4 binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1) is essential for the proper development and function of reproductive and steroidogenic tissues. Although the expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 is specific for those tissues, the mechanisms underlying this tissue-specific expression remain unknown. In this study, we used transgenic mouse assays to examine the regulation of the tissue-specific expression of Ad4BP/SF-1. An investigation of the entire Ad4BP/SF-1 gene locus revealed a fetal adrenal enhancer (FAdE) in intron 4 containing highly conserved binding sites for Pbx-Prep, Pbx-Hox, and Ad4BP/SF-1. Transgenic assays revealed that the Ad4 sites, together with Ad4BP/SF-1, develop an autoregulatory loop and thereby maintain transcription, while the Pbx/Prep and Pbx/Hox sites initiate transcription prior to the establishment of the autoregulatory loop. Indeed, a limited number of Hox family members were found to be expressed in the adrenal primordia. Whether a true fetal-type adrenal cortex is present in mice remained controversial, and this argument was complicated by the postnatal development of the so-called X zone. Using transgenic mice with lacZ driven by the FAdE, we clearly identified a fetal adrenal cortex in mice, and the X zone is the fetal adrenal cells accumulated at the juxtamedullary region after birth. PMID:16705164

  1. A Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Preschool Children. PREP-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…

  2. Tech Prep Associate Degree: A Win/Win Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Dan, Comp.; Parnell, Dale, Comp.

    Designed to serve as a "how to" guide for policymakers, and state, federal, and institutional leaders, as well as public school and higher education practitioners interested in developing a Tech Prep/Associate Degree (TPAD) consortium, this book provides a detailed synthesis of successful TPAD consortia and programs. The first five chapters offer…

  3. Curriculum Designs for Tech Prep Clusters. PACE '94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Kenneth J., Ed.; Wiles, Clyde A., Ed.

    This booklet contains descriptions of various Tech Prep programs developed by PACE (Promoting Academic Excellence In Mathematics, Science & Technology for Workers of the 21st Century). Each entry includes general program descriptions, curriculum outlines, and course descriptions. The clusters and their specialty areas described in the booklet are:…

  4. Improving Employability Skills through Cooperative Education and Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Todd; Lesniak, Greta

    The possibility of improving employability skills through cooperative education and tech prep was examined in an action research project involving high school students from two neighboring suburban communities in northern Illinois. The extent to which the schools were currently teaching employment and career development skills was examined by…

  5. Chicago Manufacturing Tech Prep. Fiscal Year 1991 Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL.

    During its first year of development in 1991, the Chicago Manufacturing Technical Preparation (Tech Prep) Program established a plan for implementing an industry-driven, articulated 4-year manufacturing technology course of study that integrates applied academic courses with technical courses and meets industry hiring standards. The project…

  6. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile covers these occupations: manufacturing technician, computer-assisted design and drafting (CADD) technician, quality technician, and mechanical technician. Section 1 provides occupation definitions. Section 2 lists development committee members. Section 3 provides the leveling codes---abbreviations for grade level…

  7. Tech Prep in Arkansas: A Proposed Better Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Harold E.

    In 1991, the state of Arkansas passed state requirements for the establishment of a tech prep core curriculum for high school programs. The Arkansas program will be developed around the 2+4+2+2 theory, but will mostly focus on the 2+2 plan integrating academic and vocational education. The goal will be to advance the competencies of academic and…

  8. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  9. I Knew I Would Be Safer. Experiences of Kenyan HIV Serodiscordant Couples Soon After Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Initiation.

    PubMed

    Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathyrn; Vusha, Sophie; Ngutu, Mariah; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-02-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-uninfected persons is highly efficacious for HIV prevention. Understanding how people at risk for HIV will use PrEP is important to inform PrEP scale-up and implementation. We used qualitative methods to gather insights into couples' early experiences with PrEP use within the Partners Demonstration Project, an open-label implementation study evaluating integrated delivery of PrEP and antiretroviral therapy (ART). PrEP is offered to HIV uninfected partners until the HIV-infected partner initiates and sustains ART use (i.e., PrEP as a "bridge" to ART initiation and viral suppression). From August 2013 to March 2014 we conducted 20 in-depth dyadic interviews (n = 40) with heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples participating at the Thika, Kenya study site, exploring how couples make decisions about using PrEP for HIV prevention. We developed and applied deductive and inductive codes to identify key themes related to experiences of PrEP initiation and use of time-limited PrEP. Couples reported that PrEP offered them an additional strategy to reduce the risk of HIV transmission, meet their fertility desires, and cope with HIV serodiscordance. Remaining HIV negative at follow-up visits reinforced couples' decisions and motivated continued adherence to PrEP. In addition, confidence in their provider's advice and client-friendly services were critical to their decisions to initiate and continue use of PrEP. Strategies for wide-scale PrEP delivery for HIV serodiscordant couples in low resource settings may include building capacity of health providers to counsel on PrEP adoption while addressing couples' concerns and barriers to adoption and continued use. PMID:26836236

  10. Contextual Learning and Tech Prep Curriculum Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edling, Walter

    Because tech prep has the twin goals of preparing students for entry into postsecondary/continuing education or the work force after high school, tech prep programs require significant modification of conventional curricula and teaching methodologies. Both research and experience have demonstrated that the ability to transfer learning from one…

  11. Appendix B: Methodology. [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. This appendix describes the scope, methodology, timeline, staff, and standards involved in the production of "Teacher Prep Review 2014." Data collection, validation, and analysis for the report are…

  12. Health Technologies State Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This "tech prep" state competency profile contains all the competencies required and recommended for entry-level employees in occupations in the health technologies cluster. Introductory materials include the following: descriptions of the different types of competencies (essential ones that must be included in all new tech prep programs and…

  13. Integrating Technology Education and Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Paul B.

    A study identified and ranked those factors which facilitate and those which impede the linkage between technology education and tech prep. The top four states with regard to integration of technology education and tech prep were Illinois, South Carolina, Oregon, and Idaho. Factors that facilitated integration were as follows: technology…

  14. Tech Prep/Associate Degree Concept Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tech Prep Network, Waco, TX.

    The Tech Prep/Associate Degree concept offers an answer to the nationwide mandate to improve the U.S. educational system and thus to enable the country to remain competitive in the world market. Tech Prep is a sequence of study beginning in high school and continuing through at least 2 years of postsecondary occupational education. The Tech Prep…

  15. The Tech Prep Handbook: Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Oliver D., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook for tech prep practitioners in Texas consists of loose-leaf documents from the performance assessment areas currently available to tech prep practitioners. The first part of the handbook consists of 10 sample assessment documents that were selected from over 900 performance assessment based on a quantitative rating system. The…

  16. HIV providers' likelihood to prescribe pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention differs by patient type: a short report.

    PubMed

    Adams, Leah M; Balderson, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the antiretroviral treatment regimen for HIV-negative people at high risk of acquiring HIV, has demonstrated efficacy across clinical trials in several patient populations. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have released detailed guidelines to aid providers in prescribing PrEP for their high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men (MSM), high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users (IDUs). Given that much attention in PrEP has focused on MSM patients, the present study used an online survey to assess factors involved in HIV care providers' (n = 363) decisions about prescribing PrEP, along with their willingness to prescribe PrEP to patients from various risk populations (e.g., MSM, heterosexuals, IDUs). The efficacy of PrEP was an important factor in providers' decisions about prescribing PrEP, as were considerations about patients' adherence to the regimen, regular follow-up for care, and medication costs. This survey's findings also suggest that providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP varies by patient group, with providers most willing to initiate the regimen with MSM who have an HIV-positive partner, and least willing to prescribe to high-risk heterosexuals or IDUs. In the context of the current CDC recommendations for PrEP that include MSM, heterosexuals, and IDUs, examining providers' rationales for and barriers against supporting this HIV prevention strategy across patient groups merits further attention. PMID:26915281

  17. Minimal Awareness and Stalled Uptake of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among at Risk, HIV-Negative, Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Driffin, Daniel D.; Bauermeister, Jose; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, rates of HIV infection are highest among black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective form of HIV prevention, but the uptake of this strategy has been slow since FDA approval in 2012, and it is unknown whether information about PrEP is reaching BMSM. Four hundred and thirty-six BMSM in Atlanta, GA were surveyed from January 2012 (6 months prior to PrEP approval) to March 2014 (20 months after approval). Analyses revealed no association between date of survey assessment and awareness of PrEP (20.5% were aware of PrEP before approval and 23.4% were aware after approval; OR=0.99 [0.98–1.02], p=0.952). In a multivariate model, BMSM unaware of PrEP reported lower rates of HIV testing knowledge, fewer experiences with HIV testing, and higher rates of transactional sex than BMSM who were aware of PrEP. Our findings suggest that there is limited understanding of PrEP and that there is considerable groundwork that needs to be achieved in order to reap the full benefits of PrEP. The current findings call attention to the need to both prioritize and better understand how to strengthen the bridge between medical advances and community uptake. PMID:26083143

  18. The Tech Prep Associate Degree Challenge: A Report of the Tech Prep Roundtable. AACC Special Reports No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcone, Lisa, Ed.; Mundhenk, Robert, Ed.

    In fall 1993, a roundtable was held with leading Tech Prep practitioners to discuss the direction Tech Prep has taken since 1990 and emerging issues related to the implementation of Tech Prep Associate Degree (TPAD) programs. Stemming from the roundtable, this monograph describes Tech Prep, provides recommendations for implementation, and…

  19. Hypomorphic mutation of the TALE gene Prep1 (pKnox1) causes a major reduction of Pbx and Meis proteins and a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Elisabetta; Villaescusa, J Carlos; Di Rosa, Patrizia; Fernandez-Diaz, Luis C; Longobardi, Elena; Mazzieri, Roberta; Miccio, Annarita; Micali, Nicola; Selleri, Licia; Ferrari, Giuliana; Blasi, Francesco

    2006-08-01

    The interaction of Prep1 and Pbx homeodomain transcription factors regulates their activity, nuclear localization, and likely, function in development. To understand the in vivo role of Prep1, we have analyzed an embryonic lethal hypomorphic mutant mouse (Prep1(i/i)). Prep1(i/i) embryos die at embryonic day 17.5 (E17.5) to birth with an overall organ hypoplasia, severe anemia, impaired angiogenesis, and eye anomalies, particularly in the lens and retina. The anemia correlates with delayed differentiation of erythroid progenitors and may be, at least in part, responsible for intrauterine death. At E14.5, Prep1 is present in fetal liver (FL) cMyb-positive cells, whose deficiency causes a marked hematopoietic phenotype. Prep1 is also localized to FL endothelial progenitors, consistent with the observed angiogenic phenotype. Likewise, at the same gestational day, Prep1 is present in the eye cells that bear Pax6, implicated in eye development. The levels of cMyb and Pax6 in FL and in the retina, respectively, are significantly decreased in Prep1(i/i) embryos, consistent with the hematopoietic and eye phenotypes. Concomitantly, Prep1 deficiency results in the overall decrease of protein levels of its related family member Meis1 and its partners Pbx1 and Pbx2. As both Prep1 and Meis interact with Pbx, the overall Prep1/Meis-Pbx DNA-binding activity is strongly reduced in whole Prep1(i/i) embryos and their organs. Our data indicate that Prep1 is an essential gene that acts upstream of and within a Pbx-Meis network that regulates multiple aspects of embryonic development. PMID:16847320

  20. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts. PMID:26891840

  1. Characterization of the regulatory region of the zebrafish Prep1.1 gene: analogies to the promoter of the human PREP1.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Elisa; Deflorian, Gianluca; Pezzimenti, Federica; Pezzinenti, Federica; Diaz, Victor M; Mione, Marina; Blasi, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Prep1 is a developmentally essential TALE class homeodomain transcription factor. In zebrafish and mouse, Prep1 is already ubiquitously expressed at the earliest stages of development, with important tissue-specific peculiarities. The Prep1 gene in mouse is developmentally essential and has haploinsufficient tumor suppressor activity [1]. We have determined the human Prep1 transcription start site (TSS) by primer extension analysis and identified, within 20 bp, the transcription start region (TSR) of the zebrafish Prep1.1 promoter. The functions of the zebrafish 5' upstream sequences were analyzed both by transient transfections in Hela Cells and by injection in zebrafish embryos. This analysis revealed a complex promoter with regulatory sequences extending up to -1.8, possibly -5.0 Kb, responsible for tissue specific expression. Moreover, the first intron contains a conserved tissue-specific enhancer both in zebrafish and in human cells. Finally, a two nucleotides mutation of an EGR-1 site, conserved in all species including human and zebrafish and located at a short distance from the TSS, destroyed the promoter activity of the -5.0 Kb promoter. A transgenic fish expressing GFP under the -1.8 Kb zebrafish promoter/enhancer co-expressed GFP and endogenous Prep1.1 during embryonic development. In the adult fish, GFP was expressed in hematopoietic regions like the kidney, in agreement with the essential function of Prep1 in mouse hematopoiesis. Sequence comparison showed conservation from man to fish of the sequences around the TSS, within the first intron enhancer. Moreover, about 40% of the sequences spread throughout the 5 Kbof the zebrafish promoter are concentrated in the -3 to -5 Kb of the human upstream region. PMID:21203543

  2. Characterization of the Regulatory Region of the Zebrafish Prep1.1 Gene: Analogies to the Promoter of the Human PREP1

    PubMed Central

    Pezzinenti, Federica; Diaz, Victor M.; Mione, Marina; Blasi, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Prep1 is a developmentally essential TALE class homeodomain transcription factor. In zebrafish and mouse, Prep1 is already ubiquitously expressed at the earliest stages of development, with important tissue-specific peculiarities. The Prep1 gene in mouse is developmentally essential and has haploinsufficient tumor suppressor activity [1]. We have determined the human Prep1 transcription start site (TSS) by primer extension analysis and identified, within 20 bp, the transcription start region (TSR) of the zebrafish Prep1.1 promoter. The functions of the zebrafish 5′ upstream sequences were analyzed both by transient transfections in Hela Cells and by injection in zebrafish embryos. This analysis revealed a complex promoter with regulatory sequences extending up to −1.8, possibly −5.0 Kb, responsible for tissue specific expression. Moreover, the first intron contains a conserved tissue-specific enhancer both in zebrafish and in human cells. Finally, a two nucleotides mutation of an EGR-1 site, conserved in all species including human and zebrafish and located at a short distance from the TSS, destroyed the promoter activity of the −5.0 Kb promoter. A transgenic fish expressing GFP under the −1.8 Kb zebrafish promoter/enhancer co-expressed GFP and endogenous Prep1.1 during embryonic development. In the adult fish, GFP was expressed in hematopoietic regions like the kidney, in agreement with the essential function of Prep1 in mouse hematopoiesis. Sequence comparison showed conservation from man to fish of the sequences around the TSS, within the first intron enhancer. Moreover, about 40% of the sequences spread throughout the 5 Kbof the zebrafish promoter are concentrated in the −3 to −5 Kb of the human upstream region. PMID:21203543

  3. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK – A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Methods Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Results Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18–25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. Conclusion These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health

  4. Transcription factor PREP1 induces EMT and metastasis by controlling the TGF-β-SMAD3 pathway in non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Risolino, Maurizio; Mandia, Nadia; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Dardaei, Leila; Longobardi, Elena; Fernandez, Serena; Talotta, Francesco; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Harter, Patrick N; Mittelbronn, Michel; Schulte, Dorothea; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blasi, Francesco; Verde, Pasquale

    2014-09-01

    Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (Pbx)-regulating protein-1 (Prep1) is a ubiquitous homeoprotein involved in early development, genomic stability, insulin sensitivity, and hematopoiesis. Previously we have shown that Prep1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that inhibits neoplastic transformation by competing with myeloid ecotropic integration site 1 for binding to the common heterodimeric partner Pbx1. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is controlled by complex networks of proinvasive transcription factors responsive to paracrine factors such as TGF-β. Here we show that, in addition to inhibiting primary tumor growth, PREP1 is a novel EMT inducer and prometastatic transcription factor. In human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, PREP1 overexpression is sufficient to trigger EMT, whereas PREP1 down-regulation inhibits the induction of EMT in response to TGF-β. PREP1 modulates the cellular sensitivity to TGF-β by inducing the small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) nuclear translocation through mechanisms dependent, at least in part, on PREP1-mediated transactivation of a regulatory element in the SMAD3 first intron. Along with the stabilization and accumulation of PBX1, PREP1 induces the expression of multiple activator protein 1 components including the proinvasive Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) oncoprotein. Both FRA-1 and PBX1 are required for the mesenchymal changes triggered by PREP1 in lung tumor cells. Finally, we show that the PREP1-induced mesenchymal transformation correlates with significantly increased lung colonization by cells overexpressing PREP1. Accordingly, we have detected PREP1 accumulation in a large number of human brain metastases of various solid tumors, including NSCLC. These findings point to a novel role of the PREP1 homeoprotein in the control of the TGF-β pathway, EMT, and metastasis in NSCLC. PMID:25157139

  5. Transcription factor PREP1 induces EMT and metastasis by controlling the TGF-β–SMAD3 pathway in non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Risolino, Maurizio; Mandia, Nadia; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Dardaei, Leila; Longobardi, Elena; Fernandez, Serena; Talotta, Francesco; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Harter, Patrick N.; Mittelbronn, Michel; Schulte, Dorothea; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blasi, Francesco; Verde, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Pre–B-cell leukemia homeobox (Pbx)-regulating protein-1 (Prep1) is a ubiquitous homeoprotein involved in early development, genomic stability, insulin sensitivity, and hematopoiesis. Previously we have shown that Prep1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that inhibits neoplastic transformation by competing with myeloid ecotropic integration site 1 for binding to the common heterodimeric partner Pbx1. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is controlled by complex networks of proinvasive transcription factors responsive to paracrine factors such as TGF-β. Here we show that, in addition to inhibiting primary tumor growth, PREP1 is a novel EMT inducer and prometastatic transcription factor. In human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, PREP1 overexpression is sufficient to trigger EMT, whereas PREP1 down-regulation inhibits the induction of EMT in response to TGF-β. PREP1 modulates the cellular sensitivity to TGF-β by inducing the small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) nuclear translocation through mechanisms dependent, at least in part, on PREP1-mediated transactivation of a regulatory element in the SMAD3 first intron. Along with the stabilization and accumulation of PBX1, PREP1 induces the expression of multiple activator protein 1 components including the proinvasive Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) oncoprotein. Both FRA-1 and PBX1 are required for the mesenchymal changes triggered by PREP1 in lung tumor cells. Finally, we show that the PREP1-induced mesenchymal transformation correlates with significantly increased lung colonization by cells overexpressing PREP1. Accordingly, we have detected PREP1 accumulation in a large number of human brain metastases of various solid tumors, including NSCLC. These findings point to a novel role of the PREP1 homeoprotein in the control of the TGF-β pathway, EMT, and metastasis in NSCLC. PMID:25157139

  6. Biochemistry of the tale transcription factors PREP, MEIS, and PBX in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Longobardi, E; Penkov, D; Mateos, D; De Florian, G; Torres, M; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    TALE (three amino acids loop extension) homeodomain transcription factors are required in various steps of embryo development, in many adult physiological functions, and are involved in important pathologies. This review focuses on the PREP, MEIS, and PBX sub-families of TALE factors and aims at giving information on their biochemical properties, i.e., structure, interactors, and interaction surfaces. Members of the three sets of protein form dimers in which the common partner is PBX but they can also directly interact with other proteins forming higher-order complexes, in particular HOX. Finally, recent advances in determining the genome-wide DNA-binding sites of PREP1, MEIS1, and PBX1, and their partial correspondence with the binding sites of some HOX proteins, are reviewed. These studies have generated a few general rules that can be applied to all members of the three gene families. PREP and MEIS recognize slightly different consensus sequences: PREP prefers to bind to promoters and to have PBX as a DNA-binding partner; MEIS prefers HOX as partner, and both PREP and MEIS drive PBX to their own binding sites. This outlines the clear individuality of the PREP and MEIS proteins, the former mostly devoted to basic cellular functions, the latter more to developmental functions. PMID:23873833

  7. Biochemistry of the tale transcription factors PREP, MEIS, and PBX in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Wellik, Deneen; Torres, Miguel; Ros, Marian

    2014-01-01

    TALE (three amino acids loop extension) homeodomain transcription factors are required in various steps of embryo development, in many adult physiological functions, and are involved in important pathologies. This review focuses on the PREP, MEIS, and PBX sub-families of TALE factors and aims at giving information on their biochemical properties, i.e., structure, interactors, and interaction surfaces. Members of the three sets of protein form dimers in which the common partner is PBX but they can also directly interact with other proteins forming higher-order complexes, in particular HOX. Finally, recent advances in determining the genome-wide DNA-binding sites of PREP1, MEIS1, and PBX1, and their partial correspondence with the binding sites of some HOX proteins, are reviewed. These studies have generated a few general rules that can be applied to all members of the three gene families. PREP and MEIS recognize slightly different consensus sequences: PREP prefers to bind to promoters and to have PBX as a DNA-binding partner; MEIS prefers HOX as partner, and both PREP and MEIS drive PBX to their own binding sites. This outlines the clear individuality of the PREP and MEIS proteins, the former mostly devoted to basic cellular functions, the latter more to developmental functions. Developmental Dynamics 243:59–75, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23873833

  8. An intervention to support HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence in HIV serodiscordant couples in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Psaros, Christina; Haberer, Jessica E.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Campbell, James D.; Wangisi, Jonathan; Mugwanya, Kenneth; Kintu, Alex; Enyakoit, Michael; Thomas, Katherine K.; Donnell, Deborah; Krows, Meighan; Kidoguchi, Lara; Ware, Norma; Baeten, Jared M.; Celum, Connie; Bangsberg, David R.; Safren, Steve A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy, but adherence is required for maximum benefit. To date, there are no empirically supported PrEP adherence interventions. This manuscript describes the process of developing a PrEP adherence intervention and presents results on its impact on adherence. Methods The Partners PrEP Study was a placebo-controlled efficacy trial of daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine/tenofovir PrEP among uninfected members of HIV serodiscordant couples. An ancillary adherence study was conducted at three study sites in Uganda. Participants with <80% adherence as measured by unannounced pill count received an additional adherence counseling intervention based on Lifesteps, an evidence-based HIV treatment adherence intervention, based on principles of cognitive-behavioral theory. Findings Of the 1,147 HIV seronegative participants were enrolled in the ancillary adherence study, 168 (14.6%) triggered the adherence intervention. Of participants triggering the intervention, 62% were male; median age was 32.5 years. The median number of adherence counseling sessions was 10. Mean adherence during the month before the intervention was 75.7%, and increased significantly to 84.1% in the month after the first intervention session (p<0.001). The most frequently endorsed adherence barriers at session one were travel and forgetting. Interpretation A PrEP adherence intervention was feasible in a clinical trial of PrEP in Uganda and PrEP adherence increased after the intervention. Future research should identify PrEP users with low adherence for enhanced adherence counseling and determine optimal implementation strategies for interventions to maximize PrEP effectiveness. PMID:24853311

  9. Appendix A: Rankings for All Programs in "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review 2014." [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. The rankings of all 2,400 elementary, secondary, and special education programs included in "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review 2014" are listed in this appendix as: (1) a numeric national ranking; (2)…

  10. How Much Do We Know about Drug Resistance Due to PrEP Use? Analysis of Experts’ Opinion and Its Influence on the Projected Public Health Impact

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T.; Boily, Marie-Claude; Hallett, Timothy B.; Albert, Jan; Boucher, Charles; Mellors, John W.; Pillay, Deenan; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials reported that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir and emtricitabine rarely selects for drug resistance. However, drug resistance due to PrEP is not completely understood. In daily practice, PrEP will not be used under the well-controlled conditions available in the trials, suggesting that widespread use of PrEP can result in increased drug resistance. Methods We surveyed expert virologists with questions about biological assumptions regarding drug resistance due to PrEP use. The influence of these assumptions on the prevalence of drug resistance and the fraction of HIV transmitted resistance was studied with a mathematical model. For comparability, 50% PrEP-coverage of and 90% per-act efficacy of PrEP in preventing HIV acquisition are assumed in all simulations. Results Virologists disagreed on the following: the time until resistance emergence (range: 20–180 days) in infected PrEP users with breakthrough HIV infections; the efficacy of PrEP against drug-resistant HIV (25%-90%); and the likelihood of resistance acquisition upon transmission (10%-75%). These differences translate into projections of 0.6%- 1% and 3.5%—6% infected individuals with detectable resistance 10 years after introducing PrEP, assuming 100% and 50% adherence, respectively. The rate of resistance emergence following breakthrough HIV infection and the rate of resistance reversion after PrEP use is discontinued, were the factors identified as most influential on the expected resistance associated with PrEP. Importantly, 17–23% infected individuals could virologically fail treatment as a result of past PrEP use or transmitted resistance to PrEP with moderate adherence. Conclusions There is no broad consensus on quantification of key biological processes that underpin the emergence of PrEP-associated drug resistance. Despite this, the contribution of PrEP use to the prevalence of the detectable drug resistance is expected to be small. However

  11. Tech Prep Decision Making: Evaluation and Improvement Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    The evaluation process provides valuable information so that practitioners may share and benchmark their efforts to improve and enhance the quality of the educational reform initiative called tech prep. Evaluation should be part of every phase of a tech prep initiative, from needs assessment to completion. A tech prep program is typically at one…

  12. The Effect of Tech Prep on Students' Speed toward Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweat, Jewell; Fenster, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a tech prep program of study better prepared a student for success in Georgia's technical colleges. In this study, three hypotheses, which included high-school preparation, academic performance, and faster graduation of tech prep and non-tech prep students, were analyzed. Therefore, the main focus of…

  13. Tech Prep: An Embryonic Idea and Divergent Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerner, James L.; And Others

    The practice and processes of articulated tech prep programs were examined in Spring 1991. Two major areas of focus were getting a general picture of the status of tech prep programs in the United States and learning about tech prep programs for at-risk students. A literature review focused on three areas: definition, background, and philosophy;…

  14. Measuring Tech Prep Excellence: A Practitioner's Guide to Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.; Timms, Delia M.

    This guide is designed to assist state and local consortia with their evaluation of Tech Prep education programs and with their reporting of Tech Prep program and student outcomes data to meet the accountability requirements of the Perkins Act of 1998. Intended for Tech Prep stakeholders in secondary schools and two-year colleges, the guide also…

  15. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Clauson, Kevin A.; Polen, Hyla H.; Joseph, Shine A.; Zapantis, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an “evening before pill”. The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing

  16. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Joseph, Shine A; Zapantis, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an "evening before pill". The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing policy

  17. Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) - summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Saloio, J.H.; Vannoni, M.G.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear weapons have been produced in the US since the early 1950s by a network of contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities collectively known as the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC). Recognizing that the failure of an essential process might stop weapon production for a substantial period of time, the DOE Albuquerque Operations office initiated the Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess quantitatively the potential for serious disruptions in the NWC weapon production process. PREP was conducted from 1984-89. This document is an unclassified summary of the effort.

  18. Familiarity with and Preferences for Oral and Long-Acting Injectable HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in a National Sample of Gay and Bisexual Men in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Rendina, H Jonathon; Whitfield, Thomas H F; Grov, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine preferences for oral versus long-acting injectable (LAI) PrEP among gay and bisexual men (GBM). We surveyed a national U.S. sample of 1071 GBM about forms of PrEP. LAI PrEP was found to be acceptable among 43.2 % of men when injected monthly compared with 53.6 % of men when injected every 3 months. When asked to choose between forms of PrEP, 46.0 % preferred LAI, 14.3 % oral, 21.7 % whichever was most effective, 10.1 % had no preference, and 7.8 % would not take PrEP. There were no differences in PrEP preferences by race/ethnicity, income, region of residence, or relationship status. Those unwilling to take PrEP were significantly older than those who preferred LAI PrEP and those who would take either. Those who preferred the most effective form were younger, had less education, and reported more recent club drug use. Those who reported condomless anal sex and those who thought they were good PrEP candidates were more willing to take PrEP. Long-term health and side effects were of the greatest concern for both LAI and oral PrEP. The availability of LAI PrEP has the potential to increase uptake among GBM. The results of ongoing clinical trials of LAI PrEP will need to demonstrate similar or greater efficacy as daily Truvada for uptake to be maximized. PMID:27000145

  19. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course: ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-01-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message…

  20. PREP (Army Predischarge Education Program) USA: An Analysis of the Predischarge Education Program of Army Posts in the Continental United States. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alburn, Norman; And Others

    Growth of the Army Pre-discharge Education Program (PREP) has been a slow and cumbersome process since Public Law 91-219 was passed in 1970. The Academy for Educational Development visited 12 major Army installations in the United States and made 22 recommendations for improving the PREP in six major areas: i.e., technology, evaluation and…

  1. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV infection in France: a nationwide cross-sectional study (PREVIC study).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E; Piroth, L; Cua, E; Joulié, A; Ravaux, I; Chauveau, M; Lacombe, K; Cotte, L; Bonnard, P; Weiss, L; Longuet, M; Pradier, C; Cacoub, P

    2014-02-01

    Although preliminary studies showed that preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) lowers the HIV transmission in individuals with HIV, confirmative trials are ongoing and PrEP is not routinely recommended. The aim of this study was to assess whether individuals with HIV share antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for PrEP and to describe awareness and discussion on PrEP in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in France in 23 representative departments of infectious diseases and internal medicine. Physicians administered an anonymous standardized questionnaire to all individuals with HIV receiving ARVs and followed between 24 and 31 October 2011. The questionnaire included items regarding PrEP (awareness; discussion with their close circle, physician or patients' association; experience), personal sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviors and HIV status of the participants. Five hundred and ninety three participants were recruited: male 74.2% (men who have sex with men 52.4%, heterosexuals 21.6%), member of patient's association 9.8%. Half of them (50.6%) lived with a stable partner and 35.2% with an HIV-negative partner. Almost half (41.8%) were aware and 29.5% had had discussion about PrEP. In logistic regression, awareness and discussion on PrEP were more frequent: (1) among males, in patients' association members (p< 0.001 for both) and in nonheterosexuals (p=0.023 and 0.057, respectively); (2) among women, in those not living with a stable partner (p=0.035 and p=0.03, respectively) or living with an HIV-negative partner (p=0.049 and p=0.083, respectively). One percent of the participants declared having shared ARVs with someone and 8.3% reported PrEP in their close circle. Men reporting PrEP in their close circle shared ARVs more frequently than those who did not (10.3% vs. 0.2%, p < 0.001). Today, individuals with HIV do not seem to widely share personal ARVs for PrEP with seronegative people. A significant number of individuals with HIV are aware of and

  2. Tech-Prep/Associate Degree Program Guide: Tech Prep Associate Degree Program, Business Administration Associate Degree Program, Office Administration Associate Degree Program, Allied Health Associate Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmaras, Judy; Neri, Pat

    The Tech-Prep Associate Degree Program (TPAD) at the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) in Warwick, is a high school/community college partnership providing high school students with an alternative program of study focused on goal setting, basic academic skills development, and the skills needed to pursue a career in a technical, business or…

  3. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: Clinical evaluation methodology

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jennifer N.; Breland, Alison B.; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evaluating PREPs for SLT users. This report describes two studies examining the toxicant exposure and effects of two PREPs for SLT users. Study 1 (n = 13) consisted of four 4.5-hr laboratory sessions where SLT products (own brand, Stonewall, General snus, and tobacco-free placebo) were used for four 30-min episodes and nicotine exposure and tobacco/nicotine abstinence symptoms were measured. Study 2 (n = 19) consisted of four 5-day ad libitum use periods when participants used own brand, Stonewall, General snus, or no SLT and urinary levels of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine) and the TSN 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNAL) and abstinence symptoms were measured. Compared with own brand, Stonewall was associated with lower levels of cotinine and NNAL, while General snus was associated with similar levels of cotinine and lower levels of NNAL. Abstinence symptoms generally did not differ across tobacco conditions. These results show that clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression associated with PREPs for SLT users. PMID:19023835

  4. Effort Determines Success at Roxbury Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott

    2013-01-01

    A middle school in Boston designs its curriculum and culture--from its nightly homework assignments to its Powerful Speaking Extravaganza--upon a foundation of strengthening students' motivation and ability to do the hard work necessary to accomplish their goals. Roxbury Prep's emphasis on perseverance finds support in a robust body of…

  5. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie L; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; McConnell, Margaret; van Rooyen, Heidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kurth, Ann; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Desmond, Chris; Morton, Jennifer; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    , a first-generation biomedical HIV prevention product, will inform development of new and less user-dependent PrEP formulations and delivery of an expanding choice of prevention options in HIV prevention programmes for young African women. PMID:26198350

  6. Prep/Tech: Volume 1, No. 1, Youth on homelessness

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.

  7. ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identify components of the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways as Prep1 target genes in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Audrey; Calabrese, Manuela; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Tkachuk, Vsevolod; Torres, Miguel; Blasi, Francesco; Penkov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The Prep1 (Pknox1) homeodomain transcription factor is essential at multiple stages of embryo development. In the E11.5 embryo trunk, we previously estimated that Prep1 binds about 3,300 genomic sites at a highly specific decameric consensus sequence, mainly governing basal cellular functions. We now show that in embryonic stem (ES) cells Prep1 binding pattern only partly overlaps that of the embryo trunk, with about 2,000 novel sites. Moreover, in ES cells Prep1 still binds mostly to promoters, as in total embryo trunk but, among the peaks bound exclusively in ES cells, the percentage of enhancers was three-fold higher. RNA-seq identifies about 1800 genes down-regulated in Prep1-/- ES cells which belong to gene ontology categories not enriched in the E11.5 Prep1i/i differentiated embryo, including in particular essential components of the Wnt and Fgf pathways. These data agree with aberrant Wnt and Fgf expression levels in the Prep1-/- ES cells with a deficient embryoid bodies (EBs) formation and differentiation. Re-establishment of the Prep1 level rescues the phenotype. PMID:25875616

  8. ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq Analyses Identify Components of the Wnt and Fgf Signaling Pathways as Prep1 Target Genes in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Audrey; Calabrese, Manuela; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Tkachuk, Vsevolod; Torres, Miguel; Blasi, Francesco; Penkov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    The Prep1 (Pknox1) homeodomain transcription factor is essential at multiple stages of embryo development. In the E11.5 embryo trunk, we previously estimated that Prep1 binds about 3,300 genomic sites at a highly specific decameric consensus sequence, mainly governing basal cellular functions. We now show that in embryonic stem (ES) cells Prep1 binding pattern only partly overlaps that of the embryo trunk, with about 2,000 novel sites. Moreover, in ES cells Prep1 still binds mostly to promoters, as in total embryo trunk but, among the peaks bound exclusively in ES cells, the percentage of enhancers was three-fold higher. RNA-seq identifies about 1800 genes down-regulated in Prep1-/- ES cells which belong to gene ontology categories not enriched in the E11.5 Prep1i/i differentiated embryo, including in particular essential components of the Wnt and Fgf pathways. These data agree with aberrant Wnt and Fgf expression levels in the Prep1-/- ES cells with a deficient embryoid bodies (EBs) formation and differentiation. Re-establishment of the Prep1 level rescues the phenotype. PMID:25875616

  9. Effects on Student Achievement in General Chemistry Following Participation in an Online Preparatory Course. ChemPrep, a Voluntary, Self-Paced, Online Introduction to Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botch, Beatrice; Day, Roberta; Vining, William; Stewart, Barbara; Rath, Kenneth; Peterfreund, Alan; Hart, David

    2007-03-01

    ChemPrep was developed to be a stand-alone preparatory short-course to help students succeed in general chemistry. It is Web-based and delivered using the OWL system. Students reported that the ChemPrep materials (short information pages, parameterized questions with detailed feedback, tutorials, and answers to questions through the OWL message system) permitted them to work independently without the need for textbook or lecture. On average, students who completed ChemPrep had higher grades in the subsequent GenChem, Nursing, and Honors chemistry courses, with a greater percentage achieving a grade of C- or higher. Participation in ChemPrep was voluntary, and more women than men responded. Students in the Honors course enrolled in ChemPrep in higher percentages than students in GenChem and Nursing. SAT and departmental math placement exam scores were used as proxy measures of prior achievement and ability. Based on these, Honors chemistry ChemPrep users were on par with their peers but performed better in the course than non-users. In GenChem and Nursing chemistry courses, ChemPrep helped students of high prior achievement and ability perform better than their achievement scores would predict. Weaker or less motivated students did not respond to the voluntary offerings of ChemPrep in the same numbers as stronger or more motivated students, and we are seeking alternate ways to reach this population.

  10. Tech Prep Marketing Guide. The Complete Book of Strategies and Practical Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Patty

    This guide explains the concept of marketing tech prep and provides marketing principles and strategies to promote tech prep programs. The guide covers the following topics: (1) why it is necessary to market tech prep; (2) what a comprehensive tech prep marketing plan should include; (3) targeting the benefits message; (4) marketing tech prep to…

  11. The Texas Tech Prep Consortia: Strategies for Advancing Academic and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Oliver D., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 30 chapters on the tech prep initiative in Texas: "The Identity of Tech Prep in Texas" (Tunstall); "A Snap-Shot of the Impact of the Tech Prep Initiative in the Governor's 24 Planning Regions" (Brown); "The Tech Prep Consortium Directors: The Architects for the Future of Texas" (Hensley et al.); "Tech Prep: Jewel in the Crown"…

  12. Characterization of PREP2, a paralog of PREP1, which defines a novel sub-family of the MEINOX TALE homeodomain transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Fognani, C; Kilstrup-Nielsen, C; Berthelsen, J; Ferretti, E; Zappavigna, V; Blasi, F

    2002-05-01

    TALE (three amino acid loop extension) homeodomain proteins include the PBC and the MEINOX sub-families. MEINOX proteins form heterodimer complexes with PBC proteins. Heterodimerization is crucial to DNA binding and for nuclear localization. PBC-MEINOX heterodimers bind DNA also in combination with HOX proteins, thereby modulating their DNA-binding specificity. TALE proteins therefore play crucial roles in multiple developmental and differentiation pathways in vivo. We report the identification and characterization of a novel human gene homologous to PREP1, called PREP2. Sequence comparisons indicate that PREP1 and PREP2 define a novel sub-family of MEINOX proteins, distinct from the MEIS sub-family. PREP2 is expressed in a variety of human adult tissues and displays a more restricted expression pattern than PREP1. PREP2 is capable of heterodimerizing with PBC proteins. Heterodimerization with PBX1 appears to be essential for nuclear localization of both PREP2 and PBX1. A comparison between the functional properties of PREP1 and PREP2 reveals that PREP2-PBX display a faster DNA-dissociation rate than PREP1-PBX heterodimers, suggesting different roles in controlling gene expression. Like PREP1, PREP2-PBX heterodimers are capable of forming ternary complexes with HOXB1. The analysis of some PREP2 in vitro properties suggests a functional diversification among PREP and between PREP and MEIS MEINOX proteins. PMID:11972344

  13. The NASA SETI sky survey - Recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Michael J.; Gulkis, Samuel; Olsen, Edward T.; Renzetti, Nicholas A.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) project utilizes two complimentary search strategies: a sky survey and a targeted search. The SETI team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have primary responsibility to develop and carry out the sky survey part of the Microwave Observing Project. The paper describes progress that has been made to develop the major elements of the survey including a two-million channel wideband spectrum analyzer system that is being developed and constructed by JPL for the Deep Space Network. The new system will be a multiuser instrument that will serve as a prototype for the SETI Sky Survey processor. This system will be used to test the signal detection and observational strategies on deep-space network antennas in the near future.

  14. The NASA SETI sky survey - Recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Michael J.; Gulkis, Samuel; Olsen, Edward T.; Renzetti, Nicholas A.

    1988-10-01

    NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) project utilizes two complimentary search strategies: a sky survey and a targeted search. The SETI team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have primary responsibility to develop and carry out the sky survey part of the Microwave Observing Project. The paper describes progress that has been made to develop the major elements of the survey including a two-million channel wideband spectrum analyzer system that is being developed and constructed by JPL for the Deep Space Network. The new system will be a multiuser instrument that will serve as a prototype for the SETI Sky Survey processor. This system will be used to test the signal detection and observational strategies on deep-space network antennas in the near future.

  15. Tech Prep: Pathways to Success? The Performance of Tech Prep and Non-Tech Prep Students at a Midwestern Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krile, Donna J.; Parmer, Penelope

    This study looks at all students who participated in a Tech Prep program at Sinclair Community College, Ohio, and who first enrolled in the program between fall 1997 and spring 2001. The comparison group consisted of all non-Tech Prep students who started at Sinclair between fall 1997 and fall 2000, and who had not transferred credits from any…

  16. The NASA SETI sky survey: Recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E. T.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) project utilizes two complementary search strategies: a sky survey and a targeted search. The SETI team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, has primary responsibility to develop and carry out the sky survey part. Described here is progress that has been made developing the major elements of the survey including a 2-million channel wideband spectrum analyzer system that is being designed and constructed by JPL for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The system will be a multiuser instrument; it will serve as a prototype for the SETI sky survey processor. This prototype system will be used to test the signal detection and observational strategies on DSN antennas in the near future.

  17. Effectiveness of Previous Initiatives Similar to Programs of Study: Tech Prep, Career Pathways, and Youth Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    The federal career and technical legislation reauthorized in 2006 required the recipients of its funding to offer at least one Program of Study (POS). All states have developed some components of POS through earlier initiatives, primarily Tech Prep, career pathways, and youth apprenticeship, that attempted to ease the transition of students from…

  18. Central Services PREP (A Curriculum for Sterilization Technicians in the Workplace). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tri-County Opportunities Industrialization Center, Inc., Harrisburg, PA.

    A workplace literacy curriculum for entry-level hospital workers who sterilize medical equipment for doctors and nurses was developed, tested, and published in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. An assessment was conducted to identify the needs of the hospital's management and the literacy skills needed by its central services prep department, and…

  19. Integrating Work-Based Learning into Comprehensive Tech Prep Programs: Recommendations from a Practitioner's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Diana M.

    This handbook, which is one in a series of handbooks designed to help tech prep practitioners replicate successful materials, projects, or programs that have been developed by Partnership for Academic and Career Education (PACE) consortium members, presents 10 recommendations concerning integrating work- based learning into comprehensive tech prep…

  20. An Evaluation of the Southern Maryland Educational Consortium's Tech Prep Program: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raber, Suzanne M.; Merchlinsky, Suzanne R.

    In the Southern Maryland Educational Consortium's 4 + 2 tech prep program, ninth-grade students develop career plans and follow career pathways in one of three technologies--health and human services, electronics and engineering, or business. The program was evaluated by an independent social science research firm to identify the different…

  1. Integrated Curriculum Activities. Integration of Vocational and Academic Learning through Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    The integrated learning activities in this guide were developed by a committee of educators from Osceola District Schools, Orange County Public Schools, and Valencia Community College (Florida) for a tech prep curriculum. Included are 32 communications-related activities, 30 mathematics activities, and 10 science activities. Each activity includes…

  2. Southeastern Illinois Tech Prep Project. Final Report. July 1, 1991-June 30, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Illinois Vocational System, Harrisburg.

    The Southeastern Illinois Technical Preparation project was undertaken to develop sequenced tech prep programs in principles of technology/electronics, computer programming, and secretary/business management at nine high schools and Southeastern Illinois College with emphasis on preparation in mathematics, science, and communication and on…

  3. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  4. Creating a Place in History [and] Tech Prep for Business and Marketing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Anita K.; Butler, Tommie L.

    1993-01-01

    "Creating a Place in History" (Decker) discusses the evolution of tech prep and the challenges it offers to secondary and postsecondary schools. "Tech Prep for Business and Marketing Technology" (Butler) describes tech prep in Arkansas. (JOW)

  5. AVA Guide to Federal Funding for Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brustein, Michael

    This handbook outlines the options and requirements for federal support for tech prep in the Perkins law. It explains what educators must do and not do to assure compliance with all the law's mandates and to avoid audit exceptions. The guide also covers new tech prep provisions that were included in the Higher Education Act of 1992. Discussed in…

  6. PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... negative and have taken PrEP for up to 5 years, no significant health effects have been seen. Learn more about how to protect yourself and get information tailored to meet your needs from CDC’s HIV Risk Reduction Tool (BETA). Can you start PrEP after you have ...

  7. Implementing Tech Prep: A Guide to Planning a Quality Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; And Others

    This guide provides perspectives about Technical Preparation (tech prep) from personnel representing the 50 state agencies and many local consortia. The guide also explores an approach to implementing tech prep based on the concept of total quality management (TQM). Each chapter begins with an overview that provides background, a summary, and list…

  8. Development of the TTF TPACK Survey Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson-Proctor, Romina; Albion, Peter; Finger, Glenn; Cavanagh, Rob; Fitzgerald, Robert; Bond, Trevor; Grimbeek, Peter

    2013-01-01

    One of the major outcomes from the national Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) Project in 2011 was the development and statistical validation of a survey instrument to measure the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) of pre-service teachers as a result of the TTF intervention implemented across all Australian Education…

  9. Self-reported Recent PrEP Dosing and Drug Detection in an Open Label PrEP Study.

    PubMed

    Amico, K Rivet; Mehrotra, Megha; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; McMahan, Vanessa; Veloso, Valdilea G; Anderson, Peter; Guanira, Juan; Grant, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is part of the recommended package for PrEP prescribing, yet ongoing concerns about how to do so confidently are exacerbated by gross discrepancies in reported and actual use in clinical trials. We evaluated concordance between reports of recent PrEP dosing collected via neutral interviewing and drug quantitation in the iPrEx open-label extension, where participants (n = 1172) had the choice to receive or not receive PrEP. Self-report of recent dosing (at least one PrEP dose in the past 3-day) was the most common report (84 % of participants), and among these 83 % did have quantifiable levels of drug. The vast majority of those reporting no doses in the past 3-day (16 % of the sample) did not have quantifiable levels of drug (82 %). Predictors of over-report of dosing included younger age and lower educational attainment. Monitoring recent PrEP use through neutral interviewing may be a productive approach for clinicians to consider in implementation of real-world PrEP. Strategies to capture longer term or prevention-effective PrEP use, particularly for younger cohorts, are needed. PMID:26992393

  10. Tech Prep Leadership Summit: A Conference Report (Chicago, Illinois, June 22-23, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This report presents outcomes of deliberations at the Tech Prep Leadership Summit on a "national vision" for tech prep. Following an introduction, Section 2 represents the consensus reached at the summit. Discussion of the purpose of tech prep focuses on the mission statement and goals of the Tech Prep Act. The discussion of program outcomes…

  11. Developing Gyrfalcon surveys and monitoring for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; Booms, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    We developed methods to monitor the status of Gyrfalcons in Alaska. Results of surveys and monitoring will be informative for resource managers and will be useful for studying potential changes in ecological communities of the high latitudes. We estimated that the probability of detecting a Gyrfalcon at an occupied nest site was between 64% and 87% depending on observer experience and aircraft type (fixed-wing or helicopter). The probability of detection is an important factor for estimating occupancy of nesting areas, and occupancy can be used as a metric for monitoring species' status. We conclude that surveys of nesting habitat to monitor occupancy during the breeding season are practical because of the high probability of seeing a Gyrfalcon from aircraft. Aerial surveys are effective for searching sample plots or index areas in the expanse of the Alaskan terrain. Furthermore, several species of cliff-nesting birds can be surveyed concurrently from aircraft. Occupancy estimation also can be applied using data from other field search methods (e.g., from boats) that have proven useful in Alaska. We believe a coordinated broad-scale, inter-agency, collaborative approach is necessary in Alaska. Monitoring can be facilitated by collating and archiving each set of results in a secure universal repository to allow for statewide meta-analysis.

  12. Survey of possibility for volcanic energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    Volcanic areas, clarification of heat source structure, evaluation of resources and problems on utilization techniques were arranged to search the possibility of future volcanic heat source. It is necessary to improve the exploration accuracy by combining geophysical exploration with geological and geochemical surveys in order to explorate a magma reservoir. Especially, seismic exploration is effective. The surveying procedure is as follows: confirmation of magma existence and grasping the whole image, evaluation of resources, clarification of three-dimensional distribution of magma in a promising area, and heat structure survey by heat flow measurement and others to construct more accurate model for resources. This model is verified finally by practical drilling. Promising areas which are worthy of development, are active volcanic areas in Kyushu, Hakkoda nad Hokkaido. It is desirable to make drilling to the depth of 3 km or magma reservoir to develop the future heat source. It is also required to improve the thermal resistance and corrosion resistance of materials to be used. Heat extraction by a single well is most realistic and the closed coaxial double pipe heat exchanger or open heat exchanger in the well will be used to improve the extraction.

  13. The subcellular localization of PBX1 and EXD proteins depends on nuclear import and export signals and is modulated by association with PREP1 and HTH.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, J; Kilstrup-Nielsen, C; Blasi, F; Mavilio, F; Zappavigna, V

    1999-04-15

    Nuclear localization of the Extradenticle (EXD) and PBX1 proteins is regionally restricted during Drosophila and mammalian development. We studied the subcellular localization of EXD, PBX, and their partners Homothorax (HTH) and PREP1, in different cell contexts. HTH and PREP1 are cytoplasmic and require association with EXD/PBX for nuclear localization. EXD and PBX1 are nuclear in murine fibroblasts but not in Drosophila Schneider cells, in which they are actively exported to the cytoplasm. Coexpression of EXD/PBX with HTH/PREP1 causes nuclear localization of their heterodimers in both cell contexts. We propose that heterodimerization with HTH/PREP induces nuclear translocation of EXD and PBX1 in specific cell contexts by blocking their nuclear export. PMID:10215622

  14. The subcellular localization of PBX1 and EXD proteins depends on nuclear import and export signals and is modulated by association with PREP1 and HTH

    PubMed Central

    Berthelsen, Jens; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Blasi, Francesco; Mavilio, Fulvio; Zappavigna, Vincenzo

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear localization of the Extradenticle (EXD) and PBX1 proteins is regionally restricted during Drosophila and mammalian development. We studied the subcellular localization of EXD, PBX, and their partners Homothorax (HTH) and PREP1, in different cell contexts. HTH and PREP1 are cytoplasmic and require association with EXD/PBX for nuclear localization. EXD and PBX1 are nuclear in murine fibroblasts but not in Drosophila Schneider cells, in which they are actively exported to the cytoplasm. Coexpression of EXD/PBX with HTH/PREP1 causes nuclear localization of their heterodimers in both cell contexts. We propose that heterodimerization with HTH/PREP induces nuclear translocation of EXD and PBX1 in specific cell contexts by blocking their nuclear export. PMID:10215622

  15. Clinician Attitudes Toward CDC Interim Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Guidance and Operationalizing PrEP for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prior to issuing formal HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) clinical practice guidelines in 2014, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had released interim guidance for oral PrEP use among adults. Because oral PrEP may be used off-label for youth and may soon be indicated for minor adolescents, we examined the potential adoption of the interim guidance among clinicians who care for HIV-infected and at-risk youth. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 US clinicians who were recruited through an adolescent HIV research network. The theory-driven interview guide, consisting primarily of open-ended questions, assessed demographics, familiarity with the guidance, attitudes toward the guidance, and attitudes toward the use of the guidance for adult and adolescent patients. Transcripts were analyzed using framework analysis. Most clinicians (11/15) reported that the guidance was compatible with their practice, although several reported that some aspects, particularly frequency of follow-up visits, needed to be tailored to meet their patients' needs. We found variability in clinician reported characteristics of appropriate PrEP candidates (e.g., youth with substance use and mental health issues were noted to be both suitable and unsuitable PrEP candidates) and PrEP use in serodiscordant couples (e.g., whether PrEP would be recommended to a patient whose HIV-infected partner is virally suppressed). Clinician reported steps for initiation, monitoring, and discontinuing PrEP were largely consistent with the guidance. The observed variability in clinician practice with regard to oral PrEP may be reduced through interventions to educate clinicians about the content and rationale for guideline recommendations. PMID:25692683

  16. Tech-Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains competency profiles for Ohio tech prep courses in the following 12 health technologies occupations: radiographer, respiratory care therapist, occupational therapy assistant, physical therapist assistant, registered nurse (associate degree), pharmacy technologist, medical laboratory technician, histotechnologist, emergency…

  17. The Boeing Company's Tech Prep Story: A Community College Bridge to the School-to-Work Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayton, Carver; Parnell, Dale

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the Boeing Tech Prep Program, an associate degree program combining high school and community college vocational and academic curricula. Describes the three phases of the program's development: the provision of seed grants to schools, the development of an associate degree program, and the institution of an internship program. (MAB)

  18. AirfoilPrep.py Documentation: Release 0.1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    AirfoilPrep.py provides functionality to preprocess aerodynamic airfoil data. Essentially, the module is an object oriented version of the AirfoilPrep spreadsheet with additional functionality and is written in the Python language. It allows the user to read in two-dimensional aerodynamic airfoil data, apply three-dimensional rotation corrections for wind turbine applications, and extend the datato very large angles of attack. This document discusses installation, usage, and documentation of the module.

  19. Vulnerable infected populations and street markets for ARVs: Potential implications for PrEP rollout in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven P; Buttram, Mance E; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-04-01

    Widespread diversion of antiretroviral (ARV) medications to illicit markets has recently been documented among indigent patients in South Florida. The recent approval of ARVs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to broaden these illicit markets, as high-risk individuals seek ARVs without a prescription or medical supervision. Nonadherence among diverters and unsupervised use of ARVs for treatment or PrEP increase risks of treatment failure, drug resistance, and disease transmission. We report the scope of ARV diversion among substance-using men who have sex with men in South Florida. Structured interviews (N = 515) queried demographics, HIV status, mental distress, substance dependence, and sexual risks. HIV-positive participants answered questions about medical care, treatment, and ARV adherence and diversion. Median age was 39. Of 46.4% who were HIV-positive, 79.1% were prescribed ARVs. Of these, 27% reported selling/trading ARVs. Reasons for diversion were sharing/trading with friends, sale/trade for money/drugs, and sale/trade of unused medications. ARV diverters, compared to nondiverters, were more likely to be substance dependent (74.5% vs. 58.7%, p = 0.046) and have traded sex for money/drugs (60.8% vs. 32.6%, p < 0.001), and less likely to be adherent to ARVs (54.9% vs. 73.9%, p = 0.012). ARV diversion should be a particular concern in communities of high-risk men who have sex with men as uninfected men in such communities are likely to benefit most from PrEP but unlikely to have access to PrEP and necessary ancillary services through the health-care system. The implications of diversion for increased risks of treatment failure, disease transmission, and PrEP failure should be carefully considered in developing policy and behavioral supports to scaling up treatment as prevention and PrEP. PMID:24033118

  20. PREP1, MEIS1 homolog protein, regulates PF4 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiaki; Matsuura, Eri; Nagai, Ryohei; Sato, Takahiro; Watanabe, Ayako; Morita, Ikuo; Doi, Takefumi

    2003-05-23

    We have previously demonstrated that homeodomain proteins, MEIS1 and PBXs, transactivate the PF4 gene through the novel regulatory element termed TME. This study focuses on Pbx regulating protein 1 (PREP1), a MEIS1 homolog protein, for its transcriptional activity in the PF4 promoter. PREP1 binds to the TME in HEL cells. PREP1 was expressed in human megakaryocytes that differentiated from CD34(+) cells. EMSA shows that either PREP1 by itself or PREP1/PBX complexes bind to the two TGACAG motifs in the TME and activate the PF4 promoter. Furthermore, PREP1 and PREP1/PBX complexes synergistically activate the PF4 promoter with GATA-1 and ETS-1. These data demonstrate that PREP1 is also an important transcription factor that regulates PF4 gene expression such as MEIS1. Additionally, these data imply functional similarities and differences between PREP1 and MEIS1 in the regulation of PF4 gene expression. PMID:12732210

  1. Prevention and recovery in early psychosis (PREP(®)): building a public-academic partnership program in Massachusetts, United States.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Brina; Zimmet, Suzanna V; Meyer, Eric C; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Monteleone, Thomas; Jude Leung, Y; Guyer, Margaret E; Rood, Laura Logue; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been increasing emphasis on early intervention (EI) for psychotic disorders. EI programs in public mental health settings have been established in countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada. However, there are relatively few EI programs in the United States (U.S.). Here we describe the conceptual origins and practical development of the PREP program, i.e., Prevention and Recovery in Early Psychosis, as it evolved in a public academic psychiatry setting in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. PREP developed over a decade through a partnership between the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health and academic institutions within the Harvard Department of Psychiatry. We discuss the evolution, programmatic features, funding mechanisms, staffing, and the role of clinical training in PREP. The key principles in developing the PREP Program include the focus on early, evidence based, person-centered and phase-specific, integrated and continuous, comprehensive care. This program has served as a foundation for the emergence of related services at our institution, including a research clinic treating those at clinical high risk or within the putative "prodromal" period preceding frank psychosis. This account offers one possible blueprint for the development of EI programs despite the lack in the U.S. of a national mandate for EI or prevention-based mental health programs. PMID:23466116

  2. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  3. Seasons of Risk: Anticipated Behavior on Vacation and Interest in Episodic Antiretroviral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among a Large National Sample of U.S. Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Elsesser, Steven A; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Biello, Katie B; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A; Egan, James E; Novak, David S; Krakower, Douglas S; Stall, Ron; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    The current analysis evaluates interest in and acceptability of daily PrEP during short episodes of anticipated increased risk (i.e. Epi-PrEP). In 2013, U.S. members of an internet-based MSM sexual networking site were invited to complete a survey about HIV prevention practices in the context of vacationing. 7305 MSM responded to the survey. Of respondents who had vacationed in the past year, 25.6 % reported condomless anal sex (CAS) with new male sex partners while vacationing. Most (92.6 %) respondents agreed that having to use PrEP every day was a barrier to PrEP use and 74.3 % indicated they would take PrEP if they knew it would be helpful for short periods of anticipated increased risk. MSM who reported increased CAS while on vacation in the past year were more likely to indicate that they would take PrEP if it were helpful when used for short periods than respondents who did not (aOR = 2.02, 95 % CI 1.59-2.56, p < 0.001). Studies designed to evaluate uptake, adherence, and protective benefit of short PrEP courses are warranted. PMID:26538056

  4. Prep1, a novel functional partner of Pbx proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, J; Zappavigna, V; Mavilio, F; Blasi, F

    1998-03-01

    The human transcription factor, UEF3, is important in regulating the activity of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene enhancer. The UEF3 DNA target site is a regulatory element in the promoters of several growth factor and protease genes. We reported previously that purified UEF3 is a complex of several subunits. In this paper we report the cloning of the cDNA of one of the subunits which encodes for a novel human homeodomain protein, which we have termed Prep1. The Prep1 homeodomain belongs to the TALE class of homeodomains, is most closely related to those of the TGIF and Meis1 proteins, and like these, recognizes a TGACAG motif. We further identify the other UEF3 subunit as a member of the Pbx protein family. Unlike other proteins known to interact with Pbx, Prep1 forms a stable complex with Pbx independent of DNA binding. Heterodimerization of Prep1 and Pbx results in a strong DNA binding affinity towards the TGACAG target site of the uPA promoter. Overall, these data indicate that Prep1 is a stable intracellular partner of Pbx in vivo. PMID:9482739

  5. Data prep: the bottleneck of future applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramss, Juergen; Eichhorn, Hans; Lempke, Melchior; Jaritz, Renate; Neick, Volker; Beyer, Dirk; Buerger, Bertram; Baetz, Ulrich; Kunze, Klaus; Belic, Nikola

    2006-06-01

    There is no doubt that shaped beam systems have been well established in the mask write community since the introduction of the 130nm technology node. Moreover, they are successfully advancing to conquer also the wafer direct write market. To be able to handle today and in the near future the tremendous data volumes with their characteristic complexity as well as to make use of such indispensable methods like PEC and Fogging corrections, new, sophisticated solutions are necessary to master the challenging 45nm technology node. However, we are aware that the 45nm node presents only an intermediate step, because, according to the international roadmap, we soon will be confronted with the hardware and software requirements of the next, the 32nm technology node. In this context it becomes more and more important to consider potential showstoppers, in our case the data preparation process To investigate this complex subject a Linux cluster computer featuring 3.6GHz clock rate CPUs, and a software package supporting distributed computing with a 64Bit version and address units down to 0.1nm were used. The work was focused on the performance of pattern samples down to the 45nm node. Both mask and wafer data as well as NIL template manufacturing were considered, data prep times and CPU loads were analysed. Furthermore, the user-friendly Leica Interface for Data Preparations (LINDA) was applied. In addition, an outlook to future hardware/software configurations for mastering the challenges of the 32nm node will be given. The results presented in this paper prove that data preparation is not the bottleneck of current and future applications.

  6. Development of a survey to identify vaccine-hesitant parents

    PubMed Central

    Mangione-Smith, Rita; Taylor, James A; Korfiatis, Carolyn; Wiese, Cheryl; Catz, Sheryl; Martin, Diane P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a survey to accurately assess parental vaccine hesitancy. Results The initial survey contained 17 items in four content domains: (1) immunization behavior; (2) beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy; (3) attitudes about vaccine mandates and exemptions; and (4) trust. Focus group data yielded an additional 10 survey items. Expert review of the survey resulted in the deletion of nine of 27 items and revisions to 11 of the remaining 18 survey items. Parent pretesting resulted in the deletion of one item, the addition of one item, the revision of four items, and formatting changes to enhance usability. The final survey contains 18 items in the original four content domains. Methods An iterative process was used to develop the survey. First, we reviewed previous studies and surveys on parental health beliefs regarding vaccination to develop content domains and draft initial survey items. Focus groups of parents and pediatricians generated additional themes and survey items. Six immunization experts reviewed the items in the resulting draft survey and ranked them on a 1–5 scale for significance in identifying vaccine-hesitant parents (5 indicative of a highly significant item). The lowest third of ranked items were dropped. The revised survey was pretested with 25 parents to assess face validity, usability and item understandability. Conclusions The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey was constructed using qualitative methodology to identify vaccine-hesitant parents and has content and face validity. Further psychometric testing is needed. PMID:21389777

  7. 2014 Teacher Prep Review: A Review of the Nation's Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    "Teacher Prep Review 2014" is the second edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) annual assessment of the nation's 2,400 teacher prep programs. The "Review" uncovers early evidence that teacher prep programs are beginning to make changes. It arrives at a time of heightened, unprecedented…

  8. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED TECH-PREP EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 406.1 What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? If the...

  9. Selected Outcomes Related to Tech Prep Implementation by Illinois Consortia, 2001-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Kirby, Catherine; Zhu, Rongchun

    2006-01-01

    This report is the summary of key aspects of Tech Prep in Illinois over the five year period of 2001-2005 during which all Tech Prep consortia provided annual data based on federal legislative requirements and state-determined essential elements of successful programs. These annual Tech Prep reports enable local educators to monitor student…

  10. Prep1 Controls Insulin Glucoregulatory Function in Liver by Transcriptional Targeting of SHP1 Tyrosine Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Oriente, Francesco; Iovino, Salvatore; Cabaro, Serena; Cassese, Angela; Longobardi, Elena; Miele, Claudia; Ungaro, Paola; Formisano, Pietro; Blasi, Francesco; Beguinot, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We investigated the function of the Prep1 gene in insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis in liver. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prep1 action on insulin glucoregulatory function has been analyzed in liver of Prep1-hypomorphic mice (Prep1i/i), which express 2–3% of Prep1 mRNA. RESULTS Based on euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies and measurement of glycogen content, livers from Prep1i/i mice feature increased sensitivity to insulin. Tyrosine phosphorylation of both insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1/2 was significantly enhanced in Prep1i/i livers accompanied by a specific downregulation of the SYP and SHP1 tyrosine phosphatases. Prep1 overexpression in HepG2 liver cells upregulated SYP and SHP1 and inhibited insulin-induced IR and IRS1/2 phosphorylation and was accompanied by reduced glycogen content. Consistently, overexpression of the Prep1 partner Pbx1, but not of p160MBP, mimicked Prep1 effects on tyrosine phosphorylations, glycogen content, and on SYP and SHP1 expression. In Prep1 overexpressing cells, antisense silencing of SHP1, but not that of SYP, rescued insulin-dependent IR phosphorylation and glycogen accumulation. Both Prep1 and Pbx1 bind SHP1 promoter at a site located between nucleotides −2,113 and −1,778. This fragment features enhancer activity and induces luciferase function by 7-, 6-, and 30-fold, respectively, in response to Prep1, Pbx1, or both. CONCLUSIONS SHP1, a known silencer of insulin signal, is a transcriptional target of Prep1. In liver, transcriptional activation of SHP1 gene by Prep1 attenuates insulin signal transduction and reduces glucose storage. PMID:20864515

  11. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in…

  12. Survey of Web Developers in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Ruth Sara

    2008-01-01

    A survey was sent to library Web designers from randomly selected institutions to determine the background, tools, and methods used by those designers. Results, grouped by Carnegie classification type, indicated that larger schools were not necessarily working with more resources or more advanced levels of technology than other institutions.

  13. Comprehensive Vocational and Applied Technology Program. Seattle Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle Community Coll. District, Washington.

    This package contains a program description and miscellaneous brochures about the Seattle (Washington) Public Schools' tech prep program. The program description booklet is designed to show how a comprehensive vocational and applied technology program is being introduced at Nathan Hale High School in Seattle. Included in the booklet are the…

  14. Appendix D: More on Recommendations. [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. This appendix presents next steps for prospective college or graduate students who aspire to enter teaching (and their parents) and for current students who are already enrolled in a teacher preparation program…

  15. Macy BioPrep Project: Preliminary Analysis of Student Questionnaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Victoria Anne; And Others

    This paper reports on a study of the Biomedical Sciences Preparation Program (BioPrep), a rural component of the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation's funded projects. The program was intended to give Alabama students (particularly minorities) academic competency in mathematics, science, and oral and written communication relevant to medical professions.…

  16. Theme: Tech Prep--Articulation, Curriculum Change, Implementation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuemmel, William L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Theme issue includes the following: "Tech Prep (TP)--Articulation Check!" (Thuemmel); "Delivering an Education That Works" (Perry); "TP: A Flood of Change" (Mahler, Vold); "Implementation Strategies for TP" (Harris, Birkenholz); and "Making Transitions in Agricultural Education through TP" (Sutphin). (SK)

  17. Physics and Physical Science Units for Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeld, Marilyn; Daniels, Sadie; Hall, Yolanda; McClendon, Cecil; Schlinger, Gary

    Promoting ACademic Excellence in Mathematics and Science for Workers of the 21st Century (PACE) was a consortium project made up of Indiana University Northwest, the Gary Community Schools, and the Merrillville Community Schools. The focus of this project was to prepare teachers and curricula for Tech Prep mathematics and science courses for the…

  18. Health Science Careers: Tech Prep Consortium for New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillet, Julie O'Sullivan; D'Anna, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    A high school health sciences program consists of an interdisciplinary core curriculum, clinical job shadowing, and potential to earn college credit. Interactive television and CD-ROMs enhance teaching. A consortium of high schools offers the tech prep program in collaboration with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. (SK)

  19. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Tech Prep Consortium, Kirtland, OH.

    This tech prep competency profile for computer-integrated manufacturing technology begins with definitions for four occupations: manufacturing technician, quality technician, mechanical engineering technician, and computer-assisted design/drafting (CADD) technician. A chart lists competencies by unit and indicates whether entire or partial unit is…

  20. Model 2 + 2 + 2 Tech Prep Program in Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hata, David M.

    In 1986, Portland Community College (PCC) received federal funding to expand its pilot 2 + 2 Tech Prep program in engineering technology to include five local high schools and to link the program to the upper-division engineering technology program at the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT). Program results included the following: (1) eight high…

  1. SPC-Prep 1. Participant's Manual. Workplace Education. Project ALERT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruetz, Nancy

    This companion document to the instructor's guide for a course designed to prepare employees for statistical process control (SPC) training given at their workplace by refreshing math skills and building the concepts and vocabulary necessary to understand SPC in manufacturing environments. SPC-Prep 1 addresses the math skills necessary to perform…

  2. SPC-Prep. Instructor's Guide. Workplace Education. Project ALERT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruetz, Nancy

    This instructor's guide contains materials for a course designed to prepare employees for statistical process control (SPC) training given at their workplace by refreshing math skills and building the concepts and vocabulary necessary to understand SPC in manufacturing environments. SPC-Prep 1 addresses the math skills necessary to perform SPC…

  3. From High School to Work: 150 Great Tech Prep Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This book presents information on 150 careers in a wide variety of fields that fall under the broad category of tech prep. Each four- to five-page profile contains the following: definition of the occupation, the nature of the work, requirements for educational and work experiences needed to enter and advance, opportunities for experience and…

  4. Stepping Stones: Never Waste Your Prep Period Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsley, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Breaks are the best part of working. At some point everyone does look forward to his or her lunch break. For teachers, however, it seems there is never truly a break, for whenever they have extra time, they must use it wisely to prepare for their teaching. Unfortunately, many teachers don't manage their time efficiently during a prep or planning…

  5. Down syndrome fibroblasts and mouse Prep1-overexpressing cells display increased sensitivity to genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nicola; Longobardi, Elena; Iotti, Giorgio; Ferrai, Carmelo; Castagnaro, Laura; Ricciardi, Mario; Blasi, Francesco; Crippa, Massimo P

    2010-06-01

    PREP1 (PKNOX1) maps in the Down syndrome (DS) critical region of chromosome 21, is overexpressed in some DS tissues and might be involved in the DS phenotype. By using fibroblasts from DS patients and by overexpressing Prep1 in F9 teratocarcinoma and Prep1(i/i) MEF to single out the role of the protein, we report that excess Prep1 increases the sensitivity of cells to genotoxic stress and the extent of the apoptosis directly correlates with the level of Prep1. The apoptotic response of Prep1-overexpressing cells is mediated by the pro-apoptotic p53 protein that we show is a direct target of Prep1, as its depletion reverts the apoptotic phenotype. The induction of p53 overcomes the anti-apoptotic role of Bcl-X(L), previously shown to be also a Prep1 target, the levels of which are increased in Prep1-overexpressing cells as well. Our results provide a rationale for the involvement of PREP1 in the apoptotic phenotype of DS tissues and indicate that differences in Prep1 level can have drastic effects. PMID:20110257

  6. Down syndrome fibroblasts and mouse Prep1-overexpressing cells display increased sensitivity to genotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Micali, Nicola; Longobardi, Elena; Iotti, Giorgio; Ferrai, Carmelo; Castagnaro, Laura; Ricciardi, Mario; Blasi, Francesco; Crippa, Massimo P.

    2010-01-01

    PREP1 (PKNOX1) maps in the Down syndrome (DS) critical region of chromosome 21, is overexpressed in some DS tissues and might be involved in the DS phenotype. By using fibroblasts from DS patients and by overexpressing Prep1 in F9 teratocarcinoma and Prep1i/i MEF to single out the role of the protein, we report that excess Prep1 increases the sensitivity of cells to genotoxic stress and the extent of the apoptosis directly correlates with the level of Prep1. The apoptotic response of Prep1-overexpressing cells is mediated by the pro-apoptotic p53 protein that we show is a direct target of Prep1, as its depletion reverts the apoptotic phenotype. The induction of p53 overcomes the anti-apoptotic role of Bcl-XL, previously shown to be also a Prep1 target, the levels of which are increased in Prep1-overexpressing cells as well. Our results provide a rationale for the involvement of PREP1 in the apoptotic phenotype of DS tissues and indicate that differences in Prep1 level can have drastic effects. PMID:20110257

  7. Pknox1/Prep1 regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation components in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kanzleiter, Timo; Rath, Michaela; Penkov, Dmitry; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schulz, Nadja; Blasi, Francesco; Schürmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor Prep1 was previously shown to regulate insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to study the specific role of Prep1 for the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific ablation of Prep1 resulted in increased expression of respiratory chain subunits. This finding was consistent with an increase in mitochondrial enzyme activity without affecting mitochondrial volume fraction as assessed by electron microscopy. Metabolic phenotyping revealed no differences in daily energy expenditure or body composition. However, during treadmill exercise challenge, Prep1 ablation resulted in a higher maximal oxidative capacity and better endurance. Elevated PGC-1α expression was identified as a cause for increased mitochondrial capacity in Prep1 ablated mice. Prep1 stabilizes p160 Mybbp1a, a known inhibitor of PGC-1α activity. Thereby, p160 protein levels were significantly lower in the muscle of Prep1 ablated mice. By a chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) approach, PREP1 binding sites in genes encoding mitochondrial components (e.g., Ndufs2) were identified that might be responsible for elevated proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the muscle of Prep1 null mutants. These results suggest that Prep1 exhibits additional direct effects on regulation of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore conclude that Prep1 is a regulator of oxidative phosphorylation components via direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24216763

  8. Pknox1/Prep1 Regulates Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Components in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Michaela; Penkov, Dmitry; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schulz, Nadja; Blasi, Francesco; Schürmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor Prep1 was previously shown to regulate insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to study the specific role of Prep1 for the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific ablation of Prep1 resulted in increased expression of respiratory chain subunits. This finding was consistent with an increase in mitochondrial enzyme activity without affecting mitochondrial volume fraction as assessed by electron microscopy. Metabolic phenotyping revealed no differences in daily energy expenditure or body composition. However, during treadmill exercise challenge, Prep1 ablation resulted in a higher maximal oxidative capacity and better endurance. Elevated PGC-1α expression was identified as a cause for increased mitochondrial capacity in Prep1 ablated mice. Prep1 stabilizes p160 Mybbp1a, a known inhibitor of PGC-1α activity. Thereby, p160 protein levels were significantly lower in the muscle of Prep1 ablated mice. By a chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) approach, PREP1 binding sites in genes encoding mitochondrial components (e.g., Ndufs2) were identified that might be responsible for elevated proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the muscle of Prep1 null mutants. These results suggest that Prep1 exhibits additional direct effects on regulation of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore conclude that Prep1 is a regulator of oxidative phosphorylation components via direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24216763

  9. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  10. An Instrument Development Model for Online Surveys in Human Resource Development and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachota, Elaine M.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Schmidt, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of a schematic model for developing and distributing online surveys. Two empirical studies that developed and implemented online surveys to collect data to measure satisfaction in various aspects of human resource development and adult education exemplify the use of the model to conduct online survey research. The…

  11. Development and Validation of the Educational Technologist Multimedia Competency Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Martin, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to identify the multimedia competencies of an educational technologist by creating a valid and reliable survey instrument to administer to educational technology professionals. The educational technology multimedia competency survey developed through this research is based on a conceptual framework that…

  12. Development of Survey of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a survey of technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK). The survey consists of seven subscales forming the TPACK model: 1) technology knowledge (TK), 2) pedagogy knowledge (PK), 3) content knowledge (CK), 4) technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), 5) technological content knowledge (TCK), 6)…

  13. Tenofovir-based Oral PrEP Prevents HIV Infection among Women

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Kerry A.; Baeten, Jared M.; Mugo, Nelly R.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Celum, Connie L.; Heffron, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite tremendous promise as a female-controlled HIV prevention strategy, implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women has been limited, in part because of disparate efficacy results from randomized trials in this population. This review synthesizes existing evidence regarding PrEP efficacy for preventing HIV infection in women and considerations for delivering PrEP to women. Recent findings In three efficacy trials, conducted among men and women, tenofovir-based oral PrEP reduced HIV acquisition in subgroups of women by 49–79% in intent-to-treat analyses, and by >85% when accounting for PrEP adherence. Two trials did not demonstrate an HIV prevention benefit from PrEP in women, but substantial evidence indicates those results were compromised by very low adherence to the study medication. Qualitative research has identified risk perception, stigma, and aspects of clinical trial participation as influencing adherence to study medication. Pharmacokinetic studies provide supporting evidence that PrEP offers HIV protection in women who are adherent to the medication. Summary Tenofovir-based daily oral PrEP prevents HIV acquisition in women. Offering PrEP as an HIV prevention option for women at high risk of HIV acquisition is a public health imperative and opportunities to evaluate implementation strategies for PrEP for women are needed. PMID:26417954

  14. Acceptability of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) as an HIV prevention strategy: Barriers and facilitators to PrEP uptake among at-risk Peruvian populations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Salazar, Ximena; Lee, Sung-Jae; Giron, Maziel; Sayles, Jennifer N.; Cáceres, Carlos; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among female sex workers, male-to-female transgendered persons, and men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru. Focus groups explored social issues associated with PrEP acceptability and conjoint analysis assessed preferences among eight hypothetical PrEP scenarios with varying attribute profiles and their relative impact on acceptability. Conjoint analysis revealed that PrEP acceptability ranged from 19.8 to 82.5 out of a possible score of 100 across the eight hypothetical PrEP scenarios. Out-of-pocket cost had the greatest impact on PrEP acceptability (25.2, p <0.001), followed by efficacy (21.4, p <0.001) and potential side effects (14.7, p <0.001). Focus group data supported these findings, and also revealed that potential sexual risk disinhibition, stigma and discrimination associated with PrEP use, and mistrust of health care professionals were also concerns. These issues will require careful attention when planning for PrEP roll-out if proven efficacious in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:21571973

  15. Instructional and Organizational Effectiveness in Selected PREPS-Identified Value Added and PREPS-Identified Value Subtracted Elementary Schools in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jimmy Dale

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals, teachers, and support staff at 3 PREPS-identified value added and three PREPS-identified value subtracted elementary schools in Mississippi to determine if there were "effective schools" practices in the areas of instructional and organizational systems that were unique to either group. The…

  16. Protocol for an open-label, single-arm trial of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among people at high risk of HIV infection: the NSW Demonstration Project PRELUDE

    PubMed Central

    Vaccher, S; Grulich, A; McAllister, J; Templeton, D J; Bloch, M; McNulty, A; Holden, J; Poynten, I M; Prestage, G; Zablotska, I

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite a number of HIV prevention strategies, the number of new HIV infections remains high. In Australia, over three-quarters of new HIV diagnoses are in gay and bisexual men (GBM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to be effective at preventing new HIV infections in several randomised trials. The PRELUDE study aims to evaluate the implementation of PrEP in healthcare settings in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, among a sample of high-risk adults. Methods and analysis PRELUDE is an ongoing open-label, single-arm demonstration project, conducted in public and private clinics across NSW, Australia. Enrolment began in November 2014. The study is designed for 300 high-risk participants—mainly GBM and heterosexual women. Participants receive daily oral PrEP, composed of emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), for up to 2.5 years. Quarterly study visits include testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), assessment of ongoing eligibility and side effects, and self-reported adherence. Following each study visit, online behavioural surveys are administered to collect information on medication adherence, risk behaviours and attitudes. Blood samples will be collected in a subset of patients 1, 6 and 12 months after PrEP initiation to measure FTC/TDF concentrations. Analyses using longitudinal regression models will focus on feasibility, adherence, safety, tolerability and effects of PrEP on behaviour. This study will inform PrEP policy and guide the implementation of PrEP in Australia in people at high risk of HIV. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. All patients will provide written informed consent prior to participation in the study. Publications relating to each of the primary end points will be gradually released after 12 months of follow-up is complete. Trial registration number NCT02206555; Pre-results. PMID:27324719

  17. Fuel cells: a survey of current developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, Mark A. J.; Geiger, Stefan; Jollie, David M.

    Since the first practical uses of fuel cells were developed, it has become clear that they could find use in many products over a wide power range of milliwatts to tens of megawatts. Throughout the 1990s, and later, there has been significant work carried out on adapting the various different fuel cell technologies for use in targetted consumer and industrial applications. This paper discusses these developments and gives details on the specific market segments for providing power to vehicles, portable devices and large- and small-scale stationary power generation.

  18. Survey of Instructional Development Models. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Kent L.; Branch, Robert Maribe

    This ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) monograph updates and expands upon earlier ERIC publications on the topic of instructional development (ID) models. This monograph presents a brief history of ID models, describes a taxonomy for classifying them, provides examples from each of the categories in the taxonomy, and describes trends…

  19. Developing a Tobacco Survey for Deaf Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Barbara A.; Eckhardt, Elizabeth A.; Kleiger, Heidi B.; Wong, Glenn; Lipton, Douglas S.; Bastani, Roshan; Barkin, Shari

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the development of a culturally appropriate data collection instrument for a study of tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among youth with deafness. The instrument uses interactive multimedia technology to administer a questionnaire translated into the primary language used by individuals with deafness.…

  20. 2 + 2 Tech Prep Early Childhood Professions I and II Curriculum Guide: A Four Year Articulated Program for Secondary and Postsecondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Mary Martin; Harriman, Marilyn Williams

    The 2 + 2 Tech Prep Early Childhood Professions I and II curriculum guides, developed through funding from the Carl D. Perkins Education Act, are designed for students entering the first and second years of the program. They are the first and second in a series of courses that systematically expand students' knowledge, skills application, and…

  1. Survey of developing electronic photography standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    The ISO TC42/WG18 and ANSI/NAPM IT10 Technical Committees are developing the following standards related to electronic still photography: ISO 12231 -- Glossary of technical terms; ISO 12232 -- Determination of ISO speed; ISO 12233 -- Resolution measurements; ISO 12234 -- Removable memory; and ISO 14524 -- OECF measurement methods. ISO 12231 is at the DIS stage, ISO 12234 and 14524 are at the CD stage, and ISO 12232 and 12233 will most likely reach the CD stage within a year. Since most of these documents are approaching final form, it is useful to examine them in some detail. Presented here are summaries of the contents of these standards accompanied by comments on their application and state of development. These standards are viewed from a broad digital photography perspective, and placed in context with other work in this area. Significant research has been accomplished in these committees, and is discussed in relation to fundamental imaging issues. Also discussed are future projects and areas where standardization is needed but little has been accomplished. In addition to providing a forum for the development of standards, technical committees are an important avenue for interaction between companies, user groups, and the government. Such avenues can have a great impact on emerging technologies.

  2. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. PMID:26332268

  3. The deficiency of tumor suppressor prep1 accelerates the onset of meis1- hoxa9 leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dardaei, Leila; Modica, Livia; Iotti, Giorgio; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Prep1 and Meis1 ortholog TALE transcription factors have opposing roles in tumorigenesis: Meis1 serves as an oncogene, Prep1 as a tumor suppressor. We now report that, Meis1 overexpression in primary Prep1-deficient (Prep1i/i) embryonic hematopoietic cells increases self-renewal potential of cells in vitro but not in vivo, whereas leukemia is instead obtained when Meis1 is combined with another oncogene, HoxA9. Prep1i/i Meis1-HoxA9-generated leukemic cells are less differentiated and grow more aggressively after the second passage in the mouse. These data indicate that Prep1 represents a barrier to the transforming activity of Meis1 in vitro, but its absence is not sufficient to induce early leukemogenesis. On the other hand, the Prep1i/i background appears to favor the insurgence of mutations that cause a more aggressive Meis1-HoxA9-generated leukemia. Indeed, the Prep1i/i leukemic cells upregulate the Polycomb protein Bmi-1 and expectedly down-regulate the Ink4a/Arf locus products. Finally, an important feature contributed by the Prep1i/i background is the post-transcriptional increase in Meis1 protein level. PMID:24809472

  4. The Interacting Domains of PREP1 and p160 are Endowed with a Remarkable Structural Stability.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Virginia; Mascanzoni, Fabiola; Vitagliano, Luigi; Ruvo, Menotti; Doti, Nunzianna

    2016-05-01

    PREP1/p160 is a protein complex with relevant physiopathological roles in vivo. p160 regulates PREP1 transcriptional activity by preventing the formation of other PREP1-containing complexes, whereas PREP1 regulates p160 activity by increasing its stability. This induces the repression of the insulin-regulated glucose transporter GLUT4 dampening insulin sensitivity. In spite of the considerable amount of functional studies performed on the PREP1/p160 complex in vivo, a biochemical and structural characterization of this complex has not been so far undertaken, given the poor stability of the recombinant full-length proteins. Here, we report the design and preparation of PREP1 and p160 domains together with preliminary structural and binding studies. PREP1, residues 45-155, and p160, residues 20-160, have been expressed and purified as folded, monomeric domains. The two domains show both all-alpha secondary structures, as demonstrated by CD studies and are endowed with unusually high thermal stabilities. We have also estimated for the first time the PREP1-p160 interaction strength finding that the two recombinant domains interact with a KD ranging between about 0.3 and 1 μM. Altogether, data suggest that the selected PREP1 and p160 domains are structurally independent and that their structure is underlined by high stability and a prevailing alpha-helical organization. PMID:26979610

  5. Development and Validation of the Primary Care Team Dynamics Survey

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hummy; Chien, Alyna T; Fisher, Josephine; Martin, Julia; Peters, Antoinette S; Hacker, Karen; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Singer, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a survey instrument designed to measure team dynamics in primary care. Data Sources/Study Setting We studied 1,080 physician and nonphysician health care professionals working at 18 primary care practices participating in a learning collaborative aimed at improving team-based care. Study Design We developed a conceptual model and administered a cross-sectional survey addressing team dynamics, and we assessed reliability and discriminant validity of survey factors and the overall survey's goodness-of-fit using structural equation modeling. Data Collection We administered the survey between September 2012 and March 2013. Principal Findings Overall response rate was 68 percent (732 respondents). Results support a seven-factor model of team dynamics, suggesting that conditions for team effectiveness, shared understanding, and three supportive processes are associated with acting and feeling like a team and, in turn, perceived team effectiveness. This model demonstrated adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index: 0.91), scale reliability (Cronbach's alphas: 0.71–0.91), and discriminant validity (average factor correlations: 0.49). Conclusions It is possible to measure primary care team dynamics reliably using a 29-item survey. This survey may be used in ambulatory settings to study teamwork and explore the effect of efforts to improve team-based care. Future studies should demonstrate the importance of team dynamics for markers of team effectiveness (e.g., work satisfaction, care quality, clinical outcomes). PMID:25423886

  6. Survey and analysis of federally developed technology

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.E.; Conrad, J.L.

    1983-02-01

    The methodology and results of a test effort to determine whether there exist unexpected opportunities for the direct transfer of technologies from federal laboratories to industry are presented. Specifically, the latest results of six federal laboratories with potential application in the pulp and paper industry, particularly those results applicable to improving energy productivity, were evaluated, cataloged, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. The principal methodological steps in this effort were the development of a taxonomy of the pulp and paper industry, identification of industry needs and laboratory capabilities, laboratory visits, review of technology findings with industry, and evaluation and compilation of industry responses.

  7. Development and Implementation of Culturally Tailored Offline Mobile Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In low and middle income countries (LMICs), and other areas with low resources and unreliable access to the Internet, understanding the emerging best practices for the implementation of new mobile health (mHealth) technologies is needed for efficient and secure data management and for informing public health researchers. Innovations in mHealth technology can improve on previous methods, and dissemination of project development details and lessons learned during implementation are needed to provide lessons learned to stakeholders in both the United States and LMIC settings. Objective The aims of this paper are to share implementation strategies and lessons learned from the development and implementation stages of two survey research projects using offline mobile technology, and to inform and prepare public health researchers and practitioners to implement new mobile technologies in survey research projects in LMICs. Methods In 2015, two survey research projects were developed and piloted in Puerto Rico and pre-tested in Costa Rica to collect face-to-face data, get formative evaluation feedback, and to test the feasibility of an offline mobile data collection process. Fieldwork in each setting involved survey development, back translation with cultural tailoring, ethical review and approvals, data collector training, and piloting survey implementation on mobile tablets. Results Critical processes and workflows for survey research projects in low resource settings were identified and implemented. This included developing a secure mobile data platform tailored to each survey, establishing user accessibility, and training and eliciting feedback from data collectors and on-site LMIC project partners. Conclusions Formative and process evaluation strategies are necessary and useful for the development and implementation of survey research projects using emerging mHealth technologies in LMICs and other low resource settings. Lessons learned include: (1) plan

  8. Use of an HIV-risk screening tool to identify optimal candidates for PrEP scale-up among men who have sex with men in Toronto, Canada: disconnect between objective and subjective HIV risk

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, James; Kain, Taylor; Fowler, Shawn; Hart, Trevor A; Grennan, Troy; Maxwell, John; Tan, Darrell HS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Identifying appropriate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates is a challenge in planning for the safe and effective roll-out of this strategy. We explored the use of a validated HIV risk screening tool, HIV Incidence Risk Index for Men who have Sex with Men (HIRI-MSM), to identify “optimal” candidates among MSM testing at a busy sexual health clinic's community testing sites in Toronto, Canada. Methods Between November 2014 and April 2015, we surveyed MSM undergoing anonymous HIV testing at community testing sites in Toronto, Canada, to quantify “optimal” candidates for scaling up PrEP roll-out, defined as being at high objective HIV risk (scoring ≥10 on the HIRI-MSM), perceiving oneself at moderate-to-high HIV risk and being willing to use PrEP. Cascades were constructed to identify barriers to broader PrEP uptake. The association between HIRI-MSM score and both willingness to use PrEP and perceived HIV risk were explored in separate multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Of 420 respondents, 64.4% were objectively at high risk, 52.5% were willing to use PrEP and 27.2% perceived themselves at moderate-to-high HIV risk. Only 16.4% were “optimal” candidates. Higher HIRI-MSM scores were positively associated with both willingness to use PrEP (aOR=1.7 per 10 score increase, 95%CI=1.3–2.2) and moderate-to-high perceived HIV risk (aOR=1.7 per 10 score increase, 95%CI=1.2–2.3). The proportion of men who were “optimal” candidates increased to 42.9% when the objective HIV risk cut-off was changed to top quartile of HIRI-MSM scores (≥26). In our full cascade, a very low proportion (5.3%) of MSM surveyed could potentially benefit from PrEP under current conditions. The greatest barrier in the cascade was low perception of HIV risk among high-risk men, but considerable numbers were also lost in downstream cascade steps. Of men at high objective HIV risk, 68.3% did not perceive themselves to be at moderate-to-high HIV risk

  9. Development of the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    Student learning and development are the core business of the academy, yet until recently Australian and New Zealand universities lacked data on students' engagement in effective educational practices. This paper reports the foundations and development of the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement (AUSSE)--the largest educationally focused…

  10. Development of the Fear Survey for Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Lukenbill, James F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the fear survey for adults with mental retardation (FSAMR) and provides initial evidence of its psychometric properties. The FSAMR was designed to be sensitive to the assessment needs of individuals with mental retardation. The items were developed through open-ended interviews, a review of existing…

  11. Large Scale Survey Data in Career Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale survey datasets have been underutilized but offer numerous advantages for career development scholars, as they contain numerous career development constructs with large and diverse samples that are followed longitudinally. Constructs such as work salience, vocational expectations, educational expectations, work satisfaction, and…

  12. Survey of advanced-heat-pump developments for space conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of heat pump projects with special emphasis on those supported by DOE, EPRI, and the Gas Research Institute is presented. Some historical notes on heat pump development are discussed. Market and equipment trends, well water and ground-coupled heat pumps, heat-actuated heat pump development, and international interest in heat pumps are also discussed. 30 references.

  13. Community College Professional Development: Sharing What Works. Proceedings of a National Conference (San Antonio, Texas, October 18-19, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Susan L.; And Others

    This document contains 30 papers on professional development in community colleges. The following papers are included: "Effective Leadership Strategies for Planning and Implementing Tech Prep" (Bragg, Huffman); "Small Business Management-Tech Prep" (Harvey); "Educational Reform and the New Mission" (Hoerner); "Tech Prep in Texas: An Implementation…

  14. Urban Libraries Council Frequent Fast Facts Survey: Fund Raising and Financial Development Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Libraries Council, Evanston, IL.

    This survey documents activities of Urban Libraries Council member libraries in the areas of fund raising and financial development, and gathers examples of library bylaws, policies on the use of private and general funds money, and policies on gifts. Questionnaires were sent to 89 member libraries in September 1993, and 63 were returned. Findings…

  15. The novel homeoprotein Prep1 modulates Pbx-Hox protein cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, J; Zappavigna, V; Ferretti, E; Mavilio, F; Blasi, F

    1998-03-01

    The products of the mammalian Pbx and Drosophila exd genes are able to interact with Hox proteins specifically and to increase their DNA binding affinity and selectivity. In the accompanying paper we show that Pbx proteins exist as stable heterodimers with a novel homeodomain protein, Prep1. Here we show that Prep1-Pbx interaction presents novel structural features: it is independent of DNA binding and of the integrity of their respective homeodomains, and requires sequences in the N-terminal portions of both proteins. The Prep1-Pbx protein-protein interaction is essential for DNA-binding activity. Prep1-Pbx complexes are present in early mouse embryos at a time when Pbx is also interacting with Hox proteins. The use of different interaction surfaces could allow Pbx to interact with Prep1 and Hox proteins simultaneously. Indeed, we observe the formation of a ternary Prep1-Pbx1-HOXB1 complex on a HOXB1-responsive target in vitro. Interaction with Prep1 enhances the ability of the HOXB1-Pbx1 complex to activate transcription in a cooperative fashion from the same target. Our data suggest that Prep1 is an additional component in the transcriptional regulation by Hox proteins. PMID:9482740

  16. Access to Success. Strategies for Serving Special Populations in Tech Prep Programs. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuli, Kelli

    This handbook is designed to help educators at the secondary and postsecondary level implement strategies to serve students with special needs in tech prep programs. Chapter 1 suggests how it can be used. Chapter 2 defines tech prep and addresses its funding, students, and mission and goal in Virginia. Chapter 3 focuses on what the Perkins Act…

  17. Loss of the Homeodomain Transcription Factor Prep1 Perturbs Adult Hematopoiesis in the Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Kentaro; Oda, Akihisa; Notsu, Chihiro; Ohtsuka, Takafumi; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Nakamura, Takuro; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Prep1, a TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, has been demonstrated to play a critical role in embryonic hematopoiesis, as its insufficiency caused late embryonic lethality associated with defective hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. In the present study, we generated hematopoietic- and endothelial cell-specific Prep1-deficient mice and demonstrated that expression of Prep1 in the hematopoietic cell compartment is not essential for either embryonic or adult hematopoiesis, although its absence causes significant hematopoietic abnormalities in the adult bone marrow. Loss of Prep1 promotes cell cycling of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC), leading to the expansion of the HSPC pool. Prep1 deficiency also results in the accumulation of lineage-committed progenitors, increased monocyte/macrophage differentiation and arrested erythroid maturation. Maturation of T cells and B cells is also perturbed in Prep-deficient mice. These findings provide novel insight into the pleiotropic roles of Prep1 in adult hematopoiesis that were unrecognized in previous studies using germline Prep1 hypomorphic mice. PMID:26285139

  18. Loss of the Homeodomain Transcription Factor Prep1 Perturbs Adult Hematopoiesis in the Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Kentaro; Oda, Akihisa; Notsu, Chihiro; Ohtsuka, Takafumi; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Nakamura, Takuro; Mabuchi, Yo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Prep1, a TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, has been demonstrated to play a critical role in embryonic hematopoiesis, as its insufficiency caused late embryonic lethality associated with defective hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. In the present study, we generated hematopoietic- and endothelial cell-specific Prep1-deficient mice and demonstrated that expression of Prep1 in the hematopoietic cell compartment is not essential for either embryonic or adult hematopoiesis, although its absence causes significant hematopoietic abnormalities in the adult bone marrow. Loss of Prep1 promotes cell cycling of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC), leading to the expansion of the HSPC pool. Prep1 deficiency also results in the accumulation of lineage-committed progenitors, increased monocyte/macrophage differentiation and arrested erythroid maturation. Maturation of T cells and B cells is also perturbed in Prep-deficient mice. These findings provide novel insight into the pleiotropic roles of Prep1 in adult hematopoiesis that were unrecognized in previous studies using germline Prep1 hypomorphic mice. PMID:26285139

  19. The Effect of Studying Tech Prep in High School and College Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Larry A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the academic performance of Tech Prep students (referred to as participants) in comparison to non-Tech Prep students (referred to as non-participants) entering a two-year community college from sixteen different high schools in Stark County, Ohio. This study provided a quantitative analysis of students' academic experiences to…

  20. Tech-Prep Competency Profiles within the Business/Computer Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for educators throughout Ohio who are involved in planning and/or delivering tech prep programs within the business/computer technologies cluster, discusses and presents tech prep competency profiles (TCPs) for 12 business/computer technology occupations. The first part of the document contains the following:…

  1. Charter Schools as Nation Builders: Democracy Prep and Civic Education. Policy Brief 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lautzenheiser, Daniel; Kelly, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    This policy brief is the first in a series of in-depth case studies exploring how top-performing charter schools have incorporated civic learning in their school curriculum and school culture. This paper introduces Democracy Prep, a network of seven public charter schools with a civic mission at its core. Democracy Prep's founder and…

  2. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Themes and Priority Areas of Tech Prep in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roegge, Chris A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    After a definition of tech prep was formed through concept mapping, 450 stakeholders in Illinois tech prep (6 state staff, 16 employers, 35 postsecondary educators, 99 secondary educators) identified key themes/priorities: outcomes assessment, planning and support, external involvement, articulation/integration, benefits, enrollment incentives,…

  3. On the Right Track: Southern Maryland Schools Revamp Their Curriculum around Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, Kathy

    1992-01-01

    In St. Mary's County (Maryland) schools' revamped curriculum, tech prep encompasses four clusters: applied business/management, applied engineering/mechanics, applied health/human services, and college prep. Career counselors help eighth graders choose a cluster and monitor their satisfaction with their choice, allowing them to change until junior…

  4. Making the Case for Tech Prep. New Perkins Act Boosts Secondary/Postsecondary Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Tech prep prepares people for technical careers by linking high school studies with community college coursework. The Pee Dee Tech Prep Program in North Carolina is a joint venture between the Richmond County Schools and Richmond Community College that connects essential skills learned in high school with occupation-specific skills taught in…

  5. Peer-Mentored Preparedness (PM-Prep): A New Disaster Preparedness Program for Adults Living Independently in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list…

  6. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Applied to Hydrocarbon Resource Development Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Ball, L. B.; Finn, C.; Kass, A.; Thamke, J.

    2014-12-01

    Application of airborne geophysical surveys ranges in scale from detailed site scale such as locating abandoned well casing and saline water plumes to landscape scale for mapping hydrogeologic frameworks pertinent to ground water and tectonic settings relevant to studies of induced seismicity. These topics are important in understanding possible effects of hydrocarbon development on the environment. In addition airborne geophysical surveys can be used in establishing baseline "snapshots", to provide information in beneficial uses of produced waters, and in mapping ground water resources for use in well development. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted airborne geophysical surveys over more than 20 years for applications in energy resource environmental studies. A majority of these surveys are airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys to map subsurface electrical conductivity related to plumes of saline waters and more recently to map hydrogeologic frameworks for ground water and plume migration. AEM surveys have been used in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to characterize the near surface geologic framework for siting produced water disposal ponds and for beneficial utilization in subsurface drip irrigation. A recent AEM survey at the Fort Peck Reservation, Montana, was used to map both shallow plumes from brine pits and surface infrastructure sources and a deeper concealed saline water plume from a failed injection well. Other reported applications have been to map areas geologically favorable for shallow gas that could influence drilling location and design. Airborne magnetic methods have been used to image the location of undocumented abandoned well casings which can serve as conduits to the near surface for coproduced waters. They have also been used in conjunction with geologic framework studies to understand the possible relationships between tectonic features and induced earthquakes in the Raton Basin. Airborne gravity as well as developing deeper

  7. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  8. Gender Differences in Faculty Development: A Faculty Needs Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hyvonen, Shelby; Lan, Mei-Fang; Boyum, Kathleen; Hilty, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated professional development needs of faculty in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of California (UC) Davis, while also exploring any existing differences according to gender and academic rank. Methods: An online survey was sent to 75 faculty members, and 41 responses (17 women,…

  9. Spartanburg Technical College 1998 Work Force Development Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinley, John W.; Cantrell, Jo Ellen

    The 1998 Work Force Development Study focuses on Spartanburg Technical College's (STC's) (South Carolina) role in preparing new workers and training/retraining the current workforce. Surveys were mailed to employers in business and industry--the response rate was 10%. In addition, a series of focus groups, including various business, industry,…

  10. Reference Collection Development in Academic Libraries: Report of a Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Mary; Biggs, Victor

    1987-01-01

    A survey of heads of academic library reference services gathered information on reference collection development. Findings included: (1) selection and weeding frequently are not guided by written policies; (2) empirical studies of use are almost nonexistent; and (3) online availability of sources is an important factor in selection. (20…

  11. Survey of Staff Preparation for Infant/Toddler Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorelick, Molly C.

    The purpose of this study was to survey the agencies and individuals presently conducting infant/toddler development (ITD) programs in the Los Angeles County area to determine whether the agencies were operated by public or private organizations; the educational background of the individuals staffing these programs and the respondents'…

  12. Developing Survey Measures of Inequality of Autonomy in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchardt, Tania; Holder, Holly

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the development of survey questions to measure autonomy, interpreted as the degree of choice and control a person has in key areas of his or her life. A review of the theoretical literature leads to a conceptualisation of autonomy as consisting of three components: (1) self-reflection, (2) active or delegated decision-making,…

  13. Development and Validation of the College Drinking Influences Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.; Fried, Adam L.; Anushko, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed and validated measures of college drinking expectations, psychosocial influences, and values. Participants: Freshmen at college entry (N = 320) and the end of freshman year (N = 420) participated. Methods: The College Drinking Influences Survey, administered in paper and Web-based versions, consists of 3 distinct…

  14. Concept and development of information flow diagram for literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Masaru; Sato, Shoko; Ueda, Tadashi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Koike, Akihisa

    2007-07-01

    The Information Flow Diagram for Literature Survey (IFDLS) has been developed to manage information and procedure in the literature survey phase of the PTAs selection process. It is a tool utilizing information technology, which can organize, analyze, and evaluate information from literature survey and manage their process systematically. IFDLS is able to show the flow of information and data, and the history of information management processing. Information coverage and quality is not homogenous throughout the country and, in some areas, there may not even be sufficient data available to be able to reach a judgment on conformity with the site-specific evaluation factors (SSEF). Literature surveys could only be conducted on a volunteer area before it is nominated as a PIA. However, the absence of information on any factor mentioned will not constitute disqualification of the area. On the contrary, an attempt to compare these sites with analogous areas in Japan will be done to assemble sufficient data and consequently make a decision on whether to proceed further. The application of IFDLS to literature survey phase of the PIA selection process is being proposed. The concept, construction, application and evolution of IFDLS towards application phase on a trial basis are discussed. (authors)

  15. Assessing Consumer Responses to PREPs: A Review of Tobacco Industry and Independent Research Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Cummings, K. Michael; O'Connor, Richard J.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Parascandola, Mark; Shields, Peter G.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Internal tobacco industry documents and the mainstream literature are reviewed to identify methods and measures for evaluating tobacco consumer response. The review aims to outline areas in which established methods exist, identify gaps in current methods for assessing CR, and consider how these methods might be applied to evaluate PREPs and new products. Methods Internal industry research reviewed included published papers, manuscript drafts, presentations, protocols, and instruments relating to consumer response measures were identified and analyzed. Peer-reviewed research was identified using PubMed and Scopus. Results Industry research on consumer response focuses on product development and marketing. To develop and refine new products, the tobacco industry has developed notable strategies for assessing consumers' sensory and subjective responses to product design characteristics. Independent research is often conducted to gauge the likelihood of future product adoption by measuring consumers' risk perceptions, responses to product, and product acceptability. Conclusions A model which conceptualizes consumer response as comprising the separate, but interacting domains of product perceptions and response to product is outlined. Industry and independent research supports the dual domain model, and provides a wide range of methods for assessment of the construct components of consumer response. Further research is needed to validate consumer response constructs, determine the relationship between consumer response and tobacco user behavior, and improve reliability of consumer response measures. Scientifically rigorous consumer response assessment methods will provide a needed empirical basis for future regulation of PREPs and new products, to counteract tobacco industry influence on consumers, and enhance the public health. PMID:19959675

  16. GC Preps: Fast and Easy Extraction of Stable Yeast Genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Benjamin A.; Driessen, Maureen R. M.; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Existing yeast genomic DNA extraction methods are not ideally suited to extensive screening of colonies by PCR, due to being too lengthy, too laborious or yielding poor quality DNA and inconsistent results. We developed the GC prep method as a solution to this problem. Yeast cells from colonies or liquid cultures are lysed by vortex mixing with glass beads and then boiled in the presence of a metal chelating resin. In around 12 minutes, multiple samples can be processed to extract high yields of genomic DNA. These preparations perform as effectively in PCR screening as DNA purified by organic solvent methods, are stable for up to 1 year at room temperature and can be used as the template for PCR amplification of fragments of at least 8 kb. PMID:27240644

  17. GC Preps: Fast and Easy Extraction of Stable Yeast Genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Blount, Benjamin A; Driessen, Maureen R M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Existing yeast genomic DNA extraction methods are not ideally suited to extensive screening of colonies by PCR, due to being too lengthy, too laborious or yielding poor quality DNA and inconsistent results. We developed the GC prep method as a solution to this problem. Yeast cells from colonies or liquid cultures are lysed by vortex mixing with glass beads and then boiled in the presence of a metal chelating resin. In around 12 minutes, multiple samples can be processed to extract high yields of genomic DNA. These preparations perform as effectively in PCR screening as DNA purified by organic solvent methods, are stable for up to 1 year at room temperature and can be used as the template for PCR amplification of fragments of at least 8 kb. PMID:27240644

  18. Assessing physics learning identity: Survey development and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sissi L.; Demaree, Dedra

    2012-02-01

    Innovative curricula aim to improve content knowledge and the goal of helping students develop practices and skills of authentic scientist through active engagement learning. To students, these classroom practices often seem very different from their previous learning experiences in terms of behavioral expectations, learning attitude, and what learning means. We propose that productive participation in these learning environments require students to modify their identity as learners in addition to refining their science conceptual understanding. In order to measure changes in learning identity, we developed a 49-item survey to assess students' 1) expectations of student and teacher roles, 2) self efficacy towards skills supported in the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) and 3) attitudes towards social learning. Using principle components exploratory factor analysis, we have established two reliable factors with subscales that measure these student characteristics. This paper presents the survey development, validation and pilot study results.

  19. Oklahoma Library Survey; a State-Wide Survey of Libraries and Plan for Library Development in Oklahoma 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint John (Francis R.) Library Consultants, Inc., New York, NY.

    A comprehensive survey was conducted to (1) determine the present state and future needs of Oklahoma libraries, with emphasis on public libraries, and (2) formulate a plan for library development. A survey team collected basic data on the state's libraries, conducted an in-depth survey of representative public libraries, examined library…

  20. Lecture to inquiry: The transformation of a tech prep biology teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Deborah Harris

    As teachers implement the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) many have to reform the instructional methods they have used throughout their careers. This case study examines the transformation of Laurie, a 20-year teacher, during her first year of change from a "traditional" textbook/lecture style of teaching to a facilitator of an inquiry-based classroom. Implementing change requires not only pedagogical expertise, but also the belief that the modifications can be made and that the outcomes are significant. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory as a framework, changes in Laurie's self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and motivation are followed throughout the transition. During her first year of change, Laurie used worksheets, small group activities, and guided inquiry activities, all strategies in which she had high self-efficacy and experienced positive student outcomes. She rarely used class forums, authentic assessment, and formative assessment. Factors that influenced her change were experiential professional development opportunities that allowed her to practice inquiry-based techniques, a change in her teaching environment from college prep chemistry to tech prep biology, autonomy regarding classroom decisions, and reflective decision making as she learned through experience. Using a standards-based biology textbook increased her self-efficacy toward using inquiry-based practices. The textbook format of embedding text in activities rather than adding activities to the text resulted in an increase of the number and frequency of activities done. Facilitating the textbook's Guided Inquiries and Extended Inquiries helped Laurie gain experience with inquiry-based methods. She also realized that when building from the students' concrete experiences, her students were able to attain higher-level thinking skills. The study revealed six factors contributing to Laurie's change process: (a) experiential professional development, (b) motivation for change

  1. Acceptability of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PREP) Among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) in a Canadian Setting.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Daniel J; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Nguyen, Paul; Lurie, Mark N; Sued, Omar; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2015-05-01

    A recent clinical trial provided evidence that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has the potential to prevent HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). We examined willingness to use PrEP among HIV-negative PWID in Vancouver, Canada (n = 543) to inform PrEP implementation efforts. One third (35.4 %) expressed willingness to use PrEP, with adjusted models indicating that younger age, no regular employment, requiring help injecting, engaging in sex work, and reporting multiple recent sexual partners were positively associated with willingness to use PrEP. Although willingness to use PrEP was low, PrEP was acceptable to some PWID at heightened risk for HIV infection. PMID:25086669

  2. Prep1 and Meis1 competition for Pbx1 binding regulates protein stability and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Dardaei, Leila; Longobardi, Elena; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-03-11

    Pbx-regulating protein-1 (Prep1) is a tumor suppressor, whereas myeloid ecotropic viral integration site-1 (Meis1) is an oncogene. We show that, to perform these activities in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, both proteins competitively heterodimerize with pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox-1 (Pbx1). Meis1 alone transforms Prep1-deficient fibroblasts, whereas Prep1 overexpression inhibits Meis1 tumorigenicity. Pbx1 can, therefore, alternatively act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor. Prep1 posttranslationally controls the level of Meis1, decreasing its stability by sequestering Pbx1. The different levels of Meis1 and the presence of Prep1 are followed at the transcriptional level by the induction of specific transcriptional signatures. The decrease of Meis1 prevents Meis1 interaction with Ddx3x and Ddx5, which are essential for Meis1 tumorigenesis, and modifies the growth-promoting DNA binding landscape of Meis1 to the growth-controlling landscape of Prep1. Hence, the key feature of Prep1 tumor-inhibiting activity is the control of Meis1 stability. PMID:24578510

  3. PrEP as Peri-conception HIV Prevention for Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Heffron, Renee; Pintye, Jillian; Matthews, Lynn T; Weber, Shannon; Mugo, Nelly

    2016-06-01

    Daily oral tenofovir (TDF)-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy and recommended for men and women with substantial risk of HIV acquisition. The peri-conception period, the stage prior to pregnancy when condom use is necessarily reduced, has elevated HIV risk that can be mitigated by PrEP use. Data from a randomized trial suggest that peri-conception PrEP use by HIV-seronegative women does not increase the risk of pregnancy loss, birth defects or congenital anomalies, preterm birth, or infant growth faltering. Women considering PrEP use throughout pregnancy must weigh the known increased risk of HIV acquisition with unknown risks of drug effects on infant growth. PrEP has been used safely by HIV-seronegative men with HIV-seropositive female partners who have become pregnant. As an effective user-controlled HIV prevention strategy, PrEP offers autonomy and empowerment for HIV prevention and can be recommended alongside antiretroviral therapy, fertility screening, vaginal self-insemination, intercourse timed to peak fertility, medically assisted reproduction, and other safer conception strategies to provide multiple options. The integration of PrEP into safer conception programs is warranted and will safely reduce HIV transmission to women, men, and children during the peri-conception period. PMID:26993627

  4. SKILL PREP Program for American Indian Students. Final report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloh, S.; Huebner, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL) precollege college program of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology concluded the 1994 PREP program on July 22, 1994. The program graduated 22 students from the 4-week residential math/science program for American Indian students. Primary academic focus was physics (30 hours); each student was given a bicycle to solve problems on angular momentum and mechanical advantage. Mathematical calculations and problem solving exercises were done in mathematics class (20 hours). Preliminary results in math, physics, and geology show dramatic increases in student achievement over the 4- week period. The program paired every two students with a faculty member or research scientist, and each team completed a research project.

  5. A Survey of Agent-oriented Development Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokahr, Alexander; Braubach, Lars

    Development tools represent an important additive for the practical realization of software applications, mainly because they help automating development activities and are able to hide complexity from developers. In this chapter, the requirements for tools are generically analyzed by the various tasks that need to be performed in the different development phases. These requirements are the foundation for a detailed investigation of the landscape of available agent-oriented development tools. In order to assess the variety of tools systematically, existing surveys and evaluations have been used to isolate three important categories of tools, which are treated separately: modeling tools, IDEs and phase-specic tools. For each of these categories specic requirements are elaborated, an overview of existing tools is given and one representative tool is presented in more detail.

  6. Hoxb1 enhancer and control of rhombomere 4 expression: complex interplay between PREP1-PBX1-HOXB1 binding sites.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Elisabetta; Cambronero, Francisco; Tümpel, Stefan; Longobardi, Elena; Wiedemann, Leanne M; Blasi, Francesco; Krumlauf, Robb

    2005-10-01

    The Hoxb1 autoregulatory enhancer directs segmental expression in vertebrate hindbrain. Three conserved repeats (R1, R2, and R3) in the enhancer have been described as Pbx-Hoxb1 (PH) binding sites, and one Pbx-Meinox (PM) binding site has also been characterized. We have investigated the importance and relative roles of PH and PM binding sites with respect to protein interactions and in vivo regulatory activity. We have identified a new PM site (PM2) and found that it cooperates with the R3 PH site to form ternary Prep1-Pbx1-Hoxb1 complexes. In vivo, the combination of the R3 and PM2 sites is sufficient to mediate transgenic reporter activity in the developing chick hindbrain. In both chicken and mouse transgenic embryos, mutations of the PM1 and PM2 sites reveal that they cooperate to modulate in vivo regulatory activity of the Hoxb1 enhancer. Furthermore, we have shown that the R2 motif functions as a strong PM site, with a high binding affinity for Prep1-Pbx1 dimers, and renamed this site R2/PM3. In vitro R2/PM3, when combined with the PM1 and R3 motifs, inhibits ternary complex formation mediated by these elements and in vivo reduces and restricts reporter expression in transgenic embryos. These inhibitory effects appear to be a consequence of the high PM binding activity of the R2/PM3 site. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the activity of the Hoxb1 autoregulatory enhancer depends upon multiple Prep1-Pbx1 (PM1, PM2, and PM3) and Pbx1-Hoxb1 (R1 and R3) binding sites that cooperate to modulate and spatially restrict the expression of Hoxb1 in r4 rhombomere. PMID:16166636

  7. Measuring vaccine hesitancy: The development of a survey tool.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Schulz, William S; Chaudhuri, Mohuya; Zhou, Yuqing; Dube, Eve; Schuster, Melanie; MacDonald, Noni E; Wilson, Rose

    2015-08-14

    In March 2012, the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy was convened to define the term "vaccine hesitancy", as well as to map the determinants of vaccine hesitancy and develop tools to measure and address the nature and scale of hesitancy in settings where it is becoming more evident. The definition of vaccine hesitancy and a matrix of determinants guided the development of a survey tool to assess the nature and scale of hesitancy issues. Additionally, vaccine hesitancy questions were piloted in the annual WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form, completed by National Immunization Managers globally. The objective of characterizing the nature and scale of vaccine hesitancy issues is to better inform the development of appropriate strategies and policies to address the concerns expressed, and to sustain confidence in vaccination. The Working Group developed a matrix of the determinants of vaccine hesitancy informed by a systematic review of peer reviewed and grey literature, and by the expertise of the working group. The matrix mapped the key factors influencing the decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine-specific. These categories framed the menu of survey questions presented in this paper to help diagnose and address vaccine hesitancy. PMID:25896384

  8. Prep1 deficiency induces protection from diabetes and increased insulin sensitivity through a p160-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Oriente, Francesco; Fernandez Diaz, Luis Cesar; Miele, Claudia; Iovino, Salvatore; Mori, Silvia; Diaz, Victor Manuel; Troncone, Giancarlo; Cassese, Angela; Formisano, Pietro; Blasi, Francesco; Beguinot, Francesco

    2008-09-01

    We have examined glucose homeostasis in mice hypomorphic for the homeotic transcription factor gene Prep1. Prep1-hypomorphic (Prep1(i/i)) mice exhibit an absolute reduction in circulating insulin levels but normal glucose tolerance. In addition, these mice exhibit protection from streptozotocin-induced diabetes and enhanced insulin sensitivity with improved glucose uptake and insulin-dependent glucose disposal by skeletal muscle. This muscle phenotype does not depend on reduced expression of the known Prep1 transcription partner, Pbx1. Instead, in Prep1(i/i) muscle, we find normal Pbx1 but reduced levels of the recently identified novel Prep1 interactor p160. Consistent with this reduction, we find a muscle-selective increase in mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1alpha, accompanied by enhanced expression of the GLUT4 transporter, responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle. Indeed, using L6 skeletal muscle cells, we induced the opposite effects by overexpressing Prep1 or p160, but not Pbx1. In vivo skeletal muscle delivery of p160 cDNA in Prep1(i/i) mice also reverses the molecular phenotype. Finally, we show that Prep1 controls the stability of the p160 protein. We conclude that Prep1 controls insulin sensitivity through the p160-GLUT4 pathway. PMID:18644868

  9. Prep1 Deficiency Induces Protection from Diabetes and Increased Insulin Sensitivity through a p160-Mediated Mechanism▿

    PubMed Central

    Oriente, Francesco; Fernandez Diaz, Luis Cesar; Miele, Claudia; Iovino, Salvatore; Mori, Silvia; Diaz, Victor Manuel; Troncone, Giancarlo; Cassese, Angela; Formisano, Pietro; Blasi, Francesco; Beguinot, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We have examined glucose homeostasis in mice hypomorphic for the homeotic transcription factor gene Prep1. Prep1-hypomorphic (Prep1i/i) mice exhibit an absolute reduction in circulating insulin levels but normal glucose tolerance. In addition, these mice exhibit protection from streptozotocin-induced diabetes and enhanced insulin sensitivity with improved glucose uptake and insulin-dependent glucose disposal by skeletal muscle. This muscle phenotype does not depend on reduced expression of the known Prep1 transcription partner, Pbx1. Instead, in Prep1i/i muscle, we find normal Pbx1 but reduced levels of the recently identified novel Prep1 interactor p160. Consistent with this reduction, we find a muscle-selective increase in mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1α, accompanied by enhanced expression of the GLUT4 transporter, responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle. Indeed, using L6 skeletal muscle cells, we induced the opposite effects by overexpressing Prep1 or p160, but not Pbx1. In vivo skeletal muscle delivery of p160 cDNA in Prep1i/i mice also reverses the molecular phenotype. Finally, we show that Prep1 controls the stability of the p160 protein. We conclude that Prep1 controls insulin sensitivity through the p160-GLUT4 pathway. PMID:18644868

  10. Purification and Characterization of a DNA-Binding Recombinant PREP1:PBX1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Bruckmann, Chiara; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Blasi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Human PREP1 and PBX1 are homeodomain transcriptional factors, whose biochemical and structural characterization has not yet been fully described. Expression of full-length recombinant PREP1 (47.6 kDa) and PBX1 (46.6 kDa) in E. coli is difficult because of poor yield, high instability and insufficient purity, in particular for structural studies. We cloned the cDNA of both proteins into a dicistronic vector containing an N-terminal glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag and co-expressed and co-purified a stable PBX1:PREP1 complex. For structural studies, we produced two C-terminally truncated complexes that retain their ability to bind DNA and are more stable than the full-length proteins through various purification steps. Here we report the production of large amounts of soluble and pure recombinant human PBX1:PREP1 complex in an active form capable of binding DNA. PMID:25856340

  11. Purification and characterization of a DNA-binding recombinant PREP1:PBX1 complex.

    PubMed

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Bruckmann, Chiara; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Blasi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Human PREP1 and PBX1 are homeodomain transcriptional factors, whose biochemical and structural characterization has not yet been fully described. Expression of full-length recombinant PREP1 (47.6 kDa) and PBX1 (46.6 kDa) in E. coli is difficult because of poor yield, high instability and insufficient purity, in particular for structural studies. We cloned the cDNA of both proteins into a dicistronic vector containing an N-terminal glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag and co-expressed and co-purified a stable PBX1:PREP1 complex. For structural studies, we produced two C-terminally truncated complexes that retain their ability to bind DNA and are more stable than the full-length proteins through various purification steps. Here we report the production of large amounts of soluble and pure recombinant human PBX1:PREP1 complex in an active form capable of binding DNA. PMID:25856340

  12. Building Tech Prep Consortia: Steps to Take--And Pitfalls to Avoid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Cassy; Key, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Common mistakes of tech prep consortia are (1) sacrificing effectiveness for efficiency; (2) poor labor market analysis; (3) superficial curriculum reorganization; and (4) no mechanism for continuity and poor communication. (SK)

  13. 77 FR 8272 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, PrepCAST.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... the State, Local and Tribal jurisdiction level. It also collects National Incident Management System... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, PrepCAST. AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

  14. Developing a Self-Reported Physical Fitness Survey

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole R.; Stump, Timothy E.; Clark, Daniel O.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness measures indicate health status and could be used to improve management of overall health. Purpose To describe the development of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey intended to estimate fitness in adults aged ≥40 years across four domains; 1) muscular strength and endurance, 2) cardiovascular fitness, 3) flexibility, and 4) body composition. Methods SRFit items were developed from the previously validated Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery of physical tests. Face-to-face participant interviews were used to refine SRFit item wording. Data from a pilot administration of the SRFit survey were used to guide further revisions of SRFit items. The Senior Fitness Test battery was used to evaluate the four fitness domains. The BodPod was used to measure body composition. Height, weight, and resting blood pressure were measured and the revised SRFit survey was administered to 108 participants. Results Forty-five percent of the participants were female and 37% reported being Black or in the “other” race category. Mean age was 53.5±8.0 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 30.6±8.8 kg/m2. SRFit summary score means (SD) and correlations found between summary score means (SD) and fitness test scores were: Upper body strength m=12.8 (2.4), r=0.59, p<0.001; lower body strength m=12.6 (2.6), r=0.68, p<0.001; upper body flexibility left-side m=12.3 (2.8), r=0.47, p<0.001; right-side m=12.4 (2.8), r=0.67, p<0.001; lower body flexibility m=17.4 (3.8), r = 0.55, p<0.001; cardiovascular endurance m=12.9 (2.6), r=0.66, p<0.001; BMI m=7.7 (2.23), r=0.79, p<0.001; and percent body fat m=7.7 (2.2), r=0.78, p<0.001. Conclusion SRFit survey items in each fitness domain were correlated with analogous Senior Fitness Test items indicating that participants could accurately use the SRFit survey to self-report physical fitness. PMID:22297807

  15. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.1 Section 406.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED TECH-PREP EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 406.1 What is...

  16. The TALE class homeobox gene Smed-prep defines the anterior compartment for head regeneration.

    PubMed

    Felix, Daniel A; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Planaria continue to blossom as a model system for understanding all aspects of regeneration. They provide an opportunity to understand how the replacement of missing tissues from preexisting adult tissue is orchestrated at the molecular level. When amputated along any plane, planaria are capable of regenerating all missing tissue and rescaling all structures to the new size of the animal. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the developmental pathways that control planarian regeneration. In particular Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is central in promoting posterior fates and inhibiting anterior identity. Currently the mechanisms that actively promote anterior identity remain unknown. Here, Smed-prep, encoding a TALE class homeodomain, is described as the first gene necessary for correct anterior fate and patterning during planarian regeneration. Smed-prep is expressed at high levels in the anterior portion of whole animals, and Smed-prep(RNAi) leads to loss of the whole brain during anterior regeneration, but not during lateral regeneration or homeostasis in intact worms. Expression of markers of different anterior fated cells are greatly reduced or lost in Smed-prep(RNAi) animals. We find that the ectopic anterior structures induced by abrogation of Wnt signaling also require Smed-prep to form. We use double knockdown experiments with the S. mediterranea ortholog of nou-darake (that when knocked down induces ectopic brain formation) to show that Smed-prep defines an anterior fated compartment within which stem cells are permitted to assume brain fate, but is not required directly for this differentiation process. Smed-prep is the first gene clearly implicated as being necessary for promoting anterior fate and the first homeobox gene implicated in establishing positional identity during regeneration. Together our results suggest that Smed-prep is required in stem cell progeny as they form the anterior regenerative blastema and is required for

  17. elPrep: High-Performance Preparation of Sequence Alignment/Map Files for Variant Calling

    PubMed Central

    Decap, Dries; Fostier, Jan; Reumers, Joke

    2015-01-01

    elPrep is a high-performance tool for preparing sequence alignment/map files for variant calling in sequencing pipelines. It can be used as a replacement for SAMtools and Picard for preparation steps such as filtering, sorting, marking duplicates, reordering contigs, and so on, while producing identical results. What sets elPrep apart is its software architecture that allows executing preparation pipelines by making only a single pass through the data, no matter how many preparation steps are used in the pipeline. elPrep is designed as a multithreaded application that runs entirely in memory, avoids repeated file I/O, and merges the computation of several preparation steps to significantly speed up the execution time. For example, for a preparation pipeline of five steps on a whole-exome BAM file (NA12878), we reduce the execution time from about 1:40 hours, when using a combination of SAMtools and Picard, to about 15 minutes when using elPrep, while utilising the same server resources, here 48 threads and 23GB of RAM. For the same pipeline on whole-genome data (NA12878), elPrep reduces the runtime from 24 hours to less than 5 hours. As a typical clinical study may contain sequencing data for hundreds of patients, elPrep can remove several hundreds of hours of computing time, and thus substantially reduce analysis time and cost. PMID:26182406

  18. The Eastland Prostate Cancer Survey: instrument development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    Eastland, Taryn Y; Dancy, Barbara L

    2013-03-01

    African-American (AA) women could be instrumental in communicating positive prostate screening behavior to the significant males in their lives. However, little is known about AA women's prostate cancer attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, intentions, behaviors, and knowledge regarding prostate cancer screening. This study describes the development and psychometric testing of the Eastland Prostate Cancer Survey (EPCS). A nonexperimental, correlational study with 200 AA women was used to test the psychometric properties of the six-subscale EPCS with 66 items. Construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability for the EPCS were acceptable and resulted in an eight-subscale EPCS with 56 items. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales ranged from 0.69 to 0.92. The EPCS is a culturally sensitive, gender-relevant instrument that could be used by community health providers to develop community health programs aimed at engaging AA women in the promotion of prostate cancer screening for AA men. PMID:23288607

  19. Barriers and facilitators to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) eligibility screening and ongoing HIV testing among target populations in Bondo and Rarieda, Kenya: Results of a consultation with community stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) moves closer to availability in developing countries, practical considerations for implementation become important. We conducted a consultation with district-level community stakeholders experienced in HIV-prevention interventions with at-risk populations in Bondo and Rarieda, Kenya to generate locally grounded approaches to the future rollout of oral PrEP to four populations: fishermen, widows, female sex workers, and serodiscordant couples. Methods The 20 consultation participants represented the Ministry of Health, faith- and community-based organizations, health facilities, community groups, and nongovernmental organizations. Participants divided into breakout groups and followed a structured discussion guide asking them to identify barriers to implementing HIV-prevention interventions (including PrEP) with each population. Questions also solicited solutions for addressing these barriers, as well as other facilitators for PrEP implementation. In particular, questions focused on how to encourage people to screen for PrEP eligibility by having HIV and other blood tests and how to encourage compliance with ongoing HIV testing. Results The barriers and facilitators/solutions discussants provided were frequently population-specific, but there were also broad-level similarities across populations. Service delivery barriers to HIV-prevention interventions concerned the need for staff trained to address the needs of particular populations. Service delivery facilitators to provision of ongoing HIV testing consisted of offering testing options besides facility-based testing. Stigma was the main community-level barrier for all groups, whereas barriers at the level of target populations included mobility; lifestyle and life circumstances, especially cultural norms among fishermen and widows; and fears, lack of awareness, and misinformation. Proposed facilitators and strategies for addressing community- and population

  20. Language Surveys in Developing Nations. Papers and Reports on Sociolinguistic Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Sirirpi, Ed.; And Others

    This volume is a selection of papers prepared for a conference on sociolinguistically oriented language surveys organized by the Center for Applied Linguistics and held in New York in September 1971. The purpose of the conference was to review the role and function of such language surveys in the light of surveys conducted in recent years. The…

  1. Survey Instrument Validity Part I: Principles of Survey Instrument Development and Validation in Athletic Training Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Instrument validation is an important facet of survey research methods and athletic trainers must be aware of the important underlying principles. Objective: To discuss the process of survey development and validation, specifically the process of construct validation. Background: Athletic training researchers frequently employ the use of…

  2. A university-developed seismic source for shallow seismic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordkayhun, Sawasdee; Na Suwan, Jumras

    2012-07-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (1) design and develop a low cost seismic source for shallow seismic surveys and (2) test the performance of the developed source at a test site. The surface seismic source, referred to here as a university-developed seismic source is based upon the principle of an accelerated weight drop. A 30 kg activated mass is lifted by a mechanical rack and pinion gear and is accelerated by a mounted spring. When the mass is released from 0.5 m above the surface, it hits a 30 kg base plate and energy is transferred to the ground, generating a seismic wave. The developed source is portable, environmentally friendly, easy to operate and maintain, and is a highly repeatable impact source. To compare the developed source with a sledgehammer source, a source test was performed at a test site, a study site for mapping a major fault zone in southern Thailand. The sledgehammer and the developed sources were shot along a 300 m long seismic reflection profile with the same parameters. Data were recorded using 12 channels off-end geometry with source and receiver spacing of 5 m, resulting in CDP stacked sections with 2.5 m between traces. Source performances were evaluated based on analyses of signal penetration, frequency content and repeatability, as well as the comparison of stacked sections. The results show that both surface sources are suitable for seismic studies down to a depth of about 200 m at the site. The hammer data are characterized by relatively higher frequency signals than the developed source data, whereas the developed source generates signals with overall higher signal energy transmission and greater signal penetration. In addition, the repeatability of the developed source is considerably higher than the hammer source.

  3. Reduction of Prep1 levels affects differentiation of normal and malignant B cells and accelerates Myc driven lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Giorgio; Mejetta, Stefania; Modica, Livia; Penkov, Dmitry; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Blasi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Prep1 homeodomain transcription factor has recently been recognized as a tumor suppressor. Among other features, haploinsufficiency of Prep1 is able to strongly accelerate the B-lymphomagenesis in EμMyc mice. Now we report that this occurs concomitantly with a change in the type of B-cell lymphomas generated by the Myc oncogene. Indeed, the tumors generated in the EμMyc-Prep1(+/-) mice are much more immature, being mostly made up of Pro-B or Pre-B cells, while those in the EμMyc-Prep1(+/+) mice are more differentiated being invariably IgM(+). Moreover, we show that Prep1 is in fact required for the differentiation of Pro-B and Pre-B cells into IgM(+) lymphocytes and/or their proliferation, thus showing also how a normal function of Prep1 affects EμMyc lymphomagenesis. Finally, we show that the haploinsufficiency of Prep1 is accompanied with a major decrease of Myc-induced apoptosis and that the haploinsufficieny is sufficient for all these effects because the second allele of Prep1 is not lost even at late stages. Therefore, the tumor-suppressive activity of Prep1 is intertwined with both the interference with Myc-induced apoptosis as well as with natural developmental functions of the protein. PMID:23133585

  4. Correlates of PrEP Indication in a Multi-Site Cohort of Young HIV-Uninfected Transgender Women.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Gayles, Travis; Shelendich, Michael; Garofalo, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Transgender women are at high risk of HIV infection, with younger transgender women (YTW) particularly vulnerable. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown efficacy in reducing HIV acquisition, but little is known about PrEP indication or initiation among YTW. Baseline data from 180 YTW age 18-29 years enrolled in Project LifeSkills, an on-going HIV prevention intervention for YTW, were analyzed to examine factors associated with PrEP indication. The sample (mean age = 23.4, SD = 3.2) was comprised largely of women of color (69 %) and of low socioeconomic status (71 % unemployed). Overall, 62 % met criteria for PrEP indication, but only 5 % reported ever taking PrEP. Factors associated with increased odds of PrEP indication were: PrEP interest (aOR 3.24; 95 % CI 1.44, 7.33), number of recent anal sex partners (aOR 1.23; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.46), and lower collective self-esteem scores (aOR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.47, 0.94). Despite high levels of PrEP indication, there remain low levels of PrEP awareness and uptake among YTW. PMID:26336946

  5. Online Survey Design and Development: A Janus-Faced Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Claire; McLeod, Michael; Blythe, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    In this article we propose a "Janus-faced" approach to survey design--an approach that encourages researchers to consider how they can design and implement surveys more effectively using the latest web and database tools. Specifically, this approach encourages researchers to look two ways at once; attending to both the survey interface…

  6. Comparison of the National Survey of Compensation with other surveys of research and development professionals. Final report on universe update

    SciTech Connect

    Newborg, J.; Spurgeon, M.; Price, B.; Evans, P.

    1981-10-01

    The National Survey of Compensation Paid Scientists and Engineers Engaged in Research and Development (NSC) has been conducted for the Department of Energy since 1967. During this time the NSC has come to be considered the most comprehensive survey of its kind available in the United States. Its methodology and results are reliable and highly useful to compensation personnel in research and development (R and D) establishments. Each year project staff pinpoint areas of improvement which are necessary and desirable. The three tasks that are the subject of this report have been undertaken to maintain and improve the NSC and increase its usefulness to participants. The three tasks are: an update of the universe listing; comparison of NSC survey methodology and results with other surveys of research and development professionals; and development of a methodology to project salaries for the near-term. Each task is described.

  7. Development of a drug and alcohol information survey.

    PubMed

    Gough, H G

    1985-04-01

    Psychological measurement in regard to using drugs, alcohol, or other substances should attend to personological, attitudinal, and informational factors. Standardized tests are available for assessing personological and attitudinal variables, but not for knowledge. To develop a test of information, 45 multiple-choice items were correlated with total and part scores in samples of 132 men and 71 women; 35 items with significant (p less than .05) coefficients and other desirable properties were retained for a Drug and Alcohol Information Survey (DAIS). For 33 male and 36 female college students participating in an intensive psychological assessment program, scores on the DAIS were positively associated with (1) ratings of modernity, sensation seeking, originality, and nonorderliness; (2) personality scales for status propensity, sociability, social presence, and rebelliousness; and (3) a nonverbal test of field-independent cognitive ability. High scorers on the DAIS also reported more frequent use of marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco than did students with low scores. PMID:3875571

  8. Vocabulary Development in Greek Children: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Using the Language Development Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaeliou, Christina F.; Rescorla, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1 ; 6 to 2 ; 11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the…

  9. Development of a Survey Instrument to Gauge Students' Problem-Solving Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Jeffrey; Cummings, Karen

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we discuss the early stages of development of a survey instrument to assess students' problem-solving abilities in a first-term, undergraduate, calculus-based physics course. Specifically, we present our motivation for the development of such a survey, details of a preliminary version of the survey, and some sample items.

  10. Willingness to Take PrEP and Potential for Risk Compensation Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Whitfield, Thomas H F; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-12-01

    Once-daily Truvada (Emtricitabine/Tenofovir) as a method of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the most promising biomedical interventions to eliminate new HIV infections; however, uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men has been slow amidst growing concern in popular/social media that PrEP use will result in reduced condom use (i.e., risk compensation). We investigated demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial differences in willingness to use PrEP as well as the perceived impact of PrEP on participants' condom use in a sample of 206 highly sexually active HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Nearly half (46.1 %) said they would be willing to take PrEP if it were provided at no cost. Although men willing to take PrEP (vs. others) reported similar numbers of recent casual male partners (<6 weeks), they had higher odds of recent receptive condomless anal sex (CAS)-i.e., those already at high risk of contracting HIV were more willing to take PrEP. Neither age, race/ethnicity, nor income were associated with willingness to take PrEP, suggesting equal acceptability among subpopulations that are experiencing disparities in HIV incidence. There was limited evidence to suggest men would risk compensate. Only 10 % of men who had not engaged in recent CAS felt that PrEP would result in them starting to have CAS. Men who had not tested for HIV recently were also significantly more likely than others to indicate willingness to take PrEP. Offering PrEP to men who test infrequently may serve to engage them more in routine HIV/STI testing and create a continued dialogue around sexual health between patient and provider in order to prevent HIV infection. PMID:25735243

  11. NOS/NGS activities to support development of radio interferometric surveying techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. E.; Dracup, J. F.; Hothem, L. D.; Robertson, D. S.; Strange, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    National Geodetic Survey activities towards the development of operational geodetic survey systems based on radio interferometry are reviewed. Information about the field procedures, data reduction and analysis, and the results obtained to date is presented.

  12. A Three-Step Guide to Developing Effective Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrington, Mary Lynne

    2009-01-01

    Survey data is often used as frequently as student test scores to indicate school progress. When one administers a survey, however, the challenge is to make sure it elicits responses that give viable information that can be used. The way in which one writes and presents both the questions and the response choices determines how reliable the…

  13. 'I am not a man': Trans-specific barriers and facilitators to PrEP acceptability among transgender women.

    PubMed

    Sevelius, Jae M; Keatley, JoAnne; Calma, Nikki; Arnold, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The frequent conflation of transgender ('trans') women with 'men who have sex with men (MSM)' in HIV prevention obscures trans women's unique gender identities, social and behavioural vulnerabilities, and their disproportionately high rates of HIV infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious biomedical HIV prevention approach. However, trans women are underrepresented in PrEP research, and are often aggregated with MSM without consideration for their unique positions within sociocultural contexts. This study examined PrEP acceptability among trans women via three focus groups and nine individual interviews (total N = 30) in San Francisco. While knowledge of PrEP was low, interest was relatively high once participants were informed. Due to past negative healthcare experiences, ability to obtain PrEP from a trans-competent provider was cited as essential to PrEP uptake and adherence. Participants noted that PrEP could address situations in which trans women experience reduced power to negotiate safer sex, including sex work. Trans-specific barriers included lack of trans-inclusive marketing of PrEP, prioritisation of hormone use, and medical mistrust due to transphobia. Findings underscore the importance of disaggregating trans women from MSM in HIV prevention strategies to mitigate disparate risk among this highly vulnerable population. PMID:26963756

  14. Does the Number of College Credits Earned in a Tech Prep and Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program Predict College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a Tech Prep Program located in Northwest Ohio and determine the degree to which college credits earned in high school through the Tech Prep and PSEO Programs predict college success and if there were any significant gender/race differences in credits earned and college success as well as high school…

  15. "When We Remix...We Remake!!!" Reflections on Collaborative Ethnography, the New Digital Ethic, and Test Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This article describes two very different projects undertaken in the same basic writing course: collaborative ethnography and ACT test prep. At first glance, it appears that the work on collaborative ethnography accomplished our goal of creating better, more self-conscious writers while the work on test prep achieved our goal of creating better…

  16. Gendered differences in the perceived risks and benefits of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jennifer J; Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathryn; Mugo, Nelly R; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-08-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective for preventing HIV among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Gender roles may influence perceived personal and social risks related to HIV-prevention behaviors and may affect use of PrEP. In this study, interviews and focus groups were conducted with 68 individuals from 34 mutually disclosed serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships in Thika, Kenya. Sociocultural factors that affect adherence to PrEP were explored using grounded analysis. Three factors were identified, which shape perceptions of PrEP: gendered power dynamics and control over decision-making in the household; conflicts between risk-reduction strategies and male sexual desire; culture-bound definitions of women's work. Adherence to PrEP in the Partners PrEP Study was high; however, participants articulated conflicting interests related to PrEP in connection with traditional gender roles. The successful delivery of PrEP will require understanding of key social factors, particularly related to gender and dyadic dynamics around HIV serostatus. PMID:26754017

  17. Application of Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment: A Review of Operational Vignettes.

    PubMed

    Caci, Jennifer B

    2015-01-01

    Medical intelligence is an underused or sometimes misapplied tool in the protection of our Soldiers and the execution of nonkinetic operations. The somewhat improved infrastructure of the operational environment in Iraq and Afghanistan led to an inevitable sense of complacency in regard to the threat of disease nonbattle injury (DNBI). The picture changed somewhat in 2010 with the advent of the village stability program and the establishment of SOF camps in austere locations with degraded living situations rife with exposure risks. In addition, the increasing deployments to unstable locations around the globe, reminiscent of typical Special Operations Forces (SOF) missions before the Global War on Terrorism, indicate a need for better preparation for deployment from the standpoint of disease risk and force health protection. A knowledge gap has developed because we simply did not need to apply as stringent an evaluation of DNBI risk in environments where improved life support mitigated the risk for us. The tools necessary to decrease or even eliminate the impact of DNBI exist but they must be shared and implemented. This article will present four vignettes from current and former SOF Force Health Protection personnel starting with a simple method of executing Medical Intelligence Prep of the Environment (MIPOE) and highlighting situations in which it either was or could have been implemented to mitigate risk and decrease the impact on mission accomplishment and individual operators. A follow-on article will present vignettes of the successful application of MIPOE to nonkinetic operations. PMID:26630107

  18. Communications for Lifelong Success I and II (Tech Prep English I and II). Pilot Test Materials for Pendleton High School, Pendleton, South Carolina. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turlington, Anita; And Others

    These instructional materials include six supplementary units for Tech Prep English I (grade 9) and six assignments for Tech Prep English II (grade 10). The Tech Prep English I units have these components: unit objectives, introduction, and follow-up exercises. Topics include goal setting, problem solving and decision making, listening and reading…

  19. The Development and Results of a Survey Instrument to Predict Freshman Dropouts. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Barbara P.

    A survey designed to predict freshman attrition was developed and tested at the University of Kansas. The 75-item survey, the Entering Freshman Survey, was administered to a uniform random sample of one-half of the freshmen entering the university in the fall 1979 semester or entering in the summer 1979 term and reenrolling in the fall. Based on…

  20. The School Counselor Leadership Survey: Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita; Bryan, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the School Counselor Leadership Survey (SCLS). Survey development was a threefold process that resulted in a 39-item survey of 801 school counselors and school counselor supervisors. The exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure that revealed five key dimensions of school counselor…

  1. PrEP implementation: moving from trials to policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Carlos F; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Mayer, Kenneth H; Baggaley, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is increasingly clear that the HIV response will not be sustainable if the number of infections is not significantly reduced. Discussion For two decades, research has been ongoing to identify new behavioural and biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. In the past few years, the efficacy of several new strategies has been demonstrated, including oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; i.e. daily use of tenofovir/emtricitabine). Because several social, political and logistic barriers remain, however, optimal PrEP implementation will require a better dissemination of new evidence in a number of areas and additional implementation research from various disciplinary perspectives (i.e. social science, policy and ethics; health systems; and economics, including cost-effectiveness studies). Discussion of new evidence on those topics, as well as case studies of potential PrEP implementation in diverse environments, can improve the understanding of the role that PrEP may play in addressing the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. In light of these needs, the Network for Multidisciplinary Studies in ARV-based HIV Prevention (NEMUS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) were honoured to co-organize a special issue of JIAS aimed at contributing to a scholarly discussion of current conditions surrounding PrEP implementation, potential impact and efficiency, social science concerns and the study of PrEP implementation in specific country cases. The papers included in this monograph identify and cover many of the main aspects of the complex yet promising discussions around PrEP implementation today. Conclusions This is a collection of timely contributions from global leaders in HIV research and policy that addresses geographic diversity, uses a trans-disciplinary approach and covers a variety of the complex issues raised by PrEP. As this publication will become accessible to all, we hope that it will remain a valuable resource for policy makers, programme managers

  2. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  3. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E.; Campbell, Chadwick K.; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City—a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  4. Multidisciplinary aerospace design optimization: Survey of recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing complexity of engineering systems has sparked increasing interest in multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). This paper presents a survey of recent publications in the field of aerospace where interest in MDO has been particularly intense. The two main challenges of MDO are computational expense and organizational complexity. Accordingly the survey is focussed on various ways different researchers use to deal with these challenges. The survey is organized by a breakdown of MDO into its conceptual components. Accordingly, the survey includes sections on Mathematical Modeling, Design-oriented Analysis, Approximation Concepts, Optimization Procedures, System Sensitivity, and Human Interface. With the authors' main expertise being in the structures area, the bulk of the references focus on the interaction of the structures discipline with other disciplines. In particular, two sections at the end focus on two such interactions that have recently been pursued with a particular vigor: Simultaneous Optimization of Structures and Aerodynamics, and Simultaneous Optimization of Structures Combined With Active Control.

  5. Harassment in Workplace Among School Teachers: Development of Survey

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Andrea; Milić, Ranko; Knežević, Bojana; Mulić, Rosanda; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2008-01-01

    Aim To study the incidence of harassment in the workplace among teachers at primary and secondary schools. Methods We analyzed the existing questionnaires on harassment in the workplace and developed a new one was to specifically address harassment of teachers in the public education sector. The questionnaire was then experimentally applied to a sample of 764 primary and secondary school teachers in Split Dalmatia County, Croatia. It included three scales –exposure to harassment, witnessing harassment, and disturbance by harassment. Validity of the three scales was examined by factor analysis. Results All three scales showed satisfactory metric characteristics: Cronbach α coefficient was 0.93 for exposure scale, 0.95 for witnessing scale, and 0.97 for disturbance scale. Out of 764 teachers surveyed, 164 (22.4%) were exposed to and 192 (31.7%) witnessed different kinds of harassment in the previous 12 months. There were significantly more of those who experienced harassment as witnesses (χ21 = 249.301; P < 0.001) than as direct victims. Eighty-six teachers (11.5%) reported having psychological and 76 (10.1%) physical health problems caused by their work. Exclusion as a consequence of harassment disturbed women more than men (χ21 = 5.27; P = 0.022). Those who were exposed to harassment had significantly lower median age (42; range 23-68) than those who were not exposed (45; range 23-65) (U = 31401.50; z = 2.129; P = 0.033). Conclusion The questionnaire registered wide spectrum of harassment types, indicating the need for continuous monitoring and systematic work on the prevention of these phenomena. The study showed that exposure to harassment is associated with age, indicating that younger teachers should be the target population for detection and prevention of workplace harassment. PMID:18717002

  6. Scientific Growth and Identity Development during a Postbaccalaureate Program: Results from a Multisite Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Remich, Robin; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle E; Gazley, J Lynn; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This report builds upon our previous study, which described five patterns of why college graduates join National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded diversity-focused Postbaccalaureate Research Education Programs (PREP). A 2015 report from the NIH showed that a high fraction of PREP participants matriculate into PhD and MD/PhD programs. This current study reveals how participants change during PREP, the program elements that facilitate change, and how identity as a graduate student and future scientist develops. Data come from in-depth interviews done at the beginning and end of PREP with 48 individuals from seven PREP programs. Results reveal three domains of development: academics, research, and presentation of oneself; each domain contains a developmental continuum. Key attributes of PREP enabling development include opportunities to attend graduate-level classes and seminars; time to practice reading literature; extended lab time with one's own project; high and explicit expectations from mentors; and multiple opportunities to talk about science and improve communication skills. PREP enabled participants to develop their identities as graduate students and to anticipate being seen by others as highly prepared for PhD training. After PREP, 85% (n = 41) started the PhD or MD/PhD, making PREP an intervention approach with great potential to broaden participation in biomedical PhD programs. PMID:27496357

  7. Scientific Growth and Identity Development during a Postbaccalaureate Program: Results from a Multisite Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Remich, Robin; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle E.; Gazley, J. Lynn; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This report builds upon our previous study, which described five patterns of why college graduates join National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded diversity-focused Postbaccalaureate Research Education Programs (PREP). A 2015 report from the NIH showed that a high fraction of PREP participants matriculate into PhD and MD/PhD programs. This current study reveals how participants change during PREP, the program elements that facilitate change, and how identity as a graduate student and future scientist develops. Data come from in-depth interviews done at the beginning and end of PREP with 48 individuals from seven PREP programs. Results reveal three domains of development: academics, research, and presentation of oneself; each domain contains a developmental continuum. Key attributes of PREP enabling development include opportunities to attend graduate-level classes and seminars; time to practice reading literature; extended lab time with one’s own project; high and explicit expectations from mentors; and multiple opportunities to talk about science and improve communication skills. PREP enabled participants to develop their identities as graduate students and to anticipate being seen by others as highly prepared for PhD training. After PREP, 85% (n = 41) started the PhD or MD/PhD, making PREP an intervention approach with great potential to broaden participation in biomedical PhD programs. PMID:27496357

  8. The Promise and Peril of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Using Social Science to Inform PrEP Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Bazzi, Angela M. Robertson; Scheibe, Andrew; Adebajo, Sylvia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers. Several recent trials testing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy, although others have been stopped early for futility. Given the importance and complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention, we discuss several key areas of consideration moving forward, including trial participation, adherence strategies, social relationships, and the structural factors that shape PrEP interest, use, and potential effectiveness among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review highlights the importance of involving social scientists in clinical and community-based research on PrEP. We advocate for a shift away from a singular “re-medicalization” of the HIV epidemic to that of a “reintegration” of interdisciplinary approaches to prevention that could benefit female sex workers and other key populations at risk of acquiring HIV. PMID:26050379

  9. Relationship of Tech Prep and Dual Credit to College Readiness and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JoHyun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of tech prep and dual credit to college readiness in reading, writing, and math and retention, measured as total college-level credit hours earned. A sample of 612 high school graduates who enrolled in a community college in two consortia, one in Florida (n = 339) and the other in Oregon…

  10. Reinforcing Productive Classroom Behavior: A Teacher's Guide to Behavior Modification. PREP-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Edward M.; Sarason, Irwin G.

    An interpretive studies project on applying reinforcement principles in the classroom was conducted by Dr. Edward M. Glaser of the Human Interaction Research Institute, Los Angeles, California and Dr. Irwin G. Sarason of the University of Washington, Seattle. PREP kit No. 18 has been adapted from the teacher's guide to behavioral modification…

  11. The DELTA PREP Initiative" Accelerating Coalition Capacity for Intimate Partner Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakocs, Ronda; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The DELTA PREP Project aimed to build the prevention capacity of 19 state domestic violence coalitions by offering eight supports designed to promote prevention integration over a 3-year period: modest grant awards, training events, technical assistance, action planning, coaching hubs, the Coalition Prevention Capacity Assessment, an…

  12. Tech Prep. South Dakota Career Activities for the Classroom, 4th Edition, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucker, Marsha, Comp.

    This document presents a sampling of projects and activities that have been implemented in Tech Prep training in South Dakota, or will be implemented during the upcoming school year. The projects and activities are categorized into 12 areas: career clusters; career units and activities; curriculum materials; employability skills; entrepreneurship;…

  13. A Dialogue with the Original Curriculum Basher about Tech Prep and a Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    An imaginary dialogue with Socrates elicits premises about tech prep: (1) it is not narrow vocationalism or anomalous to liberal education; (2) by blending academic and vocational content, it emulates liberal education purposes; (3) critical thinking skills must be fostered; and (4) meaningful cross-disciplinary integration is vital. (SK)

  14. Appendix C: Background and Methodology for Alternative Certification Pilot. [2014 Teacher Prep Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate; McKee, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The "NCTQ Teacher Prep Review" evaluates the quality of programs that provide preservice preparation of public school teachers. As part of the "Review," this appendix reports on a pilot study of new standards for assessing the quality of alternative certification programs. Background and methodology for alternative…

  15. A Case Study of Interagency Collaboration as Reported by the PREP Advisory Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Cathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore with key members of the Pilot Reintegration Education Program (PREP) Advisory Committee, the characteristics of their interagency process and how they perceived that these factors contributed to accomplishing the common objective of providing a smooth and effective transition for students between release…

  16. Tech-Prep in New York State: Profiles of Four Diverse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenkel, Michael W.; Brodsky, Stanley M.

    These case studies highlight the diversity of four tech programs that responded with a unique set of organizational policies and procedures to a unique set of challenges. The case study on City Tech Tech-Prep Consortium in Brooklyn focuses on three strategies: transition to City Tech program, postsecondary component, and program evaluation. The…

  17. Restructuring Student Experiences Using Tech Prep Mapping To Integrate Vocational and Academic Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirozzoli, Don

    The growing emphasis on accountability and the demand for better prepared students is pressing institutions of higher education to examine restructuring. Student experiences represent an important arena for school restructuring, and a useful approach to changing student experiences is the Tech Prep Mapping (TPM) process. The TPM process requires…

  18. The Effectiveness of PREP with Lower-Income Racial/Ethnic Minority Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Bergen, Carrie; Inch, Leslie J.; France, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) with lower-income and racial/ethnic minority (African American and Latino/a) couples. Additionally, we tested whether relationship outcomes varied based on the delivery format (i.e., group format vs. couple format). The sample included 321…

  19. 76 FR 51037 - Determination That Halflytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (Containing Two Bisacodyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution... potassium chloride for oral solution and two bisacodyl delayed release tablets, 5 mg. FOR FURTHER... Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (PEG- 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride...

  20. School Science Prep Room Designs Fail to Deliver--A Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, James; Piggott, Andy

    2010-01-01

    A special report has been published aimed at reducing the number of poorly designed and equipped prep rooms specified by architects who have little or no experience in what is a very specialised area. Produced by school science equipment manufacturer, Gratnells, this report is the first step of its new "Architect Connection" initiative, a…

  1. 76 FR 63936 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; PrepCAST

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses.... Collection of Information Title: PrepCAST. Type of Information Collection: Revision of a currently approved... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

  2. Guide for the preparation of proposals for the pre-freshman enrichment program, PREP, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document describes preparations for a pre-freshman enrichment program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE). The purpose of the PREP'' program is to encourage women and minorities to enter the engineering profession. Covered in this report are deadlines demography, eligibility, project management, DOE support, publicity, application, various forms, and budget considerations. (FSD)

  3. A Culture of High Expectations: Teacher Leadership at Pritzker College Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Relying on teachers as culture leaders is a solution embraced by many high-performing charter schools. This profile focuses on the design of the Grade Level Lead roles at Pritzker College Prep, a member of the Noble Network of Schools in Chicago. The successes of this school and network are well-documented: Of non-selective public high schools in…

  4. Preparing Michigan Students for the Jobs of Tomorrow: The Report of the Tech Prep Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    Both secondary schools and community colleges are under pressure to increase the technical content of their curricula to produce graduates who can fill highly skilled technician jobs in a changing work force. Technical Preparation (Tech Prep) Programs are partnerships between these two institutional levels that incorporate career counseling and…

  5. Sensor Development for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor,P.; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.

    2007-06-07

    The Large Synoptic Survey project proposes to build an 8m-class ground-based telescope with a dedicated wide field camera. The camera consists of a large focal plane mosaic composed of multi-output CCDs with extended red response. Design considerations and preliminary characterization results for the sensors are presented in this contribution to the Workshop.

  6. Development and Validation of the Experiential Learning Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Jamie M.; Mennicke, Annelise M.; Beasley, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Experiential learning is recommended as a way to increase critical thinking and engagement, enhance theory-informed practice, increase preparedness, and improve multicultural understanding for students involved in social work education. The purpose of this study is to validate the Experiential Learning Survey (ELS), which measures students'…

  7. Development of the Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey: Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Shengli; MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L.; Fabian, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the latent factors in the "Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey" (RAFS) instrument and (b) to compare scores on the latent factors of the RAFS by participant's role. Eight latent factors were identified through an exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. The reliability tests indicated…

  8. Antiproinflammatory effects of iodixanol (OptiPrep)-based density gradient purification on human islet preparations.

    PubMed

    Mita, A; Ricordi, C; Messinger, S; Miki, A; Misawa, R; Barker, S; Molano, R D; Haertter, R; Khan, A; Miyagawa, S; Pileggi, A; Inverardi, L; Alejandro, R; Hering, B J; Ichii, H

    2010-01-01

    Islet isolation and purification using a continuous density gradient may reduce the volume of tissue necessary for implantation into patients, therefore minimizing the risks associated with intraportal infusion in islet transplantation. On the other hand, the purification procedure might result in a decreased number of islets recovered due to various stresses such as exposure to cytokine/chemokine. While a Ficoll-based density gradient has been widely used in purification for clinical trials, purification with iodixanol (OptiPrep) has been recently reported in islet transplant series with successful clinical outcomes. The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of the purification method using OptiPrep-based and Ficoll-based density gradients. Human islet isolations were performed using a modified automated method. After the digestion phase, pre-purification digests were divided into two groups and purified using a semiautomated cell processor with either a continuous Ficoll- or OptiPrep-based density gradient. The quantity, purity, viability, and cellular composition of islet preparations from each group were assessed. Cytokine/chemokine and tissue factor production from islet preparations after 48-h culture were also measured. Although islet purity, post-purification IEQ, islet recovery rate, FDA/PI, and fractional β-cell viability were comparable, β-cell mass after 48-h culture significantly improved in the OptiPrep group when compared to the Ficoll group. The production of cytokine/chemokine including IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1β, MCP-1, and RANTES but not tissue factor from the OptiPrep group was significantly lower during 48-h culture after isolation. Each preparation contained the similar number of ductal cells and macrophages. Endotoxin level in both gradient medium was also comparable. The purification method using OptiPrep gradient media significantly reduced cytokine/chemokine production but not tissue factor from human islet

  9. Teacher Development Program for ATP 2000. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutphin, Dean; And Others

    Agri Tech Prep 2000 (ATP 2000) is a 4-year tech prep program linking high school and postsecondary curricula designed to prepare New York students for careers in agriculture or acceptance into a college program in agriculture. Because teacher development was designated an integral project component for fiscal year 1991-1992, a weeklong teacher…

  10. Public Support for Career Development Activities in America's Schools: Report of the 1989 NCDA Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Duane; And Others

    1992-01-01

    National Career Development Association commissioned Gallup Organization to survey U.S. adults (n=1,350) on career planning, occupational information, and conflicts between work and family life. As part of survey, respondents gave views on need for career development activities in public schools. Majority of respondents favored increasing emphasis…

  11. Rising to the Challenge: Developing a Survey of Workplace Skills, Civic Engagement, and Global Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouimet, Judith A.; Pike, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the ongoing development of a survey of students' workplace skills, civic engagement, and global awareness that colleges and universities can use to document their contributions to the public good. The student growth survey currently under development offers colleges and universities an opportunity to refocus the attention of…

  12. Developing a Survey for Assessing Preferences in Constructivist Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, P.-S.; Tsai, C.-C.; Hwang, G.-J.

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a survey to explore students' preferences in constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning environments. A constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment survey (CULES) was developed, consisting of eight scales, including ease of use, continuity, relevance, adaptive content, multiple sources,…

  13. The Use of Online Surveys to Measure Satisfaction in Job Training and Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steve; Strachota, Elaine; Conceicao, Simone

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines two empirical studies that used online surveys to collect data to measure satisfaction in job training and workforce development. A description of each study, findings related to response rate, the processes used in online survey development and implementation, as well as recommendations for the future use of online surveys…

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Gene Encoding Transcription Factor Prep1 Is Associated with HIV-1-Associated Dementia

    PubMed Central

    van Manen, Daniëlle; Bunnik, Evelien M.; van Sighem, Ard I.; Sieberer, Margit; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte; de Wolf, Frank; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Portegies, Peter; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Infection with HIV-1 may result in severe cognitive and motor impairment, referred to as HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). While its prevalence has dropped significantly in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, milder neurocognitive disorders persist with a high prevalence. To identify additional therapeutic targets for treating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, several candidate gene polymorphisms have been evaluated, but few have been replicated across multiple studies. Methods We here tested 7 candidate gene polymorphisms for association with HAD in a case-control study consisting of 86 HAD cases and 246 non-HAD AIDS patients as controls. Since infected monocytes and macrophages are thought to play an important role in the infection of the brain, 5 recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting HIV-1 replication in macrophages in vitro were also tested. Results The CCR5 wt/Δ32 genotype was only associated with HAD in individuals who developed AIDS prior to 1991, in agreement with the observed fading effect of this genotype on viral load set point. A significant difference in genotype distribution among all cases and controls irrespective of year of AIDS diagnosis was found only for a SNP in candidate gene PREP1 (p = 1.2×10−5). Prep1 has recently been identified as a transcription factor preferentially binding the −2,518 G allele in the promoter of the gene encoding MCP-1, a protein with a well established role in the etiology of HAD. Conclusion These results support previous findings suggesting an important role for MCP-1 in the onset of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:22347417

  15. State of the art survey of network operating systems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the State-of-the-Art Survey of Network Operating Systems (NOS) performed for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. NOS functional characteristics are presented in terms of user communication data migration, job migration, network control, and common functional categories. Products (current or future) as well as research and prototyping efforts are summarized. The NOS products which are revelant to the space station and its activities are evaluated.

  16. Professional Development Needs of Science and Technology Librarians: Results of the 2012 SLA/PAM Professional Development Committee Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchangalova, Nedelina; Lam, Margaret N.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports and analyzes the survey results on the continuing education needs of librarians with current job responsibilities in the science, technology, and engineering subject fields. The intended purpose of the survey results is to assist conference coordinators in the development of a continuing education program at future Special…

  17. When and why women might suspend PrEP use according to perceived seasons of risk: implications for PrEP-specific risk-reduction counselling.

    PubMed

    Namey, Emily; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Odhiambo, Jacob; Skhosana, Joseph; Guest, Greg; Corneli, Amy

    2016-09-01

    Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral drug emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) has been shown to dramatically reduce the risk of HIV acquisition for women at higher risk of infection if taken daily. Understanding when and why women would intentionally stop using an efficacious oral PrEP drug within the context of their 'normal' daily lives is essential for delivering effective PrEP risk-reduction counselling. As part of a larger study, we conducted 60 qualitative interviews with women at higher risk of HIV in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Participants charted their sexual contacts over the previous six months, indicated whether they would have taken PrEP if available and discussed whether and why they would have suspended PrEP use. Nearly all participants said they would have used PrEP in the previous six months; half indicated they would have suspended PrEP use at some point. Participants' reasons for an extended break from PrEP were related to partnership dynamics (e.g., perceived low risk of a stable partner) and phases of life (e.g., trying to conceive). Life events (e.g., holidays and travel) could prompt shorter breaks in PrEP use. These circumstances may or may not correspond to actual contexts of lower risk, highlighting the importance of tailored PrEP risk-reduction counselling. PMID:27093238

  18. Success Is in the Details. No Element of Tech Prep Escapes the Fine-Tuned Planning of Oregon's Design Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Cheryl L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Articles describe elements of Oregon's' tech prep program: "New Software Helps Students Visualize a Career Path" (Buhl); "Bridge Construction Ahead" (Roach); and "To Track Students, Oregon Goes to the Bar" (Dutson). (JOW)

  19. Tailored combination prevention packages and PrEP for young key populations

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey; Nguyen, Nadia L; Celum, Connie; Cowan, Frances M; Go, Vivian; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Young key populations, defined in this article as men who have sex with men, transgender persons, people who sell sex and people who inject drugs, are at particularly high risk for HIV. Due to the often marginalized and sometimes criminalized status of young people who identify as members of key populations, there is a need for HIV prevention packages that account for the unique and challenging circumstances they face. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is likely to become an important element of combination prevention for many young key populations. Objective In this paper, we discuss important challenges to HIV prevention among young key populations, identify key components of a tailored combination prevention package for this population and examine the role of PrEP in these prevention packages. Methods We conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence to date on prevention strategies, challenges to prevention and combination prevention packages for young key populations. We focused specifically on the role of PrEP in these prevention packages and on young people under the age of 24, and 18 in particular. Results and discussion Combination prevention packages that include effective, acceptable and scalable behavioural, structural and biologic interventions are needed for all key populations to prevent new HIV infections. Interventions in these packages should meaningfully involve beneficiaries in the design and implementation of the intervention, and take into account the context in which the intervention is being delivered to thoughtfully address issues of stigma and discrimination. These interventions will likely be most effective if implemented in conjunction with strategies to facilitate an enabling environment, including increasing access to HIV testing and health services for PrEP and other prevention strategies, decriminalizing key populations’ practices, increasing access to prevention and care, reducing stigma and discrimination, and

  20. Assessing the Impact of Life Changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Irwin G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Described the development of the life experiences survey for the measurement of life changes. It was designed to eliminate shortcomings of previous life stress measures and to allow for separate assessment of positive and negative life experiences. Studies bearing on the usefulness of the life experiences survey are presented. (Author/BEF)

  1. Development of the Persistence in Engineering (PIE) Survey Instrument. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eris, Ozgur; Chen, Helen; Bailey, Tori; Engerman, Kimarie; Loshbaugh, Heidi; Griffin, Ashley; Lichtenstein, Gary; Cole, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The Persistence In Engineering (PIE) survey was developed to identify and characterize the fundamental factors that influence students' intentions to pursue an engineering degree over the course of their undergraduate career, and upon graduation, to practice engineering as a profession. The PIE survey is one of five data-gathering methods used in…

  2. Research and Development in Industry 1977. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    The National Science Foundation sponsored Survey of Industrial Research and Development for 1977 was conducted by the Bureau of the Census in January 1978. Approximately 1,500 R&D-performing companies participated in the survey. Remarks attributed to company officials were based on discussions with representatives from leading R&D-performing…

  3. A Survey of Hardware and Software Technologies for the Rapid Development of Multimedia Instructional Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganesan, Nanda

    2008-01-01

    A survey of hardware and software technologies was conducted to identify suitable technologies for the development of instructional modules representing various instructional approaches. The approaches modeled were short PowerPoint presentations, chalk-and-talk type of lectures and software tutorials. The survey focused on identifying application…

  4. Development, Implementation, and Analysis of a National Survey of Faculty Goals for Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Aaron D.; Towns, Marcy

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the development of a survey for laboratory goals in undergraduate chemistry, the analysis of reliable and valid data collected from a national survey of college chemistry faculty, and a synthesis of the findings. The study used a sequential exploratory mixed-methods design. Faculty goals for laboratory emerged across seven…

  5. The Development and Preliminary Validation of the Behavior, Environment, and Changeability Survey (BECS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer R.; Hebert, Angel; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Carey, Gale; Colby, Sarah; Brown-Esters, Onikia N.; Greene, Geoffrey; Hoerr, Sharon; Horacek, Tanya; Kattelmann, Kendra; Kidd, Tandalayo; Koenings, Mallory; Phillips, Beatrice; Shelnutt, Karla P.; White, Adrienne A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test the validity of the Behavior, Environment, and Changeability Survey (BECS) for identifying the importance and changeability of nutrition, exercise, and stress management behavior and related aspects of the environment. Design: A cross-sectional, online survey of the BECS and selected validated instruments. Setting:…

  6. Developing Survey Research Infrastructure At An Historically Black College/University To Address Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Howard, Daniel L; Boyd, Carlton L; Kalsbeek, Bill; Godley, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Center for Survey Research at Shaw University, a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), and its efforts to build a data collection infrastructure that addresses issues germane to health disparities research in the African American population. Academic institutions that are similar to Shaw in size, mission, and background can use the Project EXPORT collaboration and the Center for Survey Research as models for establishing their own research infrastructure and subsequent survey center in order to address health disparities through the use of survey methodology. PMID:22090795

  7. Developing Survey Research Infrastructure At An Historically Black College/University To Address Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Daniel L.; Boyd, Carlton L.; Kalsbeek, Bill; Godley, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Center for Survey Research at Shaw University, a Historically Black College and University (HBCU), and its efforts to build a data collection infrastructure that addresses issues germane to health disparities research in the African American population. Academic institutions that are similar to Shaw in size, mission, and background can use the Project EXPORT collaboration and the Center for Survey Research as models for establishing their own research infrastructure and subsequent survey center in order to address health disparities through the use of survey methodology. PMID:22090795

  8. Survey of Postdoctorates at FFRDCs: Final Report [Federally Funded Research and Development Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Mulrow, Jeri

    2010-06-30

    The 2009 FFRDC survey collected the total number of postdocs employed by FFRDCs in the United States—categorized by source of support, citizenship, sex, and field of research—as of October 1, 2009. The universe for the 2009 GSS-FFRDC survey was the Master Government List of Federally Funded Research and Development Centers. The 2009 survey also contacted the NIH’s Intramural Research Program because it employs the largest number of postdocs in the federal government. The FFRDC survey collected data via a web instrument. Topics included the type of support the postdocs received (federal and nonfederal), their sex, citizenship, race/ethnicity, and field of research.

  9. The Trojan Lifetime Champions Health Survey: Development, Validity, and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Azen, Stanley P.; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Context Self-report questionnaires are an important method of evaluating lifespan health, exercise, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes among elite, competitive athletes. Few instruments, however, have undergone formal characterization of their psychometric properties within this population. Objective To evaluate the validity and reliability of a novel health and exercise questionnaire, the Trojan Lifetime Champions (TLC) Health Survey. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting A large National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants A total of 63 university alumni (age range, 24 to 84 years), including former varsity collegiate athletes and a control group of nonathletes. Intervention(s) Participants completed the TLC Health Survey twice at a mean interval of 23 days with randomization to the paper or electronic version of the instrument. Main Outcome Measure(s) Content validity, feasibility of administration, test-retest reliability, parallel-form reliability between paper and electronic forms, and estimates of systematic and typical error versus differences of clinical interest were assessed across a broad range of health, exercise, and HRQL measures. Results Correlation coefficients, including intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for continuous variables and κ agreement statistics for ordinal variables, for test-retest reliability averaged 0.86, 0.90, 0.80, and 0.74 for HRQL, lifetime health, recent health, and exercise variables, respectively. Correlation coefficients, again ICCs and κ, for parallel-form reliability (ie, equivalence) between paper and electronic versions averaged 0.90, 0.85, 0.85, and 0.81 for HRQL, lifetime health, recent health, and exercise variables, respectively. Typical measurement error was less than the a priori thresholds of clinical interest, and we found minimal evidence of systematic test-retest error. We found strong evidence of content validity, convergent

  10. The homeodomain transcription factor Prep1 (pKnox1) is required for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell activity.

    PubMed

    Di Rosa, Patrizia; Villaescusa, J Carlos; Longobardi, Elena; Iotti, Giorgio; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Diaz, Victor M; Miccio, Annarita; Ferrari, Giuliana; Blasi, Francesco

    2007-11-15

    Most of the hypomorphic Prep1(i/i) embryos (expressing 3-10% of the Prep1 protein), die between E17.5 and P0, with profound anemia, eye malformations and angiogenic anomalies [Ferretti, E., Villaescusa, J.C., Di Rosa, P., Fernandez-Diaz, L.-C., Longobardi, E., Mazzieri, R., Miccio, A., Micali, N., Selleri, L., Ferrari G., Blasi, F. (2006). Hypomorphic mutation of the TALE gene Prep1 (pKnox1) causes a major reduction of Pbx and Meis proteins and a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype. Mol. Cell. Biol. 26, 5650-5662]. We now report on the hematopoietic phenotype of these embryos. Prep1(i/i) fetal livers (FL) are hypoplastic, produce less common myeloid progenitors colonies (CFU-GEMM) in cytokine-supplemented methylcellulose and have an increased number of B-cells precursors that differentiate poorly. Prep1(i/i) FL is able to protect lethally irradiated mice only at high cell doses but the few protected mice show major anomalies in all hematopoietic lineages in both bone marrow (BM) and peripheral organs. Prep1(i/i) FL cells compete inefficiently with wild type bone marrow in competitive repopulation experiments, suggesting that the major defect lies in long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (LTR-HSC). Indeed, wt embryonic expression of Prep1 in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, fetal liver (FL), cKit(+)Sca1(+)Lin(-)AA4.1(+) (KSLA) cells and B-lymphocytes precursors agrees with the observed phenotype. We therefore conclude that Prep1 is required for a correct and complete hematopoiesis. PMID:17904118

  11. Adolescent Lifestyle and Behaviour: A Survey from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Qidwai, Waris; Ishaque, Sidra; Shah, Sabeen; Rahim, Maheen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents form two-thirds of our population. This is a unique group of people with special needs. Our survey aims to identify the lifestyle and behavioral patterns in this group of people and subsequently come up with issues that warrant special attention. Methods A survey was performed in various schools of Karachi. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 12–19 years of age. Results Most adolescents with lifestyle issues fell in the age group of 16–18 years. Females were more depressed than males and had more sleep problems. Substance abuse and other addictions were documented more in males. Watching television or listening to music was stated as the most common late night activity (61.8%) and therefore was also referred to as the contributory factor for less than eight hours of sleep each day. (58.9%) of the respondents are getting less than eight hours of sleep daily. (41.5%) of the respondents who felt depressed sought treatment for it. Quite a few of them were also indulged in substance abuse and other addictions. Only (16.8%) of the respondents opined that physical activity is essential for health. Thirty-five adolescents out of all the respondents were smoking cigarettes currently, whereas 7% of the respondents chewed paan (areca nut). Peer pressure was the most common reason (37.1%) to start smoking. Conclusion Adolescents need to be treated as a distinct segment of our population and it is important to realize and address their health and lifestyle problems. Inadequate sleep, depression and smoking were the leading unhealthy behaviours among the respondents. Families can play an important role to help these adolescents live a healthier life. Further research studies should be carried out to highlight issues of concern and their possible solutions in this population. PMID:20886001

  12. [prepCheck computer-supported objective evaluation of students preparation in preclinical simulation laboratory].

    PubMed

    Lenherr, Patrik; Marinello, Carlo P

    2014-01-01

    Applications such as “prepCheck” allow objective and consistent judgments of tooth preparations. Hereby the respective preparation is matched with a standardized preparation. Whereas the learning curve in the beginning is time-consuming, after some time the faculty members will be relieved from additional mentoring time in the preclinical simulation laboratory. Students independently get an objective self-assessment by the software. Time and effort at the moment are in a misbalance since three scans (preparation, occlusion record, opposite jaw) are necessary. A simple one-scan procedure would be preferable. “prepCheck” is considered as a user-friendly software. It will play an essential role in the objective assessment of students tooth preparations in the future education. PMID:25341525

  13. Swords, Shields, and the Fight for Our Children: Lessons from Urban Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The grim statistics are well known, but bear repeating: in Chicago, close to 60% of Black boys do not graduate from high school, and only one in forty receive a bachelor's degree by age 25. In the fall of 2006, Urban Prep Charter Academy for Young Men-Englewood Campus, the nation's first all-male charter public high school, was opened. In 2010 and…

  14. Prep1 (pKnox1) regulates mouse embryonic HSC cycling and self-renewal affecting the Stat1-Sca1 IFN-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Modica, Livia; Iotti, Giorgio; D'Avola, Annalisa; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    A hypomorphic Prep1 mutation results in embryonic lethality at late gestation with a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype that includes defects in all hematopoietic lineages. Reduced functionality of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment might be responsible for the hematopoietic phenotype observed at mid-gestation. In this paper we demonstrate that Prep1 regulates the number of HSCs in fetal livers (FLs), their clonogenic potential and their ability to de novo generate the hematopoietic system in ablated hosts. Furthermore, we show that Prep1 controls the self-renewal ability of the FL HSC compartment as demonstrated by serial transplantation experiments. The premature exhaustion of Prep1 mutant HSCs correlates with the reduced quiescent stem cell pool thus suggesting that Prep1 regulates the self-renewal ability by controlling the quiescence/proliferation balance. Finally, we show that in FL HSCs Prep1 absence induces the interferon signaling pathway leading to premature cycling and exhaustion of fetal HSCs. PMID:25233378

  15. Prep1 (pKnox1) Regulates Mouse Embryonic HSC Cycling and Self-Renewal Affecting the Stat1-Sca1 IFN-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Livia; Iotti, Giorgio; D’Avola, Annalisa; Blasi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    A hypomorphic Prep1 mutation results in embryonic lethality at late gestation with a pleiotropic embryonic phenotype that includes defects in all hematopoietic lineages. Reduced functionality of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment might be responsible for the hematopoietic phenotype observed at mid-gestation. In this paper we demonstrate that Prep1 regulates the number of HSCs in fetal livers (FLs), their clonogenic potential and their ability to de novo generate the hematopoietic system in ablated hosts. Furthermore, we show that Prep1 controls the self-renewal ability of the FL HSC compartment as demonstrated by serial transplantation experiments. The premature exhaustion of Prep1 mutant HSCs correlates with the reduced quiescent stem cell pool thus suggesting that Prep1 regulates the self-renewal ability by controlling the quiescence/proliferation balance. Finally, we show that in FL HSCs Prep1 absence induces the interferon signaling pathway leading to premature cycling and exhaustion of fetal HSCs. PMID:25233378

  16. Propagation of Information About Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Through Twitter.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Margaret L; Hou, Jinghui; Meng, Jingbo; Hu, Chih-Wei; An, Zheng; Park, Mina; Nam, Yujung

    2016-08-01

    Previous literature has suggested that examining Twitter messages can be productive for studying how the public shares and spreads health information on social media. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising approach to HIV prevention, yet there are many issues that may influence its effective implementation. This study examined social representations of PrEP on Twitter. One thousand four hundred and thirty-five Tweets were collected and 774 English Tweets were content-analyzed to explore propagation of various issues around daily oral PrEP, as well as characteristics of the sources of those Tweets. We also examined how Twitter message content influenced information propagation. Our findings revealed that PrEP-related information on Twitter covered a wide range of issues, and individual users constituted the majority of the Tweet creators among all the sources, including news media, nonprofit and academic groups, and commercial entities. Using Poisson regression, we also found that a Tweet's affective tone was a significant predictor of message propagation frequency. Implications for health practitioners are discussed. PMID:26756069

  17. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  18. A SURVEY OF ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH: A BASELINE FOR ASTRONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A. E-mail: russo@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in ''astronomical development'' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  19. A Survey of Astronomical Research: A Baseline for Astronomical Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in "astronomical development" with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  20. Vocabulary development in Greek children: a cross-linguistic comparison using the Language Development Survey.

    PubMed

    Papaeliou, Christina F; Rescorla, Leslie A

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1;6 to 2;11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the instrument's normative sample (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). Vocabulary size increased markedly with age, but Greek toddlers appeared to get off to a slower start in early word learning than US children. The correlation between percentage word use scores in Greek and US samples was moderate in size, indicating considerable overlap but some differences. Common nouns were the largest category among the fifty most frequent words in both samples. Numbers of adjectives and verbs were comparable across languages, but people and closed-class words were more numerous in the Greek sample. Finally, Greek late talkers showed similar patterns of vocabulary composition to those observed in typically developing Greek children. PMID:21729371

  1. [Statistical surveys in Mali: on indicators, markers for development].

    PubMed

    Sacko, A; Wane, H R

    1994-05-01

    In November 1993 in Bamako, Mali, the National Directorship of Statistics and Information held a meeting for 60 cadres of different administrations and national services to present the results of the National Surveys on Budget-Expenses (EBC) and on the Informal Sector (ESI). EBC took place between June 1988 and May 1989 and aimed to improve knowledge on food, nutrition, and household expenses. Annual per capita household expenses varied from 84,000 FCFA in Mopti to 214,000 FCFA in Bamako District. Per capita expenses in rural areas were 66% of that in urban areas (166,500 vs. 181,000 FCFA). Expenses per unit of food increased with the size of the unit of food. Expenses per person fell with unit food size. Each person consumed, on average, 202 kg/year, providing 92% of energy needs. Protein needs were more than satisfied (115%). 23.7% of children aged 0-10 had stunted growth (25.3% in rural areas vs. 19.5% in urban areas). Malnutrition occurred in 11.5% of urban children and 11.7% of rural children. Malnutrition was present in 93% of less than one year olds and in 36.5% of children aged 12-48 months. 19% of women and 14.5% of men were malnourished. ESI was conducted between September 1989 and January 1990. The mean rate of activity was 55.35%. Unemployed persons made up about 1% of this rate. 45,970 persons were active in the informal sector, most in urban areas (60%). The informal sector comprised 16% of the total active population. In Bamako District, the active population in the informal sector was 155,000 persons. The rate of real activity in Bamako was 40% for men and 31% for women. The unemployment rate was 8.4% for men and 5.8% for women. 80% of unemployed persons in Bamako were less than 35 years old. 24% and 18% of the unemployed had secondary and postsecondary education, respectively. PMID:12288138

  2. ACCEPTABILITY OF PrEP UPTAKE AMONG RACIALLY/ETHNICALLY DIVERSE YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: THE P18 STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697

  3. Acceptability of PrEP Uptake Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: The P18 Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C; Eddy, Jessica A; Halkitis, Perry N

    2015-04-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697

  4. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  5. A Survey of Professional Development for Co-Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the perceptions of co-teachers concerning their professional development needs for co-teaching and to determine the level of training they received to prepare them for co-teaching. Sixty-one co-teachers (general education teachers: n = 36, 59%; special education teachers: n = 25, 41%) in the…

  6. Phase transformation of "chem-prep" PZT 95/5-2Nb HF1035 ceramic under quasi-static loading conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.; Hofer, John H.

    2006-07-01

    Specimens of poled and unpoled ''chem-prep'' PNZT ceramic from batch HF1035 were tested under hydrostatic, uniaxial, and constant stress difference loading conditions at -55, 25, and 75 C. The objective of this experimental study was to characterize the mechanical properties and conditions for the ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transformations of this ''chem-prep'' PNZT ceramic to aid grain-scale modeling efforts in developing and testing realistic response models for use in simulation codes. As seen from a previously characterized material (batch HF803), poled ceramic from HF1035 was seen to undergo anisotropic deformation during the transition from a FE to an AFE phase. Also, the phase transformation was found to be permanent for the two low temperature conditions, whereas the transformation can be completely reversed at the highest temperature. The rates of increase in the phase transformation pressures with temperature were practically identical for both unpoled and poled PNZT HF1035 specimens. We observed that temperature spread the phase transformation over mean stress analogous to the observed spread over mean stress due to shear stress. Additionally, for poled ceramic samples, the FE to AFE phase transformation was seen to occur when the normal compressive stress, acting perpendicular to a crystallographic plane about the polar axis, equals the hydrostatic pressure at which the transformation otherwise takes place.

  7. The Development and Validation of a Teacher Preparation Program: Follow-Up Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    Students in my applied advanced statistics course for educational administration doctoral students developed a follow-up survey for teacher preparation programs, using the following scale development processes: adopting a framework; developing items; providing evidence of content validity; conducting a pilot test; and analyzing data. The students…

  8. Workforce Development: A Survey of Industry Needs and Training Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Ventre, Jerry; Weissman, Jane

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents information and data collected during 2008 on PV workforce needs by the Interstate Renewable Energy Council for the U.S. Department of Energy. The data was collected from licensed contractors, PV practitioners, educators and expert instructors at training sessions, and at focus group and advisory committee meetings. Respondents were primarily from three states: Florida, New York and California. Other states were represented, but to a lesser extent. For data collection, a 12-item questionnaire was developed that addressed key workforce development issues from the perspectives of both the PV industry and training institutions. A total of 63 responses were collected, although not every respondent answered every question. Industry representatives slightly outnumbered the educators, although the difference in responses was not significant.

  9. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  10. Development of a car-borne γ-ray survey system, KURAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, M.; Okumura, R.; Takamiya, K.; Sato, N.; Yoshino, H.; Yamana, H.

    2013-10-01

    A compact radiometric survey system, named KURAMA (Kyoto University RAdiation MApping system), has been developed as a response to the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. KURAMA is based on GPS (Global Positioning System) and network technology, and intended for the realtime data accumulation of multiple mobile monitoring stations, such as monitoring cars. KURAMA now serves for the car-borne surveys in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures by the Japanese Government and local authorities. An outline of KURAMA and discussions on car-borne γ-ray surveys using KURAMA are introduced.

  11. C-terminal domain of MEIS1 converts PKNOX1 (PREP1) into a HOXA9-collaborating oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bisaillon, Richard; Wilhelm, Brian T; Krosl, Jana; Sauvageau, Guy

    2011-10-27

    The three-amino-acid loop extension (TALE) class homeodomain proteins MEIS1 and PKNOX1 (PREP1) share the ability to interact with PBX and HOX family members and bind similar DNA sequences but appear to play opposing roles in tumor development. Elevated levels of MEIS1 accelerate development of HOX- and MLL-induced leukemias, and this pro-tumorigenic property has been associated with transcriptional activity of MEIS1. In contrast, reduction of PKNOX1 levels has been linked with cancer development despite the absence of an identifiable transactivating domain. In this report, we show that a chimeric protein generated by fusion of the MEIS1 C-terminal region encompassing the transactivating domain with the full-length PKNOX1 (PKNOX1-MC) acquired the ability to accelerate the onset of Hoxa9-induced leukemia in the mouse bone marrow transduction/transplantation model. Gene expression profiling of primary bone marrow cells transduced with Hoxa9 plus Meis1, or Hoxa9 plus Pknox1-MC revealed perturbations in overlapping functional gene subsets implicated in DNA packaging, chromosome organization, and in cell cycle regulation. Together, results presented in this report suggest that the C-terminal domain of MEIS1 confers to PKNOX1 an ectopic transactivating function that promotes leukemogenesis by regulating expression of genes involved in chromatin accessibility and cell cycle progression. PMID:21900201

  12. Photography equipment and techniques. A survey of NASA developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derr, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo program has been the most complex exploration ever attempted by man, requiring extensive research, development, and engineering in most of the sciences before the leap through space could begin. Photography has been used at each step of the way to document the efforts and activities, isolate mistakes, reveal new phenomena, and to record much that cannot be seen by the human eye. At the same time, the capabilities of photography were extended because of the need of meeting space requirements. The results of this work have been applied to community planning and ecology, for example, as well as to space and engineering. Special uses of standard equipment, modifications and new designs, as well as film combinations that indicate actual or potential ecological problems are described.

  13. Emergency healthcare worker sleep, fatigue, & alertness behavior survey (SFAB): Development and content validation of a survey tool

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Buysse, Daniel J.; Weaver, Matthew D.; Suffoletto, Brian P.; McManigle, Kyle L.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Yealy, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Workplace safety is a recognized concern in Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Ambulance crashes are common and injury rates exceed that of the general working public. Fatigue and sleepiness during shift work pose a safety risk for patients and EMS workers. Changing EMS worker behaviors and improving alertness during shift work is hampered by a lack of instruments that reliably and accurately measure multidimensional beliefs and habits that predict alertness behavior. Objectives: We sought to test the reliability and validity of a survey tool (the Sleep, Fatigue, and Alertness Behavior Survey [SFAB]) designed to identify the cognitions of emergency medical services (EMS) workers concerning sleep, fatigue, and alertness behaviors during shift work. Methods: We operationalized the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) and developed a pool of 97 candidate items and sub-items to measure eight domains of the IMBP. Five sleep scientists judged the content validity of each item and a convenience sample of EMS workers completed a paper-based version of the SFAB. We retained items judged content valid by five sleep scientists and performed exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and tests of reliability and internal consistency. We identified a simple factor structure for each scale and calculated means and standard deviations for each item and scale. Results: We received 360 completed SFAB surveys from a convenience sample of 800 EMS workers attending two regional continuing education conferences (45% participation rate). Forty-seven candidate items and sub-items/options were removed following content validation, EFA, and CFA testing. Analyses revealed a simple factor structure for seven of eight domains and a final pool of 50 items and sub-items/options. Domains include: Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, Knowledge, Salience, Habits, Environmental Constraints, and Intent. EFA tests of self-efficacy items failed to identify

  14. Development of a very small telescope for space astrometry surveyer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, M.; Kobayashi, Y.; Gouda, N.; Yano, T.; Yamada, Y.; Takato, N.; Yamauchi, M.

    We report an outline and a current status of developing a small, all-aluminum made telescope for Nano-JASMINE. Nano-JASMINE is a nano-size astrometry satellite that is to be launched in 2008 and will demonstrate some key technologies required for JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration) in a real space environment. It also measures absolute positions of bright stars (z< 8 mag) with accuracies about 1 milli-arcsecond in a few years mission. It has a Ritchey-Chretien type telescope with a 5-cm effective aperture, a 167-cm focal length and a field of view of 0.5x0.5 degree. The telescope only occupies a volume about 15x12x12 cm, and weighs two kilograms or less. Almost all of the structures and the optical elements of the telescope, including two aspherical mirrors three flat mirrors and a dual-angled flat mirror that combines the beam from a relative angle of 99.5 degrees into the primary mirror, are made out of aluminum alloy, being figured by diamond turning machines. The Bread Board Model (BBM) of the telescope is found to be achieving a diffraction-limited performance at room temperature.

  15. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial

    PubMed Central

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno; for the ANRS IPERGAY Study Group

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40–98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate–emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants’ adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0–M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1–max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9–35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2–18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8–29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2–68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3–79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3–75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4–max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency

  16. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    PubMed

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  17. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Interventions in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Carson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices) may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultural norms may influence the implementation and scalability of future HIV PrEP interventions in Vancouver, Canada. Methods We conducted 50 interviews with young men (ages 18–24) with a variety of HIV risk behavioural profiles (e.g., young men who inject drugs; MSM). Interviews focused on participants’ experiences and perceptions with various HIV interventions and policies, including PrEP. Results While awareness of PrEP was generally low, perceptions about the potential personal and public health gains associated with PrEP were interconnected with expressions of complex and sometimes conflicting social norms. Some accounts characterized PrEP as a convenient form of reliable protection against HIV, likening it to the female birth control pill. Other accounts cast PrEP as a means to facilitate ‘socially unacceptable’ behaviour (e.g., promiscuity). Stigmatizing rhetoric was used to position PrEP as a tool that could promote some groups’ proclivities to take ‘risks’. Conclusion Stigma regarding ‘risky’ behaviour and PrEP should not be underestimated as a serious implementation challenge. Pre-implementation strategies that concomitantly aim to improve knowledge about PrEP, while addressing associated social prejudices, may be key to effective implementation and scale-up. PMID:26756474

  18. Acceptability of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Implementation Challenges Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in India: A Qualitative Investigation.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Mengle, Shruta; Varghese, Jarvis; Nelson, Ruban; Bharat, Shalini

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study explored the acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM in India, and identified facilitators and barriers to future PrEP uptake. In 2014, we conducted 10 focus groups (n=61) among a purposive sample of diverse MSM recruited through community-based organizations in Chennai and Mumbai, and 10 key informant interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Participants' mean age was 26.1 years (SD 4.8); 62% completed secondary education, and 42% engaged in sex work. No focus group participants had heard of PrEP, but once explained, most reported they would likely use it. PrEP was alternately perceived as a 'back-up plan', a condom substitute, or a burden with concurrent condom use. Facilitators were potential for covert use, sex without condoms, and anxiety-less sex. Potential barriers emerged around stigma associated with PrEP use, fear of disclosures to one's family, wife, or male steady partner, and being labeled as HIV-positive or promiscuous by peers. Preferences emerged for intermittent rather than daily PrEP use, injectable PrEP, and free or subsidized access through community organizations or government hospitals. Key informants expressed additional concerns about risk compensation, non-adherence, and impact on ART availability for treatment. Demonstration projects are needed in India to support PrEP implementation tailored for at-risk MSM. Educational interventions for MSM should address concerns about PrEP effectiveness, side effects, and mitigate risk compensation. Community engagement may facilitate broad acceptability and challenge stigma around PrEP use. Importantly, provision of free or subsidized PrEP is necessary to making implementation feasible among low socioeconomic status MSM in India. PMID:26348459

  19. A Survey and Recent Development of Lunar Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    Earth's moon is the largest in the solar system relative to its parent body, the Earth, and can have significant effect on the path of a spacecraft flying close by. This effect, when planned to benefit a specific mission, is called lunar gravity assist (LGA) , and assumes that one aims the spacecraft towards the Moon in such a way that the Moon's gravitational pull will alter the spacecraft's course in a favorable manner. The first application of LGA was in the Apollo program, where the command and lunar modules (and astronauts) were propelled to the Moon such that, if no additional course changes were made, they would swing around the backside of the Moon at a certain altitude and be flung back to Earth to enter the atmosphere at a specified location in the Pacific ocean. This LGA was an essential element saving the lives of the astronauts on Apollo 13. This paper will illustrate the basic mechanics of gravity assist, and list the many applications where it has been used effectively over the past 30 some years. These include missions to the sun and Earth libration points, redirecting a spacecraft from one of these point to a comet encounter, and enhancing payloads by providing an energy boost by the Moon. More recently, studies and actual missions have shown the benefits of LGA in: (1) assisting lunar capture, (2) repositioning geosynchronous communications satellites, (3) boosting spacecraft to Earth escape and departure to planets and other solar system bodies, and (4) allowing small spacecraft to be launched as secondary payloads and released into almost a random orbit from which each may depart and maneuver in space with gravity assists from the Earth and Moon to perform a specific planetary or other mission. This latter application is a recent development by the author and is being applied in 2002 and later years, with piggyback flights on the Ariane 5 which launches comsats to GEO.

  20. Functional and cooperative interactions between the homeodomain PDX1, Pbx, and Prep1 factors on the somatostatin promoter.

    PubMed

    Goudet, G; Delhalle, S; Biemar, F; Martial, J A; Peers, B

    1999-02-12

    Expression of the somatostatin gene in endocrine pancreatic cells is controlled by several regulatory cis-elements located in the promoter region. Among these, the adjacent UE-A and TSEI elements, located from -113 to -85 relative to the transcription initiation site, function in combination and act as a pancreas-specific mini-enhancer. The TSEI element is recognized by the pancreatic homeodomain factor PDX1. In the present study, we show that the UE-A element binds a heterodimeric complex composed of a Pbx factor and the Prep1 protein, both belonging to the atypical three-amino acid loop extension homeodomain family. Recombinant Pbx1 and Prep1 proteins bind cooperatively to the UE-A site, whereas neither protein can bind this site alone. Transient transfection experiments reveal that both Pbx1 and Prep1 are required to generate a strong transcriptional activation from the UE-A element when this element is inserted close to the TATA box. In contrast, in the context of the intact somatostatin promoter or mini-enhancer, Pbx1 and Prep1 alone have no effect, but they produce a drastic activation when the pancreatic homeodomain factor PDX1 is also coexpressed. Thus, the activity of the somatostatin mini-enhancer is mediated by a cooperative interaction between the Pbx-Prep1 heterodimeric complex and the pancreatic factor PDX1. PMID:9933599

  1. Attitudes and program preferences of African-American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Dawn K; Toledo, Lauren; Smith, Donna Jo; Adams, Mary Anne; Rothenberg, Richard

    2012-10-01

    We elicited attitudes about, and service access preferences for, daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) from urban, African-American young men and women, ages 18-24 years, at risk for HIV transmission through their sexual and drug-related behaviors participating in eight mixed-gender and two MSM-only focus groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Participants reported substantial interest in PrEP associated with its perceived cost, effectiveness, and ease of accessing services and medication near to their homes or by public transportation. Frequent HIV testing was a perceived benefit. Participants differed about whether risk-reduction behaviors would change, and in which direction; and whether PrEP use would be associated with HIV stigma or would enhance the reputation for PrEP users. This provides the first information about the interests, concerns, and preferences of young adult African Americans that can be used to inform the introduction of PrEP services into HIV prevention efforts for this critical population group. PMID:23016502

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on food-consumption surveys in developing countries: future challenges.

    PubMed

    Tee, E-Siong; Dop, Marie Claude; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2004-12-01

    The workshop "Food-consumption surveys in developing countries: Future challenges," held in Chiang Rai, Thailand, January 25--26, 2003, brought together 30 nutritionists and food safety experts from 10 Southeast Asian countries as well as from countries outside the region. It provided a forum for sharing information and experiences relating to food-consumption survey methodology. It enabled detailed discussions of the gathering of food-consumption data in developing countries for purposes of nutrition assessment, exposure assessment, and studies of diet-disease relationships. The workshop participants emphasized the need to obtain the support of policy and decision makers to establish a mechanism for conducting regular coordinated food-consumption surveys to meet these needs. The participants emphasized the importance of identifying all relevant stakeholders and involving them in the planning and conduct of these surveys. A number of technical issues related to food-con.sumption surveys were discussed, including food-intake methodologies. It was felt that surveys on individuals are preferred, and a combination of 24-hour recall and food-frequency questionnaire would most likely provide the required data. The workshop emphasized the need to develop, maintain, and update databases at the national and regional levels for nutrients and non-nutrients as well as contaminants and food additives. To ensure that surveys are conducted regularly and professionally, the importance of having qualified and trained personnel was emphasized. Several issues related to reports of food-consumption data were discussed, including timely reporting, effective dissemination, and appropriate usage. The participants unanimously recommended the organization of further technical meetings or workshops to follow up on recommended activities and enable continuing regional collaboration on food-consumption surveys. PMID:15646317

  3. Teacher Beliefs about Reading Motivation and Their Enactment in Classrooms: The Development of a Survey Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Matthew; Unrau, Norman; Ragusa, Gisele; Rueda, Robert; Lim, Hyo; Velasco, Alejandra; Fujii, Kayoko; Bowers, Erica; Nemerouf, Ann; Loera, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    This study examined teachers' beliefs about motivating students to read through the development of a new survey questionnaire. The current investigation reports on initial tests of the scale's reliability and validity. The items for this measure were developed from an engagement perspective to reflect the motivational constructs represented in an…

  4. Transport airplane flight deck development survey and analysis: Report and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. K.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a survey and analysis of research and development work related to improving transport airplane flight deck equipment and aircrew performance is reported. Research and development related to flight deck advancement in general, as well as that concerned directly with terminal area operations, is described and discussed.

  5. National Survey Reveals Gaps in the Public's and Parents' Knowledge about Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald; Lerner, Claire; Lurie-Hurvitz, Erica

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes findings of "What Grown-ups Understand about Child Development," a national survey to gauge America's knowledge about child development. The findings suggest a need for more and better information on topics such as expectations of young children at different ages, theories on spanking and spoiling, and choices of activities…

  6. Developing a Computer Information Systems Curriculum Based on an Industry Needs Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafarian, Ahmad; Sisk, Kathy A.

    This paper details experiences in developing an undergraduate Computer Information Systems (CIS) curriculum at a small liberal arts school. The development of the program was based on the study of needs assessment. Findings were based on the analysis of four sources of data: the results of an industry needs survey, data from a needs assessment…

  7. Identifying Influential Facilitators of Mathematics Professional Development: A Survey Analysis of Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Sandra M.; Eckhoff, Angela; Igo, Larry B.; Stegelin, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds on results from a previous phenomenological study examining characteristics of influential facilitators of elementary mathematics professional development. The current study utilized a survey design where results from the qualitative investigation were quantitized to develop an instrument that allowed participants to identify…

  8. Met Expectations Hypothesis: The Use of Direct Measures to Develop Participant Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Claretha H.

    2005-01-01

    This study uses met expectations hypothesis, a form of expectancy theory, to develop survey instruments to identify and compare the goals, expectations, and perceived outcomes stakeholders held for the Faculty Development Institute (FDI). The stakeholders had similar expectations for the outcomes during and/or immediately following the initial FDI…

  9. The Development of an Emotional Response to Writing Measure: The Affective Cognition Writing Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.; Jain, Sachin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and initiate the validation of the Affective Cognition Writing Survey (ACWS), a psychological instrument used to measure emotional expression through writing. Procedures for development and validation of the instrument are reported. Subsequently, factor analysis extracted six factors: Positive Processing,…

  10. Development of a Community Readiness Survey for Coalitions to Address Prescription Opioid Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.

    2015-01-01

    A community readiness survey for coalitions to address the growing epidemic of prescription opioid misuse was developed in this four-part study. A total of 70 coalition members participated. 1) We conducted 30-minute phone interviews with coalition members (n = 30) and a literature review to develop an item list. 2) Coalition members rated these…

  11. Seeking Construct Validity Grounded in Constructivist Epistemology: Development of the Survey of Contemporary Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, Kathy L.; Kuo, Yi-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the development of a new classroom environment instrument for late-elementary students. The development of the survey of contemporary learning environments (SoCLE) followed a content analysis of three similar instruments on constructivist learning environments and the literature on characteristics of contemporary learning…

  12. The development and initial assessment of the strategy and leadership systems capability evaluation survey.

    PubMed

    Coon, Cheryl D; Bokowy, Kay L; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Zisman, Robert S; McLeod, Lori D; Brown, T Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Hospital management and leadership systems are associated with organizational success and quality care. The Strategy and Leadership Systems Capability Evaluation (CE) survey was developed by GE Healthcare to assess management and leadership systems at health care institutions, serve as a benchmark for improvement, and measure progress. To assess the psychometric properties of the 29-item CE survey, including the factor structure, scoring algorithm, reliability, and discriminant validity, an online survey was completed by 3450 employees at 15 US hospitals. Of these employees, 609 worked at a hospital where a leadership and management intervention occurred after the initial survey administration. Data were also collected on job level, number of hospital beds, hospital ownership, location, community type, and the implementation of hospital interventions. Item response frequencies showed no floor or ceiling effects and limited missing data. Interitem correlations were strong without obvious redundancies, and factor analysis suggested a unidimensional scale. The resulting scale had strong internal consistency and was able to discriminate among known groups. The CE survey was developed to evaluate management and leadership systems at health care institutions. This study provides psychometric evidence in support of the reliability, validity, and scoring structure of this survey. PMID:23111485

  13. Development and Evaluation of the CAHPS® Survey for In-center Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weidmer, Beverly A.; Cleary, Paul D.; Keller, San; Evensen, Christian; Hurtado, Margarita P.; Kosiak, Beth; Gallagher, Patricia M.; Levine, Roger; Hays, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) assesses patient experiences of care as part of the End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Prospective Payment System and Quality Incentive Program. This article describes the development and evaluation of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems In-Center Hemodialysis survey (CAHPS® ICH survey). Study Design We conducted formative research to generate survey questions and conducted statistical analyses of survey responses to evaluate the survey’s measurement properties. Setting and Participants Formative research included 5 focus groups (2 with hemodialysis patients, 2 with caregivers, 1 with nephrologists) and 56 cognitive interviews with dialysis patients. We collected field test responses to the survey from 1454 dialysis patients receiving care at 32 facilities. Measurements & Outcomes We assessed the CAHPS ICH Survey. Results Response rate was 46%. Analyses support 3 multi-item scales: Nephrologists’ Communication and Caring (7 items, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89); Quality of Dialysis Center Care and Operations (22 items, alpha = 0.93); and, Providing Information to Patients (11 items, alpha = 0.75). The communication scale was the most strongly correlated with the global rating of the ‘kidney doctor’ (r = 0.78). The Dialysis Center Care and Operations scale was most strongly correlated with the global ratings of staff (r = 0.75) and of the center (r = 0.69). Providing Information to Patients was most strongly correlated with the global rating of the staff (r=0.41). Limitations Males and younger patients were over-represented in the field test compared to the general U.S. population of dialysis patients. A relatively small number of patients completed the survey in Spanish. Conclusions This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the CAHPS ICH survey for assessing ESRD patient experiences of care at dialysis facilities. The survey can be used to compare care

  14. Development and Results of an Effective School Survey for Leon County Schools: A Survey of Parent, Student, Teacher and Community Attitudes toward Their Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Rick E.

    In January 1990, the Leon County (Florida) School District decided to develop an attitude survey focusing on effective school components and school improvement areas. Using focus groups, this survey was accomplished through a steering committee of parents, students, teachers, and community members, with input from school and district…

  15. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  16. Targeting capacity and conservation of PreP homologues localization in mitochondria of different species.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Nyosha; Berglund, Anna-Karin; Engmann, Tanja; Spånning, Erika; Vögtle, F-Nora; Pavlov, Pavel; Meisinger, Chris; Langer, Thomas; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2011-07-15

    Mitochondrial presequences and other unstructured peptides are degraded inside mitochondria by presequence proteases (PrePs) identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPreP), humans (hPreP), and yeast (Cym1/Mop112). The presequences of A. thaliana and human PreP are predicted to consist of 85 and 29 amino acids, respectively, whereas the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cym1/Mop112 presequence contains only 7 residues. These differences may explain the reported targeting of homologous proteins to different mitochondrial subcompartments. Here we have investigated the targeting capacity of the PreP homologues' presequences. We have produced fusion constructs containing N-terminal portions of AtPreP(1-125), hPreP(1-69), and Cym1(1-40) coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and studied their import into isolated plant, mammalian, and yeast mitochondria, followed by mitochondrial subfractionation. Whereas the AtPreP presequence has the capacity to target GFP into the mitochondrial matrix of all three species, the hPreP presequence only targets GFP to the matrix of mammalian and yeast mitochondria. The Cym1/Mop112 presequence has an overall much weaker targeting capacity and only ensures mitochondrial sorting in its host species yeast. Revisiting the submitochondrial localization of Cym1 revealed that endogenous Cym1/Mop112 is localized to the matrix space, as has been previously reported for the plant and human homologues. Moreover, complementation studies in yeast show that native AtPreP restores the growth phenotype of yeast cells lacking Cym1, demonstrating functional conservation. PMID:21621546

  17. Degradation of the amyloid beta-protein by the novel mitochondrial peptidasome, PreP.

    PubMed

    Falkevall, Annelie; Alikhani, Nyosha; Bhushan, Shashi; Pavlov, Pavel F; Busch, Katrin; Johnson, Kenneth A; Eneqvist, Therese; Tjernberg, Lars; Ankarcrona, Maria; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2006-09-29

    Recently we have identified the novel mitochondrial peptidase responsible for degrading presequences and other short unstructured peptides in mitochondria, the presequence peptidase, which we named PreP peptidasome. In the present study we have identified and characterized the human PreP homologue, hPreP, in brain mitochondria, and we show its capacity to degrade the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta). PreP belongs to the pitrilysin oligopeptidase family M16C containing an inverted zinc-binding motif. We show that hPreP is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. In situ immuno-inactivation studies in human brain mitochondria using anti-hPreP antibodies showed complete inhibition of proteolytic activity against Abeta. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified recombinant hPreP and its mutant with catalytic base Glu(78) in the inverted zinc-binding motif replaced by Gln. In vitro studies using recombinant hPreP and liquid chromatography nanospray tandem mass spectrometry revealed novel cleavage specificities against Abeta-(1-42), Abeta-(1-40), and Abeta Arctic, a protein that causes increased protofibril formation an early onset familial variant of Alzheimer disease. In contrast to insulin degrading enzyme, which is a functional analogue of hPreP, hPreP does not degrade insulin but does degrade insulin B-chain. Molecular modeling of hPreP based on the crystal structure at 2.1 A resolution of AtPreP allowed us to identify Cys(90) and Cys(527) that form disulfide bridges under oxidized conditions and might be involved in redox regulation of the enzyme. Degradation of the mitochondrial Abeta by hPreP may potentially be of importance in the pathology of Alzheimer disease. PMID:16849325

  18. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes.

    PubMed

    Carlo Hojilla, J; Koester, Kimberly A; Cohen, Stephanie E; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was 'seasonal' and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts. PMID:25835463

  19. An Exploratory Investigation of the Promoting Responsibility through Education and Prevention (PREP) after School Program for African American At-Risk Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sale, Elizabeth; Weil, Virginia; Kryah, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) program is an after school substance abuse and violence prevention program for at-risk fourth and fifth grade youths in St. Louis, Missouri. Staffed by licensed clinical social workers and professional volunteers, PREP offers cultural cooking classes, yoga, and art as well as…

  20. Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Prevention of HIV in Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Julie E.; Kurth, Ann E.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Mannheimer, Sharon B.; Simmons, Janie; Pouget, Enrique R.; Trabold, Nicole; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP—injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. PMID:25045996

  1. Peer-mentored preparedness (PM-Prep): a new disaster preparedness program for adults living independently in the community.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David Paul; Bazzano, Alicia; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Lewis, Mary-Ann; Lamb, Kerry; Lehrer, Danise

    2014-02-01

    The authors studied a health promotion program called PM-Prep (Peer-Mentored Prep), which was designed to improve disaster preparedness among adults living independently in the community. PM-Prep consists of four 2-hour classes co-taught by a health educator and peer-mentors. Adults were randomly assigned to an experimental arm or a wait-list control arm. Earthquake safety knowledge and preparedness supplies were assessed prior to the intervention and at 1 month after the intervention (N  =  82). Adults in the experimental arm significantly increased preparedness by 19 percentage points, from 56% to 75% completed (p < .0001), and improved their knowledge by 8 percentage points, from 79% to 87% correct (p  =  .001). This is the first peer-mentored, targeted, and tailored disaster preparedness program tested with this population. PMID:24635691

  2. Non-prep restoration of an ankylosed incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Andree; Blum, Jasmin; Abendroth, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Dental restorations without tooth preparation are among today's more advanced treatment options. This article presents the case of a young man who was treated with a non-prep laminate veneer that provided 3.5 mm of incisal elongation. A Photoshop assessment and functional evaluation, as well as a wax-up and mock-up, were used during pre-prosthetic planning. A combination of pressable and feldspathic ceramics was used as a restorative material, which was applied to the tooth surface without any preparation of dental hard tissue. An ideal functional and esthetic restoration was achieved thanks to close collaboration between the patient, the dentist, and the technician. PMID:25642458

  3. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world’s developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Methods We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. Results 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight

  4. Industrial Prep, Volume One, Sophomore Year--Introduction Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackensack Public Schools, NJ.

    As part of a 3-year comprehensive interdisciplinary program developed by a group of educators from Hackensack High School, New Jersey, this teaching guide for a Grade 10 mathematics unit is designed as a year long study of measurement in preparation for further technical study in Grades 11 and 12. Daily lesson plans for the four sophomore units…

  5. The Symbolic Order of School: Waldorf and College Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Mary E.

    Schools embody a "symbolic order" communicated through school rituals and social and symbolic relationships. Schools possess a moral vision, a system of values and norms that they wish to develop in students. This paper compares the symbolic order of two independent schools, one a traditional college preparatory school (preschool-grade 12), the…

  6. Prepping for Emergencies with Disabled or Special-Needs Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, John; Malia, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Disability-related emergency information that focuses on schools can be found at Emergency Info Online, a free online service and printer-friendly directory produced by Bridge Multimedia, a New York City-based media services company that develops universally accessible media. This preparedness tool offers a wealth of compiled digital information…

  7. Developing Culturally Responsive Surveys: Lessons in Development, Implementation, and Analysis from Brazil's African Descent Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Merle L.; Tillman, Ayesha S.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable empirical research, along with a growing body of conceptual and theoretical literature, exists on the role of culture and context in evaluation. Less scholarship has examined culturally responsive surveys in the context of international evaluation. In this article, the authors present lessons learned from the development,…

  8. Development, Evaluation and Use of a Student Experience Survey in Undergraduate Science Laboratories: The Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory Student Laboratory Learning Experience Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, Simon C.; Bucat, Robert B.; Buntine, Mark A.; Burke da Silva, Karen; Crisp, Geoffrey T.; George, Adrian V.; Jamie, Ian M.; Kable, Scott H.; Lim, Kieran F.; Pyke, Simon M.; Read, Justin R.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Yeung, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    Student experience surveys have become increasingly popular to probe various aspects of processes and outcomes in higher education, such as measuring student perceptions of the learning environment and identifying aspects that could be improved. This paper reports on a particular survey for evaluating individual experiments that has been developed over some 15 years as part of a large national Australian study pertaining to the area of undergraduate laboratories-Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory. This paper reports on the development of the survey instrument and the evaluation of the survey using student responses to experiments from different institutions in Australia, New Zealand and the USA. A total of 3153 student responses have been analysed using factor analysis. Three factors, motivation, assessment and resources, have been identified as contributing to improved student attitudes to laboratory activities. A central focus of the survey is to provide feedback to practitioners to iteratively improve experiments. Implications for practitioners and researchers are also discussed.

  9. Knowledge, Beliefs and Practices Regarding Antiretroviral Medications for HIV Prevention: Results from a Survey of Healthcare Providers in New England

    PubMed Central

    Krakower, Douglas S.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mitty, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Ira B.; Kurth, Ann E.; Maloney, Kevin M.; Gallagher, Donna; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infection before immunologic decline (early ART) and pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV transmission, but routine adoption of these practices by clinicians has been limited. Methods Between September and December 2013, healthcare practitioners affiliated with a regional AIDS Education and Training Center in New England were invited to complete online surveys assessing knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding early ART and PrEP. Multivariable models were utilized to determine characteristics associated with prescribing intentions and practices. Results Surveys were completed by 184 practitioners. Respondent median age was 44 years, 58% were female, and 82% were white. Among ART-prescribing clinicians (61% of the entire sample), 64% were aware that HIV treatment guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services recommended early ART, and 69% indicated they would prescribe ART to all HIV-infected patients irrespective of immunologic status. However, 77% of ART-prescribing clinicians would defer ART for patients not ready to initiate treatment. Three-fourths of all respondents were aware of guidance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommending PrEP provision, 19% had prescribed PrEP, and 58% of clinicians who had not prescribed PrEP anticipated future prescribing. Practitioners expressed theoretical concerns and perceived practical barriers to prescribing early ART and PrEP. Clinicians with higher percentages of HIV-infected patients (aOR 1.16 per 10% increase in proportion of patients with HIV-infection, 95% CI 1.01–1.34) and infectious diseases specialists (versus primary care physicians; aOR 3.32, 95% CI 0.98–11.2) were more likely to report intentions to prescribe early ART. Higher percentage of HIV-infected patients was also associated with having prescribed PrEP (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34), whereas female gender (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.71) was associated

  10. Partnership for Research & Education in Plants (PREP): Involving High School Students in Authentic Research in Collaboration with Scientists

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, ERIC; DOLAN, ERIN; TAX, FRANS

    2013-01-01

    A partnership between scientists, high school teachers, and their students provides authentic research experiences to help students understand the nature and processes of science. The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP) engages students in a large-scale genomics research project using classroom-tested protocols that can help to find the function of a disabled gene in the widely studied plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe the framework of PREP in the classroom within the context of the National Science Education Standards. PMID:24339450

  11. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pović, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of δz/z <= 1.2% (Molino et al., in prep.). To deal with the morphological classification of galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey (Pović et al., in prep.), we used the galaxy Support Vector Machine code (galSVM; Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological

  12. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Safer Conception Among Serodifferent Couples: Findings from Healthcare Providers Serving Patients with HIV in Seven US Cities.

    PubMed

    Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Champassak, Sofie; Hoyt, Mary Jo; Short, William; Chakraborty, Rana; Weber, Shannon; Levison, Judy; Phillips, Joanne; Storm, Deborah; Anderson, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce the risk of HIV transmission among serodifferent couples trying to conceive, yet provider knowledge, attitudes, and experience utilizing PrEP for this purpose are largely unexamined. Trained interviewers conducted phone interviews with healthcare providers treating patients with HIV in seven cities (Atlanta, Baltimore, Houston, Kansas City, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco, N = 85 total). Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed to describe experience, concerns, and perceived barriers to prescribing PrEP for safer conception. Providers (67.1% female, 43 mean years of age, 70.4% white, 10 mean years treating HIV+ patients, 56% in academic vs. community facilities, 62.2% MD) discussed both benefits and concerns of PrEP for safer conception among serodifferent couples. Only 18.8% of providers reported experience prescribing PrEP, 74.2% were willing to prescribe it under ideal circumstances, and 7.0% were not comfortable prescribing PrEP. Benefits included added protection and a greater sense of control for the HIV-negative partner. Concerns were categorized as clinical, system-level, cost, or behavioral. Significant differences in provider characteristics existed across sites, but experience with PrEP for safer conception did not, p = 0.14. Despite limited experience, most providers were open to recommending PrEP for safer conception as long as patients understood the range of concerns and could make informed decisions. Strategies to identify and link serodifferent couples to PrEP services and clinical guidance specific to PrEP for safer conception are needed. PMID:26824425

  13. Developing a Survey to Determine Student Perceptions of Readiness at the Beginning of an Educational Leadership Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael D.; Gratto, John

    2015-01-01

    In this study, researchers developed a survey to determine student perceptions of readiness prior to entering an educational leadership program. The researchers analyzed and established the reliability and validity of the survey created to understand student readiness as they enter the program. The information garnered from this survey will help…

  14. Community Readiness Survey: Norm Development Using a Q-Sort Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Anu; Botzet, Andria M.; Sechrist, Rebecca A. J.; Arthur, Nikki; Winters, Ken C.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on norms developed for the Minnesota Institute of Public Health's (1999) Community Readiness Survey. Prevention experts from ten states and the Red Lake Nation sorted data from 50 communities into high and low readiness groups using a Q-sort process. High inter-rater agreement was achieved on communities sorted. Tests of…

  15. Knowledge and Use of Contraception in Twenty Developing Countries. Reports on the World Fertility Survey 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlouk, Maria

    This report, third in a series based on data resulting from the World Fertility Survey (WFS), examines the extent of knowledge and use of contraception in 20 developing countries. The data analyzed in this report indicate that in 19 of the 20 countries (the exception being Nepal), three-quarters or more of the women who are or have been married…

  16. Strategic Development of UK Academic Library Websites: A Survey of East Midlands University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Sue; Dearnley, James; Walton, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The strategic development of an academic library website is an ongoing process. The methods available to libraries in their efforts to understand the use of their website are also changing. A pilot survey of a group of UK academic libraries provided an insight into the approaches and methods adopted by this group. The study also revealed some of…

  17. Developing a Survey of Transformative Learning Outcomes and Processes Based on Theoretical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Heather L.; Taylor, Edward W.; Cranton, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop an inclusive evaluation of "transformative learning theory" that encompassed varied perspectives of transformative learning. We constructed a validated quantitative survey to assess the potential outcomes and processes of how transformative learning may be experienced by college-educated…

  18. A Case Study of a Failed Organization Development Intervention Rooted in the Employee Survey Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard A.; Zuber, John A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents results of a case study that illustrates problems of employee surveys as part of the organization development process and makes recommendations to practitioners for effectively managing a sound approach to performance improvement. Provides a look at an inexperienced consultant and the distractions that resulted in a failed organization…

  19. Structural Validity of the Professional Development Profile of the LoTi Digital-Age Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Vandhana; Hull, Darrell M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was used to examine the structural construct validity of the Professional Development Profile of the LoTi Digital-Age Survey, a measure of teacher instructional practices with technology in the classroom. Teacher responses ("N" = 2,840) from across the United States were used to assess factor structure of the instrument using…

  20. Dimensions of Part-Time Faculty Job Satisfaction: Development and Factor Analysis of a Survey Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Jeff E.; Howell, Scott L.; Eggett, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to develop a reliable and valid survey instrument for assessing the satisfaction of part-time faculty teaching in continuing higher education at Brigham Young University (BYU). This article describes the reliability and validity of the instrument that may be used by other administrators and researchers…

  1. The Role of VET in Alcohol and Other Drugs Workforce Development: Survey Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidd, Ken; Carne, Amanda; Roche, Ann

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of vocational education and training qualifications as a workforce development strategy in the community services and health industries, a case study was undertaken of the alcohol and other drug sector. The project comprised of two parts: (1) An online survey to gain an understanding of employer's perceptions of and…

  2. A Survey of the Health, Sleep, and Development of Children Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Michael A.; Mccarthy-Rettig, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    The health, development, and sleeping patterns of 240 children adopted from China were examined using a survey research approach. Eighty percent of the children were 18 months of age or younger when adopted, and 98 percent of the children were girls. Sixty-two percent of the children were reported to have been developmentally delayed at the time…

  3. The Use of Social Survey Data in the Development of Formative Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, John D.

    Evaluators who perform formative evaluations would be well served to apprise themselves of recent survey research in framing formative evaluations. Illustrative examples are used from research into such diverse areas of activity as: the development of identities attached to different forms of modern rock and roll; the rationales that juvenile…

  4. Finding Autonomy in Activity: Development and Validation of a Democratic Classroom Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Eun Hye; Glassman, Michael; Kim, Yunhwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper developed a Democratic Classroom Survey to measure students' perceived democratic environment of the classroom. Perceived democratic environment is one of the most important variables for understanding classroom activity and indeed any type of group activity, but actually measuring perceptions in an objective manner has been…

  5. Monongalia Area Survey, 1981: Citizens' Views on Industrial Development and Quality of Life. Bulletin 676.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout-Wiegand, Nancy; And Others

    The 1981 Monongalia (West Virginia) Area Survey (MAS) polled 485 townspeople and 220 students about certain attitudes and economic and social conditions in an area likely to be the focus of coal-based energy developments. Townspeople were predominately middle-aged, had a high prevalence of home-ownership, and had lived in the area for a relatively…

  6. Student Interest in Technology and Science (SITS) Survey: Development, Validation, and Use of a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William; Sadler, Troy D.; Presley, Morgan; Klosterman, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the systematic development, validation, and use of a new instrument for measuring student interest in science and technology. The Student Interest in Technology and Science (SITS) survey is composed of 5 sub-sections assessing the following dimensions: interest in learning science, using technology to learn science, science…

  7. Development of the U.S. Geological Survey Bibliographic System Using GIPSY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Dwight W.; Kays, Olaf

    1972-01-01

    A brief history of bibliographic activities of the U.S. Geological Survey, including development of a computerized publishing system is given. Also described is the design of the bibliographic search system, application of the Generalized Information Processing System (GIPSY) to storage and retrieval of earth sciences literature, and preliminary…

  8. Utilizing a Substance Use Attitudes, Practices and Knowledge Survey for Multidisciplinary Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Dale; Waters, Vicki; McQueen, Katie; Basinger, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the development and administration of a substance use attitudes questionnaire to social work students and clinicians, physician assistant students and practitioners, and medical interns. The general purpose for the Attitudes Survey was to collect baseline data regarding past training, current attitudes, beliefs, practices, and…

  9. SURVEY OF METHODOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING MEDIA SCREENING VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Barron, Mace G. and Steve Wharton. Submitted. Survey of Methodologies for Developing Media Screening Values for Ecological Risk Assessment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 44 p. (ERL,GB 1200).

    Concurrent with the increase in the number of ecological risk assessments over the past...

  10. Development and Determination of Reliability and Validity of Professional Learning Community Collaborative Team Survey (CTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    The study of transformative learning within collaborative teams was conducted to gain new applicable knowledge used to influence overall school improvement and implementation of professional learning communities. To obtain this new knowledge, the Professional Learning Community Collaborative Team Survey (CTS) was developed and psychometrically…

  11. Development and Initial Validation of the Medical Fear Survey-Short Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Ebesutani, Chad; Sawchuk, Craig N.; McKay, Dean; Lohr, Jeffrey M.; Kleinknecht, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation employs item response theory (IRT) to develop an abbreviated Medical Fear Survey (MFS). Application of IRT analyses in Study 1 (n = 931) to the original 50-item MFS resulted in a 25-item shortened version. Examination of the location parameters also resulted in a reduction of the Likert-type scaling of the MFS by removing…

  12. A National Survey of Faculty Development Evaluation Outcome Measures and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Murrell, Vicki S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national study of 39 higher education institutions that collected information about their evaluation procedures and outcome measures for faculty development for online teaching conducted during 2011-2012. The survey results found that over 90% of institutions used measures of the faculty person's…

  13. 78 FR 76285 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Panel Member Survey To Develop Indicators of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Member Survey To Develop Indicators of Resilient Coastal Tourism AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... shape the tourism industry's ability to adapt to or bounce back from external shocks such as natural... to measure the resiliency of coastal tourism. To help gather this information, NOAA will conduct...

  14. Epistemology and Expectations Survey about Experimental Physics: Development and Initial Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hirokawa, Takako; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning…

  15. The Development of an Emotional Response to Literature Measure: The Affective Response to Literature Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.

    2006-01-01

    Based on theories of emotional intelligence, adult education, psychology of reading, and emotions and literature, this study was designed to develop and validate the Affective Response to Literature Survey (ARLS), a psychological instrument used to measure an emotional response to literature. Initially, 27 items were generated by a review of…

  16. Development and Validation of the Survey of Knowledge of Internet Risk and Internet Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert K.; Ludlow, Larry H.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Kite, Stacey L.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Survey of Knowledge of Internet Risk and Internet Behavior is described. A total of 1,366 Grades 7 and 8 male and female students from an urban, suburban, and rural school offered agree-disagree responses to 26 statements defining one Knowledge Scale and five behavior dimensions. Literature-based support is presented for…

  17. Design and Development of a Process for Web-based Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonaro, Mike; Bainbridge, Joyce

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of a Web-based questionnaire for a survey about childrens' literature used by Alberta elementary teachers. Advantages included fast access to the instrument, protection against missing data, direct uploading of data, and avoidance of postage costs. Disadvantages included limited participation due to computer anxiety (even…

  18. The Psychology of Adult Development and Aging: A Survey of Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Karen Havill

    1989-01-01

    Provides an annotated survey of reference materials published since 1980 that provide access to interdisciplinary psychological literature on adult development and aging. Highlights include periodical indexes and abstracts; dictionaries and encyclopedias; directories and guides; handbooks; literature reviews; bibliographies; test instruments; and…

  19. Using the Effective Behavior Supports Survey to Guide Development of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    As the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS) spreads nationwide, the development of assessment strategies to identify intervention priorities becomes more critical. This study addresses the validity of the Effective Behavior Supports Survey (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) by examining reliability, determining whether rating differences exist…

  20. The School Counseling Program Implementation Survey: Initial Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Carey, John C.; Harrington, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    This article details the initial development of the School Counseling Program Implementation Survey and psychometric results including reliability and factor structure. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor model that accounted for 54% of the variance of the intercorrelation matrix and a two-factor model that accounted for 47% of…

  1. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  2. Prep1/Pbx2 complexes regulate CCL2 expression through the -2578 guanine polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wright, E K; Page, S H; Barber, S A; Clements, J E

    2008-07-01

    CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is the major chemoattractant protein that recruits monocytes to sites of inflammation and increased expression of CCL2 is associated with numerous inflammatory diseases including human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia (HIV-D). The -2578 guanine polymorphism in the CCL2 promoter has been associated with increased expression of CCL2 as well as pathogenesis of HIV-D; however, the molecular mechanism of regulation is unknown. We propose a molecular model for -2578 G-regulated CCL2 expression in astrocytes, which are major producers of CCL2 in the brain. The -2578 G polymorphism creates a consensus-binding site for the transcriptional regulator Prep1, which along with binding partner Pbx2, preferentially binds the -2578 G allele. CCL2 promoters harboring the G allele under unstimulated conditions exhibit a lower basal activity compared to the ancestral A allele. Upon interleukin-1 beta stimulation, Prep1/Pbx2 complexes maintain the ability to bind -2578 G alleles, yet transcription levels from promoters that harbor the A or G allele are equally activated, suggesting that the -2578 region does not influence CCL2 transcription under proinflammatory conditions. Therefore, promoters that harbor the -2578 G allele undergo a higher fold induction and by extension, individuals homozygous for -2578 G would be expected to exhibit hyper-responsive CCL2 phenotypes during periods of inflammation. PMID:18480829

  3. Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 9, 1997--July 25, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The 1997 Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted at the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 9 to July 25, 1997. Program participants were recruited from the Greater Houston Area. All participants were identified as high-achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Clear Creek, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 194 students starting the program, 165 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups under-represented in the engineering and science professions, and 118 of the 194 were women. Our First Year group for 1997 composed of 96% minority and women students. Second and Third Year students combined were 96% minority or women. With financial support from the Center for Computational Sciences and Advanced Distributed Simulation, the Fourth Year Program was added to PREP this year. Twelve students completed the program (83% minority or women).

  4. Prep1/Pbx2 Complexes Regulate CCL2 Expression Through the −2578 Guanine Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Edward K.; Page, Stephen H.; Barber, Sheila A.; Clements, Janice E.

    2008-01-01

    CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is the major chemoattractant protein that recruits monocytes to sites of inflammation and increased expression of CCL2 is associated with numerous inflammatory diseases including human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia (HIV-D). The −2578 guanine polymorphism in the CCL2 promoter has been associated with increased expression of CCL2 as well as pathogenesis of HIV-D; however, the molecular mechanism of regulation is unknown. We propose a molecular model for −2578G regulated CCL2 expression in astrocytes, which are major producers of CCL2 in the brain. The −2578G polymorphism creates a consensus binding site for the transcriptional regulator Prep1, which along with binding partner Pbx2, preferentially binds the −2578G allele. CCL2 promoters harboring the G allele under unstimulated conditions exhibit a lower basal activity compared to the ancestral A allele. Upon IL-1β stimulation, Prep1/Pbx2 complexes maintain the ability to bind −2578G alleles, yet transcription levels from promoters that harbor the A allele or G allele are equally activated, suggesting that the −2578 region does not influence CCL2 transcription under pro-inflammatory conditions. Therefore, promoters that harbor the −2578G allele undergo a higher fold induction and by extension, individuals homozygous for −2578G would be expected to exhibit hyper-responsive CCL2 phenotypes during periods of inflammation. PMID:18480829

  5. The PREP pipeline: standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Kothe, Christian; Su, Kyung-Min; Robbins, Kay A

    2015-01-01

    The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP) and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode. PMID:26150785

  6. The PREP pipeline: standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Kothe, Christian; Su, Kyung-Min; Robbins, Kay A.

    2015-01-01

    The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP) and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode. PMID:26150785

  7. Development of the adult and child complementary medicine questionnaires fielded on the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The 2002, 2007, and 2012 complementary medicine questionnaires fielded on the National Health Interview Survey provide the most comprehensive data on complementary medicine available for the United States. They filled the void for large-scale, nationally representative, publicly available datasets on the out-of-pocket costs, prevalence, and reasons for use of complementary medicine in the U.S. Despite their wide use, this is the first article describing the multi-faceted and largely qualitative processes undertaken to develop the surveys. We hope this in-depth description enables policy makers and researchers to better judge the content validity and utility of the questionnaires and their resultant publications. PMID:24267412

  8. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers’ Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Krakower, Douglas S.; Eldahan, Adam I.; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Dovidio, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers’ adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers’ firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription—financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)—as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014–2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered

  9. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers' Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H; Krakower, Douglas S; Eldahan, Adam I; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers' adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers' firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription-financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)-as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014-2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered a wide

  10. Developing and testing a student-focussed teaching evaluation survey for university instructors.

    PubMed

    Ginns, Paul; Barrie, Simon

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes a process for developing a student-focussed survey to gather teaching- and learning-related feedback from university students and examines the psychometric properties of a short survey for confidential feedback to lecturers in higher education regarding teaching. Analyses were performed at the level of individual respondents and on teacher-average responses. Principal component and exploratory factor analyses at both levels indicated a single underlying lecturing effectiveness factor. Scale scores had high internal consistency. The items and subsequent scale were also consistent in terms of interrater reliability, i.e., the average consistency of ratings of an individual lecturer. Finally, at both levels of analysis, strong correlations between responses to each item and an overall rating provided support for the concurrent validity of the items. These analyses provide initial evidence of the suitability of the survey for gathering confidential student feedback on lecturing effectiveness. PMID:19708424

  11. 1990 National Compensation Survey of Research and Development Scientists and Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report presents the results of the fourth in a new series of surveys of compensation and benefits for research and development (R D) scientists and engineers (S Es). The 1990 Survey represents the largest nationwide database of its kind, covering 104 establishments which provided data on almost 41,000 degreed researchers in the hard'' sciences. The fundamental nature of the survey has not changed: the focus is still on medium- and large-sized establishments which employ at least 100 degreed S Es in R D. The 1990 Survey contains data which cover about 18% of all establishments eligible to participate, encompassing approximately 18% of all eligible employees. As in the last three years, the survey sample constitutes a fairly good representation of the entire population of eligible establishments on the basis of business sector, geographic location, and size. Maturity-based analyses of salaries for some 34,000 nonsupervisory researchers are provided, as are job content-based analyses of more than 27,000 individual contributors and almost 5000 first level supervisors and division directors. Compensation policies and practices data are provided for 102 establishments, and benefits plans for 62 establishments are analyzed.

  12. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System for Hydrothermal Deposit Survey (2) - Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Mikada, H.; Takekawa, J.; Shimura, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. . (1) VCS is an effective high-resolution 3D seismic survey within limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (air gun, water gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. (5) Autonomous recording system. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN. in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. The result gives clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Uncertainty of the source/receiver poisons in water causes the serious problem of the imaging. We used several transducer/transponder to estimate these positions. The VCS seismic records themselves can also provide sensor position using the first break of each trace and we calibrate the positions. We are currently developing the autonomous recording VCS system and planning the trial experiment in actual ocean to establish the way of deployment/recovery and the examine the position through the current flow in November, 2010. The second VCS survey will planned over the actual hydrothermal deposit with deep-towed source in February, 2011.

  13. RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY STATION DEVELOPMENT FOR THE PIT DISASSEMBLY AND CONVERSION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmaso, M.; Gibbs, K.; Gregory, D.

    2011-05-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed prototype equipment to demonstrate remote surveying of Inner and Outer DOE Standard 3013 containers for fixed and transferable contamination in accordance with DOE Standard 3013 and 10 CFR 835 Appendix B. When fully developed the equipment will be part of a larger suite of equipment used to package material in accordance with DOE Standard 3013 at the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Project slated for installation at the Savannah River Site. The prototype system consists of a small six-axis industrial robot with an end effector consisting of a force sensor, vacuum gripper and a three fingered pneumatic gripper. The work cell also contains two alpha survey instruments, swipes, swipe dispenser, and other ancillary equipment. An external controller interfaces with the robot controller, survey instruments and other ancillary equipment to control the overall process. SRNL is developing automated equipment for the Pit Disassembly and Conversion (PDC) Project that is slated for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment being developed is automated packaging equipment for packaging plutonium bearing materials in accordance with DOE-STD-3013-2004. The subject of this paper is the development of a prototype Radiological Survey Station (RSS). Other automated equipment being developed for the PDC includes the Bagless transfer System, Outer Can Welder, Gantry Robot System (GRS) and Leak Test Station. The purpose of the RSS is to perform a frisk and swipe of the DOE Standard 3013 Container (either inner can or outer can) to check for fixed and transferable contamination. This is required to verify that the contamination levels are within the limits specified in DOE-STD-3013-2004 and 10 CFR 835, Appendix D. The surface contamination limit for the 3013 Outer Can (OC) is 500 dpm/100 cm2 (total) and 20 dpm/100 cm2 (transferable). This paper will concentrate on the RSS developments for the 3013 OC but the system for the

  14. Hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial compression tests on unpoled "Chem-prep" PZT 95/5-2Nb ceramic within temperature range of -55 to 75 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeuch, David Henry; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2003-10-01

    Sandia is currently developing a lead-zirconate-titanate ceramic 95/5-2Nb (or PNZT) from chemically prepared ('chem-prep') precursor powders. Previous PNZT ceramic was fabricated from the powders prepared using a 'mixed-oxide' process. The specimens of unpoled PNZT ceramic from batch HF803 were tested under hydrostatic, uniaxial, and constant stress difference loading conditions within the temperature range of -55 to 75 C and pressures to 500 MPa. The objective of this experimental study was to obtain mechanical properties and phase relationships so that the grain-scale modeling effort can develop and test its models and codes using realistic parameters. The stress-strain behavior of 'chem-prep' PNZT under different loading paths was found to be similar to that of 'mixed-oxide' PNZT. The phase transformation from ferroelectric to antiferroelectric occurs in unpoled ceramic with abrupt increase in volumetric strain of about 0.7 % when the maximum compressive stress, regardless of loading paths, equals the hydrostatic pressure at which the transformation otherwise takes place. The stress-volumetric strain relationship of the ceramic undergoing a phase transformation was analyzed quantitatively using a linear regression analysis. The pressure (P{sub T1}{sup H}) required for the onset of phase transformation with respect to temperature is represented by the best-fit line, P{sub T1}{sup H} (MPa) = 227 + 0.76 T (C). We also confirmed that increasing shear stress lowers the mean stress and the volumetric strain required to trigger phase transformation. At the lower bound (-55 C) of the tested temperature range, the phase transformation is permanent and irreversible. However, at the upper bound (75 C), the phase transformation is completely reversible as the stress causing phase transformation is removed.

  15. SR-71 Receiving Flight Prep Maintenance Pre-Dawn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in the SR-71's nosebay studied a variety of celestial objects in wavelengths that are blocked to ground-based astronomers. Earlier in its history, Dryden had a decade of past experience at sustained speeds above Mach 3. Two YF-12A aircraft and an SR-71 designated as a YF-12C were flown at the center between December 1969 and November 1979 in a joint NASA/USAF program to learn more about the capabilities and limitations of high-speed, high-altitude flight. The YF-12As were prototypes of a planned interceptor aircraft based on a design that later evolved into the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft. Dave Lux was the NASA SR-71 project manger for much of the decade of the 1990s, followed by Steve Schmidt. Developed for the USAF as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71s are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. The aircraft can fly at speeds of more than 2,200 miles per hour (Mach 3+, or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. The Lockheed Skunk Works (now Lockheed Martin) built the original SR-71 aircraft. Each aircraft is 107.4 feet long, has a wingspan of 55.6 feet, and is 18.5 feet high (from the ground to the top of the rudders, when parked). Gross takeoff weight is about 140,000 pounds, including a possible fuel weight of 80,280 pounds. The airframes are built almost entirely of titanium and titanium alloys to withstand heat generated by sustained Mach 3 flight. Aerodynamic control surfaces consist of all-moving vertical tail surfaces, ailerons on the outer wings, and elevators on the trailing edges between the engine exhaust nozzles. The two SR-71s at Dryden have been assigned the following NASA tail numbers: NASA 844 (A model), military serial 61-7980 and NASA 831 (B model), military serial 61-7956. From 1990 through 1994, Dryden also had another 'A' model, NASA 832, military

  16. Development of a respiratory protection survey instrument for occupational health nurses: an educational project.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Deborah; Burgel, Barbara J

    2013-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training outlined seven recommendations to improve the competency of occupational health nurses in respiratory protection. An advisory group was convened in December 2011, with stakeholder representation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory, American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc., American Board for Occupational Health Nurses, Inc., Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare, American Nurses Association, and Institute of Medicine Standing Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Workplace Safety and Health. The initial work of the advisory group included developing and administering a survey to assess current occupational health nurse roles and responsibilities relevant to respiratory protection. Development of the survey was led by a master's student and advisor who worked with the advisory group. The process of tool development and preliminary findings are presented in this article. PMID:23380641

  17. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    PubMed Central

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-01-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health sciences libraries. Although use of blanket orders is more stable, fewer than one-third of academic health sciences libraries report using them currently. The decline of print collections suggests that libraries should explore cooperative collection development of print materials to ensure access and preservation. The decline of approval plan use and the need for cooperative collection development may require additional effort for sound collection development. Libraries were also surveyed about their use of outsourcing. Some libraries reported outsourcing cataloging and shelf preparation of books, but none reported using outsourcing for resource selection. The reason given most often for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost savings. As expected, economic factors are driving both collection development and outsourcing practices. PMID:10219477

  18. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    PubMed

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-04-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health sciences libraries. Although use of blanket orders is more stable, fewer than one-third of academic health sciences libraries report using them currently. The decline of print collections suggests that libraries should explore cooperative collection development of print materials to ensure access and preservation. The decline of approval plan use and the need for cooperative collection development may require additional effort for sound collection development. Libraries were also surveyed about their use of outsourcing. Some libraries reported outsourcing cataloging and shelf preparation of books, but none reported using outsourcing for resource selection. The reason given most often for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost savings. As expected, economic factors are driving both collection development and outsourcing practices. PMID:10219477

  19. Connections: A Compendium of Integration Ideas. Illinois Tech Prep Innovators. 1992 Compendium. Integrative Teaching Ideas from Illinois Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This report contains 51 one-page abstracts of innovative Illinois tech prep programs that integrate academic and vocational education. Each abstract includes the following: curriculum areas, grade level, types of students for whom the program is appropriate, materials needed, suggested resources, a contact person with address and telephone number,…

  20. Lower East Side Prep: An Alternative to the Conventional High School Program. First Year of Operation, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Seth F.

    This evaluation report of one alternative high school in New York City analyzes the academic achievement, attendance, testing, academic credit, English language proficiency, and attitudes of the sixty minority students who attended this urban prep school in Chinatown. Three fifths of the students in the program were recent Chinese immigrants. The…

  1. Changing High School Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Eric Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether participation in the Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP), a long-term authentic plant research project, in conjunction with explicit verses implicit instruction can change high school students' conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The participants included a total of 134 students comprised…

  2. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  3. 75 FR 13292 - Determination That HalfLytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (Containing 4 Bisacodyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution... potassium chloride for oral solution and 4 bisacodyl delayed release tablets, 5 mg. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... PREP KIT (PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution and...

  4. Saying 'No' to PrEP research in Malawi: what constitutes 'failure' in offshored HIV prevention research?

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristin; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Chigwedere, Edward; Nthete, Evaristo

    2015-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2005, the first multi-sited clinical trial tested whether an existing, marketed antiretroviral drug, Tenofovir (TDF), could prevent HIV transmission. Referred to as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), most of these trial sites prematurely closed down. Two sites located in Cambodia and Cameroon received international media attention. But little attention was drawn to sites in Malawi and Nigeria, where university ethicists and research scientists extensively debated PrEP. This article focuses on events that took place in Malawi where there was a prolonged dispute over the scientific rationales of PrEP and not trial specific ethics referred to as 'bioethics'. Specifically, the article discusses debates pertaining to three PrEP trial protocols that were refused ethics approval in Malawi between 2004 and 2009. It is argued that HIV science debates in Malawi are embedded in postcolonial politics--geopolitical histories and state and household economic dispossessions that have created the structural possibilities for Malawi to become an offshore destination for HIV clinical research. As such, ethics in this case does not pertain to trial or bioethical 'failures'. Rather, ethics is located at the scale of imperial relations that give rise to multiple, often invisible, research concerns and constraints. PMID:26422196

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Likelihood of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use Among US Women at Risk of Acquiring HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kinsky, Suzanne; Brown, Gina; Charles, Vignetta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved oral Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for women at risk of HIV infection in the US in July 2012, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidance for clinicians to provide PrEP to women “at substantial risk of HIV acquisition” in May 2014, there remain no clinical trial data on efficacy among US women, and there is a dearth of research on knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of use of PrEP among them. We conducted a qualitative focus group (FG) study with 144 at-risk women in six US cities between July and September 2013, including locations in the Southern US, where HIV infections among women are most prevalent. FG questions elicited awareness of PrEP, attitudes about administration and uptake, and barriers to and facilitators of use. Women expressed anger at the fact that they had not heard of PrEP prior to the study, but once informed most found it attractive. PrEP was seen as additional, not substitute protection to condoms, and participants suggested several dissemination strategies to meet the diverse needs of women. Key barriers to PrEP uptake included distrust of the medical system, stigma, and cost. Findings suggest that US women view PrEP as an important prevention option, assuming side effects and the cost to the consumer are minimal, the efficacy of the drug is reasonable, and PrEP is delivered by trusted providers in trusted venues. PMID:25513954

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among US women at risk of acquiring HIV.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Judith D; Kinsky, Suzanne; Brown, Gina; Charles, Vignetta

    2015-02-01

    Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved oral Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for women at risk of HIV infection in the US in July 2012, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidance for clinicians to provide PrEP to women "at substantial risk of HIV acquisition" in May 2014, there remain no clinical trial data on efficacy among US women, and there is a dearth of research on knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of use of PrEP among them. We conducted a qualitative focus group (FG) study with 144 at-risk women in six US cities between July and September 2013, including locations in the Southern US, where HIV infections among women are most prevalent. FG questions elicited awareness of PrEP, attitudes about administration and uptake, and barriers to and facilitators of use. Women expressed anger at the fact that they had not heard of PrEP prior to the study, but once informed most found it attractive. PrEP was seen as additional, not substitute protection to condoms, and participants suggested several dissemination strategies to meet the diverse needs of women. Key barriers to PrEP uptake included distrust of the medical system, stigma, and cost. Findings suggest that US women view PrEP as an important prevention option, assuming side effects and the cost to the consumer are minimal, the efficacy of the drug is reasonable, and PrEP is delivered by trusted providers in trusted venues. PMID:25513954

  7. The Development of the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kier, Meredith W.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Osborne, Jason W.; Albert, Jennifer L.

    2014-06-01

    Internationally, efforts to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers have been on the rise. It is often the goal of such efforts that increased interest in STEM careers should stimulate economic growth and enhance innovation. Scientific and educational organizations recommend that efforts to interest students in STEM majors and careers begin at the middle school level, a time when students are developing their own interests and recognizing their academic strengths. These factors have led scholars to call for instruments that effectively measure interest in STEM classes and careers, particularly for middle school students. In response, we leveraged the social cognitive career theory to develop a survey with subscales in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In this manuscript, we detail the six stages of development of the STEM Career Interest Survey. To investigate the instrument's reliability and psychometric properties, we administered this 44-item survey to over 1,000 middle school students (grades 6-8) who primarily were in rural, high-poverty districts in the southeastern USA. Confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the STEM-CIS is a strong, single factor instrument and also has four strong, discipline-specific subscales, which allow for the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subscales to be administered separately or in combination. This instrument should prove helpful in research, evaluation, and professional development to measure STEM career interest in secondary level students.

  8. Segmental expression of Hoxb2 in r4 requires two separate sites that integrate cooperative interactions between Prep1, Pbx and Hox proteins.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, E; Marshall, H; Pöpperl, H; Maconochie, M; Krumlauf, R; Blasi, F

    2000-01-01

    Direct auto- and cross-regulatory interactions between Hox genes serve to establish and maintain segmentally restricted patterns in the developing hindbrain. Rhombomere r4-specific expression of both Hoxb1 and Hoxb2 depends upon bipartite cis Hox response elements for the group 1 paralogous proteins, Hoxal and Hoxbl. The DNA-binding ability and selectivity of these proteins depend upon the formation of specific heterodimeric complexes with members of the PBC homeodomain protein family (Pbx genes). The r4 enhancers from Hoxb1 and Hoxb2 have the same activity, but differ with respect to the number and organisation of bipartite Pbx/Hox (PH) sites required, suggesting the intervention of other components/sequences. We report here that another family of homeodomain proteins (TALE, Three-Amino acids-Loop-Extension: Prep1, Meis, HTH), capable of dimerizing with Pbx/EXD, is involved in the mechanisms of r4-restricted expression. We show that: (1) the r4-specific Hoxb1 and Hoxb2 enhancers are complex elements containing separate PH and Prep/Meis (PM) sites; (2) the PM site of the Hoxb2, but not Hoxb1, enhancer is essential in vivo for r4 expression and also influences other sites of expression; (3) both PM and PH sites are required for in vitro binding of Prepl-Pbx and formation and binding of a ternary Hoxbl-Pbxla (or 1b)-Prepl complex. (4) A similar ternary association forms in nuclear extracts from embryonal P19 cells, but only upon retinoic acid induction. This requires synthesis of Hoxbl and also contains Pbx with either Prepl or Meisl. Together these findings highlight the fact that PM sites are found in close proximity to bipartite PH motifs in several Hox responsive elements shown to be important in vivo and that such sites play an essential role in potentiating regulatory activity in combination with the PH motifs. PMID:10654609

  9. The National Aviation Operational Monitoring Service (NAOMS): A Documentation of the Development of a Survey Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Mauro, Robert; Statler, Irving C.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aviation Operational Monitoring Service (NAOMS) was a research project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program during the years from 2000 to 2005. The purpose of this project was to develop a methodology for gaining reliable information on changes over time in the rates-of-occurrence of safety-related events as a means of assessing the safety of the national airspace. The approach was a scientifically designed survey of the operators of the aviation system concerning their safety-related experiences. This report presents the results of the methodology developed and a demonstration of the NAOMS concept through a survey of nearly 20,000 randomly selected air-carrier pilots. Results give evidence that the NAOMS methodology can provide a statistically sound basis for evaluating trends of incidents that could compromise safety. The approach and results are summarized in the report and supporting documentation and complete analyses of results are presented in 14 appendices.

  10. Complementary methods of system usability evaluation: surveys and observations during software design and development cycles.

    PubMed

    Horsky, Jan; McColgan, Kerry; Pang, Justine E; Melnikas, Andrea J; Linder, Jeffrey A; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Middleton, Blackford

    2010-10-01

    Poor usability of clinical information systems delays their adoption by clinicians and limits potential improvements to the efficiency and safety of care. Recurring usability evaluations are therefore, integral to the system design process. We compared four methods employed during the development of outpatient clinical documentation software: clinician email response, online survey, observations and interviews. Results suggest that no single method identifies all or most problems. Rather, each approach is optimal for evaluations at a different stage of design and characterizes different usability aspect. Email responses elicited from clinicians and surveys report mostly technical, biomedical, terminology and control problems and are most effective when a working prototype has been completed. Observations of clinical work and interviews inform conceptual and workflow-related problems and are best performed early in the cycle. Appropriate use of these methods consistently during development may significantly improve system usability and contribute to higher adoption rates among clinicians and to improved quality of care. PMID:20546936

  11. Development of standard evaluation plan for survey and investigation of residual radioactivity on site.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Won; Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Su Hong; Lee, Jea Min

    2011-07-01

    The development of decommissioning technologies, including those for evaluation of the radioactivity inventory and the radiation dose, and a site investigation plan are needed to ensure safe decommissioning. The residual radioactivity should be measured and analysed to release a site for unrestricted use. The methods used for measurement of residual radioactivity have an effect on the workers' manpower and the decommissioning cost. So the development of the measurement methods of residual radioactivity with guidelines for a radiation survey and site investigation is needed to prepare for the future decommissioning of commercial Nuclear Power plants. The major considerations and characteristics of the parameters related to the decision of measurements points have been reviewed. The methods for controlling uncertainty and techniques to determine whether the measurement results achieve the survey objectives have been established. PMID:21729942

  12. Late Entry into Primary School in Developing Societies: Findings from Cross-National Household Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Loaiza, Edilberto; Engle, Patrice L.

    2010-02-01

    Late entry into primary school is a widespread phenomenon in developing countries. Students who enter school late are more likely to repeat grades, drop out and perform more poorly. Yet the phenomenon has received little scholarly attention, and there is a dearth of cross-national data. In this paper, we draw on data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS2), a cross-national household survey conducted in developing countries. We first estimate the percentage of students entering primary school late across 38 countries in order to identify the countries in which the issue of late entry is most common. Secondly, we describe the background characteristics of students who are more likely to enter school late. We then employ multinominal logistic regression equations to predict the probability of late entry. Our findings highlight the need for policies to reduce late entry for children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

  13. Examining the Environment: The Development of a Survey Instrument to Assess Student Perceptions of the University Outdoor Physical Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid survey instrument to measure student perceptions of the outdoor physical campus environment. Using campus planning and environments literature and expert consultation, a survey instrument was developed to measure student satisfaction with the outdoor campus environment and the…

  14. AMSCO Culture Survey: Base Data for Quality and Productivity Programs. Training and Development Research Center Project Number Twenty-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard A.; Sleezer, Catherine M.

    The AMSCO culture survey instrument was developed to obtain specific information about the changing employee values resulting from the implementation of the new quality programs at AMSCO, Rice Lake, Wisconsin. The culture dimensions measured in the survey included job evaluation/job satisfaction, work efficiency, training and development,…

  15. Scientific, Back-Illuminated CCD Development for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suntharalingam, V.; Ciampi, J.; Cooper, M. J.; Lambert, R. D.; O'Mara, D. M.; Prigozhin, I.; Young, D. J.; Warner, K.; Burke, B. E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of the fully depleted, back illuminated charge coupled devices for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, which includes a set of four wide angle telescopes, each having a 2x2 array of CCDs. The devices are fabricated on the newly upgraded 200-mm wafer line at Lincoln Laboratory. We discuss methods used to produce the devices and present early performance results from the 100- micron thick, 15x15-microns, 2k x 4k pixel frame transfer CCDs.

  16. Development and validation of a survey for quality of life assessment by owners of healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Lavan, R P

    2013-09-01

    Assessing and maintaining quality of life (QOL) is a growing concern in companion animal practice, as improved nutrition and healthcare have extended canine longevity. The objective of this study was to develop a validated survey for evaluating QOL in healthy dogs for use in clinical and research settings. A total of 174 dog owners completed an initial QOL survey containing 21 items grouped into seven domains (CHQLS-21). After factor analysis of the responses, a final survey was constructed containing 15 items grouped into four domains (happiness, physical functioning, hygiene and mental status), plus two questions on general health and an item asking for a direct QOL assessment (CHQLS-15). Psychometric analysis indicated that the CHQLS-15 had good validity, reliability, and internal consistency and was able to detect QOL changes affecting several domains across age groups in healthy dogs. The CHQLS-15 therefore provides a basis for dialog between clinicians and dog owners regarding the health of their pets, particularly in tracking changes in health status, evaluating response to treatment, and guiding end-of-life decisions. A validated QOL survey could be particularly useful in recognizing and managing functional decline as the healthy canine patient ages. PMID:23639368

  17. Offshore Wind Energy Permitting: A Survey of U.S. Project Developers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted a goal to generate 20% of the nation’s electricity from wind power by 2030. Achieving this “20% Wind Scenario” in 2030 requires acceleration of the current rate of wind project development. Offshore wind resources contribute substantially to the nation’s wind resource, yet to date no offshore wind turbines have been installed in the U.S. Progress developing offshore wind projects has been slowed by technological challenges, uncertainties about impacts to the marine environment, siting and permitting challenges, and viewshed concerns. To address challenges associated with siting and permitting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed offshore wind project developers about siting and project development processes, their experience with the environmental permitting process, and the role of coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) in development of the offshore wind industry. Based on the responses to survey questions, we identify several priority recommendations to support offshore wind development. Recommendations also include considerations for developing supporting industries in the U.S. and how to use Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) to appropriately consider ocean energy among existing ocean uses. In this report, we summarize findings, discuss the implications, and suggest actions to improve the permitting and siting process.

  18. Managing the Development of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irace, William; Cutri, Roc; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Greanias, George; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Liu, Feng-Chuan; Royer, Donald; Wright, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission, is surveying the entire sky in four bands from 3.4 to 22 microns with a sensitivity hundreds to hundreds of thousands times better than previous all-sky surveys at these wavelengths. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm three-mirror anastigmatic telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 6" resolution (full-width-half-maximum). WISE was placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta II 7320 launch vehicle on December 14, 2009. NASA selected WISE as a MIDEX in 2002 following a rigorous competitive selection process. To gain further confidence in WISE, NASA extended the development period one year with an option to cancel the mission if certain criteria were not met. MIDEX missions are led by the principal investigator who in this case delegated day-to-day management to the project manager. With a cost cap and relatively short development schedule, it was essential for all WISE partners to work seamlessly together. This was accomplished with an integrated management team representing all key partners and disciplines. The project was developed on budget and on schedule in spite of the need to surmount significant technical challenges. This paper describes our management approach, key challenges and critical decisions made. Results are described from a programmatic, technical and scientific point of view. Lessons learned are offered for projects of this type.

  19. Stockinette application over a non-prepped foot risks proximal contamination.

    PubMed

    Marvil, Sean C; Tiedeken, Nathan C; Hampton, David M; Kwok, Simon C M; Samuel, Solomon P; Sweitzer, Brett A

    2014-09-01

    This study sought to determine if there was an increased risk for surgical site contamination during stockinette application for a lower extremity surgery draping technique. Utilizing a simulated, sterile surgical field, stockinettes were applied over 10 cadaver lower extremities that were contaminated with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli on the foot. Of those, five specimens were then disinfected with Chloroprep and another 5 did not undergo any disinfection. All the specimens in which the stockinette was applied over a non-prepped foot showed proximal contamination. No contamination occurred in any of the specimens where the foot was disinfected. Stockinette can be a source of surgical site contamination when placed over a non-prepared foot. PMID:24891004

  20. Esthetic Rehabilitation of the Smile with No-Prep Porcelain Laminates and Partial Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Farias-Neto, Arcelino; Gomes, Edna Maria da Cunha Ferreira; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Sánchez-Ayala, Alejandro; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with anterior conoid teeth may present a challenge for the clinician, especially when trying to mimic the nature with composite resins. This clinical report exemplifies how a patient with conoid upper lateral incisors was rehabilitated with minimally invasive adhesive restorations. Following diagnostic wax-up and cosmetic mock-up, no-prep veneers and ceramic fragments (partial veneers) were constructed with feldspathic porcelain. This restorative material presents excellent reproduction of the optical properties of the dental structure, especially at minimal thicknesses. In this paper, the details about the treatment are described. A very pleasing outcome was achieved, confirming that minimally invasive adhesive restorations are an excellent option for situations in which the dental elements are healthy, and can be modified exclusively by adding material and the patient does not want to suffer any wear on the teeth. PMID:26568893

  1. Houston prefreshman enrichment program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 10, 1996--August 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The 1996 Houston Pre-freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted on the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 10 to August 1, 1996. Program Participants were recruited from the Greater Houston area. All participants were identified as high achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Crockett, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 197 students starting the program, 170 completed, 142 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups underrepresented in the engineering and science professions, and 121 of the 197 were female. Our First Year group for 1996 composed of 96% minority and women students. Our Second and Third Year students were 100% and 93.75% minority or women respectively. This gave an overall minority and female population of 93.75%. This year, special efforts were again made to recruit students from minority groups, which caused a significant increase in qualified applicants. However, due to space limitations, 140 applicants were rejected. Investigative and discovery learning were key elements of PREP. The academic components of the program included Algebraic Structures, Engineering, Introduction to Computer Science, Introduction to Physics, Logic and Its Application to Mathematics, Probability and Statistics, Problem Solving Seminar using computers and PLATO software, SAT Preparatory Seminars, and Technical Writing.

  2. The Development and Validation of a Transformational Leadership Survey for Substance Use Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jennifer R.; Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Directors in substance use treatment programs are increasingly required to respond to external economic and socio-political pressures. Leadership practices that promote innovation can help offset these challenges. Using focus groups, factor analysis, and validation instruments, the current study developed and established psychometrics for the Survey of Transformational Leadership. In 2008, clinical directors were evaluated on leadership practices by 214 counselors within 57 programs in four U.S. regions. Nine themes emerged: integrity, sensible risk, demonstrates innovation, encourages innovation, inspirational motivation, supports others, develops others, delegates tasks, and expects excellence. Study implications, limitations and suggested future directions are discussed. Funding from NIDA. PMID:20509734

  3. Review of development survey of phase change material models in building applications.

    PubMed

    Akeiber, Hussein J; Wahid, Mazlan A; Hussen, Hasanen M; Mohammad, Abdulrahman Th

    2014-01-01

    The application of phase change materials (PCMs) in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed according to the wall, roof, floor, and cooling systems. Finally, conclusions are presented based on the collected data. PMID:25313367

  4. Review of Development Survey of Phase Change Material Models in Building Applications

    PubMed Central

    Akeiber, Hussein J.; Wahid, Mazlan A.; Hussen, Hasanen M.; Mohammad, Abdulrahman Th.

    2014-01-01

    The application of phase change materials (PCMs) in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed according to the wall, roof, floor, and cooling systems. Finally, conclusions are presented based on the collected data. PMID:25313367

  5. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hirokawa, Takako; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) evaluates students' epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students' reflections on their course's expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  6. Indicators of Family Care for Development for Use in Multicountry Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kariger, Patricia; Engle, Patrice; Britto, Pia M. Rebello; Sywulka, Sara M.; Menon, Purnima

    2012-01-01

    Indicators of family care for development are essential for ascertaining whether families are providing their children with an environment that leads to positive developmental outcomes. This project aimed to develop indicators from a set of items, measuring family care practices and resources important for caregiving, for use in epidemiologic surveys in developing countries. A mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) design was used for item selection and evaluation. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to examine the validity of candidate items in several country samples. Qualitative methods included the use of global expert panels to identify and evaluate the performance of each candidate item as well as in-country focus groups to test the content validity of the items. The quantitative methods included analyses of item-response distributions, using bivariate techniques. The selected items measured two family care practices (support for learning/stimulating environment and limit-setting techniques) and caregiving resources (adequacy of the alternate caregiver when the mother worked). Six play-activity items, indicative of support for learning/stimulating environment, were included in the core module of UNICEF's Multiple Cluster Indictor Survey 3. The other items were included in optional modules. This project provided, for the first time, a globally-relevant set of items for assessing family care practices and resources in epidemiological surveys. These items have multiple uses, including national monitoring and cross-country comparisons of the status of family care for development used globally. The obtained information will reinforce attention to efforts to improve the support for development of children. PMID:23304914

  7. Does Pre-Survey Training Impact Knowledge of Survey Administrators and Survey Outcomes in Developing Countries? Evaluation Findings of a Training of Trainers Workshop for National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey-Plus in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Kolawole Solomon; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Ogboi, Johnbull Sonny; Bashorun, Adebobola Toluwalashe; Issa, Kawu Bolakale; Amida, Perpetua; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Onoriode, Ezire

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although, Nigeria had conducted various national surveys followed by central and state level trainings for survey administrators, prior pre-survey trainings have not been systematically evaluated to assess their impact on knowledge gain and final outcome of the survey. A central training of trainers’ session was organized for master trainers on the conduct of the 2012 National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of training on the quality of conduct of a national research survey in the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria. Method: A total of 185 participants consisting of State AIDS Program Coordinators, Reproductive Health Coordinators, State Laboratory Scientists, Lead Supervisors and Counselor Testers were invited from the 36 states in Nigeria and the FCT for the central training of trainers in Abuja. The training lasted 5 days and the trainees were grouped into two on the basis of behavioral epidemiology and laboratory components. Training tools such as the developed protocol, training power point slides, practical sessions such as role plays, and usage of HIV rapid test kits were utilized during the training. The facilitators were drawn from Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH), universities and research Institutions as well as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The facilitators prepared and administered 25 structured questions for the behavioral group and 28 questions for the laboratory group at the beginning of the training to assess the participants’ knowledge of HIV and the survey. The same questions answered by Trainees responded to the same questions prior to the commencement and at the end of the trainings. Scores were aggregated to 100 for each test. We conducted paired t-test to determine statistically significant differences between pre-test and post-test results at 0.05 significance level and ANOVA to determine if there were differences in knowledge level among different groups

  8. National Survey and Community Advisory Board Development for a Bipolar Disorder Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Mark A; Doederlein, Allen; Koenig, Barbara; McElroy, Susan L; Nassan, Malik; Seymour, Lisa R; Biernacka, Joanna M; Daniels, Allen S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To engage a national advocacy group and local stakeholders for guidance in developing a bipolar disorder biobank through a web-based survey and a community advisory board. Methods The Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance and the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank conducted a national web-based survey inquiring about interest in participating in a biobank (i.e., giving DNA and clinical information). A community advisory board was convened to guide establishment of the biobank and identify key deliverables from the research project and for the community. Results Among 385 survey respondents, funding source (87%), professional opinion (76%), mental health consumer opinion (79%), and return of research results (91%) were believed to be important for considering study participation. Significantly more patients were willing to participate in a biobank managed by a university or clinic (78.2%) than one managed by government (63.4%) or industry (58.2%; both p < 0.001). The nine-member community advisory board expressed interest in research to help predict the likelihood of bipolar disorder developing in a child of an affected parent and which medications to avoid. The advisory board endorsed the use of a comprehension questionnaire to evaluate participants' understanding of the study (e.g., longevity of DNA specimens, right to remove samples, accessing medical records) as a means to strengthen the informed-consent process. Conclusions These national survey and community advisory data support the merit of establishing a biobank to enable studies of disease risk, provided that health records and research results are adequately protected. The goals of earlier diagnosis and individualized treatment of bipolar disorder were endorsed. PMID:26291791

  9. Three-dimensional seismic survey applied to field development in Williston basin

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, G.C.; Baixas, F.; Hooyman, P.J.

    1983-08-01

    The Medicine Lake field of Sheridan County, Montana, was discovered in March 1979 by the drilling of a seismic anomaly. Production is obtained from Paleozoic carbonate reservoirs ranging in age from Ordovician to Mississippian. Cumulative production from the field, as of March 1982, is 1.2 million bbl. A mini-3D seismic survey was acquired in October 1981 to facilitate development drilling. The survey covered 2.4 mi/sup 2/ (6.2 km/sup 2/), encompassing the field's seven producing wells and two dry holes. The purpose of this survey was to provide an accurate image of the subsurface structure and delineate the extent of the producing formations. The areal coverage and improved subsurface imaging of the 3D survey provided a detailed view of the Medicine Lake anomaly. The seismic data reveals that the structure results from a local basement (Precambrian) high. Mapping of the Ordovician Winnipeg Formation revealed a domal structure covering approximately 0.6 mi/sup 2/ (1.5 km/sup 2/) with closure in excess of 180 ft (55 m). Although all producing wells are located on the Medicine Lake structure, stratigraphic variations within the reservoirs may localized production within structural closure. Porosity in several producing formations is diagenetic; prediction of reservoir trends from well data alone is difficult. Inversion and interactive modeling were used to study these stratigraphic variations. A correlation between relative acoustic impedance and porosity was established for several formations. Vertical and horizontal relative acoustic impedance sections were then employed to locate zones of possible porosity. This information, combined with the improved structural data, should aid in further development of the Medicine lake field.

  10. The 2015 NASN School Nurse Survey: Developing and Providing Leadership to Advance School Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Mangena, Anantha Sameera; Maughan, Erin

    2015-11-01

    This article summarizes the results of the 2015 NASN School Nurse Survey, identifies similarities and differences between this survey and the 2013 NASN School Nurse Survey, and evaluates the possible impacts of this data on the organization. PMID:26515570

  11. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Catherine; Macklin, Ruth; Warren, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of antiretroviral prophylaxis for their countries. This paper outlines key economic, regulatory and distributive justice issues that must be addressed for effective and acceptable PrEP implementation. Discussion In considering the role that PrEP can play in combination prevention programmes, decision-makers must determine who can benefit most from PrEP, how PrEP can be provided safely and efficiently, and what kind of health system support will ensure successful implementation. To do this, they need contextualized information on disease burden by population, analyses of how PrEP services might best be delivered, and projections of the human resource and infrastructure requirements for each potential delivery model. There are cost considerations, varying cost-effectiveness results and regulatory challenges. The principles of ethics can inform thorny discussions about who should be prioritized for oral PrEP and how best to introduce it fairly. We describe the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in different populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, its price in low- and middle-income countries, and the current regulatory situation. We explore the principles of ethics that can inform resource allocation decision-making about PrEP anchored in distributive justice, at a time when universal access to antiretroviral treatment remains to be assured. We then highlight the role of advocacy in moving the PrEP agenda forward. Conclusions The time is ripe now for decisions about whether, how and for whom PrEP should be introduced into a country's HIV response. It has the potential to contribute significantly to high impact HIV prevention if it is tailored to those who can most benefit

  12. The HOXC13-controlled expression of early hair keratin genes in the human hair follicle does not involve TALE proteins MEIS and PREP as cofactors.

    PubMed

    Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Schweizer, Jürgen

    2006-02-01

    We previously showed that the homeodomain protein HOXC13 is involved in the expression control of the early human hair keratin genes hHa5 and hHa2, which contain specific HOXC13 binding sites in their proximal promoters. Hox specificity is generally thought to be enhanced by the interaction with members of the TALE superclass of homeodomain proteins Pbx, Meis, and Prep. Using reverse transcription PCR with total human hair follicle RNA, we demonstrated transcripts of the major TALE proteins PBX1-4, MEIS1, 2 and PREP1, 2 in the human hair follicle. In view of the presence of MEIS/PREP responsive elements in close vicinity to the HOXC13 binding sites of the hHa5 and hHa2 promoters, we determined the expression sites of these TALE proteins in the human hair follicle. We found that MEIS1, MEIS2, PREP1 and PREP2 were differentially expressed in the three layers of the inner root sheath. In addition, MEIS2 and PREP1 exhibited expression in the mid-to upper hair cortex, with PREP1 being also expressed in the dermal papilla and the connective tissue sheath of the hair follicle. In virtually all cases, the expression of these TALE proteins was exclusively cytoplasmic. Considering that in contrast, HOXC13 is expressed in the nuclei of matrix, precortex and lower cuticle cells of the hair follicle, our data suggest that despite the presence of MEIS/PREP binding sites in the hHa5 and hHa2 promoters, the HOXC13-controlled activation of these genes in the hair follicle does not seem to involve these TALE proteins as cofactors. PMID:16292560

  13. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Mukandavire, Zindoga; Mitchell, Kate M; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-03-01

    In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use-one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed 'pimps') was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used. PMID:26972515

  14. Role Stratospheric Balloon Magnetic Surveys in Development of Analytical Global Models of the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekhov, O. M.; Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Ivanov, V. V.; Filippov, S. V.; Tsvetkova, N. M.

    2015-09-01

    The results of stratospheric balloon gradient geomagnetic surveys at an altitude of ‘-~3O km with the use of the long (6 km) measuring base oriented along the vertical line are considered. The purposes of these surveys are the study of the magnetic field formed by deep sources, and the estimation of errors in modern analytical models of the geomagnetic field. The independent method of determination of errors in global analytical models of the normal magnetic field of the Earth (MFE) is substantiated. The new technique of identification of magnetic anomalies from surveys on long routes is considered. The analysis of gradient magnetic surveys on board the balloon, revealed the previously unknown features of the geomagnetic field. Using the balloon data, the EMM/720 model of the geomagnetic field (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/EMM) is investigated, and it is shown that this model unsatisfactorily represents the anomalous MFE, at least, at an altitude of 30 km, in the area our surveys. The unsatisfactory quality of aeromagnetic (ground-based) data is also revealed by the method of wavelet analysis of the ground-based and balloon magnetic profiles. It is shown, that the ground-based profiles do not contain inhomogeneities more than 1 30 km in size, whereas the balloon profiles (1000 km in the strike extent) contain inhomogeneities up to 600 km in size an the location of the latte coincides with the location of the satellite magnetic anomaly. On the basis of balloon data is shown, it that low-altitude aeromagnetic surveys, due to fundamental reasons, incorrectly reproduce the magnetic field of deep sources. This prevents the reliable conversion of ground-based magnetic anomalies upward from the surface of the Earth. It is shown, that an adequate global model of magnetic anomalies in the circumterrestrial space, developed up to 720 spherical harmonics, must be constructed only in accordance with the data obtained at satellite and stratospheric altitudes. Such a model

  15. 78 FR 5458 - Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... in the Design and Development of a Survey Regarding Patient and Family Member/Friend Experiences With... of care designed to provide comfort and support to patients and their families when a life-limiting... capturing hospice care experiences. A rigorous, well-designed Hospice Survey will allow us to understand:...

  16. Measuring Resilience and Youth Development: The Psychometric Properties of the Healthy Kids Survey. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Thomas L.; Kim, Jin-Ok

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from a study of the psychometric properties of the resilience and youth development module, a key component of the Healthy Kids Survey. The study aims to improve resilience assessment and research so that educators can shape the school environment to promote academic resilience. The Healthy Kids Survey (HKS) is a…

  17. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): development of a survey instrument to assess community resilience.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Neas, Barbara R; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Norris, Fran H; Van Horn, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    While building community resilience to disasters is becoming an important strategy in emergency management, this is a new field of research with few available instruments for assessing community resilience. This article describes the development of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) survey instrument. CART is a community intervention designed to enhance community resilience to disasters, in part, by engaging communities in measuring it. The survey instrument, originally based on community capacity and related literature and on key informant input, was refined through a series of four field tests. Community organizations worked with researchers in a participatory action process that provided access to samples and helped to guide the research. Exploratory factor analysis performed after each field test led to the identification of four interrelated constructs (also called domains) which represent the foundation for CART Connection and Caring, Resources, Transformative Potential, and Disaster Management. This model was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis on two community samples. The CART survey can provide data for organizations and communities interested in assessing a community's resilience to disasters. Baseline data, preferably collected pre disaster can be compared to data collected post disaster and/or post intervention. PMID:24187884

  18. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  19. Cooperative interactions between PBX, PREP, and HOX proteins modulate the activity of the alpha 2(V) collagen (COL5A2) promoter.

    PubMed

    Penkov, D; Tanaka, S; Di Rocco, G; Berthelsen, J; Blasi, F; Ramirez, F

    2000-06-01

    Cell type-specific expression of the human alpha2(V) collagen (COL5A2) gene depends on a cis-acting element that consists of two contiguous protein binding sites (FPA and FPB) located between nucleotides -149 and -95, relative to the transcription start site. The present study focused on the characterization of the FPB-bound complex. DNA binding assays and cell transfection experiments revealed that the bipartite core sequence of FPB (5'-ATCAATCA-3') binds the PBX1/2, PREP1, and HOXB1 proteins, and this in turn leads to promoter transactivation. In the presence of all three nuclear factors, cooperative interactions between recombinant PBX1 and PREP1 or PBX1 and HOXB1 result in binding of the heterodimers to FPB in vitro. Similarly, overexpression of different combinations of PBX1, PREP1, and HOXB1 transactivates FPB-driven transcription. In contrast to the composition of the FPB complex purified from COL5A2-positive cells, the FPB complex from COL5A2-negative cells contains PBX2 and PREP1 but lacks PBX1. However, PBX1 exogenously introduced into COL5A2-negative cells cannot stimulate FPB-driven transcription unless co-expressed with PREP1. Within the intrinsic limitations of the experimental model, our results indicate that combinatorial interactions among PBX and PREP or HOX proteins are involved in regulating tissue-specific production of collagen V. PMID:10748126

  20. I Am Men's Health: Generating Adherence to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Daughtridge, Giffin W; Conyngham, S Caitlin; Ramirez, Noel; Koenig, Helen C

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Truvada as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for adults at risk of HIV. PrEP is highly effective at preventing HIV when taken daily, but no gold standard exists for consistently administering PrEP to populations at highest risk. The "I Am Men's Health" program used an innovative methodology to generate adherence to PrEP in 23 mostly young men who have sex with men of color (yMSMc), during a 28-week period from February to September 2013. Adherence was measured using weekly medication pickup rates. The average age of the participants was 21 years, and the majority were black and lived below the poverty line. Time on PrEP ranged from 1 to 28 weeks (2723 person-days), and the weighted average adherence was 73%. The methodology used in this study was preliminarily effective at generating adherence to PrEP among high-risk yMSMc in a community setting and may help inform large-scale future HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25331226

  1. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. Methods The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Results Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Conclusions Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention. PMID:25124457

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho and Component Development and Integration Facility, Butte, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), conducted September 14 through October 2, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the INEL and CDIF. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations' carried on at the INEL and the CDIF, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the S A results will be incorporated into the INEL/CDIF Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 90 refs., 95 figs., 77 tabs.

  3. Development of predictive mapping techniques for soil survey and salinity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Abdelhamid A.

    Conventional soil maps represent a valuable source of information about soil characteristics, however they are subjective, very expensive, and time-consuming to prepare. Also, they do not include explicit information about the conceptual mental model used in developing them nor information about their accuracy, in addition to the error associated with them. Decision tree analysis (DTA) was successfully used in retrieving the expert knowledge embedded in old soil survey data. This knowledge was efficiently used in developing predictive soil maps for the study areas in Benton and Malheur Counties, Oregon and accessing their consistency. A retrieved soil-landscape model from a reference area in Harney County was extrapolated to develop a preliminary soil map for the neighboring unmapped part of Malheur County. The developed map had a low prediction accuracy and only a few soil map units (SMUs) were predicted with significant accuracy, mostly those shallow SMUs that have either a lithic contact with the bedrock or developed on a duripan. On the other hand, the developed soil map based on field data was predicted with very high accuracy (overall was about 97%). Salt-affected areas of the Malheur County study area are indicated by their high spectral reflectance and they are easily discriminated from the remote sensing data. However, remote sensing data fails to distinguish between the different classes of soil salinity. Using the DTA method, five classes of soil salinity were successfully predicted with an overall accuracy of about 99%. Moreover, the calculated area of salt-affected soil was overestimated when mapped using remote sensing data compared to that predicted by using DTA. Hence, DTA could be a very helpful approach in developing soil survey and soil salinity maps in more objective, effective, less-expensive and quicker ways based on field data.

  4. Partial-prep bonded restorations in the anterior dentition: Long-term gingival health and predictability. A case report.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ivan Contreras; Molina, Gil Contreras; Stanley, Kyle; Lago, Carlo; Xavier, Clessius Ferreira; Volpato, Claudia Angela Maziero

    2016-01-01

    Bonded porcelain restorations are a predictable and durable treatment option that can restore not only the strength and function of the teeth but also the esthetic appearance. One important issue in adhesive dentistry is the preservation of sound enamel. Following biomimetic principles, employing minimally invasive applications and adhesive technologies is of paramount importance for successful restorations. While it is widely accepted that minimally invasive restorative techniques should be favored, there is still some controversy over the noninvasive approaches. The purpose of this article is to question the complete "no-prep veneer" concept due to the possible negative effects on periodontal health caused by excessive contour and overhangs of the ceramic restoration, and to propose a new method to assess the quality and longevity of veneers with a partial-prep concept. PMID:26417617

  5. A survey of compiler development aids. [concerning lexical, syntax, and semantic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckles, B. P.; Hodges, B. C.; Hsia, P.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical background was established for the compilation process by dividing it into five phases and explaining the concepts and algorithms that underpin each. The five selected phases were lexical analysis, syntax analysis, semantic analysis, optimization, and code generation. Graph theoretical optimization techniques were presented, and approaches to code generation were described for both one-pass and multipass compilation environments. Following the initial tutorial sections, more than 20 tools that were developed to aid in the process of writing compilers were surveyed. Eight of the more recent compiler development aids were selected for special attention - SIMCMP/STAGE2, LANG-PAK, COGENT, XPL, AED, CWIC, LIS, and JOCIT. The impact of compiler development aids were assessed some of their shortcomings and some of the areas of research currently in progress were inspected.

  6. 34 CFR 406.31 - How does a State carry out the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... board. (b) A State board may use funds reserved under 34 CFR 403.180(b)(3) to provide support for the... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does a State carry out the State-Administered Tech... TECH-PREP EDUCATION PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met After a State Receives an Award? § 406.31...

  7. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV-uninfected individuals with high-risk behaviour.

    PubMed

    Nadery, S; Geerlings, S E

    2013-01-01

    The global incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased by 15% over the past years, but is still too high. Despite current programs to reduce the incidence of HIV infection, further approaches are needed to limit this epidemic. Oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is currently one of the most discussed possible prevention methods. This literature study demonstrates whether orally antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis in HIV-uninfected individuals with high-risk behaviour reduces the transmission of HIV. We used the PICO method and conducted a search to identify relevant studies. Subjects of the study were HIV-uninfected individuals with high-risk behaviour. Intervention was oral PrEP with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) alone or plus emtricitabine (FTC) versus placebo. The primary outcome was the HIV incidence among this high-risk group. Secondary outcomes were adherence to PrEP, frequency and type of adverse effects. We identified ten studies from which five randomised control trials (RCTs) were included after screening. The results from three out of five trials showed a reduction, but two trials showed no protection in acquiring HIV infection. There were no significant differences in adverse events. The adherence was different among different groups and affected the outcome of the studies. In conclusion, this prophylaxis might offer protection when used in combination with intense monitoring and guidance in uninfected individuals with a high risk of HIV acquisition. However, there are still many unresolved questions. Drug adherence seems to be a crucial factor in the effectiveness of PrEP. Therefore, individual risk behaviour remains an important determinant for success in the prevention of HIV transmission. PMID:23956310

  8. Identification of homeodomain proteins, PBX1 and PREP1, involved in the transcription of murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Chao, Sheng-Hao; Walker, John R; Chanda, Sumit K; Gray, Nathanael S; Caldwell, Jeremy S

    2003-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) have been shown to block human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus. It is hypothesized that CDKIs block viral replication by inhibiting transcription of specific cellular genes. Here we find that three CDKIs, flavopiridol, purvalanol A, and methoxy-roscovitine, block Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) transcription events. Using gene expression microarray technology to examine the inhibitory effects of CDKIs, we observed a cellular gene, the pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (Pbx1) gene, down-regulated by CDKI treatment. The PBX consensus element (PCE), TGATTGAC, is conserved in the long terminal repeats of several murine retroviruses, including Moloney MLV. Mutations in the PCE completely inhibited viral transcription whereas overexpression of PBX1 and a PBX1-associated protein, PREP1, enhanced viral transcription. The interaction between the PCE and PBX1-PREP1 proteins was confirmed by gel shift experiments. Blocking PBX1 protein synthesis resulted in a significant decrease in viral transcription. Collectively, our results represent the first work demonstrating that the homeodomain proteins PBX1 and PREP1 are cellular factors involved in Moloney MLV transcription regulation. PMID:12529389

  9. Three-dimensional seismic survey applied to field development in Williston basin

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, G.C.; Baixas, F.; Hooyman, P.J.

    1983-03-01

    The Medicine Lake field of Sheridan County, Montana, was discovered in March 1979. In October 1981, a mini-3-D seismic survey covering 2.5 mi/sup 2/ (6.2 km/sup 2/) was acquired over this field in order to facilitate development drilling by delineating the field's reservoirs and obtaining a more accurate image of the subsurface structure. A multiline system, consisting of 240 geophone groups distributed on 8 lines, was used. The energy source was shothole dynamite using 5 lbs (2.3 kg) charges at 250 ft (46 m). The shotpoints were arranged in a cross pattern with extra shotpoints included to provide necessary control on the weathered zone. The average subsurface coverage was 600%, with CDP bins 165 ft (50 m) square. Prior to the actual shooting, a computer simulation of the resulting fold was performed to verify the field geometry. The entire survey was recorded in one day with no movement of the geophones, thus minimizing costs. The objective of the stratigraphic interpretation was to outline zones of possible porosity, particularly in the Madison and Red River intervals. The horizontal and vertical inverted sections were particularly useful for ascertaining the location and lateral extent of those anomalous zones. The results correlate well with known production, and should aid in the location of future development wells.

  10. Investigating Climate Science Misconceptions Using a Teacher Professional Development Workshop Registration Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, S. E.; Gold, A. U.; McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Buhr Sullivan, S. M.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthLabs Climate project, an NSF-Discovery Research K12 program, has developed a suite of three online classroom-ready modules: Climate and the Cryosphere; Climate and the Carbon Cycle; and Climate and the Biosphere. The EarthLabs Climate project included week-long professional development workshops during June of 2012 and 2013 in Texas and Mississippi. Evaluation of the 2012 and 2013 workshops included participant self-reported learning levels in many areas of climate science. Teachers' answers indicated they had increased their understanding of the topics addressed in the workshops. However, the project team was interested in refining the evaluation process to determine exactly those areas of climate science in which participants increased content knowledge and ameliorated misconceptions. Therefore, to enhance the investigation into what teachers got out of the workshop, a pre-test/post-test design was implemented for 2013. In particular, the evaluation team was interested in discovering the degree to which participants held misconceptions and whether those beliefs were modified by attendance at the workshops. For the 2013 workshops, a registration survey was implemented that included the Climate Concept Inventory (a climate content knowledge quiz developed by the education research team for the project). The multiple-choice questions are also part of the pre/post student quiz used in classrooms in which the EarthLabs Climate curriculum was implemented. Many of the questions in this instrument assess common misconceptions by using them as distractors in the multiple choice options. The registration survey also asked respondents to indicate their confidence in their answer to each question, because, in addition to knowledge limitations, lack of confidence also can be a barrier to effective teaching. Data from the registration survey informed workshop managers of the topic content knowledge of participants, allowing fine-tuning of the professional development

  11. A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: implications for health promotion and community development.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D

    2000-12-01

    Twenty community garden programs in upstate New York (representing 63 gardens) were surveyed to identify characteristics that may be useful to facilitate neighborhood development and health promotion. The most commonly expressed reasons for participating in gardens were access to fresh foods, to enjoy nature, and health benefits. Gardens in low-income neighborhoods (46%) were four times as likely as non low-income gardens to lead to other issues in the neighborhood being addressed; reportedly due to organizing facilitated through the community gardens. Additional research on community gardening can improve our understanding of the interaction of social and physical environments and community health, and effective strategies for empowerment, development, and health promotion. PMID:11027957

  12. Development of residential-conservation-survey methodology for the US Air Force. Interim report. Task two

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, D. W.; Hartman, T. L.; Lau, A. S.

    1981-11-13

    A US Air Force (USAF) Residential Energy Conservation Methodology was developed to compare USAF needs and available data to the procedures of the Residential Conservation Service (RCS) program as developed for general use by utility companies serving civilian customers. Attention was given to the data implications related to group housing, climatic data requirements, life-cycle cost analysis, energy saving modifications beyond those covered by RCS, and methods for utilizing existing energy consumption data in approaching the USAF survey program. Detailed information and summaries are given on the five subtasks of the program. Energy conservation alternatives are listed and the basic analysis techniques to be used in evaluating their thermal performane are described. (MCW)

  13. Why we love or hate our cars: A qualitative approach to the development of a quantitative user experience survey.

    PubMed

    Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Desmet, Pieter M A

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a more ecologically valid way of developing theory-based item questionnaires for measuring user experience. In this novel approach, items were generated using natural and domain-specific language of the research population, what seems to have made the survey much more sensitive to real experiences than theory-based ones. The approach was applied in a survey that measured car experience. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted with drivers inside their cars. The resulting transcripts were analysed with the aim of capturing their natural utterances for expressing their car experience. This analysis resulted in 71 categories of answers. For each category, one sentence was selected to serve as a survey-item. In an online platform, 538 respondents answered the survey. Data reliability, tested with Cronbach alpha index, was 0.94, suggesting a survey with highly reliable results to measure drivers' appraisals of their cars. PMID:27184312

  14. The Process of Retirement Planning Scale (PRePS): Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noone, Jack H.; Stephens, Christine; Alpass, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Although a substantial proportion of the western population is approaching retirement age, little is known about how they are preparing for the future. Much attention has been paid to the consumption of educational material and retirement wealth in the present literature, but the process of retirement planning has been ignored. S. L. Friedman and…

  15. Youth-Specific Considerations in the Development of PrEP, Microbicide and Vaccine Research Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rudy, Bret J.; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Lally, Michelle A.; Gray, Glenda E; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Krogstad, Paul; McGowan, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection in adolescents and young adults will require a multimodal, targeted approach including individual-directed behavioral risk reduction, community-level structural change, and biomedical interventions to prevent sexual transmission. Trials testing biomedical interventions to prevent HIV transmission will require special attention in this population due to the unique psychosocial as well as physiologic characteristics that differentiate them from older populations. For example, microbicide research will need to consider acceptability, dosing requirements, and co-infection rates that are unique to this population. Pre-exposure prophylaxis studies also will need to consider potential unique psychosocial issues such as sexual disinhibition and acceptability as well as unique pharmacokinetic parameters of antiretroviral agents. Vaccine trials also face unique issues with this population, including attitudes towards vaccines, risks related to false-positive HIV tests related to vaccine, and different immune responses based on more robust immunity. In this paper, we will discuss issues around implementing each of these biomedical prevention modalities in trials among adolescents and young adults to help to guide future successful research targeting this population. PMID:20571421

  16. Establishing Integrated Tech Prep Programs in Urban Schools: Plans Developed at the NCRVE 1993 National Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Berkeley, CA.

    This document outlines the purposes and main activities of a 2-week national institute held in July 1993 in Berkeley, California. Ten teams of vocational and academic educators (125 high school and community college teachers, counselors, and administrators) from 10 major metropolitan areas were selected through a competitive application process to…

  17. A retrospective comparison of smart prep and test bolus multi-detector CT pulmonary angiography protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Suckling, Tara; Smith, Tony; Reed, Warren

    2013-06-15

    Optimal arterial opacification is crucial in imaging the pulmonary arteries using computed tomography (CT). This poses the challenge of precisely timing data acquisition to coincide with the transit of the contrast bolus through the pulmonary vasculature. The aim of this quality assurance exercise was to investigate if a change in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scanning protocol resulted in improved opacification of the pulmonary arteries. Comparison was made between the smart prep protocol (SPP) and the test bolus protocol (TBP) for opacification in the pulmonary trunk. A total of 160 CTPA examinations (80 using each protocol) performed between January 2010 and February 2011 were assessed retrospectively. CT attenuation coefficients were measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) using regions of interest at the level of the pulmonary trunk. The average pixel value, standard deviation (SD), maximum, and minimum were recorded. For each of these variables a mean value was then calculated and compared for these two CTPA protocols. Minimum opacification of 200 HU was achieved in 98% of the TBP sample but only 90% of the SPP sample. The average CT attenuation over the pulmonary trunk for the SPP was 329 (SD = ±21) HU, whereas for the TBP it was 396 (SD = ±22) HU (P = 0.0017). The TBP also recorded higher maximum (P = 0.0024) and minimum (P = 0.0039) levels of opacification. This study has found that a TBP resulted in significantly better opacification of the pulmonary trunk than the SPP.

  18. Universal Solid-Phase Reversible Sample-Prep for Concurrent Proteome and N-Glycome Characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Morley, Samantha; Kostel, Stephen; Freeman, Michael R; Joshi, Vivek; Brewster, David; Lee, Richard S

    2016-03-01

    We describe a novel solid-phase reversible sample-prep (SRS) platform that enables rapid sample preparation for concurrent proteome and N-glycome characterization for nearly all protein samples. SRS utilizes a uniquely functionalized, silica-based bead that has strong affinity toward proteins with minimal to no affinity for peptides and other small molecules. By leveraging this inherent size difference between proteins and peptides, SRS permits high-capacity binding of proteins, rapid removal of small molecules (detergents, metabolites, salts, peptides, etc.), extensive manipulation including enzymatic and chemical treatments on bead-bound proteins, and easy recovery of N-glycans and peptides. SRS was evaluated in a wide range of samples including glycoproteins, cell lysate, murine tissues, and human urine. SRS was also coupled to a quantitative strategy to investigate the differences between DU145 prostate cancer cells and its DIAPH3-silenced counterpart. Previous studies suggested that DIAPH3 silencing in DU145 induced transition to an amoeboid phenotype that correlated with tumor progression and metastasis. In this pilot study we identified distinct proteomic and N-glycomic alterations between them. A metastasis-associated tyrosine kinase receptor ephrin-type-A receptor (EPHA2) was highly up-regulated in DIAPH3-silenced cells, indicating a possible connection between EPHA2 and DIAPH3. Moreover, distinct alterations in the N-glycome were identified, suggesting cross-links between DIAPH3 and glycosyltransferase networks. PMID:26791391

  19. Web Prep: How to Prepare NAS Reports For Publication on the Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela; Balakrishnan, Prithika; Clucas, Jean; McCabe, R. Kevin; Felchle, Gail; Brickell, Cristy

    1996-01-01

    This document contains specific advice and requirements for NASA Ames Code IN authors of NAS reports. Much of the information may be of interest to other authors writing for the Web. WebPrep has a graphic Table of Contents in the form of a WebToon, which simulates a discussion between a scientist and a Web publishing consultant. In the WebToon, Frequently Asked Questions about preparing reports for the Web are linked to relevant text in the body of this document. We also provide a text-only Table of Contents. The text for this document is divided into chapters: each chapter corresponds to one frame of the WebToons. The chapter topics are: converting text to HTML, converting 2D graphic images to gif, creating imagemaps and tables, converting movie and audio files to Web formats, supplying 3D interactive data, and (briefly) JAVA capabilities. The last chapter is specifically for NAS staff authors. The Glossary-Index lists web related words and links to topics covered in the main text.

  20. The Servant Leadership Survey: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure.

    PubMed

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Nuijten, Inge

    2011-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of a multi-dimensional instrument to measure servant leadership. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Based on an extensive literature review and expert judgment, 99 items were formulated. In three steps, using eight samples totaling 1571 persons from The Netherlands and the UK with a diverse occupational background, a combined exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis approach was used. This was followed by an analysis of the criterion-related validity. FINDINGS: The final result is an eight-dimensional measure of 30 items: the eight dimensions being: standing back, forgiveness, courage, empowerment, accountability, authenticity, humility, and stewardship. The internal consistency of the subscales is good. The results show that the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) has convergent validity with other leadership measures, and also adds unique elements to the leadership field. Evidence for criterion-related validity came from studies relating the eight dimensions to well-being and performance. IMPLICATIONS: With this survey, a valid and reliable instrument to measure the essential elements of servant leadership has been introduced. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The SLS is the first measure where the underlying factor structure was developed and confirmed across several field studies in two countries. It can be used in future studies to test the underlying premises of servant leadership theory. The SLS provides a clear picture of the key servant leadership qualities and shows where improvements can be made on the individual and organizational level; as such, it may also offer a valuable starting point for training and leadership development. PMID:21949466

  1. Development of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fengchuan; Cutri, Roc; Greanias, George; Duval, Valerie; Eisenhardt, Peter; Elwell, John; Heinrichsen, Ingolf; Howard, Joan; Irace, William; Mainzer, Amanda; Razzaghi, Andrea; Royer, Donald; Wright, Edward L.

    2008-07-01

    WISE is a NASA MIDEX mission to survey the entire sky in four bands from 3 to 25 microns with sensitivity about 500 times greater than the IRAS survey. WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, find the closest stars to the Sun, and detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. WISE launch is scheduled in November, 2009 on a Delta 7320-10 to a 525 km Sun-synchronous polar orbit. This paper gives an overview of WISE including development status and management approach. WISE flight system design is single string with selected redundancy and graceful degradation. Wherever possible, design heritage from prior missions is pursued and properly reviewed to reduce development time and cost. Further risk reduction is achieved since the WISE spacecraft has no deployable mechanisms and no propulsion. Nonetheless, a complex space mission with a sophisticated cryogenic IR telescope such as WISE demands a partnership of multiple organizations in government research, academia, and industry. With a cost cap and relatively short development schedule, it is essential for all WISE partners to work seamlessly together. This is accomplished by a single management team representing all key partners and disciplines in science, systems engineering, mission assurance, project and contract management. WISE uses a variety of management tools including frequent team interaction, schedule, milestone and critical path analysis, risk analysis, reliability analysis, earned value analysis, configuration management, and management of schedule and budget reserves. After a successful mission critical design review in June, 2007, WISE has completed building most of the flight hardware, and started integration and test within payload and spacecraft.

  2. Development of Guidelines for Skeletal Survey in Young Children With Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Fakeye, Oludolapo; Feudtner, Chris; Mondestin, Valerie; Localio, Russell; Rubin, David M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop guidelines for performing initial skeletal survey (SS) in children <24 months old with fractures, based on available evidence and collective judgment of experts from diverse pediatric specialties. METHODS: Following the Rand/UCLA Method, a multispecialty panel of 13 experts applied evidence from a literature review combined with their own expertise in rating the appropriateness of performing an SS for 525 clinical scenarios involving fractures in children <24 months old. After discussion on the initial ratings, panelists rerated SS appropriateness for 240 revised scenarios and deemed that SSs were appropriate in 191 scenarios. The panelists then assessed in which of those 191 scenarios SSs were not only appropriate, but also necessary. RESULTS: Panelists agreed that SS is “appropriate” for 191 (80%) of 240 scenarios rated and “necessary” for 175 (92%) of the appropriate scenarios. Skeletal survey is necessary if a fracture is attributed to abuse, domestic violence, or being hit by a toy. With few exceptions, SS is necessary in children without a history of trauma. In children <12 months old, SS is necessary regardless of the fracture type or reported history, with rare exceptions. In children 12 to 23 months old, the necessity of obtaining SS is dependent on fracture type. CONCLUSIONS: A multispecialty panel reached agreement on multiple clinical scenarios for which initial SS is indicated in young children with fractures, allowing for synthesis of clinical guidelines with the potential to decrease disparities in care and increase detection of abuse. PMID:24935996

  3. Digital Archiving of People Flow by Recycling Large-Scale Social Survey Data of Developing Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Y.; Watanabe, A.; Nakamura, T.; Horanont, T.

    2012-07-01

    Data on people flow has become increasingly important in the field of business, including the areas of marketing and public services. Although mobile phones enable a person's position to be located to a certain degree, it is a challenge to acquire sufficient data from people with mobile phones. In order to grasp people flow in its entirety, it is important to establish a practical method of reconstructing people flow from various kinds of existing fragmentary spatio-temporal data such as social survey data. For example, despite typical Person Trip Survey Data collected by the public sector showing the fragmentary spatio-temporal positions accessed, the data are attractive given the sufficiently large sample size to estimate the entire flow of people. In this study, we apply our proposed basic method to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) PT data pertaining to developing cities around the world, and we propose some correction methods to resolve the difficulties in applying it to many cities and stably to infrastructure data.

  4. Development and applicability of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patient safety culture at healthcare organizations plays an important role in guaranteeing, improving and promoting overall patient safety. Although several conceptual frameworks have been proposed in the past, no standard measurement tool has yet been developed for Japan. Methods In order to examine possibilities to introduce the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) in Japan, the authors of this study translated the HSOPS into Japanese, and evaluated its factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity. Healthcare workers (n = 6,395) from 13 acute care general hospitals in Japan participated in this survey. Results Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the Japanese HSOPS' 12-factor model was selected as the most pertinent, and showed a sufficiently high standard partial regression coefficient. The internal reliability of the subscale scores was 0.46-0.88. The construct validity of each safety culture sub-dimension was confirmed by polychoric correlation, and by an ordered probit analysis. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that the factor structures of the Japanese and the American HSOPS are almost identical, and that the Japanese HSOPS has acceptable levels of internal reliability and construct validity. This shows that the HSOPS can be introduced in Japan. PMID:21294920

  5. Development and Validation of the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC)

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Brian C.; Thrush, Carol R.; Crain, A. Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Background Development and targeting efforts by academic organizations to effectively promote research integrity can be enhanced if they are able to collect reliable data to benchmark baseline conditions, to assess areas needing improvement, and to subsequently assess the impact of specific initiatives. To date, no standardized and validated tool has existed to serve this need. Methods A web- and mail-based survey was administered in the second half of 2009 to 2,837 randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows at 40 academic health centers in top-tier research universities in the United States. Measures included the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) as well as measures of perceptions of organizational justice. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded seven subscales of organizational research climate, all of which demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.81 to 0.87) and adequate test-retest reliability (Pearson r ranging from 0.72 to 0.83). A broad range of correlations between the seven subscales and five measures of organizational justice (unadjusted regression coefficients ranging from .13 to .95) document both construct and discriminant validity of the instrument. Conclusions The SORC demonstrates good internal (alpha) and external reliability (test-retest) as well as both construct and discriminant validity. PMID:23096775

  6. Measuring Quality of Maternal and Newborn Care in Developing Countries Using Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Dettrick, Zoe; Gouda, Hebe N.; Hodge, Andrew; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the greatest obstacles facing efforts to address quality of care in low and middle income countries is the absence of relevant and reliable data. This article proposes a methodology for creating a single “Quality Index” (QI) representing quality of maternal and neonatal health care based upon data collected as part of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program. Methods Using the 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey dataset, indicators of quality of care were identified based on the recommended guidelines outlined in the WHO Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth. Two sets of indicators were created; one set only including indicators available in the standard DHS questionnaire and the other including all indicators identified in the Indonesian dataset. For each indicator set composite indices were created using Principal Components Analysis and a modified form of Equal Weighting. These indices were tested for internal coherence and robustness, as well as their comparability with each other. Finally a single QI was chosen to explore the variation in index scores across a number of known equity markers in Indonesia including wealth, urban rural status and geographical region. Results The process of creating quality indexes from standard DHS data was proven to be feasible, and initial results from Indonesia indicate particular disparities in the quality of care received by the poor as well as those living in outlying regions. Conclusions The QI represents an important step forward in efforts to understand, measure and improve quality of MNCH care in developing countries. PMID:27362354

  7. Best medical practices in social accountability and continuing professional development: a survey and literature review.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Laurence G; Davis, Penny M

    2008-01-01

    The authors surveyed Canadian medical schools to identify gaps in current continuing professional development (CPD) with reference to social accountability and compared the results to best practices identified in a literature review. The literature review identified 15 relevant articles. Several themes on best practices emerged. In a fundamental social contract with society, physicians receive privileges in return for responding to social needs. CPD is part of this contract. To meet the terms of the contract, CPD must be credible, unbiased and respond to social needs. Physicians have a responsibility to maintain quality; CPD is one tool to do that. CPD should be measured against values of relevance, quality, cost effectiveness, and equity. The survey asked all 17 Canadian medical schools to report CPD initiatives that respond to societal needs. Eleven schools responded with descriptions of 28 such initiatives. Most initiatives focused on values of quality and relevance; fewer focused on cost effectiveness. Most often, initiatives addressed medical expertise and interprofessional collaboration, least often health advocacy. Faculty initiated most initiatives, rather than students, community or society. These findings lead to recommendations for future directions of CPD. PMID:19005952

  8. Expression of zebrafish pax6b in pancreas is regulated by two enhancers containing highly conserved cis-elements bound by PDX1, PBX and PREP factors

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, François M; Pasque, Vincent; Devos, Nathalie; Manfroid, Isabelle; Voz, Marianne L; Motte, Patrick; Biemar, Frédéric; Martial, Joseph A; Peers, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background PAX6 is a transcription factor playing a crucial role in the development of the eye and in the differentiation of the pancreatic endocrine cells as well as of enteroendocrine cells. Studies on the mouse Pax6 gene have shown that sequences upstream from the P0 promoter are required for expression in the lens and the pancreas; but there remain discrepancies regarding the precise location of the pancreatic regulatory elements. Results Due to genome duplication in the evolution of ray-finned fishes, zebrafish has two pax6 genes, pax6a and pax6b. While both zebrafish pax6 genes are expressed in the developing eye and nervous system, only pax6b is expressed in the endocrine cells of the pancreas. To investigate the cause of this differential expression, we used a combination of in silico, in vivo and in vitro approaches. We show that the pax6b P0 promoter targets expression to endocrine pancreatic cells and also to enteroendocrine cells, retinal neurons and the telencephalon of transgenic zebrafish. Deletion analyses indicate that strong pancreatic expression of the pax6b gene relies on the combined action of two conserved regulatory enhancers, called regions A and C. By means of gel shift assays, we detected binding of the homeoproteins PDX1, PBX and PREP to several cis-elements of these regions. In constrast, regions A and C of the zebrafish pax6a gene are not active in the pancreas, this difference being attributable to sequence divergences within two cis-elements binding the pancreatic homeoprotein PDX1. Conclusion Our data indicate a conserved role of enhancers A and C in the pancreatic expression of pax6b and emphasize the importance of the homeoproteins PBX and PREP cooperating with PDX1, in activating pax6b expression in endocrine pancreatic cells. This study also provides a striking example of how adaptative evolution of gene regulatory sequences upon gene duplication progressively leads to subfunctionalization of the paralogous gene pair. PMID

  9. National Aquatic Resource Surveys & Statistics: Role of statistics in the development of a national monitoring program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) are a series of four statistical surveys conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency working in collaboration with states, tribal nations and other federal agencies. The surveys are conducted for lakes and reservoirs, streams...

  10. The effects of composition, temperature and sample size on the sintering of chem-prep high field varistors.

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.

    2007-09-01

    The sintering behavior of Sandia chem-prep high field varistor materials was studied using techniques including in situ shrinkage measurements, optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. A thorough literature review of phase behavior, sintering and microstructure in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO varistor systems is included. The effects of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content (from 0.25 to 0.56 mol%) and of sodium doping level (0 to 600 ppm) on the isothermal densification kinetics was determined between 650 and 825 C. At {ge} 750 C samples with {ge}0.41 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} have very similar densification kinetics, whereas samples with {le}0.33 mol% begin to densify only after a period of hours at low temperatures. The effect of the sodium content was greatest at {approx}700 C for standard 0.56 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and was greater in samples with 0.30 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} than for those with 0.56 mol%. Sintering experiments on samples of differing size and shape found that densification decreases and mass loss increases with increasing surface area to volume ratio. However, these two effects have different causes: the enhancement in densification as samples increase in size appears to be caused by a low oxygen internal atmosphere that develops whereas the mass loss is due to the evaporation of bismuth oxide. In situ XRD experiments showed that the bismuth is initially present as an oxycarbonate that transforms to metastable {beta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} by 400 C. At {approx}650 C, coincident with the onset of densification, the cubic binary phase, Bi{sub 38}ZnO{sub 58} forms and remains stable to >800 C, indicating that a eutectic liquid does not form during normal varistor sintering ({approx}730 C). Finally, the formation and morphology of bismuth oxide phase regions that form on the varistors surfaces during slow cooling were studied.

  11. Development of a handheld bistatic imaging sonar system for underwater search and survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Alice; Broadstone, Steven; Impagliazzo, John

    2003-10-01

    A high resolution, handheld imaging sonar system is under development by Teratech Corporation for the U.S. Navy. This is a 192 channel, dual frequency bistatic sonar for Navy divers performing search and survey missions for underwater explosives. Our goal is to provide the most compact and energy efficient imaging system for the divers. The system consists of a self-contained handheld unit and a head mounted display integrated into the divers mask. The low power and small volume are a result of the development of Teratechs Charge Domain Processing (CDP) technology. This technology has led to the development of a low power 64-channel beamformer chip. As a result, only three beamformer chips will be required for the 192 channels. Until now, the implementation of small, low power sonar systems containing this many elements and forming enough beams to create an image was considered impossible. Progress in the development of this product will be presented. In-water testing is planned for late summer 2003. Experimental results and test images available will be presented at the conference. [Work sponsored by ONR and OSD Small Business Innovative Research Program, Program manager, Mr. Bruce Johnson, Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division.

  12. A Survey of Research Progress and Development Tendency of Attribute-Based Encryption

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Liaojun; Yang, Jie; Jiang, Zhengtao

    2014-01-01

    With the development of cryptography, the attribute-based encryption (ABE) draws widespread attention of the researchers in recent years. The ABE scheme, which belongs to the public key encryption mechanism, takes attributes as public key and associates them with the ciphertext or the user's secret key. It is an efficient way to solve open problems in access control scenarios, for example, how to provide data confidentiality and expressive access control at the same time. In this paper, we survey the basic ABE scheme and its two variants: the key-policy ABE (KP-ABE) scheme and the ciphertext-policy ABE (CP-ABE) scheme. We also pay attention to other researches relating to the ABE schemes, including multiauthority, user/attribute revocation, accountability, and proxy reencryption, with an extensive comparison of their functionality and performance. Finally, possible future works and some conclusions are pointed out. PMID:25101313

  13. Development of the Stress of Immigration Survey: A Field Test Among Mexican Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Nápoles, Anna Maria; Gregorich, Steven; Paul, Steven; Lee, Kathryn A; Stewart, Anita L

    2016-01-01

    The Stress of Immigration Survey (SOIS) is a screening tool used to assess immigration-related stress. The mixed methods approach included concept development, pretesting, field testing, and psychometric evaluation in a sample of 131 low-income women of Mexican descent. The 21-item SOIS screens for stress related to language, immigrant status, work issues, yearning for family and home country, and cultural dissonance. Mean scores ranged from 3.6 to 4.4 (a scale of 1-5, higher is more stress). Cronbach α values were more than 0.80 for all subscales. The SOIS may be a useful screening tool for detecting high levels of immigration-related stress in low-income Mexican immigrant women. PMID:26605954

  14. Development and Validation of PRISM: A Survey Tool to Identify Diabetes Self-Management Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Elizabeth D.; Fritz, Katie A.; Hansen, Kristofer W.; Brown, Roger L.; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Wiles, Kaelyn E.; Fate, Bryan H.; Young, Henry N.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Although most children with type 1 diabetes don’t achieve optimal glycemic control, no systematic method exists to identify and address self-management barriers. This study develops and validates PRISM (Problem Recognition in Illness Self-Management), a survey-based tool for efficiently identifying self-management barriers experienced by children/adolescents with diabetes and their parents. Methods Adolescents 13 years and older and parents of children 8 years and older visiting for routine diabetes management (n=425) were surveyed about self-management barriers. HbA1c was abstracted from the electronic health record. To develop PRISM, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used. To assess validity, the association of PRISM scores with HbA1c was examined using linear regression. Results Factor analyses of adolescent and parent data yielded well-fitting models of self-management barriers, reflecting the following domains: 1) Understanding and Organizing Care, 2) Regimen Pain and Bother, 3) Denial of Disease and Consequences, and 4) Healthcare Team, 5) Family, or 6) Peer Interactions. All models exhibited good fit, with X2 ratios<2.21, root mean square errors of approximation<0.09, Confirmatory Fit Indices and Tucker-Lewis Indices both >0.92, and weighted root mean square residuals<1.71. Greater PRISM barrier scores were significantly associated with higher HbA1cs. Conclusions Our findings suggest at least six different domains exist within self-management barriers, nearly all of which are significantly related to HbA1c. PRISM could be used in clinical practice to identify each child and family’s unique self-management barriers, allowing existing self-management resources to be tailored to the family’s barriers, ultimately improving effectiveness of such services. PMID:24552680

  15. Development of a Survey to Measure Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Web-Based Professional Development among Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chia-Pin; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Shih, Meilun

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to develop a survey to measure elementary school teachers' self-efficacy for web-based professional development. Based on interviews with eight elementary school teachers, three scales of web-based professional development self-efficacy (WPDSE) were formed, namely, general self-efficacy (measuring…

  16. Design of a Survey for Determining Training and Personnel Requirements for Educational Research, Development, Dissemination and Evaluation. Vol. 2, Development Pretest of Questionnaires. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenhouse, Carl

    This study describes the development and design for pretesting survey instruments required for the development of programs sampling the supply and demand for educational research, development, diffusion, and evaluation personnel. The major areas of concern include: 1) the determination of number, distribution by type, and location of educational…

  17. Expert Delphi survey on research and development into drugs for neglected diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tropical infectious diseases are called neglected, because they are, inter alia, characterized by an R&D deficit. A similar deficit exists for rare (orphan) diseases which neither promise a sufficient return on R&D investment. To encourage the development of treatments for rare diseases, orphan drug acts were created which contain financial and non-financial incentives for the pharmaceutical industry. Similar instruments aimed exclusively at neglected diseases do not yet exist. Proposals for a regulatory approach to promote R&D for neglected diseases include the application of selected orphan drug incentives, or the implementation of a Medical Research and Development Treaty (MRDT) with national funding obligations for medical R&D. We compiled and analyzed experts' opinions on causes for the treatment deficit for neglected diseases and on desirable and feasible measures to promote neglected disease R&D. Hereby, the focus was on mechanisms contained in orphan drug regulations and in the Medical Research and Development Treaty draft (Discussion draft 4, 2005). Lastly, we solicited experts' opinions on the desirability and feasibility of a regulatory instrument to foster R&D for neglected diseases. Methods An international online-Delphi survey was conducted with 117 (first round) and 56 (second round) experts of different professional backgrounds and professional affiliations who formulated and ranked causes and solutions related to the treatment deficit for neglected diseases. Results In both rounds of survey, the majority of the participating experts (88.4% first round, 86.8% second round) advocated the development of a regulatory instrument to promote R&D for neglected diseases. Most experts (77.9% first round, 79.3% second round) also considered this to be a feasible option. With the exception of market exclusivity, which was viewed critically, key provisions contained in orphan drug regulations were judged favorably also for neglected diseases. A

  18. The Prolyl Peptidases PRCP/PREP Regulate IRS-1 Stability Critical for Rapamycin-induced Feedback Activation of PI3K and AKT*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Lei; Ying, Guoguang; Danzer, Brian; Perez, Ricardo E.; Shariat-Madar, Zia; Levenson, Victor V.; Maki, Carl G.

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway conveys signals from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) to regulate cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, and motility. Previously we found that prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) regulate proliferation and survival in breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that PRCP and the related family member prolylendopeptidase (PREP) are essential for proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. Depletion/inhibition of PRCP and PREP-induced serine phosphorylation and degradation of IRS-1, leading to inactivation of the cellular PI3K and AKT. Notably, depletion/inhibition of PRCP/PREP destabilized IRS-1 in the cells treated with rapamycin, blocking the feedback activation PI3K/AKT. Consequently, inhibition of PRCP/PREP enhanced rapamycin-induced cytotoxicity. Thus, we have identified PRCP and PREP as a stabilizer of IRS-1 which is critical for PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:24936056

  19. Increased neuronal PreP activity reduces Aβ accumulation, attenuates neuroinflammation and improves mitochondrial and synaptic function in Alzheimer disease's mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fang, Du; Wang, Yongfu; Zhang, Zhihua; Du, Heng; Yan, Shiqiang; Sun, Qinru; Zhong, Changjia; Wu, Long; Vangavaragu, Jhansi Rani; Yan, Shijun; Hu, Gang; Guo, Lan; Rabinowitz, Molly; Glaser, Elzbieta; Arancio, Ottavio; Sosunov, Alexander A; McKhann, Guy M; Chen, John Xi; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2015-09-15

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in synaptic mitochondria is associated with mitochondrial and synaptic injury. The underlying mechanisms and strategies to eliminate Aβ and rescue mitochondrial and synaptic defects remain elusive. Presequence protease (PreP), a mitochondrial peptidasome, is a novel mitochondrial Aβ degrading enzyme. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that increased expression of active human PreP in cortical neurons attenuates Alzheimer disease's (AD)-like mitochondrial amyloid pathology and synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppresses mitochondrial oxidative stress. Notably, PreP-overexpressed AD mice show significant reduction in the production of proinflammatory mediators. Accordingly, increased neuronal PreP expression improves learning and memory and synaptic function in vivo AD mice, and alleviates Aβ-mediated reduction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Our results provide in vivo evidence that PreP may play an important role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function by clearance and degradation of mitochondrial Aβ along with the improvement in synaptic and behavioral function in AD mouse model. Thus, enhancing PreP activity/expression may be a new therapeutic avenue for treatment of AD. PMID:26123488

  20. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of sesame (Sesamum indicum) from a genome survey.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Yanxin; Qi, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Xiaoling; Ding, Xia; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiurong

    2014-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum), an important oil crop, is widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions. It provides part of the daily edible oil allowance for almost half of the world's population. A limited number of co-dominant markers has been developed and applied in sesame genetic diversity and germplasm identity studies. Here we report for the first time a whole genome survey used to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to detect the genetic diversity of sesame germplasm. From the initial assembled sesame genome, 23,438 SSRs (≥5 repeats) were identified. The most common repeat motif was dinucleotide with a frequency of 84.24%, followed by 13.53% trinucleotide, 1.65% tetranucleotide, 0.3% pentanucleotide and 0.28% hexanucleotide motifs. From 1500 designed and synthesised primer pairs, 218 polymorphic SSRs were developed and used to screen 31 sesame accessions that from 12 countries. STRUCTURE and phylogenetic analyses indicated that all sesame accessions could be divided into two groups: one mainly from China and another from other countries. Cluster analysis classified Chinese major sesame varieties into three groups. These novel SSR markers are a useful tool for genetic linkage map construction, genetic diversity detection, and marker-assisted selective sesame breeding. PMID:24759074